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Sample records for pu-239 fuel application

  1. Improved MOX fuel calculations using new Pu-239, Am-241 and Pu-240 evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguere, G.; Bouland, O.; Bernard, D.; Leconte, P.; Blaise, P.; Peneliau, Y.; Vidal, J.F.; Saint Jean, C. de; Leal, L.; Schilleebeeckx, P.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies based on the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library show a systematic over-estimation of the critical keff for core configurations of MOX fuel assemblies. The present work investigates possible improvements of the C/E results by using new evaluations for Am-241, Pu-239 and Pu-240. The work reported in this paper demonstrates the performances of the new Am-241 evaluation based on capture and transmission data measured at the IRMM. For Pu-239, the new evaluation, established in the frame of the WPEC/SG-34, is able to explain a systematic discrepancy observed between different EOLE experiments. The combination of the Am-241 and Pu-239 evaluations demonstrates the necessity to improve the radiation width of the first resonance of Pu-240

  2. Performance of cladding on MOX fuel with low 240Pu/239Pu ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, K.; Blanpain, P.; Morris, R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of its surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. As part of fuel qualification, four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod average burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the world's first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This paper discusses the results of those examinations with emphasis on cladding performance. Exams relevant to the cladding included visual and eddy current exams, profilometry, microscopy, hydrogen analysis, gallium analysis, and mechanical testing. There was no discernible effect of the type of MOX fuel on the performance of the cladding. (authors)

  3. Solubility of reactor fuels in the mouse lung with respect to their U/Pu and 238Pu/239Pu ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, R.J.; Baker, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    The studies reported were designed to assess the comparative in vivo solubilities of a range of plutonium containing reactor fuels. To simulate these fuels, mixed U/Pu oxides were prepared and calcined at 1600 0 C. A plutonium content of 3% w/w was chosen as typical of water-cooled reactor fuel. Higher concentrations of plutonium (10, 20 and 30%) were included to simulate fast reactor fuel. As it is known that 238 PuO 2 , with high specific activity, is translocated more rapidly from lung than 239 PuO 2 , the effect of isotopic composition of plutonium in simulated reactor fuels was also investigated. For this purpose, both the water-cooled and fast-reactor fuels were prepared with plutonium containing 2% of 238 Pu by weight. The resulting oxides had about 6 times the specific activity of those prepared with 239 Pu. Groups of mice were killed at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after inhaling aerosols of the simulated reactor fuels. After 3 months, measurements of Pu retention in the lung showed no marked differences between materials. After 6 months, measurements of plutonium deposited in the liver and skeleton showed that mixed U/Pu oxides were more soluble in vivo than 239 PuO 2 . Their solubility was inversely related to their plutonium content. The addition of 238 Pu to the plutonium resulted in enhanced translocation of plutonium from the lung, in the cases of water-cooled reactor fuel by a factor of two. (author)

  4. Isotope ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in soil samples from different areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Shinnosuke

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soil samples from Japan and other areas in the world (including IAEA standard reference materials) were determined by ICP-MS. The range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios observed in 21 Japanese soil samples was 0.155 - 0.194 and the average was 0.180 ± 0.011, which is comparable to the global fallout value. A low ratio of about 0.05, which is derived from Pu-bomb, was found in samples from Nishiyama (Nagasaki) and Mururoa Atoll (IAEA-368), while a high ratio of about 0.31 was found in a sample from Bikini Atoll (Marshall Islands). The ratio for Irish Sea sediment (IAEA-135) was 0.21, which was higher than the global fallout value, suggesting the influence by the contamination from the Sellafield facility. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soils from the Chernobyl area were determined, and the ratio was found to be very high (about 0.4), indicating the high burn-up grade of the reactor fuel. These results show that the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio can be used as a finger print to identify the source of the contamination. (author)

  5. Measurements Conducted on an Unknown Object Labeled Pu-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoteling, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements were carried out on 12 November 2013 to determine whether Pu-239 was present on an object discovered in a plastic bag with label ''Pu-239 6 uCi''. Following initial survey measurements to verify that the object was not leaking or contaminated, spectra were collected with a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector with object positioned in two different configurations. Analysis of the spectra did not yield any direct evidence of Pu-239. From the measured spectra, minimum detectable activity (MDA) was determined to be approximately 2 uCi for the gamma ray measurements. Although there was no direct evidence of Pu-239, a peak at 60 keV characteristic of Am-241 decay was observed. Since it is very likely that Am-241 would be present in aged plutonium samples, this was interpreted as indirect evidence for the presence of plutonium on the object. Analysis of this peak led to an estimated Pu-239 activity of 0.02-0.04 uCi, or <1x10 -6 grams.

  6. Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/ Pu-239 atom ratios in the water column off Sanriku, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo

    2013-04-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami occurred in the Pacific Ocean off northern Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 which caused severe damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has resulted in a substantial release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and ocean, and has caused extensive contamination of the environment. However, no information is available on the amounts of radionuclides such as Pu isotopes released into the ocean at this time. Investigating the background baseline concentration and atom ratio of Pu isotopes in seawater is important for assessment of the possible contamination in the marine environment. Pu-239 (half-life: 24,100 years), Pu-240 (half-life: 6,560 years) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 years) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater samples collected in the western North Pacific off Sanriku before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant will provide useful background baseline data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing additional Pu sources. Seawater samples were collected with acoustically triggered quadruple PVC sampling bottles during the KH-98-3 cruise of the R/V Hakuho-Maru. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios were measured with a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS, which was equipped with a guard electrode to eliminate secondary discharge in the plasma and to enhance overall sensitivity. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 concentrations were 2.07 and 1.67 mBq/m3 in the surface water, respectively, and increased with depth; a subsurface maximum was identified at 750 m depth, and the concentrations decreased with depth, then increased at the bottom layer. The total Pu-239+240 inventory in the entire water column (depth interval 0

  7. Calculation on maximum accumulation of Pu-239 and Pu-241 from aqueous homogeneous reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikhlas H Siregar; Frida Agung R; Suharyana; Azizul Khakim; Dahman Siregar

    2016-01-01

    Calculations on maximum accumulation of Pu-239 and Pu-241 using MCNPX computer code with UO_2(NO_3)_2 fuel solution enriched by 19.75% operating at temperature 80°C have been conducted. AHR design was simulated with cylindrical core having diameter of 63.4 cm and 122 cm high. From this geometry we found the reactor was critical with density 108 gr U/L of UO_2(NO_3)_2 solution. The result showed that multiplication factor (k_e_f_f) of AHR was 1.05284. Then the burn up calculations were done for various time intervals from 5 days until 285 years to analyze the result. From calculation, it was found out that the saturated concentration of Pu-239 was reached after 40-50 years of operation, producing 1.23 x 102 gr and the activity 7.645 Ci. While for operate time of AHR to produce Pu-241 should under 80 years with mass 21.7 gr and the activity 2.247 x 103 Ci. The accumulations of both isotopes are considered to be small, having low potential for misusing them for producing nuclear weapon. (author)

  8. Comparison and modification of Pu-239 kinetics in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volf, V.; Gamer, A.; Laengle, U.

    1987-01-01

    It is obvious that the biokinetics of bone-seeking radionuclides are influenced by skeletal growth and remodelling, the rate of which in general decreases with increasing age. For plutonium, Mahlum and Sikov (1974) observed that rats injected with Pu-239 as weanlings retained a lower percentage in the liver and more in the bones than the animals injected as adults. However, skeletal Pu-239 was diluted more rapidly in the young rats because of intensive new bone formation and this led to a more pronounced reduction in the accumulation of radiation dose than was the case in adult animals. The aim of the present experiments was to study: a) The age effect on Pu-239 biokinetics in adult rates as influenced by the sex of the animals. b) Early retention and distribution of Pu-239 in the bones of young and adult rats injected with an optimal osteosarcomogenic dose. c) The effectiveness of a delayed prolonged administration of Zn-DTPA in drinking water for the mobilization of injected Pu-239 in rats of various age. 3 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  9. Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 241Am using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of transmutation studies of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am are presented. Keywords. ... J Adam et al. Table 1. Samples properties for 0.7 and 1 GeV experiments. ..... If we suppose that this conclusion is true also for ratios in ...

  10. Sediment budget for Murder Creek, Georgia, USA, from Pu239+240 - determined soil erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, A. P.; Matissoff, G.; Ketterer, M. E.; Whiting, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    Soil inventories of the radionuclides Cs137 and Pb210 have been used in a variety of environments as indicators for erosion and depositional processes. Development of sediment budgets for entire watersheds from radionuclide data has been somewhat constrained because limited sample numbers may not adequately characterize the wide range of geomorphic conditions and land uses found in heterogeneous environments. The measurement of Pu239+240 shows great potential for developing quantitative watershed sediment budgets. With inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, hundreds of samples may be processed in dramatically shorter times than the gamma spectrometry method used for Cs137 or alpha spectrometry method used for Pb210. We collected surface soil samples from Murder Creek in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA, to compare Pu239+240 inventories with Cs137 and Pb210 inventories for a range of land uses in a predominantly forested watershed. Excellent correlations were found for radionuclide inventories (r2 =0.88, n = 38) and high resolution (4 mm) depth profiles. The second objective was to generate a sediment budget using the full Pu239+240 dataset (n = 309). Average Pu239+240 inventories were 70.0 Bq/m2 for hardwood forest, 60.0 Bq/m2 for pine plantation, 65.1 Bq/m2 for pine forest, 66.7 Bq/m2 for row crop agriculture and 67.9 Bq/m2 for pasture. The sediment budget will be constructed by converting inventories into site-specific erosion rates. Erosion rates will be scaled up to the watershed scale using GIS coverages of land use, soil, slope, and slope position. Results will be compared with Murder Creek sediment budgets in the scientific literature generated from RUSLE erosion modeling, USGS monitoring networks and reservoir sedimentation.

  11. Thermal-Neutron-Induced Fission of U235, U233 and Pu239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.D.; Gibson, W.M.; Safford, G.J.

    1965-01-01

    We have used solid-state detectors to measure the kinetic energies of the coincident fission fragments in the thermal-neutron-induced fission of U 235 , U 233 and Pu 239 . Special care has been taken to eliminate spurious-events near symmetry to give an accurate measure of such quantities as the average total kinetic energy at symmetry. For each fissioning system over 10 6 events were recorded. As a result the statistics are good enough to see definite evidence for fine structure over a wide range of masses and energies. The data have been analysed to give mass yield curves, average kinetic energies as a function of mass, and other quantities of interest. For each fissioning system the average total kinetic energy goes through a maximum for a heavy fragment mass of about 132 and for the corresponding light fragment mass. There is a pronounced minimum at symmetry, although not as deep as that found in time-of-flight experiments. The difference between the maximum average kinetic energy and that at symmetry is about 32 MeV for U 235 , 18 MeV for U 233 and 20 MeV for Pu 239 . The dispersion of kinetic energies at symmetry is also smaller than that found in time-of-flight experiments. Fine structure is apparent in two different representations of the data. The energy spectrum of heavy fragments in coincidence with light fragment energies is greater than the most probable value. This structure becomes more pronounced as the light fragment energy increases. The mass yield curves for a given total kinetic energy show a structure suggesting a preference for fission fragments with masses ∼134, ∼140 and ∼145 (and their light fragment partners). Much of the structure observed can be understood by considering a semi-empirical mass surface and a simple model for the nuclear configuration at the saddle point. (author) [fr

  12. Determination of 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya sediments using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.; Skipperud, L.; Salbu, B.; Fifield, L.K.; Cresswell, R.C.; Day, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been used to determine Pu activity concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios in sediments from the Kara Sea and radioactive waste dumping sites at Novaya Zemlya. Measured 239,240 Pu activities ranged from 0.06 - 9.8 Bq/kg dry weight, 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.13 to 0.28, and 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios from 0.02 to 0.6. Perturbations from global fallout isotope ratios were evident at three sites: the Yenisey Estuary and Abrosimov Fjords where 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios were lower (0.13-0.14); and Stepovogo Fjord sediments where ratios were higher (up to 0.28) than fallout ratios. Based on procedural blanks, detection limits for AMS were below 1 fg Pu and the method showed good precision for isotope ratio measurements, minimal matrix, interference and memory effects. For high level samples, comparison between alpha spectrometry and AMS gave good agreement for measurement of 239,240 Pu activity concentrations. (author)

  13. Measurements of Pu239:U235 fission ratio using foils at temperatures up to 400 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, D H; Puckett, B J; Richards, A E [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1964-05-15

    The paper describes the use of activation foils for the measurement of Pu239:U235 fission ratios in subcritical lattices at temperatures up to 390 deg C. Counting techniques and the method of analysis of the results are described in detail and the results are compared with fission chamber measurements. (author) 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Soil to plant transfer factors for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240 determined by field and glasshouse measurements in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Baker, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Further data on soil to plant transfer factors is provided for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240, as an extension of results presented at the previous IUR Workshop at Wageningen in December 1982. Field crops of grass, barley and oats produced in 1982 at 11 locations in Britain were analysed for radionuclides. Analysis of soils that produced these crops showed that they contained 'background' nuclear weapons fallout concentrations of Cs-137 and plutonium which were elevated in regions with high rainfall. Analysis of basic soil properties was also made. In separate experiments, transfer factors were derived for 10 crop plants grown in pot trials under glasshouse conditions. In one trial the soil used contained low concentrations of radionuclides derived from nuclear weapons fallout. In a second trial a brown earth was used, which contained additional radionuclides from long-term deposition by nuclear fuel reprocessing. (orig.)

  15. Delayed Fission Gamma-ray Characteristics of Th-232 U-233 U-235 U-238 and Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Taylor [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Delayed fission gamma-rays play an important role in determining the time dependent ioniz- ing dose for experiments in the central irradiation cavity of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). Delayed gamma-rays are produced from both fission product decay and from acti- vation of materials in the core, such as cladding and support structures. Knowing both the delayed gamma-ray emission rate and the time-dependent gamma-ray energy spectrum is nec- essary in order to properly determine the dose contributions from delayed fission gamma-rays. This information is especially important when attempting to deconvolute the time-dependent neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray contribution to the response of a diamond photo-conducting diode (PCD) or fission chamber in time frames of milliseconds to seconds following a reactor pulse. This work focused on investigating delayed gamma-ray character- istics produced from fission products from thermal, fast, and high energy fission of Th-232, U-233, U-235, U-238, and Pu-239. This work uses a modified version of CINDER2008, a transmutation code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to model time and energy dependent photon characteristics due to fission. This modified code adds the capability to track photon-induced transmutations, photo-fission, and the subsequent radiation caused by fission products due to photo-fission. The data is compared against previous work done with SNL- modified CINDER2008 [ 1 ] and experimental data [ 2 , 3 ] and other published literature, includ- ing ENDF/B-VII.1 [ 4 ]. The ability to produce a high-fidelity (7,428 group) energy-dependent photon fluence at various times post-fission can improve the delayed photon characterization for radiation effects tests at research reactors, as well as other applications.

  16. Derivation of decay heat benchmarks for U235 and Pu239 by a least squares fit to measured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, A.

    1989-05-01

    A least squares technique used by previous authors has been applied to an extended set of available decay heat measurements for both U235 and Pu239 to yield simultaneous fits to the corresponding beta, gamma and total decay heat. The analysis takes account of both systematic and statistical uncertainties, including correlations, via calculations which use covariance matrices constructed for the measured data. The results of the analysis are given in the form of beta, gamma and total decay heat estimates following fission pulses and a range of irradiation times in both U235 and Pu239. These decay heat estimates are considered to form a consistent set of benchmarks for use in the assessment of summation calculations. (author)

  17. Cross sections and neutron yields for U233, U235 and Pu239 at 2200 m/sec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.; Story, J.S.

    1960-04-01

    The experimental information on the 2200 m/sec values for σ abs , σ f , α, ν and η for 233 U , 235 U and 23 been collected and discussed. The values will later be used in an evaluation of a 'best' set of data. In appendix the isotopic abundances of the uranium isotopes are discussed and also the alpha activities of the uranium isotopes and Pu-239

  18. Cross sections and neutron yields for U-233, U-235 and Pu-239 at 2200 m/sec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoestrand, N G; Story, J S

    1960-04-15

    The experimental information on the 2200 m/sec values for {sigma}{sub abs}, {sigma}{sub f}, {alpha}, {nu} and {eta} for {sup 233}U , {sup 235}U and {sup 23} been collected and discussed. The values will later be used in an evaluation of a 'best' set of data. In appendix the isotopic abundances of the uranium isotopes are discussed and also the alpha activities of the uranium isotopes and Pu-239.

  19. Analysis of plutonium isotope ratios including 238Pu/239Pu in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles by means of a combination of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    Isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed oxide particles contained within environmental samples taken from nuclear facilities is proving to be increasingly important in the field of nuclear safeguards. However, isobaric interferences, such as 238 U with 238 Pu and 241 Am with 241 Pu, make it difficult to determine plutonium isotope ratios in mass spectrometric measurements. In the present study, the isotope ratios of 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu were measured for individual Pu and U-Pu mixed oxide particles by a combination of alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a consequence, we were able to determine the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios with ICP-MS after particle dissolution and chemical separation of plutonium with UTEVA resins. Furthermore, 238 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios were able to be calculated by using both the 238 Pu/( 239 Pu+ 240 Pu) activity ratios that had been measured through alpha spectrometry and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios determined through ICP-MS. Therefore, the combined use of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS is useful in determining plutonium isotope ratios, including 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pb-210 and Pu-239,240 in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Pb-210, Ra-226, and Pu-239,240 activities were measured in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments. Sediment cores were collected from the Mississippi delta, and the western Gulf of Mexico shelf. Mississippi delta cores which exhibit significantly higher sedimentation rates show larger inventories of Pb-210. The measured Pu levels from the western shelf are lower than from the delta at comparable depths. In three of the western shelf cores, the observed Pu inventory is considerably less than predicted from atmospheric flux. Therefore, Pu is not being removed to the sediment, or is being released following deposition. A key difference between these isotopes is that Pu exists in a less particle-reactive state. The ratio of excess Pb-210 to Pu levels increases with water depth in the delta and the western shelf. Water depth acts as an integrator of depth-sensitive processes. Pu scavenging is more sensitive to these processes. A sub-surface Pu maximum has been observed. Excess Pb-210 and Pu levels correlate well with sedimentation rates. This suggests that particle flux is important in removal of Pb-210 and Pu to the sediment. The flux of Mn out of the sediment is correlated with inventory data, suggesting that redox cycling of Mn may play a role in increasing Pb-210 and Pu sediment inventories. It is unclear whether the effects of increased sedimentation rates and increased Mn fluxes can be evaluated independently. Mixing of surface sediment correlates with inventory data. Increased sediment mixing allows for additional scavenging of Pb-210 and Pu from overlying waters. Mixing of sediment at depths below the mixed surface layer may play a role in increasing sediment inventories of Pb-210 and Pu

  1. Photonuclear reactions of U-233 and Pu-239 near threshold induced by thermal neutron capture gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P. de.

    1990-01-01

    The photonuclear cross sections of U-293 and Pu-239 have been studied by using monochromatic and discrete photons, in the energy interval from 5.49 to 9.72 MeV, produced by thermal neutron capture. The gamma fluxes incident on the samples were measured using a ( 3 x 3 )'' NaI (TI) crystal. The photofission fragments were detected in Makrofol-Kg (SSNTD). A possible structure was observed in the U-233 cross sections, near 7.23 MeV. The relative fissionability of the nuclides was determined at each excitation energy and shown to be energy independent: ( 2.12 ± 0.25) for U-233 and ( 3.32 ± 0.41 ) for Pu-239. The angular distribution of photofission fragments of Pu-239 were measured at two mean excitation energies of 5.43 and 7.35 MeV. An anisotropic distribution of ( 12.2 ± 3.6 ) % was observed at 5.43 MeV. The total neutron cross sections were measured by using a long counter detector. The photoneutron cross sections were calculated by using energy dependent neutron multiplicities values, γ(E), obtained in the literature. The competition Γn/γf was also determined at each excitation energy, and shown to be energy independent: ( 0.54 ± 0.05 ) for U-233 and ( 0.44 ± 0.05 ) for Pu-239, and were correlated to the parameters Z sup(2)/A, ( Ef'-Bn'), A. According to the FUJIMOTO-YAMAGUCHI and CONSTANT NUCLEAR TEMPERATURE models, the nuclear temperatures were calculated. The total photoabsorption cross sections were also calculated as a sum of the photofission and photoneutron cross sections at each energy excitation. From these results the competition Γf/ΓA, called fission probability Pf, were obtained: ( 0.66 ± 0.02) for U-233 and ( 0.70 ± 0.02 ) for Pu-239. (author)

  2. Vertical distribution of 239+240Pu-concentration and 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in sediment cores. Implications for the sources of plutonium in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Jian, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The main sources in the environmental plutonium is due to nuclear explosions held during 1945 - 1980. The global fallout of plutonium is estimated to amount to 10.9 PBq, of which 6.6 PBq entering into the ocean. The Japan Sea is reported to be concentrated in plutonium in excess according to previous measurements. The present report aims to clarify the origin and transport path of plutonium in Japan Sea by measuring 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio in sedimenta cores with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) which depends on the types of the nuclear reactor, nuclear fuels, reacting time, or the types of nuclear weapons concerned. As an example the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio from the nuclear explosions in early 1960's is known to be 0.18, while that of 0.34-0.36 Bikini experiments in the Marshall Islands in early 1950's. After a detailed examination, the present authors propose that the plutonium from the explosion sites around the Marshall Islands was carried with an oceanic current to be deposited in the bed of the East-China Sea, from which a part of the plutonium was transported with the Black Stream to enter Japan Sea. (S. Ohno)

  3. Determination of Pu-239, 240 tissue concentrations in non-occupationally exposed residents of New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.

    1977-01-01

    The study reports on the Pu-239, 240 concentrations in various tissues obtained from individuals residing in New York City. Twenty-six tissue samples have been analyzed for their Pu-239, 240 content, which include sections from the right lung, the liver, bone (4th and 5th vertebrae) and the kidney. The tissues were obtained at autopsy from a selected population not occupationally exposed to plutonium and whose deaths were the result of causes other than metabolic disorders. A detailed description is presented of the radiochemical procedures employed to separate Pu and electrochemically deposit plutonium isotopes prior to alpha spectrometry with Si surface-barrier detectors. Results of these measurements are given as activity per gram wet weight and activity per gram of calcium in the individual tissue. All results have been compared to similar measurements made at other laboratories and with estimates of concentration based on metabolic models. To date, the magnitudes and the distribution of the measured values are consistent with the values inferred from the ICRP lung model and measured concentrations of air

  4. Migration of longlived transuranium isotopes (i.e. Pu-239, Am-241) in the soil and in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubick, A.; Dippel, T.

    1977-01-01

    From an undisturbed site, soil samples were taken for Pu-239,240 analysis. Each sample represented a 2 cm thick layer. The Pu-239 distribution pattern was analysed by checking to a computer model. The mean residence time tau was used as a transport parameter in the model. The validity of tau was proved by comparing the calculated contamination values with the measured amount of contamination in the field. The migration velocity of the 50% of PuO 2 contamination at the investigated loess loamy site was calculated to be vsub(PuO2) = 0.59 cm/a. In the vicinity of the Pu-sampling site HTO-tracer experiments indicated an average water percolation velocity of vsub(HTO) = 100 cm/a. From these values a dimensionless relative PuO 2 migration velocity. vsub(r(PuO2)) = vsub((PuO2))/vsub(HTO) = 5.9 x 10 -3 followed. (orig./RW) [de

  5. Quantitative Fissile Assay In Used Fuel Using LSDS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, YongDeok; Jeon, Ju Young; Park, Chang-Je

    2017-09-01

    A quantitative assay of isotopic fissile materials (U235, Pu239, Pu241) was done at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), using lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS). The optimum design of LSDS was performed based on economics, easy maintenance and assay effectiveness. LSDS system consists of spectrometer, neutron source, detection and control. LSDS system induces fissile fission and fast neutrons are collected at fission chamber. The detected signal has a direct relation to the mass of existing fissile isotopes. Many current commercial assay technologies have a limitation in direct application on isotopic fissile assay of spent fuel, except chemical analysis. In the designed system, the fissile assay model was setup and the correction factor for self-shield was obtained. The isotopic fissile content assay was performed by changing the content of Pu239. Based on the fuel rod, the isotopic content was consistent with 2% uncertainty for Pu239. By applying the covering (neutron absorber), the effective shielding was obtained and the activation was calculated on the target. From the assay evaluation, LSDS technique is very powerful and direct to analyze the isotopic fissile content. LSDS is applicable for nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel management for safety and economics. Additionally, an accurate fissile content will contribute to the international transparency and credibility on spent fuel.

  6. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) and plutonium-240 ( 240 Pu) activity concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 ± 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 ± 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high 240 Pu/ 239 Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004)

  7. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulay, P.

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [fr

  8. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Y; Hamilton, T; Uchida, S; Tagami, K; Yoshida, S; Robison, W

    2001-10-20

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes.

  9. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.; Yoshida, S. [Environmental and Toxicological Researches Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, 263-8555 Chiba (Japan); Hamilton, T.; Robison, W. [Health and Ecological Assessment Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-453, 94551-0808 Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-10-20

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes.

  10. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes

  11. Experiments to determine the rate of beta energy release following fission of Pu239 andU235 in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.F.; Taylor, W.H.; Sweet, D.W.; March, M.R.

    1979-02-01

    Measurements have been made of the rate of beta energy release from Pu239 and U235 fission fragments over a period of 107 seconds following a 105 second irradiation in the zero-power fast reactor Zebra. Results are compared with predictions using the UKFPDD-1 decay data file and two different sets of fission product yield data. (author)

  12. Perturbation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediment following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Vintro, L.L.; Gasco, C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marine sediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio of ∼0.18. Measurements of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing, has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio has been examined in samples of sediment collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution. The analytical results showed that at Thule the mean 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio was 0.033±0.004, while at Palomares the equivalent ratio appeared to be significantly higher at 0.056±0.003. Both ratios are consistent with those reported for soils samples at the Nevada site and Nagasaki, and are clearly indicative of weapons-grade plutonium. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239, 240 from the 1961 - 1980 nuclear explosions: a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Katsuragi, Y.; Sugimura, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239, 240, and Pu-238 were observed from 1959 to 1984 at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI). In order to interpret the serial trends of the annual radioactive deposition at the MRI, a semi-empirical box model of atmospheric transport was developed. The model divides the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere into four compartments: the atmosphere above 21 km, stratosphere below 21 km, active mixing and exchange (AME) layer near the tropopause, and the troposphere. The transfer between the compartments follows the first-order kinetics. The half residence times for transfer between upper and lower stratospheric compartments, between the lower and AME layer compartments, and between the AME layer and troposphere are 0.5, 0.7 and 0.3 yrs, respectively. It is revealed that as a long-term monitoring of the annual deposition of radioactive debris in the mid-latitude area, the model quantitatively permits the calculation of stratospheric inventories and trends of annual deposition of debris injected into the stratosphere which are characterized by apparent residence times of 0.5 to 1.7 yrs. This simple model is useful to predict the annual deposition amount of radioactive debris from the thermonuclear explosion for practical purposes. (author)

  14. Determination of 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Pu and 241Am in radioactive waste from IPEN reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Bianca; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Cheberle, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Marcelo T.

    2011-01-01

    Ion exchange resin is a common type of radioactive waste arising from treatment of coolant water of the main circuit of research and nuclear power reactors. This waste contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization in order to determine and quantify specific radionuclides including those known as difficult-to-measure radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of RDMs generally involves expensive and time-consuming complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides. The objective of this work is to show an easy methodology for quantifying plutonium and americium isotopes in spent ion exchange resin, used for purification of the cooling water of the IEA-R1 reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP. The resins were destroyed by acid digestion, followed by purification and separation of the Pu and Am isotopes with anionic and chromatographic resins. 238 Pu, 239 + 24 '0Pu, and 24 '1Am isotopes were analyzed in an alpha spectrometer equipped with surface barrier detectors. 241 Pu isotope was analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Chemical recovery yield ranged from 73 to 98% for Pu and 77 to 98% for Am, demonstrating that the methodology is suitable for identification and quantification of the isotopes studied in spent resins. (author)

  15. Quantitative Assay of Pu-239 and Pu-240 by Neutron Transmission Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E

    1971-04-15

    A method for quantitative assay of 239Pu and 240Pu has been tested at the reactor R1 in Stockholm. The method makes use of a fast chopper to measure the neutron transmission through a sample around the main resonances of these two isotopes - at 0.296 eV in 239Pu and at 1.056 eV in 240Pu. The transmission data measured are then combined with the known resonance cross sections to give the content of the isotopes. The method is nondestructive, i.e., one can use fuel pins as samples, even highly irradiated ones. A time-of-flight spectrometer of moderate capacity, like our fast chopper, is sufficient as the resonances are located at low energy. Altogether five samples have been used in the tests of the method. The results have been compared with mass spectrometer values. This comparison came out quite well for 239Pu whereas the chopper results for 240Pu were more than 10 per cent higher than the mass spectrometer results. This large deviation might be due to errors in the resonance cross section for 240Pu used in the analysis of the transmission data from the chopper. The best possible accuracy for a 15-hour run with our equipment is +- 1 per cent for 239Pu and +- 2 per cent for 240Pu, obtained for thick samples - about 3 x 1020 atoms per cm2 for each isotope. The accuracy corresponds to 68 per cent confidence level and does not include any contribution from the uncertainty in the resonance cross section

  16. Plutonium activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in sediment cores from the east China sea and Okinawa Trough: Sources and inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-liang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2005-05-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediment cores were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation using ion-exchange chromatography. The results showed that 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, ranging from 0.21 to 0.33, were much higher than the reported value of global fallout (0.18). The highest 240Pu/ 239Pu ratios (0.32-0.33) were observed in the deepest Okinawa Trough sediment samples. These ratios suggested the US nuclear weapons tests in the early 1950s at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands were a major source of plutonium in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, in addition to the global fallout source. It was proposed that close-in fallout plutonium was delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds test sites via early direct tropospheric fallout and transportation by the North Pacific Equatorial Circulation system and Kuroshio Current into the Okinawa Trough and East China Sea. The total 239 + 240 Pu inventories in the cores were about 150-200% of that expected from direct global fallout; about 46-67% of the total inventories were delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds. Much higher 239 + 240 Pu inventories were observed in the East China Sea sediments than in sediments of the Okinawa Trough, because in the open oceans, part of the 239 + 240 Pu was still retained in the water column, and continued Pu scavenging was higher over the margin than the trough. According to the vertical distributions of 239 + 240 Pu activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in these cores, it was concluded that sediment mixing was the dominant process in controlling profiles of plutonium in this area. Faster mixing in the coastal samples has homogenized the entire 240Pu/ 239Pu ratio record today; slightly slower mixing and less scavenging in the Okinawa Trough have left the surface sediment ratios closer

  17. Isotopic fissile assay of spent fuel in a lead slowing-down spectrometer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Jeon, Ju Young [Dept. of Fuel Cycle Technology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Je [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    A lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS) system is under development to analyze isotopic fissile content that is applicable to spent fuel and recycled material. The source neutron mechanism for efficient and effective generation was also determined. The source neutron interacts with a lead medium and produces continuous neutron energy, and this energy generates dominant fission at each fissile, below the unresolved resonance region. From the relationship between the induced fissile fission and the fast fission neutron detection, a mathematical assay model for an isotopic fissile material was set up. The assay model can be expanded for all fissile materials. The correction factor for self-shielding was defined in the fuel assay area. The corrected fission signature provides well-defined fission properties with an increase in the fissile content. The assay procedure was also established. The assay energy range is very important to take into account the prominent fission structure of each fissile material. Fission detection occurred according to the change of the Pu239 weight percent (wt%), but the content of U235 and Pu241 was fixed at 1 wt%. The assay result was obtained with 2∼3% uncertainty for Pu239, depending on the amount of Pu239 in the fuel. The results show that LSDS is a very powerful technique to assay the isotopic fissile content in spent fuel and recycled materials for the reuse of fissile materials. Additionally, a LSDS is applicable during the optimum design of spent fuel storage facilities and their management. The isotopic fissile content assay will increase the transparency and credibility of spent fuel storage.

  18. Use of combined alpha-spectrometry and fission track analysis for the determination of 240Pu/239Pu ratios in human tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, S.F.; Filby, R.H.; Glover, S.E.; Stuit, D.B.; Kathren, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Plutonium and other actinides were determined in human autopsy tissues of occupationally exposed workers who were registrants of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR). In this study, Pu was purified and isolated from Am, U and Th, after drying and wet-ashing of the tissues, and the addition of 238 Pu as a radiotracer. After electrodeposition onto vanadium planchets, the 239+240 Pu activity was determined by alpha-spectrometry. A fission track method was developed to determine 239 Pu in the presence of 238 Pu and 240 Pu, using Lexan TM polycarbonate detectors. Combining the two techniques allowed the determination of the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu activity and atom ratios. Data from selected USTUR cases are presented. (author)

  19. Neutron-induced transmutation reactions in Np-237, Pu-238, and Pu-239 at the massive natural uranium spallation target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závorka, L.; Adam, Jindřich; Baldin, A. A.; Čaloun, Pavel; Chilap, V. V.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M. G.; Khushvaktov, J.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Sotnikov, V.; Stegailov, V. I.; Suchopár, Martin; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.; Voronko, V.; Vrzalová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 349, APR (2015), s. 31-38 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ADS * spent nuclear fuel * transmutation reaction * spallation neutrons Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2015

  20. Distribution and flux of 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs and 210Pb to high arctic lakes in the Thule district (Greenland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, M; Holm, E; Roos, P; Dahlgaard, H

    2004-01-01

    Environmental samples (soil, sediment and lake water) in the Thule area (NW Greenland) have been studied to assess the contamination of radionuclides originating from a nuclear weapons accident (the Thule accident in 1968). Four lakes were chosen at different distances from the point of impact with the Thule air base community situated in between. The sedimentation rates in the lakes varied from 0.4 mm a(-1) (5 mg cm(-2) a(-1)) to 1.6 mm a(-1) (82 mg cm(-2) a(-1)). With these sedimentation rates, it is not possible to resolve the (239,240)Pu global fallout peak from a possible (239,240)Pu "accident" peak in the sediment depth profiles. However, the (239,240)Pu/(137)Cs and the (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu ratios agreed well with global fallout ratios, indicating that plutonium originating from the accident had not reached these lakes. This also indicates that the Thule air base community has probably only been exposed to radionuclides from the accident to a very limited extent. A limited study showed that (210)Pb could not be used as a normalizing nuclide to explain the transport of transuranic elements from the catchment area to the lake, i.e. (210)Pb has a different transport mechanism from that of the transuranic elements studied in this investigation.

  1. Routine radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageyev, V.A.; Sajeniouk, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Routine analytical procedures have been developed for the reliable simultaneous determination of 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 242-244 Cm, Chernobyl derived radioisotopes and fallout after nuclear weapon tests in a wide range of environmental samples: soil (100-200 g), sediments, aerosols, water and vegetation. This procedure has been applied to thousands of soil and sediment samples and hundreds of biological and water samples taken in the exclusive zone of Chernobyl NPP and different regions of Ukraine from 1989 to the present. After the sample has been properly prepared and isotopic tracers added, plutonium, americium and curium are precipitated with calcium oxalate and then lanthanum fluoride. Plutonium is separated from americium and curium by anion-exchange. Americium and curium are separated from rare earths by cation-exchange with gradient elute α-hydroxy-iso-butyric acid. During projects by AQCS IAEA 'Evaluation of Methods for 90 Sr in a Mineral Matrix' and 'Proficiency Test for 239 Pu, 241 Pu and 241 Am Measurement in a Mineral Matrix' accuracy and precision for 90 Sr, 239 Pu and 241 Am by present procedure was evaluated. Advantages, difficulties and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  2. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming; Roos, Per

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5 × 10(5) for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of (239+240)Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of (239)Pu and (240)Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure (239)Pu and (240)Pu separately but also (241)Pu. However, it is impossible to measure (238)Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 10(6) for uranium was obtained by chemical separation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in human tissues collected from areas around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site by sector-field high resolution ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Oikawa, S; Sakaguchi, A; Tomita, J; Hoshi, M; Apsalikov, K N

    2008-09-01

    Information on the 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in human tissues for people living around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was deduced from 9 sets of soft tissues and bones, and 23 other bone samples obtained by autopsy. Plutonium was radiochemically separated and purified, and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) were determined by sector-field high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. For most of the tissue samples from the former nine subjects, low 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios were determined: bone, 0.125 +/- 0.018 (0.113-0.145, n = 4); lungs, 0.063 +/- 0.010 (0.051-0.078, n = 5); and liver, 0.148 +/- 0.026 (0.104-0.189, n = 9). Only 239Pu was detected in the kidney samples; the amount of 240Pu was too small to be measured, probably due to the small size of samples analyzed. The mean 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio for bone samples from the latter 23 subjects was 0.152 +/- 0.034, ranging from 0.088 to 0.207. A significant difference (a two-tailed Student's t test; 95% significant level, alpha = 0.05) between mean 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios for the tissue samples and for the global fallout value (0.178 +/- 0.014) indicated that weapons-grade plutonium from the atomic bombs has been incorporated into the human tissues, especially lungs, in the residents living around the SNTS. The present 239,240Pu concentrations in bone, lung, and liver samples were, however, not much different from ranges found for human tissues from other countries that were due solely to global fallout during the 1970's-1980's.

  4. Estimation of Ni63, Pu241, Pu242 and Am243 from Co60, Pu239, and Cm244 activities in groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Part B Permit for F ampersand H Seepage Basins calls for analysis of several constituents of concern in groundwater monitoring wells. Four of these analytes are the radionuclides Ni 63 , Pu 241 , Pu 242 , and Am 243 . These are currently not being analyzed due to their very difficult, tedious analytical schemes coupled with their relatively low activity values. This report demonstrates how the activity value for Ni 63 , a week beta emitter, can be estimated from that of Co 60 , an easily detectable, high-energy gamma emitter. Similarly, estimates of Pu 241 , a beta emitter, and the alpha-emitting Pu 242 can be made from the activity value of the more easily detected Pu 239 . Am 243 can be estimated from the activity of Cm 244 , which is easier to detect because of a shorter half-life (higher specific activity) and the emission of higher energy alpha particles. These correlations are made under very specific parameters in order to ensure the validity of this approach. Therefore, assumptions must be established setting ground rules for establishing these activity relationships. Bases for these assumptions are explained and/or referenced. Their degree of uncertainty limits the accuracy of the data so that the term ''estimate'' is used. Such soundly-based, conservative estimates for these four rads can provide a tool for evaluating any hazards from their presence over the next several years. Hopefully, during this time, sufficient advances will be made in their radiochemical analyses and in counting techniques so that in the future, their activities may be quantitatively determined more easily and also more cost effectively

  5. Multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the FBR closed fuel cycle, possibility of multi-recycle has been recognized. In the present study, Pu-239 equivalence approach is used to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving near constant input inventory of Pu and near stable Pu isotopic composition after a few recycles of the same fuel of the prototype fast breeder ...

  6. Status of LSDS Development for Isotopic Fissile Assay in Used Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.D.; Ahn, S.; Kim, H.-D.; Song, K.C.; Park, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the large amount accumulation of spent fuel, a research to solve the spent fuel problem is actively performed in Korea. One option is to develop the SFR linked with the pyro process to reuse the existing fissile materials in spent fuel. Therefore, an accurate isotopic fissile content assay becomes a key factor in the reuse of fissile material for safety and safeguards purpose. There are several commercial non-destructive technologies for nuclear material assay. However, technology for direct isotopic fissile content assay in spent fuel is not developed yet. Internationally, a verification of special nuclear material in spent fuel, mainly U-235, Pu239, Pu241, is very important for the safeguards objective. These fissile materials can be misused for nuclear weapon purpose, not for peaceful use. As a future nuclear system is developed,, improved safeguards technology must be developed for an approval of fissile materials. A direct measurement of fissile materials is very important to provide a continuous of knowledge on nuclear materials. LSDS (Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer) has an advantage to assay an isotopic fissile content directly, without any help of burnup code and history. LSDS system is under development in KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for spent fuel and recycled fuel. A linear assay model was setup for U235, Pu239 and Pu241. The dominant individual fission characteristic is appeared between 0.1 eV and 1 keV range. An electron linear accelerator for compact and low cost is under development to produce high source neutron effectively and efficiently. The LSDS is also applicable for optimum design of spent fuel storage and management. The advanced fissile assay technology will contribute to increase the transparency and credibility internationally on a reuse of fissile materials in future nuclear energy system development. (author)

  7. 137Cs, 239+24Pu and 24Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng Jian; Wang Zhongliang

    2006-01-01

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The 137 Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The 137 Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m -3 in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m -3 in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of 137 Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of 137 Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of 137 Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr -1 in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr -1 in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr -1 in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. 239+24 Pu activities and 24 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The 24 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199 ± 0.026 to 0.248 ± 0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher 24 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratios

  8. Enhanced fuel production in thorium/lithium hybrid blankets utilizing uranium multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitulski, R.H.

    1979-10-01

    A consistent neutronics analysis is performed to determine the effectiveness of uranium bearing neutron multiplier zones on increasing the production of U 233 in thorium/lithium blankets for use in a tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The nuclear performance of these blankets is evaluated as a function of zone thicknesses and exposure by using the coupled transport burnup code ANISN-CINDER-HIC. Various parameters such as U 233 , Pu 239 , and H 3 production rates, the blanket energy multiplication, isotopic composition of the fuels, and neutron leakages into the various zones are evaluated during a 5 year (6 MW.y.m -2 ) exposure period. Although the results of this study were obtained for a tokomak magnetic fusion device, the qualitative behavior associated with the use of the uranium bearing neutron multiplier should be applicable to all fusion-fission hybrids

  9. Nuclear forensic applications involving high spatial resolution analysis of Trinitite cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, P.H.; Antonio Simonetti; Koeman, E.C.; Sara Mana; University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; Burns, P.C.; University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a comprehensive cross-sectional analysis of major and trace element abundances and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios within vertically oriented Trinitite thin sections. The upper glassy layer (∼2 mm thick) represents fused desert sand combined with devolatilized fallout from the debris cloud. The vertical distribution of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios indicates that residual fuel was incorporated deeper (up to ∼10 mm depth) into Trinitite than previously reported. This requires thorough mixing and disturbance of the upper cm of the blast site prior to or during the initial melting of the desert sand resulting from the nuclear explosion. (author)

  10. PLANTS AS BIO-MONITORS FOR 137CS, 238PU, 239, 240PU AND 40K AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Ferguson, C.

    2010-12-16

    The nuclear fuel cycle generates a considerable amount of radioactive waste, which often includes nuclear fission products, such as strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) and cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), and actinides such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu). When released into the environment, large quantities of these radionuclides can present considerable problems to man and biota due to their radioactive nature and, in some cases as with the actinides, their chemical toxicity. Radionuclides are expected to decay at a known rate. Yet, research has shown the rate of elimination from an ecosystem to differ from the decay rate due to physical, chemical and biological processes that remove the contaminant or reduce its biological availability. Knowledge regarding the rate by which a contaminant is eliminated from an ecosystem (ecological half-life) is important for evaluating the duration and potential severity of risk. To better understand a contaminants impact on an environment, consideration should be given to plants. As primary producers, they represent an important mode of contamination transfer from sediments and soils into the food chain. Contaminants that are chemically and/or physically sequestered in a media are less likely to be bio-available to plants and therefore an ecosystem.

  11. Cleanup levels for Am-241, Pu-239, U-234, U-235 and U-238 in soils at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.; Colby, B.; Brooks, L.; Slaten, S.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation briefly outlines a cleanup program at a Rocky Flats site through viewgraphs and an executive summary. Exposure pathway analyses to be performed are identified, and decontamination levels are listed for open space and office worker exposure areas. The executive summary very briefly describes the technical approach, RESRAD computer code to be used for analyses, recommendations for exposure levels, and application of action levels to multiple radionuclide contamination. Determination of action levels for surface and subsurface soils, based on radiation doses, is discussed. 1 tab

  12. Deposition of Pu-239 in human bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabayashi, Hiroyuki

    1976-01-01

    It is known that plutonium produced by nuclear explosion tests has been widely dispersed on all over the earth and Pu-238 generated by the ''Accident of SNAP-9A'' in 1964 has been disposed into the atmosphere. These Pu are gradually falling down on the earth and taken into the human body through inhalation and ingestion. The measurements on the concentrations of Pu in bones and other various organs of Japanese population have been carried out. The results reveal that the concentrations of Pu in bones has a trend to be gradually increasing since 1962 and seems to be saturated at about 1970. The concentrations of Pu in bones sampled in 1971 are, in average, in the level of 4fCi per gram of wet samples and those in other organs (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, reproductive organs, etc.) sampled from 1963 to 1973 are in the level of 0.5-3.4 fCi per gram of wet tissues. Pu has been identified in the bones of fetus and infants and the averaged concentrations of placenta was 42.5 fCi. These may indicate that Pu would be transferred to the fetus through the placenta of mother. Some calculation has been attempted on the ratio of contributions through inhalation and ingestion to the body content of Pu, by using the formula for the scheme of metabolism of Pu compound in the body recommended by I.C.R.P. and this revealed that the contribution through inhalation route seemed to be greater than the other for the accumulation of Pu in the body. (auth.)

  13. Individual economical value of plutonium isotopes and analysis of the reprocessing of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, I.C.; Rubini, L.A.; Barroso, D.E.G.

    1983-01-01

    An economical analysis of plutonium recycle in a PWR reactor, without any modification, is done, supposing an open market for the plutonium. The individual value of the plutonium isotopes is determined solving a system with four equations, which the unknow factors are the Pu-239, Pu-240, pu-241 and Pu-242 values. The equations are obtained equalizing the cost of plutonium fuel cycle of four different isotope mixture to the cost of the uranium fuel cycle. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  15. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235; Mise au point d'une methode directe de determination de la charge corporelle en plutonium 239 chez l'homme par detection X de l'uranium 235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulay, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [French] L'utilisation a une echelle de plus en plus large du plutonium-239 pose un probleme de la mesure de la contamination par aerosol au niveau du poumon. Une methode de mesure directe de la charge pulmonaire en plutonium-239 est possible grace a l'utilisation d'un compteur proportionnel a fenetre de grande surface. Un compteur de ce type a specialement ete realise dans ce but. La mise au point de l'appareillage permet une sensibilite suffisante pour deceler une contamination au niveau de la Q.M.A (quantite maximale admissible). D'autre part, une methode 'd'etalonnage interne' de l'individu a l'aide d'un simulateur de plutonium, le protactinium-233, est decrite. (auteur)

  16. Calculation of Plutonium content in RSG-GAS spent fuel using IAFUEL computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochamad-Imron

    2003-01-01

    It has been calculated the contain of isotopes Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and isotope Pu-242 in MTR reactor fuel types which have U-235 contain about 250 gram. The calculation was performed in three steps. The first step is to determine the library of calculation output of BOC (Beginning of Cycle). The second step is to determine the core isotope density, the weight of plutonium for one core, and one fuel isotope density. The third step is to calculate weight of plutonium in gram. All calculation is performed by IAFUEL computer code. The calculation was produced content of each Pu isotopes were Pu-239 is 6.7666 gr, Pu-240 is 1.4628 gr, Pu-241 is 0.52951 gr, and Pu-242 is 0.068952 gr

  17. Optimization of binary breeder reactor. 2. Preliminary base for control analysis and fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.; Nascimento, J.A. do; Ishiguro, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Neutronic calculations to verify the reactivity effects, of sodium voids and Doppler, with the variation of the composition of parasitic absorbers were done. A LMFBR type reactor loaded with mixed fuel, (U 233 -Th 232 )O 2 in the internal core and (U 238 -Pu 239 )O 2 in external core, was considered. In reactivity calculations the EXPANDA and CITATION computer codes were utilized. Buckling effects and importance of determination of the spatial selfshielding factors were analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Modeling of the water gap in BWR fuel elements using SCALE/TRITON; Modellierung des Wasserspalts bei SWR-BE mit SCALE/TRITON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittelbach, S.; Chernykh, M. [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The authors show that an adequate modeling of the water gap in BWR fuel element models using the code TRITON requires an explicit consideration of the Dancoff factors. The analysis of three modeling options reveals that considering the moderating effects of the water gap coolant for the peripheral fuel elements the resulting deviations of the U-235 and Pu-239 concentrations are significantly reduced. The increased temporal calculation efforts are justified with respect to the burnup credits for criticality safety analyses.

  19. Alternative Fuel for Marine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    The U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) is participating in the U.S. Navy's ongoing efforts to test alternative fuels for marine use by demonstrating their applicability on commercial vessels. In support of this effort, the Navy provided neat hydrot...

  20. Development of methods for theoretical analysis of nuclear reactors (Phase II), I-V, Part IV, Fuel depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.

    1962-10-01

    This report includes the analysis of plutonium isotopes from U 238 depletion chain. Two theoretical approaches for solving the depletion of fuel are shown. One results in the system of differential equations that can be solved only by using electronic calculators and the second, Machinari-Goto method enables obtaining analytical equations for approximative values of particular nuclei. In addition, differential equations are given for different approximation levels in calculating Pu 239 , as well as relations between the released energy and irradiation [sr

  1. Fuel cells: Trends in research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Various aspects of fuel cells are discussed. The subjects addressed include: fuel cells for electric power production; phosphoric acid fuel cells; long-term testing of an air-cooled 2.5 kW PAFC stack in Italy; status of fuel cell research and technology in the Netherlands, Bulgaria, PRC, UK, Sweden, India, Japan, and Brazil; fuel cells from the manufacturer's viewpoint; and fuel cells using biomass-derived fuels. Also examined are: solid oxide electrolye fuel cells; aluminum-air batteries with neutral chloride electrolyte; materials research for advanced solid-state fuel cells at the Energy Research Laboratory in Denmark; molten carbonate fuel cells; the impact of the Siemens program; fuel cells at Sorapec; impact of fuel cells on the electric power generation systems in industrial and developing countries; and application of fuel cells to large vehicles.

  2. Composition and Distribution of Tramp Uranium Contamination on BWR and PWR Fuel Rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schienbein, Marcel; Zeh, Peter; Hurtado, Antonio; Rosskamp, Matthias; Mailand, Irene; Bolz, Michael

    2012-09-01

    In a joint research project of VGB and AREVA NP GmbH the behaviour of alpha nuclides in nuclear power plants with light water reactors has been investigated. Understanding the source and the behaviour of alpha nuclides is of big importance for planning radiation protection measures for outages and upcoming dismantling projects. Previous publications have shown the correlation between plant specific alpha contamination of the core and the so called 'tramp fuel' or 'tramp uranium' level which is linked to the defect history of fuel assemblies and accordingly the amount of previously washed out fuel from defective fuel rods. The methodology of tramp fuel estimation is based on fission product concentrations in reactor coolant but also needs a good knowledge of tramp fuel composition and in-core distribution on the outer surface of fuel rods itself. Sampling campaigns of CRUD deposits of irradiated fuel assemblies in different NPPs were performed. CRUD analyses including nuclide specific alpha analysis have shown systematic differences between BWR and PWR plants. Those data combined with literature results of fuel pellet investigations led to model improvements showing that a main part of fission products is caused by fission of Pu-239 an activation product of U-238. CRUD investigations also gave a better picture of the in-core composition and distribution of the tramp uranium contamination. It was shown that the tramp uranium distribution in PWR plants is time dependent. Even new fuel assemblies will be notably contaminated after only one cycle of operation. For PWR applies the following logic: the higher the local power the higher the contamination. With increasing burnup the local rod power usually decreases leading to decreasing tramp uranium contamination on the fuel rod surface. This is not applicable for tramp uranium contamination in BWR. CRUD contamination (including the tramp fuel deposits) is much more fixed and is constantly increasing

  3. Application of ICP-MS and AMS for determination of Pu- and U-isotope ratios for source identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L. (Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Isotope Lab.. Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, AAs (Norway))

    2010-03-15

    Full text: Anthropogenic plutonium has been introduced into the environment over the past 50 years as the result of the detonation of nuclear weapons and operational releases from the nuclear industry. In the Arctic environment, the main source of plutonium is from atmospheric weapons testing, which have resulted in a relatively uniform, underlying global distribution of plutonium. Plutonium isotope ratios are known to vary with reactor type, nuclear fuel-burn up time, neutron flux, and energy, and for fallout from nuclear detonations, weapon type and yield. Weapons-grade plutonium is characterized by a low content of the 240Pu isotope, with 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio less than 0.05. In contrast, both global weapons fallout and spent nuclear fuel from civil reactors have higher 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios (civil nuclear power reactors have 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios of between about 0.2-1). Thus, different sources often exhibit characteristic plutonium isotope ratios and these ratios can be used to identify the origin of contamination, calculate inventories, or follow the migration of contaminated sediments and waters. The measurement of the plutonium-isotope ratios in these studies offers both a means of identifying the origin of radionuclide contamination and the influence of the various nuclear installations on inputs to the Arctic, as well as a potential method for following the movement of water and sediment loads in the rivers. The present paper presents results from determination of plutonium concentrations and isotope ratios in sediment samples collected during various expeditions to the Kara Sea, the Ob and Yenisey estuaries and their river systems and also Pu isotope ratios in the near area of Mayak PA. Weapons-grade plutonium is characterized by a low content of the Pu-240 isotope, with Pu-240/Pu-239 isotope ratio less than 0.05. In contrast, both global weapons fallout and spent nuclear fuel from civil reactors have higher Pu-240/Pu-239 isotope ratios, and

  4. Portable power applications of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, M.; Matcham, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of fuel cell technology for portable power applications. The study involved a comprehensive literature review. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted much more interest than either direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, issues relating to fuel choice and catalyst design remain with PEMFCs; DMFCs have excellent potential provided issues relating to the conducting membrane can be resolved but the current high temperature of operation and low power density currently makes SOFCs less applicable to portable applications. Available products are listed and the obstacles to market penetration are discussed. The main barriers are cost and the size/weight of fuel cells compared with batteries. Another key problem is the lack of a suitable fuel infrastructure.

