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Sample records for ptx-2 sec acid

  1. Degradation of 2-sec-butylphenol : 3-sec-butylcatechol, 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-7-methylnona-2,4-dienoic acid, and 2-methylbutyric acid as intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarel, Marc J.E.C. van der; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain HBP1 Prp, a mutant of strain HBP1 that was originally isolated on 2-hydroxybiphenyl, was able to grow on 2-sec-butylphenol as the sole carbon and energy source. During growth on 2-sec-butylphenol, 2-methylbutyric acid transiently accumulated in the culture medium. Its concentr

  2. Reaction kinetics for synthesis of sec-butyl alcohol catalyzed by acid-functionalized ionic liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Qiu; Wenli Tang; Chenggang Li; Chengming Wu; Ling Li

    2015-01-01

    The acid-functionalized ionic liquid ([HSO3Pmim]HSO4) was synthesized by a two-step method. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) show that the synthesis method is feasible and high purity of ionic liquid can be obtained. Using [HSO3Pmim]HSO4 as the catalyst, we studied the reaction kinetics of synthesizing sec-butyl alcohol from sec-butyl acetate and methanol by transesterification in a high-pressure batch reactor. The effects of temperature, initial molar ratio of methanol to ester, and catalyst concentration on the conversion of sec-butyl acetate were studied. Based on its possible reaction mechanism, a ho-mogeneous kinetic model was established. The results show that the reaction heatΔH is 10.94 × 103 J·mol−1, so the reaction is an endothermic reaction. The activation energies Ea+and Ea−are 60.38 × 103 and 49.44 × 103 J·mol−1, respectively.

  3. Extraction Kinetics of Rare Earth Elements with sec-Octylphenoxy Acetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE,Shan-Tang(乐善堂); LIAO,Wu-Ping(廖伍平); LI,De-Qian(李德谦); SU,Qiang(苏锵)

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of RE (La, Gd, Er, Yb and Y)extraction with sec-octylphenoxy acetic acid was investigated using a constant interfacial area cell with laminar flow at 303 K. The natures of the extracted complexes have some effect on the extraction rate which is controlled by the reaction rate of M(Ⅲ) and extractant molecules at two-phase interface for Er(Ⅲ), Yb(Ⅲ) and Y(Ⅲ), by a mixed chemical reaction-diffusion for Gd(Ⅲ) and a diffusion for La(Ⅲ). The extractant molecules tend to adsorb at the interface. So an interfacial extraction reaction model was derived.

  4. Determination of modification degree in BDDE-modified hyaluronic acid hydrogel by SEC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biao; Guo, Xueping; Zang, Hengchang; Liu, Jianjian

    2015-10-20

    Determination of modification degree in BDDE-modified hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel is of particular interest. In this paper, three crosslinking parameters (degree of total modification, t-MOD; degree of cross-link modification, c-MOD; degree of pendent modification, p-MOD) are defined and determined by quantification of the modified fragments in hydrogel digestion by size exclusion chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (SEC-MS). The digestion products of a novel hyaluronidase HAase-B produced by Bacillus sp. A50 are studied and only a few modified fragments are identified by (1)H NMR and MS. As a result, Three HA hydrogels prepared in lab have different t-MOD, c-MOD and p-MOD, but the ratio of c-MOD to p-MOD result in the almost same value of 75%. Hydrogel products from Q-Med have nearly same t-MOD about 0.8% and c-MOD about 0.1%, the ratio of c-MOD to p-MOD is about 13%. Hydrogels from ANTEIS S.A all have much higher t-MOD values, the ratio of c-MOD and p-MOD is about 8%.

  5. Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polypeptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37ºC and 43ºC (heat shock treatment treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV.

  6. Extraction Mechanism of Rare Earths with Sec-Octylphenoxy Acetic Acid by Two-Phase Titration Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐善堂; 廖伍平; 李德谦; 苏锵

    2002-01-01

    The compositions of the extracted complexes of La, Gd, Er and Y with sec-octyl-phenoxy acetic acid in heptane and the related apparent extraction equilibrium constants KM were determined using two-phase titration technique. The stoichiometric compounds for La, Gd, Er and Y should be LaA3*2.5HA, GdA3*3HA, ErA3*3.1HA and YA3*4.3HA respectively. And their pKM are 3.43, 3.46, 3.08 and 2.58 respectively.

  7. Selective analysis of human serum albumin based on SEC-ICP-MS after labelling with iophenoxic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dersch, Julie Maria; Nguyen, Tam T. T. N.; Østergaard, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    for quantification of HSA based on labelling the protein with iophenoxic acid (IPA) was developed. Samples were subjected to size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) monitoring iodine and platinum. The iodine signal for the HSA-IPA complex showed...... was to develop a selective, quantitative method for determining albumin in plasma with the purpose of clarifying the fate of metal-based drugs in biological systems. The method can also be applied for determination of urine albumin, which is of relevance in diagnostics of kidney disease. A selective method...

  8. Experimental Measurements and Correlations Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Water + Acetic Acid + Sec-butyl Acetate at 101.3 kPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling; HE Yong; WU Yanxiang; ZOU Wenhu

    2013-01-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium(VLE) data for acetic acid + sec-butyl acetate and water + acetic acid + sec-butyl acetate systems were determined at 101.3 kPa using a modified Rose type.The nonideality of the vapor phase caused by the association of the acetic acid was corrected by the chemical theory and Hayden-O'Connell method.Thermodynamic consistency was tested for the binary VLE data.The experimental data were correlated successfully with the Non-Random Two Liquids (NRTL) model.The Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of the ternary system was 0.0038.The saturation vapor pressure of sec-butyl acetate at 329 to 385 K was measured by means of two connected equilibrium cells.The vapor pressures of water and sec-butyl acetate were correlated with the Antoine equation.The binary interaction parameters and the ternary VLE data were obtained from this work.

  9. sec-Butylpropylacetamide (SPD), a new amide derivative of valproic acid for the treatment of neuropathic and inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Dan; West, Peter J; Smith, Misty D; Yagen, Boris; Bialer, Meir; Devor, Marshall; White, H Steve; Brennan, K C

    2017-03-01

    Chronic pain is a multifactorial disease comprised of both inflammatory and neuropathic components that affect ∼20% of the world's population. sec-Butylpropylacetamide (SPD) is a novel amide analogue of valproic acid (VPA) previously shown to possess a broad spectrum of anticonvulsant activity. In this study, we defined the pharmacokinetic parameters of SPD in rat and mouse, and then evaluated its antinociceptive potential in neuropathic and acute inflammatory pain models. In the sciatic nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain, SPD was equipotent to gabapentin and more potent than its parent compound VPA. SPD also showed either higher or equal potency to VPA in the formalin, carrageenan, and writhing tests of inflammatory pain. SPD showed no effects on compound action potential properties in a sciatic nerve preparation, suggesting that its mechanism of action is distinct from local anesthetics and membrane stabilizing drugs. SPD's activity in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain warrants its development as a potential broad-spectrum anti-nociceptive drug.

  10. Self-assembly of glutamic acid linked paclitaxel dimers into nanoparticles for chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanfeng; Zhuang, Miao; Sun, Tingting; Wang, Xin; Xie, Zhigang

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a glutamic acid linked paclitaxel (PTX) dimer (Glu-PTX2) with high PTX content of 88.9wt% was designed and synthesized. Glu-PTX2 could self-assemble into nanoparticles (Glu-PTX2 NPs) in aqueous solution to increase the water solubility of PTX. Glu-PTX2 NPs were characterized by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, exhibiting spherical morphology and favorable structural stability in aqueous media. Glu-PTX2 NPs could be internalized by cancer cells as revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and exert potent cytotoxicity. It is envisaged that Glu-PTX2 NPs would be an alternative formulation for PTX, and such amino acid linked drug dimers could also be applied to other therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ATPase activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis SecA1 and SecA2 proteins and its importance for SecA2 function in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie M; D'Lima, Nadia G; Rigel, Nathan W; Gibbons, Henry S; McCann, Jessica R; Braunstein, Miriam; Teschke, Carolyn M

    2008-07-01

    The Sec-dependent translocation pathway that involves the essential SecA protein and the membrane-bound SecYEG translocon is used to export many proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Recently, several pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, were shown to possess two SecA homologs, SecA1 and SecA2. SecA1 is essential for general protein export. SecA2 is specific for a subset of exported proteins and is important for M. tuberculosis virulence. The enzymatic activities of two SecA proteins from the same microorganism have not been defined for any bacteria. Here, M. tuberculosis SecA1 and SecA2 are shown to bind ATP with high affinity, though the affinity of SecA1 for ATP is weaker than that of SecA2 or Escherichia coli SecA. Amino acid substitution of arginine or alanine for the conserved lysine in the Walker A motif of SecA2 eliminated ATP binding. We used the SecA2(K115R) variant to show that ATP binding was necessary for the SecA2 function of promoting intracellular growth of M. tuberculosis in macrophages. These results are the first to show the importance of ATPase activity in the function of accessory SecA2 proteins.

  12. Complete doping in solid-state by silica-supported perchloric acid as dopant solid acid: Synthesis and characterization of the novel chiral composite of poly [(±)-2-(sec-butyl) aniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrokhzadeh, Abdolkarim; Modarresi-Alam, Ali Reza, E-mail: modaresi@chem.usb.ac.ir

    2016-05-15

    Poly [(±)-2-(sec-butyl) aniline]/silica-supported perchloric acid composites were synthesized by combination of poly[(±)-2-sec-butylaniline] base (PSBA) and the silica-supported perchloric acid (SSPA) as dopant solid acid in solid-state. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and CHNS results confirm nigraniline oxidation state and complete doping for composites (about 75%) and non-complete for the PSBA·HCl salt (about 49%). The conductivity of samples was (≈0.07 S/cm) in agreement with the percent of doping obtained of the XPS analysis. Also, contact resistance was determined by circular-TLM measurement. The morphology of samples by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their coating were investigated by XPS, SEM-map and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The key benefits of this work are the preparation of conductive chiral composite with the delocalized polaron structure under green chemistry and solid-state condition, the improvement of the processability by inclusion of the 2-sec-butyl group and the use of dopant solid acid (SSPA) as dopant. - Highlights: • The solid-state synthesis of the novel chiral composites of poly[(±)-2-(sec-butyl)aniline] (PSBA) and silica-supported perchloric acid (SSPA). • It takes 120 h for complete deprotonation of PSBA.HCl salt. • Use of SSPA as dopant solid acid for the first time to attain the complete doping of PSBA. • The coating of silica surface with PSBA.

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 12 - Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

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  14. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

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    2010-10-01

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  15. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Terms.

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    2010-10-01

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  16. X-ray diffraction, solution structure, and computational studies on derivatives of (3-sec-butyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-4-ylidene)acetic acid: compounds with activity as calpain inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Mercedes; Chicharro, Roberto; Miranda, Carlos; Arán, Vicente J; Maestro, Miguel A; Herradón, Bernardo

    2010-01-15

    A thorough experimental and computational study of derivatives of (3-sec-butyl-2,3-dihydroisoquinolin-4-ylidene)acetic acid was performed. Some of these compounds are calpain inhibitors and could be useful as therapeutic agents, since this enzyme is a Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease involved in a wide variety of metabolic and physiological processes, whose over-activation is associated to several pathological conditions. To gain a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships, a structural analysis was carried out with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations together with the X-ray diffraction data of three compounds. The solid state structures showed that the crystal packing as well as the intermolecular interactions depend on the substituent nature of the COOR group. Also, the reactivity of the exocyclic double bond was theoretically evaluated, finding that the more reactive compound is the most potent inhibitor of calpain (IC(50) = 25 nM).

  17. The Human SepSecS-tRNA[superscript Sec] Complex Reveals the Mechanism of Selenocysteine Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palioura, Sotiria; Sherrer, R. Lynn; Steitz, Thomas A.; Söll, Dieter; Simonovic, Miljan; (Yale); (UIC)

    2009-08-13

    Selenocysteine is the only genetically encoded amino acid in humans whose biosynthesis occurs on its cognate transfer RNA (tRNA). O-Phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS) catalyzes the final step of selenocysteine formation by a poorly understood tRNA-dependent mechanism. The crystal structure of human tRNA{sup Sec} in complex with SepSecS, phosphoserine, and thiophosphate, together with in vivo and in vitro enzyme assays, supports a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent mechanism of Sec-tRNA{sup Sec} formation. Two tRNA{sup Sec} molecules, with a fold distinct from other canonical tRNAs, bind to each SepSecS tetramer through their 13-base pair acceptor-T{Upsilon}C arm (where {Upsilon} indicates pseudouridine). The tRNA binding is likely to induce a conformational change in the enzyme's active site that allows a phosphoserine covalently attached to tRNA{sup Sec}, but not free phosphoserine, to be oriented properly for the reaction to occur.

  18. SEC23B — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEC23B is a member of the SEC23B/SEC24B family. SEC23B is a component of the COPII coat, that covers ER-derived vesicles involved in transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. By similarity, it has been shown that COPII acts in the cytoplasm to promote the transport of secretory, plasma membrane, and vacuolar proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex.

  19. SecA, a remarkable nanomachine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, Ilja; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Biological cells harbor a variety of molecular machines that carry out mechanical work at the nanoscale. One of these nanomachines is the bacterial motor protein SecA which translocates secretory proteins through the protein-conducting membrane channel SecYEG. SecA converts chemically stored energy

  20. Genetic organization and molecular characterization of secA2 locus in Listeria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Krishna K; Mendonca, Marcelo; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Burkholder, Kristin M; Bhunia, Arun K

    2011-12-10

    The translocation of proteins across the bacterial cell wall is carried out by the general secretory (Sec) system. Most bacteria have a single copy of the secA gene, with the exception of a few Gram-positive bacteria, which have an additional copy of secA, designated secA2. secA2 is present in Listeria monocytogenes and is responsible for secretion and translocation of several proteins including virulence factors; however, little is known about the secA2 gene and its genetic organization in nonpathogenic members of the genus Listeria. The goal of this study was to determine the presence of secA2 locus and analyze the genetic relatedness among pathogenic and nonpathogenic Listeria species. Cloning experiments revealed that secA2 is present in all analyzed pathogenic (L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii) and nonpathogenic (L. welshimeri, L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. grayi and L. marthii) Listeria species except L. rocourtiae. Likewise, SecA2 transcripts were also detected in all species. Sequence analysis further revealed that 2331 nucleotides (776 amino acids) are conserved in L. monocytogenes, L. welshimeri, L. innocua and L. marthii. Three nucleotides are deleted in L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri and six in L. grayi, resulting in amino acid counts of 775, 775 and 774, respectively. secA2 is flanked upstream by iap (encoding p60) and downstream by a putative membrane protein (lmo0583, lmo f2365_0613) in all analyzed Listeria species, demonstrating conserved genetic organization of the secA2 locus in pathogenic and nonpathogenic species. Deletion of secA2 in L. innocua impaired accumulation of SecA2 substrate, N-acetyl muramidase (NamA) in the cell wall, providing evidence for the presence of functional SecA2 in nonpathogenic Listeria.

  1. SecF stabilizes SecD and SecY, components of the protein translocation machinery of the Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Sagara, K; Matsuyama, S.; Mizushima, S

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the overproduction of SecF encoded by the tac-secF gene on a plasmid on the synthesis of other Sec proteins was studied in Escherichia coli. SecF overproduction resulted in the simultaneous overproduction of SecD encoded by the tac-secD gene on a plasmid. Deletion of the orf6 gene, located downstream of the secF gene, had no effect on SecD overproduction. A pulse-chase experiment revealed that the overproduction was due to stabilization of SecD with SecF. SecF overproduction als...

  2. Multitasking SecB chaperones in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambre eSala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein export in bacteria is facilitated by the canonical SecB chaperone, which binds to unfolded precursor proteins, maintains them in a translocation competent state and specifically cooperates with the translocase motor SecA to ensure their proper targeting to the Sec translocon at the cytoplasmic membrane. Besides its key contribution to the Sec pathway, SecB chaperone tasking is critical for the secretion of the Sec-independent heme-binding protein HasA and actively contributes to the cellular network of chaperones that control general proteostasis in Escherichia coli, as judged by the significant interplay found between SecB and the Trigger Factor, DnaK and GroEL chaperones. Although SecB is mainly a proteobacterial chaperone associated with the presence of an outer membrane and outer membrane proteins, secB-like genes are also found in Gram-positive bacteria as well as in certain phages and plasmids, thus suggesting alternative functions. In addition, a SecB-like protein is also present in the major human pathogen M. tuberculosis where it specifically controls a stress-responsive toxin-antitoxin (TA system. This review focuses on such very diverse chaperone functions of SecB, both in E. coli and in other unrelated bacteria.

  3. Localization of lipid raft proteins to the plasma membrane is a major function of the phospholipid transfer protein Sec14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwin, Amy J; Leblanc, Marissa A; Fairn, Gregory D; McMaster, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    The Sec14 protein domain is a conserved tertiary structure that binds hydrophobic ligands. The Sec14 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential with studies of S. cerevisiae Sec14 cellular function facilitated by a sole temperature sensitive allele, sec14(ts). The sec14(ts) allele encodes a protein with a point mutation resulting in a single amino acid change, Sec14(G266D). In this study results from a genome-wide genetic screen, and pharmacological data, provide evidence that the Sec14(G266D) protein is present at a reduced level compared to wild type Sec14 due to its being targeted to the proteosome. Increased expression of the sec14(ts) allele ameliorated growth arrest, but did not restore the defects in membrane accumulation or vesicular transport known to be defective in sec14(ts) cells. We determined that trafficking and localization of two well characterized lipid raft resident proteins, Pma1 and Fus-Mid-GFP, were aberrant in sec14(ts) cells. Localization of both lipid raft proteins was restored upon increased expression of the sec14(ts) allele. We suggest that a major function provided by Sec14 is trafficking and localization of lipid raft proteins.

  4. Arabidopsis Sec1/Munc18 protein SEC11 is a competitive and dynamic modulator of SNARE binding and SYP121-dependent vesicle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Rucha; Grefen, Christopher; Bayne, Robert; Honsbein, Annegret; Köhler, Tim; Kioumourtzoglou, Dimitrios; Williams, Mary; Bryant, Nia J; Blatt, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana Qa-SNARE SYP121 (=SYR1/PEN1) drives vesicle traffic at the plasma membrane of cells throughout the vegetative plant. It facilitates responses to drought, to the water stress hormone abscisic acid, and to pathogen attack, and it is essential for recovery from so-called programmed stomatal closure. How SYP121-mediated traffic is regulated is largely unknown, although it is thought to depend on formation of a fusion-competent SNARE core complex with the cognate partners VAMP721 and SNAP33. Like SYP121, the Arabidopsis Sec1/Munc18 protein SEC11 (=KEULE) is expressed throughout the vegetative plant. We find that SEC11 binds directly with SYP121 both in vitro and in vivo to affect secretory traffic. Binding occurs through two distinct modes, one requiring only SEC11 and SYP121 and the second dependent on assembly of a complex with VAMP721 and SNAP33. SEC11 competes dynamically for SYP121 binding with SNAP33 and VAMP721, and this competition is predicated by SEC11 association with the N terminus of SYP121. These and additional data are consistent with a model in which SYP121-mediated vesicle fusion is regulated by an unusual "handshaking" mechanism of concerted SEC11 debinding and rebinding. They also implicate one or more factors that alter or disrupt SEC11 association with the SYP121 N terminus as an early step initiating SNARE complex formation.

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 18 - Group classification.

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    2010-10-01

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  8. SecA inhibitors: next generation antimicrobials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weixuan Chen; Arpana Chaudhary; Jianmei Cui; Jinshan Jin; Yinghsin Hsieh; Hsiuchin Yang; Yingju Huang; Phang C. Tai; Binghe Wang

    2012-01-01

    Health problems caused by bacterial infection have become a major public health concern in recent years due to the widespread emergence of drug-resistant bacterial strains.Therefore,the need for the development of new types of antimicrobial agents,especially those with a novel mechanism of action,is urgent.SecA,one of the key components of the secretion (Sec) pathway,is a new promising target for antimicrobial agent design.In recent years,promising leads targeting SecA have been identified and the feasibility of developing antimicrobial agents through the inhibition of SecA has been demonstrated.We hope this review will help stimulate more research in this area so that new antimicrobials can be obtained by targeting SecA.

  9. Sequence Variability in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Genes seb, sec, and sed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Johler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins preformed by Staphylococcus aureus in food leads to staphylococcal food poisoning, the most prevalent foodborne intoxication worldwide. There are five major staphylococcal enterotoxins: SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE. While variants of these toxins have been described and were linked to specific hosts or levels or enterotoxin production, data on sequence variation is still limited. In this study, we aim to extend the knowledge on promoter and gene variants of the major enterotoxins SEB, SEC, and SED. To this end, we determined seb, sec, and sed promoter and gene sequences of a well-characterized set of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains originating from foodborne outbreaks, human infections, human nasal colonization, rabbits, and cattle. New nucleotide sequence variants were detected for all three enterotoxins and a novel amino acid sequence variant of SED was detected in a strain associated with human nasal colonization. While the seb promoter and gene sequences exhibited a high degree of variability, the sec and sed promoter and gene were more conserved. Interestingly, a truncated variant of sed was detected in all tested sed harboring rabbit strains. The generated data represents a further step towards improved understanding of strain-specific differences in enterotoxin expression and host-specific variation in enterotoxin sequences.

  10. ALG-2 attenuates COPII budding in vitro and stabilizes the Sec23/Sec31A complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M la Cour

    Full Text Available Coated vesicles mediate the traffic of secretory and membrane cargo proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the Golgi apparatus. The coat protein complex (COPII involved in vesicle budding is constituted by a GTPase, Sar1, the inner coat components of Sec23/Sec24 and the components of the outer coat Sec13/Sec31A. The Ca(2+-binding protein ALG-2 was recently identified as a Sec31A binding partner and a possible link to Ca(2+ regulation of COPII vesicle budding. Here we show that ALG-2/Ca(2+ is capable of attenuating vesicle budding in vitro through interaction with an ALG-2 binding domain in the proline rich region of Sec31A. Binding of ALG-2 to Sec31A and inhibition of COPII vesicle budding is furthermore dependent on an intact Ca(2+-binding site at EF-hand 1 of ALG-2. ALG-2 increased recruitment of COPII proteins Sec23/24 and Sec13/31A to artificial liposomes and was capable of mediating binding of Sec13/31A to Sec23. These results introduce a regulatory role for ALG-2/Ca(2+ in COPII tethering and vesicle budding.

  11. Mass spectrometric analysis of the marine lipophilic biotoxins pectenotoxin-2 and okadaic acid by four different types of mass spectrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen, A.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Boer, de J.

    2008-01-01

    The performances of four different mass spectrometers [triple-quadrupole (TQ), time-of-flight (ToF), quadrupole ToF (Q-ToF) and ion trap (IT)] for the detection of the marine lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and okadaic acid (OA) were investigated. The spectral data obtained with the differen

  12. SecA supports a constant rate of preprotein translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomkiewicz, D; Nouwen, N; van Leeuwen, R; Tans, S; Driessen, AJM

    2006-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, secretory proteins (preproteins) are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane by the Sec system composed of a protein-conducting channel, SecYEG, and an ATP-dependent motor protein, SecA. After binding of the preprotein to SecYEG-bound SecA, cycles of ATP binding and hydroly

  13. Human SepSecS or SLA/LP: selenocysteine formation and autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioura, Sotiria; Herkel, Johannes; Simonović, Miljan; Lohse, Ansgar W; Söll, Dieter

    2010-07-01

    Selenocysteine, the 21st genetically encoded amino acid, is the major form of the antioxidant trace element selenium in the human body. In eukaryotes and archaea its synthesis proceeds through a phosphorylated intermediate in a tRNA-dependent fashion. The final step of selenocysteine formation is catalyzed by O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS) that converts phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) to selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec). The human SepSecS protein is also known as soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas (SLA/LP), which represents one of the antigens of autoimmune hepatitis. Here we review the discovery of human SepSecS and the current understanding of the immunogenicity of SLA/LP in autoimmune hepatitis.

  14. Insertion of short transmembrane helices by the Sec61 translocon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaud, Simon; Fernández-Vidal, Mónica; Nilsson, Ingmarie; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M; Hübner, Nadja C; Tobias, Douglas J; von Heijne, Gunnar; White, Stephen H

    2009-07-14

    The insertion efficiency of transmembrane (TM) helices by the Sec61 translocon depends on helix amino acid composition, the positions of the amino acids within the helix, and helix length. We have used an in vitro expression system to examine systematically the insertion efficiency of short polyleucine segments (L(n), n = 4 ... 12) flanked at either end by 4-residue sequences of the form XXPX-L(n)-XPXX with X = G, N, D, or K. Except for X = K, insertion efficiency (p) is snorkeling) and by partial unfolding.

  15. 14 CFR Sec. 1-5 - Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... links in developing the history of, or facts regarding, any accounting or financial transaction. (c) All... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-5 Records. (a) The general books of account and all books, records, and memoranda...

  16. Mechanisms of Sec61/SecY-mediated protein translocation across membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunyong; Rapoport, Tom A

    2012-01-01

    The Sec61 or SecY channel, a universally conserved protein-conducting channel, translocates proteins across and integrates proteins into the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and the prokaryotic plasma membrane. Depending on channel-binding partners, polypeptides are moved by different mechanisms. In cotranslational translocation, the ribosome feeds the polypeptide chain directly into the channel. In posttranslational translocation, a ratcheting mechanism is used by the ER-lumenal chaperone BiP in eukaryotes, and a pushing mechanism is utilized by the SecA ATPase in bacteria. In prokaryotes, posttranslational translocation is facilitated through the function of the SecD/F protein. Recent structural and biochemical data show how the channel opens during translocation, translocates soluble proteins, releases hydrophobic segments of membrane proteins into the lipid phase, and maintains the barrier for small molecules.

  17. Dynamic Organization of SecA and SecY Secretion Complexes in the B. subtilis Membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dajkovic

    Full Text Available In prokaryotes, about one third of cellular proteins are translocated across the plasma membrane or inserted into it by concerted action of the cytoplasmic ATPase SecA and the universally conserved SecYEG heterotrimeric polypeptide-translocating pore. Secretion complexes have been reported to localize in specific subcellular sites in Bacillus subtilis. In this work, we used a combination of total internal reflection microscopy, scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and pair correlation function to study the localization and dynamics of SecA and SecY in growing Bacillus subtilis cells. Both SecA and SecY localized in transient and dynamic foci in the cytoplasmic membrane, which displayed no higher-level organization in helices. Foci of SecA and SecY were in constant flux with freely diffusing SecA and SecY molecules. Scanning FCS confirmed the existence of populations of cellular SecA and SecY molecules with a wide range of diffusion coefficients. Diffusion of SecY as an uncomplexed molecular species was short-lived and only local while SecY complexed with its protein partners traversed distances of over half a micrometer in the cell.

  18. The Sec translocon mediated protein transport in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denks, Kärt; Vogt, Andreas; Sachelaru, Ilie; Petriman, Narcis-Adrian; Kudva, Renuka; Koch, Hans-Georg

    2014-01-01

    Protein transport via the Sec translocon represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism for delivering cytosolically-synthesized proteins to extra-cytosolic compartments. The Sec translocon has a three-subunit core, termed Sec61 in Eukaryotes and SecYEG in Bacteria. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of Eukaryotes and in the cytoplasmic membrane of Bacteria where it constitutes a channel that can be activated by multiple partner proteins. These partner proteins determine the mechanism of polypeptide movement across the channel. During SRP-dependent co-translational targeting, the ribosome threads the nascent protein directly into the Sec channel. This pathway is in Bacteria mainly dedicated for membrane proteins but in Eukaryotes also employed by secretory proteins. The alternative pathway, leading to post-translational translocation across the Sec translocon engages an ATP-dependent pushing mechanism by the motor protein SecA in Bacteria and a ratcheting mechanism by the lumenal chaperone BiP in Eukaryotes. Protein transport and biogenesis is also assisted by additional proteins at the lateral gate of SecY/Sec61α and in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum or in the periplasm of bacterial cells. The modular assembly enables the Sec complex to transport a vast array of substrates. In this review we summarize recent biochemical and structural information on the prokaryotic and eukaryotic Sec translocons and we describe the remarkably complex interaction network of the Sec complexes.

  19. Differential expression of secretion machinery during bacterial growth: SecY and SecF decrease while SecA increases during transition from exponential phase to stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Kai; Lu, Chung-Dar; Tai, Phang C

    2013-12-01

    Transcription of many house-keeping genes, including secY and some other sec genes, decreases in the transition from the exponential phase to the stationary phase (feast to famine) in Bacillus subtilis. Unexpectedly and in contradiction to earlier reports, enhanced transcription was observed for another group of sec genes, including secA which codes for an essential ATPase for protein secretion. Consistent with the transcription data, the SecA protein of B. subtilis increases significantly in the stationary phase. Immunoblot analyses of Sec proteins during the transition in Escherichia coli also revealed the pronounced decreases of SecY and SecF and the increase of SecA, resulting in drastic increases of SecA/SecY and SecA/SecF ratios from exponential to stationary phases. The differential expression of Sec proteins in the stationary phase suggests the possibility of specific physiological functions.

  20. Exertional responses to sprint interval training: a comparison of 30-sec. and 60-sec. conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Greeley, Samuel J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of sprint interval training on rating of perceived exertion. 20 healthy participants (11 men, 9 women; M age = 23 yr.) completed a maximal cycle ergometer test and two high-intensity interval training cycling sessions. Each session utilized the same work-to-rest ratio (1:1), work intensity (90% max), recovery intensity (10% work intensity), and session duration (16 min.). Trials differed on duration of the interval segment, with a 30-sec. trial and a 60-sec. trial. Sessions required the same amount of total work over the duration of the trial. Rating of perceived exertion assessed before, during, and after exercise were higher for the 60-sec. trial than the 30-sec. trial despite no difference in total work. High intensity interval training trials utilizing the same total external work but differing in interval length produced different ratings of perceived exertion. Perceived exertion is significantly higher for sessions of exercise that utilize longer work intervals. These findings suggest that shorter intervals may produce more favorable exertional responses that could positively affect future behavior.

  1. Two alternative binding mechanisms connect the protein translocation Sec71-Sec72 complex with heat shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Arati; Mandon, Elisabet C; Gilmore, Reid; Rapoport, Tom A

    2017-05-12

    The biosynthesis of many eukaryotic proteins requires accurate targeting to and translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Post-translational protein translocation in yeast requires both the Sec61 translocation channel, and a complex of four additional proteins: Sec63, Sec62, Sec71, and Sec72. The structure and function of these proteins are largely unknown. This pathway also requires the cytosolic Hsp70 protein Ssa1, but whether Ssa1 associates with the translocation machinery to target protein substrates to the membrane is unclear. Here, we use a combined structural and biochemical approach to explore the role of Sec71-Sec72 subcomplex in post-translational protein translocation. To this end, we report a crystal structure of the Sec71-Sec72 complex, which revealed that Sec72 contains a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by Sec71. We also determined the crystal structure of this TPR domain with a C-terminal peptide derived from Ssa1, which suggests how Sec72 interacts with full-length Ssa1. Surprisingly, Ssb1, a cytoplasmic Hsp70 that binds ribosome-associated nascent polypeptide chains, also binds to the TPR domain of Sec72, even though it lacks the TPR-binding C-terminal residues of Ssa1. We demonstrate that Ssb1 binds through its ATPase domain to the TPR domain, an interaction that leads to inhibition of nucleotide exchange. Taken together, our results suggest that translocation substrates can be recruited to the Sec71-Sec72 complex either post-translationally through Ssa1 or co-translationally through Ssb1. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Two alternative binding mechanisms connect the protein translocation Sec71-Sec72 complex with heat shock proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Arati; Mandon, Elisabet C.; Gilmore, Reid; Rapoport, Tom A. (UMASS, MED); (Harvard-Med)

    2017-03-12

    The biosynthesis of many eukaryotic proteins requires accurate targeting to and translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Post-translational protein translocation in yeast requires both the Sec61 translocation channel, and a complex of four additional proteins: Sec63, Sec62, Sec71, and Sec72. The structure and function of these proteins are largely unknown. This pathway also requires the cytosolic Hsp70 protein Ssa1, but whether Ssa1 associates with the translocation machinery to target protein substrates to the membrane is unclear. Here, we use a combined structural and biochemical approach to explore the role of Sec71-Sec72 subcomplex in post-translational protein translocation. To this end, we report a crystal structure of the Sec71-Sec72 complex, which revealed that Sec72 contains a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by Sec71. We also determined the crystal structure of this TPR domain with a C-terminal peptide derived from Ssa1, which suggests how Sec72 interacts with full-length Ssa1. Surprisingly, Ssb1, a cytoplasmic Hsp70 that binds ribosome-associated nascent polypeptide chains, also binds to the TPR domain of Sec72, even though it lacks the TPR-binding C-terminal residues of Ssa1. We demonstrate that Ssb1 binds through its ATPase domain to the TPR domain, an interaction that leads to inhibition of nucleotide exchange. Taken together, our results suggest that translocation substrates can be recruited to the Sec71-Sec72 complex either post-translationally through Ssa1 or co-translationally through Ssb1.

  3. Iron arsenides with three-dimensional FeAs layer networks: Can(n+1)/2(Fe1-xPtx)(2+3n)Ptn(n-1)/2As(n+1)(n+2)/2 (n=2, 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Naoyuki; Onari, Seiichiro; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Sawa, Hiroshi

    2016-12-20

    We report the comprehensive studies between synchrotron X-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility experiments for the iron arsenides Can(n+1)/2(Fe1-xPtx)(2+3n)Ptn(n -1)/2As(n+1)(n+2)/2 for n=2 and 3. Both structures crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/m (#11) with three-dimensional FeAs structures. The horizontal FeAs layers are bridged by inclined FeAs planes through edge-sharing FeAs5 square pyramids, resulting in triangular tunneling structures rather than the simple layered structures found in conventional iron arsenides. n=3 system shows a sign of superconductivity with a small volume fraction. Our first-principles calculations of these systems clearly indicate that the Fermi surfaces originate from strong Fe-3d characters and the three-dimensional nature of the electric structures for both systems, thus offering the playgrounds to study the effects of dimensionality on high Tc superconductivity.

  4. Analysis of polypeptide movement in the SecY channel during SecA-mediated protein translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Erlandson, K. J.; Or, E.; Osborne, A. R.; Rapoport, T A

    2008-01-01

    In bacteria most secretory proteins are transported across the plasma membrane by the interplay of the ATPase SecA with the translocation channel formed by the SecY complex; SecA uses cycles of ATP hydrolysis to "push" consecutive segments of a polypeptide substrate through the channel. Here we have addressed the mechanism of this process by following the fate of stalled translocation intermediates. These were generated by using a polypeptide substrate containing a bulky disulfide-bonded loop...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. Sec. 12... CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA... cause the Contractor to segregate all equipment, salvageable material and scrap, removed from a...

  6. Financial Journalism under Fire: The SEC and Newsroom Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Robert L.

    Although noting that the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has been a valuable ally of journalists, this paper suggests that recent efforts of the SEC in prosecuting the case of R. Foster Winans, Jr., a former writer for the "Wall Street Journal," may be unconstitutional. Following an introduction to the First Amendment issues…

  7. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each air...

  8. 14 CFR Sec. 2-4 - Accounting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting period. Sec. 2-4 Section 2-4... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-4 Accounting period. (a) The accounting year of each air carrier subject to this Uniform...

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Stand-by agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stand-by agreements. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS OPERATING CONTRACT Sec. 2 Stand... stand-by basis. Stand-by arrangements establish the framework of rapid initiation of government...

  10. Neutralization of a sec-ammonium group unusually stabilized by the "rotaxane effect": synthesis, structure, and dynamic nature of a "free" sec-amine/crown ether-type rotaxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazono, Kazuko; Takata, Toshikazu

    2010-12-10

    A fifteen-year riddle has been settled: neutralization, the most popular chemical event, of a crown ether/sec-ammonium salt-type rotaxane has been achieved and a completely nonionic crown ether/sec-amine-type rotaxane isolated. A [2]rotaxane was prepared as a typical substrate from a mixture of dibenzo[24]crown-8 ether (DB24C8) and sec-ammonium hexafluorophosphate (PF(6)) with a terminal hydroxy group through end-capping with 3,5-dimethylbenzoic anhydride in the presence of tributylphosphane as a catalyst in 90% yield. A couple of approaches to the neutralization of the ammonium rotaxane were investigated to isolate the free sec-amine-type rotaxane by decreasing the degree of thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities. One approach was the counteranion-exchange method in which the soft counterion PF(6)(-) was replaced with the fluoride anion by mixing with tetrabutylammonium fluoride, thus decreasing the cationic character of the ammonium moiety. Subsequent simple washing with a base allowed us to isolate the free sec-amine-type rotaxane in a quantitative yield. The other approach was a synthesis based on a protection/deprotection protocol. The acylation of the sec-ammonium moiety with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chloroformate gave an N-carbamated rotaxane that could be deprotected by treating with zinc in acetic acid to afford the corresponding free sec-amine-type rotaxane in a quantitative yield. The structure of the free sec-amine-type rotaxane was fully confirmed by spectral and analytical data. The generality of the counteranion-exchange method was also confirmed through the neutralization of a bisammonium-type [3]rotaxane. The mechanism was studied from the proposed potential-energy diagram of the rotaxanes with special emphasis on the role of the PF(6)(-) counterion.

  11. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois model Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector is presented. Information in this package includes the subsystem design and development approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the preliminary design review.

  12. Analysis of Polypeptide movement in the SecY channel during SecA-mediated protein translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Erlandson, K. J.; Or, E.; Osborne, Andrew R.; Rapoport, T A

    2008-01-01

    In bacteria most secretory proteins are transported across the plasma membrane by the interplay of the ATPase SecA with the translocation channel formed by the SecY complex; SecA uses cycles of ATP hydrolysis to “push” consecutive segments of a polypeptide substrate through the channel. Here we have addressed the mechanism of this process by following the fate of stalled translocation intermediates. These were generated by using a polypeptide substrate containing a bulky disulfide-bonded loop...

  13. Caesium accumulation in yeast and plants is selectively repressed by loss of the SNARE Sec22p/SEC22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dräxl, Stephan; Müller, Johannes; Li, Wei B; Michalke, Bernhard; Scherb, Hagen; Hense, Burkhard A; Tschiersch, Jochen; Kanter, Ulrike; Schäffner, Anton R

    2013-01-01

    The non-essential cation caesium (Cs(+)) is assimilated by all organisms. Thus, anthropogenically released radiocaesium is of concern to agriculture. Cs(+) accumulates owing to its chemical similarity to the potassium ion (K(+)). The apparent lack of a Cs(+)-specific uptake mechanism has obstructed attempts to manipulate Cs(+) accumulation without causing pleiotropic effects. Here we show that the SNARE protein Sec22p/SEC22 specifically impacts Cs(+) accumulation in yeast and in plants. Loss of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec22p does not affect K(+) homeostasis, yet halves Cs(+) concentration compared with the wild type. Mathematical modelling of the uptake time course predicts a compromised vacuolar Cs(+) deposition in sec22Δ. Biochemical fractionation confirms this and indicates a new feature of Sec22p in enhancing non-selective cation deposition. A developmentally controlled loss-of-function mutant of the orthologous Arabidopsis thaliana SEC22 phenocopies the reduced Cs(+) uptake without affecting plant growth. This finding provides a new strategy to reduce radiocaesium entry into the food chain.

  14. Function and evolution of two forms of SecDF homologs in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Zhou

    Full Text Available The general secretion (Sec pathway plays a prominent role in bacterial protein export, and the accessory component SecDF has been shown to improve transportation efficiency. Inspection of Streptomyces coelicolor genome reveals the unexpected presence of two different forms of secDF homologous genes: one in fused form (secDF and the other in separated form (secD and secF. However, the functional role of two SecDF homologs in S. coelicolor has not yet been determined. Transcriptional analysis of secDF homologs reveals that these genes are constitutively expressed. However, the transcript levels of secD and secF are much higher than that of secDF in S. coelicolor. Deletion of secDF or/and secD/secF in S. coelicolor did result in reduced secretion efficiency of Xylanase A and Amylase C, suggesting that they may have redundant functions for Sec-dependent translocation pathway. Moreover, our results also indicate that SecD/SecF plays a more prominent role than SecDF in protein translocation. Evolutionary analysis suggests that the fused and separated SecDF homologs in Streptomyces may have disparate evolutionary ancestries. SecD/SecF may be originated from vertical transmission of existing components from ancestor of Streptomyces species. However, SecDF may be derived from bacterial ancestors through horizontal gene transfer. Alternately, it is also plausible that SecDF may have arisen through additional gene duplication and fusion events. The acquisition of a second copy may confer a selective benefit to Streptomyces by enhancing protein transport capacity. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the potential biological function and evolutionary aspects of the prokaryotic SecDF complex.

  15. Disruption of the Sec24d gene results in early embryonic lethality in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C Baines

    Full Text Available Transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the Golgi is mediated by the coat protein complex COPII. The inner coat of COPII is assembled from heterodimers of SEC23 and SEC24. Though mice with mutations in one of the four Sec24 paralogs, Sec24b, exhibit a neural tube closure defect, deficiency in humans or mice has not yet been described for any of the other Sec24 paralogs. We now report characterization of mice with targeted disruption of Sec24d. Early embryonic lethality is observed in mice completely deficient in SEC24D, while a hypomorphic Sec24d allele permits survival to mid-embryogenesis. Mice haploinsufficient for Sec24d exhibit no phenotypic abnormality. A BAC transgene containing Sec24d rescues the embryonic lethality observed in Sec24d-null mice. These results demonstrate an absolute requirement for SEC24D expression in early mammalian development that is not compensated by the other three Sec24 paralogs. The early embryonic lethality resulting from loss of SEC24D in mice contrasts with the previously reported mild skeletal phenotype of SEC24D deficiency in zebrafish and restricted neural tube phenotype of SEC24B deficiency in mice. Taken together, these observations suggest that the multiple Sec24 paralogs have developed distinct functions over the course of vertebrate evolution.

  16. Traffic jam at the bacterial sec translocase: targeting the SecA nanomotor by small-molecule inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Kenneth; Anné, Jozef

    2011-06-24

    The rapid rise of drug-resistant bacteria is one of the most serious unmet medical needs facing the world. Despite this increasing problem of antibiotic resistance, the number of different antibiotics available for the treatment of serious infections is dwindling. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new antibacterial drugs, preferably with novel modes of action to potentially avoid cross-resistance with existing antibacterial agents. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to bacterial protein secretion as a potential antibacterial target. Among the different protein secretion pathways that are present in bacterial pathogens, the general protein secretory (Sec) pathway is widely considered as an attractive target for antibacterial therapy. One of the key components of the Sec pathway is the peripheral membrane ATPase SecA, which provides the energy for the translocation of preproteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. In this review, we will provide an overview of research efforts on the discovery and development of small-molecule SecA inhibitors. Furthermore, recent advances on the structure and function of SecA and their potential impact on antibacterial drug discovery will be discussed.

  17. SECS/GEM标准模型分析及应用%Research of SECS/GEM standard model and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏程; 张红雨; 陈杨

    2011-01-01

    SECS/GEM是半导体自动化生产中广泛采用的一个行业标准。首先介绍了SECS/GEM标准的整体框架,并分析了其行业发展状况,然后依次说明了SECSⅠ/Ⅱ、GEM、HSMS各个分层标准的数据报文格式、传输控制模型、状态转换模型以及相互间的通信控制方式等,最后分析了该标准在我国半导体自动化生产中的应用状况。实践表明,SECS/GEM标准设计严谨,适应面广,在我国半导体工业中应用前景广阔。%The SECS/GEM is an industry standard which is widely used in the automation of semiconductor.In this paper,the overall standard frame of SECS/GEM is introduced,and its industry development is analyzed.After that,SECSⅠ/Ⅱ,GEM and HSMS's stratification standard's data message format,transmission control model,the state transition model and mutual communication control mode are illustrated.Finally,the standard's application in our semiconductor's automatic production is analyzed.The practice shows that the SECS/GEM standard with a perfect design has a wide application prospect in homeland's semiconductor industy.

  18. CK2 phosphorylates Sec31 and regulates ER-To-Golgi trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Koreishi

    Full Text Available Protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is an initial and rate-limiting step of molecular trafficking and secretion. This is mediated by coat protein II (COPII-coated vesicles, whose formation requires small GTPase Sar1 and 6 Sec proteins including Sec23 and Sec31. Sec31 is a component of the outer layer of COPII coat and has been identified as a phosphoprotein. The initiation and promotion of COPII vesicle formation is regulated by Sar1; however, the mechanism regulating the completion of COPII vesicle formation followed by vesicle release is largely unknown. Hypothesizing that the Sec31 phosphorylation may be such a mechanism, we identified phosphorylation sites in the middle linker region of Sec31. Sec31 phosphorylation appeared to decrease its association with ER membranes and Sec23. Non-phosphorylatable mutant of Sec31 stayed longer at ER exit sites and bound more strongly to Sec23. We also found that CK2 is one of the kinases responsible for Sec31 phosphorylation because CK2 knockdown decreased Sec31 phosphorylation, whereas CK2 overexpression increased Sec31 phosphorylation. Furthermore, CK2 knockdown increased affinity of Sec31 for Sec23 and inhibited ER-to-Golgi trafficking. These results suggest that Sec31 phosphorylation by CK2 controls the duration of COPII vesicle formation, which regulates ER-to-Golgi trafficking.