  5. Management of transuranics using the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The 50 years of activities following the discovery of self-sustaining fission chains have given rise to a buildup of roughly 900 tons of manmade transuranics. Of the total, about 260 tons of Pu 239 were generated for use in weapons while the remainder were generated as a byproduct of electrical power produced worldwide by the commercial thermal nuclear power industry. What is to be done with these actinides? The options for disposition include interminable storage, burial, or recycle for use. The pros and cons of each option are being vigorously debated regarding the impact upon the issues of human and ecological risk -- both current and future; weapons proliferation potential -- both current and future; and total life cycle benefits and costs. As to the options for utilization, commercial uses for actinides (uranium and transuranics) are of limited diversity. The actinides have in the past and will in the future find application in large scale mostly by virtue of their ability to release energy through fission, and here their utility is unmatched -- whether the application be in commercial electricity generation or in armaments. The integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle offers a number of features for management of the current and future burden of manmade transuranic materials and for capturing the energy content of the U 238 . These features are discussed here

  6. Remote technology applications in spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    Spent fuel management has become a prospective area for application of remote technology in recent years with a steadily growing inventory of spent fuel arising from nuclear power production. A remark that could be made from the review of technical information collected from the IAEA meetings was that remote technology in spent fuel management has matured well through the past decades of industrial experiences. Various remote technologies have been developed and applied in the past for facility operation and maintenance work in spent fuel examination, storage, transportation, reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment, among others, with significant accomplishments in dose reduction to workers, enhancement of reliability, etc. While some developmental activities are continuing for more advanced applications, industrial practices have made use of simple and robust designs for most of the remote systems technology applications to spent fuel management. In the current state of affairs, equipment and services in remote technology are available in the market for applications to most of the projects in spent fuel management. It can be concluded that the issue of critical importance in remote systems engineering is to make an optimal selection of technology and equipment that would best satisfy the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) requirements in terms of relevant criteria like dose reduction, reliability, costs, etc. In fact, good selection methodology is the key to efficient implementation of remote systems applications in the modern globalized market. This TECDOC gives a review of the current status of remote technology applications for spent fuel management, based on country reports from some Member States presented at the consultancy meetings, of which updated reports are attached in the annex. The scope of the review covers the series of spent fuel handling operations involved in spent fuel management, from discharge from reactor to reprocessing or

  7. Solid fuel applications to transportation engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, Richard L.; Renner, Roy A.

    1980-06-01

    The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

  8. Alternative Fuels for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    federal subsidies have promoted produc- tion and use of biodiesel, which is not a hydrocarbon but rather a fatty acid methyl ester ( FAME ) unsuitable for... methyl ester ( FAME ). FAME and blends of FAME with petroleum-derived fuels are currently banned from use in all deployable, tactical DoD military...fatty acid methyl ester FT Fischer-Tropsch FY fiscal year ISBL inside battery limit Navy Fuels Team Naval Fuels and Lubricants Cross-Functional Team

  9. Innovative inert matrix-thoria fuels for in-reactor plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettraino, F.; Padovani, E.; Luzzi, L.; Lombardi, C.; Thoresen, H.; Oberlander, B.; Iversen, G.; Espeland, M.

    1999-01-01

    The present leading option for plutonium disposition, either civilian or weapons Pu, is to burn it in LWRs after having converted it to MOX fuel. However, among the possible types of fuel which can be envisaged to burn plutonium in LWRs, innovative U-free fuels such as inert matrix and thoria fuel are novel concept in view of a more effective and ultimate solution from both security and safety standpoint. Inert matrix fuel is an non-fertile oxide fuel consisting of PuO 2 , either weapon-grade or reactor-grade, diluted in inert oxides such as for ex. stabilized ZrO 2 or MgAl 2 O 4 , its primary advantage consisting in no-production of new plutonium during irradiation, because it does not contain uranium (U-free fuel) whose U-238 isotope is the departure nuclide for breeding Pu-239. Some thoria addition in the matrix (thoria-doped fuel) may be required for coping with reactivity feedback needs. The full thoria-plutonia fuel though still a U-free variant cannot be defined non-fertile any more because the U-233 generation. The advantage of such a fuel option consisting basically on a remarkable already existing technological background and a potential acceleration in getting rid of the Pu stocks. All U-free fuels are envisaged to be operated under a once-through cycle scheme being the spent fuel outlooked to be sent directly to the final disposal in deep geological formations without requiring any further reprocessing treatment, thanks to the quality-poor residual Pu and a very high chemical stability under the current fuel reprocessing techniques. Besides, inert matrix-thoria fuel technology is suitable for in-reactor MAs transmutation. An additional interest in Th containing fuel refers to applicability in ADS, the innovative accelerated driven subcritical systems, specifically aimed at plutonium, minor actnides and long lived fission products transmutation in a Th-fuel cycle scheme which enables to avoid generations of new TRUs. A first common irradiation experiment

  10. Nontoxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coil, Millicent

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of propellants used in conventional propulsion systems increases not only safety risks to personnel but also costs, due to special handling required during the entire lifetime of the propellants. Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) has developed and tested novel nontoxic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion applications. In Phase I of the project, the company demonstrated the feasibility of several ionic liquid formulations that equaled the performance of conventional rocket propellant monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and also provided low volatility and low toxicity. In Phase II, ORBITEC refined the formulations, conducted material property tests, and investigated combustion behavior in droplet and microreactor experiments. The company also explored the effect of injector design on performance and demonstrated the fuels in a small-scale thruster. The ultimate goal is to replace propellants such as MMH with fuels that are simultaneously high-performance and nontoxic. The fuels will have uses in NASA's propulsion applications and also in a range of military and commercial functions.

  11. Analytical description of transfer of Pu-239 in undisturbed soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianshan, Ren; Linsalata, P; Cohen, N

    1986-04-01

    The paper reports on an analytical model for describing the horizontal and down-ward transfer of /sup 239/Pu in undisturbed soil based on observed data. The model has been developed to predict how the depth distribution of /sup 239/Pu in soil would change with time. This information is essential for estimation of the quantities of /sup 239/Pu that have entered surface water body via erosion and runoff processes and for estimation of the long-term impact of /sup 239/Pu isice the commencement of nuclear fallout deposition.

  12. Lessons learned in the accident of contamination with Pu-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.; Ruiz C, M.; Angeles C, A.; Benitez S, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the lessons learned during the accident by transuranic contamination in the National Institute of Nuclear Research happened between 1998 and 2003. The origin of the same one is the not authorized transfer of 0.51 g of plutonium metallic used as pattern source in the Department of Metrology to a laboratory which lacked of physical infrastructure, training and team to manipulate this source. (Author)

  13. Early retention of 237Pu + 239Pu in mature beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; McFarland, S.S.; Atherton, D.R.; Bruenger, F.W.; Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Five mature beagles, ranging in age from 57 to 84 months, were injected intravenously with about 0.05-0.1 μCi/kg of 239 Pu(IV) citrate to which tracer amounts of the photon-emitter 237 Pu had been added. Plutonium retention in liver and in non-liver tissue (mainly skeleton) was measured periodically in the living dogs for nearly 4 months after injection by a combination of total-body and partial-body counting. All excreta were collected during the first 21 days and analysed for their Pu content. One dog was sacrificed at 14 days and another at 118 days for distribution studies. About 17% (14-20%) of the injected Pu was excreted in the urine and feces in the first 3 weeks, about the same as that excreted in a corresponding time by beagles injected as young adults (14%), but substantially more than beagles injected as juveniles (11%). In contrasts to juvenile beagles injected at 3 months of age, in which early retention was about 12% in liver and 68% in the skeleton, mature beagles retained about 30% in liver and 50% in the skeleton. Retention in young adult beagles injected at 17 months of age was similar to that of mature dogs. Relative distribution of skeletal plutonium among various bones was similar in the mature animals to that seen previously in young adults, but quite different from that of juveniles. A notable exception was the humerus for which there was no significant difference (P>0.2) in the % of retained skeletal Pu represented by the humerus among the juvenile, young adult and mature dogs. (author)

  14. Utilization of a Si-surface-barrier-detector for alpha-spectrometry and its application in radiation protection for the detection of law alpha-activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Urbanich, E.; Lovranich, E.; Hefner, A.

    1974-12-01

    Due to the construction of the ''Safeguard Analytical Laboratory''(IAEA), the institute for radiation protection at the Research Center Seibersdorf is interested in a method for the alpha-spectroscopic determination of Pu-239 for personnel and environmental monitoring. Therefore an alpha-spectrometer has been built which will mainly be used for the excretion analysis. The design of the apparatus is described, results of measurements are given and other fields of its application are discussed. (C.R.)

  15. Lessons learned in the accident of contamination with Pu-239; Lecciones aprendidas en el accidente de contaminacion con Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, G.; Ruiz C, M.; Angeles C, A.; Benitez S, J.A. [ININ, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: gm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    This work describes the lessons learned during the accident by transuranic contamination in the National Institute of Nuclear Research happened between 1998 and 2003. The origin of the same one is the not authorized transfer of 0.51 g of plutonium metallic used as pattern source in the Department of Metrology to a laboratory which lacked of physical infrastructure, training and team to manipulate this source. (Author)

  16. Geological and physicochemical controls of the spatial distribution of partition coefficients for radionuclides (Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240 and Am-241) at a site of nuclear reactors and radioactive waste disposal (St. Petersburg region, Russian Federation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumynin, Vyacheslav G; Nikulenkov, Anton M

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a study of the sorption properties of sediments of different geological ages and lithological types, governing radionuclide retention in the subsurface (up to 160 m beneath the surface) within the area of potential influence of the Northwestern Center of Atomic Energy (NWCAE), St. Petersburg region, RF. The focus of this work is mostly on the sedimentary rocks of two types, i.e., weakly cemented sandstone and lithified clay formations of Cambrian and Vendian series. The first lithological unit is associated with a groundwater reservoir (Lomonosov aquifer), and the second one, with both a relative aquitard in the upper part of the Vendian formation (Kotlin clay) and a regional aquifer (Gdov aquifer) in the lower part of the formation. The main mechanisms responsible for the variability of the sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, defined as the ratio of the concentration of solute on solid phase to its concentration in solution at equilibrium) was identified for radionuclides such as Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240, and Am-241. It was shown that the main factors contributing to the chemical heterogeneity of the Cambrian sandstone were related to the presence of secondary minerals (iron and magnesium oxides and hydroxides produced by the weathering process) in trace amounts, forming correlated layer structures. The statistical analysis of nonlinear isotherms confirmed this conclusion. For the Vendian formation, a determinate trend was established in the Kd change over depth as a result of temporal trends in the sedimentation process and pore-water chemistry. The geostatistical characteristics and the spatial correlation models for describing linear sorption of different radionuclides are not identical, and the exhibition of chemical heterogeneity of sedimentary rock of a particular lithological type depends on radionuclide chemistry. Moreover, variogram analysis for some Kd data sets (both in Cambrian and Vendian formations) demonstrates the

  17. Fuel cell power plants for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.

    1983-02-01

    While the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell has until recently not been considered competitive with such commercial and industrial energy systems as gas turbine generators and internal combustion engines, electrical current density improvements have markedly improved the capital cost/kW output rating performance of SPE systems. Recent studies of SPE fuel cell applicability to vehicular propulsion have indicated that with adequate development, a powerplant may be produced which will satisfy the performance, size and weight objectives required for viable electric vehicles, and that the cost for such a system would be competitive with alternative advanced power systems.

  18. Nonconventional fuel tax credit application deadline approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, F.W.; Steger, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has established Dec. 31, 1992, as the deadline for producers to file Natural Gas Policy Act applications for gas produced from nonconventional fuel sources. Qualifying wells may receive tax credits ranging from 52 cents/MMBTU to 92 cents/MMBTU depending on the category and year of production. The most commonly eligible wells include tight formations, coalbed methanes, and gas from Devonian shales. FERC Order 539 allows producers to make application with the state jurisdictional agencies through Dec. 31, 1992. Many state jurisdictional agencies are willing to accept partial applications to be completed shortly thereafter

  19. PEM - fuel cell system for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, P. [Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG, 35107 Allendorf (Germany); Zartenar, N.

    2004-12-01

    Viessmann is developing a PEM fuel cell system for residential applications. The uncharged PEM fuel cell system has a 2 kW electrical and 3 kW thermal power output. The Viessmann Fuel Processor is characterized by a steam-reformer/burner combination in which the burner supplies the required heat to the steam reformer unit and the burner exhaust gas is used to heat water. Natural gas is used as fuel, which is fed into the reforming reactor after passing an integrated desulphurisation unit. The low temperature (600 C) fuel processor is designed on the basis of steam reforming technology. For carbon monoxide removal, a single shift reactor and selective methanisation is used with noble metal catalysts on monoliths. In the shift reactor, carbon monoxide is converted into hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction. The low level of carbon monoxide at the outlet of the shift reactor is further reduced, to approximately 20 ppm, downstream in the methanisation reactor, to meet PEM fuel cell requirements. Since both catalysts work at the same temperature (240 C), there is no requirement for an additional heat exchanger in the fuel processor. Start up time is less than 30 min. In addition, Viessmann has developed a 2 kW class PEFC stack, without humidification. Reformate and dry air are fed straight to the stack. Due to the dry operation, water produced by the cell reaction rapidly diffuses through the electrolyte membrane. This was achieved by optimising the MEA, the gas flow pattern and the operating conditions. The cathode is operated by an air blower. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Application of fuel cells in surface ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, C.; Nietsch, T.; Griffiths, D.; Morley, J.

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a DTI supported project entitled: ''Applications of fuel cells in surface ships''. It gives a brief market analysis describing the general requirements of different vessel types and an overview of the different heat engine technologies currently used for propulsion and power generation in ships. The appendices contain a more detailed description of the different vessel types, their general requirements and a description of current prime mover technologies used. This analysis is followed by a summary of the major fuel cell development programmes and activities ongoing in different countries that have a direct or potential relevance to a marine application of the technology. (author)

  1. Future perspective of thorium based nuclear fuels and thorium potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unak, T.; Yildirim, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Today's nuclear technology has principally been based on the use of fissile U-235 and Pu-239. he existence of thorium in the nature and its potential use in the nuclear technology were not unfortunately into account with a sufficient importance. The global distributions of thorium and uranium reserves indicate that in general some developed countries such as the USA, Canada, Australia, France have considerable uranium reserves, and contrarily only some developing countries such as Turkey, Brazil, India, Egypt have considerable thorium reserves. The studies carried out on the thorium during the last 50 years have clearly showed that the thorium based nuclear fuels have the potential easily use in most of reactor types actually operated with the classical uranium based nuclear fuels without any considerable modification. In the case of the use of thorium based nuclear fuels in future nuclear energy production systems, the serious problems such as the excess of Pu-239, the proliferation potential of nuclear weapons, and also the anxious of nuclear terrorism will probably be resolved, and sustainable nuclear energy production will be realized in the next new century. (authors)

  2. Future perspective of thorium based nuclear fuels and thorium potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unak, T.; Yildirim, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Today's nuclear technology has principally been based on the use of fissile U-235 and Pu-239. The existence of thorium in the nature and its potential use in the nuclear technology were not unfortunately into account with a sufficient importance. The global distributions of thorium and uranium reserves indicate that in general some developed countries such as the USA, Canada, Australia, France have considerable uranium reserves, and contrarily only some developing countries such as Turkey, Brazil, India, Egypt have considerable thorium reserves. The studies carried out on the thorium during the last 50 years have clearly showed that the thorium based nuclear fuels have the potential easily use in most of reactor types actually operated with the classical uranium based nuclear fuels without any considerable modification. In the case of the use of thorium based nuclear fuels in future nuclear energy production systems, the serious problems such as the excess of Pu-239, the proliferation potential of nuclear weapons, and also the anxious of nuclear terrorism will probably be resolved, and sustainable nuclear energy production will be realized in the next new century. (authors)

  3. Biodiesel Fuel Technology for Military Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frame, Edwin

    1997-01-01

    This program addressed the effects of biodiesel (methyl soyate) and blends of biodiesel with petrofuels on fuel system component and material compatibility, fuel storage stability, and fuel lubricity...

  4. Overview of expert systems applications in Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Expert system applications have been introduced in several nuclear fuel activities, including engineering and manufacturing. This technology has been successfully implemented on the manufacturing floors to provide on-line process control at zirconium tubing and fuel fabrication plants. This paper provides an overview of current applications at Westinghouse with respect to fuel fabrication, zirconium tubing, zirconium production, and core design

  5. Development of a nuclear fuel cycle transparency framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Tracia L.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle transparency can be defined as a confidence building approach among political entities to ensure civilian nuclear facilities are not being used for the development of nuclear weapons. Transparency concepts facilitate the transfer of nuclear technology, as the current international political climate indicates a need for increased methods of assuring non-proliferation. This research develops a system which will augment current non-proliferation assessment activities undertaken by U.S. and international regulatory agencies. It will support the export of nuclear technologies, as well as the design and construction of Gen. IV energy systems. Additionally, the framework developed by this research will provide feedback to cooperating parties, thus ensuring full transparency of a nuclear fuel cycle. As fuel handling activities become increasingly automated, proliferation or diversion potential of nuclear material still needs to be assessed. However, with increased automation, there exists a vast amount of process data to be monitored. By designing a system that monitors process data continuously, and compares this data to declared process information and plant designs, a faster and more efficient assessment of proliferation risk can be made. Figure 1 provides an illustration of the transparency framework that has been developed. As shown in the figure, real-time process data is collected at the fuel cycle facility; a reactor, a fabrication plant, or a recycle facility, etc. Data is sent to the monitoring organization and is assessed for proliferation risk. Analysis and recommendations are made to cooperating parties, and feedback is provided to the facility. The analysis of proliferation risk is based on the following factors: (1) Material attractiveness: the quantification of factors relevant to the proliferation risk of a certain material (e.g., highly enriched Pu-239 is more attractive than that of lower enrichment) (2) The static (baseline) risk: the

  6. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  7. Sodium Borohydride/Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells For Space Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Deelo, M. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Sodium Borohydride and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells as they are applied to space applications. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell Test Stands; 4) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 5) MEA Performance; 6) Anode Polarization; and 7) Electrode Analysis. The benefits of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and benefits of sodium borohydride as a fuel are also addressed.

  8. Safety risks of hydrogen fuel for applications in transportation vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels in many practical applications produces pollutants that are harmful to human health and environment. Hydrogen fuel is considered to be a potential answer to the clean energy demands, especially with the advances in fue...

  9. Cost reductions of fuel cells for transport applications: fuel processing options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teagan, W P; Bentley, J; Barnett, B [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-03-15

    The highly favorable efficiency/environmental characteristics of fuel cell technologies have now been verified by virtue of recent and ongoing field experience. The key issue regarding the timing and extent of fuel cell commercialization is the ability to reduce costs to acceptable levels in both stationary and transport applications. It is increasingly recognized that the fuel processing subsystem can have a major impact on overall system costs, particularly as ongoing R and D efforts result in reduction of the basic cost structure of stacks which currently dominate system costs. The fuel processing subsystem for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is the focus of transport applications, includes the reformer, shift reactors, and means for CO reduction. In addition to low cost, transport applications require a fuel processor that is compact and can start rapidly. This paper describes the impact of factors such as fuel choice operating temperature, material selection, catalyst requirements, and controls on the cost of fuel processing systems. There are fuel processor technology paths which manufacturing cost analyses indicate are consistent with fuel processor subsystem costs of under $150/kW in stationary applications and $30/kW in transport applications. As such, the costs of mature fuel processing subsystem technologies should be consistent with their use in commercially viable fuel cell systems in both application categories. (orig.)

  10. Linear accelerator fuel enricher regenerator (LAFER) and fission product transmutor (APEX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.; Takahashi, H.; Grand, P.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1979-01-01

    In addition to safety, two other major problems face the nuclear industry today; first is the long-term supply of fissle material and second is the disposal of long-lived fission product waste. The higher energy proton linear accelerator can assist in the solution of each of these problems. High energy protons from the linear accelerator interact with a molten lead target to produce spallation and evaporation neutrons. The neutrons are absorbed in a surrounding blanket of light water power reactor (LWR) fuel elements to produce fissile Pu-239 or U-233 fuel from natural fertile U-238 or Th-232 contained in the elements. The fissile enriched fuel element is used in the LWR power reactor until its reactivity is reduced after which the element is regenerated in the linear accelerator target/blanket assembly and then the element is once again burned (fissioned) in the power LWR. In this manner the natural uranium fuel resource can supply an expanding nuclear power reactor economy without the need for fuel reprocessing, thus satisfying the US policy of non-proliferation. In addition, the quantity of spent fuel elements for long-term disposal is reduced in proportion to the number of fuel regeneration cycles through the accelerator. The limiting factor for in-situ regeneration is the burnup damage to the fuel cladding material. A 300 ma-1.5 GeV (450 MW) proton linear accelerator can produce approximately one ton of fissile (Pu-239) material annually which is enough to supply fuel to three 1000 MW(e) LWR power reactors. With two cycles of enriching and regenerating, the nuclear fuel natural resource can be stretched by a factor of 3.6 compared to present fuel cycle practice without the need for reprocessing. Furthermore, the need for isotopic enrichment facilities is drastically reduced

  11. Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eteman, Shahrokh

    2013-06-30

    Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL®) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL® injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

  12. Electronuclear fissile fuel production. Linear accelerator fuel regenerator and producer LAFR and LAFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.; Takahashi, H.; Grand, P.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1978-04-01

    A linear accelerator fuel generator is proposed to enrich naturally occurring fertile U-238 or thorium 232 with fissile Pu-239 or U-233 for use in LWR power reactors. High energy proton beams in the range of 1 to 3 GeV energy are made to impinge on a centrally located dispersed liquid lead target producing spallation neutrons which are then absorbed by a surrounding assembly of fabricated LWR fuel elements. The accelerator-target design is reviewed and a typical fuel cycle system and economic analysis is presented. One 300 MW beam (300 ma-1 GeV) linear accelerator fuel regenerator can provide fuel for 3 to 1000 MW(e) LWR power reactors over its 30-year lifetime. There is a significant saving in natural uranium requirement which is a factor of 4.5 over the present LWR fuel requirement assuming the restraint of no fissile fuel recovery by reprocessing. A modest increase (approximately 10%) in fuel cycle and power production cost is incurred over the present LWR fuel cycle cost. The linear accelerator fuel regenerator and producer assures a long-term supply of fuel for the LWR power economy even with the restraint of the non-proliferation policy of no reprocessing. It can also supply hot-denatured thorium U-233 fuel operating in a secured reprocessing fuel center

  13. Control and repair system for radioactive nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallenberger, J.M.; Hornak, L.P.; Desmarchais, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    Irradiated fuel, especially such containing Pu-239, are put in a shielding container for inspection or repair. This container consists of an inner and outer tube of, for example, stainless steel, between which there is a gap filled with water, mineral oil, or polyethylene. At the upper end of the shielding container a rotating sleeve is positioned, by means of a bearing. It contains, for instance, an access opening and an inspection opening which are shielded by means of plexiglass. The access hole is opened only for repair work. In oder to prevent radiation from escaping to the environment during withdrawal and inspection of the fuel elements a second shielding container or shielding tube may be put over the sleeve. (DG/PB) [de

  14. Application of spin-polarized fuel to fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakuta, Y.; Nakao, Y.; Honda, T.; Honda, Y.; Nakashima, H.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the application of the polarized fuel to the inertial fusion reaction have been carried out. It is shown that the use of the spin-polarized fuel D vector·T vector or D vector· 3 (He)vector reduces the irradiating laser power more than 50% compared with the use of the unpolarized fuel. The depolarization rate of the polarized fuel during the fusing process is found to be almost negligible. (author)

  15. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  16. Comments on applications of reduced enrichment fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Full text: I will briefly describe the experience gained using different fuels in the SAPHIR reactor in Switzerland. The SAPHIR has been operating since 1957 and was the first swimming pool reactor built outside of the United States, which was originally known as the Geneva Conference Reactor. The first core was loaded with 20 percent enriched high density UO 2 fuel with a density of about 2.5 grams per cc, fabricated in 1955 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. After a few years of operation at a power level of one MW, more than one batch of the elements released small amounts of fission products mainly Xe and Kr. When these releases were discovered, high enriched fuel was becoming available so that the fuel fabricators began to produce the lower density high enriched fuels. During this transition from fabrication of low to high enriched fuels no one could foresee that the stone age of nuclear fuel fabrication would come back again. Therefore, we did not investigate the reasons for the fission product release from the high density low enriched UO 2 fuel. The second fuel type used in the SAPHIR was the 90 percent enriched low density U 3 O 8 fuel fabricated by NUKEM. This high enriched fuel has performed satisfactorily over the years. Since 1968, the core has been using improved 23 plate fuel elements with a loading of 280 grams of uranium. The reactor power has been recently increased to five MW. An additional increase in the power level to 10 MW is planned at the end of next year so that heavier loaded elements will be needed. In order to follow the recommendations of the INFCE working group 8C and in cooperation with the reduced enrichment program, we intend to initially reduce the fuel enrichment to 45 percent. Last year we ordered five fuel elements with a loading of 320 grams 235 U/element and 45 percent enrichment for full power tests. Unfortunately, the delivery of the necessary enriched fuel uranium has been delayed and it is not available at this time. If

  17. Reduced size fuel cell for portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Clara, Filiberto (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flat pack type fuel cell includes a plurality of membrane electrode assemblies. Each membrane electrode assembly is formed of an anode, an electrolyte, and an cathode with appropriate catalysts thereon. The anode is directly into contact with fuel via a wicking element. The fuel reservoir may extend along the same axis as the membrane electrode assemblies, so that fuel can be applied to each of the anodes. Each of the fuel cell elements is interconnected together to provide the voltage outputs in series.

  18. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO 2 or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures

  19. Fuel cells for portable, mobile and hybrid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.; Kaufman, A.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of fuel cell systems for a variety of low-power applications (below 1000 watts) means they can be used for applications such as portable power sources and mobile power sources. The energy and power are separate elements in a fuel cell system. The power is provided by the fuel cell stack (output characteristics are dependent on the cell active area, number of cells, and operating conditions), and the energy is defined by the fuel (hydrogen) storage. The authors indicated that proton exchange membrane fuel cells are the most appropriate for small fuel cell systems, since they have a temperature range ambient to 90 Celsius, ambient air (non-humidified), and load following response. In addition, they possess a solid electrolyte, high power density and specific power, and low-pressure operation. Simplicity of operation is the key to the design of a fuel cell system. The parameters to be considered include hydrogen supply, air supply, water management, and thermal management. Some of the options available for fuels are: compressed hydrogen, metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and carbon-based hydrogen storage. Some of the factors that will help in determining market penetration are: rapid cost reduction with volume, fuel infrastructure, proven reliability, and identification of applications where fuel cells provide superior performance. 2 figs

  20. Gel-sphere-pac reactor fuel fabrication and its application to a variety of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.

    1979-12-01

    The gel-sphere-pac fuel fabrication option was evaluated for its possible application to commercial scale fuel fabrication for 19 fuel element designs that use oxide fuel in metal clad rods. The dry gel spheres are prepared at the reprocessing plant and are then calcined, sintered, inspected, and loaded into fuel rods and packed by low-energy vibration. A fuel smear density of 83 to 88% theoretical can be obtained. All fuel fabrication process steps were defined and evaluated from fuel receiving to finished fuel element shipping. The evaluation also covers the feasibility of the process, the current status of technology, estimates of the required time and cost to develop the technology to commercial status, and the safety and licensability of commercial scale plants. The primary evaluation was for a Light-Water Reactor fuel element containing (U,Pu)O 2 fuel. The other 18 fuel element types - 3 for Light-Water Reactors, 1 for a Heavy-Water Reactor, 1 for a Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor, 7 for Liquid-Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors, and 3 pairs for Light-Water Prebreeder and Breeder Reactors - were compared with the Light-Water Reactor. The gel-sphere-pac option was found applicable to 17 of the 19 element types; the characteristics of a commercial scale plant were defined for these for making cost estimates for such plants. The evaluation clearly shows the gel-sphere-pac process to be a viable fuel fabrication option. Estimates indicate a significant potential fabrication cost advantage for the gel-sphere-pac process if a remotely operated and remotely maintained fuel fabrication plant is required

  1. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume III. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Volume III suppliees supporting information to assist Congress in making a decision on the optimum utilization of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant. Included are applicable fuel cycle policies; properties of reference fuels; description and evaluation of alternative operational (flue cycle) modes; description and evaluation of safeguards systems and techniques; description and evaluation of spiking technology; waste and waste solidification evaluation; and Department of Energy programs relating to nonproliferation

  2. Diesel fuel to dc power: Navy & Marine Corps Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, D.P. [Analytic Power Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    During the past year Analytic Power has tested fuel cell stacks and diesel fuel processors for US Navy and Marine Corps applications. The units are 10 kW demonstration power plants. The USN power plant was built to demonstrate the feasibility of diesel fueled PEM fuel cell power plants for 250 kW and 2.5 MW shipboard power systems. We designed and tested a ten cell, 1 kW USMC substack and fuel processor. The complete 10 kW prototype power plant, which has application to both power and hydrogen generation, is now under construction. The USN and USMC fuel cell stacks have been tested on both actual and simulated reformate. Analytic Power has accumulated operating experience with autothermal reforming based fuel processors operating on sulfur bearing diesel fuel, jet fuel, propane and natural gas. We have also completed the design and fabrication of an advanced regenerative ATR for the USMC. One of the significant problems with small fuel processors is heat loss which limits its ability to operate with the high steam to carbon ratios required for coke free high efficiency operation. The new USMC unit specifically addresses these heat transfer issues. The advances in the mill programs have been incorporated into Analytic Power`s commercial units which are now under test.

  3. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swathirajan, S. [General Motors R& D Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are extremely promising as future power plants in the transportation sector to achieve an increase in energy efficiency and eliminate environmental pollution due to vehicles. GM is currently involved in a multiphase program with the US Department of Energy for developing a proof-of-concept hybrid vehicle based on a PEM fuel cell power plant and a methanol fuel processor. Other participants in the program are Los Alamos National Labs, Dow Chemical Co., Ballard Power Systems and DuPont Co., In the just completed phase 1 of the program, a 10 kW PEM fuel cell power plant was built and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating a methanol fuel processor with a PEM fuel cell stack. However, the fuel cell power plant must overcome stiff technical and economic challenges before it can be commercialized for light duty vehicle applications. Progress achieved in phase I on the use of monolithic catalyst reactors in the fuel processor, managing CO impurity in the fuel cell stack, low-cost electrode-membrane assembles, and on the integration of the fuel processor with a Ballard PEM fuel cell stack will be presented.

  4. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    Amendment No. 4 of the application for licensing the Barnwell Fuel Processing Plant is presented. Information is included on: the quantity and characteristics of nuclear fuel assemblies which can be received and stored; specifications limiting the outside washdown of contaminated casks received for unloading; and definition of environmental monitoring program. (U.S.)

  5. Application of robotics in remote fuel fabrication operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Nagamoto, T.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line, an automated and remotely controlled manufacturing process, is scheduled for startup in 1987 and will produce mixed uranium/plutonium oxide fuel pins for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The application of robotics in the fuel fabrication and supporting operations is described

  6. On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfield, S.

    1996-04-01

    Research on direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is discussed. Systems considered for transportation applications are addressed. The use of platinum/ruthenium anode electrocatalysts and platinum cathode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte DMFCs has resulted in significant performance enhancements.

  7. HTR fuel development for advanced application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.; Balthesen, E.; Graham, L.W.; Hick, H.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages of the HTR for nuclear steam supply systems are briefly outlined. Due to its great design flexibility a number of different designs have evolved and the main characteristics of existing experimental prototype and power reactor HTR designs are summarized. The present state of coated particle fuel, particularly with regard to performance, is considered. Some implications of producing higher temperatures are discussed. Finally some of the developments in progress such as minimising the temperature drop between fuel and coolant, and of improving fuel performance by better fission product retention, better chemical stability, and the use of alternative coated materials, are discussed. (U.K.)

  8. JP-8 Reformation for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Ivan C; Schmidt, Lanny D

    2004-01-01

    ... (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) selectivity with a rhodium-based catalyst. Time-on-stream experiment indicates that the catalysts remains stable and active for at least 4 hours using a jet fuel (310 ppm sulfur...

  9. Comparative evaluation of fuel temperature coefficient of standard and CANFLEX fuels in CANDU 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woosong; Hartant, Donny; Kim, Yonghee

    2012-01-01

    The fuel temperature reactivity coefficient (FTC) of CANDU 6 has become a concerning issue. The FTC was found to be slightly positive for the operating condition of CANDU 6. Since CANDU 6 has unique fuel arrangement and very soft neutron spectrum, its Doppler reactivity feedback of U 238 is rather weak. The upscattering by oxygen in fuel and Pu 239 buildup with fuel depletion are responsible for the positive FTC value at high temperature. In this study, FTC of both standard CANDU and CANFLEX fuel lattice are re evaluated. A Monte Carlo code Serpent2 was chosen as the analysis tool because of its high calculational speed and it can account for the thermal motion of heavy nuclides in fuel by using the Doppler Broadening Rejection Correction (DBRC) method. It was reported that the fuel Doppler effect is noticeably enhanced by accounting the target thermal motion. Recently, it was found that the FTC of the CANDU 6 standard fuel is noticeably enhanced by the DBRC

  10. Application of ac impedance in fuel cell research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selman, J R; Lin, Y P [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1993-10-01

    In applying ac impedance to fuel cells and their porous (gas diffusion) electrodes the emphasis lies on different fuel cell components, and their properties, according to the fuel cell type. The focus has been directed at the electrode/electrolyte interface in MCFC and PAFC, whereas in SOFC and PEMFC the ionic/electronic conductivity of the electrolyte or the characteristics of its composite with the electrocatalyst is of primary interest. The limitations of ac impedance in fuel cell application are in part due to difficulties of interpretation and in part due to experimental difficulties because of the generally fast electrode reaction kinetics. Further research directions are indicated. (author)

  11. Metal Matrix Microencapsulated Fuel Technology for LWR Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Bell, Gary L.; Kiggans, Jim; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the metal matrix microencapsulated (M3) fuel concept for the specific LWR application has been provided. Basic fuel properties and characteristics that aim to improve operational reliability, enlarge performance envelope, and enhance safety margins under design-basis accident scenarios are summarized. Fabrication of M3 rodlets with various coated fuel particles over a temperature range of 800-1300 C is discussed. Results from preliminary irradiation testing of LWR M3 rodlets with surrogate coated fuel particles are also reported.

  12. Application of preservatives for residual fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorozpe y Munoz, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    Due to the high costs of the combust oils (fuel oil 6) used in generators of vapor and in other treatments, makes important consider the use of preservatives that improve the operation of the units from the operative point of view and of environmental control. The author enumerates several of the problems of corrosion, of efficiency in the combustion and of thermal efficiency; in a same way it enumerates several useful preservatives, to be used in residual fuel

  13. Microbial Fuel Cells for Organic-Contaminated Soil Remedial Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Weng, Liping; Zhou, Qixing; Li, Yongtao

    2017-01-01

    Efficient noninvasive techniques are desired for repairing organic-contaminated soils. Bioelectrochemical technology, especially microbial fuel cells (MFCs), has been widely used to promote a polluted environmental remediation approach, and applications include wastewater, sludge, sediment, and

  14. Applications in the nuclear fuel cycle and radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Chapter 6 of comprehensive coordination chemistry deals with applications of uranium and thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle. There are sections on the separation and recovery of the two metals from their ores and on the preparation of and re-processing of nuclear fuels. Another section is devoted to the chemistry of gallium, indium and technetium and to pharmaceutical applications of radionuclides for diagnostic imaging. (UK)

  15. Long-term kinetic effects and colloid formations in dissolution of LWR spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    This report evaluates continuous dissolution and colloid formation during spent-fuel performance under repository conditions in high-level waste disposal. Various observations suggest that reprecipitated layers formed on spent-fuel surfaces may not be protective. This situation may lead to continuous dissolution of highly soluble radionuclides such as C-14, Cl-36, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135. However, the diffusion limits of various species involved may retard dissolution significantly. For low-solubility actinides such as Pu-(239+240) or Am-(241+243), various processes regarding colloid formation have been analyzed. The processes analyzed are condensation, dispersion, and sorption. Colloid formation may lead to significant releases of low-solubility actinides. However, because there are only limited data available on matrix dissolution, colloid formation, and solubility limits, many uncertainties still exist. These uncertainties must be addressed before the significance of radionuclide releases can be determined. 118 refs

  16. Long-term kinetic effects and colloid formations in dissolution of LWR spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    This report evaluates continuous dissolution and colloid formation during spent-fuel performance under repository conditions in high-level waste disposal. Various observations suggest that reprecipitated layers formed on spent-fuel surfaces may not be protective. This situation may lead to continuous dissolution of highly soluble radionuclides such as C-14, Cl-36, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135. However, the diffusion limits of various species involved may retard dissolution significantly. For low-solubility actinides such as Pu-(239+240) or Am-(241+243), various processes regarding colloid formation have been analyzed. The processes analyzed are condensation, dispersion, and sorption. Colloid formation may lead to significant releases of low-solubility actinides. However, because there are only limited data available on matrix dissolution, colloid formation, and solubility limits, many uncertainties still exist. These uncertainties must be addressed before the significance of radionuclide releases can be determined. 118 refs.

  17. Fuel cells niche market applications and design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Mainstream fuel cell markets such as stationary power and transport propulsion have already received considerable attention. However, the niche areas considered in this report also offer considerable markets that are considered potentially ready for exploitation. This report examines those markets and considers the broad issues for exploitation. This programme of work has been funded under the DTI's Advanced Fuel Cell Programme. The overall aim of this project was to identify and evaluate niche market applications that have the potential to provide early commercially competitive market opportunities for fuel cell systems. Battery replacement, portable, mobile auxiliary power and stationary applications for non-standard generation are covered. (author)

  18. The development of fuel cell systems for mobile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Oosterkamp, P.F.; Kraaij, G.J.; Van der Laag, P.C.; Stobbe, E.R.; Wouters, D.A.J.

    2006-09-15

    The ECN fuel cell related R and D program on fuel cells is linked to the stationary market and the automotive market. This paper will summarize our R and D activities for the automotive market. The role of fuels cells in two transport application area's will be described: the development of dedicated hydrogen based platforms in combination with advanced electricity storage for special logistic applications and the APU (auxiliary power unit) market for passenger cars and trucks, as well as for ships and airplanes. The associated aspects of hydrogen transport and storage, as well as the reforming of logistic fuels and bio-fuels to hydrogen will be described with some illustrative examples. These examples show that an integrated approach using applied catalysis, chemical reactor design and engineering, process simulation, control modelling and electrical engineering is required to address all aspects of the development of fuel cell technology for automotive applications. The paper concludes with a summary of the important environmental and economic drivers that influence the fuel cell market application.

  19. FuelPHP application development blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Drouyer, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    This book is for intermediary to seasoned web developers who want to learn how to use the FuelPHP framework and build complex projects using it. You should be familiar with PHP, HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, but no prior knowledge about MVC frameworks is required.

  20. Fuel cell added value for early market applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Scott; Chandan, Amrit; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Fuel Cells are often considered in the market place as just power providers. Whilst fuel cells do provide power, there are additional beneficial characteristics that should be highlighted to consumers. Due to the high price premiums associated with fuel cells, added value features need to be exploited in order to make them more appealing and increase unit sales and market penetration. This paper looks at the approach taken by two companies to sell high value fuel cells to niche markets. The first, SFC Energy, has a proven track record selling fuel cell power providers. The second, Bloom Energy, is making significant progress in the US by having sold its Energy Server to more than 40 corporations including Wal-Mart, Staples, Google, eBay and Apple. Further to these current markets, two prospective added value applications for fuel cells are discussed. These are fuel cells for aircraft APUs and fuel cells for fire prevention. These two existing markets and two future markets highlight that fuel cells are not just power providers. Rather, they can be used as solutions to many needs, thus being more cost effective by replacing a number of incumbent systems at the same time.

  1. Cermet-fueled reactors for advanced space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.L.; Palmer, R.S.; Taylor, I.N.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Barner, J.O.

    1987-12-01

    Cermet-fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high-performance advanced space power systems. The cermet consists of a hexagonal matrix of a refractory metal and a ceramic fuel, with multiple tubular flow channels. The high performance characteristics of the fuel matrix come from its high strength at elevated temperatures and its high thermal conductivity. The cermet fuel concept evolved in the 1960s with the objective of developing a reactor design that could be used for a wide range of mobile power generating sytems, including both Brayton and Rankine power conversion cycles. High temperature thermal cycling tests for the cermet fuel were carried out by General Electric as part of the 710 Project (General Electric 1966), and by Argonne National Laboratory in the Direct Nuclear Rocket Program (1965). Development programs for cermet fuel are currently under way at Argonne National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The high temperature qualification tests from the 1960s have provided a base for the incorporation of cermet fuel in advanced space applications. The status of the cermet fuel development activities and descriptions of the key features of the cermet-fueled reactor design are summarized in this paper

  2. Uranium Fuel Plant. Applicants environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    The Uranium Fuel Plant, located at the Cimarron Facility, was constructed in 1964 with operations commencing in 1965 in accordance with License No. SNM-928, Docket No. 70-925. The plant has been in continuous operation since the issuance of the initial license and currently possesses contracts extending through 1978, for the production of nuclear fuels. The Uranium Plant is operated in conjunction with the Plutonium Facility, each sharing common utilities and sanitary wastes disposal systems. The operation has had little or no detrimental ecological impact on the area. For the operation of the Uranium Fuel Fabrication Plant, initial equipment provided for the production of UO 2 , UF 4 , uranium metal and recovery of scrap materials. In 1968, the plant was expanded by increasing the UO 2 and pellet facilities by the installation of another complete production line for the production of fuel pellets. In 1969, fabrication facilities were added for the production of fuel elements. Equipment initially installed for the recovery of fully enriched scrap has not been used since the last work was done in 1970. Economically, the plant has benefited the Logan County area, with approximately 104 new jobs with an annual payroll of approximately $1.3 million. In addition, $142,000 is annually paid in taxes to state, local and federal governments, and local purchases amount to approximately $1.3 million. This was all in land that was previously used for pasture land, with a maximum value of approximately 37,000 dollars. Environmental effects of plant operation have been minimal. A monitoring and measurement program is maintained in order to ensure that the ecology of the immediate area is not affected by plant operations

  3. Progress on the Application of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J. Rory; Fielding, Randall; Janney, Dawn; Mariani, Robert; Teague, Melissa; Egeland, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is developing actinide bearing alloy metallic fuels intended for effecting the transmutation of long-lived isotopes in fast reactor application as part of a partitioning and transmutation strategy. This presentation will report on progress in three areas of this effort: demonstration of the fabrication of fuels under remote (hot cell) conditions directly coupled to the product from the Pyro-processing of spent fuel as part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Studies (JFCS) collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI); the chemical sequestration of lanthanide fission products to mitigate fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction (FCCI); and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) studies on the as-cast microstructure of the metallic fuel alloy. For the JFCS efforts, we report on the implementation of the Glove-box Advanced Casting System (GACS) as a prototype casting furnace for eventual installation into the INL Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) where the recycled fuel will be cast. Results from optimising process parameters with respect to fuel characteristics, americium volatility, materials interaction, and lanthanide fission product carry over distribution will be discussed. With respect to the lanthanide carry over from the Pyro-processing product, encouraging studies on concepts to chemically sequester the FCCI promoting lanthanides within the fuel matrix thus inhibiting migration and interaction with the cladding will be presented. Finally, in relation to advanced modelling and simulation efforts, detailed investigations and interpretation on the nano-scale as cast microstructure of possible recycle fuel composition containing U, Pu, Am, Np as well as carry-over lanthanide species will be discussed. These studies are important for establishing the initial conditions from which advanced physics based fuel performance codes will run. (authors)

  4. Micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: A multi-fuel approach for portable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Tarkeshwar C.; Duttagupta, Siddhartha P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the oxygen ion transport properties at the electrode–electrolyte interface (EEI) of the SOFC for the first time. • This ion transport plays a key role in the overall performance of SOFCs with different fuels. • The GIIB mechanism is also studied for the first time. • GIIB is assumed to be the prime reason for low power density and ion conductivity at the EEI when using hydrocarbon fuels. • Due to its scalability, a fuel cell can serve as a power source for on-chip applications and all portable equipment. - Abstract: The impact of oxygen ion transport at the electrolyte–electrode interface of a micro-solid oxide fuel cell using different fuels is investigated. Model validation is performed to verify the results versus the reported values. Furthermore, as the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio decreases, the diffusivity of the oxygen ion increases. This increase in diffusivity is observed because the number of hydrogen atoms available as the reacting species increases in fuels with lower hydrogen-to-carbon ratios. The oxygen ion conductivity and output power density decrease as the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the fuels decreases. The reason behind this impact is the formation of a gas-induced ion barrier at the electrode–electrolyte interface by the CO_2 molecules formed during the reaction at the interface, thus blocking the flow of oxygen ions. As the oxygen ions become blocked, the output current contribution from the reaction also decreases and thereby affects the overall performance of the micro-solid oxide fuel cell. The experimental verification confirms this because of a significant decrease in the output power density. Furthermore, as per the application in portable devices, the appropriate choice of fuel can be chosen so that the micro-solid oxide fuel cell operates at the maximum power density.

  5. Cermet-fueled reactors for multimegawatt space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.L.; Armijo, J.S.; Kruger, G.B.; Palmer, R.S.; Van Hoomisson, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The cermet-fueled reactor has evolved as a potential power source for a broad range of multimegawatt space applications. In particular, the fast spectrum reactor concept can be used to deliver 10s of megawatts of electric power for continuous, long term, unattended operation, and 100s of megawatts of electric power for times exceeding several hundred seconds. The system can also be utilized with either a gas coolant in a Brayton power conversion cycle, or a liquid metal coolant in a Rankine power conversion cycle. Extensive testing of the cermet fuel element has demonstrated that the fuel is capable of operating at very high temperatures under repeated thermal cycling conditions, including transient conditions which approach the multimegawatt burst power requirements. The cermet fuel test performance is reviewed and an advanced cermet-fueled multimegawatt nuclear reactor is described in this paper

  6. Fuel cell power plants for decentralised CHP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmer, Martin; Mattner, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are the most efficient technology to convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and thus they could have a major impact on reducing fuel consumption, CO 2 and other emissions (NO x , SO x and particulate matter). Fired with natural or biogas and operated with an efficiency of up to 49 % a significant reduction of fuel costs can be achieved in decentralised applications. Combined heat and power (CHP) configurations add value for a wide range of industrial applications. The exhaust heat of approximately 400 C can be utilised for heating purposes and the production of steam. Besides, it can be also fed directly to adsorption cooling systems. With more than 110 fuel cell power plants operating worldwide, this technology is a serious alternative to conventional gas turbines or gas engines.

  7. Soft switching PWM isolated boost converter for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, M.; Adib, E. [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation introduced a newly developed soft switching, isolated boost type converter for fuel cell applications. With a simple PWM control circuit, the converter achieves zero voltage switching the main switch. Since the auxiliary circuit is soft switched, the converter can operate at high powers which make it suitable for fuel cell applications. In particular, the converter is suitable for the interface of fuel cell and inverters because of its high voltage gain and isolation between input and output sources. In addition, the input current of the converter (current drained from the fuel cell) is almost constant since it is a boost type converter. The converter was analyzed and the simulation results validate the theoretical analysis.

  8. Hydrogen as fuel carrier in PEM fuelcell for automobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sk, Mudassir Ali; Venkateswara Rao, K.; Ramana Rao, Jagirdar V.

    2015-02-01

    The present work focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing of hydrogen in different carbon materials by physisorption method. To market a hydrogen-fuel cell vehicle as competitively as the present internal combustion engine vehicles, there is a need for materials that can store a minimum of 6.5wt% of hydrogen. Carbon materials are being heavily investigated because of their promise to offer an economical solution to the challenge of safe storage of large hydrogen quantities. Hydrogen is important as a new source of energy for automotive applications. It is clear that the key challenge in developing this technology is hydrogen storage. Combustion of fossil fuels and their overuse is at present a serious concern as it is creates severe air pollution and global environmental problems; like global warming, acid rains, ozone depletion in stratosphere etc. This necessitated the search for possible alternative sources of energy. Though there are a number of primary energy sources available, such as thermonuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy etc, in contrast to the fossil fuels in most cases, these new primary energy sources cannot be used directly and thus they must be converted into fuels, that is to say, a new energy carrier is needed. Hydrogen fuel cells are two to three times more efficient than combustion engines. As they become more widely available, they will reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined in an electrochemical reaction that produces electricity and, as a byproduct, water.

  9. Advances in carbide fuel element development for fast reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienst, W.; Kleykamp, H.; Muehling, G.; Reiser, H.; Steiner, H.; Thuemmler, F.; Wedermeyer, H.; Weimar, P.

    1977-01-01

    The features of the carbide fuel development programme are reviewed and evaluated. Single pin and bundle irradiations are carried out under thermal, epithermal and fast flux conditions, the latter in the DFR and KNK-II reactors. Several fuel concepts in the region of representative SNR clad temperatures are compared by parameter and performance tests. A conservative concept is based on He-bonded 8 mm pins with (U,Pu)C pellets and a smear density of 75% TD, operating at 800 W/cm rod power and burnup to 70 MWd/kg. The preparation of mixed carbide fuels is carried out by carbothermic reduction of the oxides in different methods supported by equivalent carbon content, grain size and phase distribution analysis. The fuel for subassembly performance tests is produced in a pilot plant of 0,5 t/year capacity. Compatibility studies reveal that cladding carburization is the only chemical interaction with carbide fuels. This effect leads to a reduction in ductility of the stainless steel. Fission products apparently play no role in the compatibility behaviour. Comprehensive studies lead to reliable information on the chemical and thermodynamic state of the fuel under irradiation. The swelling of carbide fuels and the fission gas release are examined and analysed. Cladding plastic strain by fuel swelling occurs during steady-state operation because the irradiation creep is rather slow compared to oxide fuels. The cladding strain observed depends on the fuel porosity and the cladding strength. The development of carbide fuel pins is complemented by the application of comprehensive computer models. In addition to the steady-state tests power cycling and safety tests are under performance. Up to 1980 the results are summarized for the final design and specification. The development target of the present program is to fabricate several subassemblies for test operation in the SNR 300 by 1981

  10. New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

    2007-12-31

    Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

  11. A comparison of hydrogen-fueled fuel cells and combustion engines for electric utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenung, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen-fueled systems have been proposed for a number of stationary electric generation applications including remote power generation, load management, distribution system peak shaving, and reliability or power quality enhancement. Hydrogen fueling permits clean, low pollution operation. This is particularly true for systems that use hydrogen produced from electrolysis, rather than the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. Both fuel cells and combustion engines are suitable technologies for using hydrogen in many electric utility applications. This paper presents results from several studies performed for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program. A comparison between the two technologies shows that, whereas fuel cells are somewhat more energy efficient, combustion engine technology is less expensive. In this paper, a comparison of the two technologies is presented, with an emphasis on distributed power and power quality applications. The special case of a combined distributed generation I hydrogen refueling station is also addressed. The comparison is made on the basis of system costs and benefits, but also includes a comparison of technology status: power ratings and response time. A discussion of pollutant emissions and pollutant control strategies is included. The results show those electric utility applications for which each technology is best suited. (author)

  12. NASA fuel cell applications for space: Endurance test results on alkaline fuel cell electrolyzer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheibley, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cells continue to play a major role in manned spacecraft power generation. The Gemini and Apollo programs used fuel cell power plants as the primary source of mission electrical power, with batteries as the backup. The current NASA use for fuel cells is in the Orbiter program. Here, low temperature alkaline fuel cells provide all of the on-board power with no backup power source. Three power plants per shipset are utilized; the original power plant contained 32-cell substacks connected in parallel. For extended life and better power performance, each power plant now contains three 32-cell substacks connected in parallel. One of the possible future applications for fuel cells will be for the proposed manned Space Station in low earth orbit (LEO)(1, 2, 3). By integrating a water electrolysis capability with a fuel cell (a regenerative fuel cell system), a multikilowatt energy storage capability ranging from 35 kW to 250 kW can be achieved. Previous development work on fuel cell and electrolysis systems would tend to minimize the development cost of this energy storage system. Trade studies supporting initial Space Station concept development clearly show regenerative fuel cell (RFC) storage to be superior to nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries with regard to subsystem weight, flexibility in design, and integration with other spacecraft systems when compared for an initial station power level ranging from 60 kW to 75 kW. The possibility of scavenging residual O 2 and H 2 from the Shuttle external tank for use in fuel cells for producing power also exists

  13. Analysis of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Flux Changes with Fuel Burnup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, Gerard; McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Garvey, G. T.; Wang, X. B.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the recent Daya Bay results on the changes in the antineutrino flux and spectrum with the burnup of the reactor fuel. We find that the discrepancy between current model predictions and the Daya Bay results can be traced to the original measured U 235 /Pu 239 ratio of the fission β spectra that were used as a base for the expected antineutrino fluxes. An analysis of the antineutrino spectra that is based on a summation over all fission fragment β decays, using nuclear database input, explains all of the features seen in the Daya Bay evolution data. However, this summation method still allows for an anomaly. We conclude that there is currently not enough information to use the antineutrino flux changes to rule out the possible existence of sterile neutrinos.