  19. SEC16 in COPII coat dynamics at ER exit sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, Joep; Rabouille, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the first step in protein transport through the secretory pathway, is mediated by coatomer protein II (COPII)-coated vesicles at ER exit sites. COPII coat assembly on the ER is well understood and the conserved large hydrophilic protein Sec16 clear

  20. 14 CFR Sec. 2-5 - Revenue and accounting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-5 Revenue and accounting practices. (a) Revenue accounting practices.... (3) A statement to the effect that a sales listing of the value of all unmatched auditor coupons has...

  1. Stepwise evolution of the Sec machinery in Proteobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, EO; Driessen, AJM; Sluis, Eli O. van der

    2006-01-01

    The Sec machinery facilitates the translocation of proteins across and into biological membranes. In several of the Proteobacteria, this machinery contains accessory features that are not present in any other bacterial division. The genomic distribution of these features in the context of bacterial

  2. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois mode Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector. Information in this package includes the Subsystem Design and Development Approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the Preliminary Design Review.

  3. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number is... digit code assigned to each profit and loss account denote a detailed area of financial activity or... sequentially within blocks, designating more general classifications of financial activity and...

  4. The superoxide dismutase SodA is targeted to the periplasm in a SecA-dependent manner by a novel mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehenbrink, Martin; Edwards, Anne; Downie, J Allan

    2011-10-01

    The manganese/iron-type superoxide dismutase (SodA) of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 is exported to the periplasm of R. l. bv. viciae and Escherichia coli. However, it does not possess a hydrophobic cleaved N-terminal signal peptide typically present in soluble proteins exported by the Sec-dependent (Sec) pathway or the twin-arginine translocation (TAT) pathway. A tatC mutant of R. l. bv. viciae exported SodA to the periplasm, ruling out export of SodA as a complex with a TAT substrate as a chaperone. The export of SodA was unaffected in a secB mutant of E. coli, but its export from R. l. bv. viciae was inhibited by azide, an inhibitor of SecA ATPase activity. A temperature-sensitive secA mutant of E. coli was strongly reduced for SodA export. The 10 N-terminal amino acid residues of SodA were sufficient to target the reporter protein alkaline phosphatase to the periplasm. Our results demonstrate the export of a protein lacking a classical signal peptide to the periplasm by a SecA-dependent, but SecB-independent targeting mechanism. Export of the R. l. bv. viciae SodA to the periplasm was not limited to the genus Rhizobium, but was also observed in other proteobacteria.

  5. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Selected Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as Amended, Sec. 141 (42 U.S.C. 2161), Sec...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Amended, Sec. 141 (42 U.S.C. 2161), Sec. 145 (42 U.S.C. 2165), Sec. 161 (42 U.S.C. 2201) A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 710 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR... Eligibility for Access to Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Pt. 710, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A...

  6. Dynamic Interaction of the Sec Translocon with the Chaperone PpiD*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachelaru, Ilie; Petriman, Narcis-Adrian; Kudva, Renuka; Koch, Hans-Georg

    2014-01-01

    The Sec translocon constitutes a ubiquitous protein transport channel that consists in bacteria of the three core components: SecY, SecE, and SecG. Additional proteins interact with SecYEG during different stages of protein transport. During targeting, SecYEG interacts with SecA, the SRP receptor, or the ribosome. Protein transport into or across the membrane is then facilitated by the interaction of SecYEG with YidC and the SecDFYajC complex. During protein transport, SecYEG is likely to interact also with the protein quality control machinery, but details about this interaction are missing. By in vivo and in vitro site-directed cross-linking, we show here that the periplasmic chaperone PpiD is located in front of the lateral gate of SecY, through which transmembrane domains exit the SecY channel. The strongest contacts were found to helix 2b of SecY. Blue native PAGE analyses verify the presence of a SecYEG-PpiD complex in native Escherichia coli membranes. The PpiD-SecY interaction was not influenced by the addition of SecA and only weakly influenced by binding of nontranslating ribosomes to SecYEG. In contrast, PpiD lost contact to the lateral gate of SecY during membrane protein insertion. These data identify PpiD as an additional and transient subunit of the bacterial SecYEG translocon. The data furthermore demonstrate the highly modular and versatile composition of the Sec translocon, which is probably essential for its ability to transport a wide range of substrates across membranes in bacteria and eukaryotes. PMID:24951590

  7. Functional characterization of the trans-membrane domain interactions of the Sec61 protein translocation complex beta-subunit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xueqiang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotic cells co- and post-translational protein translocation is mediated by the trimeric Sec61 complex. Currently, the role of the Sec61 complex β-subunit in protein translocation is poorly understood. We have shown previously that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae the trans-membrane domain alone is sufficient for the function of the β-subunit Sbh1p in co-translational protein translocation. In addition, Sbh1p co-purifies not only with the protein translocation channel subunits Sec61p and Sss1p, but also with the reticulon family protein Rtn1p. Results We used random mutagenesis to generate novel Sbh1p mutants in order to functionally map the Sbh1p trans-membrane domain. These mutants were analyzed for their interactions with Sec61p and how they support co-translational protein translocation. The distribution of mutations identifies one side of the Sbh1p trans-membrane domain α-helix that is involved in interactions with Sec61p and that is important for Sbh1p function in protein translocation. At the same time, these mutations do not affect Sbh1p interaction with Rtn1p. Furthermore we show that Sbh1p is found in protein complexes containing not only Rtn1p, but also the two other reticulon-like proteins Rtn2p and Yop1p. Conclusion Our results identify functionally important amino acids in the Sbh1p trans-membrane domain. In addition, our results provide additional support for the involvement of Sec61β in processes unlinked to protein translocation.

  8. SEC-translocon dependent extracytoplasmic proteins of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. HLB is associated with three species of the phloem-limited, gram-negative, fastidious α-proteobacteria: Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las, Ca. L. americanus (Lam, and Ca. L. africanus (Laf with Las being the most widespread species. Las has not been cultured in artificial media, which has greatly hampered our efforts to understand its virulence mechanisms. Las contains a complete Sec-translocon, which has been suggested to transport Las proteins including virulence factors into the extracytoplasmic milieu. In this study, we characterized the Sec-translocon dependent, signal peptide containing extracytoplasmic proteins of Las. A total of 166 proteins of Las_psy62 strain were predicted to contain signal peptides targeting them out of the cell cytoplasm via the Sec-translocon using LipoP, SigalP 3.0, SignalP 4.1, and Phobius. We also predicated SP containing extracytoplasmic proteins for Las_gxpsy and Las Ishi-1, Lam, Laf, Ca. L. solanacearum (Lso, and L. crescens (Lcr. For experimental validation of the predicted extracytoplasmic proteins, Escherichia coli based alkaline phosphatase (PhoA gene fusion assays were conducted. A total of 86 out of the 166 predicted Las proteins were experimentally validated to contain signal peptides. Additionally, Las_psy62 lepB (CLIBASIA_04190, the gene encodes signal peptidase I, was able to partially complement the amber mutant of lepB of E. coli. This work will contribute to the identification of Sec-translocon dependent effector proteins of Las, which might be involved in virulence of Las.

  9. Analysis of composition complicated binary mixture by quantitative SEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengnian CHEN; Hongfeng XIE; Hu YANG; Zhiliu WANG; Rongshi CHENG

    2008-01-01

    The analyses of the composition of a binary mixture composed of two kinds of industrial complicated materials have great importance for formulation in practice.The present paper provides a quantitative size exclusion chromatography (SEC) method based on the principle of absolute quantification of SEC to solve the problem. The conventional data treatment procedure for the differential refractive index (DRI) signal of SEC H(V) is improved first by dividing it with the injected sample weight and leads to a novel defined weight normalized distribution Hw(V) and its integral Iw(V). These two distributions reflect the response constant of the sample in addition to the conventional normalized distribution F(V). The difference of the average response constants of the composing components provides a sensitive method to compute the composition of their mixture from its Hw(V) or Iw(V). The method was applied to mixtures of a kind of industrial asphalt and paraffin diluents as an example, and successful results are obtained.

  10. Sec16 alternative splicing dynamically controls COPII transport efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmi, Ilka; Kanski, Regina; Neumann, Alexander; Herdt, Olga; Hoff, Florian; Jacob, Ralf; Preußner, Marco; Heyd, Florian

    2016-08-05

    The transport of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi depends on COPII-coated vesicles. While the basic principles of the COPII machinery have been identified, it remains largely unknown how COPII transport is regulated to accommodate tissue- or activation-specific differences in cargo load and identity. Here we show that activation-induced alternative splicing of Sec16 controls adaptation of COPII transport to increased secretory cargo upon T-cell activation. Using splice-site blocking morpholinos and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering, we show that the number of ER exit sites, COPII dynamics and transport efficiency depend on Sec16 alternative splicing. As the mechanistic basis, we suggest the C-terminal Sec16 domain to be a splicing-controlled protein interaction platform, with individual isoforms showing differential abilities to recruit COPII components. Our work connects the COPII pathway with alternative splicing, adding a new regulatory layer to protein secretion and its adaptation to changing cellular environments.

  11. Sec24D-dependent transport of extracellular matrix proteins is required for zebrafish skeletal morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnalee Sarmah

    Full Text Available Protein transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER to Golgi is primarily conducted by coated vesicular carriers such as COPII. Here, we describe zebrafish bulldog mutations that disrupt the function of the cargo adaptor Sec24D, an integral component of the COPII complex. We show that Sec24D is essential for secretion of cartilage matrix proteins, whereas the preceding development of craniofacial primordia and pre-chondrogenic condensations does not depend on this isoform. Bulldog chondrocytes fail to secrete type II collagen and matrilin to extracellular matrix (ECM, but membrane bound receptor beta1-Integrin and Cadherins appear to leave ER in Sec24D-independent fashion. Consequently, Sec24D-deficient cells accumulate proteins in the distended ER, although a subset of ER compartments and Golgi complexes as visualized by electron microscopy and NBD C(6-ceramide staining appear functional. Consistent with the backlog of proteins in the ER, chondrocytes activate the ER stress response machinery and significantly upregulate BiP transcription. Failure of ECM secretion hinders chondroblast intercalations thus resulting in small and malformed cartilages and severe craniofacial dysmorphology. This defect is specific to Sec24D mutants since knockdown of Sec24C, a close paralog of Sec24D, does not result in craniofacial cartilage dysmorphology. However, craniofacial development in double Sec24C/Sec24D-deficient animals is arrested earlier than in bulldog/sec24d, suggesting that Sec24C can compensate for loss of Sec24D at initial stages of chondrogenesis, but Sec24D is indispensable for chondrocyte maturation. Our study presents the first developmental perspective on Sec24D function and establishes Sec24D as a strong candidate for cartilage maintenance diseases and craniofacial birth defects.

  12. Electrofocusing the compost organic matter obtained by coupling SEC-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavani, Luciano; Trubetskaya, Olga; Grigatti, Marco; Trubetskoj, Oleg; Ciavatta, Claudio

    2008-07-01

    Humic acids (HA)-like extracted from compost at the beginning (t(0)) and after 130 days of composting (t(130)) were fractionated by coupling size exclusion chromatography to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SEC-PAGE). HA-like fractions with the same molecular size (MS) and electrophoretic mobility were pooled and further characterised by analytical polyacrylamide gel electrofocusing (EF) and compared with HA separated from a Typic Chernozem soil. During the composting process all fractions were subjected to quantitative and qualitative modifications: the high MS fraction was degraded, the mid MS fractions were qualitatively changed, the content of low MS fractions increased and changed qualitatively. The main changes in EF pattern of the non fractionated HA-like t(130) were associated to low MS fractions. Such data seem to be reliable for explanation what mechanisms and monitoring of the evolution of the compost organic matter for their agricultural uses.

  13. SecDF as part of the Sec-translocase facilitates efficient secretion of Bacillus cereus toxins and cell wall-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Aniko; Simm, Roger; Slamti, Leyla; McKay, Matthew J; Hegna, Ida K; Nielsen-LeRoux, Christina; Hassan, Karl A; Paulsen, Ian T; Lereclus, Didier; Økstad, Ole Andreas; Molloy, Mark P; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of SecDF in protein secretion in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 by in-depth characterization of a markerless secDF knock out mutant. Deletion of secDF resulted in pleiotropic effects characterized by a moderately slower growth rate, aberrant cell morphology, enhanced susceptibility to xenobiotics, reduced virulence and motility. Most toxins, including food poisoning-associated enterotoxins Nhe, Hbl, and cytotoxin K, as well as phospholipase C were less abundant in the secretome of the ΔsecDF mutant as determined by label-free mass spectrometry. Global transcriptome studies revealed profound transcriptional changes upon deletion of secDF indicating cell envelope stress. Interestingly, the addition of glucose enhanced the described phenotypes. This study shows that SecDF is an important part of the Sec-translocase mediating efficient secretion of virulence factors in the Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen B. cereus, and further supports the notion that B. cereus enterotoxins are secreted by the Sec-system.

  14. Suppression of signal sequence defects and azide resistance in Escherichia coli commonly result from the same mutations in secA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huie, J L; Silhavy, T J

    1995-06-01

    The SecA protein of Escherichia coli is required for protein translocation from the cytoplasm. The complexity of SecA function is reflected by missense mutations in the secA gene that confer several different phenotypes: (i) conditional-lethal alleles cause a generalized block in protein secretion, resulting in the cytoplasmic accumulation of the precursor forms of secreted proteins; (ii) azi alleles confer resistance to azide at concentrations up to 4 mM; and (iii) prlD alleles suppress a number of signal sequence mutations in several different genes. To gain further insights into the role of SecA in protein secretion, we have isolated and characterized a large number of prlD mutations, reasoning that these mutations alter a normal function of wild-type SecA. Our results reveal a striking coincidence of signal sequence suppression and azide resistance: the majority of prlD alleles also confer azide resistance, and all azi alleles tested are suppressors. We suggest that this correlation reflects the mechanism(s) of signal sequence suppression. There are two particularly interesting subclasses of prlD and azi alleles. First, four of the prlD and azi alleles exhibit special properties: (i) as suppressors they are potent enough to allow PrlD (SecA) inactivation by a toxic LacZ fusion protein marked with a signal sequence mutation (suppressor-directed inactivation), (ii) they confer azide resistance, and (iii) they cause modest defects in the secretion of wild-type proteins. Sequence analysis reveals that all four of these alleles alter Tyr-134 in SecA, changing it to Ser, Cys, or Asn. The second subclass consists of seven prlD alleles that confer azide supersensitivity, and sequence analysis reveals that six of these alleles are changes of Ala-507 to Val. Both of the affected amino acids are located within different putative ATP-binding regions of SecA and thus may affect ATPase activities of SecA. We suggest that the four azide-resistant mutations slow an ATPase

  15. Ecoulements denses de grains secs sur plan incliné

    OpenAIRE

    DA CRUZ, F; PROCHNOW, M; AZANZA, E; ROGNON, P; RAGOUILLIAUX, A; TOCQUER, L; MOUCHERONT, P; ROUX, JN; Coussot, P.; CHEVOIR, F

    2003-01-01

    La compréhension des écoulements denses de grains secs a fait de récents progrès grâce aux expériences sur matériaux modèles et aux simulations numériques discrètes. Nous illustrons ces progrès sur l'exemple des écoulements sur plan incliné rugueux. Ils se caractérisent par un seuil d'écoulement dépendant non seulement de l'inclinaison mais aussi de l'épaisseur, et par un régime d'écoulement stationnaire au-dessius du seuil, dont la vitesse s'exprime précisément en fonction de l'épaisseur d'a...

  16. Position-dependent effects of polylysine on Sec protein transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K; Musser, Siegfried M

    2012-04-13

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or "pause sites," were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport.

  17. Sec61β, a subunit of the Sec61 protein translocation channel at the Endoplasmic Reticulum, is involved in the transport of Gurken to the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelkar Anshuman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein translocation across the membrane of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER is the first step in the biogenesis of secretory and membrane proteins. Proteins enter the ER by the Sec61 translocon, a proteinaceous channel composed of three subunits, α, β and γ. While it is known that Sec61α forms the actual channel, the function of the other two subunits remains to be characterized. Results In the present study we have investigated the function of Sec61β in Drosophila melanogaster. We describe its role in the plasma membrane traffic of Gurken, the ligand for the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF receptor in the oocyte. Germline clones of the mutant allele of Sec61β show normal translocation of Gurken into the ER and transport to the Golgi complex, but further traffic to the plasma membrane is impeded. The defect in plasma membrane traffic due to absence of Sec61β is specific for Gurken and is not due to a general trafficking defect. Conclusion Based on our study we conclude that Sec61β, which is part of the ER protein translocation channel affects a post-ER step during Gurken trafficking to the plasma membrane. We propose an additional role of Sec61β beyond protein translocation into the ER.

  18. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of E. Coli SecA at Low Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Xijiang; SUI Senfang

    2005-01-01

    SecA is the essential component of the signal-peptide dependent translocation pathway in Escherichia coli (E.coli). The structure and function of SecA must be known to understand the molecular mechanism of preprotein translocation. The high flexibility of SecA causes a dynamic conformational heterogeneity which presents a barrier to the growth of crystals of high diffraction quality. Electron microscopy was used to resolve the macromolecular structure of SecA in solution by negative staining and single particle analysis at a resolution of 2.9 nm. The structure of E. coli SecA is similar to the dimeric form of Bacilius subtilis SecA and is 10 nm×10 nm×5 nm in size.

  19. Evaluation of the transformation of organic matter to humic substances in compost by coupling sec-page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskaya, O E; Trubetskoj, O A; Ciavatta, C

    2001-03-01

    Humic acids (HAs) from soil and compost at the beginning (S0) and at the end of the stabilization process after 130 days (S130) have been fractionated by coupling size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Preparative quantities of HA fractions (HAFs) with different molecular sizes (MSs) and exactly defined electrophoretic mobility (EMs) have been obtained from all samples and the HAFs weight content has been studied. A high degree of similarity in HAFs weight content between soil HA and a stabilized compost HAs130 has been observed. Such data seem to be reliable for monitoring the evolution of the compost organic matter to humic substances for their agricultural uses.

  20. Electron microscopic visualization of asymmetric precursor translocation intermediates:SecA functions as a dimer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAI; Phang; C

    2010-01-01

    SecA,the ATPase of Sec translocase,mediates the post-translational translocation of preprotein through the protein-conduct-ing channel SecYEG in the bacterial inner membrane.Here we report the structures of Escherichia coli Sec intermediates during preprotein translocation as visualized by electron microscopy to probe the oligomeric states of SecA during this process.We found that the translocase holoenzyme is symmetrically assembled by SecA and SecYEG on proteoliposomes,whereas the translocation intermediate 31 (I31) becomes asymmetric because of the presence of preprotein.Moreover,SecA is a dimer in these two translocation complexes.This work also shows surface topological changes in the components of translocation intermediates by immunogold labeling.The channel entry for preprotein translocation was found at the center of the I31 structures.Our results indicate that the presence of preprotein introduces asymmetry into translocation intermediates,while SecA remains dimeric during the translocation process.

  1. N-acetylation and phosphorylation of Sec complex subunits in the ER membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soromani Christina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Covalent modifications of proteins provide a mechanism to control protein function. Here, we have investigated modifications of the heptameric Sec complex which is responsible for post-translational protein import into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. It consists of the Sec61 complex (Sec61p, Sbh1p, Sss1p which on its own mediates cotranslational protein import into the ER and the Sec63 complex (Sec63p, Sec62p, Sec71p, Sec72p. Little is known about the biogenesis and regulation of individual Sec complex subunits. Results We show that Sbh1p when it is part of the Sec61 complex is phosphorylated on T5 which is flanked by proline residues. The phosphorylation site is conserved in mammalian Sec61ß, but only partially in birds, and not in other vertebrates or unicellular eukaryotes, suggesting convergent evolution. Mutation of T5 to A did not affect the ability of mutant Sbh1p to complement the growth defect in a Δsbh1Δsbh2 strain, and did not result in a hypophosphorylated protein which shows that alternate sites can be used by the T5 kinase. A survey of yeast phosphoproteome data shows that Sbh1p can be phosphorylated on multiple sites which are organized in two patches, one at the N-terminus of its cytosolic domain, the other proximal to the transmembrane domain. Surprisingly, although N-acetylation has been shown to interfere with ER targeting, we found that both Sbh1p and Sec62p are cotranslationally N-acetylated by NatA, and N-acetyl-proteome data indicate that Sec61p is modified by the same enzyme. Mutation of the N-acetylation site, however, did not affect Sec62p function in posttranslational protein import into the ER. Disabling NatA resulted in growth retardation, but not in co- or posttranslational translocation defects or instability of Sec62p or Sbh1p. Conclusions We conclude that N-acetylation of transmembrane and tail-anchored proteins does not interfere with their ER-targeting, and that Sbh1p phosphorylation on T5

  2. Priority in selenium homeostasis involves regulation of SepSecS transcription in the chicken brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Long Li

    Full Text Available O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS is critical for the biosynthesis and transformation of selenocysteine (Sec and plays an important role in the biological function of Se through the regulation of selenoprotein synthesis. Selenium (Se and Selenoprotein play a pivotal role in brain function. However, how intake of the micronutrient Se affects gene expression and how genetic factors influence Se metabolism in the brain is unknown. To investigate the regulation of SepSecS transcription induced by Se in the chicken brain, we determined the Se content of brain tissue, SepSecS gene expression levels and mRNA stability in the chicken brain and primary cultured chicken embryos neurons receiving Se supplements. These results showed that Se content in the brain remains remarkably stable during Se supplementation. A significant increase in SepSecS mRNA levels was observed in all of the brain tissues of chickens fed diets containing 1-5 mg/kg sodium selenite. Most strikingly, significant changes in SepSecS mRNA levels were not observed in neurons treated with Se. However, Se altered the SepSecS mRNA half-life in cells. These data suggest that Se could regulate SepSecS mRNA stability in the avian brain and that SepSecS plays an important role in Se homeostasis regulation.

  3. 78 FR 42526 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... ``Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food.'' The enforcement policy in... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Food for Animals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 14 - Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts. Sec. 14 Section 14... Sec. 14 Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts. (a) All work awarded under the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract is...-Bacon Act (except in those cases where the Invitations for Bids or job order state that the work...

  5. 77 FR 27444 - Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... following methods: Electronic Comments Use the SEC's Internet submission form ( http://www.sec.gov/rules... Committee on Agriculture; the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs; the House Committee on Financial Services; and U.S. General Services Administration Committee Management Secretariat...

  6. A Study of SEC Chromatograms on the basis of Polymer Structure Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Wang, Yanwei

    2007-01-01

    Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC), widely used in polymer laboratories, provides a convenient method for the determination of full molecular weight distribution (MWD) of polymers. For linear homogeneous polymer samples, the procedure to estimate the true MWD based on the elution curve of SEC ha...

  7. 75 FR 45130 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in... entitled ``Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Animal Feed'' (the draft CPG). The draft CPG..., contaminated with Salmonella and also on regulatory policy relating to animal feed or feed...

  8. Functional and structural characterization of the minimal Sec translocase of the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretz, MG; Remigy, H; Swaving, J; Albers, SV; Garrido, VG; Chami, M; Engel, A; Driessen, AJM; Pretz, Monika G.; Garrido, Victoria G.

    2005-01-01

    The genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima contains the genes that encode core subunits of the protein translocase, a complex consisting of the molecular motor SecA and the protein conducting pore SecYE. In addition, we identified an erroneous sequence in the genome encoding f

  9. Sec16 determines the size and functioning of the Golgi in the protist parasite, Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey-Cardona, Marco; Schmidt, Katy; Demmel, Lars; Hirschmugl, Tatjana; Gesell, Tanja; Dong, Gang; Warren, Graham

    2014-06-01

    The Sec16 homologue in Trypanosoma brucei has been identified and characterized. TbSec16 colocalizes with COPII components at the single endoplasmic reticulum exit site (ERES), which is next to the single Golgi stack in the insect (procyclic) form of this organism. Depletion of TbSec16 reduces the size of the ERES and the Golgi, and slows growth and transport of a secretory marker to the cell surface; conversely, overexpression of TbSec16 increases the size of the ERES and Golgi but has no effect on growth or secretion. Together these data suggest that TbSec16 regulates the size of the ERES and Golgi and this size is set for optimal growth of the organism.

  10. Structure-Function Study of the N-terminal Domain of Exocyst Subunit Sec3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Kyuwon; Knödler, Andreas; Lee, Sung Haeng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Orlando, Kelly; Zhang, Jian; Foskett, Trevor J.; Guo, Wei; Dominguez, Roberto (UPENN)

    2010-04-19

    The exocyst is an evolutionarily conserved octameric complex involved in polarized exocytosis from yeast to humans. The Sec3 subunit of the exocyst acts as a spatial landmark for exocytosis through its ability to bind phospholipids and small GTPases. The structure of the N-terminal domain of Sec3 (Sec3N) was determined ab initio and defines a new subclass of pleckstrin homology (PH) domains along with a new family of proteins carrying this domain. Respectively, N- and C-terminal to the PH domain Sec3N presents an additional {alpha}-helix and two {beta}-strands that mediate dimerization through domain swapping. The structure identifies residues responsible for phospholipid binding, which when mutated in cells impair the localization of exocyst components at the plasma membrane and lead to defects in exocytosis. Through its ability to bind the small GTPase Cdc42 and phospholipids, the PH domain of Sec3 functions as a coincidence detector at the plasma membrane.

  11. Contribution of SecDF to Staphylococcus aureus resistance and expression of virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger-Bächi Brigitte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SecDF is an accessory factor of the conserved Sec protein translocation machinery and belongs to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND family of multidrug exporters. SecDF has been shown in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to be involved in the export of proteins. RND proteins can mediate resistance against various substances and might be of relevance in antimicrobial therapy. The role of RND proteins in Staphylococcus aureus has not yet been determined. Results Markerless deletion mutants were constructed to analyze the impact of the so far uncharacterized RND proteins in S. aureus. While the lack of Sa2056 and Sa2339 caused no phenotype regarding growth and resistance, the secDF mutant resulted in a pleiotropic phenotype. The secDF mutant was cold sensitive, but grew normally in rich medium at 37°C. Resistance to beta-lactams, glycopeptides and the RND substrates acriflavine, ethidium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate was reduced. The secDF mutant showed an aberrant cell separation and increased spontaneous and Triton X-100 induced autolysis, although the amounts of penicillin-binding proteins in the membrane were unchanged. The impact of secDF deletion on transcription and expression of specific virulence determinants varied: While coagulase transcription and activity were reduced, the opposite was observed for the autolysin Atl. A reduction of the transcription of the cell wall anchored protein A (spa was also found. The accumulation of SpA in the membrane and lowered amounts in the cell wall pointed to an impaired translocation. Conclusions The combination of different effects of secDF deletion on transcription, regulation and translocation lead to impaired cell division, reduced resistance and altered expression of virulence determinants suggesting SecDF to be of major relevance in S. aureus. Thus SecDF could be a potential target for the control and eradication of S. aureus in the future.

  12. Development of a Microemulsion Formulation for Antimicrobial SecA Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahuai Hu

    Full Text Available In our previous study, we have identified five antimicrobial small molecules via structure based design, which inhibit SecA of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las. SecA is a critical protein translocase ATPase subunit and is involved in pre-protein translocation across and integration into the cellular membrane in bacteria. In this study, eleven compounds were identified using similarity search method based on the five lead SecA inhibitors identified previously. The identified SecA inhibitors have poor aqueous solubility. Thus a microemulsion master mix (MMX was developed to address the solubility issue and for application of the antimicrobials. MMX consists of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent and co-solvent, as well as polyoxyethylated castor oil, polyalkylene glycol, and polyoxyethylene tridecyl ether phosphate as surfactants. MMX has significantly improved the solubility of SecA inhibitors and has no or little phytotoxic effects at concentrations less than 5.0% (v/v. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of the SecA inhibitors and streptomycin against eight bacteria including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Liberibacter crescens, Rhizobium etli, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti, and Sinorhizobium meliloti phylogenetically related to Las were determined using the broth microdilution method. MIC and MBC results showed that the 16 SecA inhibitors have antibacterial activities comparable to that of streptomycin. Overall, we have identified 11 potent SecA inhibitors using similarity search method. We have developed a microemulsion formulation for SecA inhibitors which improved the antimicrobial activities of SecA inhibitors.

  13. Protein Export by the Mycobacterial SecA2 System Is Determined by the Preprotein Mature Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltcher, Meghan E.; Gibbons, Henry S.; Ligon, Lauren S.

    2013-01-01

    At the core of the bacterial general secretion (Sec) pathway is the SecA ATPase, which powers translocation of unfolded preproteins containing Sec signal sequences through the SecYEG membrane channel. Mycobacteria have two nonredundant SecA homologs: SecA1 and SecA2. While the essential SecA1 handles “housekeeping” export, the nonessential SecA2 exports a subset of proteins and is required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence. Currently, it is not understood how SecA2 contributes to Sec export in mycobacteria. In this study, we focused on identifying the features of two SecA2 substrates that target them to SecA2 for export, the Ms1704 and Ms1712 lipoproteins of the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis. We found that the mature domains of Ms1704 and Ms1712, not the N-terminal signal sequences, confer SecA2-dependent export. We also demonstrated that the lipid modification and the extreme N terminus of the mature protein do not impart the requirement for SecA2 in export. We further showed that the Ms1704 mature domain can be efficiently exported by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. Because the Tat system exports only folded proteins, this result implies that SecA2 substrates can fold in the cytoplasm and suggests a putative role of SecA2 in enabling export of such proteins. Thus, the mycobacterial SecA2 system may represent another way that bacteria solve the problem of exporting proteins that can fold in the cytoplasm. PMID:23204463

  14. Protein export by the mycobacterial SecA2 system is determined by the preprotein mature domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltcher, Meghan E; Gibbons, Henry S; Ligon, Lauren S; Braunstein, Miriam

    2013-02-01

    At the core of the bacterial general secretion (Sec) pathway is the SecA ATPase, which powers translocation of unfolded preproteins containing Sec signal sequences through the SecYEG membrane channel. Mycobacteria have two nonredundant SecA homologs: SecA1 and SecA2. While the essential SecA1 handles "housekeeping" export, the nonessential SecA2 exports a subset of proteins and is required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence. Currently, it is not understood how SecA2 contributes to Sec export in mycobacteria. In this study, we focused on identifying the features of two SecA2 substrates that target them to SecA2 for export, the Ms1704 and Ms1712 lipoproteins of the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis. We found that the mature domains of Ms1704 and Ms1712, not the N-terminal signal sequences, confer SecA2-dependent export. We also demonstrated that the lipid modification and the extreme N terminus of the mature protein do not impart the requirement for SecA2 in export. We further showed that the Ms1704 mature domain can be efficiently exported by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. Because the Tat system exports only folded proteins, this result implies that SecA2 substrates can fold in the cytoplasm and suggests a putative role of SecA2 in enabling export of such proteins. Thus, the mycobacterial SecA2 system may represent another way that bacteria solve the problem of exporting proteins that can fold in the cytoplasm.

  15. Molecular characterization of CLPT1, a SEC4-like Rab/GTPase of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum which is regulated by the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, B; Borel, C; Herbert, C; Maury, J; Jacquet, C; Balsse, R; Esquerré-Tugayé, M T

    2001-07-11

    The gene CLPT1 (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Protein Transport 1) encoding a Rab/GTPase was isolated from the filamentous fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of bean anthracnose. At the amino acid level, CLPT1 shows between 54 and 80% identity to SEC4-like proteins, a class of molecules required for intracellular vesicular transport in yeasts. In particular, typical SEC4 domains involved in nucleotide binding and membrane attachment are present in the CLPT1 sequence. Functional identity of CLPT1 with SEC4 was confirmed by complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sec4-8 mutation. This is the first report of a gene involved in the control of intracellular vesicular trafficking in a phytopathogenic fungus. RNA blot analyses of CLPT1 expression were performed during in vitro growth of the fungus on synthetic media containing glucose or pectin, as single carbon source. The accumulation of CLPT1 mRNA was strongly increased on pectin, a plant cell wall polysaccharide that induces the production of extracellular pectinases, whereas the level of CLPT1 mRNA was below the detection threshold on glucose. These results suggest that CLPT1 is mainly involved in protein secretion and that the production of extracellular enzymes potentially involved in pathogenesis in filamentous fungi is sustained by induction of the genes involved in the secretory machinery.

  16. The SNARE Sec22b has a non-fusogenic function in plasma membrane expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Maja; Jemaiel, Aymen; Daste, Frédéric; Specht, Christian G; Izeddin, Ignacio; Vorkel, Daniela; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Darzacq, Xavier; Triller, Antoine; Pfenninger, Karl H; Tareste, David; Jackson, Catherine L; Galli, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Development of the nervous system requires extensive axonal and dendritic growth during which neurons massively increase their surface area. Here we report that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident SNARE Sec22b has a conserved non-fusogenic function in plasma membrane expansion. Sec22b is closely apposed to the plasma membrane SNARE syntaxin1. Sec22b forms a trans-SNARE complex with syntaxin1 that does not include SNAP23/25/29, and does not mediate fusion. Insertion of a long rigid linker between the SNARE and transmembrane domains of Sec22b extends the distance between the ER and plasma membrane, and impairs neurite growth but not the secretion of VSV-G. In yeast, Sec22 interacts with lipid transfer proteins, and inhibition of Sec22 leads to defects in lipid metabolism at contact sites between the ER and plasma membrane. These results suggest that close apposition of the ER and plasma membrane mediated by Sec22 and plasma membrane syntaxins generates a non-fusogenic SNARE bridge contributing to plasma membrane expansion, probably through non-vesicular lipid transfer.

  17. Variation in the ribosome interacting loop of the Sec61α from Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Abhishek; Ray, Atrayee; Ganguly, Sandipan; Ghosh Dastidar, Shubhra; Sarkar, Srimonti

    2015-09-30

    The interaction between the ribosome and the endoplasmic reticulum-located Sec61 protein translocon is mediated through an arginine residue of Sec61α, which is conserved in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic orthologues characterized to date. Using in silico approaches we report that instead of arginine, this ribosome-interaction function is most likely discharged by a lysine residue in the protist Giardia lamblia. This functional substitution of the R with a K in GlSec61α may have taken place to accommodate a G-rich rRNA.

  18. Sequential interactions with Sec23 control the direction of vesicle traffic

    OpenAIRE

    LORD, christopher; Bhandari, Deepali; Menon, Shekar; Ghassemian, Majid; Nycz, Deborah; Hay, Jesse; Ghosh, Pradipta; Ferro-Novick, Susan

    2011-01-01

    How the directionality of vesicle traffic is achieved remains an important unanswered question in cell biology. The Sec23p/Sec24p coat complex sorts the fusion machinery (SNAREs) into vesicles as they bud from the endoplasmic reticulum. Vesicle tethering to the Golgi begins when the tethering factor TRAPPI binds to Sec23p. Where the coat is released and how this event relates to membrane fusion is unknown. Here we use a yeast transport assay to demonstrate that an ER-derived vesicle retains i...

  19. Boolean and advanced searching for EDGAR data on www.sec.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — This search allows users to enter complex boolean queries to access all but the most recent day's EDGAR filings on www.sec.gov. Filings are from 1994 to present.

  20. Tsukamurella pulmonis Bloodstream Infection Identified by secA1 Gene Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez del Molino Bernal, IC; Cano García, María Eliecer; García de la Fuente, C; Martínez Martínez, Luis; López, Monica; Fernández Mazarrasa, Carlos; Agüero Balbín, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent bloodstream infections caused by a Gram-positive bacterium affected an immunocompromised child. Tsukamurella pulmonis was the microorganism identified by secA1 gene sequencing. Antibiotic treatment in combination with removal of the subcutaneous port healed the patient.

  1. Highly enantioselective sec-alkyl sulfatase activity of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM 639.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Sabine R; Nestl, Bettina M; Faber, Kurt

    2004-12-23

    [reaction: see text] rac-sec-Alkyl sulfate esters 1a-4a were resolved in high enantioselectivities with E-values up to >200 using whole cells of aerobically grown Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM 639. The stereochemical course of this biohydrolysis was shown to proceed with strict inversion of configuration; thus, the preferred (R)-enantiomers were converted into the corresponding (S)-sec-alcohols to furnish a homochiral product mixture.

  2. Sequential interactions with Sec23 control the direction of vesicle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Christopher; Bhandari, Deepali; Menon, Shekar; Ghassemian, Majid; Nycz, Deborah; Hay, Jesse; Ghosh, Pradipta; Ferro-Novick, Susan

    2011-05-12

    How the directionality of vesicle traffic is achieved remains an important unanswered question in cell biology. The Sec23p/Sec24p coat complex sorts the fusion machinery (SNAREs) into vesicles as they bud from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Vesicle tethering to the Golgi begins when the tethering factor TRAPPI binds to Sec23p. Where the coat is released and how this event relates to membrane fusion is unknown. Here we use a yeast transport assay to demonstrate that an ER-derived vesicle retains its coat until it reaches the Golgi. A Golgi-associated kinase, Hrr25p (CK1δ orthologue), then phosphorylates the Sec23p/Sec24p complex. Coat phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are needed for vesicle fusion and budding, respectively. Additionally, we show that Sec23p interacts in a sequential manner with different binding partners, including TRAPPI and Hrr25p, to ensure the directionality of ER-Golgi traffic and prevent the back-fusion of a COPII vesicle with the ER. These events are conserved in mammalian cells.

  3. The exocyst protein Sec10 is necessary for primary ciliogenesis and cystogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaofeng; Guo, Wei; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2009-05-01

    Primary cilia are found on many epithelial cell types, including renal tubular epithelial cells, in which they are felt to participate in flow sensing and have been linked to the pathogenesis of cystic renal disorders such as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We previously localized the exocyst, an eight-protein complex involved in membrane trafficking, to the primary cilium of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and showed that it was involved in cystogenesis. Here, using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knockdown exocyst expression and stable transfection to induce exocyst overexpression, we show that the exocyst protein Sec10 regulates primary ciliogenesis. Using immunofluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy, primary cilia containing only basal bodies are seen in the Sec10 knockdown cells, and increased ciliogenesis is seen in Sec10-overexpressing cells. These phenotypes do not seem to be because of gross changes in cell polarity, as apical, basolateral, and tight junction proteins remain properly localized. Sec10 knockdown prevents normal cyst morphogenesis when the cells are grown in a collagen matrix, whereas Sec10 overexpression results in increased cystogenesis. Transfection with human Sec10 resistant to the canine shRNA rescues the phenotype, demonstrating specificity. Finally, Par3 was recently shown to regulate primary cilia biogenesis. Par3 and the exocyst colocalized by immunofluorescence and coimmunoprecipitation, consistent with a role for the exocyst in targeting and docking vesicles carrying proteins necessary for primary ciliogenesis.

  4. Les lubrifiants secs pour le tréfilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerin Céline

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wire drawing process consists in reducing the diameter of a metallic wire by traction through a die. Wire drawing dry lubricant is a complex product not only considering the selection of raw materials, theirs formulation but also the manufacturing process. It can be assimilated to an elaborate mixture of mainly sodium and calcium soaps with mineral elements (fillers and additives. The composition and the association of these elements allow the control of thickness and consistence of the lubricant film through the dies. Fatty matters mainly used for the manufacturing of these soaps are tallow and stearic acid extracted from tallow. Initially considered as a waste and questioned during the BSE crisis, tallow is nowadays on demand especially on the biofuels market.

  5. A Critical Analysis of the Role of SNARE Protein SEC22B in Antigen Cross-Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Julia Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cross-presentation initiates immune responses against tumors and viral infections by presenting extracellular antigen on MHC I to activate CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In vitro studies in dendritic cells (DCs established SNARE protein SEC22B as a specific regulator of cross-presentation. However, the in vivo contribution of SEC22B to cross-presentation has not been tested. To address this, we generated DC-specific Sec22b knockout (CD11c-Cre Sec22bfl/fl mice. Contrary to the paradigm, SEC22B-deficient DCs efficiently cross-present both in vivo and in vitro. Although in vitro small hairpin RNA (shRNA-mediated Sec22b silencing in bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs reduced cross-presentation, treatment of SEC22B-deficient BMDCs with the same shRNA produced a similar defect, suggesting the Sec22b shRNA modulates cross-presentation through off-target effects. RNA sequencing of Sec22b shRNA-treated SEC22B-deficient BMDCs demonstrated several changes in the transcriptome. Our data demonstrate that contrary to the accepted model, SEC22B is not necessary for cross-presentation, cautioning against extrapolating phenotypes from knockdown studies alone.

  6. Sec62 bridges the gap from 3q amplification to molecular cell biology in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linxweiler, Maximilian; Linxweiler, Johannes; Barth, Monika; Benedix, Julia; Jung, Volker; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Bohle, Rainer M; Zimmermann, Richard; Greiner, Markus

    2012-02-01

    The molecular carcinogenesis of lung cancer has yet to be clearly elucidated. We investigated the possible oncogenic function of SEC62 in lung cancer, which was predicted based on our previous findings that lung and thyroid cancer tissue samples exhibited increased Sec62 protein levels. The SEC62 gene locus is at 3q26.2, and 3q amplification is reportedly the most common genomic alteration in non-small cell lung cancer. We analyzed SEC62 mRNA and protein levels in tissue samples from lung cancer patients by real-time quantitative PCR, Western blot, and IHC and found significantly increased SEC62 mRNA and protein levels in tumors compared with tumor-free tissue samples from the same patients. Correlation analyses revealed significantly higher Sec62 levels in tumors with lymph node metastases compared with nonmetastatic tumors, as well as in poorly compared with moderately differentiated tumors. On the basis of these promising results, we examined the role of Sec62 in cancer cell biology in vitro. Cell migration assays with lung and thyroid cancer cells showed distinct stimulation of migration in SEC62-overexpressing cells and inhibition of migration in Sec62-depleted cells. Moreover, we found that SEC62 silencing sensitized the cells to thapsigargin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. Thus, our results indicate that SEC62 represents a potential candidate oncogene in the amplified 3q region in cases of non-small cell lung cancer and harbors various functions in cancer cell biology.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum Sec24 marks transitional ER that exports a model cargo via a diacidic motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcus C S; Moura, Pedro A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Fidock, David A

    2008-06-01

    Exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) often occurs at distinct sites of vesicle formation known as transitional ER (tER) that are enriched for COPII vesicle coat proteins. We have characterized the organization of ER export in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, by examining the localization of two components of the COPII machinery, PfSec12 and PfSec24a. PfSec12 was found throughout the ER, whereas the COPII cargo adaptor, PfSec24a, was concentrated at distinct foci that likely correspond to tER sites. These foci were closely apposed to cis-Golgi sites marked by PfGRASP-GFP, and upon treatment with brefeldin A they accumulated a model cargo protein via a process dependent on the presence of an intact diacidic export motif. Our data suggest that the cargo-binding function of PfSec24a is conserved and that accumulation of cargo in discrete tER sites depends upon positive sorting signals. Furthermore, the number and position of tER sites with respect to the cis-Golgi suggests a co-ordinated biogenesis of these domains.

  8. Sec16A is critical for both conventional and unconventional secretion of CFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, He; Kim, Jiyoon; Noh, Shin Hye; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Kim, Joo Young; Lee, Min Goo

    2017-01-01

    CFTR is a transmembrane protein that reaches the cell surface via the conventional Golgi mediated secretion pathway. Interestingly, ER-to-Golgi blockade or ER stress induces alternative GRASP-mediated, Golgi-bypassing unconventional trafficking of wild-type CFTR and the disease-causing ΔF508-CFTR, which has folding and trafficking defects. Here, we show that Sec16A, the key regulator of conventional ER-to-Golgi transport, plays a critical role in the ER exit of protein cargos during unconventional secretion. In an initial gene silencing screen, Sec16A knockdown abolished the unconventional secretion of wild-type and ΔF508-CFTR induced by ER-to-Golgi blockade, whereas the knockdown of other COPII-related components did not. Notably, during unconventional secretion, Sec16A was redistributed to cell periphery and associated with GRASP55 in mammalian cells. Molecular and morphological analyses revealed that IRE1α-mediated signaling is an upstream regulator of Sec16A during ER-to-Golgi blockade or ER stress associated unconventional secretion. These findings highlight a novel function of Sec16A as an essential mediator of ER stress-associated unconventional secretion. PMID:28067262

  9. New U.S. SEC rules on oil and gas disclosure may increase reserves significantly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schollnberger, Wolfgang E.

    2009-06-15

    The US Security Exchange Commission (SEC) released its updated rules and regulations concerning the disclosure and reporting of oil and gas reserves on Dec 29, 2008; they were published in their final form in the US Federal Register on January 14, 2009. The bipartisan Commission voted unanimously in favor of these new rules, which will go into effect on January 1, 2010. The new rules are important, because they directly or indirectly affect oil and gas companies worldwide. Companies that are registered or operating in the US, or whose shares are traded on US stock exchanges fall directly under these rules. However, in today's global economy the valuation of virtually all oil and gas companies and their ability to raise capital is affected by SEC rules. The author was part of an expert group advising the SEC on formulating the new rules. In this article, a short summary of the most important changes is given and own comments are included. The article follows the wording of the SEC very closely to allow the interested reader to easily refer back to the complete SEC document. (orig.)

  10. The SecB-like chaperone Rv1957 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zuokun; Wang, Han; Yu, TingTing

    2016-06-01

    Protein export is important in all bacteria, and bacteria have evolved specialized export machineries to fulfil this task. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, the general secretion pathway (Sec pathway) is conserved and is essential in performing the export of proteins. The bacterial Sec pathway post-translationally exports unfolded proteins out of the cytoplasm, and the core of the Sec pathway is composed of a heterotrimeric membrane-embedded channel, SecYEG, and two cytosolic components, SecA and SecB. SecB functions by stabilizing unfolded proteins, maintaining them in an export-competent state. Although SecB is mainly found in Proteobacteria, a SecB-like protein, Rv1957, that controls a stress-response toxin-antitoxin system, is found in M. tuberculosis. Rv1957 can also functionally replace the Escherichia coli SecB chaperone both in vivo and in vitro. In this work, the production, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of Rv1957 are reported. Notably, diffraction-quality crystals were obtained only at high concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide, i.e. about 12%(v/v). The crystals of Rv1957 belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 64.5, b = 92.0, c = 115.4 Å.

  11. SEC16A is a RAB10 effector required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 trafficking in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Joanne; Brumfield, Alexandria; Chaudhary, Natasha; Iaea, David; McGraw, Timothy E

    2016-07-04

    RAB10 is a regulator of insulin-stimulated translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane (PM) of adipocytes, which is essential for whole-body glucose homeostasis. We establish SEC16A as a novel RAB10 effector in this process. Colocalization of SEC16A with RAB10 is augmented by insulin stimulation, and SEC16A knockdown attenuates insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation, phenocopying RAB10 knockdown. We show that SEC16A and RAB10 promote insulin-stimulated mobilization of GLUT4 from a perinuclear recycling endosome/TGN compartment. We propose RAB10-SEC16A functions to accelerate formation of the vesicles that ferry GLUT4 to the PM during insulin stimulation. Because GLUT4 continually cycles between the PM and intracellular compartments, the maintenance of elevated cell-surface GLUT4 in the presence of insulin requires accelerated biogenesis of the specialized GLUT4 transport vesicles. The function of SEC16A in GLUT4 trafficking is independent of its previously characterized activity in ER exit site formation and therefore independent of canonical COPII-coated vesicle function. However, our data support a role for SEC23A, but not the other COPII components SEC13, SEC23B, and SEC31, in the insulin stimulation of GLUT4 trafficking, suggesting that vesicles derived from subcomplexes of COPII coat proteins have a role in the specialized trafficking of GLUT4.

  12. The SecY complex forms a channel capable of ionic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Kush; Duong, Franck

    2009-07-01

    Protein translocation across the bacterial membrane occurs at the SecY complex or channel. The resting SecY channel is impermeable to small molecules owing to a plug domain that creates a seal. Here, we report that a channel loosely sealed, or with a plug locked open, does not, however, lead to general membrane permeability. Instead, strong selectivity towards small monovalent anions, especially chloride, is observed. Mutations in the pore ring-structure increase both the translocation activity of the channel and its ionic conductance, however the selectivity is maintained. The same ionic specificity also occurs at the onset of protein translocation and across the archaeal SecY complex. Thus, the ion-conducting characteristic of the channel seems to be conserved as a normal consequence of protein translocation. We propose that the pore ring-structure forms a selectivity filter, allowing cells to tolerate channels with imperfect plugs.

  13. SecSLA: A Proactive and Secure Service Level Agreement Framework for Cloud Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad F. Alruwaili

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud customers migrate to cloud services to reduce the operational costs of information technology (IT and increase organization efficiency. However, ensuring cloud security is very challenging. As a consequence, cloud service providers find it difficult to persuade customers to acquire their services due to security concerns. In terms of outsourcing applications, software, and/or infrastructure services to the cloud, customers are concerned about the availability, integrity, privacy, and legality of the hosted service. In this paper, a secure service level agreement (SecSLA framework is proposed to alleviate these concerns and provide security control assurance to cloud customers. The framework is proactive in detecting violations of SecSLA parameters based on a cloud security operations center as a service (SOCaaS. In addition, a trusted third party can use this framework to audit and monitor SecSLA compliance.

  14. A study of SEC chromatograms on the basis of polymer structure properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    curve may exist between the SEC retention volume and polymer structure properties such as hydrodynamic volume, hydrodynamic radius and radius of gyration. Those structure properties can be determined by intrinsic viscosity measurement, dynamic and static light scattering respectively, and the measured...... already been well established, while for nonlinear polymer samples and mixtures of linear and nonlinear polymers, the measured SEC data are often used just qualitatively. The SEC separation process is rather complicated, and a detailed study using finite element method and/or Brownian Dynamics simulation...... values are often certain statistical averages weighted by all the polymers present in the sample. On the other hand, those structure properties and many others can be reasonably estimated by computer simulation techniques such as random walk simulations, self avoiding walk simulations or detailed Monte...

  15. Continuous Cold-Atom Inertial Sensor with 1  nrad/sec Rotation Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, I; Savoie, D; Fang, B; Venon, B; Garrido Alzar, C L; Geiger, R; Landragin, A

    2016-05-06

    We report the operation of a cold-atom inertial sensor which continuously captures the rotation signal. Using a joint interrogation scheme, where we simultaneously prepare a cold-atom source and operate an atom interferometer (AI), enables us to eliminate the dead times. We show that such continuous operation improves the short-term sensitivity of AIs, and demonstrate a rotation sensitivity of 100  nrad/sec/sqrt[Hz] in a cold-atom gyroscope of 11  cm^{2} Sagnac area. We also demonstrate a rotation stability of 1  nrad/sec at 10^{4}  sec of integration time, which represents the state of the art for atomic gyroscopes. The continuous operation of cold-atom inertial sensors will lead to large area AIs at their full sensitivity potential, determined by the quantum noise limit.

  16. Bacillus cereus cytotoxins Hbl, Nhe and CytK are secreted via the Sec translocation pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindbäck Toril

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus cereus and the closely related Bacillus thuringiensis are Gram positive opportunistic pathogens that may cause food poisoning, and the three secreted pore-forming cytotoxins Hbl, Nhe and CytK have been implicated as the causative agents of diarrhoeal disease. It has been proposed that the Hbl toxin is secreted using the flagellar export apparatus (FEA despite the presence of Sec-type signal peptides. As protein secretion is of key importance in virulence of a microorganism, the mechanisms by which these toxins are secreted were further investigated. Results Sec-type signal peptides were identified in all toxin components, and secretion of Hbl component B was shown to be dependent on an intact Sec-type signal peptide sequence. Further indication that secretion of Hbl, Nhe and CytK is dependent on the Sec translocation pathway, the main pathway on which bacterial secretion relies, was suggested by the observed intracellular accumulation and reduced secretion of the toxins in cultures supplemented with the SecA inhibitor sodium azide. Although a FEA deficient strain (a flhA mutant showed reduced toxin expression and reduced cytotoxicity, it readily secreted overexpressed Hbl B, showing that the FEA is not required for Hbl secretion. Thus, the concurrent lack of flagella and reduced toxin secretion in the FEA deficient strain may point towards the presence of a regulatory link between motility and virulence genes, rather than FEA-dependent toxin secretion. Conclusions The Hbl, Nhe and CytK toxins appear to be secreted using the Sec pathway, and the reduced Hbl expression of a FEA deficient strain was shown not to be due to a secretion defect.

  17. Determining the solution conformational entropy of oligosaccharides by SEC with on-line viscometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mallory J; Striegel, André M

    2014-06-15

    Introduced here is a method for determining the solution conformational entropy of oligosaccharides (-ΔS) that relies on the on-line coupling of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), an entropically-controlled separation technique, and differential viscometry (VISC). Results from this SEC/VISC method were compared, for the same injections of the same sample dissolutions and under identical solvent/temperature conditions, to results from a benchmark SEC/differential refractometry (SEC/DRI) method which has been applied successfully over the last decade to determining -ΔS of a variety of mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides. The accuracy (as compared to SEC/DRI) and precision of SEC/VISC were found to be excellent, as was the sensitivity of the viscometer in the oligomeric region. The experiments presented here contrast three sets of (1→4)-β-d-oligosaccharides, namely manno-, cello-, and N-acetylchitooligosaccharides of degree of polymerization (DP) 2 through 6. For each series, the dependence of -ΔS on DP was found to be monotonic while, between series, differences at each DP could be ascribed to either the additional degrees of freedom imparted by large, multi-atomic substituent groups, or to the presence or absence of additional intramolecular hydrogen bonds, depending on the axial versus equatorial arrangement of particular hydroxyl groups. An hypothesis is advanced to explain the unexpectedly high sensitivity of viscometric detection for low-molar-mass analytes. The method presented can be extended to the analysis of oligosaccharides other than those studied here. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Cloud Provider Selection Method Based on SecSLA%基于SecSLA的云供应商选择方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜政伟; 巫锡洪; 杨沛安; 刘宝旭

    2013-01-01

    The cloud computing service level agreement often only focuses on performance while seldom emphasizes security parameters. Besides, customers are confused by several suppliers in cloud computing market. Therefore, cloud computing Security Service Level Agreement(SecSLA) with detailed indexes is put forward and an improved ELECTRE method is introduced to the cloud provider selection process. Goal-Question-Metric method is employed to form 50 bottom evaluation indexes for SecSLA. The modified ELECTRE method combines the value of net advantage and net disadvantage to simplify the decision process.The calculation and analysis of instance prove the following aspects:the proposed SecSLA has a relatively comprehensive coverage of the cloud computing assessment factors, such as incident handling, vulnerability and patch management,compliance and availability;the suggested method eliminates the redundancy and dependence on experience of ELECTRE II, which makes the realization of automatic process easier. The final evaluation order conforms to the result of ELECTRE II, gray correlation method and TOPSIS method, which indicates that the designed method can play a guiding role in the selection of cloud service provider.%当前云计算服务水平协议通常只关注性能,缺乏安全参数,并且客户需要在多家云供应商中做出选择。针对上述问题,提出一种基于 SecSLA 的云供应商选择方法。构建云计算安全服务水平协议(SecSLA)的指标体系,采用目标-问题-度量方法形成SecSLA的50个底层评估指标项。并将改进的ELECTRE方法引入到云供应商的选择决策过程中,结合净优势值与净劣势值的思想,简化决策过程。实例计算与分析结果表明,SecSLA较全面地覆盖了云计算事故处理、漏洞补丁管理、合规性与可用性等因素,该云供应商选择方法能消除传统选择消去法 ELECTRE II 的繁琐与对经验的依赖,便于实现编程自动化处

  19. The thermal degradation of poly(iso-butyl methacrylate and poly(sec-butyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANKA G. POPOVIC

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The non-oxidative thermal degradation of poly(iso-butyl methacrylate and poly(sec-butyl methacrylate was investigated by studying changes in the polymer residue. Due to the different number of b-hydrogens in their ester substituents, these two polymeric isomers behave differently when subjected to elevated temperatures. Poly(iso-butyl methacrylate degrades quantitatively by depolymerisation with zip lengths of the same order of magnitude as those of poly(methyl methacrylate. Poly(sec-butyl methacrylate degrades by a combined degradation mechanism of depolymerisation and de-esterification. De-esterification becomes a significant thermolysis route at temperatures higher than 240°C.

  20. SIMULTANEOUS CALIBRATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT SEPARATION AND COLUMN DISPERSION OF SEC WITH CHARACTERIZED POLYMER STANDARDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Rongshi; BO Shuqin

    1983-01-01

    With the aid of the theoretical relationship between the calibration relation of a SEC column for the monodisperse polymer species under ideal working condition and the effective relations between the molecular weight and the elution volume for characterized polymer samples, a computational procedure for simultaneous calibration of molecular weight separation and column dispersion is proposed. From the experimental chromatograms of narrow MWD polystyrene standards and broad MWD 1,2-polybutadiene fractions the spreading factors of a SEC column was deduced by the proposed method. The variation of the spreading factor with the elution volume is independent upon the polymer sample used.

  1. Fission yeast Sec3 and Exo70 are transported on actin cables and localize the exocyst complex to cell poles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe O Bendezú

    Full Text Available The exocyst complex is essential for many exocytic events, by tethering vesicles at the plasma membrane for fusion. In fission yeast, polarized exocytosis for growth relies on the combined action of the exocyst at cell poles and myosin-driven transport along actin cables. We report here the identification of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sec3 protein, which we identified through sequence homology of its PH-like domain. Like other exocyst subunits, sec3 is required for secretion and cell division. Cells deleted for sec3 are only conditionally lethal and can proliferate when osmotically stabilized. Sec3 is redundant with Exo70 for viability and for the localization of other exocyst subunits, suggesting these components act as exocyst tethers at the plasma membrane. Consistently, Sec3 localizes to zones of growth independently of other exocyst subunits but depends on PIP(2 and functional Cdc42. FRAP analysis shows that Sec3, like all other exocyst subunits, localizes to cell poles largely independently of the actin cytoskeleton. However, we show that Sec3, Exo70 and Sec5 are transported by the myosin V Myo52 along actin cables. These data suggest that the exocyst holocomplex, including Sec3 and Exo70, is present on exocytic vesicles, which can reach cell poles by either myosin-driven transport or random walk.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Sec2 Loci in Wheat—Secale africanum Derivatives Demonstrates Genomic Divergence of Secale Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangrong Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The unique 75 K γ-secalins encoded by Sec2 loci in Secale species is composed of almost half rye storage proteins. The chromosomal location of Sec2 loci in wild Secale species, Secale africanum, was carried out by the wheat—S. africanum derivatives, which were identified by genomic in situ hybridization and multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization. The Sec2 gene-specific PCR analysis indicated that the S. cereale Sec2 was located on chromosome 2R, while the S. africanum Sec2 was localized on chromosome 6Rafr of S. africanum. A total of 38 Sec2 gene sequences were isolated from S. africanum, S. cereale and S. sylvestre by PCR-based cloning. Phylogenetic analysis showed that S. africanum Sec2 diverged from S. cereale Sec2 approximately 2–3 million years ago. The illegitimate recombination of chromosome 2R–6R involving the Sec2 loci region may accelerate sequence variation during evolutionary process from wild to cultivated Secale species.

  3. High-loading, 1800 ft/sec tip speed transonic compressor fan stage. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. L.; Halle, J. E.; Kennedy, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    A single stage fan with a tip speed of 1800 ft/sec (548.6m/sec) and hub/tip ratio of 0.5 was designed to produce a pressure ratio of 2.285:1 with an adiabatic efficiency of 84.0%. The design flow per inlet annulus area is 38.7 lbm/sq ft-sec (188.9KG/sqm-sec). Rotor blades have modified multiple-circular-arc and precompression airfoil sections. The stator vanes have multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections.

  4. 40 CFR 152.112 - Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tolerance, and food additive regulations have been issued under FFDCA sec. 408, and (h) If the product, in... effects on the environment, and that, when used in accordance with widespread and commonly recognized practice, the product will not generally cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment; (f)...

  5. 7 CFR 22.203 - Major responsibilities under title VI, Sec. 603.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....203 Section 22.203 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.203 Major responsibilities under title VI, Sec... Secretary of Agriculture with providing leadership in the development of a nationwide rural development...

  6. The coat protein complex II, COPII, protein Sec13 directly interacts with presenilin-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Anders Lade, E-mail: aln@humgen.au.dk [Department of Human Genetics, The Bartholin Building, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2009-10-23

    Mutations in the human gene encoding presenilin-1, PS1, account for most cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1 has nine transmembrane domains and a large loop orientated towards the cytoplasm. PS1 locates to cellular compartments as endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, vesicular structures, and plasma membrane, and is an integral member of {gamma}-secretase, a protein protease complex with specificity for intra-membranous cleavage of substrates such as {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. Here, an interaction between PS1 and the Sec13 protein is described. Sec13 takes part in coat protein complex II, COPII, vesicular trafficking, nuclear pore function, and ER directed protein sequestering and degradation control. The interaction maps to the N-terminal part of the large hydrophilic PS1 loop and the first of the six WD40-repeats present in Sec13. The identified Sec13 interaction to PS1 is a new candidate interaction for linking PS1 to secretory and protein degrading vesicular circuits.

  7. SecMAS: Security Enhanced Monitoring and Analysis Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring, control, and security guarantee for the communication in the wireless sensor networks (WSNs are currently treated as three independent issues and addressed separately through specialized tools. However, most cases of WSNs applications requires the network administrator change the network configuration in a very short time to response to the change of observed phenomenon with security guarantee. To meet this requirement, we propose a security enhanced monitoring and control platform named SecMAS for WSNs, which provides the real-time visualization about network states and online reconfiguration of the network properties and behaviours in a resource-efficient way. Besides, basic cryptographic primitives and part of the anomaly detection functionalities are implemented in SecMAS to enabling the secure communication in WSNs. Furthermore, we conduct experiments to evaluate the performance of SecMAS in terms of the latency, throughput, communication overhead, and the security capacity. The experimental results demonstrate that the SecMAS system achieves stable, efficient and secure data collection with lightweight quick-response network control.

  8. Detection of sea, sec and seq genes in Staphylococcus aureus nasal sampling acquiring from healthy carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Saadati

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various assays have been used to identify of enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus and because of antigenic similarities among enterotoxins, serological assay may not always be practical. The aim of this study was to detect of S. aureus enterotoxins (SEA, SEC and SEQ genes by multiplex PCR assay. Methods: Of 150 strains obtained from nasal carriers, 95 S. aureus were confirmed by biochemical test. Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins A, C and Q genes (sea, c and q S. aureus was used. The nuc gene, which encodes thermonuclease was used as a target DNA to identify S. aureus.Results: DNA amplification fragments for the staphylococcal nuclease gene (nuc was 397 bp, 552 bp for staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene (sea, 271 bp for staphylococcal enterotoxin C gene (sec and 122 bp for staphylococcal enterotoxin Q gene (seq. S. epidermidis used as negative control and did not yield a PCR product. Among the 95 healthy human isolates from nasal carriage, forty one isolates (43/1% were diagnosed as sea, sec or seq-positive. Twenty four (25/3% isolates were sea gene, nine (9/5% isolates were the sec gene and eight (8/4% isolates were the seq gene and 54 (56/8% of them were other se genes. Conclusion: Because Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in nasal healthy carrier, so the PCR assay could be useful in the routine direct detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A, C and Q genes.

  9. Mathematische simulaties met de gemodificeerden Vecu-Sec toegepast op de N44 te Wassenaar.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, W.H.M. van de

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates particularly how a modified steel safety fence of the Vecu Sec type operates in collisions. This construction was placed on the highway N44 in the Dutch municipality of Wassenaar. The study consists of two phases. In the first phase a passenger car and a lorry are used in the

  10. Comparison of DMSP and SECS region-1 and region-2 ionospheric current boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weygand, J. M.; Wing, S.

    2016-06-01

    The region-1 and region-2 boundary has traditionally been identified using data from a single spacecraft crossing the auroral region and measuring the large scale changes in the cross track magnetic field. With data from the AUTUMN, CANMOS, CARISMA, GIMA, DTU MGS, MACCS, McMAC, STEP, THEMIS, and USGS ground magnetometer arrays we applied a state-of-art technique based on spherical elementary current system (SECS) method developed by Amm and Viljanen (1999) in order to calculate maps of region-1 and region-2 current system over the North American and Greenland auroral region. Spherical elementary current (SEC) amplitude (proxy for vertical currents) maps can be inferred at 10 s temporal resolution, ~1.5° geographic latitude (Glat), and 3.5° geographic longitude (Glon) spatial resolution. We compare the location of the region-1 and region-2 boundary obtained by the DMSP spacecraft with the region-1 and region-2 boundary observed in the SEC current amplitudes. We find that the boundaries typically agree within 0.2°±1.3°. These results indicate that the location of the region-1 and region-2 boundary can reasonably be determined from ground magnetometer data. The SECS maps represent a value-added product from the magnetometer database and can be used for contextual interpretation in conjunction with other missions as well as help with our understanding of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling mechanisms using the ground arrays and the magnetospheric spacecraft data.

  11. 75 FR 13555 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 540.375 Canned Salmon - Adulteration Involving Decomposition (CPG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... FDA staff relating to decomposition in fish and fishery products, including canned salmon, is provided.... 540.375 Canned Salmon -- Adulteration Involving Decomposition (CPG 7108.10); Withdrawal of Guidance... Administration (FDA) is announcing the withdrawal of Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 540.375 Canned...

  12. Evolutionary conservation of dual Sec translocases in the cyanelles of Cyanophora paradoxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löffelhardt Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanelles, the peptidoglycan-armored plastids of glaucocystophytes, occupy a unique bridge position in between free-living cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. In some respects they side with cyanobacteria whereas other features are clearly shared with chloroplasts. The Sec translocase, an example for "conservative sorting" in the course of evolution, is found in the plasma membrane of all prokaryotes, in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts and in both these membrane types of cyanobacteria. Results In this paper we present evidence for a dual location of the Sec translocon in the thylakoid as well as inner envelope membranes of the cyanelles from Cyanophora paradoxa, i. e. conservative sorting sensu stricto. The prerequisite was the generation of specific antisera directed against cyanelle SecY that allowed immunodetection of the protein on SDS gels from both membrane types separated by sucrose density gradient floatation centrifugation. Immunoblotting of blue-native gels yielded positive but differential results for both the thylakoid and envelope Sec complexes, respectively. In addition, heterologous antisera directed against components of the Toc/Tic translocons and binding of a labeled precursor protein were used to discriminate between inner and outer envelope membranes. Conclusion The envelope translocase can be envisaged as a prokaryotic feature missing in higher plant chloroplasts but retained in cyanelles, likely for protein transport to the periplasm. Candidate passengers are cytochrome c6 and enzymes of peptidoglycan metabolism. The minimal set of subunits of the Toc/Tic translocase of a primitive plastid is proposed.

  13. Protein transport into the human ER and related diseases, Sec61-channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haßdenteufel, Sarah; Klein, Marie-Christine; Melnyk, Armin; Zimmermann, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Protein transport into the human endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is relevant to the biogenesis of most soluble and membrane proteins of organelles, which are involved in endo- or exo-cytsosis. It involves amino-terminal signal peptides in the precursor polypeptides and various transport components in the cytosol plus the ER, and can occur co- or post-translationally. The two mechanisms merge at the level of the ER membrane, specifically at the level of the heterotrimeric Sec61 complex, which forms a dynamic polypeptide-conducting channel in the ER membrane. Since the mammalian ER is also the main intracellular calcium storage organelle, and the Sec61 complex is calcium permeable, the Sec61 complex is tightly regulated in its equilibrium between the closed and open conformations, or "gated", by ligands, such as signal peptides of the transport substrates and the ER lumenal Hsp70-type molecular chaperone BiP. Furthermore, BiP binding to the incoming polypeptide contributes to the efficiency and unidirectionality of transport. Recent insights into the structure and dynamic equilibrium of the Sec61 complex have various mechanistic as well as medical implications.

  14. Competition between Sec- and TAT-dependent protein translocation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristóbal, S.; de Gier, J.-W.; Nielsen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a new protein translocation pathway, the twin-arginine translocation (TAT) pathway, has been identified in both bacteria and chloroplasts. To study the possible competition between the TAT- and the well-characterized Sec translocon-dependent pathways in Escherichia coli, we have fused...

  15. Owens-Illinois subsystem design package for the SEC-601 air-cooled solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The subsystem design of the SEC-601 solar collector was evaluated. The collector is of modular design and is approximately 12 feet three inches wide and eight feet seven inches tall. It contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds. Included in this report are the subsystem performance specifications and the assembly and installation drawings of the solar collectors and manifold.

  16. An SEC/MALS Study of Alternan Degradation During Size-exclusion Chromatographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The degradation of high molar mass polymers during size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis has been a topic of interest for several decades. Should a polymer degrade during analysis, the accuracy of the molar mass (M) and architectural information obtained will be compromised. To this effect,...

  17. Tsukamurella pulmonis bloodstream infection identified by secA1 gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Del Molino Bernal, Inmaculada C; Cano, María E; García de la Fuente, Celia; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; López, Mónica; Fernández-Mazarrasa, Carlos; Agüero, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent bloodstream infections caused by a Gram-positive bacterium affected an immunocompromised child. Tsukamurella pulmonis was the microorganism identified by secA1 gene sequencing. Antibiotic treatment in combination with removal of the subcutaneous port healed the patient. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. The exocyst protein Sec10 interacts with Polycystin-2 and knockdown causes PKD-phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Fogelgren

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is characterized by formation of renal cysts that destroy the kidney. Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2, encoding polycystins-1 and -2, cause ADPKD. Polycystins are thought to function in primary cilia, but it is not well understood how these and other proteins are targeted to cilia. Here, we provide the first genetic and biochemical link between polycystins and the exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein membrane trafficking complex. We show that knockdown of exocyst component Sec10 yields cellular phenotypes associated with ADPKD, including loss of flow-generated calcium increases, hyperproliferation, and abnormal activation of MAPK. Sec10 knockdown in zebrafish phenocopies many aspects of polycystin-2 knockdown-including curly tail up, left-right patterning defects, glomerular expansion, and MAPK activation-suggesting that the exocyst is required for pkd2 function in vivo. We observe a synergistic genetic interaction between zebrafish sec10 and pkd2 for many of these cilia-related phenotypes. Importantly, we demonstrate a biochemical interaction between Sec10 and the ciliary proteins polycystin-2, IFT88, and IFT20 and co-localization of the exocyst and polycystin-2 at the primary cilium. Our work supports a model in which the exocyst is required for the ciliary localization of polycystin-2, thus allowing for polycystin-2 function in cellular processes.

  19. The exocyst protein Sec10 interacts with Polycystin-2 and knockdown causes PKD-phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelgren, Ben; Lin, Shin-Yi; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Jaffe, Kimberly M; Park, Kwon Moo; Reichert, Ryan J; Bell, P Darwin; Burdine, Rebecca D; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2011-04-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by formation of renal cysts that destroy the kidney. Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2, encoding polycystins-1 and -2, cause ADPKD. Polycystins are thought to function in primary cilia, but it is not well understood how these and other proteins are targeted to cilia. Here, we provide the first genetic and biochemical link between polycystins and the exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein membrane trafficking complex. We show that knockdown of exocyst component Sec10 yields cellular phenotypes associated with ADPKD, including loss of flow-generated calcium increases, hyperproliferation, and abnormal activation of MAPK. Sec10 knockdown in zebrafish phenocopies many aspects of polycystin-2 knockdown-including curly tail up, left-right patterning defects, glomerular expansion, and MAPK activation-suggesting that the exocyst is required for pkd2 function in vivo. We observe a synergistic genetic interaction between zebrafish sec10 and pkd2 for many of these cilia-related phenotypes. Importantly, we demonstrate a biochemical interaction between Sec10 and the ciliary proteins polycystin-2, IFT88, and IFT20 and co-localization of the exocyst and polycystin-2 at the primary cilium. Our work supports a model in which the exocyst is required for the ciliary localization of polycystin-2, thus allowing for polycystin-2 function in cellular processes.

  20. 12 CFR 335.801 - Inapplicable SEC regulations; FDIC substituted regulations; additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reports and any amendments are deemed filed with the FDIC upon electronic receipt on business days from 8... business days prior to, or on the date of filing of, the electronic form to which it relates but shall not... 7265), and this part. (b) Electronic filings. (1) The FDIC does not participate in the SEC's...

  1. 75 FR 66769 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in... against animal feed or feed ingredients that are adulterated due to the presence of Salmonella. The Agency... adulterated due to the presence of Salmonella. The Agency has received a request for a 60-day extension of...

  2. 14 CFR Sec. 1-2 - Waivers from this system of accounts and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-2 Waivers from this system of accounts and reports. A waiver from any provision of this system of accounts or reports may be made by the BTS upon its... the principles embodied in the provisions of this system of accounts and reports; and the...

  3. 14 CFR Sec. 1-3 - General description of system of accounts and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-3 General description of system of accounts and... reflect the varying needs and capacities of different air carriers without impairing basic accounting... and loss elements which are recorded during the current accounting year are subclassified as...

  4. 75 FR 27028 - Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... issues of mutual concern and their effect on the CFTC's and SEC's statutory responsibilities. Subjects to... committee will work to develop clear and specific goals toward identifying and addressing emerging regulatory risks, protecting investors and customers, and furthering regulatory harmonization, and...

  5. The Design of NetSecLab: A Small Competition-Based Network Security Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. P.; Uluagac, A. S.; Fairbanks, K. D.; Copeland, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a competition-style of exercise to teach system and network security and to reinforce themes taught in class. The exercise, called NetSecLab, is conducted on a closed network with student-formed teams, each with their own Linux system to defend and from which to launch attacks. Students are expected to learn how to: 1) install…

  6. MicroRNA-375/SEC23A as biomarkers of the in vitro efficacy of vandetanib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Sandra; Zangari, Joséphine; Popa, Alexandra; Ilie, Marius; Hofman, Véronique; Long, Elodie; Patey, Martine; Tissier, Frédérique; Belléannée, Geneviève; Trouette, Hélène; Catargi, Bogdan; Peyrottes, Isabelle; Sadoul, Jean-Louis; Bordone, Olivier; Bonnetaud, Christelle; Butori, Catherine; Bozec, Alexandre; Guevara, Nicolas; Santini, José; Hénaoui, Imène Sarah; Lemaire, Géraldine; Blanck, Olivier; Vielh, Philippe; Barbry, Pascal; Mari, Bernard; Brest, Patrick; Hofman, Paul

    2016-05-24

    In this study, we performed microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling on a large series of sporadic and hereditary forms of medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). More than 60 miRNAs were significantly deregulated in tumor vs adjacent non-tumor tissues, partially overlapping with results of previous studies. We focused our attention on the strongest up-regulated miRNA in MTC samples, miR-375, the deregulation of which has been previously observed in a variety of human malignancies including MTC. We identified miR-375 targets by combining gene expression signatures from human MTC (TT) and normal follicular (Nthy-ori 3-1) cell lines transfected with an antagomiR-375 inhibitor or a miR-375 mimic, respectively, and from an in silico analysis of thyroid cell lines of Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia datasets. This approach identified SEC23A as a bona fide miR-375 target, which we validated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry of non-tumor and pathological thyroid tissue. Furthermore, we observed that miR-375 overexpression was associated with decreased cell proliferation and synergistically increased sensitivity to vandetanib, the clinically relevant treatment of metastatic MTC. We found that miR-375 increased PARP cleavage and decreased AKT phosphorylation, affecting both cell proliferation and viability. We confirmed these results through SEC23A direct silencing in combination with vandetanib, highlighting the importance of SEC23A in the miR-375-associated increased sensitivity to vandetanib.Since the combination of increased expression of miR-375 and decreased expression of SEC23A point to sensitivity to vandetanib, we question if the expression levels of miR-375 and SEC23A should be evaluated as an indicator of eligibility for treatment of MTC patients with vandetanib.

  7. Urothelial Defects from Targeted Inactivation of Exocyst Sec10 in Mice Cause Ureteropelvic Junction Obstructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Fogelgren

    Full Text Available Most cases of congenital obstructive nephropathy are the result of ureteropelvic junction obstructions, and despite their high prevalence, we have a poor understanding of their etiology and scarcity of genetic models. The eight-protein exocyst complex regulates polarized exocytosis of intracellular vesicles in a large variety of cell types. Here we report generation of a conditional knockout mouse for Sec10, a central component of the exocyst, which is the first conditional allele for any exocyst gene. Inactivation of Sec10 in ureteric bud-derived cells using Ksp1.3-Cre mice resulted in severe bilateral hydronephrosis and complete anuria in newborns, with death occurring 6-14 hours after birth. Sec10 FL/FL;Ksp-Cre embryos developed ureteropelvic junction obstructions between E17.5 and E18.5 as a result of degeneration of the urothelium and subsequent overgrowth by surrounding mesenchymal cells. The urothelial cell layer that lines the urinary tract must maintain a hydrophobic luminal barrier again urine while remaining highly stretchable. This barrier is largely established by production of uroplakin proteins that are transported to the apical surface to establish large plaques. By E16.5, Sec10 FL/FL;Ksp-Cre ureter and pelvic urothelium showed decreased uroplakin-3 protein at the luminal surface, and complete absence of uroplakin-3 by E17.5. Affected urothelium at the UPJ showed irregular barriers that exposed the smooth muscle layer to urine, suggesting this may trigger the surrounding mesenchymal cells to overgrow the lumen. Findings from this novel mouse model show Sec10 is critical for the development of the urothelium in ureters, and provides experimental evidence that failure of this urothelial barrier may contribute to human congenital urinary tract obstructions.

  8. Urothelial Defects from Targeted Inactivation of Exocyst Sec10 in Mice Cause Ureteropelvic Junction Obstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelgren, Ben; Polgar, Noemi; Lui, Vanessa H; Lee, Amanda J; Tamashiro, Kadee-Kalia A; Napoli, Josephine Andrea; Walton, Chad B; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of congenital obstructive nephropathy are the result of ureteropelvic junction obstructions, and despite their high prevalence, we have a poor understanding of their etiology and scarcity of genetic models. The eight-protein exocyst complex regulates polarized exocytosis of intracellular vesicles in a large variety of cell types. Here we report generation of a conditional knockout mouse for Sec10, a central component of the exocyst, which is the first conditional allele for any exocyst gene. Inactivation of Sec10 in ureteric bud-derived cells using Ksp1.3-Cre mice resulted in severe bilateral hydronephrosis and complete anuria in newborns, with death occurring 6-14 hours after birth. Sec10 FL/FL;Ksp-Cre embryos developed ureteropelvic junction obstructions between E17.5 and E18.5 as a result of degeneration of the urothelium and subsequent overgrowth by surrounding mesenchymal cells. The urothelial cell layer that lines the urinary tract must maintain a hydrophobic luminal barrier again urine while remaining highly stretchable. This barrier is largely established by production of uroplakin proteins that are transported to the apical surface to establish large plaques. By E16.5, Sec10 FL/FL;Ksp-Cre ureter and pelvic urothelium showed decreased uroplakin-3 protein at the luminal surface, and complete absence of uroplakin-3 by E17.5. Affected urothelium at the UPJ showed irregular barriers that exposed the smooth muscle layer to urine, suggesting this may trigger the surrounding mesenchymal cells to overgrow the lumen. Findings from this novel mouse model show Sec10 is critical for the development of the urothelium in ureters, and provides experimental evidence that failure of this urothelial barrier may contribute to human congenital urinary tract obstructions.

  9. 76 FR 58398 - Revised Guidance on Marketed Unapproved Drugs; Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 440.100; Marketed New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Drugs; Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 440.100; Marketed New Drugs Without Approved NDAs or ANDAs; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of compliance policy guide. SUMMARY: The... ``Marketed Unapproved Drugs--Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 440.100, Marketed New Drugs Without Approved...

  10. 75 FR 80826 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 527.300 Dairy Products-Microbial Contaminants and Alkaline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 527.300 Dairy Products... Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 527.300 Dairy Products-- Microbial Contaminants and Alkaline Phosphatase... other indicators of inadequate pasteurization or post-pasteurization contamination of dairy...

  11. Improved SEC-FTIR method for the characterization of multimodal high-density polyethylenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Christian; Albrecht, Andreas; Neubauer, Corinna; Klampfl, Christian W; Reussner, Jens

    2011-06-01

    A size-exclusion chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SEC-FTIR) method for the analysis of high-density polyethylene copolymers was developed, providing superior resolution for the determination of short-chain branching as a function of time and improved repeatability by hardware adaptation and processing optimization. SEC-FTIR for characterization of polyolefins is a compromising technique. Best resolution in terms of molecular weight and molecular weight distribution requires a very low sample solution concentration in size-exclusion chromatography while best results from online infrared (IR) spectroscopy require as high concentrations as possible. The signal-to-noise ratio at the IR detector could be increased significantly after application of a bandpass filter instead of a steel mesh attenuator and furthermore influences of system instabilities could be decreased by changes in data processing. Reliable short-chain branching information in the high molecular weight section in respect to accuracy and repeatability with better chromatographic resolution could be achieved.

  12. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SecA from Enterococcus faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meining, Winfried, E-mail: wim@csb.ki.se [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Biosciences, Center of Structural Biochemistry (Sweden); Scheuring, Johannes; Fischer, Markus; Weinkauf, Sevil [Technische Universität München, Chemistry Department (Germany); Karolinska Institutet, Department of Biosciences, Center of Structural Biochemistry (Sweden)

    2006-06-01

    SecA ATPase from E. faecalis has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals belong to space group C2 and diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The gene coding for SecA from Enterococcus faecalis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In this protein, the lysine at position 6 was replaced by an asparagine in order to reduce sensitivity towards proteases. The modified protein was purified and crystallized. Crystals diffracting to 2.4 Å resolution were obtained using the vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 203.4, b = 49.8, c = 100.8 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 119.1°. A selenomethionine derivative was prepared and is currently being tested in crystallization trials.

  13. InfoSec-MobCop - Framework for Theft Detection and Data Security on Mobile Computing Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anand; Gupta, Deepank; Gupta, Nidhi

    People steal mobile devices with the intention of making money either by selling the mobile or by taking the sensitive information stored inside it. Mobile thefts are rising even with existing deterrents in place. This is because; they are ineffective, as they generate unnecessary alerts and might require expensive hardware equipments. In this paper a novel framework termed as InfoSec-MobCop is proposed which secures a mobile user’s data and discovers theft by detecting any anomaly in the user behavior. The anomaly of the user is computed by extracting and monitoring user specific details (typing pattern and usage history). The result of any intrusion attempt by a masquerader is intimated to the service provider through an SMS. Effectiveness of the used approach is discussed using FAR and FRR graphs. The experimental system uses both real users and simulated studies to quantify the effectiveness of the InfoSec-MobCop (Information Security Mobile Cop).

  14. Une formulation du contact à frottement sec; application au calcul numérique

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Jean-Jacques

    1986-01-01

    International audience; A formulation of contact with dry friction; computational application. The usual law of dry friction is turned into a statement which does not involve splitting the contact force into its normal and tangential components. A numerical algorithm is derived for the dynamics of systems with unilateral contact; possible shocks are inelastic.; La loi usuelle du frottement sec est mise sous une forme évitant d'exhiber la composante normale et la composante tangentielle de la ...

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF BRANCHING POINT DISTRIBUTION IN THE SOL OF IRRADIATED POLYSTYRENE WITH SEC-LALLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wanxi; WANG Mouzhi; SUN Jiazhen

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the change behavior of branching point distribution of irradiated polystyrene in sol has been first studied by the SEC-LALLS method. The experimental results show that branching parameter of the part with lower molecular weight in the sol changes little at the early stage of irradiation and that of the part with the higher molecular weight becomes greater with the increase in radiation dose.

  16. Response of Organic Materials to Hypervelocity Impacts (up to 11.2 km/sec)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, D. S.; Murphy, W. M.; Miller, G. P.; Grosch, D. J.; Walker, J. D.; Mullin, A.; Waite, J. H.

    1998-09-01

    It is speculated that organic-rich planetesimals played a role in the origin of life on Earth. However, the mechanism by which organics could have been delivered from space to a planetary surface is difficult to determine. Particularly problematic is the question of the stability of organic material under hypervelocity impact conditions. Although some evidence suggests organic molecules cannot survive impacts from projectile velocities greater than about 10 km/sec [1], other investigators have found that impacts create a favorable environment for post-shock recombination of organic molecules in the plume phase [2, 3]. Understanding the mechanisms involved in delivering organics to a planetary surface remains difficult to assess due to the lack of experimental results of hypervelocity impacts, particularly in the velocity range of tens of km/sec. Organic material preservation and destruction from impact shocks, the synthesis of organics in the post-impact plume environment, and implications of these processes for Earth and Mars can be investigated by launching an inorganic projectile into an analog planetesimal-and-bolide organic-rich target. We explored the pressure and temperature ranges of hypervelocity impacts (11.2 km/sec) through simulations with CTH impact physics computer code. Using an inhibited shaped-charge launcher, we also experimentally determined the response of organic material to hypervelocity impacts. Initial work focused on saturating well-characterized zeolitic tuff with an aqueous solution containing dissolved naphthalene, a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Porosity measurements, thin section, and x-ray diffraction analyses were performed to determine that the tuff is primarily fine-grained clinoptilolite. In order to distinguish between contaminants and compounds generated or destroyed in the impact, we tagged the aqueous component of our target with deuterium. Experimental tests revealed that to first order, naphthalene survived

  17. SecMon: End-to-End Quality and Security Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Ciszkowski, Tomasz; Fiedler, Markus; Kotulski, Zbigniew; Lupu, Radu; Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    The Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is becoming a more available and popular way of communicating for Internet users. This also applies to Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems and merging these two have already proven to be successful (e.g. Skype). Even the existing standards of VoIP provide an assurance of security and Quality of Service (QoS), however, these features are usually optional and supported by limited number of implementations. As a result, the lack of mandatory and widely applicable QoS and security guaranties makes the contemporary VoIP systems vulnerable to attacks and network disturbances. In this paper we are facing these issues and propose the SecMon system, which simultaneously provides a lightweight security mechanism and improves quality parameters of the call. SecMon is intended specially for VoIP service over P2P networks and its main advantage is that it provides authentication, data integrity services, adaptive QoS and (D)DoS attack detection. Moreover, the SecMon approach represents a low...

  18. Mutational analysis of βCOP (Sec26p identifies an appendage domain critical for function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerione Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appendage domain of the γCOP subunit of the COPI vesicle coat bears a striking structural resemblance to adaptin-family appendages despite limited primary sequence homology. Both the γCOP appendage domain and an equivalent region on βCOP contain the FxxxW motif; the conservation of this motif suggested the existence of a functional appendage domain in βCOP. Results Sequence comparisons in combination with structural prediction tools show that the fold of the COOH-terminus of Sec26p is strongly predicted to closely mimic that of adaptin-family appendages. Deletion of the appendage domain of Sec26p results in inviability in yeast, over-expression of the deletion construct is dominant negative and mutagenesis of this region identifies residues critical for function. The ArfGAP Glo3p was identified via suppression screening as a potential downstream modulator of Sec26p in a manner that is independent of the GAP activity of Glo3p but requires the presence of the COOH-terminal ISS motifs. Conclusion Together, these results indicate an essential function for the predicted βCOP appendage and suggest that both COPI appendages perform a biologically active regulatory role with a structure related to adaptin-family appendage domains.

  19. Signal recognition particle and SecA cooperate during export of secretory proteins with highly hydrophobic signal sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Zhou

    Full Text Available The Sec translocon of bacterial plasma membranes mediates the linear translocation of secretory proteins as well as the lateral integration of membrane proteins. Integration of many membrane proteins occurs co-translationally via the signal recognition particle (SRP-dependent targeting of ribosome-associated nascent chains to the Sec translocon. In contrast, translocation of classical secretory proteins across the Sec translocon is a post-translational event requiring no SRP but the motor protein SecA. Secretory proteins were, however, reported to utilize SRP in addition to SecA, if the hydrophobicity of their signal sequences exceeds a certain threshold value. Here we have analyzed transport of this subgroup of secretory proteins across the Sec translocon employing an entirely defined in vitro system. We thus found SecA to be both necessary and sufficient for translocation of secretory proteins with hydrophobic signal sequences, whereas SRP and its receptor improved translocation efficiency. This SRP-mediated boost of translocation is likely due to the early capture of the hydrophobic signal sequence by SRP as revealed by site-specific photo cross-linking of ribosome nascent chain complexes.