  14. Application of impedance spectroscopy method for analysis of benzanol fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamykin A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have developed a method for express control of three component «gasoline-alcohol-water» fuel mixtures based on the spectral impedance investigation of benzanol mixture in the frequency range of 500 Hz — 10 kHz. A correlation dependence between the dielectric constant and the specific resistance of the fuel mixture on content of ethanol and water in the mixture has been found. On the basis of this dependence a calibration nomogram to quantify the gasoline and water-alcohol components content in the test benzanol fuel in the actual range of concentrations has been formed. The nomogram allows determining the water-alcohol and gasoline parts in the analyzed fuel with an error of no more than 1% vol., while the strength of water-alcohol solution is determined with an error of no more than 0.8% vol. The obtained nomogram can also give information about critical water content in the benzanol fuel to prevent its eventual phase separation. It is shown that the initial component composition of different gasoline brands has no significant effect on the electrical characteristics of the studied benzanol fuels, which makes the evaluation of alcohol and water content in the fuel sufficiently accurate. for practical applications.

  15. Fuel-cell-system and its components for mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturi, Massimo [NuCellSys GmbH, Kirchheim/Teck-Nabern (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    In the past years the development of fuel cell systems for mobile applications has made significant progress in power density, performance and robustness. For a successful market introduction the cost of the fuel system powertrain needs to be competitive to diesel hybrid engine. The current development activities are therefore focusing on cost reduction. There are 3 major areas for cost reduction: functional integration, materials and design, supplier competitiveness and volume. Today unique fuel cell system components are developed by single suppliers, which lead to a monopoly. In the future the components will be developed at multiple suppliers to achieve a competitor situation, which will further reduce the component cost. Using all these cost reduction measures the fuel cell system will become a competitive alternative drive train. (orig.)

  16. Analyses of PWR spent fuel composition using SCALE and SWAT code systems to find correction factors for criticality safety applications adopting burnup credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Sung; Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki; Okuno, Hiroshi; Nomura, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    The isotopic composition calculations were performed for 26 spent fuel samples from the Obrigheim PWR reactor and 55 spent fuel samples from 7 PWR reactors using the SAS2H module of the SCALE4.4 code system with 27, 44 and 238 group cross-section libraries and the SWAT code system with the 107 group cross-section library. For the analyses of samples from the Obrigheim PWR reactor, geometrical models were constructed for each of SCALE4.4/SAS2H and SWAT. For the analyses of samples from 7 PWR reactors, the geometrical model already adopted in the SCALE/SAS2H was directly converted to the model of SWAT. The four kinds of calculation results were compared with the measured data. For convenience, the ratio of the measured to calculated values was used as a parameter. When the ratio is less than unity, the calculation overestimates the measurement, and the ratio becomes closer to unity, they have a better agreement. For many important nuclides for burnup credit criticality safety evaluation, the four methods applied in this study showed good coincidence with measurements in general. More precise observations showed, however: (1) Less unity ratios were found for Pu-239 and -241 for selected 16 samples out of the 26 samples from the Obrigheim reactor (10 samples were deselected because their burnups were measured with Cs-137 non-destructive method, less reliable than Nd-148 method the rest 16 samples were measured with); (2) Larger than unity ratios were found for Am-241 and Cm-242 for both the 16 and 55 samples; (3) Larger than unity ratios were found for Sm-149 for the 55 samples; (4) SWAT was generally accompanied by larger ratios than those of SAS2H with some exceptions. Based on the measured-to-calculated ratios for 71 samples of a combined set in which 16 selected samples and 55 samples were included, the correction factors that should be multiplied to the calculated isotopic compositions were generated for a conservative estimate of the neutron multiplication factor

  17. Polymers application in proton exchange membranes for fuel cells (PEMFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak-Kulikowska, Justyna; Wolska, Joanna; Koroniak, Henryk

    2017-07-01

    This review presents the most important research on alternative polymer membranes with ionic groups attached, provides examples of materials with a well-defined chemical structure that are described in the literature. Furthermore, it elaborates on the synthetic methods used for preparing PEMs, the current status of fuel cell technology and its application. It also briefly discusses the development of the PEMFC market.

  18. Applications and experience with a new instrumented fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.M.

    1972-01-01

    Previously reported information to TRIGA Reactor Conference I concerning the development of a new concept in an instrumented fuel element is updated and expanded. The evaluation of these new instrumented elements is discussed and some areas of application to reactor behavior are described. Experiments concerning temperature and flux mapping under varying conditions are investigated and conclusions are given. (author)

  19. SPE (tm) regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on SPE regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications are presented. Topics covered include: hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system; electrochemical cell reactions; SPE cell voltage stability; passive water removal SPE fuel cell; fuel cell performance; SPE water electrolyzers; hydrophobic oxygen phase separator; hydrophilic/electrochemical hydrogen phase separator; and unitized regenerative fuel cell.

  20. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    Amendment No. 7 to Allied-General Nuclear Services application for licensing of the Fuel Receiving and Storage Station consists of revised pages for: Amendment No. 7 to AG-L 105, ''Technical Description in Support of Application for FRSS Operation''; Amendment No. 1 to AG-L 105A, ''Early Operation of the Service Concentrator''; and Amendment No. 2 to AG-L 110, ''FRSS Summary Preoperational Report.''

  1. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de P.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; Bruijn, de F.A.; Stobbe, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based(e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To preventdetrimental effects on the

  2. Application of burnup credit for PWR spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Sung; Ro, Seung-Gy; Bae, Kang Mok; Kim, Ik Soo; Shin, Young Joon

    1999-01-01

    A study on the application of burnup credit for a PWR spent fuel storage pool has been investigated using a computer code system such as CSAS6 module of SCALE 4.3 in association with 44-group SCALE cross-section library. The calculation bias of the code system at a 95% probability with a 95% confidence level seems to be 0.00951 by benchmarking the system for forty six experimental data. With the aid of this computer code system, criticality analysis has been performed for the PWR spent fuel storage pool. Uncertainties due to postulated abnormal and accidental conditions, and manufacturing tolerance such as stainless steel thickness of storage rack, fuel enrichment, fuel density and box size have statistically been combined and resulted in 0.00674. Also, isotopic correction factor which was based on the calculated and measured concentration of 43 isotopes for both selected actinides and fission products important in burnup credit application has been taken into account in the criticality analysis. It is revealed that the minimum burnup with the corrected isotopic concentrations as required for the safe storage is 5,730 MWd/tU in enriched fuel of 5.0 wt%. (author)

  3. Properties of zirconium carbide for nuclear fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Yutai; Vasudevamurthy, Gokul, E-mail: gvasudev@vcu.edu; Nozawa, Takashi; Snead, Lance L.

    2013-10-15

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is a potential coating, oxygen-gettering, or inert matrix material for advanced high temperature reactor fuels. ZrC has demonstrated attractive properties for these fuel applications including excellent resistance against fission product corrosion and fission product retention capabilities. However, fabrication of ZrC results in a range of stable sub-stoichiometric and carbon-rich compositions with or without substantial microstructural inhomogeneity, textural anisotropy, and a phase separation, leading to variations in physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties. The effects of neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures, currently only poorly understood, are believed to be substantially influenced by those compositional and microstructural features further adding complexity to understanding the key ZrC properties. This article provides a survey of properties data for ZrC, as required by the United States Department of Energy’s advanced fuel programs in support of the current efforts toward fuel performance modeling and providing guidance for future research on ZrC for fuel applications.

  4. Atomic Layer Deposited Catalysts for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Anne-Charlotte Elisabeth Birgitta

    catalyst toward the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). In the work described in this PhD dissertation, two series of Pt-Ru ALD catalysts supported on nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) have been evaluated toward the CO oxidation and MOR at room temperature in a three......The micro direct methanol fuel cell (µDMFC) has been proposed as a candidate to power portable applications. The device can operate at room temperature on inexpensive, energy-dense methanol fuel, and it can be easily "recharged" by fuel refilling. Microfabrication techniques could be one route......-electrode electrochemical cell. The first series was comprised of Pt-Ru ALD catalysts of various Ru compositions, between 0 and 100 at.%. For the compositions investigated, the best catalyst had a Ru composition of 29 at.%. In the second series Ru-decorated Pt catalysts of various Ru loadings, i.e., various Ru ALD cycles...

  5. Probabilistic safety analysis for nuclear fuel cycle facilities, an exemplary application for a fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmal, B.; Gaenssmantel, G.; Mayer, G.; Moser, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the risk of complex technical systems, the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in addition to the Deterministic Safety Analysis becomes of increasing interest. Besides nuclear installations this applies to e. g. chemical plants. A PSA is capable of expanding the basis for the risk assessment and of complementing the conventional deterministic analysis, by which means the existing safety standards of that facility can be improved if necessary. In the available paper, the differences between a PSA for a nuclear power plant and a nuclear fuel cycle facility (NFCF) are discussed in shortness and a basic concept for a PSA for a nuclear fuel cycle facility is described. Furthermore, an exemplary PSA for a partial process in a fuel assembly fabrication facility is described. The underlying data are partially taken from an older German facility, other parts are generic. Moreover, a selected set of reported events corresponding to this partial process is taken as auxiliary data. The investigation of this partial process from the fuel fabrication as an example application shows that PSA methods are in principle applicable to nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Here, the focus is on preventing an initiating event, so that the system analysis is directed to the modeling of fault trees for initiating events. The quantitative results of this exemplary study are given as point values for the average occurrence frequencies. They include large uncertainties because of the limited documentation and data basis available, and thus have only methodological character. While quantitative results are given, further detailed information on process components and process flow is strongly required for robust conclusions with respect to the real process. (authors)

  6. Properties of U3Si2-Al dispersion fuel element and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Changgeng

    2001-01-01

    The properties of U 3 Si 2 fuel and U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion fuel element are introduced, which include U-loading; the banding quality, U-homogeneity and 'dog-bone' phenomenon, the minimum thickness of cladding and the corrosion performances. The fabrication technique of fuel elements, NDT for fuel plates, assemble technique of fuel elements and the application of U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion fuel elements in the world are introduced

  7. Near-surface alloys for hydrogen fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2006-01-01

    of CO with relatively facile H-2 activation is nearly ideal for this application. We suggest that. as nanoscale materials synthesis techniques improve, it will become feasible to reproducibly prepare NSAs with highly specified surface structures, resulting in the design and manufacture of a wide variety...... facile H-2 activation. These NSAs could, potentially, facilitate highly selective hydrogenation reactions at low temperatures. In the present work, the suitability of NSAs for use as hydrogen fuel cell anodes has been evaluated: the combination of properties, possessed by selected NSAs, of weak binding...... of such materials for use in fuel cells and in an ever. increasing range of catalytic applications. Furthermore, we introduce a new concept for NSA-defect sites, which could be responsible for the promotional catalytic effects of a second metal added. even in minute quantities, to a host metal catalyst....

  8. Application of electrochemical techniques in fuel reprocessing- an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M K; Bajpai, D D; Singh, R K [Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant, Tarapur (India)

    1994-06-01

    The operating experience and development work over the past several years have considerably improved the wet chemical fuel reprocessing PUREX process and have brought the reprocessing to a stage where it is ready to adopt the introduction of electrochemical technology. Electrochemical processes offer advantages like simplification of reprocessing operation, improved performance of the plant and reduction in waste volume. At Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing plant, Tarapur, work on development and application of electrochemical processes has been carried out in stages. To achieve plant scale application of these developments, a new electrochemical cycle is being added to PUREX process at PREFRE. This paper describes the electrochemical and membrane cell development activities carried out at PREFRE and their current status. (author). 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Selenium electrochemistry. Applications in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslennikov, A.; Peretroukhine, V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry; David, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Orsay (France); Lecomte, M. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de la Valle du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible

    1999-07-01

    Modern state of selenium electrochemistry is reviewed in respect of the application of electrochemical methods for the study of the behavior of this element and its quantitative analysis in the solutions of nuclear fuel cycle. The review includes the data on the redox potentials of Se in aqueous solutions, and the data on Se redox reactions, occurring at mercury and solid electrodes. Analysis of the available literature data shows that the inverse stripping voltammetry technique for trace Se concentration and determination seems to be the most promising in application for the Se determination in PUREX solutions and in radioactive wastes. The adaptation of the ISV technique for the trace Se concentration and determination in the solutions of the nuclear fuel cycle is indicated as the most prospective goal of the future experimental study. (author)

  10. Application of depletion perturbation theory to fuel cycle burnup analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Over the past several years static perturbation theory methods have been increasingly used for reactor analysis in lieu of more detailed and costly direct computations. Recently, perturbation methods incorporating time dependence have also received attention, and several authors have demonstrated their applicability to fuel burnup analysis. The objective of the work described here is to demonstrate that a time-dependent perturbation method can be easily and accurately applied to realistic depletion problems

  11. Application of the robust design concept for fuel loading pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tomohiro; Ohori, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Application of the robust design concept for fuel loading pattern design is proposed as a new approach to improve the prediction accuracy of core characteristics. The robust design is a design concept that establishes a resistant (robust) system for perturbations or noises, by properly setting design variables. In order to apply the concept of robust design to fuel loading pattern design, we focus on a theoretical approach based on the higher order perturbation method. This approach indicates that the eigenvalue separation is one of the effective indices to measure the robustness of a designed fuel loading pattern. In order to verify the effectiveness of the eigenvalue separation as an index of robustness, numerical analysis is carried out for typical 3-loop PWR cores, and we evaluated the correlation between the eigenvalue separation and the variation of relative assembly power due to the perturbation of the cross section. The numerical results show that the variation of relative power decreases as the eigenvalue separation increases; thus, it is confirmed that the eigenvalue separation is an effective index of robustness. Based on the eigenvalue separation of a fuel loading pattern, we discuss design guidelines of a fuel loading pattern to improve the robustness. For example, if each fuel assembly has independent uncertainty on its cross section, the robustness of the core can be enhanced by increasing the relative power at the center of the core. The proposed guidelines will be useful to design a loading pattern that has robustness for uncertainties due to cross section, calculation method, and so on. (author)

  12. Spallator and APEX nuclear fuel cycle: a new option for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    A new nuclear fuel cycle is described which provides a long term supply of nuclear fuel for the thermal LWR nuclear power reactors and eliminates the need for long-term storage of radioactive waste. Fissile fuel is produced by the Spallator which depends on the production of spallation neutrons by the interaction of high-energy (1 to 2 GeV) protons on a heavy-metal target. The neutrons are absorbed in a surrounding natural-uranium or thorium blanket in which fissile Pu-239 to U-233 is produced. Advances in linear accelerator technology makes it possible to design and construct a high-beam-current continuous-wave proton linac for production purposes. The target is similar to a sub-critical reactor and produces heat which is converted to electricity for supplying the linac. The Spallator is a self-sufficient fuel producer, which can compete with the fast breeder. The APEX fuel cycle depends on recycling the transuranics and long-lived fission products while extracting the stable and short-lived fission products when reprocessing the fuel. Transmutation and decay within the fuel cycle and decay of short-lived fission products external to the fuel cycle eliminates the need for long-term geological age shortage of fission-product waste

  13. Spallator and APEX nuclear fuel cycle: a new option for nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    A new nuclear fuel cycle is described which provides a long term supply of nuclear fuel for the thermal LWR nuclear power reactors and eliminates the need for long-term storage of radioactive waste. Fissile fuel is produced by the Spallator which depends on the production of spallation neutrons by the interaction of high-energy (1 to 2 GeV) protons on a heavy-metal target. The neutrons are absorbed in a surrounding natural-uranium or thorium blanket in which fissile Pu-239 to U-233 is produced. Advances in linear accelerator technology makes it possible to design and construct a high-beam-current continuous-wave proton linac for production purposes. The target is similar to a sub-critical reactor and produces heat which is converted to electricity for supplying the linac. The Spallator is a self-sufficient fuel producer, which can compete with the fast breeder. The APEX fuel cycle depends on recycling the transuranics and long-lived fission products while extracting the stable and short-lived fission products when reprocessing the fuel. Transmutation and decay within the fuel cycle and decay of short-lived fission products external to the fuel cycle eliminates the need for long-term geological age shortage of fission-product waste.

  14. Development for fissile assay in recycled fuel using lead slowing down spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Je Park, C.; Kim, Ho-Dong; Song, Kee Chan

    2013-01-01

    A future nuclear energy system is under development to turn spent fuels produced by PWRs into fuels for a SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) through the pyrochemical process. The knowledge of the isotopic fissile content of the new fuel is very important for fuel safety. A lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS) is under development to analyze the fissile material content (Pu 239 , Pu 241 and U 235 ) of the fuel. The LSDS requires a neutron source, the neutrons will be slowed down through their passage in a lead medium and will finally enter the fuel and will induce fission reactions that will be analysed and the isotopic content of the fuel will be then determined. The issue is that the spent fuel emits intense gamma rays and neutrons by spontaneous fission. The threshold fission detector screens the prompt fast fission neutrons and as a result the LSDS is not influenced by the high level radiation background. The energy resolution of LSDS is good in the range 0.1 eV to 1 keV. It is also the range in which the fission reaction is the most discriminating for the considered fissile isotopes. An electron accelerator has been chosen to produce neutrons with an adequate target through (e - ,γ)(γ,n) reactions

  15. Ultra-Sensitive Elemental Analysis Using Plasmas 4.Application of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to the Study of Environmental Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    Applications of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to the determination of long-lived radionuclides in environmental samples were summarized. In order to predict the long-term behavior of the radionuclides, related stable elements were also determined. Compared with radioactivity measurements, the ICP-MS method has advantages in terms of its simple analytical procedures, prompt measurement time, and capability of determining the isotope ratio such as240Pu/239Pu, which can not be separated by radiation. Concentration of U and Th in Japanese surface soils were determined in order to determine the background level of the natural radionuclides. The 235U/238U ratio was successfully used to detect the release of enriched U from reconversion facilities to the environment and to understand the source term. The 240Pu/239Pu ratios in environmental samples varied widely depending on the Pu sources. Applications of ICP-MS to the measurement of I and Tc isotopes were also described. The ratio between radiocesium and stable Cs is useful for judging the equilibrium of deposited radiocesium in a forest ecosystem.

  16. Multimetallic nanosheets: synthesis and applications in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb Gul Sial, Muhammad Aurang; Ud Din, Muhammad Aizaz; Wang, Xun

    2018-04-03

    Two-dimensional nanomaterials, particularly multimetallic nanosheets with single or few atoms thickness, are attracting extensive research attention because they display remarkable advantages over their bulk counterparts, including high electron mobility, unsaturated surface coordination, a high aspect ratio, and distinctive physical, chemical, and electronic properties. In particular, their ultrathin thickness endows them with ultrahigh specific surface areas and a relatively high surface energy, making them highly favorable for surface active applications; for example, they have great potential for a broad range of fuel cell applications. First, the state-of-the-art research on the synthesis of nanosheets with a controlled size, thickness, shape, and composition is described and special emphasis is placed on the rational design of multimetallic nanosheets. Then, a correlation is performed with the performance of multimetallic nanosheets with modified and improved electrochemical properties and high stability, including for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), formic acid oxidation (FAO), methanol oxidation reaction (MOR), ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR), and methanol tolerance are outlined. Finally, some perspectives and advantages offered by this class of materials are highlighted for the development of highly efficient fuel cell electrocatalysts, featuring low cost, enhanced performance, and high stability, which are the key factors for accelerating the commercialization of future promising fuel cells.

  17. Evaluation method for change of concentration of nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Takeshi; Ando, Ryohei.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of evaluating the change of concentration of compositions of nuclear fuel element materials loaded to a reactor along with neutron irradiation based on analytic calculation not relying on integration with time. Namely, the method of evaluating the change of concentration of nuclear fuel materials comprises evaluating the changing concentration of nuclear fuel materials based on nuclear fission, capturing of neutrons and radioactive decaying along with neutron irradiation. In this case, an optional nuclide on a nuclear conversion chain is determined as a standard nuclide. When the main fuel material is Pu-239, it is determined as the standard nuclide. The ratio of the concentration of the standard nuclide to that of the nuclide as an object of the evaluation can be expressed by the ratio of the cross sectional area of neutron nuclear reaction of the standard nuclide to the cross sectional area of the neutron nuclear reaction of the nuclide as the object of the evaluation. Accordingly, the concentration of the nuclide as the object of the evaluation can be expressed by an analysis formula shown by an analysis function for the ratio of the concentration of the standard nuclide to the cross section of the neutron nuclear reaction. As a result, by giving an optional concentration of the standard nuclide to the analysis formula, the concentration of each of other nuclides can be determined analytically. (I.S.)

  18. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell mini power unit for portable application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, F.; Squadrito, G.; Barbera, O.; Giacoppo, G.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5, 98126 S. Lucia, Messina (Italy); Zerbinati, O. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Dip. di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)

    2007-06-20

    This paper describes the design, realisation and test of a power unit based on a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, operating at room temperature, for portable application. The device is composed of an home made air breathing fuel cell stack, a metal hydride tank for H{sub 2} supply, a dc-dc converter for power output control and a fan for stack cooling. The stack is composed by 10 cells with an active surface of 25 cm{sup 2} and produces a rated power of 15 W at 6 V and 2 A. The stack successfully runs with end-off fed hydrogen without appreciable performance degradation during the time. The final assembled system is able to generate 12 W at 9.5 V, and power a portable DVD player for 3 h in continuous. The power unit has collected about 100 h of operation without maintenance. (author)

  19. Applications of a transportable spent-fuel measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Bosler, G.E.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Rinard, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    A portable tool for making measurements on irradiated fuel has been developed to where in-plant installations having a 1 to 2% measurement uncertainty of relative exposure are feasible. The measurement uses a passive gross neutron signal and data from a gross gamma measurement as a consistency check of the neutron result and the operators declaration of cooling time. The uncertainties are about the same as those obtained using high-resolution gamma-ray techniques without the instrumentation being as obtrusive. The battery-operated microprocessor-based electronics package used with the irradiated fuel measurement system can also be used with single channel pulse counting detectors for other applications. This feature together with the large dynamic range of its current-mode ion chamber channel makes ION-I a good building block to be used in emergencies with an arsenal of detectors at a variety of nuclear plants. 8 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Fissile Content Assay of Spent Fuel Using LSDS System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ju Young; Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je

    2016-01-01

    About 1.5 % fissile materials still exist in the spent fuel. Therefore, for reutilization of fissile materials in spent fuel at SFR, resource material is produced through the pyro process. Fissile material contents in the resource material must be analyzed before fabricating SFR fuel for reactor safety and economics. The new technology for an isotopic fissile material content assay is under development at KAERI using a lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS). LSDS is very sensitive to distinguish fission signals from each fissile isotope in spent and recycled fuel. In an assay of fissile content of spent fuel and recycled fuel, an intense radiation background gives limits the direct analysis of fissile materials. However, LSDS is not influenced by such a radiation background in a fissile assay. Based on the decided LSDS geometry set up, a self shielding parameter was calculated at the fuel assay zone by introducing spent fuel or pyro produced nuclear material. When nuclear material is inserted into the assay area, the spent fuel assembly or pyro recycled fuel material perturbs the spatial distribution of slowing down neutrons in lead and the prompt fast fission neutrons produced by fissile materials are also perturbed. The self shielding factor is interpreted as how much of the absorption is created inside the fuel area when it is in the lead. The self shielding effect provides a non-linear property in the isotopic fissile assay. When the self shielding is severe, the assay system becomes more complex and needs a special parameter to treat this non linear effect. Additionally, an assay of isotopic fissile content will contribute to an accuracy improvement of the burn-up code and increase the transparency and credibility for spent fuel storage and usage, as internationally increasing demand. The fissile contents result came out almost exactly with relative error ∼ 2% in case of Pu239, Pu241 for two different plutonium contents. In this study, meaningful results were

  1. Performance assessment of advanced engineering workstations for fuel management applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, P.J.

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess the performance of an advanced engineering workstation [AEW] with regard to applications to incore fuel management for LWRs. The attributes of most interest to us that define an AEW are parallel computational hardware and graphics capabilities. The AEWs employed were super microcomputers manufactured by MASSCOMP, Inc. These computers utilize a 32-bit architecture, graphics co-processor, multi-CPUs [up to six] attached to common memory and multi-vector accelerators. 7 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Application of the minimum fuel neural network to music signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour

    2004-01-01

    ) for finding sparse representations of music signals. This method is a set of two ordinary differential equations. We argue that the most important parameter for optimal use of this method is the discretization step size, and we demonstrate that this can be a priori determined. This significantly speeds up......Finding an optimal representation of a signal in an over-complete dictionary is often quite difficult. Since general results in this field are not very application friendly it truly helps to specify the framework as much as possible. We investigate the method Minimum Fuel Neural Network (MFNN...

  3. Hydrothermal treatment of grape marc for solid fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Kwong, Chi Wai; Broström, Markus; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of treatment temperature and liquid pH on char and liquid properties. • Liquid pH had a statistically significant effect only on liquid carbon yield. • Higher treatment temperature increased char volatiles that can enhance ignitability. • Char showed promising fuel properties if elevated ash phosphorus can be tolerated. - Abstract: The treatment and disposal of grape marc, a residue from grape processing, represents a significant economic and environmental challenge for the winemaking industry. Hydrothermal treatment of grape marc could be an efficient way for producing solid fuels on-site at the wineries. In this work the effects of treatment temperature and liquid pH on grape marc char and liquid properties were determined based on laboratory experiments and the combustion characteristics of char were assessed through thermogravimetric analysis and fuel ash classification. The results showed that hydrothermal treatment increased the energy and carbon contents and decreased the ash content of grape marc. The effect of liquid pH was statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for the determined carbon yield of liquid samples. The energy yield from grape marc was maximized at lower treatment temperatures, which also decreased the content of less thermally stable compounds in the attained char. Higher treatment temperatures decreased grape marc solid, carbon and energy yields and led to an increase in thermally labile compounds compared to lower temperatures likely due to the condensation of liquid compounds or volatiles trapped in the pores of char particles. The alkali metal contents of char ash were reduced coupled with an increase in respective phosphorus. Overall the results support the use of hydrothermally treated grape marc in solid fuel applications, if elevated levels of ash phosphorus can be tolerated.

  4. Cationic Polymers Developed for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-20

    into five categories: proton exchange membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide fuel...SOFC and PAFC belong to high temperature fuel cell, which can be applied in stationary power generation. PEMFC and AFC belong to low temperature fuel...function of the polymer electrolyte is to serve as electrolyte to transport ions between electrodes. PEMFC uses a polymer as electrolyte and works

  5. Fuel reprocessing data validation using the isotope correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.; Pond, R.B.; Cornella, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, and graphite reactors) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, and production reactors), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of (- 0.02 ± 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+ 0.50 ± 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems

  6. Practice and prospect of advanced fuel management and fuel technology application in PWR in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Min; Zhang Hong; Ma Cang; Bai Chengfei; Zhou Zhou; Wang Lei; Xiao Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Since Daya Bay nuclear power plant implemented 18-month refueling strategy in 2001, China has completed a series of innovative fuel management and fuel technology projects, including the Ling Ao Advanced Fuel Management (AFM) project (high-burnup quarter core refueling) and the Ningde 18-month refueling project with gadolinium-bearing fuel in initial core. First, this paper gives brief introduction to China's advanced fuel management and fuel technology experience. Second, it introduces practices of the advanced fuel management in China in detail, which mainly focuses on the implementation and progress of the Ningde 18-month refueling project with gadolinium-bearing fuel in initial core. Finally, the paper introduces the practices of advanced fuel technology in China and gives the outlook of the future advanced fuel management and fuel technology in this field. (author)

  7. Ternary carbide uranium fuels for advanced reactor design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-01

    Solid-solution mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides such as the pseudo-ternary carbide, (U, Zr, Nb)C, hold significant promise for advanced reactor design applications because of their high thermal conductivity and high melting point (typically greater than 3200 K). Additionally, because of their thermochemical stability in a hot-hydrogen environment, pseudo-ternary carbides have been investigated for potential space nuclear power and propulsion applications. However, their stability with regard to sodium and improved resistance to attack by water over uranium carbide portends their usefulness as a fuel for advanced terrestrial reactors. An investigation into processing techniques was conducted in order to produce a series of (U, Zr, Nb)C samples for characterization and testing. Samples with densities ranging from 91% to 95% of theoretical density were produced by cold pressing and sintering the mixed constituent carbides at temperatures as high as 2650 K. (author)

  8. Feasibility study of application of ductless fuel assembly to FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Shibahara, I.

    1996-01-01

    Feasibility studies on an application of the ductless fuel concept to an FBR core have been carried out in order to evaluate the basic features of the ductless core, especially in the fields of the thermal-hydraulic aspects and the mechanical behaviors. Regarding thermal-hydraulic aspects, analyses were performed by using a whole core thermal-hydraulic analysis code by making some modification for this study on the PWR code THINC. A small scaled ductless core model was prepared and a hydraulic experiment was carried out to study basic hydraulic characteristics of a ductless core. Core mechanical behaviors were analyzed focusing on the core irradiation bowing aspects and the seismic behaviors. Following features are revealed on the core structural behaviors: (1) the bowing stiffness of the ductless assembly is around 1/5 to 1/10 of that of the duct type assembly; (2) the contact loads between assemblies by the bowing effects are small through core cycles; (3) the damping of the ductless assemblies are so large that the seismic responses are small and the loads between assemblies are small due to occurring many contact points. Through this study it is expected that the concept of the ductless fuel can be applicable to FBR cores from the design view points of thermal-hydraulic and core mechanical behaviors

  9. ABB Turbo advanced fuel for application in System 80 family of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoutas, Z.E.; Dixon, D.J.; Shapiro, N.L.

    1998-01-01

    ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Operations (ABB CE) has developed an Advanced Fuel Design, tailored to the Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) environment. This Advanced Fuel Design called Turbo features a full complement of innovative components, including GUARDIAN debris-resistant spacer grids, Turbo Zircaloy mixing grids to increase thermal margin and grid-to-rod fretting resistance, value-added fuel pellets to increase fuel loading, advanced cladding to increase achievable burnup, and axial blankets and Erbium integral burnable absorbers for improving fuel cycle economics. This paper summarizes the Turbo Fuel Design and its application to a System 80 family type plant. Benefits in fuel reliability, thermal margin, improved fuel cycle economics and burn up capability are compared relative to the current ABB CE standard fuel design. The fuel management design and the associated thermal margin are also evaluated. (author)

  10. Mass determination of U-233 and Pu-239 by gamma spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Pugliesi, R.

    1988-09-01

    The gamma spectrometry technique has been used for masses determinations of uranium-233 and plutonium-239, granted by AERE-HARWELL. A high purity Ge semicondutor detector was used and the total efficiency curve was obtained for the counting system in the energy range 13 KeV to 135 KeV. The calculated values for the masses compared with that obtained by means of gravimetry technique. (author) [pt

  11. Environmental aspects of the transuranics: a selected, annotated bibliography. [Pu-238, Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martin, F.M.; Fore, C.S. (comps.)

    1977-03-01

    This eighth published bibliography of 427 references is compiled from the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center's Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics. The data base was built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope covers environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. This bibliography highlights literature on plutonium 238 and 239 and americium in the critical organs of man and animals. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews and summarizing literature on other radionuclides have been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with leading authors appearing alphabetically in each category. Indexes are provided for author(s), geographic location, keyword(s), taxon, title, and publication description.

  12. Pu239 Cross-Section Variations Based on Experimental Uncertainties and Covariances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigeti, David Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, D. Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-18

    Algorithms and software have been developed for producing variations in plutonium-239 neutron cross sections based on experimental uncertainties and covariances. The varied cross-section sets may be produced as random samples from the multi-variate normal distribution defined by an experimental mean vector and covariance matrix, or they may be produced as Latin-Hypercube/Orthogonal-Array samples (based on the same means and covariances) for use in parametrized studies. The variations obey two classes of constraints that are obligatory for cross-section sets and which put related constraints on the mean vector and covariance matrix that detemine the sampling. Because the experimental means and covariances do not obey some of these constraints to sufficient precision, imposing the constraints requires modifying the experimental mean vector and covariance matrix. Modification is done with an algorithm based on linear algebra that minimizes changes to the means and covariances while insuring that the operations that impose the different constraints do not conflict with each other.

  13. Beta decay heat following U-235, U-238 and Pu-239 neutron fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengjie

    1997-09-01

    This is an experimental study of beta-particle decay heat from 235U, 239Pu and 238U aggregate fission products over delay times 0.4-40,000 seconds. The experimental results below 2s for 235U and 239Pu, and below 20s for 238U, are the first such results reported. The experiments were conducted at the UMASS Lowell 5.5-MV Van de Graaff accelerator and 1-MW swimming-pool research reactor. Thermalized neutrons from the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction induced fission in 238U and 239Pu, and fast neutrons produced in the reactor initiated fission in 238U. A helium-jet/tape-transport system rapidly transferred fission fragments from a fission chamber to a low background counting area. Delay times after fission were selected by varying the tape speed or the position of the spray point relative to the beta spectrometer that employed a thin-scintillator-disk gating technique to separate beta-particles from accompanying gamma-rays. Beta and gamma sources were both used in energy calibration. Based on low-energy(energies 0-10 MeV. Measured beta spectra were unfolded for their energy distributions by the program FERD, and then compared to other measurements and summation calculations based on ENDF/B-VI fission-product data performed on the LANL Cray computer. Measurements of the beta activity as a function of decay time furnished a relative normalization. Results for the beta decay heat are presented and compared with other experimental data and the summation calculations.

  14. Subcellular distribution of Pu-239 in the liver of rat, mouse, Syrian and Chinese hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R.; Seidel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of our studies was to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the differences in the biological half life of actinides in the liver of different mammalian species. Rats and mice were chosen as models for rapid elimination, and Syrian and Chinese hamsters as models for slow elimination. To distinguish between fixation in lysosomes and mitochondria, the lysosomes were isolated following injection of Triton WR1339 6 days after 239 Pu administration. The animals were sacrificed 4 days later. In order to study the possible association with ferritin, 59 Fe was also injected. Liver homogenates were subjected to differential and isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. The typical shift in the density of the lysosomal marker acid phosphatase from rho approximately 1.2 to rho approximately 1.1 following Triton WR1339 injection was observed in all species. It was possible therefore to separate lysosomes from other cell organelles, especially mitochondria. It was concluded that: 1) Mitochondria can virtually be excluded as binding sites in all four species; 2) Lysosomes are one important storage site in rats, mice and Syrian hamsters; 3) If 239 Pu is bound to another cell constituent in addition to lysosomes in the hamster species (which is not yet proven) its density should be approximately 1.17. (H.K.)

  15. Feasibility of determining Pu-239 environmental and occupational levels in urinary excretion by fission track analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahenbuhl, M.P.; Seiger-Webster, C.M.; Henderson, C.L.; Smith, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    The results of bioassay programs for detecting human exposure to plutonium are currently playing a role that they were never intended or prepared to fulfill. With little resistance or support from the scientific community, the regulatory community established exposure limits for plutonium burdens based largely on imprecise inference of causes and effects; thus, to an extent, incomplete data and analysis formed the basis for most existing bioassay programs. At the time these early programs were developed, they were used only to determine the occupational exposure to radiation workers and populations unintentionally exposed to occupational levels during open air testing. The results from these programs are now used in litigation to determine cause, negligence and responsibility for health problems associated with the populations surrounding facilities that store, handle and process nuclear materials. As this role is beyond the scope of most bioassay programs' designs, concern for the use of existing bioassay programs in this manner is rising. It is imperative that defendable, scientifically-based, more sensitive techniques be researched and developed to measure the presence of Plutonium (Pu), which in turn can be used to establish and predict the health effects of a minimal Pu exposure. Currently, estimates to predict systemic deposition using urinalysis data are several times greater than the exposure levels measured by autopsy. The scientific research conducted in this study can serve to narrow this discrepancy and provide the regulatory community with a more reliable basis for establishing regulatory exposure limits and accurately predicting systemic deposition. Furthermore, this research and the continued development of more sophisticated detection techniques can serve to dispel general public concern over the possibility of radiation exposure from ongoing site remediation and closure efforts

  16. Feasibility of determining Pu-239 environmental and occupational levels in urinary excretion by fission track analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahenbuhl, M.P.; Seiger-Webster, C.M.; Henderson, C.L.; Smith, R.B. [and others

    1997-03-01

    The results of bioassay programs for detecting human exposure to plutonium are currently playing a role that they were never intended or prepared to fulfill. With little resistance or support from the scientific community, the regulatory community established exposure limits for plutonium burdens based largely on imprecise inference of causes and effects; thus, to an extent, incomplete data and analysis formed the basis for most existing bioassay programs. At the time these early programs were developed, they were used only to determine the occupational exposure to radiation workers and populations unintentionally exposed to occupational levels during open air testing. The results from these programs are now used in litigation to determine cause, negligence and responsibility for health problems associated with the populations surrounding facilities that store, handle and process nuclear materials. As this role is beyond the scope of most bioassay programs` designs, concern for the use of existing bioassay programs in this manner is rising. It is imperative that defendable, scientifically-based, more sensitive techniques be researched and developed to measure the presence of Plutonium (Pu), which in turn can be used to establish and predict the health effects of a minimal Pu exposure. Currently, estimates to predict systemic deposition using urinalysis data are several times greater than the exposure levels measured by autopsy. The scientific research conducted in this study can serve to narrow this discrepancy and provide the regulatory community with a more reliable basis for establishing regulatory exposure limits and accurately predicting systemic deposition. Furthermore, this research and the continued development of more sophisticated detection techniques can serve to dispel general public concern over the possibility of radiation exposure from ongoing site remediation and closure efforts.

  17. Progress in fuel processing for PEMFC systems for transport applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dams, A J; Hayter, P R; Moore, S C

    1998-07-01

    Wellman CJB Limited has been developing fuel processors for PEMFC systems for transport applications using a range of feedstocks. Feedstocks that can be processed to produce a hydrogen-rich gas stream suitable for use with a PEMFC include methanol, gasoline, diesel, LPG, dimethylether, marine diesel and aviation fuel. The basic fuel processor is a steam reformer combined with a selective carbon monoxide oxidation stage. Depending on the nature of the liquid feedstock, other process steps will be required such as vaporizer, desulfurizer, pre-reformer and high and low temperature shift reactors. Work on methanol reforming has been specifically targeted at a PEMFC driven passenger car as part of a multinational European Community JOULE programme called MERCATOX. The objective is to develop and test a compact and fast response methanol reformer and gas clean-up unit to meet a car manufacturer's specification. The method of construction is to coat a methanol reforming catalyst onto one side of a metal corrugated plate. On the other side is a coated combustion catalyst which burns fuel cell off-gas to provide the endothermic heat for the methanol reforming reaction. A number of these plates are assembled in a compact unit ensuring good heat transfer. The gas clean-up unit is similarly constructed with a selective oxidation catalyst on one side and a thermal fluid on the other. Initial tests have indicated a superior performance to conventional packed bed reformers in terms of response and start-up time. Steam reforming of gasoline, diesel, LPG, dimethylether, marine diesel and aviation fuel has been demonstrated on a bench scale (0.5kW). The process steps commence with vaporization (except for LPG), desulfurization (except for dimethylether), prereforming, reforming, low and high temperature shift and selective oxidation. A simple technology demonstrator has shown that a hydrogen-rich mixture (75% hydrogen, 25% carbon dioxide) with less than 2ppm carbon monoxide can be

  18. International symposium on fuel rod simulators: development and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, R.W. (comp.)

    1981-05-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning fuel rod simulator operation and performance; simulator design and evaluation; clad heated fuel rod simulators and fuel rod simulators for cladding investigations; fuel rod simulator components and inspection; and simulator analytical modeling. Ten papers have previously been input to the Energy Data Base.

  19. State of the art: Multi-fuel reformers for automotive fuel cell applications. Problem identification and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Pettersson, L.J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1999-12-01

    On an assignment from the Transport and Communications Research Board (KFB) a literature study and a study trip to the USA and Great Britain have been performed. The literature study and the study trip was made during late spring and autumn 1999.The purpose of the project was to collect available information about the chemical composition of the product gas from a multi-fuel reformer for a fuel cell vehicle. It was furthermore to identify problems and research needs. The report recommends directions for future major research efforts. The results of the literature study and the study trip led to the following general conclusions: With the technology available today it does not seem feasible to develop a highly efficient and reliable multi-fuel reformer for automotive applications, i. e. for applications where all types of fuels ranging from natural gas to heavy diesel fuels can be used. The potential for developing a durable and reliable system is considerably higher if dedicated fuel reformers are used.The authors propose that petroleum-derived fuels should be designed for potential use in mobile fuel cell applications. In the present literature survey and the site visit discussions we found that there are relatively low emissions from fuel cell engines compared to internal combustion engines. However, the major research work on reformers/fuel cells have been performed during steady-state operation. Emissions during start-up, shutdown and transient operation are basically unknown and must be investigated in more detail. The conclusions and findings in this report are based on open/available information, such as discussions at site visits, reports, scientific publications and symposium proceedings.

  20. Electrically Conductive, Hydrophilic Porous Membrane for Fuel Cell Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I effort seeks to produce a conductive polyethersulfone (PES) microporous membrane for fuel cell water management applications. This membrane will...

  1. Site Evaluation for Application of Fuel Cell Technology, Naval Hospital - Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, CA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binder, Michael

    2001-01-01

    ...). CERL has selected and evaluated application sites, supervised the design and installation of fuel cells, actively monitored the operation and maintenance of fuel cells, and compiled "lessons learned...

  2. Testing woody fuel consumption models for application in Australian southern eucalypt forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Hollis; S. Matthews; Roger Ottmar; S.J. Prichard; S. Slijepcevic; N.D. Burrows; B. Ward; K.G. Tolhurst; W.R. Anderson; J S. Gould

    2010-01-01

    Five models for the consumption of coarse woody debris or woody fuels with a diameter larger than 0.6 cm were assessed for application in Australian southern eucalypt forest fires including: CONSUME models for (1) activity fuels, (2) natural western woody and (3) natural southern woody fuels, (4) the BURNUP model and (5) the recommendation by the Australian National...

  3. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES: FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki

    1997-12-31

    Electrolytes. Ionically conducting solid electrolytes are successfully used for battery, fuel cell and sensor applications.

  4. Status of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology and potential for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.; Nuttall, L. J.

    The solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell represents the first fuel cell technology known to be used operationally. Current activities are mainly related to the development of a space regenerative fuel cell system for energy storage on board space stations, or other large orbiting vehicles and platforms. During 1981, a study was performed to determine the feasibility of using SPE fuel cells for automotive or other vehicular applications, using methanol as the fuel. The results of this study were very encouraging. Details concerning a conceptual automotive fuel cell power plant study are discussed, taking into account also a layout of major components for compact passenger car installation.

  5. Application of vacuum technology during nuclear fuel fabrication, inspection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Vacuum technology plays very important role during various stages of fabrication, inspection and characterization of U, Pu based nuclear fuels. Controlled vacuum is needed for melting and casting of U, Pu based alloys, picture framing of the fuel meat for plate type fuel fabrication, carbothermic reduction for synthesis of (U-Pu) mixed carbide powder, dewaxing of green ceramic fuel pellets, degassing of sintered pellets and encapsulation of fuel pellets inside clad tube. Application of vacuum technology is also important during inspection and characterization of fuel materials and fuel pins by way of XRF and XRD analysis, Mass spectrometer Helium leak detection etc. A novel method of low temperature sintering of UO 2 developed at BARC using controlled vacuum as sintering atmosphere has undergone successful irradiation testing in Cirus. The paper will describe various fuel fabrication flow sheets highlighting the stages where vacuum applications are needed

  6. Underwater Coatings Testing for INEEL Fuel Basin Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature

  7. Investigation of aluminosilicate refractory for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Paul Steven

    Stationary solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been demonstrated to provide clean and reliable electricity through electro-chemical conversion of various fuel sources (CH4 and other light hydrocarbons). To become a competitive conversion technology the costs of SOFCs must be reduced to less than $400/kW. Aluminosilicate represents a potential low cost alternative to high purity alumina for SOFC refractory applications. The objectives of this investigation are to: (1) study changes of aluminosilicate chemistry and morphology under SOFC conditions, (2) identify volatile silicon species released by aluminosilicates, (3) identify the mechanisms of aluminosilicate vapor deposition on SOFC materials, and (4) determine the effects of aluminosilicate vapors on SOFC electrochemical performance. It is shown thermodynamically and empirically that low cost aluminosilicate refractory remains chemically and thermally unstable under SOFC operating conditions between 800°C and 1000°C. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the aluminosilicate bulk and surface identified increased concentrations of silicon at the surface after exposure to SOFC gases at 1000°C for 100 hours. The presence of water vapor accelerated surface diffusion of silicon, creating a more uniform distribution. Thermodynamic equilibrium modeling showed aluminosilicate remains stable in dry air, but the introduction of water vapor indicative of actual SOFC gas streams creates low temperature (active anode interface.

  8. Proton-conductive nanochannel membrane for fuel-cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksandrov, Sergiy; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Jang, Joo-Hee; Haam, Seungjoo; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2009-02-01

    Novel design of proton conductive membrane for direct methanol fuel cells is based on proton conductivity of nanochannels, which is acquired due to the electric double layer overlap. Proton conductivity and methanol permeability of an array of nanochannels were studied. Anodic aluminum oxide with pore diameter of 20 nm was used as nanochannel matrix. Channel surfaces of an AAO template were functionalized with sulfonic groups to increase proton conductivity of nanochannels. This was done in two steps; at first -SH groups were attached to walls of nanochannels using (3-Mercaptopropyl)-trimethyloxysilane and then they were converted to -SO3H groups using hydrogen peroxide. Treatment steps were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Proton conductivity and methanol permeability were measured. The data show methanol permeability of membrane to be an order of magnitude lower, than that measured of Nafion. Ion conductivity of functionalized AAO membrane was measured by an impedance analyzer at frequencies ranging from 1 Hz to 100 kHz and voltage 50 mV to be 0.15 Scm(-1). Measured ion conductivity of Nafion membrane was 0.05 Scm(-1). Obtained data show better results in comparison with commonly used commercial available proton conductive membrane Nafion, thus making nanochannel membrane very promising for use in fuel cell applications.

  9. Underwater Coatings Testing for INEEL Fuel Basin Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia L. Tripp

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature.

  10. Microencapsulated fuel technology for commercial light water and advanced reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Snead, Lance L.; Gehin, Jess C.

    2012-01-01

    The potential application of microencapsulated fuels to light water reactors (LWRs) has been explored. The specific fuel manifestation being put forward is for coated fuel particles embedded in silicon carbide or zirconium metal matrices. Detailed descriptions of these concepts are presented, along with a review of attributes, potential benefits, and issues with respect to their application in LWR environments, specifically from the standpoints of materials, neutronics, operations, and economics. Preliminary experiment and modeling results imply that with marginal redesign, significant gains in operational reliability and accident response margins could be potentially achieved by replacing conventional oxide-type LWR fuel with microencapsulated fuel forms.

  11. SIMMER-III applications to fuel-coolant interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, K.; Kondo, Sa.; Tobita, Y.; Brear, D.J. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of the SIMMER-III code is to provide a numerical simulation of complex multiphase, multicomponent flow problems essential to investigate core disruptive accidents in liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs). However, the code is designed to be sufficiently flexible to be applied to a variety of multiphase flows, in addition to LMFR safety issues. In the present study, some typical experiments relating to fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs) have been analyzed by SIMMER-III to demonstrate that the code is applicable to such complex and highly transient multiphase flow situations. It is shown that SIMMER-III can reproduce the premixing phase both in water and sodium systems as well as the propagation of steam explosion. It is thus demonstrated the code is basically capable of simulating integral multiphase thermal-hydraulic problems included in FCI experiments. (author)

  12. Economic incentives for additional critical experimentation applicable to fuel dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincey, J.F.; Primm, R.T. III; Waltz, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel dissolution operations involving soluble absorbers for criticality control are among the most difficult to establish economical subcritical limits. The paucity of applicable experimental data can significantly hinder a precise determination of a bias in the method chosen for calculation of the required soluble absorber concentration. Resorting to overly conservative bias estimates can result in excessive concentrations of soluble absorbers. Such conservatism can be costly, especially if soluble absorbers are used in a throw-away fashion. An economic scoping study is presented which demonstrates that additional critical experimentation will likely lead to reductions in the soluble absorber (i.e., gadolinium) purchase costs for dissolution operations. The results indicate that anticipated savings maybe more than enough to pay for the experimental costs

  13. Applications of Graphene-Modified Electrodes in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-modified materials have captured increasing attention for energy applications due to their superior physical and chemical properties, which can significantly enhance the electricity generation performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC. In this review, several typical synthesis methods of graphene-modified electrodes, such as graphite oxide reduction methods, self-assembly methods, and chemical vapor deposition, are summarized. According to the different functions of the graphene-modified materials in the MFC anode and cathode chambers, a series of design concepts for MFC electrodes are assembled, e.g., enhancing the biocompatibility and improving the extracellular electron transfer efficiency for anode electrodes and increasing the active sites and strengthening the reduction pathway for cathode electrodes. In spite of the challenges of MFC electrodes, graphene-modified electrodes are promising for MFC development to address the reduction in efficiency brought about by organic waste by converting it into electrical energy.

  14. Hydrogen generation at ambient conditions: application in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddien, Albert; Loges, Björn; Junge, Henrik; Beller, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The efficient generation of hydrogen from formic acid/amine adducts at ambient temperature is demonstrated. The highest catalytic activity (TOF up to 3630 h(-1) after 20 min) was observed in the presence of in situ generated ruthenium phosphine catalysts. Compared to the previously known methods to generate hydrogen from liquid feedstocks, the systems presented here can be operated at room temperature without the need for any high-temperature reforming processes, and the hydrogen produced can then be directly used in fuel cells. A variety of Ru precursors and phosphine ligands were investigated for the decomposition of formic acid/amine adducts. These catalytic systems are particularly interesting for the generation of H2 for new applications in portable electric devices.

  15. Application of Coating Technology for Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Gil; Kim, Il-Hyun; Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Dong-Jun; Park, Jeong-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To commercialize the ATF cladding concepts, various factors are considered, such as safety under normal and accident conditions, economy for the fuel cycle, and developing development challenges, and schedule. From the proposed concepts, it is known that the cladding coating, FeCrAl alloy, and Zr-Mo claddings are considered as a near/mid-term application, whereas the SiC material is considered as a long-term application. Among them, the benefit of cladding coating on Zr-based alloys is the fuel cycle economy regarding the manufacturing, neutron cross section, and high tritium permeation characteristics. However, the challenge of cladding coating on Zr-based alloys is the lower oxidation resistance and mechanical strength at high-temperature than other concepts. Another important point is the adhesion property between the Zr-based alloy and coating materials. As an improved coating technology compared to a previous study, a 3D laser coating technology supplied with Cr powders is considered to make a coated cladding because it is possible to make a coated layer on the tubular cladding surface by controlling the 3-diminational axis. We are systematically studying the laser beam power, inert gas flow, cooling of the cladding tube, and powder control as key points to develop 3D laser coating technology. After Cr-coating on the Zr-based cladding, ring compression and ring tensile tests were performed to evaluate the adhesion property between a coated layer and Zr-based alloy tube at room temperature (RT), and a high-temperature oxidation test was conducted to evaluate the oxidation behavior at 1200 .deg. C of the coated tube samples. A 3D laser coating method supplied with Cr powders was developed to decrease the high-temperature oxidation rate in a steam environment through a systematic study for various coating parameters, and a Cr-coated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube of 100 mm in length to the axial direction can be successfully manufactured.