  20. LulzSec how a handful of hackers brought the US government to its knees : 50 days of Lulz

    CERN Document Server

    Schurman, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    LulzSec is a group of Web hackers who made themselves famous for their barrage of attacks and their sarcastic taunting of victims during the summer of 2011. Members of LulzSec, short for Lulz Security, committed many well-publicized online attacks in the span of several weeks. The successful attacks included publicizing hundreds of thousands of passwords and user names from customers of supposedly secure Web sites. LulzSec's history is a short, busy one. The group's first known attack occurred in May 2011. By July 2011, 50 days after its first publicized hack, Lulz Security released a sta

  1. SYNTHESIS OF POLYISOBUTYLENE WITH SEC-ARYLAMINO TERMINAL GROUP BY COMBINATION OF CATIONIC POLYMERIZATION WITH ALKYLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-long Zhang; Yi-xian Wu; Xiao-yan Meng; Qiang Huang; Guan-ying Wu; Ri-wei Xu

    2009-01-01

    The highly reactive polyisobutylenes (PIBs) with 6t-double bonds (87.5 mol%) or tert-chloro (tert-Cl) groups (95 mol%) could be prepared via the cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB) coinitiated by BF3 or TiCl4 respectively. The Friedel-Crafts alkylation of diphenylamine (DPA) with the highly reactive PIB with α-double bonds was further conducted under different conditions, such as at different alkylation temperature, in the mixed solvents of CH2Cl2/n-hexane with different solvent polarity and at DPA concentration ([DPA]). The resultant PIBs with sec-arylamino terminal groups were characterized by GPC with RI/UV dual detectors and 1H-NMR spectrum. The experimental results indicated that alkylation efficiency increased with increases in reaction temperature, solvent polarity and [DPA]. The 77 mol% of sec-arylamino terminated PIBs could be obtained in 10/90 (V/V) mixture of nHex/CH2Cl2 with [DPA]/[PIB] of 3.0 at 60℃ for 45 h. Moreover, the alkylation of DPA with highly reactive PIBs with mainly tert-CI terminal groups was also carried out in 10/90 (V/V) mixture of CH2/Cl2/nHex with [DPA]/[PIB] = 3.0 at 60℃ for 45 h, and almost monoalkylation with 100 mol% sec-arylamino terminal groups could be achieved. These results will help further explorations of the molecular engineering via combination of cationic polymerization with alkylation.

  2. Securities Trading: SEC Action Needed to Address National Market System Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    goals. (See p. 35.) I Development of Trading In May 1989, sec approved a maor change to the way stock options will Linkage for Multiple be listed and...December 1989) Table 1.1: Average Daily Volume of U.S. Stock Exchanges 50 0 and NASIDQ (1969) Table 1.2: Average Daily Stock Options Contract Volume 55 of...U.S. Options Exchanges (199) Table 1.3: Number of Stock Options Listed at Options 55 Exchanges (December 1989) Figures FIgure 2.1: N’SE Block Trades

  3. HEMA/MMA/EDMA packing material evaluation for size exclusion chromatography (SEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Duarte Vianna-Soares

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available HEMA/MMA/EDMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/methyl methacrylate/ethyleneglycol methacrylate copolymer beads have been synthesized for use in aqueous SEC. This porous chromatographic support consisted of a large average particle size (250 µm and contained macropores with a median pore size of approximately 880 Å. The material was packed in glass and stainless columns to assess their chromatographic performance. The packed columns were calibrated using narrow molecular weight (MW distribution standards (dextran and exhibited a range of molecular weight separation between 40,000 and 2,000,000 daltons. The packing material showed the ability to separate large molecules through the size exclusion mechanism.

  4. Genome-Wide Screen Reveals sec21 Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Are Methotrexate-Resistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lai H.; Flibotte, Stephane; Sinha, Sunita; Chiang, Jennifer; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2017-01-01

    Drug resistance is a consequence of how most modern medicines work. Drugs exert pressure on cells that causes death or the evolution of resistance. Indeed, highly specific drugs are rendered ineffective by a single DNA mutation. In this study, we apply the drug methotrexate, which is widely used in cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, and perform evolution experiments on Baker’s yeast to ask the different ways in which cells become drug resistant. Because of the conserved nature of biological pathways between yeast and man, our results can inform how the same mechanism may operate to render human cells resistant to treatment. Exposure of cells to small molecules and drug therapies imposes a strong selective pressure. As a result, cells rapidly acquire mutations in order to survive. These include resistant variants of the drug target as well as those that modulate drug transport and detoxification. To systematically explore how cells acquire drug resistance in an unbiased manner, rapid cost-effective approaches are required. Methotrexate, as one of the first rationally designed anticancer drugs, has served as a prototypic example of such acquired resistance. Known methotrexate resistance mechanisms include mutations that increase expression of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) target as well as those that maintain function yet reduce the drug’s binding affinity. Recent evidence suggests that target-independent, epistatic mutations can also result in resistance to methotrexate. Currently, however, the relative contribution of such unlinked resistance mutations is not well understood. To address this issue, we took advantage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model eukaryotic system that combined with whole-genome sequencing and a rapid screening methodology, allowed the identification of causative mutations that modulate resistance to methotrexate. We found a recurrent missense mutation in SEC21 (orthologous to human COPG1), which we confirmed in 10 de novo

  5. Generating randomised virtualised scenarios for ethical hacking and computer security education: SecGen implementation and deployment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Computer security students benefit from having hands-on experience with hacking tools and with access to vulnerable systems that they can attack and defend. However, vulnerable VMs are static; once they have been exploited by a student there is no repeatable challenge as the vulnerable boxes never change. A new novel solution, SecGen, has been created and deployed. SecGen solves the issue by creating vulnerable machines with randomised vulnerabilities and services, with constraints that ensur...

  6. 40 CFR 152.113 - Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(7)-Products that do not contain a new active...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sec. 3(c)(7)-Products that do not contain a new active ingredient. 152.113 Section 152.113 Protection... FIFRA sec. 3(c)(7)—Products that do not contain a new active ingredient. (a) Except as provided in... product for a new use under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(7)(B) if: (1) The pesticide is the subject of a special...

  7. Comparison of SEC and CE-SDS methods for monitoring hinge fragmentation in IgG1 monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Rao, Romesh; Jones, Natalie; Jaya, Nomalie; Salas-Solano, Oscar

    2017-10-25

    Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies is a critical quality attribute routinely monitored to assess the purity and integrity of the product from development to commercialization. Cleavage in the upper hinge region of IgG1 monoclonal antibodies is a common fragmentation pattern widely studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Capillary electrophoresis with sodium dodecylsulfate (CE-SDS) is a well-established technique commonly used for monitoring antibody fragments as well, but its comparability to SEC in monitoring hinge fragments has not been established until now. We report a characterization strategy that establishes the correlation between hinge region fragments analyzed by SEC and CE-SDS. Monoclonal antibodies with elevated hinge fragments were generated under low pH stress conditions and analyzed by SEC and CE-SDS. The masses of the fragments generated were determined by LC-MS. Electrophoretic migration of the hinge fragmentation products in CE-SDS were determined based on their mass values. Comparative assessment of fragments by SEC, and CE-SDS showed similar correlation with incubation time. This study demonstrates that CE-SDS can be employed as a surrogate technique to SEC for monitoring hinge region fragments. Most importantly, combination of these techniques can be used to obtain comprehensive understanding of fragment related characteristics of therapeutic protein products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A New Technique for Achieving Impact Velocities Greater Than 10 km/sec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekutowski, A. J.; Nolen, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This Contractor Report describes and presents the results of work that was done in an attempt to develop an augmented acceleration technique that would launch small projectiles of known shape, mass, and state to velocities of 10 km/sec and higher. The higher velocities were to be achieved by adding a third stage to a conventional two-stage, light-gas gun and using a modified firing cycle for the third stage. The technique did not achieve the desired results and was modified for use during the development program. Since the design of the components used for the augmented-acceleration, three-stage launcher could be readily adapted for use as a three-stage launcher that used a single-stage acceleration cycle; the remainder of the contract period was spent performing test firings using the modified three-stage launcher. Work with the modified three-stage launcher, although not complete, did produce test firings in which an 0.11-g cylindrical nylon projectile was launched to a velocity of 8.65 km/sec.

  9. Point light source detection characteristics of a SEC vidicon digital TV camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargis, A B

    1978-03-01

    Optimization of the point source detection properties of a Secondary Electron Conduction (SEC) vidicon TV camera tube as a detector of point light sources such as star fields or certain optical spectra requires the accurate determination of peak height, half-peak width, background, and location of the point image. Two perpendicular Gaussian curves have been used to define a point image, allowing changes in the parameters of these Gaussian curves to be used in the study of SEC vidicon point source properties as a function of electrical and optical parameters. Peak height was shown to depend on priming time and a method was developed to reduce the priming time by almost an order of magnitude by momentarily raising the target voltage during priming. Power supply specifications needed for 0.1 pixel (picture element) addressing accuracy were found to be +/-0.03 V. Focus current was optimized to obtain the best sensitivity and resolution over the entire target. Peak height, background, and half-peak width were found to be strongly dependent on readout beam current. Target voltage, over the limited range examined, was found to affect only the gain without compromising other image parameters, so that any value could be used, consistent with gain and sensitivity required.

  10. Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec reduced neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Louise; Ohlin, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec could reduce the incidence of neonatal sepsis in a level-three neonatal intensive care unit. We studied the incidence of neonatal sepsis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) for 16.5 months before the initiative was launched on May 15, 2012 and then for a further 8.5 months after it was introduced. The hub routine was applied to all intravenous catheters. During the control period before the initiative was launched, there were nine cases of CoNS sepsis compared with no cases after it was introduced, resulting in a decrease in sepsis incidence from 1.5% to 0% with a risk reduction of 1.5% (0.53-2.58%) (p = 0.06). In the preterm infant population, the incidence of sepsis decreased from 3.6% to 0% (1.1-6.0%) (p = 0.11). Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec seemed to be an efficient way of preventing sepsis caused by CoNS in newborn infants. However, the evidence for the benefits will remain weak until a large randomised trial has been completed. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Brotação de gemas em secções de caule de abacaxizeiro 'smooth cayenne' tratadas com reguladores de crescimento Bud sprouting in stem sections of 'smooth cayenne' pineapple plant treated with growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimário Inácio Coelho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a propagação ex-vitro do abacaxizeiro, 'Smooth Cayenne', utilizando-se de secções de caule tratadas com Ácido Giberélico (GA3 e 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP. O delineamento utilizado foi o fatorial fracionado do tipo (1/55³, com tamanho de secções, GA3 e BAP, e cinco níveis, num total de 25 tratamentos, que consistiram em combinações de secções de diferentes comprimentos (6; 8; 10; 12 e 14 cm e concentrações (0; 100; 200; 300 e 400 mg L-1 de GA3 e BAP. Cada parcela constituiu-se de 50 secções. O BAP apresentou efeito positivo, e o GA3, efeito negativo sobre a percentagem de secções brotadas em avaliação realizada aos 28 dias após o plantio. O tamanho da secção, o GA3 e o BAP influenciaram no número de gemas brotadas por secção. Verificou-se efeito para as características: altura, massa fresca e massa seca da parte aérea, e massa seca das raízes das mudas avaliadas aos 123 dias após o plantio, em resposta ao tamanho das secções, GA3 e BAP, sendo o efeito positivo apenas para o tamanho das secções. Os maiores valores de massas fresca e seca de mudas são obtidos sem a aplicação de BAP e GA3 em secções de caule com 14 cm de comprimento.The ex-vitro propagation of the pineapple plant cv Smooth Cayenne was evaluated using the stem sections treated with Giberelic acid (GA3 and 6 benzylaminopurine (BAP. The design utilized was the fractionated factorial of the type (1/55³ with sizes of stem sections, GA3, BAP and five levels totalizing 25 treatments that consisted of the combination of different length of section (6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 cm and concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L-1 of GA3 and BAP. Each plot consisted of 50 sections treated through immersion for one minute in solutions containing different combinations of GA3 e BAP concentrations. BAP had positive and GA3 negative effect on the percentage of buds sprouting in stem sections at 28 days after planting. The section size, GA3 and BAP

  12. YidC Occupies the Lateral Gate of the SecYEG Translocon and Is Sequentially Displaced by a Nascent Membrane Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachelaru, Ilie; Petriman, Narcis Adrian; Kudva, Renuka; Kuhn, Patrick; Welte, Thomas; Knapp, Bettina; Drepper, Friedel; Warscheid, Bettina; Koch, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    Most membrane proteins are co-translationally inserted into the lipid bilayer via the universally conserved SecY complex and they access the lipid phase presumably via a lateral gate in SecY. In bacteria, the lipid transfer of membrane proteins from the SecY channel is assisted by the SecY-associated protein YidC, but details on the SecY-YidC interaction are unknown. By employing an in vivo and in vitro site-directed cross-linking approach, we have mapped the SecY-YidC interface and found YidC in contact with all four transmembrane domains of the lateral gate. This interaction did not require the SecDFYajC complex and was not influenced by SecA binding to SecY. In contrast, ribosomes dissociated the YidC contacts to lateral gate helices 2b and 8. The major contact between YidC and the lateral gate was lost in the presence of ribosome nascent chains and new SecY-YidC contacts appeared. These data demonstrate that the SecY-YidC interaction is influenced by nascent-membrane-induced lateral gate movements. PMID:23609445

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Sfh3, a member of the Sec14 protein superfamily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jihui; Schaaf, Gabriel; Bankaitis, Vytas A.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Pathak, Manish C. (Emory-MED); (UNC)

    2012-03-26

    Sec14 is the major phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is the founding member of the Sec14 protein superfamily. Recent functional data suggest that Sec14 functions as a nanoreactor for PtdCho-regulated presentation of PtdIns to PtdIns kinase to affect membrane trafficking. Extrapolation of this concept to other members of the Sec14 superfamily suggests a mechanism by which a comprehensive cohort of Sec14-like nanoreactors sense correspondingly diverse pools of lipid metabolites. In turn, metabolic information is translated to signaling circuits driven by phosphoinositide metabolism. Sfh3, one of five Sec14 homologs in yeast, exhibits several interesting functional features, including its unique localization to lipid particles and microsomes. This localization forecasts novel regulatory interfaces between neutral lipid metabolism and phosphoinositide signaling. To launch a detailed structural and functional characterization of Sfh3, the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity, diffraction-quality crystals were produced and a native X-ray data set was collected to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. To aid in phasing, SAD X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.93 {angstrom} resolution from an SeMet-labeled crystal at the Southeast Regional Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source. Here, the cloning and purification of Sfh3 and the preliminary diffraction of Sfh3 crystals are reported, enabling structural analyses that are expected to reveal novel principles governing ligand binding and functional specificity for Sec14-superfamily proteins.

  14. MUC1/SEC and MUC1/Y overexpression is associated with inflammation in Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, H H; Castro, I; González, S; Aguilera, S; Smorodinsky, N I; Quest, Afg; Bahamondes, V; Alliende, C; Cortés, J; Molina, C; Urzúa, U; Barrera, M-J; Hermoso, M; Herrera, L; Leyton, C; González, M-J

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the expression and localization of MUC1/SEC and MUC1/Y isoforms in labial salivary glands (LSG) from Sjögren's syndrome patients (SS patients), as well as their in vitro expression induced by cytokines. Labial salivary gland from 27 primary SS patients and 22 non-SS sicca subjects were studied. Relative MUC1/SEC and MUC1/Y mRNA levels were determined by qPCR and protein levels by Western blotting. Induction of mucin mRNAs was assayed in vitro. Immunohistochemistry was used for localization. Relative MUC1/SEC and MUC1/Y mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in LSG from SS patients. These mRNAs were induced by cytokines. MUC1/SEC and MUC1/Y were detected in acini apical region of control LSGs, and significant cytoplasmic accumulation was observed in acini of SS patients. MUC1/Y localized in acinar nuclei and cytoplasm of inflammatory cells of LSG from SS patients. A strong positive correlation was observed between cellular MUC1/SEC levels and glandular function determined by scintigraphy. We show for the first time that MUC1/SEC and MUC1/Y are expressed in LSG of both SS patients and non-SS sicca subjects. The observed overexpression and aberrant localization of MUC1/SEC and MUC1/Y and their induction by pro-inflammatory cytokines may favor the perpetuation of the inflammatory environment that disrupts the salivary glandular homeostasis in SS patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Gaojushen:a novel anti-cancer drug prepared from SEC superantigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈廷祚

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Clinical observations Gaojushen is a novel anti-cancer drug developed by Xiehe Bio-pharmaceutical Company,Shenyang, China. It is prepared and processed from the filtrate of Staphylococcus aureus culture. The active component contained in it has been shown to be a SEC superantigen that is a metabolite of the culture.This superantigen is marked by its ability to stimulate T cells at a high frequency, thereby giving rise to potent cell-mediated immunological responses and producing a large variety of cytokines with the final rsult of apoptosis of tumor cells. The drug was approved for trial prodoction in 1994 by the Center of the State Evaluation and Review of New Drugs,China,and was licenced for marketing by 1996 after finishing the phase III clinical trial.

  16. SecG is required for antibiotic activities of Pseudomonas sp. YL23 against Erwinia amylovora and Dickeya chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youzhou; Baird, Sonya M; Qiao, Junqing; Du, Yan; Lu, Shi-En

    2015-05-01

    Strain YL23 was isolated from soybean root tips and identified to be Pseudomonas sp. This strain showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against bacterial pathogens that are economically important in agriculture. To characterize the genes dedicated to antibacterial activities against microbial phytopathogens, a Tn5-mutation library of YL23 was constructed. Plate bioassays revealed that the mutant YL23-93 lost its antibacterial activities against Erwinia amylovora and Dickeya chrysanthemi as compared with its wild type strain. Genetic and sequencing analyses localized the transposon in a homolog of the secG gene in the mutant YL23-93. Constitutive expression plasmid pUCP26-secG was constructed and electroporated into the mutant YL23-93. Introduction of the plasmid pUCP26-secG restored antibacterial activities of the mutant YL23-93 to E. amylovora and D. chrysanthemi. As expected, empty plasmid pUCP26 could not complement the phenotype of the antibacterial activity in the mutant. Thus the secG gene, belonging to the Sec protein translocation system, is required for antibacterial activity of strain YL23 against E. amylovora and D. chrysanthemi.

  17. A component of the Sec61 ER protein transporting pore is required for plant susceptibility to powdery mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biotrophic pathogens, like the powdery mildew fungi, require living plant cells for their growth and reproduction. During infection, a specialized structure called the haustorium is formed by the fungus. The haustorium is surrounded by a plant cell-derived extrahaustorial membrane (EHM. Over the EHM, the fungus obtains nutrients from and secretes effectors into the plant cell. In the plant cell these effectors interfere with cellular processes such as pathogen defense and membrane trafficking. However, the mechanisms behind effector delivery are largely unknown. This paper provides a model for and new insights into a putative transfer mechanism of effectors into the plant cell. We show that silencing of the barley Sec61βa protein results in decreased susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus. HvSec61βa is a component of both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER translocon and retrotranslocon pores, the latter being part of the ER-associated protein degradation machinery (ERAD. We provide support for a model suggesting that the retrotranslocon function of HvSec61βa is required for successful powdery mildew fungal infection. HvSec61βa-GFP and a luminal ER marker were co-localized to the ER, which was found to be in close proximity to the EHM around the haustorial body, but not the haustorial fingers. This differential EHM proximity suggests that the ER, including HvSec61βa, may be actively recruited by the haustorium, potentially to provide efficient effector transfer to the cytosol. Effector transport across this EHM-ER interface may occur by a vesicle-mediated process, while the Sec61 retrotranslocon pore potentially provides an escape route for these proteins to reach the cytosol.

  18. A component of the Sec61 ER protein transporting pore is required for plant susceptibility to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Hanisch, Susanne; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Pedersen, Carsten; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Biotrophic pathogens, like the powdery mildew fungi, require living plant cells for their growth and reproduction. During infection, a specialized structure called the haustorium is formed by the fungus. The haustorium is surrounded by a plant cell-derived extrahaustorial membrane (EHM). Over the EHM, the fungus obtains nutrients from and secretes effector proteins into the plant cell. In the plant cell these effectors interfere with cellular processes such as pathogen defense and membrane trafficking. However, the mechanisms behind effector delivery are largely unknown. This paper provides a model for and new insights into a putative transfer mechanism of effectors into the plant cell. We show that silencing of the barley Sec61βa transcript results in decreased susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus. HvSec61βa is a component of both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocon and retrotranslocon pores, the latter being part of the ER-associated protein degradation machinery. We provide support for a model suggesting that the retrotranslocon function of HvSec61βa is required for successful powdery mildew fungal infection. HvSec61βa-GFP and a luminal ER marker were co-localized to the ER, which was found to be in close proximity to the EHM around the haustorial body, but not the haustorial fingers. This differential EHM proximity suggests that the ER, including HvSec61βa, may be actively recruited by the haustorium, potentially to provide efficient effector transfer to the cytosol. Effector transport across this EHM-ER interface may occur by a vesicle-mediated process, while the Sec61 retrotranslocon pore potentially provides an escape route for these proteins to reach the cytosol.

  19. Analysis of the isolated SecA DEAD motor suggests a mechanism for chemical-mechanical coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithianantham, Stanley; Shilton, Brian H

    2008-11-07

    The preprotein cross-linking domain and C-terminal domains of Escherichia coli SecA were removed to create a minimal DEAD motor, SecA-DM. SecA-DM hydrolyzes ATP and has the same affinity for ADP as full-length SecA. The crystal structure of SecA-DM in complex with ADP was solved and shows the DEAD motor in a closed conformation. Comparison with the structure of the E. coli DEAD motor in an open conformation (Protein Data Bank ID 2FSI) indicates main-chain conformational changes in two critical sequences corresponding to Motif III and Motif V of the DEAD helicase family. The structures that the Motif III and Motif V sequences adopt in the DEAD motor open conformation are incompatible with the closed conformation. Therefore, when the DEAD motor makes the transition from open to closed, Motif III and Motif V are forced to change their conformations, which likely functions to regulate passage through the transition state for ATP hydrolysis. The transition state for ATP hydrolysis for the SecA DEAD motor was modeled based on the conformation of the Vasa helicase in complex with adenylyl imidodiphosphate and RNA (Protein Data Bank ID 2DB3). A mechanism for chemical-mechanical coupling emerges, where passage through the transition state for ATP hydrolysis is hindered by the conformational changes required in Motif III and Motif V, and may be promoted by binding interactions with the preprotein substrate and/or other translocase domains and subunits.

  20. Exocyst Sec10 protects renal tubule cells from injury by EGFR/MAPK activation and effects on endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelgren, Ben; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Buonato, Janine M; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Soo Young; Chacon-Heszele, Maria F; Palmyre, Aurélien; Polgar, Noemi; Drummond, Iain; Park, Kwon Moo; Lazzara, Matthew J; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2014-12-15

    Acute kidney injury is common and has a high mortality rate, and no effective treatment exists other than supportive care. Using cell culture models, we previously demonstrated that exocyst Sec10 overexpression reduced damage to renal tubule cells and speeded recovery and that the protective effect was mediated by higher basal levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein complex, is known for regulating protein trafficking. Here we show that the exocyst biochemically interacts with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is upstream of MAPK, and Sec10-overexpressing cells express greater levels of phosphorylated (active) ERK, the final step in the MAPK pathway, in response to EGF stimulation. EGFR endocytosis, which has been linked to activation of the MAPK pathway, increases in Sec10-overexpressing cells, and gefitinib, a specific EGFR inhibitor, and Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, both reduce EGFR endocytosis. In turn, inhibition of the MAPK pathway reduces ligand-mediated EGFR endocytosis, suggesting a potential feedback of elevated ERK activity on EGFR endocytosis. Gefitinib also decreases MAPK signaling in Sec10-overexpressing cells to levels seen in control cells and, demonstrating a causal role for EGFR, reverses the protective effect of Sec10 overexpression following cell injury in vitro. Finally, using an in vivo zebrafish model of acute kidney injury, morpholino-induced knockdown of sec10 increases renal tubule cell susceptibility to injury. Taken together, these results suggest that the exocyst, acting through EGFR, endocytosis, and the MAPK pathway is a candidate therapeutic target for acute kidney injury.

  1. Exocyst Sec10 protects epithelial barrier integrity and enhances recovery following oxidative stress, by activation of the MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwon Moo; Fogelgren, Ben; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Kim, Jinu; Chung, Daniel C; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2010-03-01

    Cell-cell contacts are essential for epithelial cell function, and disruption is associated with pathological conditions including ischemic kidney injury. We hypothesize that the exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein complex that targets secretory vesicles carrying membrane proteins, is involved in maintaining renal epithelial barrier integrity. Accordingly, increasing exocyst expression in renal tubule cells may protect barrier function from oxidative stress resulting from ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. When cultured on plastic, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing Sec10, a central exocyst component, formed domes showing increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Transepithelial electric resistance (TER) of Sec10-overexpressing MDCK cells grown on Transwell filters was higher than in control MDCK cells, and the rate of TER decrease following H2O2 treatment was less in Sec10-overexpressing MDCK cells compared with control MDCK cells. After removal of H2O2, TER returned to normal more rapidly in Sec10-overexpressing compared with control MDCK cells. In collagen culture MDCK cells form cysts, and H2O2 treatment damaged Sec10-overexpressing MDCK cell cysts less than control MDCK cell cysts. The MAPK pathway has been shown to protect animals from I/R injury. Levels of active ERK, the final MAPK pathway step, were higher in Sec10-overexpressing compared with control MDCK cells. U0126 inhibited ERK activation, exacerbated the H2O2-induced decrease in TER and cyst disruption, and delayed recovery of TER following H2O2 removal. Finally, in mice with renal I/R injury, exocyst expression decreased early and returned to normal concomitant with functional recovery, suggesting that the exocyst may be involved in the recovery following I/R injury.

  2. pySecDec: a toolbox for the numerical evaluation of multi-scale integrals arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Borowka, S.; Jahn, S.; Jones, S.P.; Kerner, M.; Schlenk, J.; Zirke, T.

    We present pySecDec, a new version of the program SecDec, which performs the factorisation of dimensionally regulated poles in parametric integrals, and the subsequent numerical evaluation of the finite coefficients. The algebraic part of the program is now written in the form of python modules, which allow a very flexible usage. The optimization of the C++ code, generated using FORM, is improved, leading to a faster numerical convergence. The new version also creates a library of the integrand functions, such that it can be linked to user-specific codes for the evaluation of matrix elements in a way similar to analytic integral libraries.

  3. Evaluation of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for the characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in anaerobic granular sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, S.; Pairo, B.; Villain, M.; Abzac, D' P.; Hullebusch, E.; Lens, P.N.L.; Guibaud, G.

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from three granular and one flocculant anaerobic sludges were characterised by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using two serially linked chromatographic columns in order to obtain more detailed chromatograms. A Superdex peptide 10/300 GL (0.

  4. Corrosion resistant coatings (Al2O3) produced by metal organic chemical vapour deposition using aluminium-tri-sec-butoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Corbach, van H.D.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of amorphous alumina films on steel was performed in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. This MOCVD process is based on the thermal decomposition of aluminium-tri-sec-butoxide (ATSB). The effect of the deposition temperature (within the range 290–42

  5. Mutations in the COPII vesicle component gene SEC24B are associated with human neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Yan; Zhou, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Qing Qing; Li, Hong; Chen, Ying; Lei, Yun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Hang; Kong, Pan; Shi, Yan; Jin, Li; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Hong-Yan

    2013-08-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe birth malformations that affect one in 1,000 live births. Recently, mutations in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway genes had been implicated in the pathogenesis of NTDs in both the mouse model and in human cohorts. Mouse models indicate that the homozygous disruption of Sec24b, which mediates the ER-to-Golgi transportation of the core PCP gene Vangl2 as a component of the COPII vesicle, will result in craniorachischisis. In this study, we found four rare missense heterozygous SEC24B mutations (p.Phe227Ser, p.Phe682Leu, p.Arg1248Gln, and p.Ala1251Gly) in NTDs cases that were absent in all controls. Among them, p.Phe227Ser and p.Phe682Leu affected its protein stability and physical interaction with VANGL2. Three variants (p.Phe227Ser, p.Arg1248Gln, and p.Ala1251Gly) were demonstrated to affect VANGL2 subcellular localization in cultured cells. Further functional analysis in the zebrafish including overexpression and dosage-dependent rescue study suggested that these four mutations all displayed loss-of-function effects compared with wild-type SEC24B. Our study demonstrated that functional mutations in SEC24B might contribute to the etiology of a subset of human NTDs and further expanded our knowledge of the role of PCP pathway-related genes in the pathogenesis of human NTDs.

  6. A component of the Sec61 ER protein transporting pore is required for plant susceptibility to powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Hanisch, Susanne; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J

    2013-01-01

    , which was found to be in close proximity to the EHM around the haustorial body, but not the haustorial fingers. This differential EHM proximity suggests that the ER, including HvSec61βa, may be actively recruited by the haustorium, potentially to provide efficient effector transfer to the cytosol...

  7. Evaluation of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for the characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in anaerobic granular sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, S.; Pairo, B.; Villain, M.; Abzac, D' P.; Hullebusch, E.; Lens, P.N.L.; Guibaud, G.

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from three granular and one flocculant anaerobic sludges were characterised by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using two serially linked chromatographic columns in order to obtain more detailed chromatograms. A Superdex peptide 10/300 GL

  8. Four GTPases differentially regulate the Sec7 Arf-GEF to direct traffic at the trans-golgi network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonold, Caitlin M; Fromme, J Christopher

    2014-09-29

    Traffic through the Golgi complex is controlled by small GTPases of the Arf and Rab families. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) proteins activate these GTPases to control Golgi function, yet the full assortment of signals regulating these GEFs is unknown. The Golgi Arf-GEF Sec7 and the homologous BIG1/2 proteins are effectors of the Arf1 and Arl1 GTPases. We demonstrate that Sec7 is also an effector of two Rab GTPases, Ypt1 (Rab1) and Ypt31/32 (Rab11), signifying unprecedented signaling crosstalk between GTPase pathways. The molecular basis for the role of Ypt31/32 and Rab11 in vesicle formation has remained elusive. We find that Arf1, Arl1, and Ypt1 primarily affect the membrane localization of Sec7, whereas Ypt31/32 exerts a dramatic stimulatory effect on the nucleotide exchange activity of Sec7. The convergence of multiple signaling pathways on a master regulator reveals a mechanism for balancing incoming and outgoing traffic at the Golgi.

  9. 77 FR 38838 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 230.110-Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Banks, Other Firms Collecting, Manufacturing, Preparing, or Processing Human Blood or Blood Products... Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting, Manufacturing, Preparing, or Processing Human Blood or... INFORMATION: FDA issued the CPG entitled ``Sec. 230.110 Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms...

  10. 77 FR 52741 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 420.300 Changes in Compendial Specifications and New Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Specifications and New Drug Application Supplements; Withdrawal of Guidance AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... withdrawal of Compliance Policy Guide (CPG) Sec. 420.300 Changes in Compendial Specifications and New Drug...: Changes to an Approved NDA or Abbreviated New Drug Application, which is available on the Internet at...

  11. Outdoor test for thermal performance evaluation of the Owens-Illinois Sunpack SEC-601 (air) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures used and the test results obtained during the performance of an evaluation test program on the Owens-Illinois Sunpak, model SEC-601, air solar collector under natural outdoor weather conditions are presented. All testing activities were performed on a single module. The test was performed and the data evaluated as applicable to outdoor testing of solar collectors.

  12. Organization of the Sec61 translocon, studied by high resolution native electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejgaard, Kurt; Theberge, Jean-Francois; Heath-Engel, Hannah; Chevet, Eric; Tremblay, Michel L; Thomas, David Y

    2010-04-05

    Cotranslational translocation of polypeptides into the ER is controlled by the dynamic interaction of ribosome and translocon components. Analysis of the steps involved in this process by high resolution techniques such as gel electrophoresis is precluded by the high molecular masses of these complexes. We show, here, that modifications to standard native electrophoresis protocols can overcome these problems and lead to an increase in mass range and resolution. Using the modified technique, we show that ER ribosome anchored membrane protein (RAMP) complexes resolve into 3 stable and semistable complexes which range in size between 4 and 8 MDa and are sensitive to relevant concentrations of divalent metals. We demonstrate the molecular composition of the complexes and identify a number of modular components that differentiate them. The components that are common to all three RAMP complexes include the OST translocon subcomplex, Glucosidase I and microtubule tethering protein CLIMP63. The two larger complexes further include the kinesin motor binding protein p180 and Sec61, and the largest complex includes the TRAP translocon component and apoptotic regulator BAP31. On the lumenal side, the BiP cochaperone ERdj3 resides with the three RAMP complexes. Our observations may hint at how subcompartmentalization is achieved in the ER membrane continuum.

  13. INVESTIGATION ON THE RESPONSE FACTORS OF CONCENTRATION DETECTORS WITHIN SEC PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-guo Liu; Hong-feng Xie; Zhi-liu Wang; Hu Yang; Rong-shi Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The response factors of refractive index (RI) and ultraviolet (UV) detectors of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) defined as the ratio of area of output signal to the mass of injected sample are studied and analyzed by using five narrowly distributed polystyrene (PS) standard samples with known molar masses. It is found that the individual response factor for a given sample varies with the concentration of the injected solution within a limited range bounded by an upper and a lower limiting response factor values. This variation reveals the conformational change of the polymer chains with the concentration of the injected solution. The dynamic contact concentrations Cs of the PS samples derived from the response factor data are in good accordance with those reported earlier by other methods. The physical meanings of the signals of the two detectors are further analyzed and theoretically formulated. The solvation of the polymer chain and the conformation changes play an important role in these detecting systems. Both of the solvation number of the structural repeating unit and the extra embedded solvent due to cluster forming in higher concentrations could be deduced from the variation of response factor with the concentration of the injected solution.

  14. A catalytic biofuel production strategy involving separate conversion of hemicellulose and cellulose using 2-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and lignin-derived (LD) alkylphenol solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghoon; Han, Jeehoon

    2016-03-01

    A strategy in which the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of lignocellulosic biomass are converted separately to jet fuel-range liquid hydrocarbon fuels (butene oligomers) through catalytic processes is developed. Dilute sulfuric acid (SA)-catalyzed pretreatment fractionates the first biomass into cellulose and hemicellulose-derived xylose, and these are then converted separately to levulinic acid (LA) using 2-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and lignin-derived (LD) alkylphenol solvents, respectively. LA is upgraded catalytically to butene oligomers via γ-valerolactone (GVL) and butene intermediates. Separation subsystems are designed to recover the alkylphenol solvents and biomass-derived intermediates (LA and GVL) for combination with the catalytic conversion subsystems of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. In addition, a heat exchanger network (HEN) design is presented to satisfy the energy requirements of the integrated process from combustion of biomass residues (degradation products). Finally, a technoeconomic analysis shows that the proposed process ($3.37/gallon of gasoline) is an economically competitive alternative to current biofuel production approaches.

  15. 75 FR 76019 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 390.500 Definition of “High-Voltage Vacuum Switch”-21 CFR 1002.61(a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 390.500 Definition of ``High... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the withdrawal of Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 390.500 Definition of ``High-Voltage Vacuum...

  16. Evolutionary relationships among salivarius streptococci as inferred from multilocus phylogenies based on 16S rRNA-encoding, recA, secA, and secY gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombert, Jean-François; Sistek, Viridiana; Boissinot, Maurice; Frenette, Michel

    2009-10-30

    Streptococci are divided into six phylogenetic groups, i.e, anginosus, bovis, mitis, mutans, pyogenic, and salivarius, with the salivarius group consisting of only three distinct species. Two of these species, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus vestibularis, are members of the normal human oral microflora whereas the third, Streptococcus thermophilus, is found in bovine milk. Given that S. salivarius and S. vestibularis share several physiological characteristics, in addition to inhabiting the same ecosystem, one would assume that they would be more closely related to each other than to S. thermophilus. However, the few phylogenetic trees published so far suggest that S. vestibularis is more closely related to S. thermophilus. To determine whether this phylogenetic relationship is genuine, we performed phylogenetic inferences derived from secA and secY, the general secretion housekeeping genes, recA, a gene from a separate genetic locus that encodes a major component of the homologous recombinational apparatus, and 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequences using other streptococcal species as outgroups. The maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) phylogenetic inferences derived from the secA and recA gene sequences provided strong support for the S. vestibularis/S. thermophilus sister-relationship, whereas 16S rRNA-encoding and secY-based analyses could not discriminate between alternate topologies. Phylogenetic analyses derived from the concatenation of these sequences unambiguously supported the close affiliation of S. vestibularis and S. thermophilus. Our results corroborated the sister-relationship between S. vestibularis and S. thermophilus and the concomitant early divergence of S. salivarius at the base of the salivarius lineage.

  17. Evolutionary relationships among salivarius streptococci as inferred from multilocus phylogenies based on 16S rRNA-encoding, recA, secA, and secY gene sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boissinot Maurice

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococci are divided into six phylogenetic groups, i.e, anginosus, bovis, mitis, mutans, pyogenic, and salivarius, with the salivarius group consisting of only three distinct species. Two of these species, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus vestibularis, are members of the normal human oral microflora whereas the third, Streptococcus thermophilus, is found in bovine milk. Given that S. salivarius and S. vestibularis share several physiological characteristics, in addition to inhabiting the same ecosystem, one would assume that they would be more closely related to each other than to S. thermophilus. However, the few phylogenetic trees published so far suggest that S. vestibularis is more closely related to S. thermophilus. To determine whether this phylogenetic relationship is genuine, we performed phylogenetic inferences derived from secA and secY, the general secretion housekeeping genes, recA, a gene from a separate genetic locus that encodes a major component of the homologous recombinational apparatus, and 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequences using other streptococcal species as outgroups. Results The maximum likelihood (ML and maximum parsimony (MP phylogenetic inferences derived from the secA and recA gene sequences provided strong support for the S. vestibularis/S. thermophilus sister-relationship, whereas 16S rRNA-encoding and secY-based analyses could not discriminate between alternate topologies. Phylogenetic analyses derived from the concatenation of these sequences unambiguously supported the close affiliation of S. vestibularis and S. thermophilus. Conclusion Our results corroborated the sister-relationship between S. vestibularis and S. thermophilus and the concomitant early divergence of S. salivarius at the base of the salivarius lineage.

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound MoSec62 is involved in the suppression of rice immunity and is essential for the pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuangzhi; Pang, Zhiqian; Li, Guihua; Lin, Chunhua; Wang, Jing; Lv, Qiming; He, Chaozu; Zhu, Lihuang

    2016-10-01

    Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) constitutes the first line of plant inducible immunity. As an important step of plant colonization, phytopathogens have to suppress PTI, and secreted effectors are therefore co-evolved and deployed. In this study, we characterized the function of MoSec62 of Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of the destructive rice blast. MoSec62 encodes a homologue of Sec62p, a yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane transporter for precursors of secretory proteins. We showed that a T-DNA insertion into the promoter region of MoSec62, causing a disturbance to the up-regulation of MoSec62 expression during blast invasion, resulted in a complete loss of blast virulence of the mutant, M1575. Both 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining of the infected rice leaves and expression analysis revealed that the infectious attempt by the mutant led to strong defence responses of rice. Consistently, in transcriptomic analysis of rice leaves subject to blast inoculation, a battery of defence responses was found to be induced exclusively on M1575 challenge. For further exploration, we tested the pathogenicity on a highly susceptible rice variety and detected the accumulation of Slp1, a known PTI suppressor. Both results suggested that the mutant most likely failed to overcome rice PTI. In addition, we showed that MoSec62 was able to rescue the thermosensitivity of a yeast Δsec62, and the MoSec62-GFP fusion was co-localized to the ER membrane, both suggesting the conservation of Sec62 homologues. In conclusion, our data indicate that MoSec62, probably as an ER membrane transporter, plays an essential role in antagonizing rice defence at the early stages of blast invasion.

  19. Genome-wide RNAi Screen Identifies SEC61A and VCP as Conserved Regulators of Sindbis Virus Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Panda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alphaviruses are a large class of insect-borne human pathogens and little is known about the host-factor requirements for infection. To identify such factors, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen using model Drosophila cells and validated 94 genes that impacted infection of Sindbis virus (SINV, the prototypical alphavirus. We identified a conserved role for SEC61A and valosin-containing protein (VCP in facilitating SINV entry in insects and mammals. SEC61A and VCP selectively regulate trafficking of the entry receptor NRAMP2, and loss or pharmacological inhibition of these proteins leads to altered NRAMP2 trafficking to lysosomal compartments and proteolytic digestion within lysosomes. NRAMP2 is the major iron transporter in cells, and loss of NRAMP2 attenuates intracellular iron transport. Thus, this study reveals genes and pathways involved in both infection and iron homeostasis that may serve as targets for antiviral therapeutics or for iron-imbalance disorders.

  20. Removal of Fe3+ and Zn2+ from plasma metalloproteins by iron chelating therapeutics depicted with SEC-ICP-AES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooriyaarachchi, Melani; Gailer, Jürgen

    2010-08-28

    The iron chelation therapy drugs desferrioxamine B (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) are used to treat iron overload patients, but not much is known about their adverse effects on other essential metals in vivo. After the addition of a clinically relevant dose of DFP or an equimolar dose of DFO to human plasma in vitro, the mixtures were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Simultaneous detection of the emission lines of copper, iron and zinc allowed the visualization of changes that these drugs exerted at the metalloprotein level. After the addition of DFP, a metalloprotein level. Thus, SEC-ICP-AES emerges as a useful analytical tool to visualize health-relevant bioinorganic chemistry-related reactions of medicinal drugs in blood plasma in vitro.

  1. Progress in Y-00 physical cipher for Giga bit/sec optical data communications (intensity modulation method)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Osamu; Futami, Fumio

    2014-10-01

    To guarantee a security of Cloud Computing System is urgent problem. Although there are several threats in a security problem, the most serious problem is cyber attack against an optical fiber transmission among data centers. In such a network, an encryption scheme on Layer 1(physical layer) with an ultimately strong security, a small delay, and a very high speed should be employed, because a basic optical link is operated at 10 Gbit/sec/wavelength. We have developed a quantum noise randomied stream cipher so called Yuen- 2000 encryption scheme (Y-00) during a decade. This type of cipher is a completely new type random cipher in which ciphertext for a legitimate receiver and eavesdropper are different. This is a condition to break the Shannon limit in theory of cryptography. In addition, this scheme has a good balance on a security, a speed and a cost performance. To realize such an encryption, several modulation methods are candidates such as phase-modulation, intensity-modulation, quadrature amplitude modulation, and so on. Northwestern university group demonstrated a phase modulation system (α=η) in 2003. In 2005, we reported a demonstration of 1 Gbit/sec system based on intensity modulation scheme(ISK-Y00), and gave a design method for quadratic amplitude modulation (QAM-Y00) in 2005 and 2010. An intensity modulation scheme promises a real application to a secure fiber communication of current data centers. This paper presents a progress in quantum noise randomized stream cipher based on ISK-Y00, integrating our theoretical and experimental achievements in the past and recent 100 Gbit/sec(10Gbit/sec × 10 wavelengths) experiment.

  2. Overproduction of a Model Sec- and Tat-Dependent Secretory Protein Elicits Different Cellular Responses in Streptomyces lividans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gullón

    Full Text Available Streptomyces lividans is considered an efficient host for the secretory production of homologous and heterologous proteins. To identify possible bottlenecks in the protein production process, a comparative transcriptomic approach was adopted to study cellular responses during the overproduction of a Sec-dependent model protein (alpha-amylase and a Tat-dependent model protein (agarase in Streptomyces lividans. The overproduction of the model secretory proteins via the Sec or the Tat route in S. lividans does elicit a different major cell response in the bacterium. The stringent response is a bacterial response to nutrients' depletion, which naturally occurs at late times of the bacterial cell growth. While the induction of the stringent response at the exponential phase of growth may limit overall productivity in the case of the Tat route, the induction of that response does not take place in the case of the Sec route, which comparatively is an advantage in secretory protein production processes. Hence, this study identifies a potential major drawback in the secretory protein production process depending on the secretory route, and provides clues to improving S. lividans as a protein production host.

  3. Overproduction of a Model Sec- and Tat-Dependent Secretory Protein Elicits Different Cellular Responses in Streptomyces lividans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Sonia; Marín, Silvia; Mellado, Rafael P

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces lividans is considered an efficient host for the secretory production of homologous and heterologous proteins. To identify possible bottlenecks in the protein production process, a comparative transcriptomic approach was adopted to study cellular responses during the overproduction of a Sec-dependent model protein (alpha-amylase) and a Tat-dependent model protein (agarase) in Streptomyces lividans. The overproduction of the model secretory proteins via the Sec or the Tat route in S. lividans does elicit a different major cell response in the bacterium. The stringent response is a bacterial response to nutrients' depletion, which naturally occurs at late times of the bacterial cell growth. While the induction of the stringent response at the exponential phase of growth may limit overall productivity in the case of the Tat route, the induction of that response does not take place in the case of the Sec route, which comparatively is an advantage in secretory protein production processes. Hence, this study identifies a potential major drawback in the secretory protein production process depending on the secretory route, and provides clues to improving S. lividans as a protein production host.