  16. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  17. Proceedings of the international meeting on development, fabrication and application of reduced enrichment fuels for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the papers presented in the following areas: (1) Reduced Enrichment Fuels for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program Status; (2) Fuel Development; (3) Fuel Demonstrations; (4) General Topics; and (5) Specific Reactor Applications

  18. New proton conducting membranes for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, P R

    2006-07-01

    In order to synthesize proton-conducting materials which retain acids in the membrane during fuel cell operating conditions, the synthesis of poly(vinylphosphonic acid) grafted polybenzimidazole (PVPA grafted PBI) and the fabrication of multilayer membranes are mainly focussed in this dissertation. Synthesis of PVPA grafted PBI membrane can be done according to ''grafting through'' method. In ''grafting through'' method (or macromonomer method), monomer (e.g., vinylphosphonic acid) is radically copolymerized with olefin group attached macromonomer (e.g., allyl grafted PBI and vinylbenzyl grafted PBI). This approach is inherently limited to synthesize graft-copolymer with well-defined architectural and structural parameters. The incorporation of poly(vinylphosphonic acid) into PBI lead to improvements in proton conductivity up to 10-2 S/cm. Regarding multilayer membranes, the proton conducting layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of polymers by various strong acids such as poly(vinylphosphonic acid), poly(vinylsulfonic acid) and poly(styrenesulfonic acid) paired with basic polymers such as poly(4-vinylimidazole) and poly(benzimidazole), which are appropriate for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell applications have been described. Proton conductivity increases with increasing smoothness of the film and the maximum measured conductivity was 10-4 S/cm at 25A C. Recently, anhydrous proton-conducting membranes with flexible structural backbones, which show proton-conducting properties comparable to Nafion have been focus of current research. The flexible backbone of polymer chains allow for a high segmental mobility and thus, a sufficiently low glass transition temperature (Tg), which is an essential factor to reach highly conductive systems. Among the polymers with a flexible chain backbone, poly(vinylphosphonic acid), poly(vinylbenzylphosphonic acid), poly(2-vinylbenzimidazole), poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid), poly(4-vinylimidazole), poly(4-vinylimidazole

  19. New proton conducting membranes for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, P.R.

    2006-07-01

    In order to synthesize proton-conducting materials which retain acids in the membrane during fuel cell operating conditions, the synthesis of poly(vinylphosphonic acid) grafted polybenzimidazole (PVPA grafted PBI) and the fabrication of multilayer membranes are mainly focussed in this dissertation. Synthesis of PVPA grafted PBI membrane can be done according to ''grafting through'' method. In ''grafting through'' method (or macromonomer method), monomer (e.g., vinylphosphonic acid) is radically copolymerized with olefin group attached macromonomer (e.g., allyl grafted PBI and vinylbenzyl grafted PBI). This approach is inherently limited to synthesize graft-copolymer with well-defined architectural and structural parameters. The incorporation of poly(vinylphosphonic acid) into PBI lead to improvements in proton conductivity up to 10-2 S/cm. Regarding multilayer membranes, the proton conducting layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of polymers by various strong acids such as poly(vinylphosphonic acid), poly(vinylsulfonic acid) and poly(styrenesulfonic acid) paired with basic polymers such as poly(4-vinylimidazole) and poly(benzimidazole), which are appropriate for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell applications have been described. Proton conductivity increases with increasing smoothness of the film and the maximum measured conductivity was 10-4 S/cm at 25A C. Recently, anhydrous proton-conducting membranes with flexible structural backbones, which show proton-conducting properties comparable to Nafion have been focus of current research. The flexible backbone of polymer chains allow for a high segmental mobility and thus, a sufficiently low glass transition temperature (Tg), which is an essential factor to reach highly conductive systems. Among the polymers with a flexible chain backbone, poly(vinylphosphonic acid), poly(vinylbenzylphosphonic acid), poly(2-vinylbenzimidazole), poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid), poly(4-vinylimidazole), poly

  20. Fuel-cycle analysis of early market applications of fuel cells: Forklift propulsion systems and distributed power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Gaines, Linda; Wang, Michael [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Forklift propulsion systems and distributed power generation are identified as potential fuel cell applications for near-term markets. This analysis examines fuel cell forklifts and distributed power generators, and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell systems for existing technologies based on fossil fuels and grid electricity. Performance data and the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources. The greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen from steam reforming of natural gas are considerably lower than those using electricity from the average U.S. grid. Fuel cell generators produce lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and alternative distributed combustion technologies. If fuel-cell generation technologies approach or exceed the target efficiency of 40%, they offer significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions compared to alternative combustion technologies. (author)

  1. Nuclear criticality safety studies applicable to spent fuel shipping cask designs and spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.S.

    1980-11-01

    Criticality analyses of water-moderated and reflected arrays of LWR fresh and spent fuel assemblies were carried out in this study. The calculated results indicate that using the assumption of fresh fuel loading in spent fuel shipping cask design leads to assembly spacings which are about twice the spacings of spent fuel loadings. Some shipping cask walls of composite lead and water are more effective neutron reflectors than water of 30.48 cm

  2. Development of fuel cell systems for aircraft applications based on synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasel, J.; Samsun, R.C.; Doell, C.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    At present, in the aviation sector considerable scientific project work deals with the development of fuel cell systems based on synthetic fuels to be integrated in future aircraft. The benefits of fuel cell systems in aircraft are various. They offer the possibility to simplify the aircraft layout. Important systems, i.e. the gas turbine powered auxiliary power unit (APU) for electricity supply, the fuel tank inserting system and the water tank, can be substituted by one single system, the fuel cell system. Additionally, the energy demand for ice protection can be covered assisted by fuel cell systems. These measures reduce the consumption of jet fuel, increase aircraft efficiency and allow the operation at low emissions. Additionally, the costs for aircraft related investments, for aircraft maintenance and operation can be reduced. On the background of regular discussions about environmental concerns (global warming) of kerosene Jet A-1 and its availability, which might be restricted in a few years, the aircraft industry is keen to employ synthetic, sulfur-free fuels such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels. These comprise Bio-To-Liquid and Gas-To-Liquid fuels. Within this field of research the Institute of Energy Research (IEF-3) in Juelich develops complete and compact fuel cell systems based on the autothermal reforming of these kinds of fuels in cooperation with industry. This paper reports about this work. (orig.)

  3. Alternate-Fuel Vehicles and Their Application in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Chip

    1991-01-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming increasingly attractive from environmental, energy independence, and economic perspectives. Addresses the following topics: (1) federal and state legislation; (2) alternative fuels and their attributes; (3) practical experience with alternative-fuel vehicles in pupil transportation; and (4) options for school…

  4. Investigation of novel spent fuel verification system for safeguard application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radioactive waste, especially spent fuel, is generated from the operation of nuclear power plants. The final stage of radioactive waste management is disposal which isolates radioactive waste from the accessible environment and allows it to decay. The safety, security, and safeguard of a spent fuel repository have to be evaluated before its operation. Many researchers have evaluated the safety of a repository. These researchers calculated dose to public after the repository is closed depending on their scenario. Because most spent fuel repositories are non-retrievable, research on security or safeguards of spent fuel repositories have to be performed. Design based security or safeguard have to be developed for future repository designs. This study summarizes the requirements of future spent fuel repositories especially safeguards, and suggests a novel system which meets the safeguard requirements. Applying safeguards to a spent fuel repository is becoming increasingly important. The future requirements for a spent fuel repository are suggested by several expert groups, such as ASTOR in IAEA. The requirements emphasizes surveillance and verification. The surveillance and verification of spent fuel is currently accomplished by using the Cerenkov radiation detector while spent fuel is being stored in a fuel pool. This research investigated an advanced spent fuel verification system using a system which converts spent fuel radiation into electricity. The system generates electricity while it is conveyed from a transportation cask to a disposal cask. The electricity conversion system was verified in a lab scale experiment using an 8.51GBq Cs-137 gamma source.

  5. Investigation of novel spent fuel verification system for safeguard application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste, especially spent fuel, is generated from the operation of nuclear power plants. The final stage of radioactive waste management is disposal which isolates radioactive waste from the accessible environment and allows it to decay. The safety, security, and safeguard of a spent fuel repository have to be evaluated before its operation. Many researchers have evaluated the safety of a repository. These researchers calculated dose to public after the repository is closed depending on their scenario. Because most spent fuel repositories are non-retrievable, research on security or safeguards of spent fuel repositories have to be performed. Design based security or safeguard have to be developed for future repository designs. This study summarizes the requirements of future spent fuel repositories especially safeguards, and suggests a novel system which meets the safeguard requirements. Applying safeguards to a spent fuel repository is becoming increasingly important. The future requirements for a spent fuel repository are suggested by several expert groups, such as ASTOR in IAEA. The requirements emphasizes surveillance and verification. The surveillance and verification of spent fuel is currently accomplished by using the Cerenkov radiation detector while spent fuel is being stored in a fuel pool. This research investigated an advanced spent fuel verification system using a system which converts spent fuel radiation into electricity. The system generates electricity while it is conveyed from a transportation cask to a disposal cask. The electricity conversion system was verified in a lab scale experiment using an 8.51GBq Cs-137 gamma source

  6. Neutronic behavior of thorium fuel cycles in a very high temperature hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Garcia, Lorena; Milian Perez, Daniel; Garcia Hernandez, Carlos; Milian Lorenzo, Daniel; Velasco, Abanades

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy needs to guarantee four important issues to be successful as a sustainable energy source: nuclear safety, economic competitiveness, proliferation resistance and a minimal production of radioactive waste. Pebble bed reactors (PBR), which are very high temperature systems together with fuel cycles based in Thorium, they could offer the opportunity to meet the sustainability demands. Thorium is a potentially valuable energy source since it is about three to four times as abundant as Uranium. It is also a widely distributed natural resource readily accessible in many countries. This paper shows the main advantages of the use of a hybrid system formed by a Pebble Bed critical nuclear reactor and two Pebble Bed Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) using a variety of fuel cycles with Thorium (Th+U 233 , Th+Pu 239 and Th+U). The parameters related to the neutronic behavior like deep burn, nuclear fuel breeding, Minor Actinide stockpile, power density profiles and other are used to compare the fuel cycles using the well-known MCNPX computational code. (author)

  7. Assaying Used Nuclear Fuel Assemblies Using Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy and Singular Value Decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Warren, Glen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS) for the direct and independent measurement of fissile isotopes in light-water nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. The current study applies MCNPX, a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, to simulate the measurement of the assay of the used nuclear fuel assemblies in the LSDS. An empirical model has been developed based on the calibration of the LSDS to responses generated from the simulated assay of six well-characterized fuel assemblies. The effects of self-shielding are taken into account by using empirical basis vectors calculated from the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a matrix containing the self-shielding functions from the assay of assemblies in the calibration set. The performance of the empirical algorithm was tested on version 1 of the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) used fuel library consisting of 64 assemblies, as well as a set of 27 diversion assemblies, both of which were developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The potential for direct and independent assay of the sum of the masses of Pu-239 and Pu-241 to within 2%, on average, has been demonstrated

  8. The prospect of uranium nitride (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN) for pressurized water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifah, Ratna Dewi; Suud, Zaki

    2015-09-01

    Design study of small Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) core loaded with uranium nitride fuel (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN), Pa-231 as burnable poison, and Americium has been performed. Pa-231 known as actinide material, have large capture cross section and can be converted into fissile material that can be utilized to reduce excess reactivity. Americium is one of minor actinides with long half life. The objective of adding americium is to decrease nuclear spent fuel in the world. The neutronic analysis results show that mixed nitride fuel have k-inf greater than uranium nitride fuel. It is caused by the addition of Pu-239 in mixed nitride fuel. In fuel fraction analysis, for uranium nitride fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 45% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 45% moderator. In case of UN-PuN fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 30% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 60% coolant/ moderator. The addition of Pa-231 as burnable poison for UN fuel, enrichment U-235 5%, with Pa-231 1.6% has k-inf more than one and excess reactivity of 14.45%. And for mixed nitride fuel, the lowest value of reactivity swing is when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 8% with Pa-231 0.4%, the excess reactivity value 13,76%. The fuel pin analyze for the addition of Americium, the excess reactivity value is lower than before, because Americium absorb the neutron. For UN fuel, enrichment U-235 8%, Pa-231 1.6% and Am 0.5%, the excess reactivity is 4.86%. And for mixed nitride fuel, when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 13%, Pa-231 0.4% and Am 0.1%, the excess reactivity is 11.94%. For core configuration, it is better to use heterogeneous than homogeneous core configuration, because the radial power distribution is better.

  9. The prospect of uranium nitride (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN) for pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarifah, Ratna Dewi; Suud, Zaki

    2015-01-01

    Design study of small Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) core loaded with uranium nitride fuel (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN), Pa-231 as burnable poison, and Americium has been performed. Pa-231 known as actinide material, have large capture cross section and can be converted into fissile material that can be utilized to reduce excess reactivity. Americium is one of minor actinides with long half life. The objective of adding americium is to decrease nuclear spent fuel in the world. The neutronic analysis results show that mixed nitride fuel have k-inf greater than uranium nitride fuel. It is caused by the addition of Pu-239 in mixed nitride fuel. In fuel fraction analysis, for uranium nitride fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 45% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 45% moderator. In case of UN-PuN fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 30% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 60% coolant/ moderator. The addition of Pa-231 as burnable poison for UN fuel, enrichment U-235 5%, with Pa-231 1.6% has k-inf more than one and excess reactivity of 14.45%. And for mixed nitride fuel, the lowest value of reactivity swing is when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 8% with Pa-231 0.4%, the excess reactivity value 13,76%. The fuel pin analyze for the addition of Americium, the excess reactivity value is lower than before, because Americium absorb the neutron. For UN fuel, enrichment U-235 8%, Pa-231 1.6% and Am 0.5%, the excess reactivity is 4.86%. And for mixed nitride fuel, when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 13%, Pa-231 0.4% and Am 0.1%, the excess reactivity is 11.94%. For core configuration, it is better to use heterogeneous than homogeneous core configuration, because the radial power distribution is better

  10. Novel materials for more robust solid oxide fuel cells in small scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter

    , especially for remote fuel cell systems. For those applications, redox tolerant and Sulphur resistant fuel electrode materials are advantageous in order to make the cells more tolerant against sudden system failures such as fuel cut off and reformer breakdown. Also for direct feeding of alcohols and higher...... hydrocarbons, coking tolerant electrodes are required. State-of art fuel electrodes are based on a nickel ceramic composite, a nickel cermet, which suffers from low redox stability, susceptibility for sulfur poisoning and coking. Redox stable anodes can be achieved by replacing the Ni-cermet fuel electrode...

  11. Methanol fuel processor and PEM fuel cell modeling for mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrenko, Daniela [ISAT, University of Burgundy, Rue Mlle Bourgoise, 58000 Nevers (France); Gao, Fei; Blunier, Benjamin; Bouquain, David; Miraoui, Abdellatif [Transport and Systems Laboratory (SeT) - EA 3317/UTBM, Fuel cell Laboratory (FCLAB), University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard, Rue Thierry Mieg 90010, Belfort Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15

    The use of hydrocarbon fed fuel cell systems including a fuel processor can be an entry market for this emerging technology avoiding the problem of hydrogen infrastructure. This article presents a 1 kW low temperature PEM fuel cell system with fuel processor, the system is fueled by a mixture of methanol and water that is converted into hydrogen rich gas using a steam reformer. A complete system model including a fluidic fuel processor model containing evaporation, steam reformer, hydrogen filter, combustion, as well as a multi-domain fuel cell model is introduced. Experiments are performed with an IDATECH FCS1200 trademark fuel cell system. The results of modeling and experimentation show good results, namely with regard to fuel cell current and voltage as well as hydrogen production and pressure. The system is auto sufficient and shows an efficiency of 25.12%. The presented work is a step towards a complete system model, needed to develop a well adapted system control assuring optimized system efficiency. (author)

  12. Performance analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine cycle: Application of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihian, Farshid; Fung, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Variation of the stream properties in the syngas-fueled hybrid SOFC–GT cycle. • Detailed analysis of the operation of the methane-fueled SOFC–GT cycle. • Investigate effects of inlet fuel type and composition on performance of cycle. • Comparison of system operation when operated with and without anode recirculation. - Abstract: In this paper, the hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT) model was applied to investigate the effects of the inlet fuel type and composition on the performance of the cycle. This type of analysis is vital for the real world utilization of manufactured fuels in the hybrid SOFC–GT system due to the fact that these fuel compositions depends on the type of material that is processed, the fuel production process, and process control parameters. In the first part of this paper, it is shown that the results of a limited number of studies on the utilization of non-conventional fuels have been published in the open literature. However, further studies are required in this area to investigate all aspects of the issue for different configurations and assumptions. Then, the results of the simulation of the syngas-fueled hybrid SOFC–GT cycle are employed to explain the variation of the stream properties throughout the cycle. This analysis can be very helpful in understanding cycle internal working and can provide some interesting insights to the system operation. Then, the detailed information of the operation of the methane-fueled SOFC–GT cycle is presented. For both syngas- and methane-fueled cycles, the operating conditions of the equipment are presented and compared. Moreover, the comparison of the characteristics of the system when it is operated with two different schemes to provide the required steam for the cycle, with anode recirculation and with an external source of water, provides some interesting insights to the system operation. For instance, it was shown that although the physical

  13. An intercomparison experiment on isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry using plutonium-239 spike for the determination of plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Shah, P.M.; Saxena, M.K.; Jain, H.C.; Gurba, P.B.; Babbar, R.K.; Udagatti, S.V.; Moorthy, A.D.; Singh, R.K.; Bajpai, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Determination of plutonium concentration in the dissolver solution of irradiated fuel is one of the key measurements in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of an intercomparison experiment performed between Fuel Chemistry Division (FCD) at BARC and PREFRE, Tarapur for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel using 239 Pu spike in isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). The 239 Pu spike method was previously established at FCD as viable alternative to the imported enriched 242 Pu or 244 Pu; the spike used internationally for plutonium concentration determination by IDMS in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel. Precision and accuracy achievable for determining plutonium concentration are compared under the laboratory and the plant conditions using 239 Pu spike in IDMS. For this purpose, two different dissolver solutions with 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios of about 0.3 and 0.07 corresponding, respectively, to high and low burn-up fuels, were used. The results of the intercomparison experiment demonstrate that there is no difference in the precision values obtained under the laboratory and the plant conditions; with mean precision values of better than 0.2%. Further, the plutonium concentration values determined by the two laboratories agreed within 0.3%. This exercise, therefore, demonstrates that ID-TIMS method using 239 Pu spike can be used for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel, under the plant conditions. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  14. Prospects for the application of fuel cells in electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, P L; Newbold, A [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Transport Technology; Barton, R T; Dudfield, C D; Mitchell, P J; Naylor, P [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-01-01

    For a hybrid vehicle the use pattern has large effect on the vehicle design. If the vehicle is to be used extensively on the motorway then a continuous high power is required. For the case of a fuel cell battery hybrid vehicle this would require a large fuel cell (> 30 kW) to meet the sustained high power demand. The current high materials and fabrication cost of most fuel cells prohibits the commercial development of such a system. Consequently if fuel cell vehicles are to enter a 'clean car' market, earlier rather than later, alternative configurations must be sought and compromises in terms of performance are inevitable. (orig.).

  15. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  16. Application of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuels in light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, C.; George, N.; Maldonado, I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee-Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States); Godfrey, A.; Terrani, K.; Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study performs a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of incorporation of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuels in light water reactors (LWRs). In particular, pin cell, lattice, and full core analyses are carried out on FCM fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Using uranium-based fuel and Pu/Np-based fuel in TRistructural isotropic (TRISO) particle form, each fuel design was examined using the SCALE 6.1 analytical suite. In regards to the uranium-based fuel, pin cell calculations were used to determine which fuel material performed best when implemented in the fuel kernel as well as the size of the kernel and surrounding particle layers. The higher fissile material density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, while the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design with 19.75% enrichment would need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO{sub 2} rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. As part of the fuel assembly design evaluations, fresh feed lattices were modeled to analyze the within-assembly pin power peaking. Also, a 'color-set' array of assemblies was constructed to evaluate power peaking and power sharing between a once-burned and a fresh feed assembly. In regards to the Pu/Np-based fuel, lattice calculations were performed to determine an optimal lattice design based on reactivity behavior, pin power peaking, and isotopic content. After obtaining a satisfactory lattice design, the feasibility of core designs fully loaded with Pu/Np FCM lattices was demonstrated using the NESTLE three-dimensional core simulator. (authors)

  17. Application of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuels in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, C.; George, N.; Maldonado, I.; Godfrey, A.; Terrani, K.; Gehin, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study performs a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of incorporation of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuels in light water reactors (LWRs). In particular, pin cell, lattice, and full core analyses are carried out on FCM fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Using uranium-based fuel and Pu/Np-based fuel in TRistructural isotropic (TRISO) particle form, each fuel design was examined using the SCALE 6.1 analytical suite. In regards to the uranium-based fuel, pin cell calculations were used to determine which fuel material performed best when implemented in the fuel kernel as well as the size of the kernel and surrounding particle layers. The higher fissile material density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, while the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design with 19.75% enrichment would need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO 2 rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. As part of the fuel assembly design evaluations, fresh feed lattices were modeled to analyze the within-assembly pin power peaking. Also, a 'color-set' array of assemblies was constructed to evaluate power peaking and power sharing between a once-burned and a fresh feed assembly. In regards to the Pu/Np-based fuel, lattice calculations were performed to determine an optimal lattice design based on reactivity behavior, pin power peaking, and isotopic content. After obtaining a satisfactory lattice design, the feasibility of core designs fully loaded with Pu/Np FCM lattices was demonstrated using the NESTLE three-dimensional core simulator. (authors)

  18. Application of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuels in Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Cole A [ORNL; George, Nathan M [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Godfrey, Andrew T [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to perform a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of incorporation of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuels in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). In particular pin cell, lattice, and full core analyses are carried out on FCM fuel in a pressurized water reactor. Using uranium-based fuel and transuranic (TRU) based fuel in TRistructural ISOtropic (TRISO) particle form, each fuel design was examined using the SCALE 6.1 analytical suite. In regards to the uranium-based fuel, pin cell calculations were used to determine which fuel material performed best when implemented in the fuel kernel as well as the size of the kernel and surrounding particle layers. The higher physical density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, while the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design would need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO2 rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. As part of the fuel assembly design evaluations, fresh feed lattices were modeled to analyze the within-assembly pin power peaking. Also, a color-set array of assemblies was constructed to evaluate power peaking and power sharing between a once-burned and a fresh feed assembly. In regards to the TRU based fuel, lattice calculations were performed to determine an optimal lattice design based on reactivity behavior, pin power peaking, and isotopic content. After obtaining a satisfactory lattice design, feasibility of core designs fully loaded with TRU FCM lattices was demonstrated using the NESTLE three-dimensional core simulator.

  19. Application of powder metallurgy in production of nuclear fuels for research and power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kosaku

    2000-01-01

    Powder metallurgy has been applied in many of the processes of nuclear fuel fabrication, which has contributed, to a great progress of the nuclear technology to date. Evolution of nuclear fuels still continues to meet various emerging demands in terms of enhanced safety, economical effectiveness, non-proliferation and environmental mitigation. This paper reviews recent progress of nuclear fuels of research and power reactors, in particular, focusing on the powder metallurgy application. First, the review is made on plate type fuels for research reactors, inter alia, silicide fuel which is prevailing worldwide from the viewpoint of non-proliferation. The relation between fabrication and irradiation behavior is also discussed. Next, oxide fuels including MOX are reviewed. Recent interests of UO 2 are directed toward large grain pellets and burnable absorber pellets, both of which arise from requirement of extended burnup. Finally, the MOX fuel for thermal reactors is reviewed. (author)

  20. Biomass fuel characterization for NOx emissions in cofiring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nola, G.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the impact of various biomass fuels and combustion conditions on the NOx emissions during biomass co-firing. Fossil fuels dominated the energy scenario since the industrial revolution. However, in the last decades, increasing concerns about their availability and

  1. Application of genetic algorithm in reactor fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Gang

    2002-01-01

    The genetic algorithm (GA) has been used in reactor fuel management of core arrangement optimal calculation. The chromosome coding method has been selected, and the parameters in GA operators have been improved, so the quality and efficiency of calculation in GA program have been greatly improved. According to the result, better core fuel position arrangement can be obtained from the GA calculation

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fleet Application for School Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propane Buses Jan. 26, 2016 Video thumbnail for Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets Biodiesel thumbnail for Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama May 1, 2012 Video School Transportation Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for New Hampshire Cleans up with Biodiesel Buses

  3. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W.; Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose

  4. RA3: Application of a calculation model for fuel management with SEFE (Slightly Enriched Fuel Elements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estryk, G.; Higa, M.

    1993-01-01

    The RA-3 (5 MW, MTR) reactor is mainly utilized to produce radioisotopes (Mo-99, I-131, etc.). It started operating with Low Enrichment Uranium (LEU) in 1990, and spends around 12 fuels per year. Although this consumption is small compared to a nuclear power station. It is important to do a good management of them. The present report describes: - A reactor model to perform the Fuel Shuffling. - Results of fuel management simulations for 2 and a half years of operation. Some features of the calculations can be summarized as follows: 1) A 3D calculation model is used with the code PUMA. It does not have experimental adjustments, except for some approximations in the reflector representation and predicts: power, flux distributions and reactivity of the core in an acceptable way. 2) Comparisons have been made with the measurements done in the commissioning with LEU fuels, and it has also been compared with the empirical method (the previous one) which had been used in the former times of operation with LEU fuel. 3) The number of points of the model is approximately 13500, an it can be run in 80386 personal computer. The present method has been verified as a good tool to perform the simulations for the fuel management of RA-3 reactor. It is expected to produce some economic advantages in: - Achieving a better utilization of the fuels. - Leaving more time of operation for radioisotopes production. The activation measurements through the whole core required by the previous method can be significantly reduced. (author)

  5. Estimation of PWR spent fuel composition using SCALE and SWAT code systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kenya, Suyama; Hiroshi, Okuno [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    The isotopic composition calculations were performed for 26 spent fuel samples from Obrigheim PWR reactor and 55 spent fuel samples from 7 PWR reactors using SCALE4.4 SAS2H with 27, 44 and 238 group cross-section libraries and SWAT with 107 group cross-section library. For convenience, the ratio of the measured to calculated value was used as a parameter. The four kinds of the calculation results were compared with the measured data. For many important nuclides for burnup credit criticality safety evaluation, the four methods applied in this study showed good coincidence with measurements in general. More precise observations showed the following results. Less unity ratios were found for Pu-239 and -241 for selected 16 samples out of the 26 samples from Obrigheim reactor. Larger than unity ratios were found for Am-241 for both the 16 and 55 samples. Larger than unity ratios were found for Sm-149 for the 55 samples. In the case of 26 sample SWAT was generally accompanied by larger ratios than those of SAS2H with some exceptions. Based on the measured-to-calculated ratios for 71 samples of a combined set in which 16 selected samples and 55 samples were included, the correction factors that should be multiplied to the calculated isotopic compositions were generated for a conservative estimate of the neutron multiplication factor of a system containing PWR spent fuel, taking burnup credit into account.

  6. An overview of power electronics applications in fuel cell systems: DC and AC converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Kamarudin, S K; Masdar, M S; Mohamed, A

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics and fuel cell technologies play an important role in the field of renewable energy. The demand for fuel cells will increase as fuel cells become the main power source for portable applications. In this application, a high-efficiency converter is an essential requirement and a key parameter of the overall system. This is because the size, cost, efficiency, and reliability of the overall system for portable applications primarily depend on the converter. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate converter topology is an important and fundamental aspect of designing a fuel cell system for portable applications as the converter alone plays a major role in determining the overall performance of the system. This paper presents a review of power electronics applications in fuel cell systems, which include various topology combinations of DC converters and AC inverters and which are primarily used in fuel cell systems for portable or stand-alone applications. This paper also reviews the switching techniques used in power conditioning for fuel cell systems. Finally, this paper addresses the current problem encountered with DC converters and AC inverter.

  7. Application of room temperature ionic liquids in advanced fuel cycles RIAR research concept program users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, Alexander V.; Kormilitsyn, Michael V.; Savochkin, Yuri P.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Smolensky, Valeri V.; Shadrin, Alexander Yu.; Babain, Vladimir A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the research program on application of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs) in some processes of the nuclear fuel reprocessing, particularly in the uranium-aluminum fuel reprocessing and separation of TPEs and REEs from the PUREX process liquid waste, and approaches to implementation of this program. (author)

  8. Technological aspects in synthesis and characterization of proton conducting polyetheretherketone (PEEK) membranes for fuel cell applications.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vaivars, G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research on ion-exchange membranes has grown considerably in recent years with the growing interest in fuel cell technology for the automotive and portable applications. The requirements for a fuel cell membrane are the following: high chemical...

  9. A new modified-serpentine flow field for application in high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singdeo, Debanand; Dey, Tapobrata; Gaikwad, Shrihari

    2017-01-01

    field design is proposed and its usefulness for the fuel cell applications are evaluated in a high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The proposed geometry retains some of the features of serpentine flow field such as multiple bends, while modifications are made in its in-plane flow path...

  10. The current status of fuel cell technology for mobile and stationary applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de F.A.

    2005-01-01

    This review of fuel cell technology gives an overview on the status of low and high temperature fuel cells, both on materials as well as on a system level. Their application in transport and the combined generation of heat and power is discussed in relation to their environmental benefits

  11. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Snead, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  12. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Lance Lewis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Mary A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  13. Hydrogen and fuel cells emerging technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen (Sorensen), Bent

    2011-01-01

    A hydrogen economy, in which this one gas provides the source of all energy needs, is often touted as the long-term solution to the environmental and security problems associated with fossil fuels. However, before hydrogen can be used as fuel on a global scale we must establish cost effective means of producing, storing, and distributing the gas, develop cost efficient technologies for converting hydrogen to electricity (e.g. fuel cells), and creating the infrastructure to support all this. Sorensen is the only text available that provides up to date coverage of all these issues at a level

  14. Radiation Grafted Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, G.G.; Wallasch, F.; Ben Youcef, H.; Gubler, L.

    2012-01-01

    Partially fluorinated proton exchange membranes prepared via radiation induced graft copolymerization ('radiation grafting') offer the prospect of cost-effective and tailor made membrane electrolytes for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The composition and structure of radiation grafted membranes can be adjusted in a broad range to balance the different requirements of proton transport and mechanical robustness. Based on the earlier work on Styrene grafting, the novel monomer combination α-methyl-styrene/methacrylonitrile (AMS/MAN) is introduced for improved stability in the prevailing fuel cell environment. Successful fuel cell experiments proved the concept. (author)

  15. Application of fuel management calculation codes for CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Haitao; Wu Hongchun

    2003-01-01

    Qinshan Phase III Nuclear Power Plant adopts CANDU-6 reactors. It is the first time for China to introduce this heavy water pressure tube reactor. In order to meet the demands of the fuel management calculation, DRAGON/DONJON code is developed in this paper. Some initial fuel management calculations about CANDU-6 reactor of Qinshan Phase III are carried out using DRAGON/DONJON code. The results indicate that DRAGON/DONJON can be used for the fuel management calculation for Qinshan Phase III

  16. Radiation Grafted Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, G G; Wallasch, F; Ben Youcef, H; Gubler, L [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    Partially fluorinated proton exchange membranes prepared via radiation induced graft copolymerization ('radiation grafting') offer the prospect of cost-effective and tailor made membrane electrolytes for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The composition and structure of radiation grafted membranes can be adjusted in a broad range to balance the different requirements of proton transport and mechanical robustness. Based on the earlier work on Styrene grafting, the novel monomer combination {alpha}-methyl-styrene/methacrylonitrile (AMS/MAN) is introduced for improved stability in the prevailing fuel cell environment. Successful fuel cell experiments proved the concept. (author)

  17. Commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wismer, L.

    1996-04-01

    Environmental concerns with air quality and global warming have triggered strict federal ambient ozone air quality standards. Areas on non-attainment of these standards exist across the United States. Because it contains several of the most difficult attainment areas, the State of California has adopted low emission standards including a zero emission vehicle mandate that has given rise to development of hybrid electric vehicles, both battery-powered and fuel-cell powered. Fuel cell powered vehicles, using on-board hydrogen as a fuel, share the non-polluting advantage of the battery electric vehicle while offering at least three times the range today`s battery technology.

  18. 76 FR 44457 - Application of Regulations on Fuel Venting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... that significantly reduces fuel consumption and emissions. This technology incorporates the use of a... vapors that have been observed when they emit from either the inlet or exit plane of the engine. The new...

  19. Modeling of laser cladding with application to fuel cell manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells have many advantages such as compactness, : lightweight, high power density, low temperature operation and near zero emissions. Although : many research organizations have intensified their efforts toward...

  20. Vented fuel experiment for gas-cooled fast reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longest, A.W.; Gat, U.; Conlin, J.A.; Campana, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A pressure-equalized and vented fuel rod is being irradiated in an instrumented capsule designated GB-10 to approximately 100 MWd/kg-heavy metal. The fuel is a sol-gel derived 88 atom-percent uranium (approximately 9 percent 235 U) 12 atom-percent plutonium oxide, and the cladding is 20 percent cold-worked 316 stainless steel. The capsule is being irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and has exceeded a burnup of 70 MWd/kg. The fuel has been operated at linear power rates of 39 and 44 kW/ m, and peak outer cladding temperature of 565 0 and 630 0 C respectively. A similar fuel rod in a previous capsule (GB-9) was subjected to 48 kW/m (685 0 C). 4 references. (auth)

  1. Ecological aspects of water coal fuel transportation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna SHVORNIKOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the aspects of influence of transportation process and burning of water coal fuel on an ecological condition of environment. Also mathematical dependences between coal ash level and power consumption for transportation are presented.

  2. Artificial neural networks application for solid fuel slagging intensity predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakietek Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slagging issues present in pulverized steam boilers very often lead to heat transfer problems, corrosion and not planned outages of boilers which increase the cost of energy production and decrease the efficiency of energy production. Slagging especially occurs in regions with reductive atmospheres which nowadays are very common due to very strict limitations in NOx emissions. Moreover alternative fuels like biomass which are also used in combustion systems from two decades in order to decrease CO2 emissions also usually increase the risk of slagging. Thus the prediction of slagging properties of fuels is not the minor issue which can be neglected before purchasing or mixing of fuels. This however is rather difficult to estimate and even commonly known standard laboratory methods like fusion temperature determination or special indexers calculated on the basis of proximate and ultimate analyses, very often have no reasonable correlation to real boiler fuel behaviour. In this paper the method of determination of slagging properties of solid fuels based on laboratory investigation and artificial neural networks were presented. A fuel data base with over 40 fuels was created. Neural networks simulations were carried out in order to predict the beginning temperature and intensity of slagging. Reasonable results were obtained for some of tested neural networks, especially for hybrid feedforward networks with PCA technique. Consequently neural network model will be used in Common Intelligent Boiler Operation Platform (CIBOP being elaborated within CERUBIS research project for two BP-1150 and BB-1150 steam boilers. The model among others enables proper fuel selection in order to minimize slagging risk.

  3. Microstructural evolution of nanograin nickel-zirconia cermet anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Bibhuti Bhusan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to study the structure, microstructure, porosity, thermal expansion, electrical conductivity and electrochemical behavior of the anode material thus synthesized in order to find its suitability for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode application

  4. DGMK 729. Application characteristics of fuels with biogenic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neulen, Martin; Hoffmann, Hajo [OWI - Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Using the test rig developed within a project funded by the DGMK (project 729), fuel can be aged semi-realistically in a short time. The test rig was designed to age a fuel within less than 1,000 hours of operation. Another aspect was to investigate the influence of the different aging mechanisms on the fuel, such as light, ambient air, high temperatures and mechanical stress. By defining these parameters and intensifying them, the goal of 1,000 hours of operation has already been achieved in the first test run. A high repeatability and the possibility to vary the parameters of the test runs for all four nearly identical apparatuses are the main characteristics of this test rig. With this test rig it can be tried out how additives react when the fuel ages and how a fuel behaves during its storage. The test runs are supervised by pressure transducer and thermocouples, so that the test rig can be operated unattendedly when started. During the test run every 300 hours of operation fuel samples are taken. These samples are analyzed according to an analysis matrix. Furthermore, the deposits sedimented in the filters or other components can be analyzed. By this, the aging can be understood and monitored. (orig.)

  5. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Fuel Cell Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan

    2008-01-01

    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Fuel cell research focused on proton exchange membranes (PEM), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Specific technologies included aircraft fuel cell reformers, new and improved electrodes, electrolytes, interconnect, and seals, modeling of fuel cells including CFD coupled with impedance spectroscopy. Research was conducted on new materials and designs for fuel cells, along with using embedded sensors with power management electronics to improve the power density delivered by fuel cells. Fuel cell applications considered were in-space operations, aviation, and ground-based fuel cells such as; powering auxiliary power units (APUs) in aircraft; high power density, long duration power supplies for interplanetary missions (space science probes and planetary rovers); regenerative capabilities for high altitude aircraft; and power supplies for reusable launch vehicles.

  6. Fuel Cell Backup Power System for Grid Service and Micro-Grid in Telecommunication Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-22

    This paper presents the feasibility and economics of using fuel cell backup power systems in telecommunication cell towers to provide grid services (e.g., ancillary services, demand response). The fuel cells are able to provide power for the cell tower during emergency conditions. This study evaluates the strategic integration of clean, efficient, and reliable fuel cell systems with the grid for improved economic benefits. The backup systems have potential as enhanced capability through information exchanges with the power grid to add value as grid services that depend on location and time. The economic analysis has been focused on the potential revenue for distributed telecommunications fuel cell backup units to provide value-added power supply. This paper shows case studies on current fuel cell backup power locations and regional grid service programs. The grid service benefits and system configurations for different operation modes provide opportunities for expanding backup fuel cell applications responsive to grid needs.

  7. Assessment of hydrogen fuel cell applications using fuzzy multiple-criteria decision making method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Pao-Long; Hsu, Chiung-Wen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study uses the fuzzy MCDM method to assess hydrogen fuel cell applications. ► We evaluate seven different hydrogen fuel cell applications based on 14 criteria. ► Results show that fuel cell backup power systems should be chosen for development in Taiwan. -- Abstract: Assessment is an essential process in framing government policy. It is critical to select the appropriate targets to meet the needs of national development. This study aimed to develop an assessment model for evaluating hydrogen fuel cell applications and thus provide a screening tool for decision makers. This model operates by selecting evaluation criteria, determining criteria weights, and assessing the performance of hydrogen fuel cell applications for each criterion. The fuzzy multiple-criteria decision making method was used to select the criteria and the preferred hydrogen fuel cell products based on information collected from a group of experts. Survey questionnaires were distributed to collect opinions from experts in different fields. After the survey, the criteria weights and a ranking of alternatives were obtained. The study first defined the evaluation criteria in terms of the stakeholders, so that comprehensive influence criteria could be identified. These criteria were then classified as environmental, technological, economic, or social to indicate the purpose of each criterion in the assessment process. The selected criteria included 14 indicators, such as energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions, as well as seven hydrogen fuel cell applications, such as forklifts and backup power systems. The results show that fuel cell backup power systems rank the highest, followed by household fuel cell electric-heat composite systems. The model provides a screening tool for decision makers to select hydrogen-related applications.

  8. Dynamic fuel cell models and their application in hardware in the loop simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Zijad; Maencher, H. [MAGNUM Automatisierungstechnik GmbH, Bunsenstr. 22, D-64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Vath, Andreas; Hartkopf, Th. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt/Institut fuer Elektrische Energiewandlung, Landgraf-Georg-Str. 4, D-64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-03-21

    Currently, fuel cell technology plays an important role in the development of alternative energy converters for mobile, portable and stationary applications. With the help of physical based models of fuel cell systems and appropriate test benches it is possible to design different applications and investigate their stationary and dynamic behaviour. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system model includes gas humidifier, air and hydrogen supply, current converter and a detailed stack model incorporating the physical characteristics of the different layers. In particular, the use of these models together with hardware in the loop (HIL) capable test stands helps to decrease the costs and accelerate the development of fuel cell systems. The interface program provides fast data exchange between the test bench and the physical model of the fuel cell or any other systems in real time. So the flexibility and efficiency of the test bench increase fundamentally, because it is possible to replace real components with their mathematical models. (author)

  9. Deep desulfurization of jet fuel for applications in mobile fuel cell systems; Tiefentschwefelung von Flugturbinenkraftstoffen fuer die Anwendung in mobilen Brennstoffzellensystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong

    2012-07-01

    Fuel cell powered APUs are promising for the on-board electricity supply in heavy vehicles, aircraft and ships because of their high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. The catalytical reforming with subsequent gas processing units is applied to operate the fuel cell system with onboard available fuels. Within the reformer the liquid fuel is converted into a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas in the presence of metal catalysts. However, an on-board desulfurization of fuels is required to avoid the deactivation of catalysts in the fuel processing unit as well as in the fuel cell. The present work aims at developing a technically feasible deep desulfurization process for fuel cell powered APUs with theoretical and experimental study as well as procedural analysis. The focus of the work is on the desulfurization of jet fuels in liquid phase, since the reformer currently developed in IEK-3 is designed for aviation applications of fuel cell APUs and it can only be operated by liquid jet fuels. In addition, the desulfurization of marine gas oil was investigated to fulfill the sulfur requirement of the fuels for the application of fuel cell A PUs for inland navigation. In the petroleum industry, low-sulfur fuels are often obtained by hydrodesulfurization and the S-Zorb Process. However, these conventional methods are highly inconvenient for reducing sulfur compounds to the desired level in a mobile fuel cell system, since improvements of the desulfurization efficiency are limited by increasingly severe operating conditions and escalating costs. Moreover, the hydrodesulfurization and the S-Zorb Process are not suitable for mobile applications, since hydrogen recycling is required, which is not possible with H{sub 2} syngas. To this end, a large number of processes discussed in the literature were assessed with regard to their application in fuel cell APUs. Three potentially suitable processes were selected: pervaporation, adsorption, and hydrodesulfurization with pre

  10. High U-density nuclear fuel development with application of centrifugal atomization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Don Bae

    1997-01-01

    In order to simplify the preparation process and improve the properties of uranium silicide fuels prepared by mechanical comminution, a fuel fabrication process applying rotating-disk centrifugal atomization technology was invented in KAERI in 1989. The major characteristic of atomized U 3 Si and U 3 Si 2 powders have been examined. The out-pile properties, including the thermal compatibility between atomized particle and aluminum matrix in uranium silicide dispersion fuels, have generally showed a superiority to the comminuted fuels. Moreover, the RERTR (reduced enrichment for research and test reactors) program, which recently begins to develop very-high-density uranium alloy fuels, including U-Mo fuels, requires the centrifugal atomization process to overcome the contaminations of impurities and the difficulties of the comminution process. In addition, a cooperation with ANL in the U.S. has been performed to develop high-density fuels with an application of atomization technology since December 1996. If the microplate and miniplate irradiation tests of atomized fuels, which have been performed with ANL, demonstrated the stability and improvement of in-reactor behaviors, nuclear fuel fabrication technology by centrifugal atomization could be most-promising to the production method of very-high-uranium-loading fuels. (author). 22 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  11. Phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes: Physiochemical characterization and fuel cell applications [PEM fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Bjerrum, Niels

    2001-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operational at temperatures around 150-200 degrees C is desirable for fast electrode kinetics and high tolerance to fuel impurities. For this purpose polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes have been prepared and H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/-doped in a doping range from 300...... doping level. At 160 degrees C a conductivity as high as 0.13 S cm/sup -1/ is obtained for membranes of high doping levels. Mechanical strength measurements show, however, that a high acid doping level results in poor mechanical properties. At operational temperatures up to 190 degrees C, fuel cells...... based on this polymer membrane have been tested with both hydrogen and hydrogen containing carbon monoxide....

  12. The use of metal hydrides in fuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo V. Lototskyy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews state-of-the-art developments in hydrogen energy systems which integrate fuel cells with metal hydride-based hydrogen storage. The 187 reference papers included in this review provide an overview of all major publications in the field, as well as recent work by several of the authors of the review. The review contains four parts. The first part gives an overview of the existing types of fuel cells and outlines the potential of using metal hydride stores as a source of hydrogen fuel. The second part of the review considers the suitability and optimisation of different metal hydrides based on their energy efficient thermal integration with fuel cells. The performances of metal hydrides are considered from the viewpoint of the reversible heat driven interaction of the metal hydrides with gaseous H2. Efficiencies of hydrogen and heat exchange in hydrogen stores to control H2 charge/discharge flow rates are the focus of the third section of the review and are considered together with metal hydride – fuel cell system integration issues and the corresponding engineering solutions. Finally, the last section of the review describes specific hydrogen-fuelled systems presented in the available reference data.

  13. Development of materials for fuel cell application by radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Junju; Lee, Gyoungja; Lee, Byung Cheol; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Youngchang; Kang, Philhyun; Sohn, Joon Yong; Rang, Uhm Young

    2012-06-01

    The development of the single cell of SOFC with low operation temperature at and below 650 .deg. C(above 400 mW/cm 2 ) Ο The development of fabrication method for the single cell of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) by dip-coating of nanoparticles such as NiO, YSZ, Ag, and Ag/C, etc. Ο The optimization of the preparation and performance of SOFC by using nanoparticles. Ο The preparation of samples for SOFC with large dimension. The development of fluoropolymer-based fuel cell membranes with crosslinked structure by radiation grafting technique Ο The development of fuel cell membranes with low methanol permeability via the introduction of novel monomers (e. g. vinylbenzyl chloride and vinylether chloride) by radiation grafting technique Ο The development of hydrocarbon fuel cell membrane by radiation crosslinking technique Ο The structure analysis and the evaluations of the property, performance, and radiation effect of the prepared membranes Ο The optimization of the preparation and performance of DMFC fuel cell membrane via the structure-property analysis (power: above 130 mW/cm 2 /50 cm 2 at 5M methanol) Ο The preparation of samples for MEA stack assembly

  14. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  15. Characterization of polymer electrolytes for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Springer, T.E.; Uribe, F.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1992-01-01

    We review here our recent work on polymer electrolyte fuel cells emphasizing membrane transport issues. Transport parameters measured at 30 degrees C for several available perfluorosulfonic acid membranes are compared. The water sorption characteristics, diffusion coefficient of water, electroosmotic drag, and pretonic conductivity were determined for Nafion reg-sign 117, Membrane C, and Dow XUS 13204.10 Developmental Fuel Cell Membrane. The diffusion coefficient and conductivity of each of these membranes were determined as functions of membrane water content. Data on water sorption and conductivity are reported for an experimental membrane which is a modified form of Nafion. Contact angle measurements indicate that the surface of a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane exposed to water vapor is quite hydrophobic, even in the presence of saturated water vapor. Modeling of water distribution in PEFC's based on the uptake and transport data shows that membrane thickness contributes in a nonlinear fashion to performance in PEM fuel cells. Finally, some work currently underway is discussed

  16. Application of spent fuel treatment technology to plutonium immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Ackerman, J.P.; Gay, E.C., Johnson, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the electrometallurgical treatment technology being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is to convert certain spent nuclear fuels into waste forms that are suitable for disposal in a geological repository for nuclear waste. The spent fuels of interest are those that cannot be safely stored for a long time in their current condition, and those that cannot be qualified for repository disposal. This paper explores the possibility of applying this electrometallurgical treatment technology to immobilization of surplus fissile materials, primarily plutonium. Immobilization of surplus fissile materials by electrometallurgical treatment could be done in the same facilities, at the same time. and in the same equipment as the proposed treatment of the present inventory of spent nuclear fuel. The cost and schedule savings of this simultaneous treatment scheme would be significant

  17. Coating applications for the molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A.; Skok, A.J.; Patel, P.S.; Maru, H.C.

    1981-09-25

    The molten carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient low polluting fuel-to-electricity conversion device which is at present being developed for power plant and industrial use. Because the alkali carbonates at the operating temperature of 650/sup 0/C are corrosive and the methods employed for sealing the cell lead to certain electrochemical corrosion couples, different types of protective coatings are needed to minimize attack in a cost-effective manner. Besides protective purposes, other opportunities are also described where coating technology can be gainfully employed in this system.

  18. Vented fuel experiment for gas-cooled fast reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longest, A.W.; Gat, U.; Conlin, J.A.; Campana, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A pressure-equalized and vented fuel rod is being irradiated in an instrumented capsule designated GB-10 to approximately 100MWd/kg-heavy metal. The fuel is a sol-gel-derived 88 at.% uranium (approximately 9% 235 U) and 12 at.% plutonium oxide, and the cladding is 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel. The capsule is being irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and has exceeded a burnup of 70MWd/kg. The fuel has been operated at linear power rates of 39 and 44kW/m, and peak outer cladding temperature of 565 and 630 0 C respectively. A similar fuel rod in a previous capsule (GB-9) was subjected to 48kW/m (685 0 C). Helium gas sweeps through any portion of the three regions of the fuel rod, namely: fuel, blanket, and charcoal trap. The charcoal trap is operated at about 300 0 C. An on-line Ge(Li) detector is used to analyse release rates of several gamma-emitting noble gas isotopes. Analyses are performed primarily on sweep gas flowing through the entire fuel rod, and for sweeps over the top of the charcoal trap. Sweep gas samples are analyzed for stable noble gas isotopes. Results in the form of ratios of release rate over birth rate (R/B) and venting rate over birth rate (V/B) are derived. R/B rates range from 10 -4 % to 30% while V/B ranges from 10 -6 % to 30%. Flow conductance in the capsule was monitored by recording the flow rate and pressure drop across the fuel rod and inlet sweep line. The flow conductance has been falling with increasing burnup, currently restricting the flow to about 20ml (s.t.p.)/min at a pressure difference of about 1.5MPa. Venting rates of the gaseous fission products as a function of gas pressure in the range 6.9 to 1.4MPa have also been measured. Planned future experiments include the monitoring of tritium release, venting and cladding permeation rates, and its molecular form. First measurements have been made. A simulated leak experiment will determine the mixture of fission gases as a function of flow rate and the most

  19. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    A study was conducted of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant in South Carolina to determine if that facility can be utilized in support of the nonproliferation objectives of the United States; and for activities contributing to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation to be carried out under contract at the Barnwell plant. One of the conclusions of this study is that there is nothing to support modification of the Presidential decision that the BNFP receive neither Federal encouragement nor funding for its completion on a reprocessing facility

  20. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  1. Evaluation of AECL catalysts for hydrogen fuel-cell applications. Paper no. IGEC-1-073

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Suppiah, S.; Li, H.; Kutchcoskie, K.J.; Strikwerda, S.

    2005-01-01

    AECL has been engaged in the promotion of the nuclear-hydrogen economy, which envisions that hydrogen fuel cells will generate power using hydrogen as fuel produced by nuclear energy. Since AECL's catalysts developed for the production, upgrading and detritiation of heavy water are very similar to commercial fuel-cell catalysts, a program was initiated to evaluate AECL catalysts for fuel-cell applications. As a first step in this effort, a half-cell test facility was set up to characterize the performance of catalysts for hydrogen fuel cells. This paper outlines the results obtained from cathodic reduction of oxygen in a 0.5 M sulphuric acid solution on a rotating disc electrode at 65 o C. The performance of the catalysts was characterized using standard electrochemical methods including cyclic voltammetry, Voltammogram/Tafel plots and short-term stability plots. Several monometallic Pt and Pt-based bimetallic catalysts were tested and compared with a commercially available catalyst for fuel-cell applications. AECL's monometallic Pt catalysts showed comparable or better activities than commercial catalysts with similar Pt loading. An AECL Pt-based bimetallic catalyst has shown superior performance to a monometallic Pt catalyst with similar Pt loading. Evaluation of various catalyst formulations is ongoing on the half-cell facility at AECL. Further investigation of promising catalysts identified from half-cell test is also being carried out in single fuel cell on test stations under normal fuel-cell operating conditions. (author)

  2. Fuel cells for military applications - an overview of the DERA programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakeman, J.B.; Green, K.J.; Mepsted, G.O.; Browning, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    DERA is investigating fuel cells at all sizes for military applications, but two applications stand out: man-portable power and hybrid electric vehicles. The future fighting soldier will have various electrical equipments in order to maximise his combat effectiveness. Although electronic circuitry is becoming increasingly efficient, the soldier's power budget will significantly increase as more equipments are added and higher performances are specified. Consequently, there is a pressing need for high performance, man-portable power sources to replace the traditional, low performance, rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery. The paper reports a novel, potentially low cost, simple to construct, lightweight, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) being developed at DERA Haslar as well as briefly mentioning alternatives. Another key application area could be military vehicles, both terrestrial and marine, where a fuel cell could be used as apart of a hybrid power train. The success of the fuel cell in military HEVs will depend on its ability to utilise a military logistic fuel, namely diesel. Two fuel cell options are described, which are being investigated by DERA: the high temperature proton conducting fuel cell (HTPCFC) and the high power PEMFC. (author)

  3. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 5, addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This Addendum to AG-L105 addresses the utilization of the Service Concentrator for evaporation of low level wastes generated during fuel receiving and storage operations. The Service Concentrator is described from various viewpoints and necessary relevant data are included for adequate assessment of safety. (U.S.)

  4. Application of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    In this study a general PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) model has been developed to take into account the effect of pressure losses, water crossovers, humidity aspects and voltage over potentials in the cells. The model is zero dimensional and it is assumed to be steady state. The effect...

  5. Fuel cells in mobile applications; Die Brennstoffzelle im mobilen Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.K.H. [Daimler Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    The contribution presents the new electric vehicle developed by Daimler Benz AG, NECAR II (New Electric Car), which is fuelled by fuel cells. The future prospects of this technology are discussed. (MM) [Deutsch] Berichtet wird kurz ueber das von Daimler Benz AG vorgestellte Brennstoffzellen-Elektrofahrzeug NECAR II - New Electric Car - sowie ueber die Zukunftsaussichten dieses Antriebs. (MM) (MM)

  6. Applications for fueling of Forsmark-3 and Oskarshamn III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The method for handling and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel outlined in the report KBS-3 has been found acceptable in relation to conventional and radiation safety. The main institutions agree on this, IAEA and other international institutions deem the method over-safe. The KBS-3 study has left some problems unsolved. Further research projects have been identified. (Aa)

  7. Review of portable applications of fuel cell technology 2008; Teknikbevakning av portabla tillaempningar foer braenslecellstekniken 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Eva; Lundblad, Anders; Wennstam, Emelie

    2009-03-15

    The definition of portable fuel cells, or micro fuel cells as they are often called, is usually that its nominal power is below 250 W. There are, however, several widely separated applications and technical challenges in the span up to 250 W. Portable fuel cells from 1-10 W have potential applications in hand held electronics, wireless sensors, wireless networks and less power demanding equipment for outdoor life such as bicycle lamps, head lamps etc. The technical challenges involved here are mainly about cost, miniaturizing, dealing with heat rejection/cooling, stability/life and the fuel cell infrastructure - how shall the user 'fill' his/her fuel cell? Medium-sized, portable fuel cells between 10-50 W have potential applications in portable military equipment, larger portable electronics such as DVD players, camcorders and laptops (both for direct power and for charging of integrated batteries), to operate rescue equipment and as reserve power, and to replace some stationary power (APU). Also in this area challenges lie in cost, miniaturizing and heat rejection. Larger portable fuel cells of 50-250 W can for example be used in military equipment for charging of batteries, in rescue equipment and medical treatments, in boats and mobile homes, in small electric vehicles (manned or unmanned) and for remote power. In this type of replacement products the cost aspect is important, e g for material and system components. In this technique survey report we have analysed in total 31 pure micro fuel cell companies. In addition, we have also studied 14 larger electronic companies active in the fuel cell development. The three main technologies for portable fuel cell systems are Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Micro fuel cells that have been sold and have been available on the market up till today have been of the PEMFC and DMFC type and have mainly been used, to a limited extent

  8. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild, P.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; De Bruijn, F.A.; Stobbe, E.R. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-02-15

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based (e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To prevent detrimental effects on the (electro)catalysts in fuel cell-based combined heat and power installations (FC-CHP), sulphur removal from the feedstock is mandatory. An experimental bench-marking study of adsorbents has identified several candidates for the removal of sulphur containing odorants at low temperature. Among these adsorbents a new material has been discovered that offers an economically attractive means to remove TetraHydroThiophene (THT), the main European odorant, from natural gas at ambient temperature. The material is environmentally benign, easy to use and possesses good activity (residual sulphur levels below 20 ppbv) and capacity for the common odorant THT in natural gas. When compared to state-of-the-art metal-promoted active carbon the new material has a THT uptake capacity that is up to 10 times larger, depending on temperature and pressure. Promoted versions of the new material have shown potential for the removal of THT at higher temperatures and/or for the removal of other odorants such as mercaptans from natural gas or from LPG.

  9. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Wild, P.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; de Bruijn, F.A.; Stobbe, E.R. [Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-09-22

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based (e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To prevent detrimental effects on the (electro)catalysts in fuel cell-based combined heat and power installations (FC-CHP), sulphur removal from the feedstock is mandatory. An experimental bench-marking study of adsorbents has identified several candidates for the removal of sulphur containing odorants at low temperature. Among these adsorbents a new material has been discovered that offers an economically attractive means to remove TetraHydroThiophene (THT), the main European odorant, from natural gas at ambient temperature. The material is environmentally benign, easy to use and possesses good activity (residual sulphur levels below 20ppbv) and capacity for the common odorant THT in natural gas. When compared to state-of-the-art metal-promoted active carbon the new material has a THT uptake capacity that is up to 10 times larger, depending on temperature and pressure. Promoted versions of the new material have shown potential for the removal of THT at higher temperatures and/or for the removal of other odorants such as mercaptans from natural gas or from LPG. (author)

  10. A review on the heterogeneous thorium fuel concept for PWR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, H. K.; Noh, J. M.; Yoo, J. W.; Kim, K. H.

    2001-08-01

    Seed-blanket unit (SBU) and whole assembly seed and blanket (WASB) are being investigated for the PWR application as well as homogeneous thorium fuel under the US NERI program. For the verification of HELIOS capability for thorium analysis, the characteristics of heterogeneous thorium fuels was evaluated by HELIOS color-set calculation and compared with the calculation results of the US NERI. The infinite multiplication factors from HELIOS calculation are in good agreement with CASMO-4 except for SBU which uses metallic fuel for seed material. The maximum relative difference in power distribution is occurred in WASB case, and is about 5% compared to MCNP. The isotopic concentrations for Am-241, Am-243, and Cm-244 of HELIOS agree well with CASMO-4's, but show a significant discrepancy from MOCUP mainly caused by the old data of cross section and decay constants in ORIGEN. The nonproliferation characteristic of thorium-based fuel such as critical mass, spontaneous fission rate, decay heat generation rate are superior to the conventional uranium fuel. Even though the diversion of U-233 produced in blanket is a technically difficult, the enrichment of uranium isotopes including U-233 is slightly over the limit for safeguard aspects. The urnaium contents in thorium fuel is need to be adjusted in order to meet the safeguard limit. A preliminary assessment of fuel economics was performed based on the uranium utilization and SWU utilization. The natural uranium utilization factors of heterogeneous thorium-based fuel increased by 10δ18%, but the SWU utilization factor decreased by 6-δ11% compared to uranium fuel. The cost of uranium purchase of 50USI/KgU and SWU cost of 110USI/SWU-Kg, recommended by OECD/NEA, gives a comparable economics of thorium-based fuel to uraium fuel. The detailed fuel cycle analysis will take account of the other factors like the variation of uranium purchase cost and SWU cost, fabrication cost of thorium fuel, thorium purchase cost, the capcity

  11. A review on the heterogeneous thorium fuel concept for PWR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, H. K.; Noh, J. M.; Yoo, J. W.; Kim, K. H

    2001-08-01

    Seed-blanket unit (SBU) and whole assembly seed and blanket (WASB) are being investigated for the PWR application as well as homogeneous thorium fuel under the US NERI program. For the verification of HELIOS capability for thorium analysis, the characteristics of heterogeneous thorium fuels was evaluated by HELIOS color-set calculation and compared with the calculation results of the US NERI. The infinite multiplication factors from HELIOS calculation are in good agreement with CASMO-4 except for SBU which uses metallic fuel for seed material. The maximum relative difference in power distribution is occurred in WASB case, and is about 5% compared to MCNP. The isotopic concentrations for Am-241, Am-243, and Cm-244 of HELIOS agree well with CASMO-4's, but show a significant discrepancy from MOCUP mainly caused by the old data of cross section and decay constants in ORIGEN. The nonproliferation characteristic of thorium-based fuel such as critical mass, spontaneous fission rate, decay heat generation rate are superior to the conventional uranium fuel. Even though the diversion of U-233 produced in blanket is a technically difficult, the enrichment of uranium isotopes including U-233 is slightly over the limit for safeguard aspects. The urnaium contents in thorium fuel is need to be adjusted in order to meet the safeguard limit. A preliminary assessment of fuel economics was performed based on the uranium utilization and SWU utilization. The natural uranium utilization factors of heterogeneous thorium-based fuel increased by 10{delta}18%, but the SWU utilization factor decreased by 6-{delta}11% compared to uranium fuel. The cost of uranium purchase of 50USI/KgU and SWU cost of 110USI/SWU-Kg, recommended by OECD/NEA, gives a comparable economics of thorium-based fuel to uraium fuel. The detailed fuel cycle analysis will take account of the other factors like the variation of uranium purchase cost and SWU cost, fabrication cost of thorium fuel, thorium purchase cost

  12. Modeling and dynamics of an autothermal JP5 fuel reformer for marine fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsourapas, Vasilis; Sun, Jing; Nickens, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a dynamic model of an integrated autothermal reformer (ATR) and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM FC) system and model-based evaluation of its dynamic characteristics are presented. The ATR reforms JP5 fuel into a hydrogen rich flow. The hydrogen is extracted from the reformate flow by a separator membrane (SEP), then supplied to the PEM FC for power generation. A catalytic burner (CB) and a turbine are also incorporated to recuperate energy from the remaining SEP flow that would otherwise be wasted. A dynamic model of this system, based on the ideal gas law and energy balance principles, is developed and used to explore the effects of the operating setpoint selection of the SEP on the overall system efficiency. The analysis reveals that a trade-off exists between the SEP efficiency and the overall system efficiency. Finally the open loop system simulation results are presented and conclusions are drawn on the SEP operation

  13. APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF SPENT FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drayer, R.

    2013-06-09

    Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each

  14. Applications of current technology for continuous monitoring of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drayer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each

  15. Electrochemical evaluation of electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications : a practical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, M.H. [General Motors R and D Technical Center, Warren, MI (United States); Gyenge, E.L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Northwood, D.O. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Various electrochemical techniques were used to investigate supported nano-size electrocatalysts during the oxidation of a specific fuel for fuel cell applications. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) on static and dynamic rotating disc electrodes (RDE) and fuel cell station tests demonstrated that the most active catalyst showed the most negative oxidation peak potential. A Tafel equation indicated that a low anodic/cathodic overpotential was a clear indication of higher catalytic activity. The lower overpotential was achieved for a specific current load by ensuring a low Tafel slope and as high an exchange current density as possible. The RDE and fuel cell station tests showed that the best performance was recorded for electrocatalysts with the Tafel slope values and exchange current densities that gave rise to the lowest overpotential. The study demonstrated that RDE and CV can be used to reliably assess electrocatalysts prior to full fuel cell testing. 52 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Application of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell to space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myles, K.M.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is a promising electrochemical power generation device that is currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory. The extremely high power density of the MSOFC leads to MSOFC systems that have sufficiently high energy densities that they are excellent candidates for a number of space missions. The fuel cell can also be operated in reverse, if it can be coupled to an external power source, to regenerate the fuel and oxidant from the water product. This feature further enhances the potential mission applications of the MSOFC. In this paper, the current status of the fuel cell development is presented---the focus being on fabrication and currently achievable performance. In addition, a specific example of a space power system, featuring a liquid metal cooled fast spectrum nuclear reactor and a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, is presented to demonstrate the features of an integrated system

  17. Application of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell to space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Kevin M.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    1991-01-01

    The monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is a promising electrochemical power generation device that is currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory. The extremely high power density of the MSOFC leads to MSOFC systems that have sufficiently high energy densities that they are excellent candidates for a number of space missions. The fuel cell can also be operated in reverse, if it can be coupled to an external power source, to regenerate the fuel and oxidant from the water product. This feature further enhances the potential mission applications of the MSOFC. In this paper, the current status of the fuel cell development is presented—the focus being on fabrication and currently achievable performance. In addition, a specific example of a space power system, featuring a liquid metal cooled fast spectrum nuclear reactor and a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, is presented to demonstrate the features of an integrated system.

  18. A review on the electrochemical applications of room temperature ionic liquids in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    A mini review on the electrochemical applications of room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) in nuclear fuel cycle is presented. It is shown that how the fascinating properties of RTIL can be tuned to deliver desirable application in aqueous and non-aqueous reprocessing and in nuclear waste management. (author)

  19. 76 FR 65544 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0323] Standard Format and Content of License Applications... revision to regulatory guide (RG) 3.39, ``Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities.'' This guide endorses the standard format and content for license...

  20. Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2008-01-01

    with implementation of low-NOx combustion technologies. The present thesis concerns three areas of importance within this field: 1) testing of fly ash adsorption behavior; 2) the influence of fuel type and combustion conditions on the ash adsorption behaviour including full-scale experiments at the power plant...... has a low sensitivity toward small variations in AEA adsorption between different fly ashes and it requires further work before a finished procedure is accomplished. Finally, it was shown that changes in temperature affect both test methods. Pulverized fuel has been combusted in an entrained flow...... formation. It was found that the AEA adsorption of the fly ash was reduced up to five times compared to reference operation, when the plant was operated with minimum furnace air staging, three levels of burners instead of four and without recycled flue gas. The lower AEA requirements of the fly ash...

  1. Performance evaluation of direct methanol fuel cells for portable applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, R.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Berg, P. [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    This study examines the feasibility of powering a range of portable devices with a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The analysis includes a comparison between a Li-ion battery and DMFC to supply the power for a laptop, camcorder and a cell phone. A parametric study of the systems for an operational period of 4 years is performed. Under the assumptions made for both the Li-ion battery and DMFC system, the battery cost is lower than the DMFC during the first year of operation. However, by the end of 4 years of operational time, the DMFC system would cost less. The weight and cost comparisons show that the fuel cell system occupies less space than the battery to store a higher amount of energy. The weight of both systems is almost identical. Finally, the CO{sub 2} emissions can be decreased by a higher exergetic efficiency of the DMFC, which leads to improved sustainability. (author)

  2. Molten Salt Fuel Cycle Requirements for ADTT Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.; Williams, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The operation of an ADT system with the associated nuclear reactions has a profound effect upon the chemistry of the fuel - especially with regards to container compatibility and the chemical separations that may be required. The container can be protected by maintaining the redox chemistry within a relatively narrow, non-corrosive window. Neutron economy as well as other factors require a sophisticated regime of fission product separations. Neither of these control requirements has been demonstrated on the scale or degree of sophistication necessary to support an ADT device. We review the present situation with respect to fluoride salts, and focus on the critical issues in these areas which must be addressed. One requirement for advancement in this area - a supply of suitable materials - will soon be fulfilled by the remediation of ORNLs Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, and the removal of a total of 11,000 kg of enriched (Li-7 > 99.9%) coolant, flush, and fuel salts

  3. Perovskite solid electrolytes: Structure, transport properties and fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, N.; Knight, K.S.; Ellis, B.

    1995-01-01

    Doped barium cerate perovskites, first investigated by Iwahara and co-workers, have ionic conductivities of the order of 20 mS/cm at 800 degrees C making them attractive as fuel cell electrolytes for this temperature region. They have been used to construct laboratory scale fuel cells, which...... vapour transfer in a cell in which the perovskite is exposed to wet hydrogen on both sides. The evolution of transport properties with temperature is discussed in relation to structure. Neutron diffraction studies of doped and undoped barium cerate are reported, revealing a series of phase transitions...... between ambient temperature and 1000 degrees C. The available literature on chemical stability of cerate perovskites to reduction and attack by carbon dioxide is reviewed in brief....

  4. Application of fault tree analysis to fuel cell diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousfi Steiner, N.; Mocoteguy, P. [European Institute for Energy Research (EIFER), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hissel, D. [FEMTO-ST/ENISYS/FC LAB, UMR CNRS 6174, University of Franche-Comte, Belfort (France); Candusso, D. [IFSTTAR/FC LAB, Institute of Science and Technology for Transport, Development and Networks, Belfort (France); Marra, D.; Pianese, C.; Sorrentino, M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    Reliability and lifetime are common issues for the development and commercialization of fuel cells technologies'. As a consequence, their improvement is a major challenge and the last decade has experienced a growing interest in activities that aims at understanding the degradation mechanisms and at developing fuel cell systems diagnosis tools. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is one of the deductive tools that allow ''linking'' an undesired state to a combination of lower-level events via a ''top-down'' approach which is mainly used in safety and reliability engineering. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the use and the contribution of FTA to both SOFC and PEFC diagnosis. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Optimal design and operation of solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert Joseph

    The advent of maturing fuel cell technologies presents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiencies at many scales; thereby, simultaneously extending our finite resources and reducing "harmful" energy-related emissions to levels well below that of near-future regulatory standards. However, before realization of the advantages of fuel cells can take place, systems-level design issues regarding their application must be addressed. Using modeling and simulation, the present work offers optimal system design and operation strategies for stationary solid oxide fuel cell systems applied to single-family detached dwellings. A one-dimensional, steady-state finite-difference model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is generated and verified against other mathematical SOFC models in the literature. Fuel cell system balance-of-plant components and costs are also modeled and used to provide an estimate of system capital and life cycle costs. The models are used to evaluate optimal cell-stack power output, the impact of cell operating and design parameters, fuel type, thermal energy recovery, system process design, and operating strategy on overall system energetic and economic performance. Optimal cell design voltage, fuel utilization, and operating temperature parameters are found using minimization of the life cycle costs. System design evaluations reveal that hydrogen-fueled SOFC systems demonstrate lower system efficiencies than methane-fueled systems. The use of recycled cell exhaust gases in process design in the stack periphery are found to produce the highest system electric and cogeneration efficiencies while achieving the lowest capital costs. Annual simulations reveal that efficiencies of 45% electric (LHV basis), 85% cogenerative, and simple economic paybacks of 5--8 years are feasible for 1--2 kW SOFC systems in residential-scale applications. Design guidelines that offer additional suggestions related to fuel cell

  6. Feasibility of Fuel Cell APUs for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-05

    CELL DELPHI SOFC APU w/ REFORMER FREIGHTLINER TRACTOR WITH BALLARD PEM APU AND METHANOL REFORMER SUNLINE TRACTOR WITH HYDROGEN- FuELLED HYDROGENICS...NRF.L. ADVISOR model , t"’mparing the idling of a main diesei engine to this APU c~ntigur,uion. SUNLINE TRACTOR WITH HYDROGEN- FUELLED HYDROGENICS PEM ...the biggest hurdles to having a successful JP-8- fuelled fuel cell was preventing the sulfur-laden JP-8 from poisoning the catalyst.[9] Specifically

  7. Fuel cell power plants for decentralised CHP applications; Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer dezentrale KWK-Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmer, Martin; Mattner, Katja [FuelCell Energy Solutions GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    Fuel cells are the most efficient technology to convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and thus they could have a major impact on reducing fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} and other emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulate matter). Fired with natural or biogas and operated with an efficiency of up to 49 % a significant reduction of fuel costs can be achieved in decentralised applications. Combined heat and power (CHP) configurations add value for a wide range of industrial applications. The exhaust heat of approximately 400 C can be utilised for heating purposes and the production of steam. Besides, it can be also fed directly to adsorption cooling systems. With more than 110 fuel cell power plants operating worldwide, this technology is a serious alternative to conventional gas turbines or gas engines.

  8. System-level Reliability Assessment of Power Stage in Fuel Cell Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    reliability. In a case study of a 5 kW fuel cell power stage, the parameter variations of the lifetime model prove that the exponential factor of the junction temperature fluctuation is the most sensitive parameter. Besides, if a 5-out-of-6 redundancy is used, it is concluded both the B10 and the B1 system......High efficient and less pollutant fuel cell stacks are emerging and strong candidates of the power solution used for mobile base stations. In the application of the backup power, the availability and reliability hold the highest priority. This paper considers the reliability metrics from...... the component-level to the system-level for the power stage used in a fuel cell application. It starts with an estimation of the annual accumulated damage for the key power electronic components according to the real mission profile of the fuel cell system. Then, considering the parameter variations in both...

  9. Application of linear programming and perturbation theory in optimization of fuel utilization in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaljevski, N.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed optimization procedure is fast due to application of linear programming. Non-linear constraints which demand iterative application of linear programming are slowing down the calculation. Linearization can be done by different procedures starting from simple empirical rules for fuel in-core management to complicated general perturbation theory with higher order of corrections. A mathematical model was formulated for optimization of improved fuel cycle. A detailed algorithm for determining minimum of fresh fuel at the beginning of each fuel cycle is shown and the problem is linearized by first order perturbation theory and it is optimized by linear programming. Numerical illustration of the proposed method was done for the experimental reactor mostly for saving computer time

  10. Review of hydrogen pellet injection technology for plasma fueling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    In the past several years, steady progress has been made worldwide in the development of high-speed hydrogen pellet injectors for fueling magnetically confined plasmas. Several fueling systems based on the conventional pneumatic and centrifuge acceleration concepts have been put into practice on a wide variety of toroidal plasma confinement devices. Long-pulse fueling has been demonstrated in the parameter range 0.8--1.3 km/s, for pellets up to 6 mm in diameter, and at delivery rates up to 40 Hz. Conventional systems have demonstrated the technology to speeds approaching 2 km/s, and several more exotic accelerator concepts are under development to meet the more demanding requirements of the next generation of reactor-grade plasmas. These include a gas gun that can operate in tritium, the two-stage light gas gun, electrothermal guns, electromagnetic rail guns, and an electron-beam-driven thruster. Although these devices are in various stages of development, velocities of 3.8 km/s have already been achieved with two-stage light gas guns, and the prospects for attaining 5 km/s in the near future appear good

  11. Performance evaluation of integrated fuel processor for residential PEMFCs application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Taek Seo; Dong Joo Seo; Young-Seog Seo; Hyun-Seog Roh; Wang Lai Yoon; Jin Hyeok Jeong

    2006-01-01

    KIER has been developing the natural gas fuel processor to produce hydrogen rich gas for residential PEMFCs system. To realize a compact and high efficiency, the unit processes of steam reforming, water gas shift, and preferential oxidation are chemically and physically integrated in a package. Current fuel processor designed for 1 kW class PEMFCs shows thermal efficiency of 78% as a HHV basis with methane conversion of 90% at rated load operation. CO concentration below 10 ppm in the produced gas is achieved with preferential oxidation unit using Pt and Ru based catalyst under the condition of [O 2 ]/[CO]=2.0. The partial load operation have been carried out to test the performance of fuel processor from 40% to 80% load, showing stable methane conversion and CO concentration below 10 ppm. The durability test for the daily start-stop and 8 hr operation procedure is under investigation and shows no deterioration of its performance after 40 start-stop cycles. (authors)

  12. Method for investigating the applicability of thorium-based fuels in existing BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerk, Klara Insulander; Fhager, Valentin; Demaziere, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology for investigating the applicability of thorium based fuels in existing Boiling Water Reactors is described. The same tools and methods as those used in this study are also used for design of new fuel batches for existing reactors. As an illustration of the proposed methodology and for the purpose of comparing different fissile components for thorium-based fuel, three different thorium-based fuel designs were developed, and a low enriched uranium fuel design was created in parallel as a reference. The different fuel assemblies, which are based on the mechanical fuel design GE14, were analyzed with the Studsvik Scandpower CASMO-4E code. The linear reactivity model was used to decide a suitable initial fissile content for meeting the burnup goal of 55 MWd/kgHM and the designs were optimized for attaining an even power distribution and for keeping boiling transition factors low. Such optimizations facilitate core designs that would meet prevalent demands on Linear Heat Generation Rate (LHGR) and Critical Power Ratio (CPR). The hence created fuel designs were then analyzed with regards to thermal performance, reactivity coefficients, delayed neutron fractions and control rod worths. An equilibrium core loading pattern was also developed with each one of the thus created fuel designs and analyzed with the three dimensional reactor analysis code SIMULATE-3, also developed by Studsvik Scandpower. The results of the two simulations were compared and found to be coherent, and no major obstacles were met using the given tools and methods. The analysis of the performances of the fuel assemblies and the corresponding loaded cores is reported in a companion paper (K. Insulander Bjoerk, V. Fhager, and C. Demaziere, 'Comparison of Thorium-Based Fuels with Different Fissile Components in Existing BWRs'). (author)

  13. Modified hydrogenated PBLH copolymer synthesis with styrene for proton exchange membranes fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, Fernando A.; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Rodrigues, Maraiza F.; Groetzner, Mariana B.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F.; Cantao, Mauricio P.

    2005-01-01

    Polymers used as electrolyte in fuel cells are expected to have functional groups in their structure which are responsible for proton conductivity. Since the use of hydroxylated liquid polybutadiene (PBLH) has not been mentioned in the literature as an ion exchange membrane for fuel cell application (PEMFC), and its structure can be modified for a later sulfonation, it has been studied. In this work, PBLH was modified through a hydrogenation reaction. Furthermore, hydrogenated polymeric esters were obtained by esterification and transesterification reactions (PBLH- estearate and PBLH- methacrylate). Reacting the PBLH methacrylate with styrene, it was generated a copolymer with appropriated structure for sulfonation, justifying researches for fuel cell. (author)

  14. Review of application code and standards for mechanical and piping design of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    The design and installation of the irradiation test facility for verification test of the fuel performance are very important in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. HANARO fuel test loop was designed in accordance with the same code and standards of nuclear power plant because HANARO FTL will be operated the high pressure and temperature same as nuclear power plant operation conditions. The objective of this study is to confirm the propriety of application code and standards for mechanical and piping of HANARO fuel test loop and to decide the technical specification of FTL systems. (author). 18 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. Recent progress in electrocatalysts with mesoporous structures for application in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Zucheng; Tao, Shanwen

    2016-01-01

    Recently mesoporous materials have drawn great attention in fuel cell related applications, such as preparation of polymer electrolyte membranes and catalysts, hydrogen storage and purification. In this mini-review, we focus on recent developments in mesoporous electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, including metallic and metal-free catalysts for use as either anode or cathode catalysts. Mesoporous Pt-based metals have been synthesized as anode catalysts with improved a...

  16. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES AND STRESS MODELING FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Patankar, Kshitish A

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, the effect of temperature and humidity on the viscoelastic and fracture properties of proton exchange membranes (PEM) used in fuel cell applications was studied. Understanding and accurately modeling the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive properties of a PEM are important for making hygrothermal stress predictions in the cyclic temperature and humidity environment of operating fuel cells. In this study, Nafion® NRE 211, Gore-Select® 57, and Ion Power® N111...

  17. Permeability of EVOH Barrier Material Used in Automotive Applications: Metrology Development for Model Fuel Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available EVOH (Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol materials are widely used in automotive applications in multi-layer fuel lines and tanks owing to their excellent barrier properties to aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. These barrier materials are essential to limit environmental fuel emissions and comply with the challenging requirements of fast changing international regulations. Nevertheless, the measurement of EVOH permeability to model fuel mixtures or to their individual components is particularly difficult due to the complexity of these systems and their very low permeability, which can vary by several orders of magnitude depending on the permeating species and their relative concentrations. This paper describes the development of a new automated permeameter capable of taking up the challenge of measuring minute quantities as low as 1 mg/(m2.day for partial fluxes for model fuel mixtures containing ethanol, i-octane and toluene at 50°C. The permeability results are discussed as a function of the model fuel composition and the importance of EVOH preconditioning is emphasized for accurate permeability measurements. The last part focuses on the influence of EVOH conditioning on its mechanical properties and its microstructure, and further illustrates the specific behavior of EVOH in presence of ethanol oxygenated fuels. The new metrology developed in this work offers a new insight in the permeability properties of a leading barrier material and will help prevent the consequences of (bioethanol addition in fuels on environmental emissions through fuel lines and tanks.

  18. Homogeneous forming technology of composite materials and its application to dispersion nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Hyun; Ryu, Ho Jin; Sohn, Woong Hee; Kim, Chang Kyu

    1997-01-01

    Powder metallurgy processing technique of metal matrix composites is reviewed and its application to process homogeneous dispersion nuclear fuel is considered. The homogeneous mixing of reinforcement with matrix powders is very important step to process metal matrix composites. The reinforcement with matrix powders is very important step to process metal matrix composites. The reinforcement can be ceramic particles, whiskers or chopped fibers having high strength and high modulus. The blended powders are consolidated into billets and followed by various deformation processing, such as extrusion, forging, rolling or spinning into final usable shapes. Dispersion nuclear fuel is a class of metal matrix composite consisted of dispersed U-compound fuel particles and metallic matrix. Dispersion nuclear fuel is fabricated by powder metallurgy process such as hot pressing followed by hot extrusion, which is similar to that of SiC/Al metal matrix composite. The fabrication of homogeneous dispersion nuclear fuel is very difficult mainly due to the inhomogeneous mixing characteristics of the powders from quite different densities between uranium alloy powders and aluminum powders. In order to develop homogeneous dispersion nuclear fuel, it is important to investigate the effect of powder characteristics and mixing techniques on homogeneity of dispersion nuclear fuel. An new quantitative analysis technique of homogeneity is needed to be developed for more accurate analysis of homogeneity in dispersion nuclear fuel. (author). 28 refs., 7 figs., 1tab

  19. Ensuring safety of fuel cell applications and hydrogen refuelling. Legislation and standards; Polttokennosovellusten ja vetytankkauksen turvallisuuden varmistaminen. Saeaedoeksiae ja standardeja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissila, M.; Sarsama, J.

    2013-09-15

    Fuel cell technology is considered a promising alternative in terms of viable energy systems. The advantages of fuel cell systems include a good efficiency rate and the lack of harmful environmental emissions. Factors which may slow down the commercialisation of fuel cell technology, e.g. fuel cell vehicles, include the high price of hydrogen and the insufficiency of the infrastructure required for the distribution of hydrogen. A large proportion of major car manufacturers are committed to introducing fuel cell cars to the market by 2014-2016. In order to ensure a successful market introduction of fuel cell vehicles, this has to be aligned with the development of the necessary hydrogen infrastructure. In the early commercialisation stages of a new technology, it is important to give the public correct, justified and understandable information on the safety of the fuel cell applications, and also on the measures taken to ensure the safety of applications. A lack of necessary information, inaccurate perceptions and prejudices can have an adverse effect on the public acceptance of fuel cell applications. Hazards and potential accidents related to fuel cell systems are mainly associated with the flammable substances (e.g. hydrogen, methane) used as fuel, the high pressure of hydrogen, electrical hazards, and dangers concerning technical systems in general. The fuel cell applications reviewed in this publication are transport applications and stationary applications and the refuelling system of gaseous hydrogen. The publication concentrates on fuel cells using hydrogen as fuel. The publication gives an overview of how EU-legislation (mainly various directives) and Finnish legislation applies to fuel cell systems and applications, and what kind of safety requirements the legislation sets. In addition, a brief overview of safety standards concerning fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling is presented. (orig.)

  20. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  1. Robust Platinum-Based Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Eric James

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) are energy conversion devices that exploit the energetics of the reaction between hydrogen fuel and O 2 to generate electricity with water as the only byproduct. PEMFCs have attracted substantial attention due to their high conversion efficiency, high energy density, and low carbon footprint. However, PEMFC performance is hindered by the high activation barrier and slow reaction rates at the cathode where O2 undergoes an overall 4-electron reduction to water. The most efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst materials to date are Pt group metals due to their high catalytic activity and stability in a wide range of operating conditions. Before fuel cells can become economically viable, efforts must be taken to decrease Pt content while maintaining a high level of ORR activity. This work describes the design and synthesis of a Pt-Cu electrocatalyst with ORR activity exceeding that of polycrystalline Pt. Production of this novel catalyst is quite simple and begins with synthesis of a porous Cu substrate, formed by etching Al from a Cu-Al alloy. The porous Cu substrate is then coated with a Pt layer via a spontaneous electrochemical process known as galvanic replacement. The Pt layer enhances the ORR activity (as measured by a rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE)) and acts as a barrier towards corrosion of the Cu understructure. Growth of the Pt layer can be manipulated by time, temperature, concentration of Pt precursor, and convection rate during galvanic replacement. Data from analytical and electrochemical techniques confirm multiple Pt loadings have been achieved via the galvanic replacement process. The boost in ORR activity for the PtCu catalyst was determined to be a result of its lower affinity towards (site-blocking) OH adsorption. A unique catalyst degradation study explains the mechanism of initial catalyst ORR deactivation for both monometallic and bimetallic Pt-based catalysts. Finally, a rigorous and

  2. Applicability of dimethyl ether (DME) in a compression ignition engine as an alternative fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Han; Lee, Chang Sik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall characteristics of DME fueled engine are reviewed. • Fuel properties characteristics of DME are introduced. • New technologies for DME vehicle are systemically reviewed. • Research trends for the development of DME vehicle in the world are introduced. - Abstract: From the perspectives of environmental conservation and energy security, dimethyl-ether (DME) is an attractive alternative to conventional diesel fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This review article deals with the application characteristics of DME in CI engines, including its fuel properties, spray and atomization characteristics, combustion performance, and exhaust emission characteristics. We also discuss the various technological problems associated with its application in actual engine systems and describe the field test results of developed DME-fueled vehicles. Combustion of DME fuel is associated with low NO x , HC, and CO emissions. In addition, PM emission of DME combustion is very low due to its molecular structure. Moreover, DME has superior atomization and vaporization characteristics than conventional diesel. A high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate can be used in a DME engine to reduce NO x emission without any increase in soot emission, because DME combustion is essentially soot-free. To decrease NO x emission, engine after-treatment devices, such as lean NO x traps (LNTs), urea-selective catalytic reduction, and the combination of EGR and catalyst have been applied. To use DME fuel in automotive vehicles, injector design, fuel feed pump, and the high-pressure injection pump have to be modified, combustion system components, including sealing materials, have to be rigorously designed. To use DME fuel in the diesel vehicles, more research is required to enhance its calorific value and engine durability due to the low lubricity of DME, and methods to reduce NO x emission are also required

  3. Next-generation batteries and fuel cells for commercial, military, and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, A R

    2012-01-01

    Distilling complex theoretical physical concepts into an understandable technical framework, Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications describes primary and secondary (rechargeable) batteries for various commercial, military, spacecraft, and satellite applications for covert communications, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions. It emphasizes the cost, reliability, longevity, and safety of the next generation of high-capacity batteries for applications where high energy density, minimum weight and size, and reliability in harsh conditions are

  4. Application of game theory in decision making strategy: Does gas fuel industry need to kill oil based fuel industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Abdul Luky Shofi'ul; Prabandari, Dyah Lusiana; Hakim, Muhammad Lintang Islami

    2017-03-01

    Even though conversion of oil based fuel (Bahan Bakar Minyak) into gas fuel (Bahan Bakar Gas) for transportation (both land and sea) is one of the priority programs of the government of Indonesia, rules that have been established merely basic rules of gas fuel usage license for transportation, without discussing position of gas fuel related to oil based fuel in detail. This paper focus on possible strategic behavior of the key players in the oil-gas fuel conversion game, who will be impacted by the position of gas fuel as complement or substitution of oil based fuel. These players include industry of oil based fuel, industry of gas fuel, and the government. Modeling is made based on two different conditions: government plays a passive role and government plays an active role in legislating additional rules that may benefit industry of gas fuel. Results obtained under a passive government is that industry of oil based fuel need to accommodate the presence of industry of gas fuel, and industry of gas fuel does not kill/ eliminate the oil based fuel, or gas fuel serves as a complement. While in an active government, the industry of oil based fuel need to increase its negotiation spending in the first phase so that the additional rule that benefitting industry of gas fuel would not be legislated, while industry of gas fuel chooses to indifferent; however, in the last stage, gas fuel turned to be competitive or choose its role to be substitution.

  5. Validation and application of a physics database for fast reactor fuel cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, R.D.; Stillman, J.A.; Toppel, B.J.; Khalil, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    An effort has been made to automate the execution of fast reactor fuel cycle analysis, using EBR-II as a demonstration vehicle, and to validate the analysis results for application to the IFR closed fuel cycle demonstration at EBR-II and its fuel cycle facility. This effort has included: (1) the application of the standard ANL depletion codes to perform core-follow analyses for an extensive series of EBR-II runs, (2) incorporation of the EBR-II data into a physics database, (3) development and verification of software to update, maintain and verify the database files, (4) development and validation of fuel cycle models and methodology, (5) development and verification of software which utilizes this physics database to automate the application of the ANL depletion codes, methods and models to perform the core-follow analysis, and (6) validation studies of the ANL depletion codes and of their application in support of anticipated near-term operations in EBR-II and the Fuel Cycle Facility. Results of the validation tests indicate the physics database and associated analysis codes and procedures are adequate to predict required quantities in support of early phases of FCF operations

  6. Benchmarking Computational Fluid Dynamics for Application to PWR Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.D. III; Conner, M.E.; Liu, B.; Dzodzo, B.; Paramonov, D.V.; Beasley, D.E.; Langford, H.M.; Holloway, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a process used to develop confidence in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) as a tool to investigate flow and temperature distributions in a PWR fuel bundle. The velocity and temperature fields produced by a mixing spacer grid of a PWR fuel assembly are quite complex. Before using CFD to evaluate these flow fields, a rigorous benchmarking effort should be performed to ensure that reasonable results are obtained. Westinghouse has developed a method to quantitatively benchmark CFD tools against data at conditions representative of the PWR. Several measurements in a 5 x 5 rod bundle were performed. Lateral flow-field testing employed visualization techniques and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Heat transfer testing involved measurements of the single-phase heat transfer coefficient downstream of the spacer grid. These test results were used to compare with CFD predictions. Among the parameters optimized in the CFD models based on this comparison with data include computational mesh, turbulence model, and boundary conditions. As an outcome of this effort, a methodology was developed for CFD modeling that provides confidence in the numerical results. (authors)

  7. Development of a Robust Tri-Carbide Fueled Reactor for Multi-Megawatt Space Power and Propulsion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samim Anghaie; Knight, Travis W.; Plancher, Johann; Gouw, Reza

    2004-01-01

    An innovative reactor core design based on advanced, mixed carbide fuels was analyzed for nuclear space power applications. Solid solution, mixed carbide fuels such as (U,Zr,Nb)c and (U,Zr, Ta)C offer great promise as an advanced high temperature fuel for space power reactors

  8. Storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rita

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. The objective of this work is to develop and test new methods for the storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cells. Six ligand-stabilized hydrides were synthesized and tested as hydrogen storage media for use in portable fuel cells. These novel compounds are more stable than classical hydrides (e.g., NaBH4, LiAlH4) and react to release hydrogen less exothermically upon hydrolysis with water. Three of the compounds produced hydrogen in high yield (88 to 100 percent of the theoretical) and at significantly lower temperatures than those required for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, a large excess of water and acid were required to completely wet the hydride and keep the pH of the reaction medium neutral. The hydrolysis of the classical hydrides with steam can overcome these limitations. This reaction was studied in a flow reactor and the results indicate that classical hydrides can be hydrolyzed with steam in high yields at low temperatures (110 to 123°C) and in the absence of acid. Although excess steam was required, the pH of the condensed steam was neutral. Consequently, steam could be recycled back to the reactor. Production of hydrogen for large-scale transportation fuel cells is primarily achieved via the steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas or the steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed because the Pt-based electrocatalyst used in the fuel cells is poisoned by its presence. The direct cracking of methane over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst can produce CO-free hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen, filamentous carbon is also produced. This material accumulates on the catalyst and eventually deactivates it. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst

  9. Assessment of neutron transport codes for application to CANDU fuel lattices analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    1999-08-01

    In order to assess the applicability of WIMS-AECL and HELIOS code to the CANDU fuel lattice analysis, the physics calculations has been carried out for the standard CANDU fuel and DUPIC fuel lattices, and the results were compared with those of Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B. In this study, in order to consider the full isotopic composition and the temperature effect, new MCNP libraries have been generated from ENDF/B-VI release 3 and validated for typical benchmark problems. The TRX-1,2,BAPL-1,2,3 pin -cell lattices and KENO criticality safety benchmark calculations have been performed for the new MCNP libraries, and the results have shown that the new MCNP library has sufficient accuracy to be used for physics calculation. Then, the lattice codes have been benchmarked by the MCNP code for the major physics parameters such as the burnup reactivity, void reactivity, relative pin power and Doppler coefficient, etc. for the standard CANDU fuel and DUPIC fuel lattices. For the standard CANDU fuel lattice, it was found that the results of WIMS-AECL calculations are consistent with those of MCNP. For the DUPIC fuel lattice, however, the results of WIMS-AECL calculations with ENDF/B-V library have shown that the discrepancy from the results of MCNP calculations increases when the fuel burnup is relatively high. The burnup reactivities of WIMS-ACEL calculations with ENDF/B-VI library have shown excellent agreements with those of MCNP calculation for both the standard CANDU and DUPIC fuel lattices. However, the Doppler coefficient have relatively large discrepancies compared with MCNP calculations, and the difference increases as the fuel burns. On the other hand, the results of HELIOS calculation are consistent with those of MCNP even though the discrepancy is slightly larger compared with the case of the standard CANDU fuel lattice. this study has shown that the WIMS-AECL products reliable results for the natural uranium fuel. However, it is recommended that the WIMS

  10. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium doped cerium oxide for the fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumari, Monika; Kumar, Mintu; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Cerium oxide has attained much attentions in global nanotechnology market due to valuable application for catalytic, fuel additive, and widely as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cell. Doped cerium oxide has large oxygen vacancies that allow for greater reactivity and faster ion transport. These properties make cerium oxide suitable material for SOFCs application. Cerium oxide electrolyte requires lower operation temperature which shows improvement in processing and the fabrication technique. In our work, we synthesized magnesium doped cerium oxide by the co-precipitation method. With the magnesium doping catalytic reactivity of CeO_2 was increased. Synthesized nanoparticle were characterized by the XRD and UV absorption techniques.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of a fuel cell power system for transportation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.M.; Baschuk, J.J.; Li, X.; Dincer, I.

    2004-01-01

    This study deals with the thermodynamic modeling of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system for transportation applications. The PEM fuel cell performance model developed previously by two of the authors is incorporated into the present model. The analysis includes the operation of all the components in the system, which consists of two major modules: PEM fuel cell stack module and system module and a cooling pump. System module includes air compressor, heat exchanger, humidifier and a cooling loop. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect of varying operating conditions (e.g., temperature pressure and air stoichiometry) on the energy and exergy efficiencies of the system. Further, thermodynamic irreversibilities in each component of the system are determined. It is found that, with the increase of external load (current density), the difference between the gross stack power and net system power increases. The largest irreversibility rate occurs in the fuel cell stack. Thus, minimization of irreversibility rate in the fuel cell stack is essential to enhance the performance of the system, which in turn reduces the cost and helps in commercialization of fuel cell power system in transportation applications. (author)

  12. Development and application of the BISON fuel performance code to the analysis of fission gas behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Hales, J.D.; Novascone, S.R.; Perez, D.M.; Spencer, B.W.; Williamson, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    BISON is a modern finite-element based, multidimensional nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at Idaho National Laboratory (USA) since 2009. The capabilities of BISON comprise implicit solution of the fully coupled thermo-mechanics and diffusion equations, applicability to a variety of fuel forms, and simulation of both steady-state and transient conditions. The code includes multiphysics constitutive behavior for both fuel and cladding materials, and is designed for efficient use on highly parallel computers. This paper describes the main features of BISON, with emphasis on recent developments in modelling of fission gas behaviour in LWR-UO 2 fuel. The code is applied to the simulation of fuel rod irradiation experiments from the OECD/NEA International Fuel Performance Experiments Database. The comparison of the results with the available experimental data of fuel temperature, fission gas release, and cladding diametrical strain during pellet-cladding mechanical interaction is presented, pointing out a promising potential of the BISON code with the new fission gas behaviour model. (authors)

  13. Conventional OTSG development for heavy liquid fuel firing in thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setchfield, W.P. [Mitchell Engineers Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Roset, J.N. [Total S.A., Paris (France); Schaffer, M. [Total E and P Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); O' Connor, D. [MEG Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kense, K. [TIW Western Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    The demand for natural gas is expected to increase as a result of future expansion in Canadian extra heavy oil in-situ thermal production, such as steam assisted gravity drainage or SAGD projects. Natural gas is the current predominant fuel utilized for the associated steam generation. Potential natural gas shortages and related price volatility require that operators consider alternative fuels for the projected growth of in-situ thermal production in Alberta. This paper targeted the use of bitumen from upstream sites and derivative residues from upgrading activities as the most convenient alternative fuel sources for thermal operators of established horizontal type gas fired once through steam generators (OTSGs). The paper presented the methodology, the issues associated with bitumen or residue burning and the related technical solutions in developing a multi-fuel OTSG product. The paper provided background information on conventional OTSG design development, conventional OTSG existing deign, and general description of conventional OTSG. The paper also described the configuration of a radiant furnace, convection module, and theories and definitions such as heavy liquid fuels. A description and application of the equipment and processes as well as a presentation of the data and results was then offered. The multi fuel OTSG design is considered to be a practical and workable product capable of firing heavy liquid fuels. However, the design changes have had a significant impact when compared with conventional OTSG boilers. 11 figs.

  14. Fuel cell programs in the United States for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M.

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, is participating with the private sector in sponsoring the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies for application in the utility, commercial and industrial sectors. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) development was sponsored by the Office of Fossil Energy in previous years and is now being commercialized by the private sector. Private sector participants with the Department of Energy include the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research institute (GRI), electric and gas utilities, universities, manufacturing companies and their suppliers. through continued government and private sector support, fuel cell systems are emerging power generation technologies which are expected to have significant worldwide impacts. An industry with annual sales of over a billion dollars is envisioned early in the 21st century. PAFC power plants have begun to enter the marketplace and MCFC and SOFC power plants are expected to be ready to enter the marketplace in the late 1990s. In support of the efficient and effective use of our natural resources, the fuel cell program seeks to increase energy efficiency and economic effectiveness of power generation. This is to be accomplished through effectiveness of power generation. This is accomplished through the development and commercialization of cost-effective, efficient and environmentally desirable fuel cell systems which will operate on fossil fuels in multiple and end use sectors.

  15. Development of an instantaneous local fuel-concentration measurement probe: an engine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, P.; Boutar, Z.; Lemoyne, L.

    2003-11-01

    This work presents a new tool which can deliver instantaneous local measurements of fuel concentration in an engine cylinder with a high temporal resolution, particularly during compression strokes. Fuel concentration is represented by means of equivalence fuel-air ratio, i.e. the real engine mass ratio of fuel to air divided by the same ratio in ideal stoichiometry conditions. Controlling the mixture configuration for any strategy in a spark ignition engine and for auto-ignition combustion has a dominant effect on the subsequent processes of ignition, flame propagation and auto-ignition combustion progression, pollutant formation under lean or even stoichiometric operating conditions. It is extremely difficult, under a transient operation, to control the equivalence air/fuel ratio precisely at a required value and at the right time. This requires the development of a highly accurate equivalence air/fuel ratio control system and a tool to measure using crank angle (CA) resolution. Although non-intrusive laser techniques have considerable advantages, they are most of the time inappropriate due to their optical inaccessibility or the complex experimental set-up involved. Therefore, as a response to the demand for a relatively simple fuel-concentration measurement system a probe is presented that replaces a spark plug and allows the engine to run completely normally. The probe is based on hot-wire like apparatus, but involves catalytic oxidation at the wire surface. The development, characteristics and calibration of the probe are presented followed by applications to in-cylinder engine measurements.

  16. Normality test for determining the correction factor of isotopic composition in PWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Shin, H. S.; Noh, S. K.; Seo, K. S.

    2001-01-01

    Normality test has been carried out for the ratios of the measured-to-calculated isotopic compositions in PWR spent fuel, using Shapiro-Wilk W, Lilliefors D, Cramer-von Mises and Anderson-Darling. All 38 istopices have been evaluated by means of the 1.5xIQR rule and then outliers have been discarded. As result, it seems that only 20 nuclides are satisfied with the normality at significance level 5 %. 18 Nuclides(samples) including U-235 have higher significance probability(p-value) than 25 % in W-test and p-values obtained by other three tests exceed the upper limit. Besides, in 6 nuclides including Pu-239, it seems that the p-values are between 5 % and 25 % in W test. From these results, in order to predict the isotopic compositions in the conservative point of view, it is decided that the correction factors for the nuclides are determined at the 95/95 probability and confidence level by using tolerance limit-methods with the assumption that only 18 nuclides are satisfied with thr normality

  17. Multi-metallic anodes for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restivo, T.A. Guisard; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H.; Leite, D. Will

    2009-01-01

    A new method for direct preparation of materials for solid oxide fuel cell anode - Ni- YSZ cermets - based on mechanical alloying (MA) of the original powders is developed, allowing to admix homogeneously any component. Additive metals are selected from thermodynamic criteria, leading to compacts consolidation through sintering by activated surface (SAS). The combined process MA-SSA can reduce the sintering temperature by 300 deg C, yielding porous anodes. Densification mechanisms are discussed from quasi-isothermal sintering kinetics results. Doping with Ag, W, Cu, Mo, Nb, Ta, in descending order, promotes the densification of pellets through liquid phase sintering and evaporation of metals and oxides, which allow reducing the sintering temperature. Powders and pellets characterization by electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction completes the result analyses. (author)

  18. Fuel cell climatic tests designed for new configured aircraft application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begot, Sylvie; Harel, Fabien; Candusso, Denis; Francois, Xavier; Pera, Marie-Cecile; Yde-Andersen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of Fuel Cell (FC) systems in transportation systems, as aircrafts, requires some better understanding and mastering of the new generator behaviours in low temperature environments. To this end, a PEMFC stack is tested and characterised in a climatic chamber. The impacts of the low temperatures over different FC operation and start-up conditions are estimated using a specific test bench developed in-lab. Some descriptions concerning the test facilities and the experimental set-up are given in the paper, as well as some information about the test procedures applied. Some examples of test results are shown and analysed. The experiments are derived from aircraft requirements and are related with different scenarios of airplane operation. Finally, some assessments concerning the FC system behaviour in low temperature conditions are made, especially with regard to the constraints to be encountered by the next embedded FC generators.

  19. Studies on application on airlift in fuel reprocessing engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.N.; Balasubramanian, G.R.; Ranganathan, K.

    1977-01-01

    The experiments have been conducted to study the possibility of using airlift for: (1) metering the radioactive fluids by metering the prime air used and (2) transport of these fluids. It is found that airlift can be used for metering directly or a part of a metering system. It can transport radioactive fluids e.g. concentrated plutonium solutions. It can be adopted to transfer completely solutions between tanks at the same level. The problem of entrainment of liquid by air can be sufficiently reduced by introducing suitable de-entrainers. The major advantage is the absence of any moving parts and its wider flow rate ranges. It is, thus, a valuable tool for a fuel reprocessing engineer. (M.G.B.)

  20. Possible application of nonredundant pinhole arrays to fuel pin imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzins, G.J.; Han, K.S.

    1975-11-01

    LMFBR Safety Test Facility imaging experiments rely on emission of radiation by the fuel pins and thus appear to strongly complement radiographic techniques in that they are most employable during peak excursion--a time of least favorable radiographic signal--to--noise ratio. Radiography, on the other hand, can provide information long before or after the excursion--times of below threshold signal for direct imaging techniques. An underlying premise of any imaging experiment is that, in addition to sufficient brightness, sufficient contrast exists in the scene. A further restriction is imposed by intervening materials, such as the wall of a containment vessel, that not only absorb but also scatter the radiation. These questions are approached by examining the properties of potential recording instrumentation, of pinhole apertures, and of the necessary radiation sources

  1. Advanced teleoperation in nuclear applications: consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.; Feldman, M.J.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of integrated remote maintenance systems is being developed to meet the needs of future nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Development activities cover all aspects of an advanced teleoperated maintenance system with particular emphasis on a new force-reflecting servomanipulator concept. The new manipulator, called the advanced servomanipulator, is microprocessor controlled and is designed to achieve force-reflection performance near that of mechanical master/slave manipulators. The advanced servomanipulator uses a gear-drive transmission which permits modularization for remote maintainability (by other advanced servomanipulators) and increases reliability. Human factors analysis has been used to develop an improved man/machine interface concept based upon colographic displays and menu-driven touch screens. Initial test and evaluation of two advanced servomanipulator slave arms and several other development components have begun. 9 references, 5 figures

  2. Application of plasma deposition technology for nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, I. H.; Moon, J. S.; Park, H. S.; Song, K. C.; Lee, C. Y.; Kang, K. H.; Ryu, H. J.; Kim, H. S.; Yang, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized-zirconia (m.p. 2670.deg. C), was deposited by induction plasma spraying system with a view to develop a new nuclear fuel fabrication technology. To fabricate the dense pellets, the spraying condition was optimized through the process parameters such as, chamber pressure, plasma plate power, powder spraying distance, sheath gas composition, probe position particle size and its morphology. The results with a 5mm thick deposit on rectangular planar graphite substrates showed 97.11% theoretical density, when the sheath gas flow rate was Ar/H 2 120/20 L/min, probe position 8cm, particle size-75 μm and spraying distance 22cm. The microstructure of YSZ deposit by ICP was lamellae and columnar perpendicular to the spraying direction. In the bottom part near the substrate, small equiaxed grains bounded in a layer. In the middle part, relatively regular size of columnar grains with excellent bonding each other were distinctive

  3. Fuel cell climatic tests designed for new configured aircraft application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begot, Sylvie; Pera, Marie-Cecile [FC LAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Franche-Comte Electronique Mecanique Thermique et Optique - Sciences et Technologies (FEMTO-ST), Departement energie et ingenierie des systemes multiphysiques (ENISYS), Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) 6174, University of Franche-Comte (UFC) (France); Harel, Fabien; Candusso, Denis [FC LAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); The French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research (INRETS), Transports and Environment Laboratory (LTE), Laboratory for New Technologies (LTN) (France); Francois, Xavier [FC LAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); FC LAB, University of Technology Belfort-Montbeliard (UTBM) (France); Yde-Andersen, Steen [IRD Fuel Cells A/S, Kullinggade 31, 5700 Svendborg (Denmark)

    2010-07-15

    The implementation of Fuel Cell (FC) systems in transportation systems, as aircrafts, requires some better understanding and mastering of the new generator behaviours in low temperature environments. To this end, a PEMFC stack is tested and characterised in a climatic chamber. The impacts of the low temperatures over different FC operation and start-up conditions are estimated using a specific test bench developed in-lab. Some descriptions concerning the test facilities and the experimental set-up are given in the paper, as well as some information about the test procedures applied. Some examples of test results are shown and analysed. The experiments are derived from aircraft requirements and are related with different scenarios of airplane operation. Finally, some assessments concerning the FC system behaviour in low temperature conditions are made, especially with regard to the constraints to be encountered by the next embedded FC generators. (author)

  4. Thermal modeling and temperature control of a PEM fuel cell system for forklift applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    Temperature changes in PEM fuel cell stacks are considerably higher during load variations and have a negative impact as they generate thermal stresses and stack degradation. Cell hydration is also of vital importance in fuel cells and it is strongly dependent on operating temperature....... A combination of high temperature and reduced humidity increases the degradation rate. Stack thermal management and control are, thus, crucial issues in PEM fuel cell systems especially in automotive applications such as forklifts. In this paper we present a control–oriented dynamic model of a liquid–cooled PEM...... fuel cell system for studying temperature variations over fast load changes. A temperature dependent cell polarization and hydration model integrated with the compressor, humidifier and cooling system are simulated in dynamic condition. A feedback PID control was implemented for stack cooling...