  4. Ultra high tip speed (670.6 m/sec) fan stage with composite rotor: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, J. E.; Burger, G. D.; Dundas, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    A highly loaded, single-stage compressor having a tip speed of 670.6 m/sec was designed for the purpose of investigating very high tip speeds and high aerodynamic loadings to obtain high stage pressure ratios at acceptable levels of efficiency. The design pressure ratio is 2.8 at an adiabatic efficiency of 84.4%. Corrected design flow is 83.4 kg/sec; corrected design speed is 15,200 rpm; and rotor inlet tip diameter is 0.853 m. The rotor uses multiple-circular-arc airfoils from 0 to 15% span, precompression airfoils assuming single, strong oblique shocks from 21 to 43% span, and precompression airfoils assuming multiple oblique shocks from 52% span to the tip. Because of the high tip speeds, the rotor blades are designed to be fabricated of composite materials. Two composite materials were investigated: Courtaulds HTS graphite fiber in a Kerimid 601 polyimide matrix and the same fibers in a PMR polyimide matrix. In addition to providing a description of the aerodynamic and mechanical design of the 670.0 m/sec fan, discussion is presented of the results of structural tests of blades fabricated with both types of matrices.

  5. Overproduction of a Model Sec- and Tat-Dependent Secretory Protein Elicits Different Cellular Responses in Streptomyces lividans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Sonia; Marín, Silvia; Mellado, Rafael P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces lividans is considered an efficient host for the secretory production of homologous and heterologous proteins. To identify possible bottlenecks in the protein production process, a comparative transcriptomic approach was adopted to study cellular responses during the overproduction of a Sec-dependent model protein (alpha-amylase) and a Tat-dependent model protein (agarase) in Streptomyces lividans. The overproduction of the model secretory proteins via the Sec or the Tat route in S. lividans does elicit a different major cell response in the bacterium. The stringent response is a bacterial response to nutrients’ depletion, which naturally occurs at late times of the bacterial cell growth. While the induction of the stringent response at the exponential phase of growth may limit overall productivity in the case of the Tat route, the induction of that response does not take place in the case of the Sec route, which comparatively is an advantage in secretory protein production processes. Hence, this study identifies a potential major drawback in the secretory protein production process depending on the secretory route, and provides clues to improving S. lividans as a protein production host. PMID:26200356

  6. Gene order in a 10 275 bp fragment of Yarrowia lipolytica, including adjacent YlURA5 and YlSEC65 genes conserved in four yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M; Domínguez, A

    2001-06-30

    We have determined the sequence of a 10275 bp DNA segment of Yarrowia lipolytica located on chromosome VI. The sequence contains six complete open reading frames (ORFs) longer than 100 amino acids and two more partial ORFs at both ends. Two of the ORFs encode for the well-characterized genes YlURA5 (orotate phosphoribosyltransferase) and YlSEC65 (encoding a subunit of the signal recognition particle). These two genes show an identical organization-located on opposite strands and in opposite orientations-in four yeast species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida albicans and Y. lipolytica. One ORF and the two partial ORFs code for putative proteins showing significant homology with proteins from other organisms. YlVI-108w (partial) and YlVI-103w show 39% and 54% identity, respectively, with YDR430c and YHR088w from S. cerevisiae. YlVI-102c (partial) shows significant homology with a matrix protein, lustrin A from Haliotis rufescens, and with the PGRS subfamily (Gly-rich proteins) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The three remaining ORFs show weak or non-significant homology with previously sequenced genes. The nucleotide sequence has been submitted to the EMBL database under Accession No. AI006754.

  7. Sec-mediated secretion of bacteriocin enterocin P by Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herranz, C; Driessen, AJM

    2005-01-01

    Most lactic acid bacterium bacteriocins utilize specific leader peptides and dedicated machineries for secretion. In contrast, the enterococcal bacteriocin enterocin P (EntP) contains a typical signal peptide that directs its secretion when heterologously expressed in Lactococcus lactis. Signal pept

  8. Characterisation of PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles comparing the nanoparticle bulk to the particle surface using UV/vis spectroscopy, SEC, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spek, S.; Haeuser, M. [Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, University of Muenster, Corrensstrasse 48, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Schaefer, M.M. [nanoAnalytics, Heisenbergstrasse 11, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Langer, K., E-mail: k.langer@wwu.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, University of Muenster, Corrensstrasse 48, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We compared nanoparticles prepared on the basis of PLGA and PEG–PLGA for their polymeric composition in the particle bulk and on the surface. • We validated three analytical methods (UV/vis, SEC, {sup 1}H NMR) for quantification of the polymeric stabiliser PVA and {sup 1}H NMR for the quantification of PEG. • In the case of PEG–PLGA as starting material we observed significant PEG contents not only on the surface but even in the particle bulk. • We observed an unexpected accumulation of the polymeric stabiliser PVA on PEGylated particle surfaces. - Abstract: Hypothesis: The bulk and the surface structure of nanoparticles based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and PLGA–PEG copolymer is expected to consist of different polymer compositions. An enrichment of hydrophilic PEG on the surface in combination with an accumulation of PLGA in the bulk is anticipated. Hence, the imbalance between bulk and surface composition should be detectable by suitable analytical methods. Experiments: Nanoparticles were assembled using an emulsion-evaporation method with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as stabiliser. Mixtures of PLGA and PLGA–PEG copolymer were applied to achieve variably PEGylated nanoparticles. The nanoparticle composition was analysed with respect to PLGA, PVA and PEG, comparing the polymer content of the nanoparticle bulk to the surface. For the bulk, PVA was quantified by a UV/vis spectroscopic method as well as size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PEG determination of the bulk was carried out using quantitative {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. Surface composition was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Findings: For the characterisation of the polymer composition {sup 1}H NMR, SEC, and XPS-methods were successfully established and validated. Unexpectedly, a significant PEG content was detected within the particle bulk. The comparison of

  9. Operationally defined species characterization and bioaccessibility evaluation of cobalt, copper and selenium in Cape gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L.) by SEC-ICP MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Ruzik, Lena

    2016-03-01

    Physalis peruviana could attract great interest because of its nutritional and industrial properties. It is an excellent source of vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and carotenoids. Physalis Peruviana is also known to have a positive impact on human health. Unfortunately, still little is known about trace elements present in Physalis Peruviana and their forms available for the human body. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate bioaccessibility and characterization of species of cobalt, copper and selenium in Physalis Peruviana fruits. Total and extractable contents of elements were determined by mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS). In order to separate the different types of metal complexes Physalis peruviana fruits were treated with the following solvents: Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (pH 7.4) and ammonium acetate (pH 5.5). The best efficiency of extraction of: cobalt was obtained for ammonium acetate (56%) and Tris-HCl (60%); for copper was obtained for SDS (66%), for selenium the best extraction efficiency was obtained after extraction with SDS (48%). To obtain information about bioaccessibility of investigated elements, enzymatic extraction based on in vitro simulation of gastric (pepsin) and intestinal (pancreatin) digestion was performed. For copper and selenium the simulation of gastric digestion leads to the extraction yield above 90%, while both steps of digestion method were necessary to obtain satisfactory extraction yield in the case of cobalt. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to on-line ICP MS detection was used to investigate collected metal species. The main fraction of metal compounds was found in the 17 kDa region. Cobalt and copper create complexes mostly with compounds extracted by means of ammonium acetate and SDS, respectively. Cobalt, copper and selenium were found to be highly bioaccessible from Physalis Peruviana. Investigation of available standards of cobalt and selenium

  10. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 198 kilograms per second per square meter (40.6(lb/sec)/sq ft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    The overall and blade-element performance are presented for an air compressor stage designed to study the effect of weight flow per unit annulus area on efficiency and flow range. At the design speed of 424.8 m/sec the peak efficiency of 0.81 occurred at the design weight flow and a total pressure ratio of 1.56. Design pressure ratio and weight flow were 1.57 and 29.5 kg/sec (65.0 lb/sec), respectively. Stall margin at design speed was 19 percent based on the weight flow and pressure ratio at peak efficiency and at stall.

  11. Mutations in SEC24D, encoding a component of the COPII machinery, cause a syndromic form of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbes, Lutz; Kim, Kyungho; Rieß, Angelika; Hoyer-Kuhn, Heike; Beleggia, Filippo; Bevot, Andrea; Kim, Mi Jeong; Huh, Yang Hoon; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Savarirayan, Ravi; Amor, David; Kakadia, Purvi M; Lindig, Tobias; Kagan, Karl Oliver; Becker, Jutta; Boyadjiev, Simeon A; Wollnik, Bernd; Semler, Oliver; Bohlander, Stefan K; Kim, Jinoh; Netzer, Christian

    2015-03-05

    As a result of a whole-exome sequencing study, we report three mutant alleles in SEC24D, a gene encoding a component of the COPII complex involved in protein export from the ER: the truncating mutation c.613C>T (p.Gln205(∗)) and the missense mutations c.3044C>T (p.Ser1015Phe, located in a cargo-binding pocket) and c.2933A>C (p.Gln978Pro, located in the gelsolin-like domain). Three individuals from two families affected by a similar skeletal phenotype were each compound heterozygous for two of these mutant alleles, with c.3044C>T being embedded in a 14 Mb founder haplotype shared by all three. The affected individuals were a 7-year-old boy with a phenotype most closely resembling Cole-Carpenter syndrome and two fetuses initially suspected to have a severe type of osteogenesis imperfecta. All three displayed a severely disturbed ossification of the skull and multiple fractures with prenatal onset. The 7-year-old boy had short stature and craniofacial malformations including macrocephaly, midface hypoplasia, micrognathia, frontal bossing, and down-slanting palpebral fissures. Electron and immunofluorescence microscopy of skin fibroblasts of this individual revealed that ER export of procollagen was inefficient and that ER tubules were dilated, faithfully reproducing the cellular phenotype of individuals with cranio-lentico-sutural dysplasia (CLSD). CLSD is caused by SEC23A mutations and displays a largely overlapping craniofacial phenotype, but it is not characterized by generalized bone fragility and presented with cataracts in the original family described. The cellular and morphological phenotypes we report are in concordance with the phenotypes described for the Sec24d-deficient fish mutants vbi (medaka) and bulldog (zebrafish).

  12. Experimental determination of the isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibria of binary aqueous solutions of sec-butylamine and cyclohexylamine at several temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiali-Baba Ahmed, Nouria [LATA2M, Laboratoire de Thermodynamique Appliquee et Modelisation Moleculaire, University AbouBekr Belkaid of Tlemcen, Post Office Box 119, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Negadi, Latifa, E-mail: latifanegadi@yahoo.fr [LATA2M, Laboratoire de Thermodynamique Appliquee et Modelisation Moleculaire, University AbouBekr Belkaid of Tlemcen, Post Office Box 119, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Mokbel, Ilham [LSA, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS-UMR 5280, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 43, Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne Cedex 69622 (France); Kaci, Ahmed Ait [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et Modelisation Moleculaire, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Post Office Box 32, El Alia 16111, Bab Ezzouar (Algeria); Jose, Jacques [LSA, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS-UMR 5280, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 43, Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne Cedex 69622 (France)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > Vapour pressures of sec-butylamine or cyclohexylamine and their aqueous solutions. > The investigated temperatures are 273 K and 363 K. > The (cyclohexylamine + water) mixture shows positive azeotropic behaviour. > The (sec-butylamine + water) or (cyclohexylamine + water) exhibit positive G{sup E}. - Abstract: The vapour pressures of (sec-butylamine + water), (cyclohexylamine + water) binary mixtures, and of pure sec-butylamine and cyclohexylamine components were measured by means of two static devices at temperatures between 293 (or 273) K and 363 K. The data were correlated with the Antoine equation. From these data, excess Gibbs functions (G{sup E}) were calculated for several constant temperatures and fitted to a fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation using the Barker's method. The (cyclohexylamine + water) system shows positive azeotropic behaviour for all investigated temperatures. The two binary mixtures exhibit positive deviations in G{sup E} for all investigated temperatures over the whole composition range.

  13. Reactivity change in a fast-spectrum space power reactor due to a 328-meter-per-second (1075-ft/sec) impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A., Jr.; Puthoff, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Application of nuclear reactors in space will present operational problems. One such problem is the possibility of an earth impact at velocities in excess of 305 m/sec (1000 ft/sec). This report shows the results of an impact against concrete at 328 m/sec (1075 ft/sec) and examines the deformed core to estimate the range of activity inserted as a result of the impact. The results of this examination are that the deformation of the reactor core within the containment vessel left only an estimated 2.7 percent void in the core and that the reactivity inserted due to this impact deformation could be from 4.0 to 10.25 dollars.

  14. Isotope effects and the temperature dependences of the hyperfine coupling constants of muoniated sec-butyl radicals in condensed phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Donald G; Bridges, Michael D; Arseneau, Donald J; Chen, Ya Kun; Wang, Yan Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Reported here is the first μSR study of the muon (A(μ)) and proton (A(p)) β-hyperfine coupling constants (Hfcc) of muoniated sec-butyl radicals, formed by muonium (Mu) addition to 1-butene and to cis- and trans-2-butene. The data are compared with in vacuo spin-unrestricted MP2 and hybrid DFT/B3YLP calculations reported in the previous paper (I), which played an important part in the interpretation of the data. The T-dependences of both the (reduced) muon, A(μ)′(T), and proton, A(p)(T), Hfcc are surprisingly well explained by a simple model, in which the calculated Hfcc from paper I at energy minima of 0 and near ±120° are thermally averaged, assuming an energy dependence given by a basic 2-fold torsional potential. Fitted torsional barriers to A(μ)′(T) from this model are similar (~3 kJ/mol) for all muoniated butyl radicals, suggesting that these are dominated by ZPE effects arising from the C−Mu bond, but for A(p)(T) exhibit wide variations depending on environment. For the cis- and trans-2-butyl radicals formed from 2-butene, A(μ)′(T) exhibits clear discontinuities at bulk butene melting points, evidence for molecular interactions enhancing these muon Hfcc in the environment of the solid state, similar to that found in earlier reports for muoniated tert-butyl. In contrast, for Mu−sec-butyl formed from 1-butene, there is no such discontinuity. The muon hfcc for the trans-2-butyl radical are seemingly very well predicted by B3LYP calculations in the solid phase, but for sec-butyl from 1-butene, showing the absence of further interactions, much better agreement is found with the MP2 calculations across the whole temperature range. Examples of large proton Hfcc near 0 K are also reported, due to eclipsed C−H bonds, in like manner to C−Mu, which then also exhibit clear discontinuities in A(p)(T) at bulk melting points. The data suggest that the good agreement found between theory and experiment from the B3LYP calculations for eclipsed bonds in

  15. A point mutation in the EGF-4 domain of β(3) integrin is responsible for the formation of the Sec(a) platelet alloantigen and affects receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Ulrich J; Bakchoul, Tamam; Eva, Olga; Giptner, Astrid; Bein, Gregor; Aster, Richard H; Gitter, Maria; Peterson, Julie; Santoso, Sentot

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is caused by fetomaternal platelet incompatibility with maternal antibodies crossing the placenta and destroying fetal platelets. Antibodies against human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a) and HPA-5b are responsible for the majority of NAIT cases. We observed a suspected NAIT in a newborn with a platelet count of 25 G/l and petechial haemorrhages. Serological analysis of maternal serum revealed an immunisation against αIIbβ3 on paternal platelets only, indicating the presence of an antibody against a new rare alloantigen (Sec(a)) residing on αIIbβ3. The location of Sec(a) on αIIbβ3 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Nucleotide sequence analysis of paternal β3 revealed a single nucleotide exchange (G(1818)T) in exon 11 of the β3 gene (ITGB3), changing Lys(580) (wild-type) to Asn(580) (Sec(a)). Two additional members of the family Sec were typed Sec(a) positive, but none of 300 blood donors. Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing Asn(580), but not Lys(580) αIIbβ3, bound anti-Sec(a), which was corroborated by immunoprecipitation. Adhesion of transfected cells onto immobilised fibrinogen showed reduced binding of the Asn(580) variant compared to wild-type αIIbβ3. Analysis of transfected cells with anti-LIBS and PAC-1 antibody showed reduced binding when compared to the wild-type. No such effects were observed with Sec(a) positive platelets, which, however, are heterozygous for the Lys(580)Asn mutation. In this study, we describe a NAIT case caused by maternal alloimmunisation against a new antigen on αIIbβ3. Analysis with mutant transfected cells showed that the Lys(580)Asn mutation responsible for the formation of the Sec(a) antigenic determinant affects αIIbβ3 receptor function.

  16. SLA/LP/tRNP((Ser)Sec) antigen in autoimmune hepatitis: identification of the native protein in human hepatic cell extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Martin; Luithle, Daniel; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Schnölzer, Martina; Fiedler, Sabine; Heid, Hans; Schulze-Bergkamen, Andrea; Strassburg, Christian P; Gehrke, Sven G; Manns, Michael P

    2010-02-01

    A diagnostic subgroup of AIH type 1 is characterized by specific serum antibodies against soluble liver protein. The respective autoantigen was named SLA/LP/tRNP((Ser)Sec), after three homologous recombinant polypeptides were isolated from expression gene libraries. We analyzed human cultured liver cells for the human homologue of recombinant SLA/LP/tRNP((Ser)Sec) by antigen purification. In addition, a monoclonal antibody was generated against recombinant SLA-p35, a truncated recombinant SLA-reactive polypeptide. With a positive patient serum, immune affinity chromatography was performed on the 52 kD-SLA main antigenic determinant pre-enriched by ion exchange chromatography. By mass spectrometry, the 52 kD-SLA/LP/tRNP ((Ser)Sec) autoantigen was unambiguously identified in the purification product. The identity of the recombinant SLA-p35 and its human homologue was further confirmed by a specific signal of the anti SLA-p35 monoclonal antibody with purified human SLA/LP/tRNP((Ser)Sec). The 48 kD-SLA species frequently comigrating in SLA-immunoblotting however was not identified by either approach. We conclude that the native counterpart of recombinant tRNP((Ser)(Sec)) indeed is detectable with a molecular weight of 52 kD in soluble liver extract of human cells as the major antigenic component of SLA/LP/tRNP((Ser)Sec). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A 4.2 GS/sec. Synchronized Vertical Excitation System for SPS Studies - Steps Toward Wideband Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, John

    2012-07-10

    A 4.2 GS/sec. beam excitation system with accelerator synchronization and power stages is described. The system is capable of playing unique samples (32 samples/bunch) for 15,000 turns on selected bunch(es) in the SPS in syn- chronism with the injection and acceleration cycle. The purpose of the system is to excite internal modes of single-bunch vertical motion, and study the bunch dynamics in the presence of developing Electron cloud or TMCI effects. The system includes a synchronized master oscillator, SPS timing functions, an FPGA based arbitrary waveform generator, 4.2 GS/sec. D/A system and four 80W 20-1000 MHz amplifiers driving a tapered stripline pickup/kicker. A software GUI allows specification of various modulation signals, selection of bunches and turns to excite, while a remote control interface allows simple control/monitoring of the RF power stages located in the tunnel. The successful use of this system for SPS MD measurements in 2011 is a vital proof-of-principle for wideband feedback using similar functions to correct the beam motion.

  18. BAP31 interacts with Sec61 translocons and promotes retrotranslocation of CFTRDeltaF508 via the derlin-1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Heath-Engel, Hannah; Zhang, Donglei; Nguyen, Nhi; Thomas, David Y; Hanrahan, John W; Shore, Gordon C

    2008-06-13

    BAP31 is an endoplasmic reticulum protein-sorting factor that associates with newly synthesized integral membrane proteins and controls their fate (i.e., egress, retention, survival, or degradation). BAP31 is itself an integral membrane protein and a constituent of several large protein complexes. Here, we show that a part of the BAP31 population interacts with two components of the Sec61 preprotein translocon, Sec61beta and TRAM. BAP31 associates with the N terminus of one of its newly synthesized client proteins, the DeltaF508 mutant of CFTR, and promotes its retrotranslocation from the ER and degradation by the cytoplasmic 26S proteasome system. Depletion of BAP31 reduces the proteasomal degradation of DeltaF508 and permits a significant fraction of the surviving protein to reach the cell surface. Of note, BAP31 also associates physically and functionally with the Derlin-1 protein disclocation complex in the DeltaF508 degradation pathway. Thus, BAP31 operates at early steps to deliver newly synthesized CFTRDeltaF508 to its degradation pathway.

  19. HidSecSOFTSUSY: Incorporating effects from hidden sectors in the numerical computation of the MSSM spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Zur, Boaz

    2011-02-01

    SOFTSUSY is a software designed to solve the RG equations of the MSSM and compute its low energy spectrum. HidSecSOFTSUSY is an extension of the SOFTSUSY package which modifies the beta functions to include contributions from light dynamic fields in the hidden sector. Program summaryProgram title: HidSecSOFTSUSY Catalogue identifier: AEHP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4167 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 141 411 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Fortran Computer: Personal computer Operating system: Tested on GNU/Linux Word size: 32 bits Classification: 11.6 External routines: Requires an installed version of SOFTSUSY ( http://projects.hepforge.org/softsusy/) Nature of problem: Calculating supersymmetric particle spectrum and mixing parameters while incorporating dynamic modes from the hidden sector into the renormalization group equations. The solution to the equations must be consistent with a high-scale boundary condition on supersymmetry breaking parameters, as well as a weak-scale boundary condition on gauge couplings, Yukawa couplings and the Higgs potential parameters. Solution method: Nested iterative algorithm. Running time: A few seconds per parameter point.

  20. Fast asynchronous level 1 pre-trigger for electrons at L = 10/sup 33 cm-2 sec-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, M. J.

    1983-04-01

    Asynchronous Triggers which have long been used at fixed target accelerators and the CW High Luminosity CERM ISR are discussed. Bunched beam colliders tend to use triggers which are synchronized with the time of the beam crossing. The CDF trigger scheme has 3.5 micro psec between such crossings to decide whether to further process any events which occurred during the crossing. The level 1 trigger can accept a rate of 50 kHz without appreciable dead time. The level 2 trigger uses fast bit slice processors to select event topologies in 10 micro sec and thus can accept a trigger rate of 5 KHz. Readout of the system which takes 1/2 msec is required for level 3, thus limiting the triggering rate at level 3 to approximately 100 Hz. It is shown that this same trigger scheme would work at a CW luminosity of 10 to the 33th power sq cm sec to -1 power by the addition of a conventional hard wired asynchronous pretrigger.

  1. SEC16B基因多态性与体质指数和肥胖关联的Meta分析%Association between SEC16B polymorphisms and body mass index variation or risk of obesity: a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付利万; 张美仙; 高利旺; 米杰

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨SEC16B基因多态性与BMI和肥胖的关联性.方法 系统检索2009-2015年在万方数据库(Wanfangdata)、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、维普中文科技期刊全文数据库(VIP)、PubMed、Embase、Web of Science、NIH GWAS catalog数据库中收录的关于SEC16B基因多态性与BMI和/或肥胖关联性的文献.分别以β值和OR值及其95%CI作为Meta分析效应合并指标.采用Stata 12.0软件对研究结果进行异质性检验和效应值合并计算.结果 最终纳入28篇文献,包括rs10913469相关15篇和rs543874相关13篇.Meta分析显示,在加性遗传模型下,rs10913469-C和rs543874-G与BMI水平具有正向关联,合并β值(95%CI)分别为0.04(0.03 ~o.05)和0.03(0.02~0.04);与肥胖罹患风险关联的合并OR值(95%CI)分别为1.11(1.08~ 1.15)和1.28(1.20 ~ 1.36).按种族、年龄和文献质量进行亚组分析后,rs10913469和rs543874位点与肥胖关联的合并OR值仍有统计学意义.结论 SEC16B基因多态性rs10913469和rs543874位点与不同种族人群BMI及肥胖均有关联,rs10913469-C等位基因和rs543874-G等位基因可增加肥胖罹患风险.%Objective To systematically evaluate the associations between SEC16B polymorphisms and body mass index (BMI) or risk of obesity in different ethnic populations.Methods A literature retrieval was carried out by using Wanfangdata,Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI),China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP databases),PubMed,Embase,Web of Science,NIH GWAS catalog databases to collect the research papers published between 2009 and 2015 on the associations between SEC16B polymorphisms and BMI or risk of obesity.Summary beta estimates (βs),odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the strength for the BMI analyses and obesity status.Meta-analysis was performed with Stata 12.0 software.Results Totally 15 papers for rs10913469 and 13 papers for rs543874 were included in this

  2. Neofunctionalization of the Sec1 α1,2fucosyltransferase paralogue in leporids contributes to glycan polymorphism and resistance to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Nyström

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, a virulent calicivirus, causes high mortalities in European rabbit populations (Oryctolagus cuniculus. It uses α1,2fucosylated glycans, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs, as attachment factors, with their absence or low expression generating resistance to the disease. Synthesis of these glycans requires an α1,2fucosyltransferase. In mammals, there are three closely located α1,2fucosyltransferase genes rSec1, rFut2 and rFut1 that arose through two rounds of duplications. In most mammalian species, Sec1 has clearly become a pseudogene. Yet, in leporids, it does not suffer gross alterations, although we previously observed that rabbit Sec1 variants present either low or no activity. Still, a low activity rSec1 allele correlated with survival to an RHDV outbreak. We now confirm the association between the α1,2fucosyltransferase loci and survival. In addition, we show that rabbits express homogenous rFut1 and rFut2 levels in the small intestine. Comparison of rFut1 and rFut2 activity showed that type 2 A, B and H antigens recognized by RHDV strains were mainly synthesized by rFut1, and all rFut1 variants detected in wild animals were equally active. Interestingly, rSec1 RNA levels were highly variable between individuals and high expression was associated with low binding of RHDV strains to the mucosa. Co-transfection of rFut1 and rSec1 caused a decrease in rFut1-generated RHDV binding sites, indicating that in rabbits, the catalytically inactive rSec1 protein acts as a dominant-negative of rFut1. Consistent with neofunctionalization of Sec1 in leporids, gene conversion analysis showed extensive homogenization between Sec1 and Fut2 in leporids, at variance with its limited degree in other mammals. Gene conversion additionally involving Fut1 was also observed at the C-terminus. Thus, in leporids, unlike in most other mammals where it became extinct, Sec1 evolved a new function with a dominant-negative effect

  3. Role of the carboxy terminus of SecA in iron acquisition, protein translocation, and virulence of the bacterial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Steven E; Nwugo, Chika C; Penwell, William F; Neary, John M; Beckett, Amber C; Arivett, Brock A; Schmidt, Robert E; Geiger, Sarah C; Connerly, Pamela L; Menke, Sharon M; Tomaras, Andrew P; Actis, Luis A

    2015-04-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that causes pneumonia and soft tissue and systemic infections. Screening of a transposon insertion library of A. baumannii ATCC 19606T resulted in the identification of the 2010 derivative, which, although capable of growing well in iron-rich media, failed to prosper under iron chelation. Genetic, molecular, and functional assays showed that 2010's iron utilization-deficient phenotype is due to an insertion within the 3' end of secA, which results in the production of a C-terminally truncated derivative of SecA. SecA plays a critical role in protein translocation through the SecYEG membrane channel. Accordingly, the secA mutation resulted in undetectable amounts of the ferric acinetobactin outer membrane receptor protein BauA while not affecting the production of other acinetobactin membrane protein transport components, such as BauB and BauE, or the secretion of acinetobactin by 2010 cells cultured in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of the synthetic iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl. Outer membrane proteins involved in nutrient transport, adherence, and biofilm formation were also reduced in 2010. The SecA truncation also increased production of 30 different proteins, including proteins involved in adaptation/tolerance responses. Although some of these protein changes could negatively affect the pathobiology of the 2010 derivative, its virulence defect is mainly due to its inability to acquire iron via the acinetobactin-mediated system. These results together indicate that although the C terminus of the A. baumannii ATCC 19606T SecA is not essential for viability, it plays a critical role in the production and translocation of different proteins and virulence.

  4. [The apothecaries of the rue de l'Arbre-Sec in Paris in the 17th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warolin, Christian

    2014-06-01

    The mud tax imposed by the king in 1637 to pay for street-cleaning is a useful tool for identifying the people who were liable for the tax, their profession, and whether they were owners or tenants. The survey of the Rue de l'Arbre-Sec, a very old street in Paris close to the Louvre, reveals that seven apothecaries lived there in 1637. Two of them were particularly important: Hiérosme Lambert, who had an apothecary'shop near the church of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, and Michel Dansse, apothecary to Queen Anne of Austria. The two families established links through the marriage of Marie Lambert, the daughter of Hiérosme Lambert and Marie Gauche, to Michel Dansse. One of their sons, Jean Dansse, was also apothecary to Anne of Austria and then to Queen Marie-Thérèse.

  5. Binding of SEC11 indicates its role in SNARE recycling after vesicle fusion and identifies two pathways for vesicular traffic to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Rucha; Zhang, Ben; Waghmare, Sakharam; Aderhold, Christin; Grefen, Christopher; Blatt, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins drive vesicle fusion in all eukaryotes and contribute to homeostasis, pathogen defense, cell expansion, and growth in plants. Two homologous SNAREs, SYP121 (=SYR1/PEN1) and SYP122, dominate secretory traffic to the Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane. Although these proteins overlap functionally, differences between SYP121 and SYP122 have surfaced, suggesting that they mark two discrete pathways for vesicular traffic. The SNAREs share primary cognate partners, which has made separating their respective control mechanisms difficult. Here, we show that the regulatory protein SEC11 (=KEULE) binds selectively with SYP121 to affect secretory traffic mediated by this SNARE. SEC11 rescued traffic block by dominant-negative (inhibitory) fragments of both SNAREs, but only in plants expressing the native SYP121. Traffic and its rescue were sensitive to mutations affecting SEC11 interaction with the N terminus of SYP121. Furthermore, the domain of SEC11 that bound the SYP121 N terminus was itself able to block secretory traffic in the wild type and syp122 but not in syp121 mutant Arabidopsis. Thus, SEC11 binds and selectively regulates secretory traffic mediated by SYP121 and is important for recycling of the SNARE and its cognate partners.

  6. Manganese speciation in paired serum and CSF samples using SEC-DRC-ICP-MS and CE-ICP-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, B; Lucio, M; Berthele, A; Kanawati, B

    2013-03-01

    Occupational manganese (Mn) overexposure leads to accumulation in the brain and has been shown to cause progressive, permanent, neuro-degenerative damage with syndromes similar to idiopathic Parkinsonism. Mn is transported by an active mechanism across neural barriers (NB) finally into the brain; but to date, modes of Mn neurotoxic action are poorly understood. This paper investigates the relevant Mn-carrier species which are responsible for widely uncontrolled transport across NB. Mn speciation in paired serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples was performed by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-DRC-MS) and capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to ICP-DRC-MS in a 2D approach for clear identification. For additional species verification, electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry was used after SEC-ICP-DRC-MS (second 2D approach). The Mn species from the different sample types were interrelated and correlation coefficients were calculated. In serum protein-bound Mn species like Mn-transferrin/albumin (Mn-Tf/HSA) were dominant, which had the main influence on total Mn in serum if Mn(total) was 1,550 ng/L) or correlated to Mn-Tf/HSA (samples with serum Mn(total) < 1,550 ng/L). We conclude that elevated Mn-Cit(serum) could be a valuable marker for increased total Mn in CSF (and brain), i.e., it could be a marker for elevated risk of Mn-dependent neurological disorders such as manganism in occupational health.

  7. Heterozygous Loss-of-Function SEC61A1 Mutations Cause Autosomal-Dominant Tubulo-Interstitial and Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease with Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolar, Nikhita Ajit; Golzio, Christelle; Živná, Martina; Hayot, Gaëlle; Van Hemelrijk, Christine; Schepers, Dorien; Vandeweyer, Geert; Hoischen, Alexander; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Raes, Ann; Matthys, Erve; Sys, Emiel; Azou, Myriam; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Praet, Marleen; Van Camp, Guy; McFadden, Kelsey; Pediaditakis, Igor; Přistoupilová, Anna; Hodaňová, Kateřina; Vyleťal, Petr; Hartmannová, Hana; Stránecký, Viktor; Hůlková, Helena; Barešová, Veronika; Jedličková, Ivana; Sovová, Jana; Hnízda, Aleš; Kidd, Kendrah; Bleyer, Anthony J; Spong, Richard S; Vande Walle, Johan; Mortier, Geert; Brunner, Han; Van Laer, Lut; Kmoch, Stanislav; Katsanis, Nicholas; Loeys, Bart L

    2016-07-07

    Autosomal-dominant tubulo-interstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) encompasses a group of disorders characterized by renal tubular and interstitial abnormalities, leading to slow progressive loss of kidney function requiring dialysis and kidney transplantation. Mutations in UMOD, MUC1, and REN are responsible for many, but not all, cases of ADTKD. We report on two families with ADTKD and congenital anemia accompanied by either intrauterine growth retardation or neutropenia. Ultrasound and kidney biopsy revealed small dysplastic kidneys with cysts and tubular atrophy with secondary glomerular sclerosis, respectively. Exclusion of known ADTKD genes coupled with linkage analysis, whole-exome sequencing, and targeted re-sequencing identified heterozygous missense variants in SEC61A1-c.553A>G (p.Thr185Ala) and c.200T>G (p.Val67Gly)-both affecting functionally important and conserved residues in SEC61. Both transiently expressed SEC6A1A variants are delocalized to the Golgi, a finding confirmed in a renal biopsy from an affected individual. Suppression or CRISPR-mediated deletions of sec61al2 in zebrafish embryos induced convolution defects of the pronephric tubules but not the pronephric ducts, consistent with the tubular atrophy observed in the affected individuals. Human mRNA encoding either of the two pathogenic alleles failed to rescue this phenotype as opposed to a complete rescue by human wild-type mRNA. Taken together, these findings provide a mechanism by which mutations in SEC61A1 lead to an autosomal-dominant syndromic form of progressive chronic kidney disease. We highlight protein translocation defects across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, the principal role of the SEC61 complex, as a contributory pathogenic mechanism for ADTKD.

  8. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 178 kilograms per second per square meter (6.5(lb/sec)/(sq ft))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.

    1973-01-01

    The overall and blade-element performances are presented over the stable flow operating range from 50 to 100 percent of design speed. Stage peak efficiency of 0.834 was obtained at a weight flow of 26.4 kg/sec (58.3 lb/sec) and a pressure ratio of 1.581. The stall margin for the stage was 7.5 percent based on weight flow and pressure ratio at stall and peak efficiency conditions. The rotor minimum losses were approximately equal to design except in the blade vibration damper region. Stator minimum losses were less than design except in the tip and damper regions.

  9. Identification dynamique de robots avec un modèle de frottement sec fonction de la charge et de la vitesse

    OpenAIRE

    Hamon, Pauline; Gautier, Maxime; Garrec, P.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; En robotique, les pertes dans la chaine d'actionnement articulaire des robots sont généralement prises en compte dans le modèle dynamique par un effort de frottement visqueux proportionnel à la vitesse et par un effort constant de frottement sec. Pourtant, d'après la loi de Coulomb, le frottement sec de glissement varie avec les efforts de contact dans les éléments de transmission. Ainsi, cet effet est à prendre en compte pour les systèmes mécaniques soumis à de fortes...

  10. Stability of prostacyclin analogues: an unusual lack of reactivity in acid-catalyzed alkene hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, A; O'Yang, C; Powell, M F

    1988-04-01

    Prostacyclin analogue 5 undergoes specific acid-catalyzed hydration (kH+ = 1.9 x 10(-7)M-1 sec-1 at 25 degrees C) and a pH-independent oxidation reaction (k0 = 1.2 x 10(-10) sec-1 at 25 degrees C) above pH approximately 5. The hydration reaction for 5 is much slower than for other structurally similar exocyclic alkenes, even though the rate-determining step is proton transfer. This slowness of reaction and an analysis of the pH-rate profile show that 5 does not exhibit significant intramolecular general acid catalysis, as does prostacyclin.

  11. A novel DTPA cross-linking of hyaluronic acid and metal complexation thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, Radovan; Běťák, Jiří; Kettou, Sofiane; Hermannová, Martina; Pospíšilová, Lucie; Velebný, Vladimír

    2011-09-27

    Macromolecular conjugates of a natural polysaccharide, hyaluronic acid, with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR, SEC-MALLS and ICP analysis. Several parameters of the cross-linking reaction as molecular weight of starting HA, temperature, equivalent of DTPA bis-anhydride, concentration of HA, presence of transacylation catalyst DMAP and reaction time were studied. The mechanism for the reaction was suggested and relationship between the molecular weight assigned by SEC-MALLS, reaction parameters and rheological properties of the final cross-linked products were investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical evaluation of multi-loop integrals for arbitrary kinematics with SecDec 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowka, Sophia; Carter, Jonathon; Heinrich, Gudrun

    2013-02-01

    We present the program SecDec 2.0, which contains various new features. First, it allows the numerical evaluation of multi-loop integrals with no restriction on the kinematics. Dimensionally regulated ultraviolet and infrared singularities are isolated via sector decomposition, while threshold singularities are handled by a deformation of the integration contour in the complex plane. As an application, we present numerical results for various massive two-loop four-point diagrams. SecDec 2.0 also contains new useful features for the calculation of more general parameter integrals, related for example to phase space integrals. Program summaryProgram title: SecDec 2.0 Catalogue identifier: AEIR_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIR_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 156829 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2137907 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Wolfram Mathematica, Perl, Fortran/C++. Computer: From a single PC to a cluster, depending on the problem. Operating system: Unix, Linux. RAM: Depending on the complexity of the problem Classification: 4.4, 5, 11.1. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEIR_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 182(2011)1566 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Extraction of ultraviolet and infrared singularities from parametric integrals appearing in higher order perturbative calculations in gauge theories. Numerical integration in the presence of integrable singularities (e.g., kinematic thresholds). Solution method: Algebraic extraction of singularities in dimensional regularization using iterated sector decomposition. This leads to a Laurent series in the dimensional regularization

  13. Crystal growth vs. conventional acid etching: A comparative evaluation of etch patterns, penetration depths, and bond strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanna Raghu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect on enamel surface, penetration depth, and bond strength produced by 37% phosphoric acid and 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid as etching agents for direct bonding. Eighty teeth were used to study the efficacy of the etching agents on the enamel surface, penetration depth, and tensile bond strength. It was determined from the present study that a 30 sec application of 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid produced comparable etching topography with that of 37% phosphoric acid applied for 30 sec. The 37% phosphoric acid dissolves enamel to a greater extent than does the 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid. Instron Universal testing machine was used to evaluate the bond strengths of the two etching agents. Twenty percent sulfated polyacrylic acid provided adequate tensile bond strength. It was ascertained that crystal growth can be an alternative to conventional phosphoric acid etching as it dissolves lesser enamel and provides adequate tensile bond strength.

  14. A New Role for Annexin A11 in the Early Secretory Pathway via Stabilizing Sec31A Protein at the Endoplasmic Reticulum Exit Sites (ERES)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hideki; Kanadome, Takashi; Sugiura, Hirofumi; Yokoyama, Takeru; Yamamuro, Minami; Moss, Stephen E.; Maki, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Exit of cargo molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for transport to the Golgi is the initial step in intracellular vesicular trafficking. The coat protein complex II (COPII) machinery is recruited to specialized regions of the ER, called ER exit sites (ERES), where it plays a central role in the early secretory pathway. It has been known for more than two decades that calcium is an essential factor in vesicle trafficking from the ER to Golgi apparatus. However, the role of calcium in the early secretory pathway is complicated and poorly understood. We and others previously identified Sec31A, an outer cage component of COPII, as an interacting protein for the penta-EF-hand calcium-binding protein ALG-2. In this study, we show that another calcium-binding protein, annexin A11 (AnxA11), physically associates with Sec31A by the adaptor function of ALG-2. Depletion of AnxA11 or ALG-2 decreases the population of Sec31A that is stably associated with the ERES and causes scattering of juxtanuclear ERES to the cell periphery. The synchronous ER-to-Golgi transport of transmembrane cargoes is accelerated in AnxA11- or ALG-2-knockdown cells. These findings suggest that AnxA11 maintains architectural and functional features of the ERES by coordinating with ALG-2 to stabilize Sec31A at the ERES. PMID:25540196

  15. Comments on "A method for forward and inverse solutions of a three-dimensional model of the cochlea" [J. Acoust, Sec. Am. 103, 3725

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H

    1998-01-01

    This comment specifies reservations about the generalizability of de Beer's letter [J. Acoust. Sec. Am. 103, 3725 (1998)] in which he claims that the real (nonlinear) cochlea can be analyzed using a straightforward extension of a common linear analysis. Two points are elaborated. Basically they rega

  16. Role of the Sec14-like domain of Dbl family exchange factors in the regulation of Rho family GTPases in different subcellular sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shuji; Kataoka, Tohru; Satoh, Takaya

    2004-08-01

    Mechanisms underlying subcellular region-specific regulation of Rho family GTPases through Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) remain totally unknown. Here we show that the Sec14-like domain, which lies in the N-terminus of the Dbl family GEFs Dbl and Ost, directs the subcellular localization of these GEFs and also their substrate Cdc42. When coexpressed with Cdc42 in human adenocarcinoma HeLa cells, Dbl-I and Ost-I, which lack the Sec14-like domain, translocated Cdc42 to the plasma membrane, where Dbl-I or Ost-I was colocalized. In marked contrast, Dbl-II and Ost-II, which contain the Sec14-like domain, were colocalized with Cdc42 in endomembrane compartments. Furthermore, ruffle membrane formation upon epidermal growth factor treatment was mediated by Dbl-I or Ost-I, but neither Dbl-II nor Ost-II, supporting a notion that GEFs with or without the Sec14-like domain are linked to different upstream signals. By employing a novel method to detect the active GTP-bound form of Cdc42 in situ, we demonstrate that Dbl-I and Ost-I, but neither Dbl-II nor Ost-II, indeed activate colocalized Cdc42.

  17. Proceedings of The 13. Nordic Workshop on Secure IT Systems, NordSec 2008, Kongens Lyngby Oct 9-10, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in Security and Mobile Computing “NordSecMob”, and a meeting of the FIRST research school. We received a total of 39 submissions in response to the call for papers, and the programme committee selected 17 of these for presentation at the workshop—one short paper, which is not included in the proceedings......This volume contains the papers presented at NordSec 2008, the 13th Nordic Workshop on Secure IT-Systems. In 1996 the NordSec workshop series was started as a conference targeting post-graduate students, aiming at bringing researchers and practitioners from industry together. In 2008 we...... are emphasizing this goal by organizing NordSec as part of the “Nordic Security Days”. Other events in this week include a one-day workshop on “Security for the Citizens”, where Danish research projects present their results to industry, a meeting of students enrolled in the Erasmus Mundus Master’s Programme...

  18. Size-exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC) technique optimization by simplex method to estimate molecular weight distribution of agave fructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Vilet, Lorena; Bostyn, Stéphane; Flores-Montaño, Jose-Luis; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa-María

    2017-12-15

    Agave fructans are increasingly important in food industry and nutrition sciences as a potential ingredient of functional food, thus practical analysis tools to characterize them are needed. In view of the importance of the molecular weight on the functional properties of agave fructans, this study has the purpose to optimize a method to determine their molecular weight distribution by HPLC-SEC for industrial application. The optimization was carried out using a simplex method. The optimum conditions obtained were at column temperature of 61.7°C using tri-distilled water without salt, adjusted pH of 5.4 and a flow rate of 0.36mL/min. The exclusion range is from 1 to 49 of polymerization degree (180-7966Da). This proposed method represents an accurate and fast alternative to standard methods involving multiple-detection or hydrolysis of fructans. The industrial applications of this technique might be for quality control, study of fractionation processes and determination of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Backcalculation of the disease-age specific frequency of sec-ondary transmission of primary pneumonic plague

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to assess the frequency of secondary transmissions of primary pneumonic plague relative to the onset of fever.A simple backcalculation method was employed to estimate the frequency of sec-ondary transmissions relative to disease-age.A likelihood-based procedure was taken using observed distribu-tions of the serial interval (n = 177)and incubation period (n = 126).Furthermore,an extended model was developed to account for the survival probability of cases.The simple backcalculation suggested that 31. 0% (95% confidence intervals (CI):11.6,50.4)and 28.0 % (95% CI:10.2,45.8)of the total number of secondary transmissions had occurred at second and third days of the disease,respectively,and more than four-fifths of the secondary transmission occurred before the end of third day of disease.The survivorship-ad-justed frequency of secondary transmissions was obtained,demonstrating that the infectiousness in later stages of illness was not insignificant and indicates that the obtained frequencies were likely biased on underlying fac-tors including isolation measures.In conclusion,the simple exercise suggests a need to implement countermeas-ures during pre-clinical stage or immediately after onset.Further information is needed to elucidate the finer details of the disease-age specific infectiousness.

  20. Lateral heterogeneity and azimuthal anistropy of the upper mantle: Love and Rayleigh waves 100-250 sec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, T.; Anderson, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The lateral heterogeneity and apparent anisotropy of the upper mantle are studied by measuring Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocities in the period range 100-250 sec. Spherical harmonic descriptions of the lateral heterogeneity are obtained for order and degree up to 1=m=10. Slow regions are evident at the East Pacific rise, northeast Africa, Tibet, Tasman sea, southwestern North America and triple junctions in the Northern Atlantic and Indian oceans. Fast regions occur in Australia, western Pacific and the eastern Atlantic. Details which are not evident in previous studies include two fast regions in the central Pacific and the subduction zone in the Scotia Arc region. Inversion for azimuthal dependence showed (1) little correlation between the fast phase velocity directions and the plate motion vector in plate interiors, but (2) correlation of the fast direction with the perpendicular direction to trenches and ridges. Phase velocity is high when waves propagate perpendicular to these structures. Severe tradeoffs exist between heterogeneity and azimuthal dependence because of the yet unsatisfactory path coverage.

  1. Lateral heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy of the upper mantle - Love and Rayleigh waves 100-250 sec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, T.; Anderson, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The lateral heterogeneity and apparent anisotropy of the upper mantle are studied by measuring Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocities in the period range 100-250 sec. Spherical harmonic descriptions of the lateral heterogeneity are obtained for order and degree up to 1=m=10. Slow regions are evident at the East Pacific rise, northeast Africa, Tibet, Tasman sea, southwestern North America and triple junctions in the Northern Atlantic and Indian oceans. Fast regions occur in Australia, western Pacific and the eastern Atlantic. Details which are not evident in previous studies include two fast regions in the central Pacific and the subduction zone in the Scotia Arc region. Inversion for azimuthal dependence showed (1) little correlation between the fast phase velocity directions and the plate motion vector in plate interiors, but (2) correlation of the fast direction with the perpendicular direction to trenches and ridges. Phase velocity is high when waves propagate perpendicular to these structures. Severe tradeoffs exist between heterogeneity and azimuthal dependence because of the yet unsatisfactory path coverage.

  2. Using GC-FID to Quantify the Removal of 4-sec-Butylphenol from NGS Solvent by NaOH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloop, Jr., Frederick V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    A caustic wash of the solvent used in the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process was found to remove the modifier breakdown product 4-sec-butylphenol (SBP) with varying efficiency depending on the aqueous NaOH concentration. Recent efforts at ORNL have aimed at characterizing the flowsheet chemistry and reducing the technical uncertainties of the NG-CSSX process. One technical uncertainty has been the efficacy of caustic washing of the solvent for the removal of lipophilic anions, in particular, the efficient removal of SBP, an important degradation product of the solvent modifier, Cs-7SB. In order to make this determination, it was necessary to develop a sensitive and reliable analytical technique for the detection and quantitation of SBP. This report recounts the development of a GC-FID-based (Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detection) technique for analyzing SBP and the utilization of the technique to subsequently confirm the ability of the caustic wash to efficiently remove SBP from the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) used in NG-CSSX. In particular, the developed technique was used to monitor the amount of SBP removed from a simple solvent and the full NGS by contact with sodium hydroxide wash solutions over a range of concentrations. The results show that caustic washing removes SBP with effectively the same efficiency as it did in the original Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process.

  3. Secondary Emission Calorimeter (SEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Northrop, Richard [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Frisch, Henry [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Elagin, Andrey [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ramberg, Erik [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, Maria [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Apresyan, Artur [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Xie, Si [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-06-25

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) the experimenters of University of Chicago and California Institute of Technology, who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2014-2015 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The TSW is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations. The experimenters propose using large-area micro-channel plates assembled without the usual bialkali photocathodes as the active element in sampling calorimeters, Modules without photocathodes can be economically assembled in a glove box and then pumped and sealed using the process to construct photomultipliers, This electromagnetic calorimeter is based on W and Pb absorber plates sandwiched with detectors. Measurements can be made with bare plates and absorber inside the vacuum vessel.

  4. Anti-biotic Effect of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Plant Bacterial / Fungal Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    津野, 和宣; 中村, 悌一

    2012-01-01

    The anti-biotic effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water on plant pathogen was determined. The spores of 4 kinds of fungal pathogen and 17 kinds of plant pathogenic bacteria were applied at different concentration.###Slightly acidic electrolyzed water showed strong growth inhibition in germination of fungi spores tested. In addition, by the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water for 30 sec., all kinds of bacteria tested were inhibited to grow on the medium.###The anti-biotic ef...

  5. FlySec: a risk-based airport security management system based on security as a service concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Segou, Olga E.; Zalonis, Andreas; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    Complementing the ACI/IATA efforts, the FLYSEC European H2020 Research and Innovation project (http://www.fly-sec.eu/) aims to develop and demonstrate an innovative, integrated and end-to-end airport security process for passengers, enabling a guided and streamlined procedure from the landside to airside and into the boarding gates, and offering for an operationally validated innovative concept for end-to-end aviation security. FLYSEC ambition turns through a well-structured work plan into: (i) innovative processes facilitating risk-based screening; (ii) deployment and integration of new technologies and repurposing existing solutions towards a risk-based Security paradigm shift; (iii) improvement of passenger facilitation and customer service, bringing security as a real service in the airport of tomorrow;(iv) achievement of measurable throughput improvement and a whole new level of Quality of Service; and (v) validation of the results through advanced "in-vitro" simulation and "in-vivo" pilots. On the technical side, FLYSEC achieves its ambitious goals by integrating new technologies on video surveillance, intelligent remote image processing and biometrics combined with big data analysis, open-source intelligence and crowdsourcing. Repurposing existing technologies is also in the FLYSEC objectives, such as mobile application technologies for improved passenger experience and positive boarding applications (i.e. services to facilitate boarding and landside/airside way finding) as well as RFID for carry-on luggage tracking and quick unattended luggage handling. In this paper, the authors will describe the risk based airport security management system which powers FLYSEC intelligence and serves as the backend on top of which FLYSEC's front end technologies reside for security services management, behaviour and risk analysis.

  6. SCRIERI PROFETICE BIZANTINE ÎN MANUSCRISE DIN ŢĂRILE ROMÂNE (SEC. XV-XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei PROHIN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Între lucrările de origine bizantină, cunoscute în Ţările Române, un loc aparte revine scrierilor profetice, conţinând reprezentări proprii gândirii medievale (imaginea lumii de dincolo, pedepsele/recompensele rezervate răposaţilor, durata existenţei umanităţii, evenimentele care vor preceda sfârşitul lumii etc.. În epoca medievală, genul literaturii profetice, având rădăcini biblice, a fost continuat prin intermediul vedeniilor şi apocalipselor apocrife care pretindeau a completa profeţiile biblice, precum şi al diferitelor scrieri escatologice. Scopul prezentului articol este de a elabora un repertoriu şi o tipologie a scrierilor profetice, de origine bizantină, incluse în manuscrisele din Ţările Române, din sec. XV-XVI.BYZANTINE PROPHETICAL WRITINGS IN MANUSCRIPTS FROM THE ROMANIAN PRINCIPALITIES (XV-XVI C. Among the works of Byzantine origin, known in the Romanian Principalities, a distinct place belongs to the prophetical writings which offered important knowledge for the medieval man (the image of the otherworld, the chastisements/awards reserved for the dead ones, the time span allotted to the mankind, the events that will precede the End of the world etc.. During the Middle Ages, the genre of prophetical literature, having biblical roots, was continued by means of visions and apocryphal apocalypses, pretending to fulfill the biblical prophecies. The aim of this paper is to make an inventory and typology of the prophetical writings of Byzantine origin that were included in the manuscripts from the Romanian Principalities, during the XV-XVIth centuries.

  7. A Mutant with Expression Deletion of Gene Sec-1 in a 1RS.1BL Line and Its Effect on Production Quality of Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    Full Text Available The chromosome arm 1RS of rye (Secale cereal L. has been used worldwide as a source of genes for agronomic and resistant improvement. However, the 1RS arm in wheat has end-use quality defects that are partially attributable to the presence of ω-secalins, which are encoded by genes at the Sec-1 locus. Various attempts in removing the Sec-1 genes from the 1RS.1BL translocation chromosome have been made. In the present study, two new primary 1RS.1BL translocation lines, T917-26 and T917-15, were developed from a cross between wheat variety "A42912" and Chinese local rye "Weining." The lines T917-15 and T917-26 carried a pair of intact and homogeneous 1RS.1BL chromosomes. The line T917-26 also harbored an expression deletion of some genes at the Sec-1 locus, which originated from a mutation that occurred simultaneously with wheat-rye chromosome translocations. These results suggest that the accompanying mutations of the evolutionarily significant translocations are remarkable resources for plant improvement. Comparison of translocation lines with its wheat parent showed improvements in the end-use quality parameters, which included protein content (PC, water absorption (WA, sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS, wet gluten (WG, dry gluten (DG and dough stickiness (DS, whereas significant reduction in gluten index (GI and stability time (ST were observed. These findings indicate that 1RS in wheat has produced a higher amount of protein, although these comprised worse compositions. However, in the T917-26 line that harbored an expression deletion mutation in the Sec-1 genes, the quality parameters were markedly improved relative to its sister line, T917-15, especially for GI and DS (P < 0.05. These results indicated that expression deletion of Sec-1 genes significantly improves the end-use quality of wheat cultivars harboring the 1RS.1BL translocation. Strategies to remove the Sec-1 genes from the 1RS.1BL translocation in wheat improvement are

  8. Amino acid modifications on tRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yuan; Kelly Sheppard; Dieter S(o)ll

    2008-01-01

    The accurate formation of cognate aminoacyl-transfer RNAs (aa-tRNAs) is essential for the fidelity of translation.Most amino acids are esterified onto their cognate tRNA isoacceptors directly by aa.tRNA synthetases.However,in the case of four amino acids (Gin,Asn,Cys and Sec),aminoacyl-tRNAs are made through indirect pathways in many organisms across all three domains of life.The process begins with the charging ofnoncognate amino acids to tRNAs by a specialized synthetase in the case of Cys-tRNAcys formation or by synthetases with relaxed specificity,such as the non-discriminating glutamyl-tRNA,non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA and seryl-tRNA synthetases.The resulting misacylated tRNAs are then converted to cognate pairs through transformation of the amino acids on the tRNA,which is catalyzed by a group of tRNA-dependent modifying enzymes,such as tRNA-dependent amidotransferases,Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase,O-phosphoseryi-tRNA kinase and Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase.The majority of these indirect pathways are widely spread in all domains of life and thought to be part of the evolutionary process.

  9. Time programmed feed of semi-batch reactors with non-linear radical copolymerizations: an experimental study of the system styrene+divinylbenzene using SEC/MALLS

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Miguel; Dias, Rolando; Costa, Mário Rui

    2007-01-01

    The radical crosslinking copolymerization of mono and divinyl monomers was experimentally studied with a 2.5 dm3 semi-batch reactor using styrene + divinylbenzene as a model system. The analysis of products was carried out by SEC with a MALLS detector. The influence of the feed policy of divinylbenzene on the time evolution of the copolymer molecular weights and z-average mean square radius of gyration was assessed. A detailed kinetic model, in the absence of intramolecular reactions but taki...

  10. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 kilograms per second per square meter (42.6 (lb/sec)/sq ft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Performance was obtained for a 50-cm-diameter compressor designed for a high weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 (kg/sec)/sq m. Peak efficiency values of 0.83 and 0.79 were obtained for the rotor and stage, respectively. The stall margin for the stage was 23 percent, based on equivalent weight flow and total-pressure ratio at peak efficiency and stall.

  11. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0008: Open Control Platform (OCP) Software Enabled Control (SEC) Hardware in the Loop Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    AFRL-VA-WP-TR-2006-3074 AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0008: Open Control Platform (OCP) Software Enabled...especially the case since the NGC technology software for SEC was completely developed in the Simulink environment. The OCP middleware was put through...STANLEY H. PRUETT GARY K. HELLMANN, Chief Aerospace Vehicles Technology Aerospace Vehicles Technology Assessment & Simulation Branch Assessment

  12. Acidic deposition ("acid rain")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, R. Kent; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Acidic deposition, or "acid rain," describes any form of precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog, with a pH of 5.5 or below (Note: pH values below 7 are acidic; vinegar has a pH of 3). It often results when the acidity of normal precipitation is increased by sulfates and nitrates that are emitted into the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. This form of airborne contamination is considered harmful, both directly and indirectly, to a host of plant and animal species.Although acid rain can fall virtually anywhere, ecological damages in environmentally sensitive areas downwind of industrial and urban emissions are a major concern. This includes areas that have a reduced capacity to neutralize acid inputs because of low alkalinity soils and areas that contain species with a low tolerance to acid conditions. To determine the distribution of acidic deposition and evaluate its biological effects, research and monitoring are being conducted by the federal government with support from states, universities, and private industry.            The national extent of the acid rain problem has been estimated by sampling water from 3,000 lakes and 500 streams (Irving 1991), representing more than 28,000 lakes and 56,000 stream reaches with a total of 200,000 km (125,000 mi). Some particularly sensitive areas, such as the Adirondack Mountain region, have been more intensively sampled and the biota examined in detail for effects from acidity.         To identify trends in aquatic ecosystems, present and historical survey data on water chemistry and associated biota are compared. In lakes, the chemical and biological history and pH trends may be inferred or reconstructed in some cases by examining assemblages of fossil diatoms and aquatic invertebrates in the sediment layers. In terrestrial ecosystems, vegetation damage is surveyed and effects of acidic deposition to plants and animals are determined from laboratory and field exposure experiments. Natural

  13. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  14. Pulmonary microRNA profiles identify involvement of Creb1 and Sec14l3 in bronchial epithelial changes in allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Sabine; Schulz, Nikola; Alessandrini, Francesca; Schamberger, Andrea C.; Pagel, Philipp; Theis, Fabian J.; Milger, Katrin; Noessner, Elfriede; Stick, Stephen M.; Kicic, Anthony; Eickelberg, Oliver; Freishtat, Robert J.; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is highly prevalent, but current therapies cannot influence the chronic course of the disease. It is thus important to understand underlying early molecular events. In this study, we aimed to use microRNAs (miRNAs) - which are critical regulators of signaling cascades - to identify so far uncharacterized asthma pathogenesis pathways. Therefore, deregulation of miRNAs was assessed in whole lungs from mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation (AAI). In silico predicted target genes were confirmed in reporter assays and in house-dust-mite (HDM) induced AAI and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) cultured at the air-liquid interface. We identified and validated the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (Creb1) and its transcriptional co-activators (Crtc1-3) as targets of miR-17, miR-144, and miR-21. Sec14-like 3 (Sec14l3) - a putative target of Creb1 - was down-regulated in both asthma models and in NHBE cells upon IL13 treatment, while it’s expression correlated with ciliated cell development and decreased along with increasing goblet cell metaplasia. Finally, we propose that Creb1/Crtc1-3 and Sec14l3 could be important for early responses of the bronchial epithelium to Th2-stimuli. This study shows that miRNA profiles can be used to identify novel targets that would be overlooked in mRNA based strategies. PMID:28383034

  15. SEC ICP MS and CZE ICP MS investigation of medium and high molecular weight complexes formed by cadmium ions with phytochelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczak, Agata; Rosłon, Magdalena; Zbroja, Grzegorz; Brama, Katarzyna; Szalacha, Elżbieta; Gawrońska, Helena; Pawlak, Katarzyna

    2013-05-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were applied to characterize low, medium, and high molecular weight cadmium complexes with glutathione and phytochelatins (PCs). The dominant stoichiometry of the complexes formed in vitro was established as 1:1 using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Calculated molecular masses of Cd1L1 complexes were used for calibration of the SEC and CZE methods. The results showed a lower (2 kDa) SEC column exclusion limit for cadmium complexes compared with free peptides (10 kDa), and most of the high molecular weight cadmium species were eluted in the void volume of the column. Moreover, the CZE method based on the semiempirical model of Offord to elucidate peptide migration allowed us to show a high propensity of Cd-PC complexes for polymorphism on complexation, which was also observed for extracts of Arabidopsis thaliana treated with cadmium. All the information presented is vital for understanding the mechanism of metal deactivation in plants.

  16. Studies on the detoxification effects and acute toxicity of a mixture of cis-sec-butyl-1-propoenyl disulphide and trans-sec-butyl-1-propoenyl disulphide isolated from crude essential oil of Ferula sinkiangensis K.M. Shen, a Chinese traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bengui; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Li

    2011-07-01

    There have, so far, been no papers about the detoxification effects on morphine-dependent animals of a mixture of cis-sec-butyl-1-propoenyl disulphide and trans-sec-butyl-1-propoenyl disulphide (SBD), which is isolated from crude essential oil of Ferula sinkiangensis K.M. Shen, a Chinese traditional herbal medicine. Naloxone-precipitated abstinent morphine-dependent models and naturally abstinent morphine-dependent models were used to evaluate the detoxification effects of intraperitoneal injection of SBD. In addition, the writhing test for mice was used to assess the anti-nociceptive effects of SBD, and the spontaneous activity test was used to verify the sedative effects of SBD. Acute toxicity tests of the SBD in mice were performed and the LD₅₀ values were calculated. The results indicated that SBD can inhibit the abstinent syndromes, and that SBD had good anti-nociceptive and sedative effects.

  17. Application of SEC-ICP-MS for comparative analyses of metal-containing species in cancerous and healthy human thyroid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Loreti, Valeria; Bettmer, Jörg; Heumann, Klaus G

    2004-09-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was coupled on-line to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for speciation study of trace metals in cancerous thyroid tissues in comparison to healthy thyroids aimed to estimation of changes in metalloprotein speciation in pathological tissue. The study showed a presence of species binding Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in healthy thyroid tissue with a good reproducibility of chromatographic results, whereas the same species could not be detected in cancerous tissues. Thus, remarkable differences with respect to metal-binding species were revealed between healthy and pathological thyroid samples, pointing out a completely different distribution of trace metals in cancerous tissues. The metal-binding species could not be identified in the frame of this work because of a lack of appropriate standards. Nevertheless, the results obtained confirm the suitability of SEC-ICP-MS for monitoring of changes in trace metal distribution in cancerous tissue and will help to better understand the role of metal-containing species in thyroid pathology.

  18. Effect of antecedent moderate-intensity exercise on the glycemia-increasing effect of a 30-sec maximal sprint: a sex comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Tara D; Hammer, Greta L; Davey, Raymond J; Paramalingam, Nirubasini; Guelfi, Kym J; Lewis, Lynley; Davis, Elizabeth A; Jones, Timothy W; Fournier, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether a prior bout of moderate-intensity exercise attenuates the glycemia-increasing effect of a maximal 30-sec sprint. A secondary aim was to determine whether the effect of antecedent exercise on the glucoregulatory response to sprinting is affected by sex. Participants (men n = 8; women n = 7) were tested on two occasions during which they either rested (CON) or cycled for 60-min at a moderate intensity of ~65% V ˙ O 2 peak (EX) before performing a 30-sec maximal cycling effort 195 min later. In response to the sprint, blood glucose increased to a similar extent between EX and CON trials, peaking at 10 min of recovery, with no difference between sexes (P > 0.05). Blood glucose then declined at a faster rate in EX, and this was associated with a glucose rate of disappearance (R d) that exceeded the glucose rate of appearance (R a) earlier in EX compared with CON, although the overall glucose R a and R d profile was higher in men compared with women (P women compared with men (P women compared with men (P sprint; however, the subsequent decline in blood glucose is more rapid. This blood glucose response is similar between men and women, despite less pronounced changes in glucose R a and R d, and a lower response of plasma catecholamines and growth hormone to sprinting in women.

  19. Análisis del Sistema de Información SEC95 bajo una metodología contable [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20040301007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo J. Sierra Molina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 RESUMEN En este trabajo se retoma el estudio de la Contabilidad Nacional desde una perspectiva meramente contable. Concretamente, las novedades conceptuales que ofrece el último Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales publicado en la Unión Europea, el SEC95, nos posibilita abordar nuestro estudio bajo un enfoque contable y corroborar si esta norma es factible desde el punto de vista de nuestra disciplina. Para su estudio, aplicaremos el esquema lógico deductivo típico de los estudios del Marco Conceptual, lo que nos permite obtener interesantes conclusiones al respecto. Palabras Claves: Contabilidad Nacional, Marco Conceptual, SEC95.     ABSTRACT We try to study National Accounting System from an accounting point of view in this paper. The last System of National Account by Europena Union (EAS95 uses conceptual topics that it permits its study from accounting approach. We are going to use a logical deductive schedule - typical from conceptual framework - to obtain interesting conclusions. Keywords: National Accounting, Conceptual Framework, ESA95.

  20. Análisis del Sistema de Información SEC95 bajo una metodología contable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo J. Sierra Molina

    2004-05-01

    -tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

    RESUMEN

    En este trabajo se retoma el estudio de la Contabilidad Nacional desde una perspectiva meramente contable. Concretamente, las novedades conceptuales que ofrece el último Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales publicado en la Unión Europea, el SEC95, nos posibilita abordar nuestro estudio bajo un enfoque contable y corroborar si esta norma es factible desde el punto de vista de nuestra disciplina. Para su estudio, aplicaremos el esquema lógico deductivo típico de los estudios del Marco Conceptual, lo que nos permite obtener interesantes conclusiones al respecto.

    Palabras Claves: Contabilidad Nacional, Marco Conceptual, SEC95.

     

     

    ABSTRACT

    We try to study National Accounting System from an accounting point of view in this paper. The last System of National Account by Europena Union (EAS95 uses conceptual topics that it permits its study from accounting approach. We are going to use a logical deductive schedule - typical from conceptual framework - to obtain interesting conclusions.

  1. Microwave-assisted synthesis of sec/tert-butyl 2-arylbenzimidazoles and their unexpected antiproliferative activity towards ER negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, Aisyah Saad; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Arumugam, Natarajan; Pin, Lim Chung; Yee, Ng Shy; Muttiah, Nithya Niranjini; Keat, Wong Boon; Abd Hamid, Shafida; Osman, Hasnah; Mat, Ishak b

    2013-12-01

    A new series of N-sec/tert-butyl 2-arylbenzimidazole derivatives was synthesised in 85-96% yields within 2-3.5 min by condensing ethyl 3-amino-4-butylamino benzoate with various substituted metabisulfite adducts of benzaldehyde under focused microwave irradiation. The benzimidazole analogues were characterised using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, high resolution MS and melting points. Evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the benzimidazole analogues against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 revealed several compounds with unexpected selective inhibitions of MDA-MB-231 in micromolar range. All analogues were found inactive towards MCF-7. The most potent inhibition against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line came from the unsubstituted 2-phenylbenzimidazole 10a.

  2. Aluminium uptake from some foods by guinea pigs and the characterization of aluminium in in vivo intestinal digesta by SEC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, L M; Crews, H M; Bishop, N J; Massey, R C

    1994-08-01

    The uptake of ingested aluminium (Al) from food items commonly consumed in a normal human diet was investigated by feeding five test diets to guinea pigs. Al concentrations were measured in the femur, brain, kidney and upper intestinal contents. Consumption of these diets did not lead to elevated Al levels in brain. Levels of Al in the bone were elevated in animals fed sponge cake with a permitted Al-containing additive, and the presence of citrate as orange juice enhanced bone deposition and increased kidney Al levels. Less than 1% of Al in the upper intestinal contents was found in the soluble fraction, and characterization by SEC-ICP-MS indicated that this Al was not present as Al-citrate.

  3. Bis(N-sec-butyl-N-n-propyldithiocarbamato-κ2S,S′(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′zinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Salem Alzaalouk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two independent but very similar molecules comprise the asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Zn(C8H16NS22(C12H8N2]. The N2S4 donor set about Zn is defined by two symmetrically chelating dithiocarbamate ligands and a 1,10-phenanthroline ligand. Distortions from the ideal octahedral coordination geometry arise from the restricted bite angles of the ligands. The main feature of the crystal packing is the formation of tetrameric supramolecular aggregates mediated by C—H...S interactions. Disorder was found in each of the sec-butyl groups. This was resolved over two positions in each case with the major components of the disorder having site occupancies in the range 0.551 (6–0.725 (5.

  4. Remarkable effect of mobile phase buffer on the SEC-ICP-AES derived Cu, Fe and Zn-metalloproteome pattern of rabbit blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Elham Zeini; White, Wade; Wu, Qiao; Yamdagni, Raghav; Gailer, Jürgen

    2010-07-01

    The development of an analytical method to quantify the major Cu, Fe and Zn-containing metalloproteins in mammalian plasma has been recently reported. This method is based on the separation of plasma proteins by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) followed by the on-line detection of the metalloproteins by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). To assess whether the mobile phase buffer can affect the SEC-ICP-AES-derived metalloproteome pattern, thawed rabbit plasma was analyzed using phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-buffer (0.15 M, pH 7.4), Tris-buffer (0.1 and 0.05 M, pH 7.4), Hepes-buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.4) or Mops-buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.4). In contrast to the Cu-specific chromatograms, the Fe and Zn-specific chromatograms that were obtained with Tris, Hepes and Mops-buffer were considerably different from those attained with PBS-buffer. The Tris, Hepes and Mops-buffer mediated redistribution of ~25% plasma Zn(2+) from 100-600 kDa plasma proteins and to a smaller extent to a Hepes and Mops-buffer redistributed ~20% of plasma Fe(3+) from the 600 kDa elution range. Based on these results and considering that the utilization of PBS-buffer has previously resulted in the detection of a number of Cu, Fe and Zn-containing metalloentities in rabbit plasma that was most consistent with literature data, this mobile phase buffer is recommended for metallomic studies regarding mammalian blood plasma.

  5. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  6. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  7. Obeticholic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  8. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  9. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  10. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  11. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  12. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  13. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of aspartic acid include: ...

  14. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  15. Structure-Function of CD36 and Importance of Fatty Acid Signal Transduction in Fat Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Kuda, Ondrej; Samovski, Dmitri; Abumrad, Nada A.

    2014-01-01

    CD36 is a scavenger receptor that functions in high affinity tissue uptake of long chain fatty acids (FA) and contributes under excessive fat supply to lipid accumulation and metabolic dysfunction. This review describes recent evidence regarding the CD36 FA binding site and a potential mechanism for FA transfer. It also presents the view that CD36 and FA signaling coordinate fat utilization based on newly identified CD36 actions that involve oral fat perception, intestinal fat absorption, sec...

  16. Selenium-containing amino acids as direct and indirect antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanto, Aldwin Suryo; Davies, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    Selenium is a trace element essential for normal physiological processes. Organic selenium-containing amino acids, such as selenocysteine (Sec) / selenocystine and selenomethionine (SeMet, the major dietary form), can provide antioxidant benefits by acting both as direct antioxidants as well as a source of selenium for synthesis of selenium-dependent antioxidant and repair proteins (e.g., glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, methionine sulfoxide reductases). The direct antioxidant actions of these amino acids arise from the nucleophilic properties of the ionized selenol (RSe(-), which predominates over the neutral form at physiological pH values) and the ease of oxidation of Sec and SeMet. This results in higher rate constants for reaction with multiple oxidants, than for the corresponding thiols/thioethers. Furthermore, the resulting oxidation products are more readily and rapidly reversed by both enzyme and nonenzymatic reactions. The antioxidant effects of these seleno species can therefore be catalytic. Seleno amino acids may also chelate redox-active metal ions. The presence of Sec in the catalytic site of selenium-dependent antioxidant enzymes enhances the kinetic properties and broadens the catalytic activity of antioxidant enzymes against biological oxidants when compared with sulfur-containing species. However, while normal physiological selenium levels afford protection, when compared with deficiency, excessive selenium may induce damage and adverse effects, with this being manifest, for example, as an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Further studies examining the availability of redox-active selenium species and their mechanisms and kinetics of action are therefore of critical importance in the potential development of seleno species as a therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Cross-species analyses identify the BNIP-2 and Cdc42GAP homology (BCH domain as a distinct functional subclass of the CRAL_TRIO/Sec14 superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Bansal Gupta

    Full Text Available The CRAL_TRIO protein domain, which is unique to the Sec14 protein superfamily, binds to a diverse set of small lipophilic ligands. Similar domains are found in a range of different proteins including neurofibromatosis type-1, a Ras GTPase-activating Protein (RasGAP and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs. Proteins containing this structural protein domain exhibit a low sequence similarity and ligand specificity while maintaining an overall characteristic three-dimensional structure. We have previously demonstrated that the BNIP-2 and Cdc42GAP Homology (BCH protein domain, which shares a low sequence homology with the CRAL_TRIO domain, can serve as a regulatory scaffold that binds to Rho, RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs to control various cell signalling processes. In this work, we investigate 175 BCH domain-containing proteins from a wide range of different organisms. A phylogenetic analysis with ~100 CRAL_TRIO and similar domains from eight representative species indicates a clear distinction of BCH-containing proteins as a novel subclass within the CRAL_TRIO/Sec14 superfamily. BCH-containing proteins contain a hallmark sequence motif R(R/Kh(R/K(R/KNL(R/KxhhhhHPs ('h' is large and hydrophobic residue and 's' is small and weekly polar residue and can be further subdivided into three unique subtypes associated with BNIP-2-N, macro- and RhoGAP-type protein domains. A previously unknown group of genes encoding 'BCH-only' domains is also identified in plants and arthropod species. Based on an analysis of their gene-structure and their protein domain context we hypothesize that BCH domain-containing genes evolved through gene duplication, intron insertions and domain swapping events. Furthermore, we explore the point of divergence between BCH and CRAL-TRIO proteins in relation to their ability to bind small GTPases, GAPs and GEFs and lipid ligands. Our study suggests a need for a more extensive analysis of previously uncharacterized BCH, 'BCH

  18. Dsl1p, Tip20p, and the novel Dsl3(Sec39) protein are required for the stability of the Q/t-SNARE complex at the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraynack, Bryan A; Chan, Angela; Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    2005-01-01

    -ER retrograde transport. Size exclusion chromatography and affinity purification approaches confirmed that Dsl3p is associated with subunits of the "Dsl1p complex." The complex also includes the Q/t-SNARE proteins, Use1p, Sec20p, and Ufe1p, integral membrane proteins that constitute the trimeric acceptor for R...

  19. Asociația Europeană a Profesorilor de Istorie EUROCLIO, La intersecția culturilor. Țările regiunii Marii Negre și schimbările politice din sec. XIX-XX, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Palade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Review on two books - Asociația Europeană a Profesorilor de Istorie EUROCLIO, La intersecția culturilor. Țările regiunii Marii Negre și schimbările politice din sec. XIX-XX, 2015

  20. The influence of conventional heating and microwave irradiation on the resolution of (RS)-sec-butylamine catalyzed by free or immobilized lipases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilissao, Cristiane; Nascimento, Maria da Graca, E-mail: maria.nascimento@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis,SC (Brazil); Carvalho, Patricia de Oliveira [Curso de Farmacia, Universidade Sao Francisco, Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The lipases CAL-B, PSL, PSL-C, PSL-D, and A. niger lipase, free or immobilized in starch (obtained from two types of yam, known in Brazil as 'cara' (Discorea alata L.) and 'inhame' (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) or gelatin films, were used in the acylation of (RS)-sec-butylamine with different acyl donors in various organic solvents applying conventional heating (CH) or microwave (MW) irradiation. In the case of free A. niger lipase, the conversion degrees were three times higher using MW irradiation when compared to conventional heating at 35 deg C. Using free A. niger lipase, the (R)-amide was obtained with a conversion degree of 21%, resulting in ee{sub p}> 99% and E-value (enantioselectivity value) > 200, in 1 min of reaction under MW irradiation. When the A. niger lipase was immobilized in yam starch films, the (R)-amide was obtained in moderate conversions of 8-25% after 3 or 5 min of reaction under MW irradiation, but with higher selectivity (eep > 99% and E > 200) in comparison with the free form (conversion degree of 45%, eep 81% and E value of 18). (author)

  1. NENA, a Lotus japonicus Homolog of Sec13, Is Required for Rhizodermal Infection by Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi and Rhizobia but Dispensable for Cortical Endosymbiotic Development[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Martin; Takeda, Naoya; Perry, Jillian; Uchida, Hisaki; Dräxl, Stephan; Brachmann, Andreas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Wang, Trevor L.; Parniske, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Legumes form symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi and nitrogen fixing root nodule bacteria. Intracellular root infection by either endosymbiont is controlled by the activation of the calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinase (CCaMK), a central regulatory component of the plant’s common symbiosis signaling network. We performed a microscopy screen for Lotus japonicus mutants defective in AM development and isolated a mutant, nena, that aborted fungal infection in the rhizodermis. NENA encodes a WD40 repeat protein related to the nucleoporins Sec13 and Seh1. Localization of NENA to the nuclear rim and yeast two-hybrid experiments indicated a role for NENA in a conserved subcomplex of the nuclear pore scaffold. Although nena mutants were able to form pink nodules in symbiosis with Mesorhizobium loti, root hair infection was not observed. Moreover, Nod factor induction of the symbiotic genes NIN, SbtM4, and SbtS, as well as perinuclear calcium spiking, were impaired. Detailed phenotypic analyses of nena mutants revealed a rhizobial infection mode that overcame the lack of rhizodermal responsiveness and carried the hallmarks of crack entry, including a requirement for ethylene. CCaMK-dependent processes were only abolished in the rhizodermis but not in the cortex of nena mutants. These data support the concept of tissue-specific components for the activation of CCaMK. PMID:20675572

  2. Impact of organic fractions identified by SEC and fluorescence EEM on the hydraulic reversibility of ultrafiltration membrane fouling by secondary effluents

    KAUST Repository

    Haberkampa, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Loss of membrane filtration performance due to organic fouling is still a significant drawback for the application of low-pressure membranes in tertiary wastewater treatment. The present study investigates the relevance of different organic fractions present in secondary effluents in terms of hydraulically reversible and irreversible fouling of hollow-fibre ultrafiltration membranes. A good correlation between the hydraulically reversible filtration resistance and the total organic biopolymer concentration according to size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was observed. Qualitatively biopolymers consist mainly of polysaccharides as well as proteins with high molecular weight. Polysaccharides are retained by the membrane pores, but can be removed by simple UF backwashing. On the other hand, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) analysis indicates that the extent of the hydraulically irreversible fouling correlates with the presence of protein-like substances. Removal of protein-like substances by biological slow sand filtration or chemical coagulation results in the significant reduction of the hydraulically irreversible fouling, which is presumably due to proteins in the molecular range of biopolymers. In contrast to the comparatively low sensitivity of colorimetric methods for the analysis of proteins and polysaccharides, the combined application of size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence EEM analysis is a promising tool for the determination of the organic fouling propensity of secondary effluents. ©2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  3. PRODUCEREA ŞI COMERCIALIZAREA BĂUTURILOR ALCOOLICE ÎN ORAŞELE DIN RZECZPOSPOLITA ŞI ŢARA MOLDOVEI (SEC.XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae DUDNICENCO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Articolul vizează producerea, comercializarea şi consumul băuturilor alcoolice în oraşele din Rzeczpospolita (a berii, a votcii, a miedului şi din Ţara Moldovei (a vinului, a rachiului, a berii, a brăgii în sec. XVI-XVII. Se investighează mo­dul de producere, comercializare, precum şi taxele care se percepeau pentru băuturile alcoolice în oraşele din teri­toriul dat. Producerea băuturilor alcoolice aducea venituri mari economiei oraşelor din spaţiul indicat supra.PRODUCTION AND COMMERCIALISATION OF ALCOHOLIC DRINKS IN RZECZPOSPOLITA AND MOLDOVA PRINCIPALITY CITIES (XVI-XVII C.The article targeting the production, marketing and consumption of alcoholic drinks in the cities from Rzeczpospolita (beer, vodka, mead and from Moldova (wine, spirits, beer, braga in the XVI-XVII c. It have been investigated the mode of production, sell and taxes at which were subjected the alcoholic drinks in the cities on that territory. Production of alcoholic drinks brought substantial revenues to the economy of the cities from the indicated area.

  4. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} by Tri-sec-butyl phosphate. A comparison with Tri-n-butyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekar, Aditi; Suresh, A.; Sivaraman, N. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group

    2017-06-01

    Earlier studies carried out in our laboratory indicated that Tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) is a potential extractant for U/Th separation. Also, the third phase formation tendency of TsBP is lower compared to its isomers, Tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and Tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP). In this context, the extraction and third phase formation behaviour of 1.1 M solutions of TiBP and TsBP in n-dodecane in the extraction of Th(IV) from 1 M HNO{sub 3} at 303 K over a wide range of Th concentrations were investigated in the present study and the results are compared with the literature data on TBP system. Concentrations of Th(IV) and HNO{sub 3} loaded in the organic phase before third phase formation (biphasic region) as well as in third phase and diluent-rich phase after third phase formation (triphasic region) were measured as a function of equilibrium aqueous phase Th(IV) concentration. The density of loaded organic phase was also measured at various Th(IV) concentrations. The extraction profiles in the biphasic region indicated that extraction of Th(IV) by TBP is higher than that of TiBP which in turn is higher than that of TsBP. Extractant concentration in the diluent-rich phase and third phase was measured for the triphasic region.

  5. Effects of Problem-based English Writing Instruction on Thai Upper Sec-ondary School Students’Critical Thinking Abilities and Argumentative Writing Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-bo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the effects of Problem based English writing instruction on Thai Upper sec-ondary school students’critical thinking abilities and argumentative writing skill. In this study, the researcher constructed 18 weeks’training in a prestigious secondary school M6 level. The instruments used in this research include lesson plans, writing assignments, instructional material and topics. Critical thinking pre-test and post test were used to measure students’critical thinking development. Scoring rubric was designed to measure students’argumentative writing development. The data were ana-lyzed using mean, t-test, correlation through SPSS system. The results of the analyses reveal that 1) students who learn through Problem based English Writing Instruction gained signifi-cantly higher average scores on the critical thinking post test than the critical thinking pre-test at the significance level of 0.05 and the mean difference is 0.5 which is referred to large effect;2) students who learn through Problem based English Writing In-struction gained significantly higher average score on their fifth argumentative writing assignment than the average score of their first argumentative writing assignment at the significance level of 0.05, with the mean of the effect size at 0.84 which re-ferred to large effect.Problem-based English writing instruction was proved to be an effective way in improving students’Criti-cal thinking and argumentative writing.

  6. Sorting of GLUT4 into its insulin-sensitive store requires the Sec1/Munc18 protein mVps45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccisana, Jennifer; Sadler, Jessica B A; Bryant, Nia J; Gould, Gwyn W

    2013-08-01

    Insulin stimulates glucose transport in fat and muscle cells by regulating delivery of the facilitative glucose transporter, glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4), to the plasma membrane. In the absence of insulin, GLUT4 is sequestered away from the general recycling endosomal pathway into specialized vesicles, referred to as GLUT4-storage vesicles. Understanding the sorting of GLUT4 into this store is a major challenge. Here we examine the role of the Sec1/Munc18 protein mVps45 in GLUT4 trafficking. We show that mVps45 is up-regulated upon differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipocytes and is expressed at stoichiometric levels with its cognate target-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor, syntaxin 16. Depletion of mVps45 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes results in decreased GLUT4 levels and impaired insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Using sub-cellular fractionation and an in vitro assay for GLUT4-storage vesicle formation, we show that mVps45 is required to correctly traffic GLUT4 into this compartment. Collectively our data reveal a crucial role for mVps45 in the delivery of GLUT4 into its specialized, insulin-regulated compartment.

  7. sp_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  8. cresc1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  9. Biblioteca Napoletana Digitale (sec. XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mazzola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available [The Neapolitan Digital Library (XVIIIth Century]. The availability of online resources opens up new prospects for studies and research. The Neapolitan Digital Library promoted by the Ispf selects, indexes and stores texts available in digital format belonging to the culture of southern Italy in the eighteenth century, perhaps the more lively period of the intellectual life in Kingdom of Naples.

  10. humboldt1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  11. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage. 10 Do I need folic acid after menopause? Yes. Women who have gone through menopause still need 400 micrograms of folic acid every ... United States: 2003–2006 . American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 91(1): 231–237. Hamner, H.C., Cogswell, ...

  12. A pré-medicação com midazolam antes de secção cesariana não tem efeitos adversos no neonato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Can Senel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Como todos os pacientes cirúrgicos, pacientes obstétricas também sentem estresse e ansieda de operatórios. Isso pode ser prevenido se forem passadas à paciente informações detalhadas sobre sua operação e se forem administrados medicamentos farmacológicos pré-operatórios. Devido aos efeitos depressivos dos sedativos nos neonatos, os medicamentos farmacológicos são omitidos, especialmente em pacientes obstétricas. A literatura contém poucos estudos concernentes ao uso de midazolam no pré-operatório em pacientes de secção cesariana (C/S. Nosso objetivo nesse estudo foi ajudar nossas pacientes passando por cirurgia C/S. Um grupo agendado para C/S eletiva recebeu midazolam 0,025 mg kg−1 por via intraveno sa; o outro grupo recebeu salina. A ansiedade materna foi avaliada com o uso dos escores da Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS (Escala de Ansiedade e Informação Pré-operatória de Amsterdam, e os neonatos foram avaliados por Apgar e pelo instrumento Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS (Escore Neurológico e de Capacidade Adaptativa do Neonato. Em conclusão, os pacientes pré-medicados com midazolam 0,025 mg kg−1 medicação tiveram escores de ansiedade significativamente baixos, sem qualquer efeito adverso nos neonatos. Portanto, midazolam pode, com segurança, ser utilizado como agente de pré-medicação na cirurgia C/S.

  13. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of an 840 ft/sec Tip Speed Advanced Ducted Propulsor Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of an 840 ft/sec tip speed, Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, lownoise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15- foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, resulting in quality, detailed aerodynamic and acoustic measurement data. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating conditions simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, excluding a long core duct section downstream of the core inlet guide vane. As a result, only fan rotational speed and system bypass ratio, set by specifying static pressure downstream of the core inlet guide vane row, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. The computed blade row flow fields for all five fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems. A few spanwise comparisons between

  14. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a 1215 ft/sec Tip Speed Transonic Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of a 1215 ft/sec tip speed transonic fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating points simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, which for this model did not include a split flow path with core and bypass ducts. As a result, it was only necessary to adjust fan rotational speed in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. Computed blade row flow fields at all fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the flow fields at all operating conditions reveals no excessive boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems.

  15. Copper link evaluations/solutions for fiber channel, SSA, SONET, ATM, and other services through 4 Gb/sec: basic information, test results, and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Michael J.

    1995-10-01

    Technitrol, the original designer of MIL-STD-1553 transformers, the original military 1Mb/s LAN, has advanced the state of the art one further notch, introducing a series of transceivers that allow high speed (through 1 Gb/s) data transmission over copper wire instead of fiber optic cable. One such device can be employed to implement the Fiber Channel Interface as defined by hte X3T11 ANSI Fibre Channel Committee using either mini coax, Type 1 shielded twisted pair, twinax or video cable. The technology now exists to upgrade data transmission rates on current physical media to speeds formerly only available with fiber optic cabling. Copper transceiver technology provides a cost effective alternative for dealing with demanding high speed applications such as high speed serial data transfer, high speed disk and tape storage transfer, imaging telemetry, radar, and other avionics applications. Eye diagrams will be presented to show that excellent data transmission at rates of 1 gigabit/sec with low jitter is capable over mini coax at distances to approximately 50 meters, shielded twisted pair and twinax cable to distances of 105 meters, and video cable to distances of 175 meters. Distances are further at lower data rates. As a member of the X3T11 ANSI Fiber Channel Committee, Technitrol has developed a Physical Media (copper wire) Dependant (PMD) transceiver not only compliant with the Fibre Channel Specifications but exceeding the specifications by a factor greater than four. Conceivably, this opens high speed interconnections for today's high data rate requirements to copper cabling systems. Fibre Optic problems need not be dealt with to obtain data transfers for high speed information transfers.

  16. The Sec1/Munc18 protein Vps45 regulates cellular levels of its SNARE binding partners Tlg2 and Snc2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G Shanks

    Full Text Available Intracellular membrane trafficking pathways must be tightly regulated to ensure proper functioning of all eukaryotic cells. Central to membrane trafficking is the formation of specific SNARE (soluble N-ethylmeleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complexes between proteins on opposing lipid bilayers. The Sec1/Munc18 (SM family of proteins play an essential role in SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, and like the SNAREs are conserved through evolution from yeast to humans. The SM protein Vps45 is required for the formation of yeast endosomal SNARE complexes and is thus essential for traffic through the endosomal system. Here we report that, in addition to its role in regulating SNARE complex assembly, Vps45 regulates cellular levels of its SNARE binding partners: the syntaxin Tlg2 and the v-SNARE Snc2: Cells lacking Vps45 have reduced cellular levels of Tlg2 and Snc2; and elevation of Vps45 levels results in concomitant increases in the levels of both Tlg2 and Snc2. As well as regulating traffic through the endosomal system, the Snc v-SNAREs are also required for exocytosis. Unlike most vps mutants, cells lacking Vps45 display multiple growth phenotypes. Here we report that these can be reversed by selectively restoring Snc2 levels in vps45 mutant cells. Our data indicate that as well as functioning as part of the machinery that controls SNARE complex assembly, Vps45 also plays a key role in determining the levels of its cognate SNARE proteins; another key factor in regulation of membrane traffic.