  5. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The spent fuel management activities described in volume 1 are compared in three areas. The first section summarizes the spent fuel management options being followed in each country and compares those options with regard to cost, environmental impact and public acceptability. Next section reviews and compares national policies on nuclear power, spent fuel management and high-level waste disposal and assesses their impact on the development and licensing of nuclear power plants. The third section compares the regulatory requirements affecting spent fuel managementin terms of their overall spirit and characteristics and in terms of the responsibilities of the utilities and the regulatory authorities. Finally, the last section addresses the applicability to Sweden of the findings from these comparisons, focusing on cost efficiency, health and safety, environmental impact, public acceptance and licensing procedures

  6. Analysis of the Range of Applicability of Thermodynamic Calculations in the Engineering of Nitride Fuel Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. S.; Rusinkevich, A. A.; Belov, G. V.; Ivanov, Yu. A.

    2017-12-01

    The domains of applicability of thermodynamic calculations in the engineering of nitride fuel are analyzed. Characteristic values of the following parameters, which affect directly the concentration equilibration time, are estimated: nuclide production rate; characteristic times to local equilibrium in the considered temperature range; characteristic time needed for a stationary temperature profile to be established; characteristic time needed for a quasi-stationary concentration field to be established on a scale comparable to the size of a fuel pellet. It is demonstrated that equilibrium thermodynamic calculations are suitable for estimating the chemical and phase composition of fuel. However, a two-layer kinetic model should be developed in order to characterize the transport processes in condensed and gaseous phases. The process of diffusive transport needs to be taken into account in order to determine the composition in the hot region at the center of a fuel element.

  7. Application of ultra-sons to on-site spent fuel assemblies metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondard, C.; Saglio, R.; Vouillot, M.; Delaroche, P.; Vaubert, Y.; Van Craeynest, J.C.

    1983-12-01

    Fuel assemblies inspection on the site of a power reactor, between two irradiation campaigns, allows to estimate the behaviour of prototype fuel assemblies and to permit their refueling for the continuation of the irradiation; the utilization of non-destructive, reliable and high-performance techniques, is of a great interest in the application. For, this reason, the C.E.A. has been led to carry out new techniques allowing the visual examination and the dimensional inspection of spent fuel assemblies of 900 MWe French pressurized water reactors, with a transportable Fuel Examination Module (MEC) on every reactor site. This module includes a television camera, and uses for the first time as ''position sensor'' the properties offered by a set of ultrasonic transducers. The main principle of the design, of the operation way of the module, of the measuring methods, and, of the data acquisition and processing, are presented [fr

  8. Applicability of a set of tomographic reconstruction algorithms for quantitative SPECT on irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan, E-mail: staffan.jacobsson_svard@physics.uu.se; Holcombe, Scott; Grape, Sophie

    2015-05-21

    A fuel assembly operated in a nuclear power plant typically contains 100–300 fuel rods, depending on fuel type, which become strongly radioactive during irradiation in the reactor core. For operational and security reasons, it is of interest to experimentally deduce rod-wise information from the fuel, preferably by means of non-destructive measurements. The tomographic SPECT technique offers such possibilities through its two-step application; (1) recording the gamma-ray flux distribution around the fuel assembly, and (2) reconstructing the assembly's internal source distribution, based on the recorded radiation field. In this paper, algorithms for performing the latter step and extracting quantitative relative rod-by-rod data are accounted for. As compared to application of SPECT in nuclear medicine, nuclear fuel assemblies present a much more heterogeneous distribution of internal attenuation to gamma radiation than the human body, typically with rods containing pellets of heavy uranium dioxide surrounded by cladding of a zirconium alloy placed in water or air. This inhomogeneity severely complicates the tomographic quantification of the rod-wise relative source content, and the deduction of conclusive data requires detailed modelling of the attenuation to be introduced in the reconstructions. However, as shown in this paper, simplified models may still produce valuable information about the fuel. Here, a set of reconstruction algorithms for SPECT on nuclear fuel assemblies are described and discussed in terms of their quantitative performance for two applications; verification of fuel assemblies' completeness in nuclear safeguards, and rod-wise fuel characterization. It is argued that a request not to base the former assessment on any a priori information brings constraints to which reconstruction methods that may be used in that case, whereas the use of a priori information on geometry and material content enables highly accurate quantitative

  9. Dealing with the current permissibility application for constructing a spent fuel DGR in Sweden. SKB's license applications for a spent fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Olle

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear power utilities in Sweden were in 1976 obliged to demonstrate a safe method for final disposal of spent fuel in order to start operation of new reactors. This initiated a comprehensive research, development and demonstration programme and the development of the KBS-method for final disposal. A new Nuclear Activities Act in 1984 gave the reactor owners full technical and financial responsibility for the waste. They gave in turn SKB the responsibility for all nuclear waste management. Reprocessing was no longer required and direct disposal of the spent fuel has, since then, been the main alternative. Alternative methods for final disposal have been evaluated and compared to the KBS-3-method but it has remained the preferred alternative. A comprehensive research, development and demonstration programme to strengthen the scientific basis and to refine the KBS-3-method has been operated by SKB since then. The site selection process for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel was initiated in 1992. The work included general siting studies at the national and the municipal level and in 2002, SKB initiated site investigations for siting of a final repository on two sites: the Simpevarp and Laxemar areas and the Forsmark area. At the same time, the work on preparing license applications to construct and operate an encapsulation plant and a final repository for spent fuel was started. In June 2009, SKB announced Forsmark as the selected site for the final repository. This paper reviews the applicable legislation and describes the license application, the licensing review and the preparations for implementation

  10. Highlights on R and D work related to the achievement of high burnup with MOX fuel in commercial reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippens, M.; Maldague, Th.; Basselier, J.; Boulanger, D.; Mertens, L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the R and D work made at BELGONUCLEAIRE in the field of high burnup achievement with MOX fuel in commercial LWRs is made through lnternational Programmes. Special attention is given to the evolution with burnup of fuel neutronic characteristics and of in-reactor rod thermal-mechanical behaviour. Pu burning in MOX is characterized essentially by a drop of Pu 239 content. The other Pu isotopes have an almost unchanged concentration, due to internal breeding. The reactivity drop of MOX versus burnup is consequently much less pronounced than in UO 2 fuel. Concentration of minor actinides Am and Cm becomes significant with burnup increase. These nuclides start to play a role on total reactivity and in the helium production. The thermal-mechanical behaviour of MOX fuel rod is very similar to that of UO 2 . Some specificities are noticed. The better PCI resistance recognized to MOX fuel has recently been confirmed. Three PWR MOX segments pm-irradiated up to 58 GWd/tM were ramped at 100 W/cm.min respectively to 430-450-500 W/cm followed by a hold time of 24 hours. No segment failed. MOX and UO 2 fuels have different reactivities and operate thus at different powers. Moreover, radial distribution of power in MOX pellet is less depressed at high burnup than in UO 2 , leading to higher fuel central temperature for a same rating. The thermal conductivity of MOX fuel decreases with Pu content, typically 4% for 10% Pu. The combination of these three elements (power level, power profile, and conductivity) lead to larger FGR at high burnup compared to UO 2 . Helium production remains low compared to fission gas production (ratio < 0.2). As faster diffusing element, the helium fractional release is much higher than that of fission gas, leading to rod pressure increase comparable to the one resulting from fission gas. (author)

  11. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells science, applications, and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Alejandro A

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent research progresses on the fundamentals understanding of the materials degradation phenomena in PEFC, for automotive applications. On a multidisciplinary basis, through contributions of internationally recognized researchers in the field, this book provides a complete and comprehensive critical review on crucial scientific topics related to PEFC materials degradation, and ensures a strong complementary between experimental and theoretical analysis and preparation techniques with several practical applications for both the research and the industry communities.

  12. Standard format and content for a license application to store spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    Subpart B, ''License Application, Form, and Contents,'' of 10 CFR Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste,'' specifies the information to be covered in an application for a license to store spent fuel in an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or to store spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). However, Part 72 does not specify the format to be followed in the license application. This regulatory guide suggests a format acceptable to the NRC staff for submitting the information specified in Part 72 for license application to store spent fuel in an ISFSI or to store spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in an MRS

  13. Hydrogen production and purification for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Soo Yin

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. Currently, production of hydrogen for fuel cells is primarily achieved via steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas, or steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed due to its adverse effects on the Pt-based electrocatalysts of the PEM fuel cell. Our efforts have focused on production of CO-free hydrogen via catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons and purification of H2 via the preferential oxidation of CO. The catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons is an attractive alternative for the production of H2. Previous studies utilizing methane have shown that this approach can indeed produce CO-free hydrogen, with filamentous carbon formed as the by-product and deposited on the catalyst. We have further extended this approach to the decomposition of ethane. In addition to hydrogen and filamentous carbon however, methane is also formed in this case as a by-product. Studies conducted at different temperatures and space velocities suggest that hydrogen is the primary product while methane is formed in a secondary step. Ni/SiO2 catalysts are active for ethane decomposition at temperatures above 500°C. Although the yield of hydrogen increases with temperature, the catalyst deactivation rate also accelerates at higher temperatures. The preferential oxidation of CO is currently used for the purification of CO-contaminated hydrogen streams due to its efficiency and simplicity. Conventional Pt catalysts used for this reaction have been shown to effectively remove CO, but have limited selectivity (i.e., substantial amounts of H 2 also react with O2). Our work focused on alternative catalytic materials, such as Ru and bimetallic Ru-based catalysts (Pt-Ru, Ru

  14. Experimental analysis and management issues of a hydrogen fuel cell system for stationary and mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbo, Pasquale; Migliardini, Fortunato; Veneri, Ottorino [Istituto Motori of Italian National Research Council, Via Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    A laboratory fuel cell system based on a 20 kW H{sub 2}/air proton exchange membrane stack was designed, realized and characterized with the aim to elucidate specific concerns to be considered for both hydrogen stationary power systems and automotive applications. The overall system characterization permitted the effect of the main operative variables (temperature, pressure and stoichiometric ratio) on stack power and efficiency to be evaluated. Reactant feeding, humidification and cooling problems are discussed, evidencing in particular the roles of air compressor, fuel purge, stack temperature and humidification strategy in system management. The characterization results are analyzed in terms of H{sub 2} consumption and available power, evidencing the energy losses of the individual fuel cell system components. In particular, the data obtained on key components (stack, reactants, heat and water management devices) are used for a critical discussion about their specifications and operation characteristics as demanded by both stationary and mobile applications. (author)

  15. Experimental analysis and management issues of a hydrogen fuel cell system for stationary and mobile application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbo, Pasquale; Migliardini, Fortunato; Veneri, Ottorino

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory fuel cell system based on a 20 kW H 2 /air proton exchange membrane stack was designed, realized and characterized with the aim to elucidate specific concerns to be considered for both hydrogen stationary power systems and automotive applications. The overall system characterization permitted the effect of the main operative variables (temperature, pressure and stoichiometric ratio) on stack power and efficiency to be evaluated. Reactant feeding, humidification and cooling problems are discussed, evidencing in particular the roles of air compressor, fuel purge, stack temperature and humidification strategy in system management. The characterization results are analyzed in terms of H 2 consumption and available power, evidencing the energy losses of the individual fuel cell system components. In particular, the data obtained on key components (stack, reactants, heat and water management devices) are used for a critical discussion about their specifications and operation characteristics as demanded by both stationary and mobile applications

  16. Burn-up credit applications for UO2 and MOX fuel assemblies in AREVA/COGEMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toubon, H.; Riffard, C.; Batifol, M.; Pelletier, S.

    2003-01-01

    For the last seven years, AREVA/COGEMA has been implementing the second phase of its burn-up credit program (the incorporation of fission products). Since the early nineties, major actinides have been taken into account in criticality analyses first for reprocessing applications, then for transport and storage of fuel assemblies Next year (2004) COGEMA will take into account the six main fission products (Rh103, Cs133, Nd143, Sm149, Sm152 and Gd155) that make up 50% of the anti-reactivity of all fission products. The experimental program will soon be finished. The new burn-up credit methodology is in progress. After a brief overview of BUC R and D program and COGEMA's application of the BUC, this paper will focus on the new burn-up measurement for UO2 and MOX fuel assemblies. It details the measurement instrumentation and the measurement experiments on MOX fuels performed at La Hague in January 2003. (author)

  17. THE APPLICATION OF MAMMOTH FOR A DETAILED TIGHTLY COUPLED FUEL PIN SIMULATION WITH A STATION BLACKOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleicher, Frederick; Ortensi, Javier; DeHart, Mark; Wang, Yaqi; Schunert, Sebastian; Novascone, Stephen; Hales, Jason; Williamson, Rich; Slaughter, Andrew; Permann, Cody; Andrs, David; Martineau, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Accurate calculation of desired quantities to predict fuel behavior requires the solution of interlinked equations representing different physics. Traditional fuels performance codes often rely on internal empirical models for the pin power density and a simplified boundary condition on the cladding edge. These simplifications are performed because of the difficulty of coupling applications or codes on differing domains and mapping the required data. To demonstrate an approach closer to first principles, the neutronics application Rattlesnake and the thermal hydraulics application RELAP-7 were coupled to the fuels performance application BISON under the master application MAMMOTH. A single fuel pin was modeled based on the dimensions of a Westinghouse 17x17 fuel rod. The simulation consisted of a depletion period of 1343 days, roughly equal to three full operating cycles, followed by a station blackout (SBO) event. The fuel rod was depleted for 1343 days for a near constant total power loading of 65.81 kW. After 1343 days the fission power was reduced to zero (simulating a reactor shut-down). Decay heat calculations provided the time-varying energy source after this time. For this problem, Rattlesnake, BISON, and RELAP-7 are coupled under MAMMOTH in a split operator approach. Each system solves its physics on a separate mesh and, for RELAP-7 and BISON, on only a subset of the full problem domain. Rattlesnake solves the neutronics over the whole domain that includes the fuel, cladding, gaps, water, and top and bottom rod holders. Here BISON is applied to the fuel and cladding with a 2D axi-symmetric domain, and RELAP-7 is applied to the flow of the circular outer water channel with a set of 1D flow equations. The mesh on the Rattlesnake side can either be 3D (for low order transport) or 2D (for diffusion). BISON has a matching ring structure mesh for the fuel so both the power density and local burn up are copied accurately from Rattlesnake. At each depletion time

  18. Carbon nanotubes based methanol sensor for fuel cells application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D W; Lee, J S; Lee, G S; Overzet, L; Kozlov, M; Aliev, A E; Park, Y W; Yang, D J

    2006-11-01

    An electrochemical sensor is built using vertically grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) micro-array to detect methanol concentration in water. This study is done for the potential use of the array as methanol sensor for portable units of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles electro-deposited CNTs (Pt/CNTs) electrode shows high sensitivity in the measurement of methanol concentration in water with cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement at room temperature. Further investigation has also been undertaken to measure the concentration by changing the amount of the mixture of methanol and formic acid in water. We compared the performance of our micro array sensor built with Pt/CNTs electrodes versus that of Pt wire electrode using CV measurement. We found that our Pt/CNTs array sensor shows high sensitivity and detects methanol concentrations in the range of 0.04 M to 0.10 M. In addition, we found that co-use of formic acid as electrolyte enables us to measure up to 1.0 M methanol concentration.

  19. Fate of dispersed marine fuel oil in sediment under pre-spill application strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Hua

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the movement of dispersed oil in marine sediment under two dispersant application scenarios, applied prior to and after oil being spilled overboard, was examined. The pre-spill application scenario caused much less oil to be retained in the top sediment than post-spill scenario. The difference in oil retention in the top sediment between pre- and post-spill application scenario increased with increase in fuel oil temperature. For fuel oil above 40 o C, the difference in the effect of pre-spill application strategy under various water temperatures was negligible. When soap water was used as replacement for chemical dispersant, almost one-half as much oil was retained in the top sediment as that when using chemical dispersant. The adsorption of dispersed oil to the top sediment was almost proportionally decreased with doubling of soap dosage. (Author)

  20. The coupling of the neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE to the nuclear fuels performance application BISON under the MOOSE framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleicher, Frederick N.; Williamson, Richard L.; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Hales, Jason D.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2014-10-01

    The MOOSE neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the self-adjoint angular flux equations) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate on unstructured meshes. RATTLESNAKE solves self-adjoint angular flux transport equation and provides a sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux with resonance treatment during burnup or a fast transient. BISON solves the coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter scale. Both applications are able to solve their respective systems on aligned and unaligned unstructured finite element meshes. The power density and local burnup was transferred from RATTLESNAKE to BISON with the MOOSE Multiapp transfer system. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from RATTLESNAKE to BISON. The eigenvalues are shown to agree well with values obtained from the lattice physics code DRAGON. The one-way data transfer of power density is shown to agree with the power density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON.

  1. Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. License application, amendment 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Amendment No. 10 provides the applicant's responses to questions raised by the AEC in letters dated November 6 and December 5, 1974. Amendment No. 3, dated February 1975, to the BNFP Separations Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is included. The amendment consists of revision pages for volumes 1 through 5 of the FSAR along with a deletion and insertion guide. (U.S.)

  2. A review and design of power electronics converters for fuel cell hybrid system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of most promising power electronics topologies for a fuel cell hybrid power conversion system which can be utilized in many applications such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), distributed generations (DG) and uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems. Then...

  3. Standard format and content of license applications for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The standard format suggested for use in applications for licenses to possess and use special nuclear materials in Pu processing and fuel fabrication plants is presented. It covers general description of the plant, summary safety assessment, site characteristics, principal design criteria, plant design, process systems, waste confinement and management, radiation protection, accident safety analysis, conduct of operations, operating controls and limits, and quality assurance

  4. Towards High Power Density Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa H.; Muhl, Thuy Thanh

    2018-01-01

    For use of metal supported solid oxide fuel cell (MS-SOFC) in mobile applications it is important to reduce the thermal mass to enable fast startup, increase stack power density in terms of weight and volume and reduce costs. In the present study, we report on the effect of reducing the Technical...

  5. High efficiency isolated DC/DC converter inherently optimized for fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Press; Jensen, Lasse Crone; Larsen, Martin Norgaard

    2013-01-01

    The isolated full-bridge boost converter has been suggested as the best choice for fuel cell applications. Comparisons have been carried out in the literature using both stress factors and experimental verified designs to determine the optimal converter. Never the less, this paper suggests...

  6. Small-scale fuel cell cogen: application potentials and market strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    Small (less than 5 kW) fuel-cell cogeneration systems are now being developed for use in residential buildings. The devices are expected to be on the market in five years. The article discusses the potential for their large-scale introduction, the impact of this new technology on the natural gas business, potential applications and marketing strategies

  7. Criteria of reference radionuclides for safety analysis of spent fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    1998-01-01

    Study on the criteria for reference radionuclides selection for assessment on spent fuel disposal have done. The reference radionuclides in this study means radionuclides are predicted to contribute of the most radiological effect for man if spent fuel waste are discharged on deep geology formation. The research was done by investigate critically of parameters were used on evaluation a kind of radionuclide. Especially, this research study of parameter which relevant disposal case and or spent fuel waste on deep geology formation . The research assumed that spent fuel discharged on deep geology by depth 500-1000 meters from surface of the land. The migration scenario Radionuclides from waste form to man was assumed particularly for normal release in which Radionuclides discharge from waste form in a series thorough container, buffer, geological, rock, to fracture(fault) and move together with ground water go to biosphere and than go into human body. On this scenario, the parameter such as radionuclides inventory, half life, heat generation, hazard index based on maximum permissible concentration (MPC) or annual limit on intake (ALI) was developed as criteria of reference radionuclides selection. The research concluded that radionuclides inventory, half live, heat generated, hazard index base on MPC or ALI can be used as criteria for selection of reference Radionuclide. The research obtained that the main radionuclides are predicted give the most radiological effect to human are as Cs-137, Sr-90, I-129, Am-243, Cm-244, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240. The radionuclides reasonable to be used as reference radionuclides in safety analysis at spent fuel disposal. (author)

  8. Case study application of the IAEA safeguards assessment methodology to a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, J.; McDaniel, T.

    1981-01-01

    Science Applications, Inc. has prepared a case study illustrating the application of an assessment methodology to an international system for safeguarding mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facilities. This study is the second in a series of case studies which support an effort by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and an international Consultant Group to develop a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards. 3 refs

  9. Existing experimental criticality data applicable to nuclear-fuel-transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, S.R.

    1983-02-01

    Analytical techniques are generally relied upon in making criticality evaluations involving nuclear material outside reactors. For these evaluations to be accepted the calculations must be validated by comparison with experimental data for a known set of conditions having physical and neutronic characteristics similar to those conditions being evaluated analytically. The purpose of this report is to identify those existing experimental data that are suitable for use in verifying criticality calculations on nuclear fuel transportation systems. In addition, near term needs for additional data in this area are identified. Of the considerable amount of criticality data currently existing, that are applicable to non-reactor systems, those particularly suitable for use in support of nuclear material transportation systems have been identified and catalogued into the following groups: (1) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water; (2) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water containing soluble neutron absorbers; (3) critical assemblies containing solid neutron absorber; (4) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water with heavy metal reflectors; and (5) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water with irregular features. A listing of the current near term needs for additional data in each of the groups has been developed for future use in planning criticality research in support of nuclear fuel transportation systems. The criticality experiments needed to provide these data are briefly described and identified according to priority and relative cost of performing the experiments

  10. The evolutionary adoption of thorium beginning with its application in niche LWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drera, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of nuclear energy, the use of thorium as a nuclear fuel has been envisioned. Thorium boasts benefits, however, drawbacks which are both economic and technical including its the lack of a naturally occurring fissile isotope implies that its utility is inherently more difficult. The implementation of thorium as a nuclear fuel requires that it must provide sound technical advantages in combination with attractive economics as compared to standard uranium fuel. Revolutionary thorium concepts such as molten salt reactors and accelerator driven systems may provide theoretical merit, however, their exotic nature and associated technical challenges label them as long-term solutions at best. A near-to-medium term solution for thorium must be based on an evolutionary approach utilizing light/heavy water reactor platforms. While thorium does not provide a near-to-medium term complete replacement of uranium, it does provide substantial benefit within niche applications. To license and bring to market these niche fuels, Thor Energy and an international consortium of entities (including: Fortum, KAERI, Westinghouse, NNL, ITU, IFE, and a few other minor entities) have initiated a fuel development and irradiation test program to characterize the performance of these thoria-containing fuels. (author)

  11. Reactor Fuel Isotopics and Code Validation for Nuclear Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Matthew W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Weber, Charles F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pigni, Marco T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gauld, Ian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Experimentally measured isotopic concentrations of well characterized spent nuclear fuel (SNF) samples have been collected and analyzed by previous researchers. These sets of experimental data have been used extensively to validate the accuracy of depletion code predictions for given sets of burnups, initial enrichments, and varying power histories for different reactor types. The purpose of this report is to present the diversity of data in a concise manner and summarize the current accuracy of depletion modeling. All calculations performed for this report were done using the Oak Ridge Isotope GENeration (ORIGEN) code, an internationally used irradiation and decay code solver within the SCALE comprehensive modeling and simulation code. The diversity of data given in this report includes key actinides, stable fission products, and radioactive fission products. In general, when using the current ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries in SCALE, the major actinides are predicted to within 5% of the measured values. Large improvements were seen for several of the curium isotopes when using improved cross section data found in evaluated nuclear data file ENDF/B-VII.0 as compared to ENDF/B-V-based results. The impact of the flux spectrum on the plutonium isotope concentrations as a function of burnup was also shown. The general accuracy noted for the actinide samples for reactor types with burnups greater than 5,000 MWd/MTU was not observed for the low-burnup Hanford B samples. More work is needed in understanding these large discrepancies. The stable neodymium and samarium isotopes were predicted to within a few percent of the measured values. Large improvements were seen in prediction for a few of the samarium isotopes when using the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries compared to results obtained with ENDF/B-V libraries. Very accurate predictions were obtained for 133Cs and 153Eu. However, the predicted values for the stable ruthenium and rhodium isotopes varied

  12. SiC Composite for Fuel Structure Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueh, Ken [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2017-12-22

    Extensive evaluation was performed to determine the suitability of using SiC composite as a boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel channel material. A thin walled SiC composite box, 10 cm in dimension by approximately 1.5 mm wall thickness was fabricated using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for testing. Mechanical test results and performance evaluations indicate the material could meet BWR channel mechanical design requirement. However, large mass loss of up to 21% was measured in in-pile corrosion test under BWR-like conditions in under 3 months of irradiation. A fresh sister sample irradiated in a follow-up cycle under PWR conditions showed no measureable weight loss and thus supports the hypothesis that the oxidizing condition of the BWR-like coolant chemistry was responsible for the high corrosion rate. A thermodynamic evaluation showed SiC is not stable and the material may oxidize to form SiO2 and CO2. Silica has demonstrated stability in high temperature steam environment and form a protective oxide layer under severe accident conditions. However, it does not form a protective layer in water under normal BWR operational conditions due to its high solubility. Corrosion product stabilization by modifying the SiC CVD surface is an approach evaluated in this study to mitigate the high corrosion rate. Titanium and zirconium have been selected as stabilizing elements since both TiSiO4 and ZrSiO4 are insoluble in water. Corrosion test results in oxygenated water autoclave indicate TiSiO4 does not form a protective layer. However, zirconium doped test samples appear to form a stable continuous layer of ZrSiO4 during the corrosion process. Additional process development is needed to produce a good ZrSiC coating to verify functionality of the mitigation concept.

  13. An initial applications study of ceria-gadolinia solid oxide fuel cells: V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D.; Mould, B.

    1998-11-01

    Fuel cells are categorised by their electrolytes, and the solid oxide fuel cell is so called because its electrolyte consists of a solid ceramic oxide. Commonly this has been a form of zirconia, though other materials are now being considered for their different electrical properties. One of these, ceria doped with gadolinia, shows promise for use in lower temperature regimes than zirconia, and may open up different areas of a future market for consideration. This report considers the opportunities for ceria-gadolinia solid oxide fuel cell systems by comparing them with the application requirements in markets where fuel cells may have potential. The advantages and disadvantages of the technology are analysed, together with the state of the art in research and development. The direction in which research effort needs to move to address some of the issues is assessed. The report then draws conclusions regarding the potential of ceria-gadolinia in solid oxide fuel cell systems and in the energy markets as a whole. It should be noted that while this report is an applications study, some technology assessment has been included. Much of this is found in Volume 2. (author)

  14. Practical experience in the application of quality control in water-reactor fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollath, D.

    1984-07-01

    Highly industrialized countries have gained vast experience in manufacturing water reactor fuel. Manufacturing is followed by a stringent system of quality assurance and quality control. The Seminar on Practical Experience in the Application of Quality Control in Water-Reactor Fuel Fabrication provided a forum for an exchange of information on methods and systems of quality assurance and quality control for reactor fuel. In addition, many developing countries which have started or intend to set up a nuclear fuel industry are interested in the application of quality assurance and quality control. This meeting has been preceded by two different series of conferences: the IAEA meetings 1976 in Oslo, 1978 in Prague and 1979 in Buenos Aires, and the Karlsruhe meetings on Characterization and Quality Control of Nuclear Fuel held in 1978 and 1981. Quality control and quality assurance has many different facets. Unlike the purely technical aspects, covered by the Karlsruhe conference series, the IAEA meetings always relate to a wider field of topics. They include governmental regulations and codes for practical quality assurance. This volume contains the papers presented at the seminar and a record of the discussions. (orig.)

  15. Practices and developments in spent fuel burnup credit applications. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical committee Meeting on Requirements, Practices and Developments in Burnup Credit (BUC) Applications in Madrid, Spain, from 22 to 26 April 2002. The purpose of this meeting was to explore the progress and status of international activities related to the BUC applications for spent nuclear fuel. This meeting was the third major meeting on the uses of BUC for spent fuel management systems held since the IAEA began to monitor the uses of BUC in spent fuel management systems in 1997. The first major meeting was an Advisory Group meeting (AGM), which was held in Vienna, in October 1997. The second major meeting was a technical committee meeting (TCM), which was held in Vienna, in July 2000. Several consultants meetings were held since 1997 to advise and assist the IAEA in planning and conducting its BUC activities. The proceedings of the 1997 AGM were published as IAEA-TECDOC-1013, and the proceedings of the 2000 TCM as IAEA-TECDOC-1241. BUC for wet and dry storage systems, spent fuel transport, reprocessing and final disposal is needed in many Member States to allow for increased enrichment, and to increase storage capacities, cask capacities and dissolver capacities avoiding the need for extensive modifications. The use of BUC is a necessity for spent fuel disposal.

  16. An evaluation of gas release modelling approaches as to their applicability in fuel behaviour models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.J.; Sairanen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The release of fission gas from uranium oxide fuel to the voids in the fuel rod affects in many ways the behaviour of LWR fuel rods both during normal operating conditions including anticipated transients and during off-normal and accident conditions. The current trend towards significantly increased discharge burnup of LWR fuel will increase the importance of fission gas release considerations both from the design and safety viewpoints. In the paper fission gas release models are classified to 5 categories on the basis of complexity and physical sophistication. For each category, the basic approach common to the models included in the category is described, a few representative models of the category are singled out and briefly commented in some cases, the advantages and drawbacks of the approach are listed and discussed and conclusions on the practical feasibility of the approach are drawn. The evaluation is based on both literature survey and our experience in working with integral fuel behaviour models. The work has included verification efforts, attempts to improve certain features of the codes and engineering applications. The classification of fission gas release models regarding their applicability in fuel behaviour codes can of course be done only in a coarse manner. The boundaries between the different categories are vague and a model may be well refined in a way which transfers it to a higher category. Some current trends in fuel behaviour research are discussed which seem to motivate further extensive efforts in fission product release modelling and are certain to affect the prioritizing of the efforts. (author)

  17. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  18. Preliminary Content Evaluation of the North Anna High Burn-Up Sister Fuel Rod Segments for Transportation in the 10-160B and NAC-LWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) Program has transported high-burnup nuclear sister fuel rods from a commercial nuclear power plant for purposes of evaluation and testing. The evaluation and testing of high-burnup used nuclear fuel is integral to DOE initiatives to collect information useful in determining the integrity of fuel cladding for future safe transportation of the fuel, and for determining the effects of aging, on the integrity of UNF subjected to extended storage and subsequent transportation. The UFDC Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the commercial nuclear industry, has obtained individual used nuclear fuel rods for testing. The rods have been received at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for both separate effects testing (SET) and small-scale testing (SST). To meet the research objectives, testing on multiple 6 inch fuel rod pins cut from the rods at ORNL will be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Up to 10 rod equivalents will be shipped. Options were evaluated for multiple shipments using the 10-160B (based on 4.5 rod equivalents) and a single shipment using the NAC-LWT. Based on the original INL/Virginia Power transfer agreement, the rods are assumed to 152 inches in length with a 0.374-inch diameter. This report provides a preliminary content evaluation for use of the 10-160B and NAC-LWT for transporting those fuel rod pins from ORNL to PNNL. This report documents the acceptability of using these packagings to transport the fuel segments from ORNL to PNNL based on the following evaluations: enrichment, A2 evaluation, Pu-239 FGE evaluation, heat load, shielding (both gamma and neutron), and content weight/structural evaluation.

  19. Power Conditioning of Fuel Cell Systems in Portable Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Benitez, E.; Brey, J. J.; Rodriguez-Bordallo, C.; Carrasco, J. M.; Galvan, E.

    2005-07-01

    The achieving of high performance and long useful life are the two fundamental objectives of portable application designers. Cost and size conditions make these objectives more complex and always lead to a compromise solution having to be reached. The most significant parameters as regards portables devices are cost, efficiency (useful life), output crimps and noise, and quiescent current. Most portable products have two fundamental operating modes: active and standby. During the active period, current consumption is generally high and this means that excellent conversion is essential in order to maximize the useful life of the device that supplies current and voltage. However, most portable devices spend most of their time on standby and draw little energy from the source. It is equally important for the source to be very efficient under these conditions. This means that the quiescent current from the source (the current that supplies in low or nil load conditions) must be much lower than the load current in order to maintain high efficiency. Topologies Different power conditioning topologies to be used in portable applications are indicated with their corresponding advantages and inconveniences being specified. Low dropout voltage regulator (LDO) This type of conditioning is one of minimum cost, noise and quiescent current. This makes this device a favorite for many applications. Its external components are minimal: usually a bypass capacity. Its efficiency, although poor when Vin is much greater than Vout, increases greatly when their values are somewhat similar. In this event, the benefits of using LDOs are almost impossible to beat. In fact, these circuits are much used to reach output voltages of up to 3 volts. (Author)

  20. Application of configurable logic in nuclear fuel handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, W.H.; Rayment, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Control and protective systems operating in the older nuclear power stations are nearing the end of their reliable operating life. These systems are still subject to frequent logic changes. Testing the software logic changes is becoming a significant task with ever greater expense. The software based systems can be replaced with systems using configurable logic. These systems provide new, more reliable technology, offer the capability for change, and provide capability for complete logic simulation and test before installation. There is a base of operating experience with these devices and many potential applications where they can be used to advantage. (author). 5 refs

  1. Application of configurable logic in nuclear fuel handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, W H; Rayment, D J [Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., Peterborough, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Control and protective systems operating in the older nuclear power stations are nearing the end of their reliable operating life. These systems are still subject to frequent logic changes. Testing the software logic changes is becoming a significant task with ever greater expense. The software based systems can be replaced with systems using configurable logic. These systems provide new, more reliable technology, offer the capability for change, and provide capability for complete logic simulation and test before installation. There is a base of operating experience with these devices and many potential applications where they can be used to advantage. (author). 5 refs.

  2. Improvement of linear reactivity methods and application to long range fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woehlke, R.A.; Quan, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The original development of the linear reactivity theory assumes flat burnup, batch by batch. The validity of this assumption is explored using multicycle burnup data generated with a detailed 3-D SIMULATE model. The results show that the linear reactivity method can be improved by correcting for batchwise power sharing. The application of linear reactivity to long range fuel management is demonstrated in several examples. Correcting for batchwise power sharing improves the accuracy of the analysis. However, with regard to the sensitivity of fuel cost to changes in various parameters, the corrected and uncorrected linear reactivity theories give remarkably similar results

  3. Non-Inverting Buck-Boost Converter for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Khaligh, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cell DC/DC converters often have to be able to both step-up and step-down the input voltage, and provide a high efficiency in the whole range of output power. Conventional negative output buck-boost and non-inverting buck-boost converters provide both step-up and step-down characteristics....... In this paper the non-inverting buck-boost with either diodes or synchronous rectifiers is investigated for fuel cell applications. Most of previous research does not consider  the parasitic in the evaluation of the converters. In this study, detailed analytical expressions of the efficiencies for the system...

  4. Parameter Selection for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel to be Used in the Yucca Mountain License Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Fillmore

    2003-10-01

    This report contains the chemical, physical, and radiological parameters that were chosen to represent the U.S. Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel in the Yucca Mountain license application. It also contains the selected packaging requirements for the various fuel types and the criticality controls that were used. The data are reported for representative fuels and bounding fuels in groups of fuels that were selected for the analysis. The justification for the selection of each parameter is given. The data reported were not generated under any quality assurance program.

  5. Applications of biotechnology in the fossil fuel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jack, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the effects of micoorganisms on petroleum industry operations and on the potentially significant applications of biotechnology in that sector. Detrimental aspects of microbial activity include the biodegradation of petroleum products and petrochemical products, microbially influenced corrosion, and microbial souring of oil reservoirs by sulfate reducing bacteria. Beneficial aspects include microbially enhanced oil recovery, the mapping of the presence of ethane oxidizing bacteria as an exploration tool, the use of bacterial systems for plugging during hydraulic fracturing, microbially stimulated oil production, microbial dewaxing, use of biopolymers such as xanthan in drilling muds, microbial surfactants and emulsifiers for use in pipelining of viscous oils, microbial upgrading of oil, manufacture of biodegradable products, and bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially enhanced oil recovery technologies, well and tank cleaning operations based on microbial formulations, and microbial-based well stimulation and cleaning operations have already reached field trial success, with commercial success in several cases. The hottest area of application in the 1990s will undoubtedly be in the area of biological remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites and emissions. 39 refs

  6. Accelerated testing of solid oxide fuel cell stacks for micro combined heat and power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Barfod, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art (SoA) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are tested using profiles relevant for use in micro combined heat and power (CHP) units. Such applications are characterised by dynamic load profiles. In order to shorten the needed testing time and to investigate potential acceleration...... of degradation, the profiles are executed faster than required for real applications. Operation with fast load cycling, both using hydrogen and methane/steam as fuels, does not accelerate degradation compared to constant operation, which demonstrates the maturity of SoA stacks and enables transferring knowledge...... effect for long life-times than regular short time changes of operation. In order to address lifetime testing it is suggested to build a testing program consisting of defined modules that represent different application profiles, such as one module at constant conditions, followed by modules at one set...

  7. Analysis of H2 storage needs for early market non-motive fuel cell applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Moreno, Marcina; Arienti, Marco; Pratt, Joseph William; Shaw, Leo; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the United States dependence on foreign oil, but issues with hydrogen storage are impeding their widespread use. To help overcome these challenges, this study analyzes opportunities for their near-term deployment in five categories of non-motive equipment: portable power, construction equipment, airport ground support equipment, telecom backup power, and man-portable power and personal electronics. To this end, researchers engaged end users, equipment manufacturers, and technical experts via workshops, interviews, and electronic means, and then compiled these data into meaningful and realistic requirements for hydrogen storage in specific target applications. In addition to developing these requirements, end-user benefits (e.g., low noise and emissions, high efficiency, potentially lower maintenance costs) and concerns (e.g., capital cost, hydrogen availability) of hydrogen fuel cells in these applications were identified. Market data show potential deployments vary with application from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of units.

  8. Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possetti, G R C; De Arruda, L V R; Muller, M; Fabris, J L; Côcco, L C; Yamamoto, C I; Falate, R

    2009-01-01

    This work shows prospects of long-period fibre grating applications as transducers for fuel conformity analysis. The proposed long-period grating transducer was employed to assess the gasoline conformity in commercial gas stations. Grating responses were used to train and validate a radial base function topology of an artificial neural network. The obtained results show that fibre optic sensors supervised by artificial neural networks can integrate systems for smart sensing with high applicability in the petrochemical field. The radial base function had reached a correct classification probability of approximately 94%. The device applicability in the analysis of hydrated ethanol fuel was also investigated by measuring the concentration of ethanol in ethanol–water mixtures. The results showed that the developed transducer can be used to infer the ethanol–water concentration with a resolution of up to 0.23%

  9. NEW OPTICAL SENSOR SUITE FOR ULTRAHIGH TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell G. May; Tony Peng; Tom Flynn

    2004-12-01

    Accomplishments during the Phase I of a program to develop and demonstrate technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. Engineers from Prime Research, LC and Babcock and Wilcox Research Center collaborated to generate a list of potential applications for robust photonic sensors in existing and future boiler plants. From that list, three applications were identified as primary candidates for initial development and demonstration of high-temperature sensors in an ultrasupercritical power plant. A matrix of potential fiber optic sensor approaches was derived, and a data set of specifications for high-temperature optical fiber was produced. Several fiber optic sensor configurations, including interferometric (extrinsic and intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer), gratings (fiber Bragg gratings and long period gratings), and microbend sensors, were evaluated in the laboratory. In addition, progress was made in the development of materials and methods to apply high-temperature optical claddings to sapphire fibers, in order to improve their optical waveguiding properties so that they can be used in the design and fabrication of high-temperature sensors. Through refinements in the processing steps, the quality of the interface between core and cladding of the fibers was improved, which is expected to reduce scattering and attenuation in the fibers. Numerical aperture measurements of both clad and unclad sapphire fibers were obtained and used to estimate the reduction in mode volume afforded by the cladding. High-temperature sensors based on sapphire fibers were also investigated. The fabrication of an intrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity within sapphire fibers was attempted by the bulk diffusion of magnesium oxide into short localized segments of longer sapphire fibers. Fourier analysis of the fringes that resulted when the treated fiber was interrogated by a swept laser spectrometer suggested that an intrinsic cavity had been formed in the fiber. Also

  10. RERTR program activities related to the development and application of new LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1983-01-01

    The statue of the U.S. Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is reviewed. After a brief outline of RERTR Program objectives and goals, program accomplishments are discussed with emphasis on the development, demonstration and application of new LEU fuels. Most program activities have proceeded as planned, and a combination of two silicide fuels (U 3 Si 2 -Al and U 3 Si-Al) holds excellent promise for achieving the long-term program goals. Current plans and schedules project the uranium density of qualified RERTR fuels for plate-type reactors to grow by approximately 1 g U/cm 3 each year, from the current 1.7 g U/cm 3 to the 7.0 g U/cm 3 which will be reached in late 1988. The technical needs of research and test reactors for HEU exports are also forecasted to undergo a gradual but dramatic decline in the coming years

  11. Biodegradation of dispersed marine fuel oil in sediment under engineered pre-spill application strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, J.

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradation of marine fuel oil was studied by monitoring changes in residual oil and populations of microorganisms in marine sediments. Biodegradation rates for dispersant and soap water were 2.09 and 2.27 g/kg per day, respectively, under pre-application strategy, suggesting that the strategy may promote MFO dispersion and provide with sufficient source of food. The effect of temperature on the effectiveness of pre-application strategy is particularly obvious for the growth of fungi and Pseudomonas maltophilia. The effect of pre-application of soap water on the tolerance of aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and P. maltophilia, was gradually diminished within 25-33 days. (author)

  12. Prevention of significant deterioration permit application for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This New Source Review'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (PO Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 173-403-050 and in compliance with the Department of Ecology Guide to Processing A Prevention Of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit'' for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS), the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF), and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA), will be located in one facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post-irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies for use in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, these systems will be dealt with separately to the extent possible. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  13. Study on behavior of Cs-137 and Pu-239, 240 in lake and marine environments on basis of sediment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Seiya

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was made on the sediment mechanisms of artificial radioactive isotopes in relation to environmental factors through utilizing the differences in deposition behaviors of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu. Cumulus deposit samples were collected from 4 lake and 7 ocean areas of different environmental and deposit conditions; oligotrophic, mesotrophic, acidtrophic and dystrophic lakes, and coastal and hemipelagic ocean areas. After purification of these deposit samples using ionchromatography, β-ray from 137 Cs and α-ray from Pu were spectroscopically determined to plat the respective concentration as a function of the depth in core. Based on the data of mean ratio of 239,240 Pu/ 137 Cs as to the organic sulfides and residual fractions and the total deposits, it was thought that when the ratio of Pu/Cs of lake deposits was higher than the fallout value, organic materials in the lake might be involved. Pu was mostly abundant in organic fractions compared with Cs, whereas Cs was present in all the four fractions of carbonates, oxides, organic materials and aluminosilicates. (M.N.)

  14. Pu-239+240 and Pu-238 distribution among dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases in the Rhone River (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle, F.; Goutelard, F.; Calmet, D.

    1999-01-01

    The determination of plutonium distribution among dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases was investigated in the Rhone River at Arles, 50 km upstream the river mouth, in May 1997. The flow rate of the river reached its average annual value (i.e., 1800 m 3 s -1 ). 1100 l of fresh water were collected, a part (900 l) was prefiltered on 1200 and 450 nm, then ultrafiltered by sequential ultrafiltration

  15. Migration of Sr-20, Cs-137, and Pu-239/240 in Canyon below Los Alamos outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.M.; Mason, C.F.V.; Boak, J.M.; Longmire, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Technical Area-21 (TA-21) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is on a mesa bordered by two canyons DP Canyon and Los Alamos (LA) Canyon. DP Canyon is a small semiarid watershed with a well defined channel system where the stream flow is ephemeral. TA-21 has had a complex history of waste disposal as research to determine the chemical and metallurgical properties of nuclear materials occurred here from 1945-1978. Due to these operations, the TA-21 mesa top and bordering canyons have been monitored and characterized by the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Results identify radionuclide values at outfall. 21-011 (k) which exceed Screening Action Levels, and points along DP Canyon which exceed regional background levels. The radiocontaminants considered in this study are strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium-239. This research examines sediment transport and speciation of radionuclide contaminant migration from a source term named SWMU 21-011 (k) down DP Canyon. Three dimensional surface plots of data from 1977-1994 are used to portray the transport and redistribution of radioactive contaminants in an alluvial stream channel. An overall decrease in contamination concentration since 1983 has been observed which could be due to more stringent laboratory controls and also to the removal of main plutonium processing laboratories to another site

  16. Migration of Sr-20, Cs-137, and Pu-239/240 in Canyon below Los Alamos outfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.M.; Mason, C.F.V.; Boak, J.M.; Longmire, P.A.

    1996-04-01

    Technical Area-21 (TA-21) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is on a mesa bordered by two canyons DP Canyon and Los Alamos (LA) Canyon. DP Canyon is a small semiarid watershed with a well defined channel system where the stream flow is ephemeral. TA-21 has had a complex history of waste disposal as research to determine the chemical and metallurgical properties of nuclear materials occurred here from 1945-1978. Due to these operations, the TA-21 mesa top and bordering canyons have been monitored and characterized by the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Results identify radionuclide values at outfall. 21-011 (k) which exceed Screening Action Levels, and points along DP Canyon which exceed regional background levels. The radiocontaminants considered in this study are strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium-239. This research examines sediment transport and speciation of radionuclide contaminant migration from a source term named SWMU 21-011 (k) down DP Canyon. Three dimensional surface plots of data from 1977-1994 are used to portray the transport and redistribution of radioactive contaminants in an alluvial stream channel. An overall decrease in contamination concentration since 1983 has been observed which could be due to more stringent laboratory controls and also to the removal of main plutonium processing laboratories to another site.

  17. Exploiting the plutonium stockpiles in PWRs by using inert matrix fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, C.; Mazzola, A.

    1996-01-01

    The plutonium coming from dismantled warheads and that already stockpiled coming from spent fuel reprocessing have raised many concerns related to proliferation resistance, environmental safety and economy. The option of disposing of plutonium by fission is one of the most widely discussed and many proposals for plutonium burning in a safe and economical manner have been put forward. Due to their diffusion, PWRs appear to be the main candidates for the reduction of the plutonium stockpiles. In order to achieve a high plutonium consumption rate, a uranium-free fuel may be conceived, based on the dilution of PuO 2 within a carrier matrix made of inert oxide. In this paper, a partial loading of inert matrix fuel in a current technology PWR was investigated with 3-D calculations. The results indicated that this solution has good plutonium elimination capabilities: commercial PWRs operating in a once-through cycle scheme can transmute more than 98% of the loaded Pu-239 and 73 or 81% of the overall initially loaded reactor grade or weapons grade plutonium, respectively. The plutonium still let in the spent fuel was of poor quality and then offered a better proliferation resistance. Power peaking problems could be faced with the adoption of burnable absorbers: IFBA seemed to be particularly suitable. In spite of a reduction of the overall plutonium loaded mass by a factor 3.7 or 5.4 depending on its quality, there was no evidence of an increase of the minor actinides radiotoxicity after a time period of about 25 years. (author)

  18. Application of fuel cell for pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.

    2015-12-01

    Once pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste reacts with water and air it produces acid mine drainage (AMD) and leads to the other environmental problems such as contamination of surrounding soils. Pyrite is the major source of AMD and it can be controlled using a biological-electrochemical dissolution method. By enhancing the dissolution of pyrite using fuel cell technology, not only mining waste be beneficially utilized but also be treated at the same time by. As pyrite-containing mining waste is oxidized in the anode of the fuel cell, electrons and protons are generated, and electrons moves through an external load to cathode reducing oxygen to water while protons migrate to cathode through a proton exchange membrane. Iron-oxidizing bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which can utilize Fe as an electron donor promotes pyrite dissolution and hence enhances electrochemical dissolution of pyrite from mining waste. In this study mining waste from a zinc mine in Korea containing 17 wt% pyrite and 9% As was utilized as a fuel for the fuel cell inoculated with A. ferrooxidans. Electrochemically dissolved As content and chemically dissolved As content was compared. With the initial pH of 3.5 at 23℃, the dissolved As concentration increased (from 4.0 to 13 mg/L after 20 d) in the fuel cell, while it kept decreased in the chemical reactor (from 12 to 0.43 mg/L after 20 d). The fuel cell produced 0.09 V of open circuit voltage with the maximum power density of 0.84 mW/m2. Dissolution of As from mining waste was enhanced through electrochemical reaction. Application of fuel cell technology is a novel treatment method for pyrite and heavy metals containing mining waste, and this method is beneficial for mining environment as well as local community of mining areas.

  19. Experiences in the application of quality control and quality assurance programmes in water reactor fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaramamoorthy, K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Kulkarni, P.G.; Raghavan, S.V.; Bandyopadhyay, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear fuel for Research Reactors and Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) is being fabricated in India for a period of over two decades. The fuel is produced to conform to stringent quality control specifications. Generally, the performance of the fuel has been very good in the reactors. This is not only due to the high quality workmanship in the various stages of production but also to the meticulous care exercised in the planning and application of quality control and quality assurance procedures. For the nuclear fuel used in Water Reactors, extensive material specifications have been compiled and they are periodically reviewed and revised. The specifications cover various aspects such as metallurgical and mechanical properties, non-destructive testing, dimensional and visual standard requirements. Similarly, detailed manufacturing engineering instructions (MEIs) and quality control instructions (QCIs) have been drawn. For any deviations from the specified requirements, design concession committee considers all deviations and acceptance or rejection criteria are evolved. In this task, the design concession committee is supported by experimentation in various laboratories of the Department of Atomic Energy. The Quality Assurance procedures have been evolved over a long period of time. They generally conform to the latest code and recommended guides of IAEA regarding Quality Assurance in the manufacture of fuel. (orig.)

  20. Model for Fuel-Sodium Interaction - Application to the JEF Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, J.P.; Antonakas, D.

    1976-01-01

    A model of sodium-fuel interaction, referred to as TRACONABUEE, has been developed. The fuel particles are assumed to be introduces in the interacting zone within a finite mixing time, according to a given function (not necessarily linear). The equations for heat transfer inside fuel particles are those of Cho and Wright (transient conduction for phase A and quasi-steady state heat transfer for phase B). During phase B several options for heat transfer from fuel to sodium can be assumed (no transfer, transfer proportional to the volume fraction of liquid sodium, given duration of transfer, etc... ) Two versions are available: a spherical one (EPISCOPOS) and an axial one (TEXAS). For application to the JEF experiments a model of heat losses along the cold column had to be introduced into TEXAS. It was found that the phenomenon is essentially governed by the heat losses. The velocity of the cold sodium in the column presents marked maxima and minima. The agreement with experiment is satisfactory. In conclusion: Due to their simple well-defined geometry, the JEF experiments can be profitably interpreted. They are inadequate for the determination of the interacting sodium mass. On the other hand they allow to fit a simple, parametric, two-phase heat transfer model, suitable for this type of experiments. Finally they show the great importance of the heat losses when the mass of molten fuel is small. These- latter alone explain the phenomenon

  1. Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-04-01

    The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric radiocarbon and various applications of radiocarbon over this century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Heather D

    2015-08-04

    Radiocarbon analyses are commonly used in a broad range of fields, including earth science, archaeology, forgery detection, isotope forensics, and physiology. Many applications are sensitive to the radiocarbon ((14)C) content of atmospheric CO2, which has varied since 1890 as a result of nuclear weapons testing, fossil fuel emissions, and CO2 cycling between atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Over this century, the ratio (14)C/C in atmospheric CO2 (Δ(14)CO2) will be determined by the amount of fossil fuel combustion, which decreases Δ(14)CO2 because fossil fuels have lost all (14)C from radioactive decay. Simulations of Δ(14)CO2 using the emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, the Representative Concentration Pathways, indicate that ambitious emission reductions could sustain Δ(14)CO2 near the preindustrial level of 0‰ through 2100, whereas "business-as-usual" emissions will reduce Δ(14)CO2 to -250‰, equivalent to the depletion expected from over 2,000 y of radioactive decay. Given current emissions trends, fossil fuel emission-driven artificial "aging" of the atmosphere is likely to occur much faster and with a larger magnitude than previously expected. This finding has strong and as yet unrecognized implications for many applications of radiocarbon in various fields, and it implies that radiocarbon dating may no longer provide definitive ages for samples up to 2,000 y old.