  17. Folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking a specific nutritional supplement, containing vitamin B3 (nicotinamide), a compound isolated from grains (azelaic acid), zinc, ... lung cancer in most people. A type of skin cancer called melanoma. Limited research suggests that taking ...

  18. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B-complex vitamin needed by the body to manufacture red blood cells. A deficiency of this vitamin ... prepared from dried yeast, fruit, and fresh leafy green vegetables to increase the folic acid in your ...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratzl, Günther, E-mail: guenther.gratzl@jku.at [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Paulik, Christian [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Hild, Sabine [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Polymer Science, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Guggenbichler, Josef P.; Lackner, Maximilian [AMiSTec GmbH and Co. KG, Leitweg 13, 6345 Kössen, Tirol (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed.

  20. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid....... These studies demonstrate how subtle differences in chemical structures can result in profound differences in pharmacological activity....

  1. T cell-based functional cDNA library screening identified SEC14-like 1a carboxy-terminal domain as a negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Emiko; Ichikawa, Reiko; Morikawa, Yuko; Yoshida, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Komano, Jun

    2010-05-26

    Genome-wide screening of host factors that regulate HIV-1 replication has been attempted using numerous experimental approaches. However, there has been limited success using T cell-based cDNA library screening to identify genes that regulate HIV-1 replication. We have established a genetic screening strategy using the human T cell line MT-4 and a replication-competent HIV-1. With this system, we identified the C-terminal domain (CTD) of SEC14-like 1a (SEC14L1a) as a novel inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. Our T cell-based cDNA screening system provides an alternative tool for identifying novel regulators of HIV-1 replication.

  2. Spectroscopic and Density Functional Theory Studies of the Blue–Copper Site in M121SeM and C112SeC Azurin: Cu–Se Versus Cu–S Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Ritimukta; Gorelsky, Serge I.; Basumallick, Lipika; Hwang, Hee Jung; Pratt, Russell C.; Stack, T. Daniel P.; Lu, Yi; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I.

    2009-01-01

    S K-edge X-ray absorption, UV–vis absorption, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and resonance Raman spectroscopies are used to investigate the electronic structure differences among WT, M121SeM, and C112SeC Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a) azurin. A comparison of S K-edge XAS of WT and M121SeM azurin and a CuII–thioether model complex shows that the 38% S character in the ground state wave function of the blue–copper (BC) sites solely reflects the Cu–SCys bond. Resonance Raman (rR) data on WT and C112SeC azurin give direct evidence for the kinematic coupling between the Cu–SCys stretch and the cysteine deformation modes in WT azurin, which leads to multiple features in the rR spectrum of the BC site. The UV–vis absorption and MCD data on WT, M121SeM, and C112SeC give very similar C0/D0 ratios, indicating that the C-term MCD intensity mechanism involves Cu-centered spin–orbit coupling (SOC). The spectroscopic data combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that SCys and SeCys have similar covalent interactions with Cu at their respective bond lengths of 2.1 and 2.3 Å. This reflects the similar electronegativites of S and Se in the thiolate/selenolate ligand fragment and explains the strong spectroscopic similarities between WT and C112SeC azurin. PMID:18314977

  3. Spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of the blue-copper site in M121SeM and C112SeC azurin: Cu-Se versus Cu-S bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Ritimukta; Gorelsky, Serge I; Basumallick, Lipika; Hwang, Hee Jung; Pratt, Russell C; Stack, T Daniel P; Lu, Yi; Hodgson, Keith O; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I

    2008-03-26

    S K-edge X-ray absorption, UV-vis absorption, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and resonance Raman spectroscopies are used to investigate the electronic structure differences among WT, M121SeM, and C112SeC Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a) azurin. A comparison of S K-edge XAS of WT and M121SeM azurin and a CuII-thioether model complex shows that the 38% S character in the ground state wave function of the blue-copper (BC) sites solely reflects the Cu-SCys bond. Resonance Raman (rR) data on WT and C112SeC azurin give direct evidence for the kinematic coupling between the Cu-SCys stretch and the cysteine deformation modes in WT azurin, which leads to multiple features in the rR spectrum of the BC site. The UV-vis absorption and MCD data on WT, M121SeM, and C112SeC give very similar C0/D0 ratios, indicating that the C-term MCD intensity mechanism involves Cu-centered spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The spectroscopic data combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that SCys and SeCys have similar covalent interactions with Cu at their respective bond lengths of 2.1 and 2.3 A. This reflects the similar electronegativites of S and Se in the thiolate/selenolate ligand fragment and explains the strong spectroscopic similarities between WT and C112SeC azurin.

  4. Déterminants protéiques de la voie de sécrétion Sec impliqués dans la formation de biofilm chez Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogenic bacteria responsible for listeriosis, a rare but high mortality rate disease in humans (25 %). This bacterium can form biofilm allowing a better resistance to environmental stresses as well as decontamination treatments. A new strategy for genomic analysis was developed and allowed to target secretion systems and proteins potentially involved in biofilm formation. Inactivation of the SecA2 pathway leads to the formation of an aerial and fragile...

  5. Single-mode 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with Zn-diffusion and oxide-relief apertures for > 50 Gbit/sec OOK and 4-PAM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jyehong; Ledentsov, N. N.; Yang, Ying-Jay

    2017-02-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) has become the most important light source in the booming market of short-reach ( 150 Ω) seriously limits the >50 Gbit/sec linking distance (techniques. In contrast to OOK, 4-PAM modulation format is attractive for >50 Gbit/sec transmission due to that it can save one-half of the required bandwidth. Nevertheless, a 4.7 dB optical power penalty and the linearity of transmitter would become issues in the 4-PAM linking performance. Besides, in the modern OI system, the optics transreceiver module must be packaged as close as possible with the integrated circuits (ICs). The heat generated from ICs will become an issue in speed of VSCEL. Here, we review our recent work about 850 nm VCSEL, which has unique Zn-diffusion/oxide-relief apertures and special p- doping active layer with strong wavelength detuning to further enhance its modulation speed and high-temperature (85°C) performances. Single-mode (SM) devices with high-speed ( 26 GHz), reasonable resistance ( 70 Ω) and moderate output power ( 1.5 mW) can be achieved. Error-free 54 Gbit/sec OOK transmission through 1km MMF has been realized by using such SM device with signal processing techniques. Besides, the volterra nonlinear equalizer has been applied in our 4-PAM 64 Gbit/sec transmission through 2-km OM4 MMF, which significantly enhance the linearity of device and outperforms fed forward equalization (FFE) technique. Record high bit-rate distance product of 128.km is confirmed for optical-interconnect applications.

  6. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a 1484 ft/sec Tip Speed Quiet High-Speed Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of a 1484 ft/sec tip speed quiet high-speed fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating points simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, which includes a core duct and a bypass duct that merge upstream of the fan system nozzle. As a result, only fan rotational speed and the system bypass ratio, set by means of a translating nozzle plug, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. Computed blade row flow fields at all fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive or critical boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems, with the exception of the hub boundary layer at the core duct entrance. At that location a significant flow separation is present. The region of local flow

  7. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  8. Effect of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and etidronic acid on the surface roughness of Biodentine: in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür İlke Atasoy Ulusoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 9% etidronic acid (HEBP and 17% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA on the surface roughness of Biodentine. Materials and Method: Biodentine (Septodont was mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, five drops of liquid were added into the capsule containing the powder. Then the capsule was placed in a triturator for 30 sec. The prepared mixture was placed into a mold (diameter: 5 mm, depth: 3 mm. The Biodentine surfaces were polished with silicon carbide abrasive papers. The surface roughness of 30 samples was measured at baseline using a portable surface roughness tester. For this purpose, a 5 mN force was applied onto three different locations of the samples with a speed of 0.8 mm/sec. The samples were divided into two groups according to the irrigation solution (n=15; first group was treated with 9% HEBP, and the second group was treated with 17% EDTA. The surface roughness of the samples was measured again after 1 and 2 min of irrigant application. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and independent sample t-test. Results: For HEBP, no significant difference was found between the surface roughness values at 0., 1., and 2 min (p=0.107; ANOVA. For EDTA, the surface roughness value at 1 min was significantly greater than the baseline value (p<0.001; t-test. The surface roughness changes at the two time periods were significantly different between the EDTA and HEBP groups (p=0.003 for 0-1 min passage, p=0.021 for 1-2 min passage. Conclusion: The use of 17% EDTA may result in deterioration of Biodentine’s surface during perforation repair and root canal treatment.

  9. [Cardioprotective properties of new glutamic acid derivative under stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Sadikova, N V; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of new glutamic acid derivative on the cardiac ino- and chronotropic functions has been studied in experiments on rats exposed to 24-hour immobilization-and-pain stress. It is established that glutamic acid derivative RGPU-238 (glufimet) at a dose of 28.7 mg/kg increases the increment of myocardial contractility and relaxation rates and left ventricular pressure in stress-tested animals by 13 1,1, 72.4, and 118.6%, respectively, as compared to the control group during the test for adrenoreactivity. Compound RGPU-238 increases the increment of the maximum intensity of myocardium functioning by 196.5 % at 30 sec of isometric workload as compared to the control group. The cardioprotective effect of compound RGPU-238 is 1.5 - 2 times higher than that of the reference drug phenibut.

  10. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Wexler, P.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  11. DIMENSIUNILE ECONOMICĂ ŞI SOCIALĂ ALE PROCESULUI DE MODERNIZARE A ŢĂRII MOLDOVEI ÎN A DOUA JUMĂTATE A SEC.XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin ARAPU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problema dimensiunilor economică şi socială ale procesului de modernizare a Ţării Moldovei în a doua jumătate a sec. XVIII este actuală prin prisma abordărilor ştiinţifice interdisciplinare. Transformările din societate sunt reflectate prin investigaţiile de ordin istoric, economic, social, demografic, sociologic şi juridic. Tema este cercetată pe dimensiu-nile didactică, economică şi socială. Pe dimensiunea didactică este elucidat conceptul de modernizare, fiind relevate principalele scheme de periodizare a epocii moderne în plan universal şi naţional. Aspectul modernizării pe dimensiunea economică este reflectat prin accentuarea rolului exercitat de centrele urbane în economia ţării şi al atelierelor noi de producţie în cadrul cărora procesul de muncă era organizat după modelul manufacturilor descentralizate. Majoritatea manufacturilor au fost înfiinţate de către domnitori, marii boieri sau la porunca nemijlocită a sultanilor. Dimensiunea socială a procesului de modernizare este relevantă prin sporirea rolului şi a ponderii exercitate de către viitoarea pătură burgheză, reprezentată de negustori, meseriaşi, intelectuali, funcţionari, proprietari de manufacturi şi de mici instalaţii industriale, cămătari, arendaşi de moşii şi de un număr însemnat de alogeni înstăriţi, care, prin activităţile lor, contribuiau la dezvoltarea relaţiilor pre-capitaliste.ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF THE MODERNIYATION PROCCES OF MOLDAVIAN PRINCIPALITY IN SECOND HALF OF XVIII CENTURY The problem of economic and social dimensions of the modernization of Moldavian Principality in the second half of XVIII century is actual through the interdisciplinary scientific approaches. The changes in society are reflected in historical, economic, social, demographic, sociological and judicial investigations. This theme is researched on didactic, economic and social dimensions. On the didactic dimension is

  12. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the Physician Fee Schedule, and other part B payment policies for CY 2008; delay of the date of applicability of the revised anti-markup provisions for certain services furnished in certain locations (Sec. 414.50). Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-03

    This final rule delays until January 1, 2009 the applicability of the anti-markup provisions in Sec. 414.50, as revised at 72 FR 66222, except with respect to the technical component of a purchased diagnostic test and with respect to any anatomic pathology diagnostic testing services furnished in space that: Is utilized by a physician group practice as a "centralized building" (as defined at Sec. 411.351 of this chapter) for purposes of complying with the physician self-referral rules; and does not qualify as a "same building" under Sec. 411.355(b)(2)(i) of this chapter.

  13. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  14. Acid rain: Mesoscale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model of the Florida peninsula was formulated and applied to a dry, neutral atmosphere. The prospective use of the STAR-100 computer for the submesoscale model is discussed. The numerical model presented is tested under synoptically undisturbed conditions. Two cases, differing only in the direction of the prevailing geostrophic wind, are examined: a prevailing southwest wind and a prevailing southeast wind, both 6 m/sec at all levels initially.

  15. Enhanced Absorption and Growth Inhibition with Amino Acid Monoester Prodrugs of Floxuridine by Targeting hPEPT1 Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon L. Amidon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid monoester prodrugs of floxuridine was synthesized and evaluated for the improvement of oral bioavailability and the feasibility of target drug delivery via oligopeptide transporters. All floxuridine 5′-amino acid monoester prodrugs exhibited PEPT1 affinity, with inhibition coefficients of Gly-Sar uptake (IC50 ranging from 0.7 – 2.3 mM in Caco-2 and 2.0 – 4.8 mM in AsPC-1 cells, while that of floxuridine was 7.3 mM and 6.3 mM, respectively. Caco-2 membrane permeabilities of floxuridine prodrugs (1.01 – 5.31 x 10-6 cm/sec and floxuridine (0.48 x 10-6 cm/sec were much higher than that of 5-FU (0.038 x 10-6 cm/sec. MDCK cells stably transfected with the human oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (MDCK/hPEPT1 exhibited enhanced cell growth inhibition in the presence of the prodrugs. This prodrug strategy offers great potential, not only for increased drug absorption but also for improved tumor selectivity and drug efficacy.

  16. The new duty of care for nuclear power plant operators in Sec. 9a subpara. 2a AtG; Zur neuen Sorgepflicht der Kraftwerksbetreiber gem. paragraph 9a Abs. 2a AtG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posser, Herbert [Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    The new stipulation in Sec. 9a subpara. 2a AtG - pursuant to which operators of nuclear power plants are no longer entitled to use the interim storage facility in Gorleben for radioactive waste stemming from the reprocessing plants in Sellafield and La Hague, but have to establish further capacities in their own facilities for spent nuclear fuels at the site of the power plants - is illegal under constitutional law. It imposes an unproportional burden on the plant operators as well as on GNS, and infringes property rights without pursuing a legitimate purpose. (orig.)

  17. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorhydric acid ... stomach, or intestine have holes (perforations) from the acid. ... Hydrofluoric acid is especially dangerous. The most common accidents involving hydrofluoric acid cause severe burns on the skin ...

  18. Influence of l-pyroglutamic acid on the color formation process of non-enzymatic browning reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Steffen; Kaufmann, Martin; Kroh, Lothar W

    2017-10-01

    Heating aqueous d-glucose model reactions with l-glutamine and l-alanine yielded similar colored solutions. However, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) revealed that both non-enzymatic browning reactions proceeded differently. Due to a fast occurring cyclization of l-glutamine to pyroglutamic acid, the typical amino-carbonyl reaction was slowed down. However, l-glutamine and l-alanine model reactions showed the same browning index. Closer investigations could prove that l-pyroglutamic acid was able to influence non-enzymatic browning reactions. SEC analyses of d-glucose model reactions with and without l-pyroglutamic acid revealed an increase of low molecular colored compounds in the presence of l-pyroglutamic acid. Polarimetric measurements showed a doubling of d-glucose mutarotation velocity and HPLC analyses of d-fructose formation during thermal treatment indicated a tripling of aldose-ketose transformation in the presence of l-pyroglutamic acid, which are signs of a faster proceeding non-enzymatic browning process. 2-Pyrrolidone showed no such behavior, thus the additional carboxylic group should be responsible for the observed effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  20. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    to the coastal sedimentary humic acids implying higher association of amino acids with the carbonaceous and fine grained sedimentary humic acids. Both the humic and fulvic acids are composed of neutral, acidic, basic, aromatic and sulphur containing amino acids....

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids improve liver and pancreas function in postoperative cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Axel R; Rössel, Thomas; Gottschlich, Birgit; Tiebel, Oliver; Menschikowski, Mario; Litz, Rainer J; Zimmermann, Thomas; Koch, Thea

    2004-09-10

    Epidemiologic studies have indicated that high intake of saturated fat and/or animal fat increases the risk of colon and breast cancer. Omega-3 PUFAs in fish oil (FO) can inhibit the growth of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These effects are related to the uptake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into the cellular substrate pool and their competitive metabolism with arachidonic acid (AA) at the cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase levels. The metabolites of EPA and DHA have less inflammatory and immunosuppressant potency than the substances derived from AA. Based on previous experimental data, we hypothesized that FO supplementation after major abdominal cancer surgery would improve hepatic and pancreatic function. Ours was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial on 44 patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery, randomly assigned to receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN) supplemented with either soybean oil (SO 1.0 g/kg body weight daily, n = 20) for 5 days or a combination of FO and SO (FO 0.2 + SO 0.8 g/kg body weight daily, n = 24). Compared to pure SO supplementation in the postoperative period, FO significantly reduced ASAT [0.8 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.5 +/- 0.1 mmol/(l. sec)], ALAT [0.9 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.1 mmol/(l. sec)], bilirubin (16.1 +/- 5.3 vs. 6.9 +/- 0.6 mmol/l), LDH (7.7 +/- 0.4 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.4 mmol/(l. sec) and lipase (0.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.1 micromol/(l. sec) in the postoperative course. Moreover, patients with increased risk of sepsis (IL-6/IL-10 ratio >8) showed a tendency to shorter ICU stay (18 hr) under omega-3 PUFA treatment. Weight loss as encountered after the SO emulsion of 1.1 +/- 2.2 kg was absent in the FO group. After major abdominal tumor surgery, FO supplementation improved liver and pancreas function, which might have contributed to the faster recovery of patients.

  2. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  3. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  4. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  5. Clinical Significance of β2-MG and Sec in the diagnosis of sqamous cell lung cancer%血清β2-MG和Scc联合检测对肺鳞癌临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 刘彬; 梁蕊; 陈勐; 朱例例; 张新; 刘博

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value and the clinical significance of squamous cell carcinoma antigen(SCc) and1β2-microhallcons protein ([β2-MG) in the diagnosis of sqamous cell lung cancer. Methods The patients were divided into two groups: the sqamous cell lung cancer group and the benign lung disease group. The electric chemisty irradianco and inmunity nephelometer was respectively used to examine blood serumβ2-MG and Scc. Levene's Test was used to detected the homogeneity of variance test Satterthwaite test or the same variance used t-test was used te detected the difference variance. The sensitive rate, the spee ificity rate and the accuracy rate comparison were examined by Chi-sqnare test. Spearman correlation analysis was used to analysis the correlation of β2-MG and Sec.Results The sensitive rate of β2-MG was higher than that of Scc( P <0. 05 ). The combined examination was higher thanβ2-MG( P <0.05). The specificity rate:β2-MG was the same as combined examination (P >0. 05 ). The union examination and β2-MG was lower than Scc( P < 0. 05 ). The accuracy rate:β2-MG was higher than Scc( P < 0. 05 ). conbined examination was higher thanβ2-MG and Scc ( P < 0. 05 ). The spearman correlation analysis: β2-MG and Sec had no correlation, they could be used to united examination. The serum tumor markers of Sec was six-fold than normal level, the cumulative percent was 92. 2 percent. Conclusions Combined examinotion Ofβ2-MG and Scc may improve sensitive and accuracy in the diagnosis of sqamoas cell lung cancer. β2-MG and Sec have no correlations.%目的 研究血清肿瘤标记物Scc、β2-MG对肺鳞癌的诊断价值和临床意义.方法 将研究对象分组,实验组为肺鳞癌组,对照组为良性肺病组.分别采用免疫浊度法、电化学发光法检测血清β2-MG、Scc,测定值用t检验,率比较用卡方检验.二者相关性分析用Spearman等级相关分析.结果 敏感性:β2-MG高于Scc(P0.05).准确性:β2-MG

  6. Etude d'un nouveau procédé de fractionnement des co-produits de fabrication de jambon sec et des propriétés physico-chimiques et fonctionnelles des extraits et raffinats

    OpenAIRE

    Foret, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    Le coproduit de fabrication de jambon sec est issu de l'opération de désossage de la cuisse de porc parée, salée, séchée et affinée. Il est constitué à plus de 85 % d'os et de tissus associés (cartilages, ligaments, tendons). Le concassage au broyeur à marteau permet d'homogénéiser le coproduit en morceaux de taille inférieure à 8 cm (> 90 % compris entre 40 et 80 mm). La composition chimique de la matière sèche du mélange (77 ± 3 % de MS) est de 33 ± 5 % en protéines (89 % de collagène,...

  7. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  8. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni', a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Yan; Dally, Ellen L; Lee, Ing-Ming; Jomantiene, Rasa; Douglas, Sharon M

    2013-02-01

    X-disease is one of the most serious diseases known in peach (Prunus persica). Based on RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, peach X-disease phytoplasma strains from eastern and western United States and eastern Canada were classified in 16S rRNA gene RFLP group 16SrIII, subgroup A. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the X-disease phytoplasma strains formed a distinct subclade within the phytoplasma clade, supporting the hypothesis that they represented a lineage distinct from those of previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Nucleotide sequence alignments revealed that all studied X-disease phytoplasma strains shared less than 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Based on unique properties of the DNA, we propose recognition of X-disease phytoplasma strain PX11CT1(R) as representative of a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni'. Results from nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses of secY and ribosomal protein (rp) gene sequences provided additional molecular markers of the 'Ca. Phytoplasma pruni' lineage. We propose that the term 'Ca. Phytoplasma pruni' be applied to phytoplasma strains whose 16S rRNA gene sequences contain the oligonucleotide sequences of unique regions that are designated in the formally published description of the taxon. Such strains include X-disease phytoplasma and--within the tolerance of a single base difference in one unique sequence--peach rosette, peach red suture, and little peach phytoplasmas. Although not employed for taxon delineation in this work, we further propose that secY, rp, and other genetic loci from the reference strain of a taxon, and where possible oligonucleotide sequences of unique regions of those genes that distinguish taxa within a given 16Sr group, be incorporated in emended descriptions and as part of future descriptions of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' taxa.

  9. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  10. Effect of Phosphoric Acid on the Degradation of Human Dentin Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, A.; Mutluay, M.; Seseogullari-Dirihan, R.; Agee, K.A.; Key, W.O.; Scheffel, D.L.S.; Breschi, L.; Mazzoni, A.; Tjäderhane, L.; Nishitani, Y.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined if dentin proteases are denatured by phosphoric acid (PA) used in etch-and-rinse dentin adhesives. Dentin beams were completely demineralized with EDTA for 30 days. We “acid-etched” experimental groups by exposing the demineralized dentin beams to 1, 10, or 37 mass% PA for 15 sec or 15 min. Control beams were not exposed to PA but were incubated in simulated body fluid for 3 days to assay their total endogenous telopeptidase activity, by their ability to solubilize C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides ICTP and CTX from insoluble dentin collagen. Control beams released 6.1 ± 0.8 ng ICTP and 0.6 ± 0.1 ng CTX/mg dry-wt/3 days. Positive control beams pre-incubated in p-aminophenylmercuric acetate, a compound known to activate proMMPs, released about the same amount of ICTP peptides, but released significantly less CTX. Beams immersed in 1, 10, or 37 mass% PA for 15 sec or 15 min released amounts of ICTP and CTX similar to that released by the controls (p > 0.05). Beams incubated in galardin, an MMP inhibitor, or E-64, a cathepsin inhibitor, blocked most of the release of ICTP and CTX, respectively. It is concluded that PA does not denature endogenous MMP and cathepsin activities of dentin matrices. PMID:23103634

  11. Experimental Shock Chemistry of Aqueous Amino Acid Solutions and the Cometary Delivery of Prebiotic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jennifer G.; Miller, Gregory H.; Ahrens, Michael J.; Winans, Randall E.

    2001-02-01

    A series of shock experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of the delivery of organic compounds to the Earth via cometary impacts. Aqueous solutions containing near-saturation levels of amino acids (lysine, norvaline, aminobutyric acid, proline, and phenylalanine) were sealed inside stainless steel capsules and shocked by ballistic impact with a steel projectile plate accelerated along a 12-m-long gun barrel to velocities of 0.5-1.9 km sec^-1. Pressure-temperature-time histories of the shocked fluids were calculated using 1D hydrodynamical simulations. Maximum conditions experienced by the solutions lasted 0.85-2.7 μs and ranged from 5.1-21 GPa and 412-870 K. Recovered sample capsules were milled open and liquid was extracted. Samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). In all experiments, a large fraction of the amino acids survived. We observed differences in kinetic behavior and the degree of survivability among the amino acids. Aminobutyric acid appeared to be the least reactive, and phenylalanine appeared to be the most reactive of the amino acids. The impact process resulted in the formation of peptide bonds; new compounds included amino acid dimers and cyclic diketopiperazines. In our experiments, and in certain naturally occurring impacts, pressure has a greater influence than temperature in determining reaction pathways. Our results support the hypothesis that significant concentrations of organic material could survive a natural impact process.

  12. Addition of Grape Seed Extract Renders Phosphoric Acid a Collagen-stabilizing Etchant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies found that grape seed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, could protect demineralized dentin collagen from collagenolytic activities following clinically relevant treatment. Because of proanthocyanidin's adverse interference to resin polymerization, it was believed that GSE should be applied and then rinsed off in a separate step, which in effect increases the complexity of the bonding procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining GSE treatment with phosphoric acid etching to address the issue. It is also the first attempt to formulate collagen-cross-linking dental etchants. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and digestion assay, it was established that in the presence of 20% to 5% phosphoric acid, 30 sec of GSE treatment rendered demineralized dentin collagen inert to bacterial collagenase digestion. Based on this positive result, the simultaneous dentin etching and collagen protecting of GSE-containing phosphoric acid was evaluated on the premise of a 30-second etching time. According to micro-Raman spectroscopy, the formulation containing 20% phosphoric acid was found to lead to overetching. Based on scanning and transmission electronic microscopy, this same formulation exhibited unsynchronized phosphoric acid and GSE penetration. Therefore, addition of GSE did render phosphoric acid a collagen-stabilizing etchant, but the preferable phosphoric acid concentration should be <20%.

  13. Synthesis and properties of fatty acid starch esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Henning; Vorwerg, Waltraud; Wetzel, Hendrik

    2013-10-15

    Being completely bio-based, fatty acid starch esters (FASEs) are attractive materials that represent an alternative to crude oil-based plastics. In this study, two synthesis methods were compared in terms of their efficiency, toxicity and, especially, product solubility with starch laurate (C12) as model compound. Laurates (DS>2) were obtained through transesterification of fatty acid vinylesters in DMSO or reaction with fatty acid chlorides in pyridine. The latter lead to higher DS-values in a shorter reaction time. But due to the much better solubility of the products compared to lauroyl chloride esterified ones, vinylester-transesterification was preferred to optimize reaction parameters, where reaction time could be shortened to 2h. FASEs C6-C18 were also successfully prepared via transesterification. To determine the DS of the resulting starch laurates, the efficient ATR-IR method was compared with common methods (elementary analysis, (1)H NMR). Molar masses (Mw) of the highly soluble starch laurates were analyzed using SEC-MALLS (THF). High recovery rates (>80%) attest to the outstanding solubility of products obtained through transesterification, caused by a slight disintegration during synthesis. Particle size distributions (DLS) demonstrated stable dissolutions in CHCl3 of vinyl laurate esterified - contrary to lauroyl chloride esterified starch. For all highly soluble FASEs (C6-C18), formation of concentrated solutions (10 wt%) is feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Novel Thin Film Resistive Humidity Sensor Based on Soluble Conjugated Polymer: (propionic acid)-co-(propargyl alcohol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel soluble conjugated copolymer (propionic acid)-co-(propargyl alcohol) (PA-co-OHP) has been synthesized for the first time using a new palladium acetylide catalyst Pd(PPh3)2 (CoCC(CH3)2OH)2 (PPB). Thin film resistive humidity sensor based on the copolymer doped with HClO-4 was prepared. The impedance of the sensor changed from 103~107 W in 95%~30%RH, and the response of that is very quick (<6 sec.). Preliminary results show the copolymer is a promising humidity sensitive material.

  15. Gas-phase Acidities of Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, and their Amino Acid Amides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H; Velazquez, Hector A; Dixon, David A; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2007-02-14

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or ΔGacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage’s importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3–4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  16. Influence of amino acids, buffers, and ph on the γ-irradiation-induced degradation of alginates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulset, Ann-Sissel T; Mori, Hideki; Dalheim, Marianne Ø; Hara, Masayuki; Christensen, Bjørn E

    2014-12-08

    Alginate-based biomaterials and medical devices are commonly subjected to γ-irradiation as a means of sterilization, either in the dry state or the gel (hydrated) state. In this process the alginate chains degrade randomly in a dose-dependent manner, altering alginates' material properties. The addition of free radical scavenging amino acids such as histidine and phenylalanine protects the alginate significantly against degradation, as shown by monitoring changes in the molecular weight distributions using SEC-MALLS and determining the pseudo first order rate constants of degradation. Tris buffer (0.5 M), but not acetate, citrate, or phosphate buffers had a similar effect on the degradation rate. Changes in pH itself had only marginal effects on the rate of alginate degradation and on the protective effect of amino acids. Contrary to previous reports, the chemical composition (M/G profile) of the alginates, including homopolymeric mannuronan, was unaltered following irradiation up to 10 kGy.

  17. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  18. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.

  19. A log-normal distribution model for the molecular weight of aquatic fulvic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaniss, S.E.; Zhou, Q.; Maurice, P.A.; Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular weight of humic substances influences their proton and metal binding, organic pollutant partitioning, adsorption onto minerals and activated carbon, and behavior during water treatment. We propose a lognormal model for the molecular weight distribution in aquatic fulvic acids to provide a conceptual framework for studying these size effects. The normal curve mean and standard deviation are readily calculated from measured M(n) and M(w) and vary from 2.7 to 3 for the means and from 0.28 to 0.37 for the standard deviations for typical aquatic fulvic acids. The model is consistent with several types of molecular weight data, including the shapes of high- pressure size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC) peaks. Applications of the model to electrostatic interactions, pollutant solubilization, and adsorption are explored in illustrative calculations.The molecular weight of humic substances influences their proton and metal binding, organic pollutant partitioning, adsorption onto minerals and activated carbon, and behavior during water treatment. We propose a log-normal model for the molecular weight distribution in aquatic fulvic acids to provide a conceptual framework for studying these size effects. The normal curve mean and standard deviation are readily calculated from measured Mn and Mw and vary from 2.7 to 3 for the means and from 0.28 to 0.37 for the standard deviations for typical aquatic fulvic acids. The model is consistent with several type's of molecular weight data, including the shapes of high-pressure size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC) peaks. Applications of the model to electrostatic interactions, pollutant solubilization, and adsorption are explored in illustrative calculations.

  20. Association study of common polymorphisms in MSRA, TFAP2B, MC4R, NRXN3, PPARGC1A, TMEM18, SEC16B, HOXB5 and OLFM4 genes with obesity-related traits among Portuguese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, David; Nóbrega, Clévio; Rodríguez-López, Raquel; Manco, Licínio

    2014-06-01

    At least 52 genetic loci were associated with obesity-related traits. However, little is known about the genetic basis of obesity among children. This study aims to test whether 10 polymorphisms in obesity-related genes methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), transcription factor AP-2 beta (TFAP2B), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), neurexin 3 (NRXN3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A), transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18), homolog of S. cerevisiae Sec16 (SEC16B), homeobox B5 (HOXB5) and olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) are associated with the risk of obesity in Portuguese children. A total of 730 children aging from 6 to 12 years old, recruited randomly from public schools in Portugal, were analysed. Anthropometric measurements were obtained and children were classified into three phenotypic groups, normal weight (n=256), overweight (n=320) and obese (n=154), according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Polymorphisms were genotyped by allelic discrimination TaqMan assays. The MC4R rs12970134 polymorphism was nominally associated with body mass index (BMI) (P=0.035), BMI Z-score (P=0.043) and waist circumference (P=0.020), and borderline associated with weight (P=0.053). Near nominal associations were also found for the PPARGC1A rs8192678 polymorphism with weight (P=0.061), and for the MSRA rs545854 polymorphism with BMI (P=0.055) and BMI Z-score (P=0.056). Furthermore, logistic regression showed that MC4R rs12970134 and TFAP2B rs987237 were nominally, respectively, associated (P=0.029) and borderline associated (P=0.056) with the obese phenotype. This study highlighted the possible association of MC4R, PPARGC1A, MSRA and TFAP2B polymorphisms with several obesity-related traits in a sample of Portuguese children. The two significant associated TFAP2B rs987237 and MC4R rs12970134 polymorphisms showed an opposite direction of effect to that in the original reports.

  1. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  2. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  3. Las sociedades que utilizan las NIC/NIIF ya no tienen que reconciliar las cifras contables a us gaap. ¿está justificada esta decisión de la sec en el ámbito del sector de las telecomunicaciones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Palomares Laguna

    2009-01-01

    Por todo ello, consideramos acertada la decisión de la SEC, aunque futuras investigaciones deberán confirmar que las diferencias tienden a reducirse una vez que los efectos de la NIIF 1 se difuminan y que los avances previstos en la armonización de iure se trasladan a la armonización de facto.

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...

  5. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant ...

  6. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  7. Catalytic Synthesis Lactobionic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Borodina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles are obtained, characterized and deposited on the carrier. Conducted catalytic synthesis of lactobionic acid from lactose. Received lactobionic acid identify on the IR spectrum.

  8. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  9. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partners About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español ( ... a woman needs 400 micrograms (mcg) every day. Facts About Folic Acid Download and print this fact ...

  10. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  11. Folic Acid Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Quiz Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... button beside the question. Good Luck! 1. Folic acid is: A a B vitamin B a form ...

  12. Sobre la fase orientalizante en las tierras meridionales valencianas: el yacimiento de Casa de Secà (Elche, Alicante y la dinámica del poblamiento en el Sinus Ilicitanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Soriano Boj

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones arqueológicas desarrolladas en los tramos finales de los ríos Segura y Vinalopó son de gran importancia para explicar el proceso histórico durante la primera mitad del primer milenio cal BC en el Levante peninsular. Asentamientos como Penya Negra, Fonteta, El Oral o La Picola han permitido fijar las bases estratigráficas y efectuar diversas propuestas de interpretación socioeconómica. No obstante, en los últimos años, las excavaciones de urgencia emprendidas en las tierras llanas están evidenciando la existencia de un denso poblamiento rural desde, al menos, el siglo VII a.C, aunque todavía mal reconocido por su elevado grado de arrasamiento y alteración. En este sentido, la información obtenida en Casa de Secà y en otros puntos del agro ilicitano permite realizar nuevas consideraciones sobre la dinámica de ocupación y de organización social entre los siglos IX y VI a.C.

  13. yakutat_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  14. homer_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  15. yakutat_ak_9sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  16. ca_north6sec_113005.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  17. sitka_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  18. 20050622cacentral3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  19. seldovia_ak_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  20. or_north6sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  1. homer_ak_8sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  2. seward_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  3. kodiak_ak_8sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  4. kodiak_ak_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  5. sitka_ak_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  6. seldovia_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  7. yakutat_ak_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  8. seward_ak_8sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  9. ak_sc_24sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission...

  10. SEC actions compel new focus on disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Heidi H; Bannard, David Y

    2013-11-01

    Practical steps that healthcare organizations should take in creating disclosure programs that meet the Securities and Exchange Commission's guidelines for disclosure include: Establishing procedures for disclosure of financial and operational data; Conducting an internal audit of disclosure practices; Designating personnel responsible for disclosure and ensuring they receive appropriate training; Reassessing the organization's historic deal pattern; Making effective use of counsel; Establishing clearly defined policies for website disclosure.

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Service agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... United States (NSA) may prescribe (or in the absence of such directions, orders, forms, and methods of... load; and availability of berths, vessels, cargoes, labor, and equipment. (2) Recommend changes of...: And provided, That part-time services will be compensated for on a prorated basis. Any adjustments...

  12. homer_ak_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  13. or_central6sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  14. kodiak_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Terminal operating contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Facilities as used in this agreement means piers, wharves, warehouses, covered and/or open storage space... functional field, e.g., handling lines; directing tug operations for docking vessels; planning and conducting..., and agrees to furnish its best skill and judgment in planning, supervising and performing the work,...

  16. ca_north36sec_113005.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  17. Improving Response Deliverability in DNS(SEC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Gijs; van Rijswijk, Roland; van Rijswijk, Roland M.; Pras, Aiko; Sperotto, Anna

    The Domain Name System provides a critical service on the Internet, where it allows host names to be translated to IP addresses. However, it does not provide any guarantees about authenticity and origin integrity of resolution data. DNSSEC attempts to solve this through the application of

  18. Improving Response Deliverability in DNS(SEC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den Gijs; Rijswijk, van Roland; Pras, Aiko; Sperotto, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Domain Name System provides a critical service on the Internet, where it allows host names to be translated to IP addresses. However, it does not provide any guarantees about authenticity and origin integrity of resolution data. DNSSEC attempts to solve this through the application of cryptograp

  19. Tying of payment of maximum permissible franchise fee by an electric utility holding a monopoly position to the conclusion of new franchise agreement is an infringement of sections 26, sub-sec. 2, 35, sub-sec. 1 GWB. Mannheim Regional Court, decision of 23 Nov. 1994 - 70 120/94 (Kart.); Koppelung der Zahlung der hoechstzulaessigen Konzessionsabgabe durch ein Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen mit Monopolstellung an den Abschluss eines neuen Konzessionsvertrages als Verstoss gegen Para. 26 Abs. 2, Para. 35 Abs. 1 GWB. LG Mannheim, Urteil vom 23.11.1994 - 7O 120/94(Kart.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-12-31

    If an electric utility holds a monopoly position in a local government district due to a valid demarcation agreement, its attempt to ty payment of the maximum permissible franchise fee to the local government to premature conclusion of a follow-up agreement for a term of 20 years is an infringement of section 26, sub-sec. 2 GWB (law against restraints on competition). The electric utility in this case is liable according to sections 26, sub-sec.2, 35, sub-sec. 1 GWB to pay compensation to the local government amounting to the difference between the maximum permissible franchise fees and the fees actually paid by the utility. (orig.) [Deutsch] Verfuegt ein Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen infolge eines bestehenden Demarkationsvertrages ueber ein Versorgungsmonopol auf dem Gebiet einer Gemeinde, so verstoesst sein Verhalten, die Zahlung der hoechstzulaessigen Konzessionsabgabe an diese Gemeinde an den vorzeitigen Abschluss eines neuen Konzessionsvertrages mit 20jaehriger Laufzeit zu koppeln, gegen Para. 26 Abs. 2 GWB. Das Versorgungsunternehmen ist in einem solchen Falle gemaess Para. 26 Abs. 2, 35 Abs. 1 GWB zum Ersatz des der Gemeinde entstandenen Schadens in Hoehe der Differenz zwischen den hoechstzulaessigen Konzessionsabgaben und den von dem Versorgungsunternehmen gezahlten Betraegen verpflichtet. (orig.)

  20. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  1. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  2. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  3. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Acid Lipase Disease Information Page What research is being ... research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency. Additional research studies hope to identify ...

  4. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  5. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  6. Heterologous production of human papillomavirus type-16 L1 protein by a lactic acid bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bermúdez-Humarán Luis G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of vaccine antigens in lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a safe and cost-effective alternative to traditional expression systems. In this study, we investigated i the expression of Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 L1 major capsid protein in the model LAB Lactococcus lactis and ii the ability of the resulting recombinant strain to produce either capsomer-or virus-like particles (VLPs. Results and conclusion HPV-16 L1 gene was cloned into two vectors, pCYT and pSEC, designed for controlled intra- or extracellular heterologous expression in L. lactis, respectively. The capacity of L. lactis harboring either pCYT:L1 or pSEC:L1 plasmid to accumulate L1 in the cytoplasm and supernatant samples was confirmed by Western blot assays. Electron microscopy analysis suggests that, L1 protein produced by recombinant lactococci can self-assemble into structures morphologically similar to VLPs intracellularly. The presence of conformational epitopes on the L. lactis-derived VLPs was confirmed by ELISA using an anti-HPV16 L1 capsid antigen antibody. Our results support the feasibility of using recombinant food-grade LAB, such as L. lactis, for the production of L1-based VLPs and open the possibility for the development of a new safe mucosal vector for HPV-16 prophylactic vaccination.

  7. Demospongic Acids Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Barnathan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The well-known fatty acids with a D5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32 and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19. Finally, the D5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs. This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between D5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs.

  8. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  9. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  10. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  11. p-Aminoacetophenonic Acids Produced by a Mangrove Endophyte Streptomyces sp. (strain HK10552

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Four new p-aminoacetophenonic acids, named (2E-11-(4′-aminophenyl-5,9-dihydroxy-4,6,8-trimethyl-11-oxo-undec-2-enoic acid (1, 9-(4′-aminophenyl-3,7-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trimethyl-9-oxo-nonoic acid(2, (2E-11-(4′-aminophenyl-5,9-O-cyclo-4,6,8-trimethyl-11-oxo-undec-2-enoic acid (3 and 9-(4′-aminophenyl-3,7-O-cyclo-2,4,6-trimethyl-9-oxo-nonoic acid(4, were isolated from an endophyte Streptomyces sp. (strain HK10552 of the mangrove plant Aegiceras corniculatum. The structures of 1–4 were elucidated by using spectroscopic analyses. The relative stereoconfigurations of compounds 3 and 4 were determined by NOESY experiments. In the bioassay test, 1–4 showed no cytotoxicity against the Hela cell lines. Compound 4 also showed no inhibitory bioactivity on HCV protease and SecA ATPase and wasn’t active against VSVG/HIV-luc pseudotyping virus.

  12. Effects of Nitric Acid Concentration on the Stability of Alumina Sols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Alumina sols with a mlar ratio of 1: 50 between aluminum sec- butoxide ( ASB ) and H2 O werefabricated by adding various amounts of nitric acid.The particle shape, zeta potential, polydispersity and effective particle size of alumina sol were examined by a TEM, a zeta PALS granularity analyzer and a zetaPALS zeta potential analyzer, respectively.By analyzing the change of zeta potential and double- layer thickness with nitric acid concentration, the potential energy curves of colloidal particles were mapped on the basis of DLVO theory, and the effects of nitric acid concentration on the stability of alumina sols were intensively studied.The results show that for the alumina sols with a mol ratio of 1: 50 between ASB and H2 O, the total interaction energy of the colloidal particle is at a maximum when the nitric acid concentration is 0.22 mol/ L.Therefore, the stability of the colloid reaches optimum at the nitric acid concentration of 0.22 mol/L.

  13. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-07

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  14. Accuracy analysis of the 2014-2015 Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 1 arc-sec C-Band height model using International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukul, Manas; Srivastava, Vinee; Mukul, Malay

    2016-07-01

    Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data products have been widely used in Earth Sciences without an estimation of their accuracy and reliability even though large outliers exist in them. The global 1 arc-sec, 30 m resolution, SRTM C-Band (C-30) data collected in February 2000 has been recently released (2014-2015) outside North America. We present the first global assessment of the vertical accuracy of C-30 data using Ground Control Points (GCPs) from the International GNSS Service (IGS) Network of high-precision static fiducial stations that define the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Large outliers (height error ranging from -1285 to 2306 m) were present in the C-30 dataset and 14% of the data were removed to reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) of the dataset from ˜187 to 10.3 m which is close to the SRTM goal of an absolute vertical accuracy of RMSE ˜10 m. Globally, for outlier-filtered data from 287 GCPs, the error or difference between IGS and SRTM heights exhibited a non-normal distribution with a mean and standard error of 6.5 ± 0.5 m. Continent-wise, only Australia, North and South America complied with the SRTM goal. At stations where all the X- and C-Band SRTM data were present, the RMSE of the outlier-filtered C-30 data was 11.7 m. However, the RMSE of outlier-included dataset where C- and X-Band data were present was ˜233 m. The results suggest that the SRTM data must only be used after regional accuracy analysis and removal of outliers. If used raw, they may produce results that are statistically insignificant with RMSE in 100s of meters.

  15. Comentários neurocirúrgicos e fisiológicos sobre a secção da haste pituitária em seres humanos (miscotomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Le Beau

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available Nossa primeira hipofisectomia para tratamento de carcinoma metastático do seio foi feita em novembro de 1951 e a secção da haste pituitária (miscotomia para o mesmo fim foi iniciada em novembro de 1956. Quando se consegue impedir a regeneração vascular hipotálamo-hipofisária os resultados gerais da miscotomia são pouco diferentes daqueles obtidos com a hipofisectomia. Empregamos a miscotomia sempre que, por condições locais ou gerais, a remoção total da hipófise parece constituir grande risco cirúrgico. Temos publicado estudos anatomo-fisiológicos desde 1958 mostrando: (a as variações da necrose do lobo anterior da hipófise que não são totais nem definitivas (regeneração pituitária e a importância das artérias trabeculares a este respeito; b a grande capacidade de regeneração vascular a partir do hipctálamo e dirigindo-se para a parte restante do lobo anterior da hipófise, o que constitui um novo sistema anatomo-funcional portal; c após isolamento permanente da pituitária ocorre proliferação das células de prolactina (células orangeófilas e hipertrofia compensadora da pars tuberalis. A remoção cirúrgica de tecido hipofisário normal nos permitiu descrever, pela primeira vez no ser humano, as células ACTH (1964 e as células FSH (1966.