  3. Application of the BISON Fuel Performance Code of the FUMEX-III Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.L.; Novascone, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1981, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has sponsored a series of Coordinated Research Projects (CRP) in the area of nuclear fuel modeling. These projects have typically lasted 3-5 years and have had broad international participation. The objectives of the projects have been to assess the maturity and predictive capability of fuel performance codes, support interaction and information exchange between countries with code development and application needs, build a database of well- defined experiments suitable for code validation, transfer a mature fuel modeling code to developing countries, and provide guidelines for code quality assurance and code application to fuel licensing. The fourth and latest of these projects, known as FUMEX-III1 (FUel Modeling at EXtended Burnup- III), began in 2008 and ended in December of 2011. FUMEX-III was the first of this series of fuel modeling CRP's in which the INL participated. Participants met at the beginning of the project to discuss and select a set of experiments ('priority cases') for consideration during the project. These priority cases were of broad interest to the participants and included reasonably well-documented and reliable data. A meeting was held midway through the project for participants to present and discuss progress on modeling the priority cases. A final meeting was held at close of the project to present and discuss final results and provide input for a final report. Also in 2008, the INL initiated development of a new multidimensional (2D and 3D) multiphysics nuclear fuel performance code called BISON, with code development progressing steadily during the three-year FUMEX-III project. Interactions with international fuel modeling researchers via FUMEX-III played a significant role in the BISON evolution, particularly influencing the selection of material and behavioral models which are now included in the code. The FUMEX-III cases are generally integral fuel rod experiments occurring

  4. Fuel cell based integrated and distributed energy applications (FC-IDEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotak, D.B.; Wu, S.; Fleetwood, M.S.; Tamoto, H.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The commercial success of fuel cells will depend upon their adaptation to mobile (e.g., cars, wheelchairs, mopeds, bicycles), stationary (e.g., remote or distributed power), and portable energy applications. Typically such applications are capital intensive and involve a lot of unknowns given that they use new and emergent technology. Also many applications (e.g., hydrogen fuelling station) can be achieved using different technologies and 'pathways'. Thus it is important that a full assessment of possible alternatives be carried out taking into consideration factors such as: capital, operating and maintenance costs; equipment performance, utilization, reliability and scalability; effectiveness to meet the energy demand. NRC is developing a generic software tool which industry experts can use to facilitate assessment of alternative solutions to fulfill the energy requirements for their specific application. We call this tool FC-IDEA (Fuel Cell-based Integrated and Distributed Energy Applications). The system has the following key components: - A Web-based Human-Machine Interface designed for the industry expert to configure and assess alternative designs and operational approaches to satisfy their energy needs (e.g., hydrogen demand profile for a fuelling station, electricity demand profile for a stationary power application); - A Comprehensive Database containing the performance characteristics of energy devices (e.g., electrolysers, hydrogen storage tanks, compressors, dispensers, fuel cells, reformers) that may be used to configure the required application; - A Simulation Model capable of representing the physical system in full 3D to enable ' what-if' analysis of design and operational alternatives and measuring such parameters as performance, utilization, failure and maintenance, shift schedules, and costs. Using this system the expert would be able to configure alternative energy nodes (e.g., remote power) consisting of energy devices. Similarly

  5. Design of current source DC/DC converter and inverter for 2kW fuel cell application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreiciks, A.; Steiks, I.; Krievs, O.

    2013-01-01

    In order to use hydrogen fuel cell in domestic applications either as main power supply or backup power source, the low DC output voltage of the fuel cell has to be matched to the voltage level and frequency of the utility grid AC voltage. The interfacing power converter systems usually consist...... system is designed for interfacing a 2kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell....

  6. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  7. Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications development phase. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The deployment and operation of clean power generation is becoming critical as the energy and transportation sectors seek ways to comply with clean air standards and the national deregulation of the utility industry. However, for strategic business decisions, considerable analysis is required over the next few years to evaluate the appropriate application and value added from this emerging technology. To this end the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) is proposing a three-year industry-driven project that centers on the creation of ``The Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications.`` A collaborative laboratory housed at and managed by HARC, the Center will enable a core group of six diverse participating companies--industry participants--to investigate the economic and operational feasibility of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells in a variety of applications (the core project). This document describes the unique benefits of a collaborative approach to PEM applied research, among them a shared laboratory concept leading to cost savings and shared risks as well as access to outstanding research talent and lab facilities. It also describes the benefits provided by implementing the project at HARC, with particular emphasis on HARC`s history of managing successful long-term research projects as well as its experience in dealing with industry consortia projects. The Center is also unique in that it will not duplicate the traditional university role of basic research or that of the fuel cell industry in developing commercial products. Instead, the Center will focus on applications, testing, and demonstration of fuel cell technology.

  8. Model development for quantitative evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il

    2000-02-01

    Hypercube Sampling technique together with sensitivity analysis, could be a useful tool for decision makers to estimate the uncertainty of the fuel cycle cost. The input variable treatment model suggested in this study for the probabilistic simulation could be also useful when adequate historical cost data are not available. The application of the probabilistic simulation method to the fuel cycle cost analysis has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle in Korea could be a competitive option with the direct disposal fuel cycle and is superior to the reprocessing fuel cycle

  9. Biomass gasification--a substitute to fossil fuel for heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasappa, S.; Sridhar, H.V.; Sridhar, G.; Paul, P.J.; Mukunda, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses case studies of a low temperature and a high temperature industrial heat requirement being met using biomass gasification. The gasification system for these applications consists of an open top down draft reburn reactor lined with ceramic. Necessary cooling and cleaning systems are incorporated in the package to meet the end use requirements. The other elements included are the fuel conveyor, water treatment plant for recirculating the cooling water and adequate automation to start, shut down and control the operations of the gasifier system. Drying of marigold flower, a low temperature application is considered to replace diesel fuel in the range of 125-150 l h -1 . Gas from the 500 kg h -1 , gasifier system is piped into the producer gas burners fixed in the combustion chamber with the downstream process similar to the diesel burner. The high temperature application is for a heat treatment furnace in the temperature range of 873-1200 K. A 300 kg h -1 of biomass gasifier replaces 2000 l of diesel or LDO per day completely. The novelty of this package is the use of one gasifier to energize 16 burners in the 8 furnaces with different temperature requirements. The system operates over 140 h per week on a nearly nonstop mode and over 4000 h of operation replacing fossil fuel completely. The advantage of bioenergy package towards the economic and environmental considerations is presented

  10. Analysis on small long life reactor using thorium fuel for water cooled and metal cooled reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik

    2009-01-01

    Long-life reactor operation can be adopted for some special purposes which have been proposed by IAEA as the small and medium reactor (SMR) program. Thermal reactor and fast reactor types can be used for SMR and in addition to that program the utilization of thorium fuel as one of the candidate as a 'partner' fuel with uranium fuel which can be considered for optimizing the nuclear fuel utilization as well as recycling spent fuel. Fissile U-233 as the main fissile material for thorium fuel shows higher eta-value for wider energy range compared with other fissile materials of U-235 and Pu-239. However, it less than Pu-239 for fast energy region, but it still shows high eta-value. This eta-value gives the reactor has higher capability for obtaining breeding condition or high conversion capability. In the present study, the comparative analysis on small long life reactor fueled by thorium for different reactor types (water cooled and metal cooled reactor types). Light water and heavy water have been used as representative of water-cooled reactor types, and for liquid metal-cooled reactor types, sodium-cooled and lead-bismuth-cooled have been adopted. Core blanket arrangement as general design configuration, has been adopted which consist of inner blanket region fueled by thorium oxide, and two core regions (inner and out regions) fueled by fissile U-233 and thorium oxide with different percentages of fissile content. SRAC-CITATION and JENDL-33 have been used as core optimization analysis and nuclear data library for this analysis. Reactor operation time can reaches more than 10 years operation without refueling and shuffling for different reactor types and several power outputs. As can be expected, liquid metal cooled reactor types can be used more effective for obtaining long life reactor with higher burnup, higher power density, higher breeding capability and lower excess reactivity compared with water-cooled reactors. Water cooled obtains long life core operation

  11. Supply chain management applications for forest fuel procurement. Cost or benefit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, J.; Roeser, D. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu Research Unit (Finland)), email: johannes.windisch@metla.fi; Sikanen, L.; Gritten, D. (Univ. of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Science, Joensuu (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    It is commonly agreed that logistics is very demanding in forest fuel business. Even though logistics and supply chain management (SCM) tools already have found their way into forestry business, for example, in roundwood operations, they are not yet very widespread in the field of forest fuel procurement. The present study investigates if modern supply chain management applications are capable of increasing the profitability of forest fuel procurement operations. Since margins are low, decreasing the provision costs could boost wood-based bioenergy business. The study is based on the investigation of two Finnish forest owners associations (FOA) involved in forest fuel procurement using a modern SCM tool. The investigation is done by cost-benefit analysis (CBA) using the net present value (NPV) methodology to determine the profitability. According to the estimates made by the staff, which are based on data such as work time records and delivery notes from before and after introduction of the new system, in both FOAs, the benefits far outweigh the costs over a considered timespan of ten years. However, the amount of the NPV varied significantly. For FOA1, with an annual chip production of 150 000 loose m3, the NPV is 212 739 euro, while for FOA2, with an annual chip production of 37 000 loose m3, the NPV is 969 841 euro. Even if the NPV of FOA2 seems to be very high, the profitability of SCM tools in forest fuel procurement is clearly demonstrated. Additionally, the results indicate that a considerable cost saving potential in forest fuel procurement is attainable through improving work flows and thus reduce the work input. (orig.)

  12. Application of the BEPU methodology to assess fuel performance in dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L.E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of the BEPU methodology to estimate the cladding stress in dry storage. • The stress predicted is notably affected by the irradiation history. • Improvements of FGR modelling would significantly enhance the stress estimates. • The prediction uncertainty should not be disregarded when assessing clad integrity. - Abstract: The stress at which fuel cladding is submitted in dry storage is the driving force of the main degrading mechanisms postulated (i.e., embrittlement due to hydrides radial reorientation and creep). Therefore, a sound assessment is mandatory to reliably predict fuel performance under the dry storage prevailing conditions. Through fuel rod thermo-mechanical codes, best estimate calculations can be conducted. Precision of predictions depends on uncertainties affecting the way of calculating the stress, so by using uncertainty analysis an upper bound of stress can be determined and compared to safety limits set. The present work shows the application of the BEPU (Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty) methodology in this field. Concretely, hydrides radial reorientation has been assessed based on stress predictions under challenging thermal conditions (400 °C) and a stress limit of 90 MPa. The computational tools used to do that are FRAPCON-3xt (best estimate) and Dakota (uncertainty analysis). The methodology has been applied to a typical PWR fuel rod highly irradiated (65 GWd/tU) at different power histories. The study performed allows concluding that both the power history and the prediction uncertainty should not be disregarded when fuel rod integrity is evaluated in dry storage. On probabilistic bases, a burnup of 60 GWd/tU is found out as an acceptable threshold even in the most challenging irradiation conditions considered.

  13. New weighted sum of gray gases model applicable to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of oxy-fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Johansen, Lars Christian Riis; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    gases model (WSGGM) is derived, which is applicable to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of both air-fuel and oxy-fuel combustion. First, a computer code is developed to evaluate the emissivity of any gas mixture at any condition by using the exponential wide band model (EWBM...

  14. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    not have the diluent requirements of Prototype-1 and was demonstrated at targeted gas turbine conditions. The TVC combustor, Prototype-2, premixes the syngas with air for low emission performance. The combustor was designed for operation with syngas and no additional diluents. The combustor was successfully operated at targeted gas turbine conditions. Another goal of the program was to advance the status of development tools for syngas systems. In Task 3 a syngas flame evaluation facility was developed. Fundamental data on syngas flame speeds and flame strain were obtained at pressure for a wide range of syngas fuels with preheated air. Several promising reduced order kinetic mechanisms were compared with the results from the evaluation facility. The mechanism with the best agreement was selected for application to syngas combustor modeling studies in Task 6. Prototype-1 was modeled using an advanced LES combustion code. The tools and combustor technology development culminate in a full-scale demonstration of the most promising technology in Task 8. The combustor was operated at engine conditions and evaluated against the various engine performance requirements.

  15. Application of United Nations Framework Classification – 2009 (UNFC-2009) to nuclear fuel resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulsidas, Harikrishnan; Li Shengxiang; Van Gosen, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Fuel and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009: • Generic, principles-based system: – Applicable to both solid minerals and fluids; • Applications in: – International energy studies; – National resource reporting; – Company project management; – Financial reporting; • 3-D classification of resources on the basis of: – Socio-economic criteria (E); – Project maturity (technical feasibility) (F); – Geological knowledge (G); • A key goal of UNFC-2009 is to provide a tool to facilitate global communications: – Uses a numerical coding system; – Language independent reporting

  16. Innovative nuclear fuels and applications. Part 1: limits of today's fuels and concepts for innovative fuels. Part 2: materials properties, irradiation performance and gaps in our knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, H.

    2000-01-01

    Part I of this contribution on innovative nuclear fuels gives a summary of current developments and problems of today's fuels, i.e. enriched UO 2 and UO 2 with a few % of PUO 2 (MOX fuel) or Gd 2 O 3 (as burnable neutron poison). The problems and property changes caused by high burnups (e.g. degradation of the thermal conductivity, polygonization or formation of the rim-structure) are discussed. Subsequently, the concepts for new fuels to burn excess Pu and to achieve an effective transmutation of the minor actinides Np, Am and Cm are treated. The criteria for the choice of suitable fuels and different fuel types (high Pu-content fuels, nitrides, U-free fuels, inert matrix supported fuels, cercers, cermets, etc.) are discussed. Part II of this contribution on innovative nuclear fuels deals with the properties of relevance of the different materials suggested to be used in innovative fuels which range from pure actinide fuel such as PuN and AmO 2 to spinel MgAl 2 O 4 and zircon ZrSiO 4 for inert matrix-based fuels, etc. The available knowledge on materials research aspects is summarized with emphasis on the physics of radiation damage. It is shown that significant gaps in the present knowledge exist, e.g. for the minor actinide compounds, and suggestions are made to fill these gaps in order to achieve a sufficient data base to design and operate suitable innovative fuels in a near future. (author)

  17. Application of core structural design guidelines in conceptual fuel pin design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.R.; Stephen, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes an application of the Draft RDT Standards F9-7, -8, and -9 to conceptual design of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) fuel pins. The Standards are being developed to provide guidelines for structural analysis and design of the FBR core components which have limited ductility at high fluences and are not addressed by the prevalent codes. The development is guided by a national working group sponsored by the Division of Reactor Researcch and Technology of the Department of Energy. The development program summarized in the paper includes establishment of design margins consistent with the test data and component performance requirements, and application of the design rules in various design activities. The application program insures that the quantities required for proper application of the design rules are available from the analysis methods and test data, and that the use of the same design rules in different analysis tools used at different stages of a component design producees consistent results. This is illustrated in the paper by application of the design rules in the analysis methods developed for conceptual and more detailed designs of an FBR fuel pin

  18. Design of flow-field patterns for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, M.I.; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that produce electricity at high efficiency without combustion. Fuel cells are emerging as viable candidates as power sources in many applications, including road vehicles, small-scale power stations, and possibly even portable electronics. This paper addresses the design of flow-field patterns for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC is a low-temperature fuel cell, in which a proton conductive polymer membrane is used as the electrolyte. In PEMFC, flow-field pattern is one important thing that effects the performance of PEMFC. This paper present three types of flow-field pattern that will be consider to be testing using CFD analysis and by experimental. The design look detail on to their shape and dimension to get the best pattern in term of more active electrode area compare to electrode area that will be used. Another advantage and disadvantage for these three type of flow-field patterns from literature also compared in this paper

  19. Comparison of global sensitivity analysis methods – Application to fuel behavior modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, Timo, E-mail: timo.ikonen@vtt.fi

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Several global sensitivity analysis methods are compared. • The methods’ applicability to nuclear fuel performance simulations is assessed. • The implications of large input uncertainties and complex models are discussed. • Alternative strategies to perform sensitivity analyses are proposed. - Abstract: Fuel performance codes have two characteristics that make their sensitivity analysis challenging: large uncertainties in input parameters and complex, non-linear and non-additive structure of the models. The complex structure of the code leads to interactions between inputs that show as cross terms in the sensitivity analysis. Due to the large uncertainties of the inputs these interactions are significant, sometimes even dominating the sensitivity analysis. For the same reason, standard linearization techniques do not usually perform well in the analysis of fuel performance codes. More sophisticated methods are typically needed in the analysis. To this end, we compare the performance of several sensitivity analysis methods in the analysis of a steady state FRAPCON simulation. The comparison of importance rankings obtained with the various methods shows that even the simplest methods can be sufficient for the analysis of fuel maximum temperature. However, the analysis of the gap conductance requires more powerful methods that take into account the interactions of the inputs. In some cases, moment-independent methods are needed. We also investigate the computational cost of the various methods and present recommendations as to which methods to use in the analysis.

  20. Application of the Nelson model to four timelag fuel classes using Oklahoma field observations: Model evaluation and comparison with national Fire Danger Rating System algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Carlson; Larry S. Bradshaw; Ralph M. Nelson; Randall R Bensch; Rafal Jabrzemski

    2007-01-01

    The application of a next-generation dead-fuel moisture model, the 'Nelson model', to four timelag fuel classes using an extensive 21-month dataset of dead-fuel moisture observations is described. Developed by Ralph Nelson in the 1990s, the Nelson model is a dead-fuel moisture model designed to take advantage of frequent automated weather observations....

  1. Physics concept on the constellation type fissile fuels and its application to the prospective Th-232U Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jiahua

    1994-01-01

    In contrast with the conventional nuclear reactor which usually fuelled with on single fissile nuclide, a constellation type fissile fuels reactor consists of a parent nuclide such as 232 Th or 238 U and its whole family of neutron generated daughter nuclides. All of them are regarded as fissile fuels but of quite different fission ability. The concentration of each daughter nuclide is determined by its saturate concentration ratio with the parent nuclide. In such fuel system, the whole fuel consumed by neutron reaction almost completely results in fission products. In this article, some properties of such fuel system, determination of the saturate concentration of each daughter nuclide and applicability to Th- 233 U fueled reactor will be discussed. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  2. Direct Utilization of Liquid Fuels in SOFC for Portable Applications: Challenges for the Selection of Alternative Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC have the advantage of being able to operate with fuels other than hydrogen. In particular, liquid fuels are especially attractive for powering portable applications such as small power generators or auxiliary power units, in which case the direct utilization of the fuel would be convenient. Although liquid fuels are easier to handle and transport than hydrogen, their direct use in SOFC can lead to anode deactivation due to carbon formation, especially on traditional nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ anodes. Significant advances have been made in anodic materials that are resistant to carbon formation but often these materials are less electrochemically active than Ni/YSZ. In this review the challenges of using liquid fuels directly in SOFC, in terms of gas-phase and catalytic reactions within the anode chamber, will be discussed and the alternative anode materials so far investigated will be compared.

  3. FAR-TECH's Nanoparticle Plasma Jet System and its Application to Disruptions, Deep Fueling, and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.

    2012-10-01

    Hyper-velocity plasma jets have potential applications in tokamaks for disruption mitigation, deep fueling and diagnostics. Pulsed power based solid-state sources and plasma accelerators offer advantages of rapid response and mass delivery at high velocities. Fast response is critical for some disruption mitigation scenario needs, while high velocity is especially important for penetration into tokamak plasma and its confining magnetic field, as in the case of deep fueling. FAR-TECH is developing the capability of producing large-mass hyper-velocity plasma jets. The prototype solid-state source has produced: 1) >8.4 mg of H2 gas only, and 2) >25 mg of H2 and >180 mg of C60 in a H2/C60 gas mixture. Using a coaxial plasma gun coupled to the source, we have successfully demonstrated the acceleration of composite H/C60 plasma jets, with momentum as high as 0.6 g.km/s, and containing an estimated C60 mass of ˜75 mg. We present the status of FAR-TECH's nanoparticle plasma jet system and discuss its application to disruptions, deep fueling, and diagnostics. A new TiH2/C60 solid-state source capable of generating significantly higher quantities of H2 and C60 in <0.5 ms will be discussed.

  4. Moderate temperature gas purification system: Application to high calorific coal-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Shirai, H.; Nunokawa, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high-temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high-temperature (above 450{sup o}C) gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition. We suggest moderate temperature (around 300{sup o}C) operation of the gas purification system to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. Because the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal in the moderate temperature gas purification system, we evaluated the chemical removal processes; performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds was experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium aluminate sorbent had potential performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process with zinc ferrite sorbent was also applicable to the temperature range, though the reaction kinetics of the sorbent is essential to be approved.

  5. Moderate temperature gas purification system: application to high calorific coal derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Kobayashi; H. Shirai; M. Nunokawa [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Kanagawa (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high temperature gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition and slippage of contaminant of high vapor pressure. It was suggested that moderate temperature operation of the gas purification system is applied to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. To establish the moderate temperature gas purification system, the chemical-removal processes where the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal should be evaluated. Performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds were experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium based sorbent had potential good performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process was also applicable to the temperature range, although the improvement of the sulfidation reaction rate is considered to be essential. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Application of green chemistry techniques to prepare electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kenichi; Wang, Joanna S; Wai, Chien M

    2010-03-25

    A series of green techniques for synthesizing carbon nanotube-supported platinum nanoparticles and their high electrocatalytic activity toward methanol fuel cell applications are reported. The techniques utilize either the supercritical fluid carbon dioxide or water as a medium for depositing platinum nanoparticles on surfaces of multiwalled or single-walled carbon nanotubes. The catalytic properties of the carbon nanotubes-supported Pt nanoparticle catalysts prepared by four different techniques are compared for anodic oxidation of methanol and cathodic reduction of oxygen using cyclic voltammetry. One technique using galvanic exchange of Pt(2+) in water with zerovalent iron present on the surfaces of as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes produces a Pt catalyst that shows an unusually high catalytic activity for reduction of oxygen but a negligible activity for oxidation of methanol. This fuel-selective catalyst may have a unique application as a cathode catalyst in methanol fuel cells to alleviate the problems caused by crossover of methanol through the polymer electrolyte membrane.

  7. Case Studies of Energy Storage with Fuel Cells and Batteries for Stationary and Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belmonte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, hydrogen coupled with fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries are considered as alternative energy storage methods. Their application on a stationary system (i.e., energy storage for a family house and a mobile system (i.e., an unmanned aerial vehicle will be investigated. The stationary systems, designed for off-grid applications, were sized for photovoltaic energy production in the area of Turin, Italy, to provide daily energy of 10.25 kWh. The mobile systems, to be used for high crane inspection, were sized to have a flying range of 120 min, one being equipped with a Li-ion battery and the other with a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. The systems were compared from an economical point of view and a life cycle assessment was performed to identify the main contributors to the environmental impact. From a commercial point of view, the fuel cell and the electrolyzer, being niche products, result in being more expensive with respect to the Li-ion batteries. On the other hand, the life cycle assessment (LCA results show the lower burdens of both technologies.

  8. Effect of process parameters on the dynamic behavior of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells for electric vehicle applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Abd El Monem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane “PEM” fuel cell systems to be used for electric vehicle applications. The performance of the fuel cell, depending on the developed model and taking the double layer charging effect into account, is investigated with different process parameters to evaluate their effect on the unit behavior. Thus, it will be easy to develop suitable controllers to regulate the unit operation, which encourages the use of fuel cells especially with electric vehicles applications. The steady-state performance of the fuel cell is verified using a comparison with datasheet data and curves provided by the manufacturer. The results and conclusions introduced in this paper provide a base for further investigation of fuel cells-driven dc motors for electric vehicle.

  9. A comparison of low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C.; Preiß, G.; Gores, F.; Griebenow, M.; Heitmann, S.

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional fuel cell systems are competitive solutions aboard future generations of civil aircraft concerning energy consumption, environmental issues, and safety reasons. The present study compares low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with respect to performance and efficiency criteria. This is motivated by the challenge of pressure-dependent fuel cell operation aboard aircraft with cabin pressure varying with operating altitude. Experimental investigations of low-pressure fuel cell operation use model-based design of experiments and are complemented by numerical investigations concerning supercharged fuel cell operation. It is demonstrated that a low-pressure operation is feasible with the fuel cell device under test, but that its range of stable operation changes between both operating modes. Including an external compressor, it can be shown that the power demand for supercharging the fuel cell is about the same as the loss in power output of the fuel cell due to low-pressure operation. Furthermore, the supercharged fuel cell operation appears to be more sensitive with respect to variations in the considered independent operating parameters load requirement, cathode stoichiometric ratio, and cooling temperature. The results indicate that a pressure-dependent self-humidification control might be able to exploit the potential of low-pressure fuel cell operation for aircraft applications to the best advantage.

  10. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J. Jr.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K. (Center for Fuel Cell Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 United States)

    2010-06-15

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions. (author)

  11. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions.

  12. Electrochemical applications of room temperature ionic liquids in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have invaded all branches of science. They are also receiving an upsurge, in recent years, for possible applications in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle. Ionic liquids are compounds composed entirely of ions existing in liquid state and RTILs are ionic liquids molten at temperatures lower than 373 K. RTILs are generally made up of an organic cation and an inorganic or an organic anion. Room temperature ionic liquids have several fascinating properties, which are unique to a particular combination of cation and anion. The properties such as insignificant vapor pressure, amazing ability to dissolve organic and inorganic compounds, wide electrochemical window are the specific advantages when dealing with application of RTILs for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The ionic liquids are regarded as designer or tailor-made solvents as their properties can be tuned for desired application by appropriate cation-anion combinations. An excellent review by Wilkes describes about the historical perspectives of room temperature ionic liquids, pioneers in that area, events and the products delivered till 2001. Furthermore, several comprehensive reviews have been made on room temperature ionic liquids by various authors

  13. Conceptual design report for a Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for transportation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-05

    This report presents the conceptual design for a Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for transportation applications. The design is based on the initial selection of the Chrysler LH sedan as the target vehicle with a 50 kW (gross) PEM Fuel Cell Stack (FCS) as the primary power source, a battery-powered Load Leveling Unit (LLU) for surge power requirements, an on-board hydrogen storage subsystem containing high pressure gaseous storage, a Gas Management Subsystem (GMS) to manage the hydrogen and air supplies for the FCS, and electronic controllers to control the electrical system. The design process has been dedicated to the use of Design-to-Cost (DTC) principles. The Direct Hydrogen-Powered PEM Fuel Cell Stack Hybrid Vehicle (DPHV) system is designed to operate on the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) and Hiway Cycles. These cycles have been used to evaluate the vehicle performance with regard to range and hydrogen usage. The major constraints for the DPHV vehicle are vehicle and battery weight, transparency of the power system and drive train to the user, equivalence of fuel and life cycle costs to conventional vehicles, and vehicle range. The energy and power requirements are derived by the capability of the DPHV system to achieve an acceleration from 0 to 60 MPH within 12 seconds, and the capability to achieve and maintain a speed of 55 MPH on a grade of seven percent. The conceptual design for the DPHV vehicle is shown in a figure. A detailed description of the Hydrogen Storage Subsystem is given in section 4. A detailed description of the FCS Subsystem and GMS is given in section 3. A detailed description of the LLU, selection of the LLU energy source, and the power controller designs is given in section 5.

  14. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of the tests on spark- ignition and self- ignition engines fed with two fuels: petrol and methanol or diesel oil and methanol, respectively. Te tests were carried out on a 1100 MPI Fiat four- cylinder engine with multi-point injection and a prototype collector fitted with additional injectors in each cylinder. Te other tested engine was a SW 680 six- cylinder direct- injection diesel engine. Influence of a methanol addition on basic operational parameters of the engines and exhaust gas toxicity were analyzed. Te tests showed a favourable influence of methanol on combustion process of traditional fuels and on some operational parameters of engines. An addition of methanol resulted in a distinct rise of total efficiency of both types of engines at maintained output parameters (maximum power and torque. In the same time a radical drop in content of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas was observed at high shares of methanol in feeding dose of ZI (petrol engine, and 2-3 fold lower smokiness in case of ZS (diesel engine. Among unfavourable phenomena, a rather insignificant rise of CO and NOx content for ZI engine, and THC and NOx - for ZS engine, should be numbered. It requires to carry out further research on optimum control parameters of the engines. Conclusions drawn from this work may be used for implementation of bio-fuels to feeding the combustion engines.

  15. Studies on the new fuels with Santilli magnecular structure and their industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandhurnekar, Chandrashekhar P.

    2015-01-01

    Professor R. M. Santilli, the Italian-American physicist, for the first time in the history of Science, presented the theoretical and experimental evidence on the existence of the new chemical species of “magnecules” [1]. This new species mainly consist of individual atoms, radicals and conventional molecules bonded together with stable clusters under the new attractive force primarily originating from torroidal polarization of orbitals of atomic electrons under strong magnetic field. The main contribution in this area was the production of Magnegas TM , new clean fuels developed by Prof. Santilli, which are produced as byproducts of recycling nonradioactive liquid feedstock such as antifreeze waste, engine oil waste, town sewage, crude oil, etc., and generally vary with the liquid used for their production. A new technology, called Plasma Arc FlowTM, flows the waste through a submerged electric arc between conventional electrodes. The arc decomposes the liquid molecules into their atomic constituents, and forms a plasma in the immediate vicinity of the electrodes at about 10,000 0 F. The technology then moves the plasma away from the electrodes, and controls its recombination into environmentally acceptable fuels. In fact, the exhaust of magnegases shows: absence of carcinogenic or other toxic substances; breathable oxygen up 14 percent; and carbon dioxide down to 0.01 percent. Since, in addition, the new fuels can be produced everywhere, and have environmentally acceptable exhausts, Magnegases offer promising possibilities to satisfy our ever increasing energy needs, as well as to contain the alarming environmental problems caused by fossil fuels. Thus, it was thought worthwhile to present some of the industrial applications of environmentally benign fuel consisting magnecular bonds [2, 3, 4, 5]. Also in the present communications, some of the experimental evidences of Santilli’s new chemical species i. e. Magnecules which had been published recently have

  16. Studies on the new fuels with Santilli magnecular structure and their industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandhurnekar, Chandrashekhar P., E-mail: pandhurnekarcp@rknec.edu [Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management, Nagpur, Maharashtra 440 013 (India)

    2015-03-10

    Professor R. M. Santilli, the Italian-American physicist, for the first time in the history of Science, presented the theoretical and experimental evidence on the existence of the new chemical species of “magnecules” [1]. This new species mainly consist of individual atoms, radicals and conventional molecules bonded together with stable clusters under the new attractive force primarily originating from torroidal polarization of orbitals of atomic electrons under strong magnetic field. The main contribution in this area was the production of Magnegas{sup TM}, new clean fuels developed by Prof. Santilli, which are produced as byproducts of recycling nonradioactive liquid feedstock such as antifreeze waste, engine oil waste, town sewage, crude oil, etc., and generally vary with the liquid used for their production. A new technology, called Plasma Arc FlowTM, flows the waste through a submerged electric arc between conventional electrodes. The arc decomposes the liquid molecules into their atomic constituents, and forms a plasma in the immediate vicinity of the electrodes at about 10,000{sup 0} F. The technology then moves the plasma away from the electrodes, and controls its recombination into environmentally acceptable fuels. In fact, the exhaust of magnegases shows: absence of carcinogenic or other toxic substances; breathable oxygen up 14 percent; and carbon dioxide down to 0.01 percent. Since, in addition, the new fuels can be produced everywhere, and have environmentally acceptable exhausts, Magnegases offer promising possibilities to satisfy our ever increasing energy needs, as well as to contain the alarming environmental problems caused by fossil fuels. Thus, it was thought worthwhile to present some of the industrial applications of environmentally benign fuel consisting magnecular bonds [2, 3, 4, 5]. Also in the present communications, some of the experimental evidences of Santilli’s new chemical species i. e. Magnecules which had been published

  17. Application of the pulsed magnetic welding process to nuclear breeder reactor fuel pin end closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The pulsed magnetic welding process is a solid state welding process in which metallurgical bonding is effected by impacting metal or alloy parts against each other at high velocity by use of controlled high frequency, high intensity pulsed magnetic fields. This process is similar to the explosive welding process except that magnetic energy is used for impacting the parts together instead of using explosive energy. The pulsed magnetic welding (PMW) process is readily applied to the welding of cylindrical plugs to small diameter tubes. Although breeder reactor fuel pin design may vary in size, the application described here consisted of cladding tubes approximately 6.4 mm in diameter by 244 cm long with a wall thickness of 0.38 mm. After the cladding tubes are filled with fuel pellets and associated metal hardware, tapered end plugs are inserted into the end of the tubes and welded. A typical setup for PMW is described

  18. A nuclear heuristic for application to metaheuristics in-core fuel management optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Anderson Alvarenga de Moura, E-mail: ameneses@lmp.ufrj.b [COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program; Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence (IDSIA), Manno-Lugano, TI (Switzerland); Gambardella, Luca Maria, E-mail: luca@idsia.c [Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence (IDSIA), Manno-Lugano, TI (Switzerland); Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.b [COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program

    2009-07-01

    The In-Core Fuel Management Optimization (ICFMO) is a well-known problem of nuclear engineering whose features are complexity, high number of feasible solutions, and a complex evaluation process with high computational cost, thus it is prohibitive to have a great number of evaluations during an optimization process. Heuristics are criteria or principles for deciding which among several alternative courses of action are more effective with respect to some goal. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the use of relational heuristics for the search in the ICFMO. The Heuristic is based on the reactivity of the fuel assemblies and their position into the reactor core. It was applied to random search, resulting in less computational effort concerning the number of evaluations of loading patterns during the search. The experiments demonstrate that it is possible to achieve results comparable to results in the literature, for future application to metaheuristics in the ICFMO. (author)

  19. Nanostructure-based proton exchange membrane for fuel cell applications at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junsheng; Wang, Zhengbang; Li, Junrui; Pan, Mu; Tang, Haolin

    2014-02-01

    As a clean and highly efficient energy source, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been considered an ideal alternative to traditional fossil energy sources. Great efforts have been devoted to realizing the commercialization of the PEMFC in the past decade. To eliminate some technical problems that are associated with the low-temperature operation (such as catalyst poisoning and poor water management), PEMFCs are usually operated at elevated temperatures (e.g., > 100 degrees C). However, traditional proton exchange membrane (PEM) shows poor performance at elevated temperature. To achieve a high-performance PEM for high temperature fuel cell applications, novel PEMs, which are based on nanostructures, have been developed recently. In this review, we discuss and summarize the methods for fabricating the nanostructure-based PEMs for PEMFC operated at elevated temperatures and the high temperature performance of these PEMs. We also give an outlook on the rational design and development of the nanostructure-based PEMs.

  20. SiC nanocrystals as Pt catalyst supports for fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhiman, Rajnish; Morgen, Per; Skou, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    A robust catalyst support is pivotal to Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) to overcome challenges such as catalyst support corrosion, low catalyst utilization and overall capital cost. SiC is a promising candidate material which could be applied as a catalyst support in PEMFCs. Si...... on the nanocrystals of SiC-SPR and SiC-NS by the polyol method. The SiC substrates are subjected to an acid treatment to introduce the surface groups, which help to anchor the Pt nano-catalysts. These SiC based catalysts have been found to have a higher electrochemical activity than commercially available Vulcan...... based catalysts (BASF & HISPEC). These promising results signal a new era of SiC based catalysts for fuel cell applications....

  1. Fabrication of Yttria stabilized zirconia thin films on poroussubstrates for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leming, Andres [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-06-16

    A process for the deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films, on porous substrates, has been developed. These films have possible applications as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. The films were deposited from colloidal suspensions through the vacuum infiltration technique. Films were deposited on both fully sintered and partially sintered substrates. A critical cracking thickness for the films was identified and strategies are presented to overcome this barrier. Green film density was also examined, and a method for improving green density by changing suspension pH and surfactant was developed. A dependence of film density on film thickness was observed, and materials interactions are suggested as a possible cause. Non-shorted YSZ films were obtained on co-fired substrates, and a cathode supported solid oxide fuel cell was constructed and characterized.

  2. A nuclear heuristic for application to metaheuristics in-core fuel management optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, Anderson Alvarenga de Moura; Gambardella, Luca Maria; Schirru, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The In-Core Fuel Management Optimization (ICFMO) is a well-known problem of nuclear engineering whose features are complexity, high number of feasible solutions, and a complex evaluation process with high computational cost, thus it is prohibitive to have a great number of evaluations during an optimization process. Heuristics are criteria or principles for deciding which among several alternative courses of action are more effective with respect to some goal. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the use of relational heuristics for the search in the ICFMO. The Heuristic is based on the reactivity of the fuel assemblies and their position into the reactor core. It was applied to random search, resulting in less computational effort concerning the number of evaluations of loading patterns during the search. The experiments demonstrate that it is possible to achieve results comparable to results in the literature, for future application to metaheuristics in the ICFMO. (author)

  3. Emerging applications of advanced fuels for energy generation and transmutation. Overview of IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pong Eil Juhn; Arkhipov, V.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power generation is an established part of the world's electricity mix. However, the highly radioactive waste generated during power production is of great concern of public perception of nuclear energy. In order for nuclear power to realize its full potential as a major energy source for the entire world, there must be a safe and effective way to deal with this waste. Therefore, science must come to the rescue in the form of new, more effective technology aimed at reducing the amount of long-lived radioactive waste and eliminating nuclear weapons' grade material through transmutation of these isotopes in fission reactors or accelerators. In the framework of IAEA activities on the use of this new technologies the Agency has periodically review and assess the current status of the new fuel cycles, its applications worldwide, its economic benefits, and its perceived advantages vis-a-vis other nuclear fuel cycles. (author)

  4. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost

  5. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Gujar, Amit; Rochfort, Simone; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-02-28

    Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of "green" gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants' metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for efficient bio

  6. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Zhang, Gang; Nam, Changwoo; Chung, T C Mike

    2015-12-04

    This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES) proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young's modulus >1400 MPa) and low water swelling (λ 3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective) properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm) than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO₂• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  7. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kyu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES proton exchange membranes (PEMs for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young’s modulus >1400 MPa and low water swelling (λ < 15 even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO2• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  8. Evaluation of the criticality of a concrete container for storage of spent fuel in dry with MCNP; Evaluacion de la criticidad de un contenedor de concreto para almacenamiento de combustible gastado en seco con MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolocostli M, J. V.; Ramirez S, J. R., E-mail: vicente.xolocostli@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    A main concern exists inside the nuclear power plants in operation around the world that is the with respect to the storage capacity of the spent fuel, due to the useful life of the plant and the storage capacity in the spent fuel pool. In diverse countries is believed that one of the best alternatives for the spent fuel is the reprocessing of the same one since exists a great quantity of fissile material that can be profitable as the Pu-239, but even so the costs for the reprocessing continue being high, what limits taking this process to great scale. Is for that reason the importance of the containers for storage of spent fuel in dry which has had a great apogee in the last years, since they represent an alternative to store the spent fuel before making a decision on the reprocessing of the same one or the final disposal. In this work an evaluation of the criticality of a concrete container for storage of spent fuel in dry commercially available is made, and which is useful for fuel assemblies type PWR like BWR, in our case only the type BWR is considered. For the analysis of the evaluation was used the code MCNP5, considering the characteristics of the concrete container according to the available data, although the type of fuel assembly is BWR one of the models of the ABB company was considered with which the comparative of the results is made. The made calculations were carried out considering the inundation of the gap that exist and the external cavity, being this the most extreme condition to arrive to the criticality or in the case of happening an accident to have the filtration of the water toward the space of the gap. (author)

  9. Assessment of shielding analysis methods, codes, and data for spent fuel transport/storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Tang, J.S.; Cramer, S.N.; Gauthey, J.C.; Kirk, B.L.; Roussin, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the computational tools and existing methods used to obtain radiation dose rates from shielded spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis tools and techniques applicable to facilities/equipment designed for the transport or storage of spent nuclear fuel or HLW. Applications to cask transport, storage, and facility handling are considered. The report reviews the analytic techniques for generating appropriate radiation sources, evaluating the radiation transport through the shield, and calculating the dose at a desired point or surface exterior to the shield. Discrete ordinates, Monte Carlo, and point kernel methods for evaluating radiation transport are reviewed, along with existing codes and data that utilize these methods. A literature survey was employed to select a cadre of codes and data libraries to be reviewed. The selection process was based on specific criteria presented in the report. Separate summaries were written for several codes (or family of codes) that provided information on the method of solution, limitations and advantages, availability, data access, ease of use, and known accuracy. For each data library, the summary covers the source of the data, applicability of these data, and known verification efforts. Finally, the report discusses the overall status of spent fuel shielding analysis techniques and attempts to illustrate areas where inaccuracy and/or uncertainty exist. The report notes the advantages and limitations of several analysis procedures and illustrates the importance of using adequate cross-section data sets. Additional work is recommended to enable final selection/validation of analysis tools that will best meet the US Department of Energy's requirements for use in developing a viable HLW management system. 188 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs

  10. Modeling fuels and fire effects in 3D: Model description and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois Pimont; Russell Parsons; Eric Rigolot; Francois de Coligny; Jean-Luc Dupuy; Philippe Dreyfus; Rodman R. Linn

    2016-01-01

    Scientists and managers critically need ways to assess how fuel treatments alter fire behavior, yet few tools currently exist for this purpose.We present a spatially-explicit-fuel-modeling system, FuelManager, which models fuels, vegetation growth, fire behavior (using a physics-based model, FIRETEC), and fire effects. FuelManager's flexible approach facilitates...

  11. The application of neural networks for optimization of the configuration of fuel assemblies in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadighi, M.; Setayeshi, S.; Salehi, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to solve the problem of finding the best configuration of fuel assemblies in a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) core. Finding an optimum solution requires a huge amount of calculations in classical methods. It has been shown that the application of continuous Hop field neural network accompanied by the Simulated Annealing method to this problem not only reduces the volume of the calculations, but also guarantees finding the best solution. In this study flattening of neutron flux inside the reactor core of Brusher NPP is considered as an objective function. The result shows the optimum core configuration which is in agreement with the pattern proposed by the designer

  12. Physical characterization of biomass-based pyrolysis liquids. Application of standard fuel oil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A; Leppaemaeki, E; Koponen, P; Levander, J; Tapola, E [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1998-12-31

    The main purpose of the study was to test the applicability of standard fuel oil methods developed for petroleum-based fuels to pyrolysis liquids. In addition, research on sampling, homogeneity, stability, miscibility and corrosivity was carried out. The standard methods have been tested for several different pyrolysis liquids. Recommendations on sampling, sample size and small modifications of standard methods are presented. In general, most of the methods can be used as such but the accuracy of the analysis can be improved by minor modifications. Fuel oil analyses not suitable for pyrolysis liquids have been identified. Homogeneity of the liquids is the most critical factor in accurate analysis. The presence of air bubbles may disturb in several analyses. Sample preheating and prefiltration should be avoided when possible. The former may cause changes in the composition and structure of the pyrolysis liquid. The latter may remove part of organic material with particles. The size of the sample should be determined on the basis of the homogeneity and the water content of the liquid. The basic analyses of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) include water, pH, solids, ash, Conradson carbon residue, heating value, CHN, density, viscosity, pourpoint, flash point, and stability. Additional analyses are carried out when needed. (orig.) 53 refs.

  13. Feasibility study of palm-based fuels for hybrid rocket motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi Ahmad, M.; Abidin, Razali; Taha, A. Latif; Anudip, Amzaryi

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the combined analysis done in pure palm-based wax that can be used as solid fuel in a hybrid rocket engine. The measurement of pure palm wax calorific value was performed using a bomb calorimeter. An experimental rocket engine and static test stand facility were established. After initial measurement and calibration, repeated procedures were performed. Instrumentation supplies carried out allow fuel regression rate measurements, oxidizer mass flow rates and stearic acid rocket motors measurements. Similar tests are also carried out with stearate acid (from palm oil by-products) dissolved with nitrocellulose and bee solution. Calculated data and experiments show that rates and regression thrust can be achieved even in pure-tested palm-based wax. Additionally, palm-based wax is mixed with beeswax characterized by higher nominal melting temperatures to increase moisturizing points to higher temperatures without affecting regression rate values. Calorie measurements and ballistic experiments were performed on this new fuel formulation. This new formulation promises driving applications in a wide range of temperatures.

  14. Identification of potential safety-related incidents applicable to a breeder fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    The current emphasis on safety in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle requires that safety features be identified and included in designs of nuclear facilities at the earliest possible stage. A popular method for the early identification of these safety features is the Preliminary Hazards Analysis. An extension of this analysis is to illustrate the nature of a hazard by its effects in accident situations, that is, to identify what are called safety-related incidents. Some useful tools are described which have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory, SRL, to make Preliminary Hazards Analyses as well as safety analyses of facilities for processing spent nuclear fuels from both power and production reactors. These tools have also been used in safety studies of waste handling operations at the Savannah River Plant. The tools are the SRL Incidents Data Bank and the What If meeting. The application of this methodology to a proposed facility which has breeder fuel reprocessing capability, the Hot Experimental Facility (HEF) is illustrated

  15. High-energy-density hydrogen-halogen fuel cells for advanced military applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balko, E.N.; McElroy, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that hydrogen-halogen fuel cell systems are particularly suited for an employment as ground power sources for military applications. The large cell potential and reversible characteristics of the H 2 Cl 2 and H 2 Br 2 couples permit high energy storage density and efficient energy conversion. When used as flow batteries, the fluid nature of the reactants in the hydrogen-halogen systems has several advantages over power sources which involve solid phases. Very deep discharge is possible without degradation of subsequent performance, and energy storage capacity is limited only by the external reactant storage volume. Very rapid chemical recharging is possible through replenishment of the reactant supply. A number of H 2 Cl 2 and H 2 Br 2 fuel cell systems have been studied. These systems use the same solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) cell technology originally developed for H2/O2 fuel cells. The results of the investigation are illustrated with the aid of a number of graphs

  16. Development of planar solid oxide fuel cells for power generation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.Q. [AlliedSignal Aerospce Equipment Systems, Torrance, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for a variety of electric power generation application. The planar design offers simple cell geometry, high power density, and multiple fabrication and gas manifolding options. Planar SOFC technology has received much attention recently, and significant progress has been made in this area. Recent effort at AlliedSignal has focused on the development of high-performance, lightweight planar SOFCs, having thin-electrolyte films, that can be operated efficiently at reduced temperatures (< 1000{degrees}C). The advantages of reduced-temperature operation include wider material choice (including use of metallic interconnects), expected longer cell life, reduced thermal stress, improved reliability, and reduced fuel cell cost. The key aspect in the development of thin-film SIFCs is to incorporate the thin electrolyte layer into the desired structure of cells in a manner that yields the required characteristics. AlliedSignal has developed a simple and cost-effective method based on tape calendering for the fabrication of thin-electrolyte SOFCs. Thin-electrolyte cells made by tape calendering have shown extraordinary performance, e.g., producing more than 500mW/cm{sup 2} at 700{degrees}C and 800mW/cm{sup 2} at 800{degrees}C with hydrogen as fuel and air is oxidant. thin-electrolyte single cells have been incorporated into a compliant metallic stack structure and operated at reduced and operated at reduced-temperature conditions.

  17. Chemometrics application in fuel's MTR type chemical characterization by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Clayton Pereira da

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil and worldwide the nuclear power has occupied a prominent position with many applications in industry, power generation, environment and medicine, improving the quality of tests and treatments, therefore people's lives. Uranium is the main element used in nuclear facilities and it s employed as base material to generation of electricity in the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals. In the '50s, during the Cold War, the then newly created International Atomic Energy Agency proposed to oversee nuclear facilities and encourage the manufacture of nuclear fuels with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel came then type Material Test Reactor (MTR), manufactured initially in U 3 O 8 and U 3 Si 2 later, both dispersed in aluminum. The use of this technology requires a constant improvement of all processes involving the manufacture of MTR subject to several international protocols, which seek to ensure the reliability of the fuel from the standpoint of practical and environmental. In this context, the control of impurities, from the point of view of neutron economy, directly affects the quality of any nuclear fuel, so strict control is necessary. The literature has reported procedures which, beyond generating residues, are lengthy and costly, they need calibration curve and consequently reference materials. The aim of this work is to establish and validate a methodology for nondestructive quantitative chemical analysis, low cost and analysis time, as well as minimize the generation of waste, for multielement determination of major constituents (Utotal and Si) and impurities (B, Mg, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd and others) present in U3O8 and U 3 Si 2 , meeting the needs of nuclear reactors in the nuclear fuel qualification type MTR. For that purposes, will be applied the X-ray fluorescence technique which allows fast chemical and nondestructive analysis, aside from sample preparation procedures that do not require previous chemical treatments (dissolving

  18. All heavy metals closed-cycle analysis on water-cooled reactors of uranium and thorium fuel cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Waris, Abdul; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2009-01-01

    thorium, uranium, plutonium and minor actinide isotopes. Main contribution for breeding and void reactivity condition as well as criticality condition comes from the contribution of fissile material such as Pu-239 and U-233; however, some intermediate nuclides are estimated to have some contribution to main fissile nuclides for obtaining higher or lower breeding capability and positive or negative void reactivity condition. (author)

  19. Application of particle swarm optimization in gas turbine engine fuel controller gain tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri-Gh, M.; Jafari, S.; Ilkhani, M. R.

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the application of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for gain tuning of the gas turbine engine (GTE) fuel controller. For this purpose, the structure of a fuel controller is firstly designed based on the GTE control requirements and constraints. The controller gains are then tuned by PSO where the tuning process is formulated as an engineering optimization problem. In this study, the response time during engine acceleration and deceleration as well as the engine fuel consumption are considered as the objective functions. A computer simulation is also developed to evaluate the objective values for a single spool GTE. The GTE model employed for the simulation is a Wiener model, the parameters of which are extracted from experimental tests. In addition, the effect of neighbour acceleration on PSO results is studied. The results show that the neighbour acceleration factor has a considerable effect on the convergence rate of the PSO process. The PSO results are also compared with the results obtained through a genetic algorithm (GA) to show the relative merits of PSO. Moreover, the PSO results are compared with the results obtained from the dynamic programming (DP) method in order to illustrate the ability of proposed method in finding the global optimal solution. Furthermore, the objective function is also defined in multi-objective manner and the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) is applied to find the Pareto-front for the problem. Finally, the results obtained from the simulation of the optimized controller confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach to design an optimal fuel controller resulting in an improved GTE performance as well as protection against the physical limitations.

  20. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) undertook this study on behalf of Sweden's National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) from June to October 1986. The purpose of the project was to compare the programs and regulations for the management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in eight countries: Belgium, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. This final report includes revisions requested by SKN upon review of the draft report dated in September 26, 1986. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I (Section 2.0 of the report) consists of detailed country-specific reports on the policies, regulations and strategies for spent fuel and high-level waste management in each of the eight countries. The information contained in these country-specific reports was used as the basis for comparing the options in each country in terms of cost, environmental impact, and public acceptability, and for comparing the policies and regulatory requirements affecting these activities in each country. These comparisons are provided in Volume II (Section 3.0 of the report). Section 3.0 also includes a discussion of the applicability to Sweden of the strategies and policies in the eight countries studied. Finally, Volume III of the report (Section 4.0) presents the laws, regulations and other documents pertinent to spent fuel and high-level waste management in these countries. Descriptive summaries of the documents are provided in Section 4.0, a comparison guide to the documents themselves (the great majority of them in English) which are provided in 15 volumes of appendices

  1. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  2. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  3. 78 FR 73566 - Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0264] Standard Format and Content for a License...), DG-3042, ``Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel..., Form, and Contents,'' specifies the information that must be in an application for a license to store...