  16. Accuracy analysis of the 2014–2015 Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 1 arc-sec C-Band height model using International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manas Mukul; Vinee Srivastava; Malay Mukul

    2016-07-01

    Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data products have been widely used in EarthSciences without an estimation of their accuracy and reliability even though large outliers exist in them.The global 1 arc-sec, 30 m resolution, SRTM C-Band (C-30) data collected in February 2000 has beenrecently released (2014–2015) outside North America. We present the first global assessment of thevertical accuracy of C-30 data using Ground Control Points (GCPs) from the International GNSS Service(IGS) Network of high-precision static fiducial stations that define the International Terrestrial ReferenceFrame (ITRF). Large outliers (height error ranging from –1285 to 2306 m) were present in the C-30dataset and 14% of the data were removed to reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) of the datasetfrom ∼187 to 10.3 m which is close to the SRTM goal of an absolute vertical accuracy of RMSE ∼10 m.Globally, for outlier-filtered data from 287 GCPs, the error or difference between IGS and SRTM heightsexhibited a non-normal distribution with a mean and standard error of 6.5 ± 0.5 m. Continent-wise,only Australia, North and South America complied with the SRTM goal. At stations where all the XandC-Band SRTM data were present, the RMSE of the outlier-filtered C-30 data was 11.7 m. However,the RMSE of outlier-included dataset where C- and X-Band data were present was ∼233 m. The resultssuggest that the SRTM data must only be used after regional accuracy analysis and removal of outliers.If used raw, they may produce results that are statistically insignificant with RMSE in 100s of meters.

  17. Glycolic Acid 15% Plus Salicylic Acid 2%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Blanco, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Background: Facial flat warts are a contagious viral disease that can cause disturbing cosmetic problems. Topical glycolic acid has been reported to be effective in dermatological treatment depending on the exfoliant capacity, but has not often been reported to be effective in the treatment of facial flat warts. Objective: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycolic acid 15% topical gel plus salicylic acid 2% in the treatment of recalcitrant facial flat warts. Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients 7 to 16 years of age with recalcitrant facial flat warts were enrolled in this study. Patients having warts by the eye and lip regions were excluded from the study. A fine layer of face gel was applied to the treatment area once daily. Most of the participants had tried different treatments with no success. Assessments for the response and the occurrence of side effects were performed every two weeks at Weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. Results: All the patients were clinically cured within eight weeks. Seven patients cleared in four weeks, and 13 patients cleared in eight weeks. No noticeable adverse events were related to the skin. Conclusion: Topical gel of glycolic acid 15% plus salicylic acid 2% is safe and effective when applied to facial flat warts once daily until clearance and may be considered as first-line treatment. PMID:21938272

  18. Nitrogen Lewis Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoreltsev, Alla; Tulchinsky, Yuri; Fridman, Natalia; Gandelman, Mark

    2017-03-22

    Being a major conception of chemistry, Lewis acids have found countless applications throughout chemical enterprise. Although many chemical elements can serve as the central atom of Lewis acids, nitrogen is usually associated with Lewis bases. Here, we report on the first example of robust and modifiable Lewis acids centered on the nitrogen atom, which provide stable and well-characterized adducts with various Lewis bases. On the basis of the reactivity of nitrogen Lewis acids, we prepared, for the first time, cyclic triazanes, a class of cyclic organic compounds sequentially bearing three all-saturated nitrogen atoms (N-N-N motif). Reactivity abilities of these N-Lewis acids were explained by theoretical calculations. Properties and future applications of nitrogen Lewis acids are intriguing.

  19. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  20. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  1. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  2. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  3. Diterpenoid acids from Grindelia nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, A A; Ahmed, A A; Tanaka, T; Iinuma, M

    2000-03-01

    Two new norditerpenoid acids of the labdane-type (norgrindelic acids), 4,5-dehydro-6-oxo-18-norgrindelic acid (1) and 4beta-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic acid (2), as well as a new grindelic acid derivative, 18-hydroxy-6-oxogrindelic acid (3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Grindelia nana. In addition, the known compounds, 6-oxogrindelic acid, grindelic acid, methyl grindeloate, 7alpha,8alpha-epoxygrindelic acid, and 4alpha-carboxygrindelic acid were also isolated. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  4. Nucleic Acid Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G

    2017-01-01

    Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check. Mechanisms reach from restriction-modification systems and CRISPR/Cas in bacteria and archaea to RNA interference and immune sensing of nucleic acids, altogether integral parts of a system which is now appreciated as nucleic acid immunity. With inherited receptors and acquired sequence information, nucleic acid immunity comprises innate and adaptive components. Effector functions include diverse nuclease systems, intrinsic activities to directly restrict the function of foreign nucleic acids (e.g., PKR, ADAR1, IFIT1), and extrinsic pathways to alert the immune system and to elicit cytotoxic immune responses. These effects act in concert to restrict viral replication and to eliminate virus-infected cells. The principles of nucleic acid immunity are highly relevant for human disease. Besides its essential contribution to antiviral defense and restriction of endogenous retroelements, dysregulation of nucleic acid immunity can also lead to erroneous detection and response to self nucleic acids then causing sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. Even mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which are not established in vertebrates are relevant for human disease when they are present in pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, or helminths or in pathogen-transmitting organisms such as insects. This review aims to provide an overview of the diverse mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which mostly have been looked at separately in the past and to integrate them under the framework nucleic acid immunity as a basic principle of life, the understanding of which has great potential to

  5. Gaseous ion-composition measurements in the young exhaust plume of jet aircraft at cruising altitudes. Implications for aerosols and gaseous sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.; Wohlfrom, K.H.; Klemm, M.; Schneider, J.; Gollinger, K. [Max-Planck-Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Schumann, U.; Busen, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    Mass spectrometric measurements were made in the young exhaust plume of an Airbus (A310) at cruising altitudes at distances between 400 and 800 m behind the Airbus (averaged plume age: 3.4 sec). The measurements indicate that gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) number densities were less than 1.3 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -3} which is smaller than the expected total sulfuric acid. Hence the missing sulfuric acid must have been in the aerosol phase. These measurements also indicate a total aerosol surface area density A{sub T} {<=} 5.4 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} per cm{sup 3} which is consistent with simultaneously measured soot and water contrail particles. However, homogeneous nucleation leading to (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}){sub x}(H{sub 2}O){sub y}-clusters can not be ruled out. (author) 16 refs.

  6. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  7. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  8. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  9. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  10. Carbolic acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to. If the person swallowed the carbolic acid, give them water or milk right away, if a provider tells ... well someone does depends on how much carbolic acid they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better ...

  11. Uric acid - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  12. Neurotoxicity of Folic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam van JGC; Jansen EHJM; A Opperhuizen; TOX

    2004-01-01

    The present review summarises the neurotoxicological effects of folic acid. Some studies in animals have shown that folic acid is neurotoxic and epileptogenic when applied directly to the brain. One poorly controlled and not further reproduced study from 1970 reported neurotoxic symptoms like

  13. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  14. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  15. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  16. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in humans are lacking. We determined the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in a cross-over study with 4 female and 3 male healthy ileo...

  17. Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrophilic Sugar Based Polyesters and Their Modification with Stearic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Humayun Bilal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable and hydrophilic functional polyesters were synthesized enzymatically using xylitol or d-sorbitol together with divinyl adipate and lipase B from Candida antartica (CAL-B. The resulting polyesters had pendant OH-groups from their sugar units which were esterified to different degrees with stearic acid chloride. The structure and the degrees of polymerization of the resulting graft copolymers based on poly(xylitol adipate and poly(d-sorbitol adipate were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and SEC. DSC, WAXS and SAXS measurements indicated that a phase separation between polymer backbone and stearoyl side chains occurred in the graft copolymers, and, additionally, the side chains were able to crystallize which resulted in the formation of a lamellar morphology. Additionally, nanoparticles of the graft copolymers in an aqueous environment were studied by DLS and negative stain TEM.

  18. Exploiting the 21st amino acid-purifying and labeling proteins by selenolate targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Linda; Chen, Chunying; Thorell, Jan-Olov; Fredriksson, Anna; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Gafvelin, Guro; Arnér, Elias S J

    2004-10-01

    Selenium is essential to human life and occurs in selenoproteins as selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid. The selenium atom endows selenocysteine with unique biochemical properties, including a low pK(a) and a high reactivity with many electrophilic agents. Here we describe the introduction of selenocysteine into recombinant non-selenoproteins produced in Escherichia coli, as part of a small tetrapeptide motif at the C terminus. This selenocysteine-containing motif could subsequently be used as a protein tag for purification of the recombinant protein, selenolate-targeted labeling with fluorescent compounds or radiolabeling with either gamma-emitting (75)Se or short-lived positron emitters such as (11)C. The results presented here thus show how a wide range of biotechnological applications can be developed starting from the insertion of selenocysteine into proteins.

  19. Alteration of Excitatory Amino Acid in Experimental Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 罗永湘

    2002-01-01

    Objective To detect the effect of excitatory amino acid (EAA) in the sec-ondary damage following spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Glutamate (Glu) and Aspartate(Asp) on the injury site (T8) were studied using a rat SCI model induced by Allen's weight drop method(10g×2.5cm). The result suggested that Asp and Glu were significantly increased in 10 min. Re-sults Glu was significantly decreased from 2 h to 24 h,while Asp was a little reduced in 2 h,andslightly rose in 4 h as compared with Control Group. Though elevated in 8 h, it dropped again in 24 h ascompared with Control Group. Conclusion The result indicates that the rise of EAA following SCIcould be the cause of the secondary spinal cord damage.

  20. Population dynamics of mixed cultures of yeast and lactic acid bacteria in cider conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Roseli Dierings

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the malolactic bioconversion in low acidity cider, according Brazilian conditions. The apple must was inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae or S. cerevisiae with Oenococcus oeni. The control contained the indigenous microorganisms. Fermentation assays were carried out with clarified apple must from the Gala variety. At the beginning of fermentation, there was a fast growth of the non-Saccharomyces yeast population. Competitive inhibition occurred in all the assays, either with inoculated or indigenous populations of the yeast. The lactic acid bacteria count was ca. 1.41·10²CFU/mL at the beginning and 10(6CFU/mL after yeast cells autolysis. The lactic bacteria O. oeni reached the highest population (10(7CFU/mL when added to the apple must after the decline of the yeast. The malic acid was totally consumed during the alcoholic fermentation period (80.0 to 95.5 % and lactic acid was still synthesized during the 35 days of malolactic fermentation. These results could be important in order to achieve a high quality brut, or sec cider obtained from the dessert apple must.

  1. Histochemical observations of fluorescent biogenic amines in cryostat sections of peripheral and central nervous tissue Verificação histoquímica de aminas biogênicas fluorescentes em secções criostáticas de tecido nervoso central e periférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Duarte-Escalante

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Relato de modificação da técnica criostático-histoquímica para a verificação da fluorescência das catecolaminas e da serotonina em secções de tecido nervoso central e periférico. São discutidas as vantagens desta modificação técnica em relação a outras propostas para a mesma finalidade.

  2. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  3. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  4. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also......, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods...

  5. Phenolic acids enzymatic lipophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria-Cruz; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2005-04-20

    Lipophilization is the esterification of a lipophilic moiety (fatty acid or fatty alcohol) on different substrates (phenolic acid, sugar, protein, ...), resulting in new molecules with modified hydrophilic/lipophilic balance. This reaction can be obtained chemically or enzymatically using different enzymes. Phenolic acids possess interesting biological properties (antioxidant, chelator, free radical scavenger, UV filter, antimicrobial, ...), but because of their relatively low solubility in aprotic media, their application in oil-based products is limited. Therefore, the esterification of their carboxylic acid function with a fatty alcohol enhances their hydrophobicity and results in a multifunctional amphiphilic molecule. Enzymatic lipophilization of phenolic acids is nowadays studied for potential industrial applications. Different systems have been proposed to perform the reaction yield [free or immobilized enzymes (lipase, feruloyl esterase, tannase, etc.), free or added organic solvent, addition of surfactant, microemulsion system, etc.]. Some of the functional properties of these esters have been demonstrated. This review presents a panorama of the advances in this field.

  6. 2-Methylaspartic acid monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its zwitterionic form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has an α-methyl group rather than an α-H atom. In the crystal, an O—H...O hydrogen bond is present between the acid and water molecules while extensive N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional array.

  7. A Catuama e o bilobalide na regeneração nervosa periférica de ratos submetidos à secção do nervo isquiático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Norberto Pereira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Catuama® é a associação de quatro extratos hidroalcoolicos obtidos de plantas brasileiras (Paullinia cupana, Trichilia catigua, Ptychopetalum olacoides e Zingiber officinale com conhecida ação neuroprotetora, anti-inflamatória, antioxidante e antidepressiva. O bilobalide é um componente extraído das folhas do Ginkgo biloba, que tem comprovada ação neuroprotetora nos sistemas nervosos central e periférico. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos da Catuama® e do bilobalide na regeneração nervosa periférica de ratos submetidos à secção do nervo isquiático. Foram utilizados 40 ratos com implante de tubo de silicone preenchido por colágeno líquido, deixando-se um intervalo entre os segmentos nervosos de 10mm. Os animais foram divididos em 4 grupos: o grupo controle (A; os grupos que receberam a Catuama® administrada por via oral nos primeiros 28 dias de pós-operatório, nas doses de 100 (B e 400mg.kg-1 (C; e o grupo que recebeu o bilobalide na dose de 200µM (D, este, adicionado ao colágeno líquido utilizado no implante de silicone. Os animais foram avaliados na primeira, quinta e décima semanas de pós-operatório pelo teste de marcha. Na décima semana, foi realizada avaliação eletrofisiológica e análises quantitativa e qualitativa dos cortes histológicos de amostras do nervo isquiático e do músculo gastrocnêmio. Em todas as análises utilizadas observou-se excelente regeneração dos nervos, no entanto, não foi encontrada diferença significativa (P>0,05 entre os grupos experimentais e controle.

  8. Occurrence and distribution of marine natural organic pollutants: Lipophilic marine algal toxins in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; Han, Tongzhu; Li, Xiaotong; He, Xiuping; Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Farong; Song, Xincheng; Zhou, Deshan; Wang, Xiaoru

    2017-09-05

    For the first time, the composition, concentration and distribution characteristics of typical lipophilic marine algal toxins (LMATs) are investigated in surface seawater, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments from the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, China. Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and okadaic acid (OA) were detected in offshore surface seawater samples (n=67) of the Yellow and Bohai Seas, and PTX2 was found in higher concentrations than OA. The concentrations of PTX2 were between 0.49 and 14.14ng/L. OA, dinophysistoxin-1(DTX1), PTX2 and gymnodimine (GYM) were detected in the nearshore surface seawater samples (n=20) of the Haizhou Bay of the Yellow Sea. OA concentrations were between 11.47 and 55.85ng/L. There was a large degree of variation in the concentrations of DTX1, from PTX2 concentrations being less than the LOQ. Several LMATs were also detected both in the SPM and sediment samples of each study area. In summary, the LMAT composition and concentration levels in the surface seawater found in nearshore samples were substantially different from those of samples from the distant shore, which indicated the obvious regional characteristics of LMATs according to their spatial distribution in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Monomeric banana lectin at acidic pH overrules conformational stability of its native dimeric form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed M Khan

    Full Text Available Banana lectin (BL is a homodimeric protein categorized among jacalin-related family of lectins. The effect of acidic pH was examined on conformational stability of BL by using circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-napthalene sulfonate (ANS binding, size exclusion chromatography (SEC and dynamic light scattering (DLS. During acid denaturation of BL, the monomerization of native dimeric protein was found at pH 2.0. The elution profile from SEC showed two different peaks (59.65 ml & 87.98 ml at pH 2.0 while single peak (61.45 ml at pH 7.4. The hydrodynamic radii (R h of native BL was 2.9 nm while at pH 2.0 two species were found with R h of 1.7 and 3.7 nm. Furthermore at, pH 2.0 the secondary structures of BL remained unaltered while tertiary structure was significantly disrupted with the exposure of hydrophobic clusters confirming the existence of molten globule like state. The unfolding of BL with different subunit status was further evaluated by urea and temperature mediated denaturation to check their stability. As inferred from high Cm and ΔG values, the monomeric form of BL offers more resistance towards chemical denaturation than the native dimeric form. Besides, dimeric BL exhibited a Tm of 77°C while no loss in secondary structures was observed in monomers even up to 95°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on monomeric subunit of lectins showing more stability against denaturants than its native dimeric state.

  10. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers in kernels of ... Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value ... of protein, especially when combined with foods with high lysine content.

  11. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... of the three LAB strains to utilize amino acids for growth and lactic acid production were employed to ... Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are used for the ..... and characterization of potential probiotic lactobacilli from pig feces.

  12. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  13. Gluconic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  14. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  15. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    efficacy and tolerability. Similarly, plain fusidic acid cream or ointment used two or three times daily in SSTIs such as impetigo are clinically and bacteriologically effective, with minimal adverse events. Combination formulations of fusidic acid with 1% hydrocortisone or 0.1% betamethasone achieve...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  16. Acid rain: An overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  17. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? The March of Dimes recommends that all babies ... in behavior Diarrhea, nausea (feeling sick to your stomach) and throwing up Drowsiness Fever Fussiness Little appetite ...

  18. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures....... The aziridino amides 43 and 51 were reductively cleaved with hydrazine to give 3-amino-2,3-dideoxyhexonhydrazides 83 and 85, which were easily converted into the corresponding lactone 84 and acid 86. The aziridine ring of 43 and 51 was also opened with acetic acid to give the 3-amino-3-deoxyhexonic acids 79...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones...

  19. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  20. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...... beta-amino alcohols through a straightforward five step sequence. The key step of this synthesis is an original anionic 4-exo-tet ring closure that forms the azetidine ring upon an intramolecular Michael addition. This reaction was proven to be reversible and to lead to a thermodynamic distribution...

  1. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  2. Folic acid - test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who are ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider how ...

  3. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  4. Methodology for Predicting Flammable Gas Mixtures in Double Contained Receiver Tanks [SEC 1 THRU SEC 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-01-31

    This methodology document provides an estimate of the maximum concentrations of flammable gases (ammonia, hydrogen, and methane) which could exist in the vapor space of a double-contained receiver tank (DCRT) from the simultaneous saltwell pumping of one or more single-shell tanks (SSTs). This document expands Calculation Note 118 (Hedengren et a1 1997) and removes some of the conservatism from it, especially in vapor phase ammonia predictions. The methodologies of Calculation Note 118 (Hedengren et a1 1997) are essentially identical for predicting flammable gas mixtures in DCRTs from saltwell pumping for low DCRT ventilation rates, 1e, < 1 cfm. The hydrogen generation model has also been updated in the methodology of this document.

  5. Air plasma waveguide using pico-sec and nano-sec laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Gupta, Shyam L.; Narayanan, V.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2012-02-01

    We report a shock driven plasma in air breakdown using pump-probe to elucidate the hydrodynamic evolution of air plasma waveguide. Imaging of the evolution of air plasma plume is used to investigate the pump pulse effect on the plume dynamic. Imaging of the channeled pulse through evolved waveguide shows five time enhancement in Rayleigh length at 7 ns delay of probe pulse with respect to pump pulse. The evolved channel radius rch≈37μm has been shown to couple the maximum energy of the probe pulse yielding the electron density difference Δne~1018cm-3 between axis and periphery of the channel. The air plasma wave guide is shown to support the fundamental mode at optimum delay.

  6. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for...

  7. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid an......-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes remain unclear. This article offers a review of the mechanisms behind the glucose-lowering effect of BASs, and the efficacy of BASs in the treatment of type 2 diabetes....... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...

  8. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  9. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  10. Performance Comparison of New Combinations of Acids with Mud Acid in Sandstone Acidizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Umer Shafiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find the best suitable acid to acidize undamaged low permeable sandstone formation Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50 to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid- Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF-12% HCl. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results analyzed are porosity, permeability, strength, color change and FESEM Analysis. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  11. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  12. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and thorium from nitric acid medium using organophosphorous compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitchaiah, K.C.; Sujatha, K.; Rao, C.V.S. Brahmmananda; Subramaniam, S.; Sivaraman, N.; Rao, P.R. Vasudeva [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) technique has been widely used for the extraction of metal ions. In the present study, extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium was investigated using supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO{sub 2}) containing various organophosphorous compounds such as trialkyl phosphates e.g. tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP), tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), dialkylalkyl phosphonates, e.g. diamylamyl phosphonate (DAAP) and dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP), dialkyl hydrogen phosphonates, e.g. dioctyl hydrogen phosphonate (DOHP), dioctylphosphineoxide (DOPO), trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO), n-octylphenyl N,N-diisobutyl carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and di-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP). Some of these ligands have been investigated for the first time in the supercritical phase for the extraction of uranium. The extraction efficiency of uranium was studied with TiAP, DAAP and DBBP as a function of nitric acid concentration; the kinetics of the equilibration period (static extraction) and transportation of the metal complex (dynamic extraction) was investigated. The influence of pressure and temperature on the extraction behaviour of uranium with DAAP was studied from 4 N HNO{sub 3}. The extraction efficiency of uranium from 4 N nitric acid medium was found to increase in the order of phosphates < phosphonates < HDEHP < TOPO < CMPO. In the case of phosphates and phosphonates, the maximum extraction of uranium was found to be from 4 N HNO{sub 3} medium. The acidic extractants, HDEHP and DOHP showed relatively higher extraction at lower acidities. The relative extraction of uranium and thorium from their mixture was also examined using Sc-CO{sub 2} containing phosphates, phosphonates and TOPO. The ligand, TsBP provided better fractionation between uranium and thorium compared to trialkyl phosphates, dialkyl alkyl phosphonates and TOPO.

  14. Uptake and release of arachidonic acid by platelets and cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The release by thrombin of arachidonic acid, and the accompanying phospholipid metabolism, were studied in human platelets. At 23/sup 0/C, arachidonate release was half-maximal by 10-30 sec after stimulation, and preceded substantial increase in phosphatidic acid (PA) mass. (/sup 3/H)-glycerol-labeled platelets synthesized phospholipids from (/sup 3/H) PA at a rate of 0.08-0.3 nmol/min/10/sup 9/ cells at 37/sup 0/C. This rate of PA turnover was not enhanced by thrombin stimulation. Thus, an increase in PA mass is not a necessary event in the pathway loading to arachidonate release, and the release of several nmol of arachidonate from PI in the first minute after thrombin stimulation could not have arisen via PA as an intermediate. Biological function of arachidonate-specific acyl-CoA synthetase was examined in platelets and in HSDM/sub 1/C/sub 1/ murine fibrosarcoma cells. Washed platelets were found to take up and esterify into cellular phospholipids eicosanoid precursor fatty acids present at concentrations of 5-500 nM. The uptake process was saturable with respect to fatty acid concentration, with apparent K/sub m/ less than or equal to 85 nM. Stearate, oleate and linoleate were taken up less rapidly, and with higher apparent K/sub m/'s (greater than or equal to 170 nM). High affinity uptake was also found in HSDM/sub 1/C/sub 1/ cells. The fatty acid structural requirements of arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase were examined. Among common mammalian fatty acids, only eicosanoid precursors and docosahexaenoate could serve as substrates. These studies strongly suggest that the synthetase is required for normal eicosanoid homeostasis.

  15. Transcriptome atlas of aromatic amino acid family metabolism-related genes in eight liver cell types uncovers the corresponding metabolic pathways in rat liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cuifang; Xu, CunShuan

    2010-10-01

    To explore gene expression of aromatic amino acid family metabolism and their metabolic pathways of eight liver cell types in rat liver regeneration, eight kinds of rat regenerating liver cells were isolated by using the combination of percoll density gradient centrifugation and immunomagnetic bead methods. Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array was used to detect the expression changes of genes associated with aromatic amino acid family metabolism. The transcriptome atlas showed that the metabolic pathway of phenylalanine was mainly catalyzed into tyrosine in hepatic stellate cells in the initiation stage, tyrosine was oxidized into dopa and norepinephrine in biliary epithelia cells and dendritic cells, and norepinephrine was finally catalyzed into adrenaline in biliary epithelia cells and pit cells in the progress stage. Thyroid hormone of tyrosine catabolites was synthesized from tyrosine in almost all cells in different stage of LR, among which genes of T3 biosynthesis were increased in HCs, BECs, SECs and DCs in the progress stage. Tryptophan was decarboxylated to 5-hydroxytryptamine in dendritic cells in the progress stage. Based on the results as above, we concluded that phenylalanine is the major source of tyrosine, proliferation of biliary epithelia cells and dendritic cells maybe promote by tyrosine catabolites-dopa and norepinephrine, biliary epithelia cells and pit cells maybe promote by adrenaline. T3 maybe play a major role on proliferation of HCs, BECs, SECs and DCs in the progress stage. The proliferation of dendritic cells maybe promote by tryptophan catabolites-5-hydroxytryptamine. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  17. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON ACID-SENSITIVE UV CURING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-dao Chen; Bing Wu; Xiao-yin Hong

    1999-01-01

    By using diphenyliodonium salts with different counterions as photo acid generators (PAGs), the effect of acidity on ring-opening polymerization of epoxy monomers and polycondensation of polyol with hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) was studied. The result shows that the rate of ring-opening polymerization is evidently dependent on the acidity of the acid and strong photo-generated acid is required.However, there is a leveling effect in the polycondensation system; if the photo-generated acid is stronger than protonated HMMM, the acidity does not obviously affect the polycondensation rate.

  18. Determination of Sialic Acids by Acidic Ninhydrin Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao,Kenzabroh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A new acidic ninhydrin method for determining free sialic acids is described. The method is based on the reaction of sialic acids with Gaitonde's acid ninhydrin reagent 2 which yields a stable color with an absorption maximum at 470 nm. The standard curve is linear in the range of 5 to 500 nmol of N-acetylneuraminic acid per 0.9 ml of reaction mixture. The reaction was specific only for sialic acids among the various sugars and sugar derivatives examined. Some interference of this method by cysteine, cystine and tryptophan was noted, although their absorption maxima differed from that of sialic acids. The interference by these amino acids was eliminated with the use of a small column of cation-exchange resin. The acidic ninhydrin method provides a simple and rapid method for the determination of free sialic acids in biological materials.

  19. Aliphatic amidase of Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34: Purification, characterization and application in synthesis of acrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Neerja; Kumar, Vijay; Sharma, Nirmal Kant; Thakur, Shikha; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-01-01

    An intracellular aliphatic amide degrading inducible amidase produced by Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34 was characterized and acrylic acid synthesis from acrylamide was carried out using whole cell amidase. A bioprocess was developed at 50 ml fed batch reaction using 400 mM acrylamide feeding at an interval of 30 min resulted in the production of 4 g acrylic acid with volumetric and catalytic productivity of 80 g/l and 19 g/g/h respectively. The amidase of this organism had molecular weight of 40 kDa and was purified to 8.5 fold with 8% yield. This enzyme was active within the temperature range of 30 to 60 °C, with optimum temperature 45 °C and pH 7.5. The Vmax, Km, and kcat of purified amidase were calculated as 250 U/mg protein, 4.5 mM, and 166 sec-1 for acrylamide. The enzyme showed tolerance to metal chelating agent (EDTA) and was strongly inhibited by heavy metal ions Hg2+, Ag2+, Cu2+ and Co2+. R. rhodochrous PA-34 amidase preferentially hydrolyzed small aliphatic toxic amide such as acrylamide. Thus, the amidase of R. rhodochrous PA-34 is promising biocatalyst for the synthesis of industrially important acids and biodegradation of toxic amides.

  20. Static and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Hydroxyapatite-Polyacrylic Acid Composites Under Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana S. Katti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have investigated mechanical response of hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic composites under dry, wet and simulated body fluid conditions. Hydroxyapatite (HAP is mineralized under two conditions; one, in presence of polyacrylic acid (in situ HAP, second, in absence of polyacrylic acid (ex situ HAP. Further, in situ and ex situ HAP are mixed with polyacrylic acid to make HAP/PAAc composites. Interfacial interactions between PAAc and HAP have been studied using photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (PAS-FTIR. The mechanical response of the composites under wet condition is studied by soaking composite samples in simulated body fluid (SBF. Under wet conditions, SBF and water weaken the HAP-HAP interface significantly. PAS-FTIR data suggests that PAAc attaches to HAP through the dissociated carboxylate groups. The water and SBF soaked samples showed creep-like behavior and exhibit large residual strain after unloading. Loading under different strain rates has significant effect on mechanical properties of these composites. Both in situ and ex situ 70:30 composites exhibit highest elastic modulus at strain rate of 0.01 sec-1. XRD study indicates formation of Ca2P2O7 phase in ex situ composite after soaking in SBF and water for 3 hours, whereas in situ composites showed presence of only hydroxyapatite phase after soaking in SBF and water for same duration of time.

  1. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  2. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation.

  3. Nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of smear-negative TB in a high HIV-prevalence setting: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lucian Davis

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid amplification tests are sensitive for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis in populations with positive sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, but less sensitive in sputum-smear-negative populations. Few studies have evaluated the clinical impact of these tests in low-income countries with high burdens of TB and HIV.We prospectively enrolled 211 consecutive adults with cough ≥2 weeks and negative sputum smears at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. We tested a single early-morning sputum specimen for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA using two nucleic acid amplification tests: a novel in-house polymerase chain reaction targeting the mycobacterial secA1 gene, and the commercial Amplified® Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct (MTD test (Gen-Probe Inc, San Diego, CA. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of these index tests in reference to a primary microbiologic gold standard (positive mycobacterial culture of sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and measured their likely clinical impact on additional tuberculosis cases detected among those not prescribed initial TB treatment.Of 211 patients enrolled, 170 (81% were HIV-seropositive, with median CD4+ T-cell count 78 cells/µL (interquartile range 29-203. Among HIV-seropositive patients, 94 (55% reported taking co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and 29 (17% reported taking antiretroviral therapy. Seventy-five patients (36% had culture-confirmed TB. Sensitivity of MTD was 39% (95% CI 28-51 and that of secA1 was 24% (95% CI 15-35. Both tests had specificities of 95% (95% CI 90-98. The MTD test correctly identified 18 (24% TB patients not treated at discharge and led to a 72% relative increase in the smear-negative case detection rate.The secA1 and MTD nucleic acid amplification tests had moderate sensitivity and high specificity for TB in a predominantly HIV-seropositive population with negative sputum smears. Although newer, more sensitive nucleic acid assays may enhance detection of

  4. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation...... and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  5. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (C(p)(ex)) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of C(p)(ex) versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), free energy (ΔG), and heat capacity (ΔCp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (ΔH), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (ΔG). Once ΔH and ΔG are known, ΔS can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ΔCp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ΔH.

  6. Whither acid rain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, P

    2001-04-04

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  7. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented.

  8. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...... physiochemical properties of LNA and some of the difficulties that may be encountered when applying LNA technology. The central part of the review focuses on the use of LNA molecules in regulation of gene expression, including delivery to cells, stability, unspecific effects, toxicity, pharmacokinetics...

  9. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  10. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  11. Synergistic extraction of palladium (II) with 2-hydroxyl-4-sec-octyl-diphenylamine and trioctylphousphine oxide%2-羟基-4-仲辛基-二苯甲酮肟与三辛基氧化膦协同萃取钯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彦杰

    2004-01-01

    Liquid extraction behavior of Pd(II)by the use 2-hydroxyl-4-sec-octyl- diphenylamine(abbreviated as H2L)in trichloromethane has been investigated at 298.2 K.Under some conditions,the synergistic extraction behavior with 2-hydroxyl4-sec-octyl- diphenylamine and trioctylphousphine oxide(TOPO)has also been studied.The slope analysis method shows that the composition of the extracted species are PdL and PdL(TOPO)2.Equilibrium extraction constants and thermodynamic pa rameters were calculated.The results showed that increasing temperature is favo rable to extraction of Pd(II)with 2-hydroxyl-4secoctyl-diphenylamine and more favourable to synergistic extraction with 2-hydroxyl-4sec-octyl-diphenylamine and TOPO.%研究了2-羟基-4-仲辛基-二苯甲酮肟在氯仿中萃取钯的行为及2-羟基-4-仲辛基-二苯甲酮肟与三辛基氧化膦协同萃取钯的行为.用斜率法确定了萃合物组成为PdL和PdL(TOPO)2.同时了计算平衡常数及热力学参数.实验结果表明,升高温度对2-羟基-4-仲辛基-二苯甲酮肟萃取钯及2-羟基-4-仲辛基-二苯甲酮肟与三辛基氧化膦协同萃取钯有利.

  12. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  13. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  14. Catalytic acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid, en route to acrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuis, R.; Granollers, M.; Brown, D.R.; Salavagione, H.J.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative synthetic route to acrylic acid, starting from the platform chemical lactic acid and using heterogeneous catalysis. To improve selectivity, we designed an indirect dehydration reaction that proceeds via acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid. This

  15. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixing; Cao, Yusheng

    2010-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects, and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent years, because lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. They have been extensively used in food industry. The production of lactic acid bacterial gamma-aminobutyric acid is safe and eco-friendly, and this provides the possibility of production of new naturally fermented health-oriented products enriched in gamma-aminobutyric acid. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing species of lactic acid bacteria and their isolation sources, the methods for screening of the strains and increasing their production, the enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylases and the relative fundamental research are reviewed in this article. And the potential applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria were also referred to.

  16. Estudo morfológico de superfícies ósseas após secção por pontas diamantadas ou laser de érbio: YAG Morphological evaluation of bone surfaces after sectioning with diamond points or erbium: YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massuji KURAMOTO Jr.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar morfologicamente as superfícies ósseas resultantes da secção por pontas diamantadas ou por laser de érbio:YAG. Cinco ratos (Rattus norvegicus albinus foram sacrificados por dose letal de fenobarbital. Após a execução deste procedimento, os ossos predeterminados foram submetidos à secção por pontas diamantadas ou por laser de érbio:YAG em uma energia de 300 mJ por pulso e taxa de repetição de 2 Hz. As amostras foram submetidas a análise em microscópio eletrônico de varredura, revelando a existência de um padrão para as secções obtidas com cada instrumento, sendo verificada uma superfície mais regular nas amostras seccionadas com o laser de érbio:YAG. Em aumentos da ordem de 3000 vezes, pode-se observar indícios de fusão e seqüente solidificação das superfícies seccionadas por meio do laser de érbio:YAG. Conclui-se que o laser de érbio:YAG foi eficaz na remoção de tecido ósseo, mas que, nos parâmetros utilizados neste estudo, foi responsável por alterações morfológicas sugestivas de significativo aumento de temperatura, não devendo ser indicado, nestas condições, para a execução de secções ósseas.The purpose of this study was to analyze bone surfaces cut by Er:YAG laser or by diamond points. Five male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were killed by lethal dose of phenobarbital, and selected bones were cut by Er:YAG laser at 300 mJ and 2 Hz, or by diamond points. The samples were submitted to evaluation through SEM at standard magnifications. By analyzing the surfaces, the authors could observe a pattern for each group, with a smoother surface in the laser cut group than in the diamond cut group. In higher magnifications, the images suggest melting and solidifying in the laser group. The authors conclude that the laser was effective in bone cutting. However, it was responsible for morphological changes that suggest a significant temperature increase.

  17. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on or under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated skin to direct sunlight or bright ...

  18. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  19. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  20. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  1. Uric acid and evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Álvarez-Lario, Bonifacio; Macarrón-Vicente, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism in humans due to the loss of uricase activity by various mutations of its gene during the Miocene epoch, which led to humans having higher UA levels than other mammals. Furthermore, 90...

  2. Acid Rain Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  3. The Acid Rain Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  4. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  5. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  6. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  7. Phenylpyruvic acid in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulemans, O.; Vergeer, E.G.

    1960-01-01

    The method of The, Fleury And Vink for the determination of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) in urine is modified by measuring the extinction after the green colour with ferric chloride has faded, and subtracting this extinction from that found initially. More accurate values are obtained and low PPA values

  8. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  9. The Acid Rain Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  10. Acid Rain Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  11. Effect of domoic acid on brain amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, R; Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Alfonso, M

    1995-03-01

    The administration of Domoic Acid (Dom) in a 0.2 mg/kg i.p. dose induces changes in the levels of amino acids of neurochemical interest (Asp, Glu, Gly, Tau, Ala, GABA) in different rat brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cortex and midbrain). The most affected amino acid is the GABA, the main inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter, whereas glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid, is not affected. The rat brain regions that seem to be the main target of the Dom action belong to the limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala). The possible implication of the amino acids in the actions of Dom is also discussed.

  12. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  13. Uptake of sulfuric acid mist by plant canopies. [Exposure chamber studies with maize and soybeans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedding, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel studies and exposure chamber experiments were conducted in the Aerosol Science Laboratory at Colorado State University. Full scale, live plant canopies of 4 to 6 week old corn and soybeans were established in a large wind tunnel. Monodisperse aerosols (1 to 15 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter) were injected into the tunnel and deposition velocities were determined for wind speeds of 183, 305, and 610 cm/sec. A minimum deposition velocity was seen to occur at 5 ..mu..m. Initially, 4 to 6 week old soybean plants were exposed to hydrated sulfuric acid mist droplets. Unquantified topically applied sulfuric acid mist was applied at a 1% or 10% volumetric concentration of acid to water. The 10% solution produced severe necrotic lesions and large chlorotic regions on the acropetal leaves. A heavy application of the 1% solution produced similar effects but with a reduced number of necrotic lesions. A light application had no visual effects on the plants even after 24 h.In addition, 4 to 6 week old corn and soybeans were placed in a glass exposure chamber. Droplets of pure 18M sulfuric acid mist (1.7 ..mu..m) were injected into the chamber at a rate commensurate with the deposition velocity results. Loading of 107 particles/cm2 were realized during exposure periods up to 10 h per day extending to 14 days total fumigation periods. No visible toxicity symptoms of damage resulted to the plants from these tests conducted at background humidity levels of approximately 40%. Scanning electron microscope observations of the 140 h treated plants showed no apparent damage due to the sulfuric acid mist treatment.

  14. Uptake of sulfuric acid mist by plant canopies. [Exposure chamber studies with maize and soybeans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedding, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel studies and exposure chamber experiments were conducted in the Aerosol Science Laboratory at Colorado State University. Full scale, live plant canopies of 4 to 6 week old corn and soybeans were established in a large wind tunnel. Monodisperse aerosols (1 to 15 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter) were injected into the tunnel and deposition velocities were determined for wind speeds of 183, 305, and 610 cm/sec. A minimum deposition velocity was seen to occur at 5 ..mu..m. Initially, 4 to 6 week old soybean plants were exposed to hydrated sulfuric acid mist droplets. Unquantified topically applied sulfuric acid mist was applied at a 1% or 10% volumetric concentration of acid to water. The 10% solution produced severe necrotic lesions and large chlorotic regions on the acropetal leaves. A heavy application of the 1% solution produced similar effects but with a reduced number of necrotic lesions. A light application had no visual effects on the plants even after 24 h.In addition, 4 to 6 week old corn and soybeans were placed in a glass exposure chamber. Droplets of pure 18M sulfuric acid mist (1.7 ..mu..m) were injected into the chamber at a rate commensurate with the deposition velocity results. Loading of 107 particles/cm2 were realized during exposure periods up to 10 h per day extending to 14 days total fumigation periods. No visible toxicity symptoms of damage resulted to the plants from these tests conducted at background humidity levels of approximately 40%. Scanning electron microscope observations of the 140 h treated plants showed no apparent damage due to the sulfuric acid mist treatment.

  15. Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Silicone and Polylactic Acid-Based Remedial Treatments for Elevated Methoxypyrazine Levels in Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botezatu, Andreea; Kemp, Belinda S; Pickering, Gary J

    2016-09-16

    Alkylmethoxypyrazines (MPs) are a class of compounds that can elicit undesirable aroma and flavor characteristics in wine, and resist remediation using traditional wine making approaches. MPs are grape-derived constituents as well as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles present during wine processing; the latter eliciting an off-flavor referred to as 'ladybug taint'. In this study we investigated the capacity of two plastic polymers-one silicone-based, the other polylactic acid-based-applied with varying surface areas to reduce concentrations of isopropylmethoxypyrazine (IPMP), sec-butylmethoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutylmethoxypyrazine (IBMP) in a Merlot wine using multi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME-MDGCMS). The impact of treatments on the sensory characteristics of the wine (descriptive analysis) and volatile aroma compounds (VOCs) (SPME-MDGCMS) was also investigated. Results showed substantial reductions for all of the target odorants: up to 38%, 44% and 39% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the silicone polymer, and up to 75%, 78% and 77% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the polylactic acid polymer. These polymers had no or minimal effect on VOCs at applications of 200 cm²/L for silicone or for all polylactic acid treatments. Sensory impacts were less clear, but generally showed minimal effect from the treatments. Taken overall, the data confirm the utility of both polylactic acid and silicone polymers in reducing elevated levels of grape-derived MPs, as well as potentially improving wine contaminated by ladybug taint.

  16. Polycondensation of dicarboxylic acids and diols in water catalyzed by surfactant-combined catalysts and successive chain extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Akinori; Takemoto, Aki; Hirabayashi, Tadamichi

    2006-01-01

    Direct dehydration polycondensation of dicarboxylic acids and alcohols was carried out by surfactant-combined Brønsted and Lewis acids. This procedure did not require the removal of water, because the esterification was established at the interface of the emulsion in water. Emulsion polycondensations of 1,9-nonanediol (1,9-ND) and dodecanedioic acid (DDA) (the molar ratio of dicarboxylic acid to diol = 1:1) were carried out at 80 degrees C for 48 h in the presence of 16 wt % DBSA. The corresponding polyester (M(w) = 10.1 x 10(3)) was obtained in an excellent yield (99%). Chain extension in the emulsion was carried out using hexamethylene diisocyanate as the chain extender. SEC measurements indicated the expected shift to higher molecular weight region (M(w) = 11.4 x 10(3), M(w)/M(n) = 3.4) compared with parent polyester (M(w) = 4.5 x 10(3), M(w)/M(n) = 2.2).

  17. Potentiometric determination of peroxodisulfuric acid during electrolysis sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Malchik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Was proposed two potentiometric methods for determining peroxodisulfuric acid during electrolysis of sulfuric acid (potentiometric titration method and direct potentiometry, based on its interaction with a known excess of a solution Fe2+.

  18. Progress in engineering acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of fermented foods, and are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effect. However, LAB encounter various environmental stresses both in industrial fermentation and application, among which acid stress is one of the most important survival challenges. Improving the acid stress resistance may contribute to the application and function of probiotic action to the host. Recently, the advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput technologies have allowed for the understanding of acid tolerance mechanisms at a systems level, and many method to improve acid tolerance have been developed. This review describes the current progress in engineering acid stress resistance of LAB. Special emphasis is placed on engineering cellular microenvironment (engineering amino acid metabolism, introduction of exogenous biosynthetic capacity, and overproduction of stress response proteins) and maintaining cell membrane functionality. Moreover, strategies to improve acid tolerance and the related physiological mechanisms are also discussed.

  19. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, THERMAL ANALYSIS, CONDUCTIVITY AND BAND GAPS OF OLIGO {4-[(2-HYDROXYL-1-NAPHTHYL)METHYLENE]-AMINOBENZOIC ACID}

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismet Kaya; Ali Bilici

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative polycondensation reaction conditions of 4-[(2-hydroxyl-l-naphthyl)methylene]aminobenzoic acid (4-HNMABA) with H2O2,air O2 and NaOCl were studied in an aqueous alkaline medium between 40℃ and 90℃.The structure of oligo {4-[(2-hydroxyl-1-naphthyl)methylene]aminobenzoic acid} (O-4-HNMABA) was characterized by using 1H-NMR,13C-NMR,FT-IR,UV-Vis,size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and elemental analysis techniques.At the optimum reaction conditions,the yield of O-4-HNMABA was found to be 70% for H2O2 oxidant,94% for air O2 oxidant and 87% for NaOCl oxidant.According to the SEC analysis,the number-average molecular weight (Mn),weight-average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (PDI) values of O-4-HNMABA were found to be 850,1350 and 1.59,using H2O2,1800,2200 and 1.22,using air O2 and 2200,3000 and 1.36,using NaOCl,respectively.TGA-DTA analyses showed that O-4-HNMABA was more stable than 4-HNMABA.The highest occupied molecular orbital,the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and electrochemical energy gaps ( Eg) of 4-HNMABA and O-4-HNMABA were found to be -6.34,-6.56; -2.67,-3.04; 3.67 and 3.52 eV,respectively,by cyclic voltammetry (CV).According to UV-Vis measurements,optical band gaps (E,g) of 4-HNMABA and O-4-HNMABA were found to be 3.12 and 3.03 eV,respectively.

  20. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

    2009-06-01

    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.