  4. Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) on Mono-uranium Nitride Fuel Development for SSTAR and Space Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J; Ebbinghaus, B; Meiers, T; Ahn, J

    2006-01-01

    The US National Energy Policy of 2001 advocated the development of advanced fuel and fuel cycle technologies that are cleaner, more efficient, less waste-intensive, and more proliferation resistant. The need for advanced fuel development is emphasized in on-going DOE-supported programs, e.g., Global Nuclear Energy Initiative (GNEI), Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and GEN-IV Technology Development. The Directorates of Energy and Environment (E and E) and Chemistry and Material Sciences (C and MS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are interested in advanced fuel research and manufacturing using its multi-disciplinary capability and facilities to support a design concept of a small, secure, transportable, and autonomous reactor (SSTAR). The E and E and C and MS Directorates co-sponsored this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project on Mono-Uranium Nitride Fuel Development for SSTAR and Space Applications. In fact, three out of the six GEN-IV reactor concepts consider using the nitride-based fuel, as shown in Table 1. SSTAR is a liquid-metal cooled, fast reactor. It uses nitride fuel in a sealed reactor vessel that could be shipped to the user and returned to the supplier having never been opened in its long operating lifetime. This sealed reactor concept envisions no fuel refueling nor on-site storage of spent fuel, and as a result, can greatly enhance proliferation resistance. However, the requirement for a sealed, long-life core imposes great challenges to research and development of the nitride fuel and its cladding. Cladding is an important interface between the fuel and coolant and a barrier to prevent fission gas release during normal and accidental conditions. In fabricating the nitride fuel rods and assemblies, the cladding material should be selected based on its the coolant-side corrosion properties, the chemical/physical interaction with the nitride fuel, as well as their thermal and neutronic properties. The US

  5. Modeling of a Membrane Based Humidifier for Fuel Cell Applications Subject to End-Of-Life Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Olesen, Anders Christian; Menard, Alan

    2014-01-01

    applications. For instance for automotive applications and various backup power systems substituting batteries. Humidification of the inlet air of PEM fuel cell stacks is essential to obtain optimum proton conductivity. Operational humidities of the anode and cathode streams having dew points close to the fuel......Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Stacks efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrogen to electricity through electrochemical reactions occurring on either side of a proton conducting electrolyte. This is a promising and very robust energy conversion process which can be used in many...... cell operating temperature are required. These conditions must be met at the Beginning-Of-Life (BOL) as well as at the End-Of-Life (EOL) of the fuel cell system. This paper presents results of a numerical 1D model of the heat- and mass transport phenomena in a membrane humidifier with a Nafion...

  6. FABRICATION AND MATERIAL ISSUES FOR THE APPLICATION OF SiC COMPOSITES TO LWR FUEL CLADDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEON-JU KIM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication methods and requirements of the fiber, interphase, and matrix of nuclear grade SiCf/SiC composites are briefly reviewed. A CVI-processed SiCf/SiC composite with a PyC or (PyC-SiCn interphase utilizing Hi-Nicalon Type S or Tyranno SA3 fiber is currently the best combination in terms of the irradiation performance. We also describe important material issues for the application of SiC composites to LWR fuel cladding. The kinetics of the SiC corrosion under LWR conditions needs to be clarified to confirm the possibility of a burn-up extension and the cost-benefit effect of the SiC composite cladding. In addition, the development of end-plug joining technology and fission products retention capability of the ceramic composite tube would be key challenges for the successful application of SiC composite cladding.

  7. Repeated soil application of organic waste amendments reduces draught force and fuel consumption for soil tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltrea, Clément; Nyord, Tavs; Bruun, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Soil application of organic waste products (OWP) can maintain or increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content, which in turn could lead to increased porosity and potentially to reduced energy use for soil tillage. Only a few studies have addressed the effect of SOC content on draught force...... for soil tillage, and this still needs to be addressed for fields that receive diverse types of organic waste of urban, agricultural and agro-industrial origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in SOC induced by repeated soil application of OWP on draught force for soil...... tillage and tractor fuel consumption. Draught force was measured for tillage with conventional spring tillage tines, as well as bulk density, soil texture and SOC content in the CRUCIAL field experiment, Denmark in which diverse types of OWP had been applied annually for 11 years. The OWP included...

  8. Comparison between 3D and 1D simulations of a regenerative blower for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badami, M.; Mura, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A hydrogen recirculation blower for automotive fuel cells applications is studied. ► A 3D CFD analysis has been carried out to better understand the internal flows of the machine. ► The CFD results are compared to a 1D model set up by the authors in previous works. ► The main hypotheses put forward for the theoretical 1D model are compatible with the 3D analysis. - Abstract: A 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has been carried out to better understand the internal fluid dynamics of a regenerative blower used for hydrogen recirculation in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM), Fuel Cell (FC) utilized for automotive applications. The obtained results are used to highlight the motion of the fluid in the vanes and in the side channel of the machine and to verify the main hypotheses put forward concerning the theoretical 1D model set up by the authors in previous works on the basis of the momentum exchange theory. Finally, the CFD analysis has been used to point out the effect of the slope of the vanes on the performance of the regenerative blower, and the results have been compared with those obtained using of the 1D model.

  9. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  10. Focusing mirrors for enhanced neutron radiography with thermal neutrons and application for irradiated nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Abir, Muhammad; Wu, Huarui; Khaykovich, Boris; Moncton, David E.

    2018-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a powerful method of probing the structure of materials based on attenuation of neutrons. This method is most suitable for materials containing heavy metals, which are not transparent to X-rays, for example irradiated nuclear fuel and other nuclear materials. Neutron radiography is one of the first non-distractive post-irradiated examination methods, which is applied to gain an overview of the integrity of irradiated nuclear fuel and other nuclear materials. However, very powerful gamma radiation emitted by the samples is damaging to the electronics of digital imaging detectors and has so far precluded the use of modern detectors. Here we describe a design of a neutron microscope based on focusing mirrors suitable for thermal neutrons. As in optical microscopes, the sample is separated from the detector, decreasing the effect of gamma radiation. In addition, the application of mirrors would result in a thirty-fold gain in flux and a resolution of better than 40 μm for a field-of-view of about 2.5 cm. Such a thermal neutron microscope can be useful for other applications of neutron radiography, where thermal neutrons are advantageous.

  11. Application of fire-retardant treatment to the wood in Type A unirradiated nuclear fuel outer containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlow, J.D.; Luna, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Packagings for transporting unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in the United States are commonly constructed as rectangular boxes consisting of a metal inner container, a wooden outer container, and cushioning material separating the two. The wood in the outer container is a potential source of fuel for fire. Use of a fire-retardant treatment on the wood may reduce or eliminate the damage to nuclear fuel assemblies in some types of accidents involving fire. The applicability of using fire-retardant treatments on the wood of outer containers is addressed. An approximate cost-benefit analysis to determine if fire-retardant treatments are economically justified is presented. (Author)

  12. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This study focused on creating a new tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel performance model and demonstrating the integration of this model into an existing system of neutronics and heat transfer codes, creating a user-friendly option for including fuel performance analysis within system design optimization and system-level trade-off studies. The end product enables both a deeper understanding and better overall system performance of nuclear energy systems limited or greatly impacted by TRISO fuel performance. A thorium-fueled hybrid fusion-fission Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) blanket design was used for illustrating the application of this new capability and demonstrated both the importance of integrating fuel performance calculations into mainstream design studies and the impact that this new integrated analysis had on system-level design decisions. A new TRISO fuel performance model named TRIUNE was developed and verified and validated during this work with a novel methodology established for simulating the actual lifetime of a TRISO particle during repeated passes through a pebble bed. In addition, integrated self-consistent calculations were performed for neutronics depletion analysis, heat transfer calculations, and then fuel performance modeling for a full parametric study that encompassed over 80 different design options that went through all three phases of analysis. Lastly, side studies were performed that included a comparison of thorium and depleted uranium (DU) LIFE blankets as well as some uncertainty quantification work to help guide future experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design was identified with an initial fuel load of 20MT of thorium, 15% TRISO packing within the graphite fuel pebbles, and a 20cm neutron multiplier layer with beryllium pebbles in flibe molten salt coolant. It operated

  13. Boiling water reactors with uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. Report 5: Analysis of the reactivity coefficients and the stability of a BWR loaded with MOx fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaziere, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires

    2000-01-01

    This report is a part of the project titled 'Boiling Water Reactors With Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide (MOx) Fuel'. The aim of this study is to model the impact of a core loading pattern containing MOx bundles upon the main characteristics of a BWR (reactivity coefficients, stability, etc.). For this purpose, the Core Management System (CMS) codes of Studsvik Scandpower are used. This package is constituted by CASMO-4/TABLES-3/SIMULATE-3. It has been shown in previous reports that these codes are able to accurately represent and model MOx bundles. This report is thus devoted to the study of BWR cores loaded (partially or totally) with MOx bundles. The plutonium quality used is the Pu type 2016 (mostly Pu-239, 56 %, and Pu-240, 26 %), but a variation of the plutonium isotopic vector was also investigated, in case of a partial MOx loading. One notices that the reactivity coefficients do not present significant changes in comparison with a full UOx loading. Nevertheless, two main problems arise: the shutdown margin at BOC is lower than 1 % and the stability to in-phase oscillations is slightly decreased. (The SIMULATE-3 version used for this study does not contain the latest MOx enhancements described in literature, since these code developments have not been provided to the department. Nevertheless, as the nominal average enrichment of the MOx bundles is 5.41 % (total amount of plutonium), which can still be considered as a relatively low enrichment, the accuracy of the CMS codes is acceptable without the use of the MOx improvements for this level of Pu enrichment.

  14. The Development of Fuel Cell Technology for Electric Power Generation - From Spacecraft Applications to the Hydrogen Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The fuel cell uses a catalyzed reaction between a fuel and an oxidizer to directly produce electricity. Its high theoretical efficiency and low temperature operation made it a subject of much study upon its invention ca. 1900, but its relatively high life cycle costs kept it as "solution in search of a problem" for its first half century. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a cost effective solution was, starting in the 1960's that of a power source for NASA's manned spacecraft. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. However, starting in the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of terrestrial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but these advances are often in directions quite different from those needed for NASA spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's manned space program.

  15. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

  16. Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Mueller, Don; Goluoglu, Sedat; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Fox, Patricia B

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation report, Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, is to validate the computational method used to perform postclosure criticality calculations. The validation process applies the criticality analysis methodology approach documented in Section 3.5 of the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report. The application systems for this validation consist of waste packages containing transport, aging, and disposal canisters (TAD) loaded with commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) of varying assembly types, initial enrichments, and burnup values that are expected from the waste stream and of varying degree of internal component degradation that may occur over the 10,000-year regulatory time period. The criticality computational tool being evaluated is the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The nuclear cross-section data distributed with MCNP 5.1.40 and used to model the various physical processes are based primarily on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version VI (ENDF/B-VI) library. Criticality calculation bias and bias uncertainty and lower bound tolerance limit (LBTL) functions for CSNF waste packages are determined based on the guidance in ANSI/ANS 8.1-1998 (Ref. 4) and ANSI/ANS 8.17-2004 (Ref. 5), as described in Section 3.5.3 of Ref. 1. The development of this report is consistent with Test Plan for: Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality. This calculation report has been developed in support of licensing activities for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the results of the calculation may be used in the criticality evaluation for CSNF waste packages based on a conceptual TAD canister.

  17. Development and application of laser techniques for studying fuel dynamics and NO formation in engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Oeivind

    2000-11-01

    In this work a number of laser techniques have been applied in new ways for combustion diagnostics in engines. The applications cover small two-stroke engines, ordinary spark ignition (SI) engines, direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, and heavy-duty diesel truck engines. In an investigation of unmodified two-stroke engines running at high engine speed, it has been shown that cycle-resolved laser diagnostics are applicable to real-world engines. The emission of unburned fuel was detected at the exhaust port with successful discrimination against other unburned hydrocarbons. Although a few problems remain to be solved in order to get quantitative concentration data, valuable information can nonetheless be attained using this technique. The technique would benefit from the use of a non-fluorescing lubricant, as that would decrease the background fluorescence. Laser-based techniques also provide a useful tool for studying the fuel dynamics inside the cylinder. In the development of DISI engines it is of particular importance to acquire knowledge about the distribution of fuel around the spark plug. Numerical computer codes are often used as design tools in these applications. Laser techniques are capable of yielding instantaneous multi-point concentration information with high spatial and temporal resolution, making them ideal both for validation of CFD simulations and for testing designs. The feasibility of using laser diagnostics in the development of DISI engines has been shown. Future research should be aimed at simplifying the procedure for quantifying the data, since a fairly simple and reliable technique would be an important asset for the industry. In a more fundamental study, it has been shown that it is possible to simultaneously detect a substance in both liquid and vapour phase. Water was used in the study since it is easily produced in both phases. Liquid drops were detected using spontaneous Raman scattering, whereas the vapour surrounding them

  18. Development and application of laser techniques for studying fuel dynamics and NO formation in engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Oeivind

    2000-11-01

    In this work a number of laser techniques have been applied in new ways for combustion diagnostics in engines. The applications cover small two-stroke engines, ordinary spark ignition (SI) engines, direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, and heavy-duty diesel truck engines. In an investigation of unmodified two-stroke engines running at high engine speed, it has been shown that cycle-resolved laser diagnostics are applicable to real-world engines. The emission of unburned fuel was detected at the exhaust port with successful discrimination against other unburned hydrocarbons. Although a few problems remain to be solved in order to get quantitative concentration data, valuable information can nonetheless be attained using this technique. The technique would benefit from the use of a non-fluorescing lubricant, as that would decrease the background fluorescence. Laser-based techniques also provide a useful tool for studying the fuel dynamics inside the cylinder. In the development of DISI engines it is of particular importance to acquire knowledge about the distribution of fuel around the spark plug. Numerical computer codes are often used as design tools in these applications. Laser techniques are capable of yielding instantaneous multi-point concentration information with high spatial and temporal resolution, making them ideal both for validation of CFD simulations and for testing designs. The feasibility of using laser diagnostics in the development of DISI engines has been shown. Future research should be aimed at simplifying the procedure for quantifying the data, since a fairly simple and reliable technique would be an important asset for the industry. In a more fundamental study, it has been shown that it is possible to simultaneously detect a substance in both liquid and vapour phase. Water was used in the study since it is easily produced in both phases. Liquid drops were detected using spontaneous Raman scattering, whereas the vapour surrounding them

  19. Novel catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell applications:Final report (FY03-FY05).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Jarek, Russell L.; Steen, William Arthur

    2005-12-01

    The goal of this project was to develop novel hydrogen-oxidation electrocatalyst materials that contain reduced platinum content compared to traditional catalysts by developing flexible synthesis techniques to fabricate supported catalyst structures, and by verifying electrochemical performance in half cells and ultimately laboratory fuel cells. Synthesis methods were developed for making small, well-defined platinum clusters using zeolite hosts, ion exchange, and controlled calcination/reduction processes. Several factors influence cluster size, and clusters below 1 nm with narrow size distribution have been prepared. To enable electrochemical application, the zeolite pores were filled with electrically-conductive carbon via infiltration with carbon precursors, polymerization/cross-linking, and pyrolysis under inert conditions. The zeolite host was then removed by acid washing, to leave a Pt/C electrocatalyst possessing quasi-zeolitic porosity and Pt clusters of well-controlled size. Plotting electrochemical activity versus pyrolysis temperature typically produces a Gaussian curve, with a peak at ca. 800 C. The poorer relative performances at low and high temperature are due to low electrical conductivity of the carbon matrix, and loss of zeolitic structure combined with Pt sintering, respectively. Cluster sizes measured via adsorption-based methods were consistently larger than those observed by TEM and EXAFS, suggesting , that a fraction of the clusters were inaccessible to the fluid phase. Detailed EXAFS analysis has been performed on selected catalysts and catalyst precursors to monitor trends in cluster size evolution, as well as oxidation states of Pt. Experiments were conducted to probe the electroactive surface area of the Pt clusters. These Pt/C materials had as much as 110 m{sup 2}/g{sub pt} electroactive surface area, an almost 30% improvement over what is commercially (mfg. by ETEK) available (86 m{sup 2}/g{sub pt}). These Pt/C materials also perform

  20. Application of Genetic Algorithm methodologies in fuel bundle burnup optimization of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayalal, M.L.; Ramachandran, Suja; Rathakrishnan, S.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Sai Baba, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study and compare Genetic Algorithms (GA) in the fuel bundle burnup optimization of an Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) of 220 MWe. • Two Genetic Algorithm methodologies namely, Penalty Functions based GA and Multi Objective GA are considered. • For the selected problem, Multi Objective GA performs better than Penalty Functions based GA. • In the present study, Multi Objective GA outperforms Penalty Functions based GA in convergence speed and better diversity in solutions. - Abstract: The work carried out as a part of application and comparison of GA techniques in nuclear reactor environment is presented in the study. The nuclear fuel management optimization problem selected for the study aims at arriving appropriate reference discharge burnup values for the two burnup zones of 220 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) core. Two Genetic Algorithm methodologies namely, Penalty Functions based GA and Multi Objective GA are applied in this study. The study reveals, for the selected problem of PHWR fuel bundle burnup optimization, Multi Objective GA is more suitable than Penalty Functions based GA in the two aspects considered: by way of producing diverse feasible solutions and the convergence speed being better, i.e. it is capable of generating more number of feasible solutions, from earlier generations. It is observed that for the selected problem, the Multi Objective GA is 25.0% faster than Penalty Functions based GA with respect to CPU time, for generating 80% of the population with feasible solutions. When average computational time of fixed generations are considered, Penalty Functions based GA is 44.5% faster than Multi Objective GA. In the overall performance, the convergence speed of Multi Objective GA surpasses the computational time advantage of Penalty Functions based GA. The ability of Multi Objective GA in producing more diverse feasible solutions is a desired feature of the problem selected, that helps the

  1. Application of the integral method to modelling the oxidation of defected fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, M.

    1995-06-01

    The starting point for this report is the discrepancy reported in previous work between the reaction-diffusion calculations and the CEX-1 experiment, which involves storage of defected fuel elements in air at 150 deg C. This discrepancy is considerably diminished here by a more critical choice of theoretical parameters, and by taking into account the fact that different CEX-1 fuel elements were oxidized at very different rates and that the fuel element used previously for comparison with theoretical calculations actually underwent two limited-oxygen-supply cycles. Much better agreement is obtained here between the theory and the third, unlimited-air, storage period of the CEX-1 experiment. The approximate integral method is used extensively for the solution of the one-dimensional diffusion moving-boundary problems that may describe various storage periods of the CEX-1 experiment. In some cases it is easy to extend this method to arbitrary precision by using higher moments of the diffusion equation. Using this method, the validity of quasi-steady-state approximation is verified. Diffusion-controlled oxidation is also studied. In this case, for the unlimited oxygen supply, the integral method leads to an exact analytical solution for linear geometry, and to a good analytical approximation of the solution for the spherically symmetric geometry. These solutions may have some application in the analysis of experiments on the oxidation of small UO 2 fragments or powders when the individual UO 2 grains may be considered to be approximately spherical. (author). 23 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs

  2. Development of anionic membranes produced by radiation-grafting for alkaline fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Clotilde Coppini

    2017-01-01

    Anion Exchange Membranes (AEMs) are a promising alternative to the development of more efficient electrolytes for alkaline fuel cells. In general, the AEMs are ionomeric membranes able to conduct hydroxide ions (OH - ) due to the quaternary ammonium groups, which confer high pH equivalent to the AEM. In order to develop alkaline membranes with high chemical and thermal stability, besides satisfactory ionic conductivity for alkaline fuel cells, membranes based on low density polyethylene (LDPE), ultrahigh weight molecular weight polyethylene (UHWHPE), poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (PETFE) and poly(hexafluoropropylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (PFEP) previously irradiated by using 60 Co gamma and electron beam sources, have been synthesized by styrene-grafting, and functionalized with trimethylamine to introduced quaternary ammonium groups. The resulting membranes were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The determination of the grafting degree and water uptake were conducted by gravimetry and ion exchange capacity, by titration. The membranes synthesized with PELD and PEUHMW polymers pre-irradiated at 70 kGy and stored at low temperature (-70 deg C), up to 10 months, showed ionic conductivity results, in hydroxide form (OH - ), of 29 mS.cm -1 and 14 mS.cm -1 at 65 deg C, respectively. The PFEP polymers irradiated by the simultaneous process showed insufficient grating levels for the membrane synthesis, requiring more studies to improve the irradiation and grafting process. The styrene-grafted PETFE membranes, pre-irradiated at 70 kGy and stored at low temperature (-70 deg C), up to 10 months, showed ionic conductivity results, in hydroxide form (OH - ), of 90 mS.cm -1 to 165 mS.cm -1 , in the temperature range 30 to 60 deg C. Such results have demonstrated that LDPE, UHMWPE and PETFE based AEMs are promising electrolytes for alkaline fuel cell

  3. Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

  4. Experimental Study of Nonequilibrium Electrodeposition of Nanostructures on Copper and Nickel for Photochemical Fuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Shanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the performance of photochemical fuel cells, nonequilibrium electrodeposition has been performed on Cu and Ni to make photosensitive anodes. Processing parameters including electrolyte concentration, and electrode potential were studied using cyclic voltammetry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS were performed to understand the formation of the nanostructures during the nonequilibrium deposition of copper fractals. An increase in the deposition rate was observed with the increase in electrolyte concentration (from 0.05 M to 1.0 M. Similar trend was found when the cathode potential was decreased from −0.5 V to −4.5 V. The effect of substrate material was also examined. Porous fractal structures on copper were achieved, while the deposited material showed high density of surface cracks on nickel. The fractal structures deposited on copper electrode with the increased surface area were converted into copper oxide by oxidation in air. Such oxide samples were made into anodes for photochemical fuel cell application. We demonstrated that an increase in the magnitude of open circuit output voltage is associated with the increase in the fractal surface area under the ultraviolet irradiation test conditions. However, the electrodeposited fractals on nickel showed very limited increase in the magnitude of open circuit voltage.

  5. Making the grid the backup: Utility applications for fuel cell power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklof, S.L. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are recognized as a versatile power generation option and accepted component of SMUD`s ART Program. SMUD has received wide support and recognition for promoting and implementing fuel cell power plants, as well as other innovative generation, based primarily on technological factors. Current economic and technical realities in the electric generation market highlight other important factors, such as the cost involved to develop a slate of such resources. The goal now is to develop only those select quality resources most likely to become commercially viable in the near future. The challenge becomes the identification of candidate technologies with the greatest potential, and then matching the technologies with the applications that will help to make them successful. Utility participation in this development is critical so as to provide the industry with case examples of advanced technologies that can be applied in a way beneficial to both the utility and its customers. The ART resource acquisitions provide the experience base upon which to guide this selection process, and should bring about the cost reductions and reliability improvements sought.

  6. Sliding mode observer for proton exchange membrane fuel cell: automotive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piffard, Maxime; Gerard, Mathias; Fonseca, Ramon Da; Massioni, Paolo; Bideaux, Eric

    2018-06-01

    This work proposes a state observer as a tool to manage cost and durability issues for PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) in automotive applications. Based on a dead-end anode architecture, the observer estimates the nitrogen build-up in the anode side, as well as relative humidities in the channels. These estimated parameters can then be used at fuel cell management level to enhance the durability of the stack. This observer is based on transport equations through the membrane and it reconstructs the behavior of the water and nitrogen inside the channels without the need of additional humidity sensors to correct the estimate. The convergence of the output variables is proved with Lyapunov theory for dynamic operating conditions. The validation is made with a high-fidelity model running a WLTC (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle). This observer provides the average values of nitrogen and relative humidities with sufficient precision to be used in a global real-time control scheme.

  7. Energy management of fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid power source for vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Rael, Stephane; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), CNRS, Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM 2, avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2009-08-01

    This paper proposes a perfect energy source supplied by a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as a main power source and storage devices: battery and supercapacitor, for modern distributed generation system, particularly for future fuel cell vehicle applications. The energy in hybrid system is balanced by the dc bus voltage regulation. A supercapacitor module, as a high dynamic and high power density device, functions for supplying energy to regulate a dc bus voltage. A battery module, as a high energy density device, operates for supplying energy to a supercapacitor bank to keep it charged. A FC, as a slowest dynamic source in this system, functions to supply energy to a battery bank in order to keep it charged. Therefore, there are three voltage control loops: dc bus voltage regulated by a supercapacitor bank, supercapacitor voltage regulated by a battery bank, and battery voltage regulated by a FC. To authenticate the proposed control algorithm, a hardware system in our laboratory is realized by analog circuits and numerical calculation by dSPACE. Experimental results with small-scale devices (a PEMFC: 500-W, 50-A; a battery bank: 68-Ah, 24-V; and a supercapacitor bank: 292-F, 30-V, 500-A) corroborate the excellent control principle during motor drive cycle. (author)

  8. Fuel Design for Particle-Bed Reactors for Thermal Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husser, Dewayne L.; Evans, Robert S.; Jensen, Russell R.; Kerr, John M.

    1994-07-01

    The design of particle bed reactor (PBR) fuels is an iterative process involving close coordination of design and manufacturing operations. The process starts with the generation of an initial particle design, based on a knowledge of the system requirements and interfaces (such as, fissile loading requirements, coolant type, exit gas temperatures, operation time, number of cycles, contacting materials, etc.). The designer must consider materials property data, heat-transfer and thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the particle and particle bed, and available (or anticipated) manufacturing technology. The design process also uses parametric studies to identify the influences of composition, size, and coating thickness on fuel performance. This resulting design is then used to provide a target manufacturing specification against which initial manufacturing development can be assessed and which provides the framework for manufacturing and testing derived feedback that can be incorporated into the subsequent particle design modifications. In this paper, an example of this design process for a hypothetical particle using a (U,Zr)C kernel and a NbC outer coating designed for a thermal propulsion application is given.

  9. Evaluation of colloidal Pd and Pd-alloys as anode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, M.H. [General Motors R and D Technical Center, Warren, MI (United States); Gyenge, E.L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Northwood, D.O. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    An evaluation was conducted to assess the use of colloidal palladium (Pd) and Pd alloys as anode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cell applications. A modified Bonneman method was used to investigate borohydride oxidation on supported Pd and Pd-alloy nano-electrocatalysts. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry, and single fuel cell test stations were used to determine Tafel slopes, exchange current densities, oxidation peak potentials, and fuel cell performance. The study also investigated the influence of temperature and oxidant flow and fuel flow rates on fuel cell performance. The study showed that the current density of the fuel cell increased with increases in temperature for all the investigated Pd electrocatalysts. However, the increase in current density was not as high as expected when fuel flow rates were increased. A current density of 50 mA cm{sup -2} was observed at 298 K with a Pd-Ir anode catalyst operating at a cell voltage of 0.5 V. 28 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  10. U.S. DOE Progress Towards Developing Low-Cost, High Performance, Durable Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchins, Cassidy; Kleen, Greg J; Spendelow, Jacob S; Kopasz, John; Peterson, David; Garland, Nancy L; Ho, Donna Lee; Marcinkoski, Jason; Martin, Kathi Epping; Tyler, Reginald; Papageorgopoulos, Dimitrios C

    2012-12-18

    Low cost, durable, and selective membranes with high ionic conductivity are a priority need for wide-spread adoption of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Electrolyte membranes are a major cost component of PEMFC stacks at low production volumes. PEMFC membranes also impose limitations on fuel cell system operating conditions that add system complexity and cost. Reactant gas and fuel permeation through the membrane leads to decreased fuel cell performance, loss of efficiency, and reduced durability in both PEMFCs and DMFCs. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program, in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, supports research and development aimed at improving ion exchange membranes for fuel cells. For PEMFCs, efforts are primarily focused on developing materials for higher temperature operation (up to 120 °C) in automotive applications. For DMFCs, efforts are focused on developing membranes with reduced methanol permeability. In this paper, the recently revised DOE membrane targets, strategies, and highlights of DOE-funded projects to develop new, inexpensive membranes that have good performance in hot and dry conditions (PEMFC) and that reduce methanol crossover (DMFC) will be discussed.

  11. U.S. DOE Progress Towards Developing Low-Cost, High Performance, Durable Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios C. Papageorgopoulos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low cost, durable, and selective membranes with high ionic conductivity are a priority need for wide-spread adoption of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. Electrolyte membranes are a major cost component of PEMFC stacks at low production volumes. PEMFC membranes also impose limitations on fuel cell system operating conditions that add system complexity and cost. Reactant gas and fuel permeation through the membrane leads to decreased fuel cell performance, loss of efficiency, and reduced durability in both PEMFCs and DMFCs. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program, in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, supports research and development aimed at improving ion exchange membranes for fuel cells. For PEMFCs, efforts are primarily focused on developing materials for higher temperature operation (up to 120 °C in automotive applications. For DMFCs, efforts are focused on developing membranes with reduced methanol permeability. In this paper, the recently revised DOE membrane targets, strategies, and highlights of DOE-funded projects to develop new, inexpensive membranes that have good performance in hot and dry conditions (PEMFC and that reduce methanol crossover (DMFC will be discussed.

  12. An application of indirect model reference adaptive control to a low-power proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yee-Pien; Liu, Zhao-Wei; Wang, Fu-Cheng

    2008-05-01

    Nonlinearity and the time-varying dynamics of fuel cell systems make it complex to design a controller for improving output performance. This paper introduces an application of a model reference adaptive control to a low-power proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system, which consists of three main components: a fuel cell stack, an air pump to supply air, and a solenoid valve to adjust hydrogen flow. From the system perspective, the dynamic model of the PEM fuel cell stack can be expressed as a multivariable configuration of two inputs, hydrogen and air-flow rates, and two outputs, cell voltage and current. The corresponding transfer functions can be identified off-line to describe the linearized dynamics with a finite order at a certain operating point, and are written in a discrete-time auto-regressive moving-average model for on-line estimation of parameters. This provides a strategy of regulating the voltage and current of the fuel cell by adaptively adjusting the flow rates of air and hydrogen. Experiments show that the proposed adaptive controller is robust to the variation of fuel cell system dynamics and power request. Additionally, it helps decrease fuel consumption and relieves the DC/DC converter in regulating the fluctuating cell voltage.

  13. Catalytic Fuel Conversion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility enables unique catalysis research related to power and energy applications using military jet fuels and alternative fuels. It is equipped with research...

  14. Application of the Sensor Selection Approach in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Prognostics and Health Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Mao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the sensor selection approach is investigated with the aim of using fewer sensors to provide reliable fuel cell diagnostic and prognostic results. The sensitivity of sensors is firstly calculated with a developed fuel cell model. With sensor sensitivities to different fuel cell failure modes, the available sensors can be ranked. A sensor selection algorithm is used in the analysis, which considers both sensor sensitivity to fuel cell performance and resistance to noise. The performance of the selected sensors in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell prognostics is also evaluated with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, and results show that the fuel cell voltage can be predicted with good quality using the selected sensors. Furthermore, a fuel cell test is performed to investigate the effectiveness of selected sensors in fuel cell fault diagnosis. From the results, different fuel cell states can be distinguished with good quality using the selected sensors.

  15. 26 CFR 48.4041-5 - Sales of diesel and special motor fuels and fuel for use in aircraft; rules of general application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales of diesel and special motor fuels and fuel... AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-5 Sales of diesel and special motor fuels and fuel... of a diesel-powered highway vehicle, or of special motor fuel to an owner, lessee, or other operator...

  16. Conceptual design of coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a coal-fueled diesel system was prepared as part of a previous systems study. Since then, our team has accumulated extensive results from testing coal-water slurry on the 13-inch bore JS engine (400 rpm) in 1987 and 1988. These results provided new insights into preferred design concepts for engine components. One objective, therefore, was to revise the preliminary design to incorporate these preferred design concepts. In addition there were certain areas where additional, more detailed analysis was required as a result of the previous conceptual design. Another objective, therefore was to perform additional detailed design efforts, such as: (1) market applications and engine sizes, (2) coal-water slurry cleaning and grinding processes, (3) emission controls and hot gas contaminant controls, (4) component durability, (5) cost and performance assessments. (VC)

  17. SHAPE SELECTIVE NANO-CATALYSTS: TOWARD DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.

    2010-06-16

    A series of bimetallic core-shell-alloy type Au-Pt nanomaterials with various morphologies, aspect ratios and compositions, were produced in a heterogenous epitaxial fashion. Gold nanoparticles with well-controlled particle size and shape, e.g. spheres, rods and cubes, were used as 'seeds' for platinum growth in the presence of a mild reducing agent, ascorbic acid and a cationic surfactant cethyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The reactions take place in air and water, and are quick, economical and amenable for scaling up. The synthesized nanocatalysts were characterized by electron microscopy techniques and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Nafion membranes were embedded with the Au-Pt nanomaterials and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for their potential in direct methanol fuel cells applications.

  18. Dynamic modeling and controllability analysis of an ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (CONICET-UNS), Camino de la Carrindanga km7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work presents a controllability analysis of a low temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for fuel cell application. The study is based on a non-linear dynamic model of a reformer which operates in three separate stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen, acetaldehyde steam reforming, and water-gas-shift reaction. The controllability analysis is focused on the rapid dynamics due to mass balances and is based on a linearization of the complex non-linear model of the reformer. RGA, CN and MRI analysis tools are applied to the linear model suggesting that a good performance can be obtained with decentralized control for frequencies up to 0.1 rad s{sup -1}. (author)

  19. Electron transfer mechanisms, new applications, and performance of biocathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Liping; Regan, John M.; Quan, Xie

    2011-01-01

    Broad application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires low cost and high operational sustainability. Microbial-cathode MFCs, or cathodes using only bacterial catalysts (biocathodes), can satisfy these demands and have gained considerable attention in recent years. Achievements with biocathodes over the past 3-4. years have been particularly impressive not only with respect to the biological aspects but also the system-wide considerations related to electrode materials and solution chemistry. The versatility of biocathodes enables us to use not only oxygen but also contaminants as possible electron acceptors, allowing nutrient removal and bioremediation in conjunction with electricity generation. Moreover, biocathodes create opportunities to convert electrical current into microbially generated reduced products. While many new experimental results with biocathodes have been reported, we are still in the infancy of their engineering development. This review highlights the opportunities, limits, and challenges of biocathodes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Quench gas and preamplifier selection influence on {sup 3}He tube performance for spent fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henziova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard [Safeguards Science and Technology Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Current {sup 3}He tubes utilized in neutron coincidence counting use different quench gas admixtures to shorten the avalanche process. In addition amplifier modules with different shaping characteristics are used to process detector signals. Both of these aspects affect the detector response. In the current paper, {sup 3}He tubes with several quench gas admixtures (CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, Ar+CH{sub 4} and CF{sub 4}) and amplifier modules (PDT, AMPTEK, BOT) are compared. The plateau characteristics, gamma-sensitivity and deadtime of individual counters in combination with the listed amplifier modules are compared to determine optimum amplifier module/counter performance for the spent fuel applications.

  1. Investigation of metal/carbon-related materials for fuel cell applications by electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Ki-jeong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kong@krict.re.kr; Choi, Youngmin [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Beyong-Hwan [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-O [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyunju [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    The potential of carbon-related materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphite nanofibers (GNFs), supported metal catalysts as an electrode for fuel cell application was investigated using the first-principle electronic structure calculations. The stable binding geometries and energies of metal catalysts are determined on the CNT surface and the GNF edge. The catalyst metal is more tightly bound to the GNF edge than to the CNT surface because of the existence of active dangling bonds of edge carbon atoms. The diffusion barrier of metal atoms on the surface and edge is also obtained. From our calculation results, we have found that high dispersity is achievable for GNF due to high barrier against the diffusion of metal atoms, while CNT appears less suitable. The GNF with a large edge-to-wall ratio is more suitable for the high-performance electrode than perfect crystalline graphite or CNT.

  2. Investigation of metal/carbon-related materials for fuel cell applications by electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Ki-jeong; Choi, Youngmin; Ryu, Beyong-Hwan; Lee, Jeong-O; Chang, Hyunju

    2006-01-01

    The potential of carbon-related materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphite nanofibers (GNFs), supported metal catalysts as an electrode for fuel cell application was investigated using the first-principle electronic structure calculations. The stable binding geometries and energies of metal catalysts are determined on the CNT surface and the GNF edge. The catalyst metal is more tightly bound to the GNF edge than to the CNT surface because of the existence of active dangling bonds of edge carbon atoms. The diffusion barrier of metal atoms on the surface and edge is also obtained. From our calculation results, we have found that high dispersity is achievable for GNF due to high barrier against the diffusion of metal atoms, while CNT appears less suitable. The GNF with a large edge-to-wall ratio is more suitable for the high-performance electrode than perfect crystalline graphite or CNT

  3. Optimization and Characterization of High Velocity Oxy-fuel Sprayed Coatings: Techniques, Materials, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oksa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF thermal spray techniques, spraying process optimization, and characterization of coatings are reviewed. Different variants of the technology are described and the main differences in spray conditions in terms of particle kinetics and thermal energy are rationalized. Methods and tools for controlling the spray process are presented as well as their use in optimizing the coating process. It will be shown how the differences from the starting powder to the final coating formation affect the coating microstructure and performance. Typical properties of HVOF sprayed coatings and coating performance is described. Also development of testing methods used for the evaluation of coating properties and current status of standardization is presented. Short discussion of typical applications is done.

  4. Regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. Draft report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    Potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees were analyzed. The most potentially hazardous accident, by a large margin, was determined to be the sudden rupture of a heated multi-ton cylinder of UF 6 . Acute fatalities offsite are probably not credible. Acute permanent injuries may be possible for many hundreds of meters, and clinically observable transient effects of unknown long term consequences may be possible for distances up to a few miles. These effects would be caused by the chemical toxicity of the UF 6 . Radiation doses would not be significant. The most potentially hazardous accident due to radiation exposure was determined to be a large fire at certain facilities handling large quantities of alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., Po-210, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244) or radioiodines (I-125 and I-131). However, acute fatalities or injuries to people offsite due to accidental releases of these materials do not seem plausible. The only other significant accident was identified as a long-term pulsating criticality at fuel cycle facilities handling high-enriched uranium or plutonium. An important feature of the most serious accidents is that releases are likely to start without prior warning. The releases would usually end within about half an hour. Thus protective actions would have to be taken quickly to be effective. There is not likely to be enough time for dose projections, complicated decisionmaking during the accident, or the participation of personnel not in the immediate vicinity of the site. The appropriate response by the facility is to immediately notify local fire, police, and other emergency personnel and give them a brief predetermined message recommending protective actions. Emergency personnel are generally well qualified to respond effectively to small accidents of these types

  5. Regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    Potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees were analyzed. The most potentially hazardous accident, by a large margin, was determined to be the sudden rupture of a heated multi-ton cylinder of UF/sub 6/. Acute fatalities offsite are probably not credible. Acute permanent injuries may be possible for many hundreds of meters, and clinically observable transient effects of unknown long term consequences may be possible for distances up to a few miles. These effects would be caused by the chemical toxicity of the UF/sub 6/. Radiation doses would not be significant. The most potentially hazardous accident due to radiation exposure was determined to be a large fire at certain facilities handling large quantities of alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., Po-210, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244) or radioiodines (I-125 and I-131). However, acute fatalities or injuries to people offsite due to accidental releases of these materials do not seem plausible. The only other significant accident was identified as a long-term pulsating criticality at fuel cycle facilities handling high-enriched uranium or plutonium. An important feature of the most serious accidents is that releases are likely to start without prior warning. The releases would usually end within about half an hour. Thus protective actions would have to be taken quickly to be effective. There is not likely to be enough time for dose projections, complicated decisionmaking during the accident, or the participation of personnel not in the immediate vicinity of the site. The appropriate response by the facility is to immediately notify local fire, police, and other emergency personnel and give them a brief predetermined message recommending protective actions. Emergency personnel are generally well qualified to respond effectively to small accidents of these types.

  6. Large-scale Labeled Datasets to Fuel Earth Science Deep Learning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Miller, J.

    2017-12-01

    Deep learning has revolutionized computer vision and natural language processing with various algorithms scaled using high-performance computing. However, generic large-scale labeled datasets such as the ImageNet are the fuel that drives the impressive accuracy of deep learning results. Large-scale labeled datasets already exist in domains such as medical science, but creating them in the Earth science domain is a challenge. While there are ways to apply deep learning using limited labeled datasets, there is a need in the Earth sciences for creating large-scale labeled datasets for benchmarking and scaling deep learning applications. At the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, we are using deep learning for a variety of Earth science applications where we have encountered the need for large-scale labeled datasets. We will discuss our approaches for creating such datasets and why these datasets are just as valuable as deep learning algorithms. We will also describe successful usage of these large-scale labeled datasets with our deep learning based applications.

  7. Hybrid energy fuel cell based system for household applications in a Mediterranean climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nižetić, S.; Tolj, I.; Papadopoulos, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid energy system was proposed, combining a HT-PEM fuel cell system and a standard split heat pump system with heat recovery for household applications. • The hybrid energy system is able to produce both high and low temperature heat, electricity and cooling capacity. • The system showed high overall energy efficiency and a favorable environmental aspect. • The calculated cost of overall produced energy proved to be competitive in comparison with the average cost of electricity for households. - Abstract: In this paper, a specific hybrid energy system was proposed for household applications. The hybrid energy system was assembled from a HT-PEM fuel cell stack supplied by hydrogen via a steam reformer, where finally the majority of produced electricity is used to drive a modified split heat pump system with heat recovery (that is enabled via standard modified accumulation boilers). The system is able to produce both high and low temperature heat output (in the form of hot water), cooling thermal output and electricity. Performance analysis was conducted and the specific hybrid energy system showed high value for overall energy efficiency, for the specific case examined it reached 250%. Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) analysis was also carried out and the proposed hybrid energy system’s cost is expected to be between 0.09 €/kW h and 0.16 €/kW h, which is certainly competitive with the current retail electricity price for households on the EU market. Additionally, the system also has environmental benefits in relation to reduced CO 2 emissions, as estimated CO 2 emissions from the proposed hybrid energy system are expected to be at around 9.0 gCO 2 /kW h or 2.6 times less than the emissions released from the utilization of grid electricity.

  8. Multilayered sulphonated polysulfone/silica composite membranes for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmavathi, Rajangam; Karthikumar, Rajendhiran; Sangeetha, Dharmalingam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multilayered membranes were fabricated with SPSu. ► Aminated polysulfone and silica were used as the layers in order to prevent the crossover of methanol. ► The methanol permeability and selectivity ratio proved a strong influence on DMFC application. ► The suitability of the multilayered membranes was studied in the lab made set-ups of PEMFC and DMFC. - Abstract: Polymer electrolyte membranes used in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) suffer from low dimensional stability. Hence multilayered membranes using sulfonated polysulfone (SPSu) and silica (SiO 2 ) were fabricated to alter such properties. The introduction of an SiO 2 layer between two layers of SPSu to form the multilayered composite membrane enhanced its dimensional stability, but slightly lowered its proton conductivity when compared to the conventional SPSu/SiO 2 composite membrane. Additionally, higher water absorption, lower methanol permeability and higher flame retardancy were also observed in this newly fabricated multilayered membrane. The performance evaluation of the 2 wt% SiO 2 loaded multilayered membrane in DMFC showed a maximum power density of 86.25 mW cm −2 , which was higher than that obtained for Nafion 117 membrane (52.8 mW cm −2 ) in the same single cell test assembly. Hence, due to the enhanced dimensional stability, reduced methanol permeability and higher maximum power density, the SPSu/SiO 2 /SPSu multilayered membrane can be a viable and a promising candidate for use as an electrolyte membrane in DMFC applications, when compared to Nafion.

  9. Development of Modified Pag (Polyalkylene Glycol) High VI High Fuel Efficient Lubricant for LDV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, Arup [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); McWatt, D. G. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Zdrodowski, R. J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Liu, Zak [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Elie, Larry [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Simko, S. J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ramirez, Giovanni [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cuthbert, J. [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Hock, E. D. [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Engine oils play a critical role in friction reduction. Improvements in engine oil technology steadily improved fuel economy as the industry moved through ILSAC GF-1 to GF-5 specifications. These improvements were influenced by changes in base oil chemistry, development of new friction modifiers and their treat levels, and the total additive package consisting of various other components. However, the improvements are incremental and further fuel consumption reduction opportunities are becoming more challenging. Polyalkylene glycol (PAG) based engine oils are being explored as a step forward for significant fuel consumption reduction. Although PAG fluids are used in many industrial applications, its application as an engine oil has been explored in a limited way. The objective of this project is to deep dive in exploring the applicability of PAG technology in engine oil, understanding the benefits, and limitations, elucidating the mechanism(s) for friction benefits, if any, and finally recommending how to address any limitations. The project was designed in four steps, starting with selection of lubricant technology, followed by friction and wear evaluations in laboratory bench tests which are relatively simple and inexpensive and also served as a screener for further evaluation. Selected formulations were chosen for more complex engine component level tests i.e., motored valvetrain friction and wear, piston ring friction using a motored single cylinder, and motored engine tests. A couple of formulations were further selected based on component level tests for engine dyno tests i.e., Sequence VID (ASTM D6709) for fuel economy, Sequence IVA (ASTM D6891) for valvetrain wear, and Sequence VG (ASTM D6593) for sludge and varnish protection. These are some of the industry standard tests required for qualifying engine oils. Out of these tests, a single PAG oil was selected for chassis roll dynamometer tests for fuel economy and emission measurements using FTP (Federal

  10. Advances in applications of burnup credit to enhance spent fuel transportation, storage, reprocessing and disposition. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    Given a trend towards higher burnup power reactor fuel, the IAEA began an active programme in burnup credit (BUC) with major meetings in 1997 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013), 2000 (IAEA-TECDOC-1241) and 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC-1378) exploring worldwide interest in using BUC in spent fuel management systems. This publication contains the proceedings of the IAEA's 4th major BUC meeting, held in London. Sixty participants from 18 countries addressed calculation methodology, validation and criticality, safety criteria, procedural compliance with safety criteria, benefits of BUC applications, and regulatory aspects in BUC. This meeting encouraged the IAEA to continue its activities on burnup credit including dissemination of related information, given the number of Member States having to deal with increased spent fuel quantities and extended durations. A 5th major meeting on burnup credit is planned 2008. Burnup credit is a concept that takes credit for the reduced reactivity of fuel discharged from the reactor to improve loading density of irradiated fuel assemblies in storage, transportation, and disposal applications, relative to the assumption of fresh fuel nuclide inventories in loading calculations. This report has described a general four phase approach to be considered in burnup credit implementation. Much if not all of the background research and data acquisition necessary for successful burnup credit development in preparation for licensing has been completed. Many fuel types, facilities, and analysis methods are encompassed in the public knowledge base, such that in many cases this guidance will provide a means for rapid development of a burnup credit program. For newer assembly designs, higher enrichment fuels, and more extensive nuclide credit, additional research and development may be necessary, but even this work can build on the foundation that has been established to date. Those, it is hoped that this report will serve as a starting point with sufficient reference to

  11. An Investigation to Resolve the Interaction Between Fuel Cell, Power Conditioning System and Application Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudip K. Mazumder

    2005-12-31

    Development of high-performance and durable solidoxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a SOFC power-generating system requires knowledge of the feedback effects from the power-conditioning electronics and from application-electrical-power circuits that may pass through or excite the power-electronics subsystem (PES). Therefore, it is important to develop analytical models and methodologies, which can be used to investigate and mitigate the effects of the electrical feedbacks from the PES and the application loads (ALs) on the reliability and performance of SOFC systems for stationary and non-stationary applications. However, any such attempt to resolve the electrical impacts of the PES on the SOFC would be incomplete unless one utilizes a comprehensive analysis, which takes into account the interactions of SOFC, PES, balance-of-plant system (BOPS), and ALs as a whole. SOFCs respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry, which is not true for the thermal and mechanical time constants of the BOPS, where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy can affect the lifetime and durability of the SOFCSs and limit the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications. Furthermore, without validated analytical models and investigative design and optimization methodologies, realizations of cost-effective, reliable, and optimal PESs (and power-management controls), in particular, and SOFC systems, in general, are difficult. On the whole, the research effort can lead to (a) cost-constrained optimal PES design for high-performance SOFCS and high energy efficiency and power density, (b) effective SOFC power-system design, analyses, and optimization, and (c) controllers and modulation schemes for mitigation of electrical impacts and wider-stability margin and enhanced system efficiency.

  12. Assessment of a novel solid oxide fuel cell tri-generation system for building applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmer, Theo; Worall, Mark; Wu, Shenyi; Riffat, Saffa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental assessment of a first-of-its-kind tri-generation system. • High tri-generation efficiencies of 68–71%. • Inclusion of liquid desiccant provides efficiency increase of 9–15%. • System only economically viable with a government’s financial support. - Abstract: The paper provides a performance analysis assessment of a novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) liquid desiccant tri-generation system for building applications. The work presented serves to build upon the current literature related to experimental evaluations of SOFC tri-generation systems, particularly in domestic built environment applications. The proposed SOFC liquid desiccant tri-generation system will be the first-of-its-kind. No research activity is reported on the integration of SOFC, or any fuel cell, with liquid desiccant air conditioning in a tri-generation system configuration. The novel tri-generation system is suited to applications that require simultaneous electrical power, heating and dehumidification/cooling. There are several specific benefits to the integration of SOFC and liquid desiccant air conditioning technology, including; very high operational electrical efficiencies even at low system capacities and the ability to utilise low-grade thermal energy in a (useful) cooling process. Furthermore, the novel tri-generation system has the potential to increase thermal energy utilisation and thus the access to the benefits achievable from on-site electrical generation, primarily; reduced emissions and operating costs. Using empirical SOFC and liquid desiccant component data, an energetic, economic and environmental performance analysis assessment of the novel system is presented. Significant conclusions from the work include: (1) SOFC and liquid desiccant are a viable technological pairing in the development of an efficient and effective tri-generation system. High tri-generation efficiencies in the range of 68–71% are attainable. (2) The inclusion of

  13. Hydrogen peroxide oxidant fuel cell systems for ultra-portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will address the issues of using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant fuel in a miniature DMFC system. Cell performance for DMFC based fuel cells operating on hydrogen peroxide will be presented and discussed.

  14. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. Technical description in support of application for FRSS operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    Questions from the USAEC Directorate of Licensing related to the safety of casks used to transport and store fuel elements at the Barnwell Fuel Processing Plant and to facilities and procedures used in the plant are answered. (U.S.)

  15. Application of the Advanced Distillation Curve Method to Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine Gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Jessica L.; Schneider, Nico; Bruno, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    . To make changes in the most time- and cost-effective manner, it is imperative that new computational tools and surrogate fuels are developed. Currently, sets of fuels are being characterized by industry groups, such as the Coordinating Research Council

  16. The Characterisation of a PEM Fuel-Cell System with a Focus on UAS Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    low specific power (W/kg) [3-6]. This has stimulated the development of hybrid systems that utilise a combination of battery and fuel - cell ...battery-powered systems (i.e., electric motors and batteries). However, the great advantage of fuel - cell -based powerplants is their specific energy...alkaline-electrolyte, direct- methanol , and sulphur-oxide fuel cells ) are also required so that a broad assessment of fuel - cell types and their likely

  17. Evaluation of the applicability of cladding deformation model in RELAP5/MOD3.2 code for VVER-1000 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, Yu.; Zhabin, O.

    2015-01-01

    Applicability of cladding deformation model in RELAP5/MOD3.2 code is analyzed for VVER-1000 fuel cladding from Zr+1%Nb alloy. Experimental data and calculation model of fuel assembly channel of the core are used for this purpose. The model applicability is tested for the cladding temperature range from 600 to 1200 deg C and pressure range from 1 to 12 MPa. Evaluation results demonstrate limited applicability of built-in RELAP5/MOD3.2 cladding deformation model to the estimation of Zr+1%Nb cladding rupture conditions. The limitations found shall be considered in application of RELAP5/MOD3.2 cladding deformation model in the design-basis accident analysis of VVER reactors

  18. Application of gel microsphere processes to preparation of Sphere-Pac nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Notz, K.J.; Spence, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Sphere-Pac fabrication of nuclear fuels using two or more sizes of oxide or carbide spheres is ideally suited to nonproliferation-fuel cycles and remote refabrication. The sizes and compositions of spheres necessary for such fuel cycles have not been commonly prepared; therefore, modifications of sol-gel processes to meet these requirements are being developed and demonstrated

  19. Fuel cells for vehicle applications in cars - bringing the future closer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panik, Ferdinand

    Among all alternative drive systems, the fuel cell electric propulsion system has the highest potential to compete with the internal combustion engine. For this reason, Daimler-Benz AG has entered into a co-operative alliance with Ballard Power Systems, with the objectives of bringing fuel cell vehicles to the market. Apart from the fuel cell itself, fuel cell vehicles require comprehensive system technology to provide fuel and air supply, cooling, energy management, electric and electronic functions. The system technology determines to a large extent the cost, weight, efficiency, performance and overall customer benefit of fuel cell vehicles. Hence, Daimler-Benz and Ballard are pooling their expertise in fuel cell system technology in a joint company, with the aim of bringing their fuel cell vehicular systems to the stage of maturity required for market entry as early as possible. Hydrogen-fuelled zero-emission fuel cell transit `buses' will be the first market segment addressed, with an emphasis on the North American and European markets. The first buses are already scheduled for delivery to customers in late 1997. Since a liquid fuel like methanol is easier to handle in passenger cars, fuel