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  1. PROPYLTHIOURACIL (PTU)-INDUCED HYPOTHYROIDISM REDUCES FIELD POTENTIAL AMPLITUDE BUT DOES NOT IMPAIR DENTATE GYRUS LTP IN VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to hypothyroid-inducing agents leads to reductions in body weight, alterations in hippocampal structure, and impaired performance on a variety of behavioral learning tasks. Electrophysiological properties of the hippocampus in hypothyroid animals, however...

  2. PTU-induced hypothyroidism in rats leads to several early neuropathological signs of Alzheimer's disease in the hippocampus and spatial memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaalal, Amina; Poirier, Roseline; Blum, David; Gillet, Brigitte; Le Blanc, Pascale; Basquin, Marie; Buée, Luc; Laroche, Serge; Enderlin, Valérie

    2014-11-01

    The multifactorial causes impacting the risk of developing sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain to date poorly understood. Epidemiologic studies in humans and research in rodents have suggested that hypothyroidism could participate in the etiology of AD. Recently, we reported that adult-onset hypothyroidism in rats favors β-amyloid peptide production in the hippocampus. Here, using the same hypothyroidism model with the antithyroid molecule propythiouracyl (PTU), we further explored AD-related features, dysfunctional cell-signaling mechanisms and hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. In vivo MRI revealed a progressive decrease in cerebral volume of PTU-treated rats. In the hippocampus, hypothyroidism resulted in tau hyperphosphorylation and increases in several proinflammatory cytokines. These modifications were associated with impaired spatial memory and reduced hippocampal expression of signaling molecules important for synaptic plasticity and memory, including neurogranin, CaMKII, ERK, GSK3β, CREB, and expression of the transcription factor EGR1/Zif268. These data strengthen the idea that hypothyroidism represents an important factor influencing the risk of developing sporadic forms of AD.

  3. Propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism in the developing rat impairs synaptic transmission and plasticity in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus.

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    Gilbert, M E; Paczkowski, C

    2003-10-10

    Reductions in thyroid hormone during critical periods of brain development can have devastating effects on neurological function that are permanent. Neurochemical, molecular and structural alterations in a variety of brain regions have been well documented, but little information is available on the consequences of developmental hypothyroidism on synaptic function. Developing rats were exposed to the thyrotoxicant, propylthiouracil (PTU: 0 or 15 ppm), through the drinking water of pregnant dams beginning on GD18 and extending throughout the lactational period. Male offspring were allowed to mature after termination of PTU exposure at weaning on PND21 and electrophyiological assessments of field potentials in the dentate gyrus were conducted under urethane anesthesia between 2 and 5 months of age. PTU dramatically reduced thyroid hormones on PND21 and produced deficits in body weight that persisted to adulthood. Synaptic transmission was impaired as evidenced by reductions in excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) slope and population spike (PS) amplitudes at a range of stimulus intensities. Long-term potentiation of the EPSP slope was impaired at both modest and strong intensity trains, whereas a paradoxical increase in PS amplitude was observed in PTU-treated animals in response to high intensity trains. These data are the first to describe functional impairments in synaptic transmission and plasticity in situ as a result of PTU treatment and suggest that perturbations in synaptic function may contribute to learning deficits associated with developmental hypothyroidism.

  4. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF PTU-INDUCED HYPOTHYROIDISM IN RAT HIPPOCAMPUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propylthiouracil (PTU) exposure results in depletion of thyroid hormone by blocking its synthesis. It often is used to study the effects of hypothyroidism in the brain, where deficits during critical periods lead to neuroanatomical, molecular and neurochemical alterations. Decre...

  5. PTU-induced hypothyroidism modulates antioxidant defence status in the developing cerebellum.

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    Bhanja, S; Chainy, G B N

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism on oxidative stress parameters, expression of antioxidant defence enzymes, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the developing cerebellum. PTU challenged neonates showed significant decrease in serum T(3) and T(4) levels and marked increase in TSH levels. Significantly elevated levels of cerebellar H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxidation were observed in 7 days old hypothyroid rats, along with increased activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and decline in catalase activity. In 30 days old hypothyroid rats, a significant decline in cerebellar lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and expression was observed along with an up-regulation in catalase activity and expression. Expression of antioxidant enzymes was studied by Western blot and semi-quantitative rt-PCR. A distinct increase in cell proliferation as indicated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity was observed in the internal granular layer of cerebellum of 7 days old hypothyroid rats and significant drop in PCNA positive cells in the cerebellar molecular layer and internal granular layer of 30 days old PTU treated rats as compared to controls. In situ end labeling by TUNEL assay showed increased apoptosis in cerebellum of hypothyroid rats in comparison to controls. These results suggest that the antioxidant defence system of the developing cerebellum is sensitive to thyroid hormone deficiency and consequent alterations in oxidative stress status may play a role in regulation of cell proliferation of the cerebellum during neonatal brain development.

  6. Propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism alleviates burn-induced multiple organ injury.

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    Sener, Göksel; Sehirli, Ozer; Velioğlu-Oğünç, Ayliz; Ercan, Feriha; Erkanli, Gözde; Gedik, Nursal; Yeğen, Berrak C

    2006-09-01

    Oxidative stress has an important role in the development of multiorgan failure after major burn. This study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of experimental hypothyroidism in hepatic and gastrointestinal injury induced by thermal trauma. Sprague Dawley rats were administered saline or PTU (10 mgkg(-1) i.p.) for 15 days, and hypothyroidism was confirmed by depressed serum T(3) and T(4) concentrations. Under brief ether anesthesia, shaved dorsum of rats was exposed to 90 degrees C (burn group) or 25 degrees C (control group) water bath for 10s. PTU or saline treatment was repeated at the 12th hour of the burn. Rats were decapitated 24h after injury and tissue samples from liver, stomach and ileum were taken for the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and collagen contents. Formation of reactive oxygen species in tissue samples was monitored by using chemiluminescence (CL) technique with luminol and lucigenin probes. Tissues were also examined microscopically. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assayed in serum samples. Severe skin scald injury (30% of total body surface area) caused a significant decrease in GSH level, which was accompanied with significant increases in MDA level, MPO activity, CL levels and collagen content of the studied tissues (pPTU treatment reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations induced by thermal trauma. Our results suggest that PTU-induced hypothyroidism reduces oxidative damage in the hepatic, gastric and ileal tissues probably due to hypometabolism, which is associated with decreased production of reactive oxygen metabolites and enhancement of antioxidant mechanisms.

  7. Expression of antioxidant genes in renal cortex of PTU-induced hypothyroid rats: effect of vitamin E and curcumin.

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    Jena, Srikanta; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Dandapat, Jagneshwar

    2012-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of vitamin E and curcumin on the expression of antioxidant genes in 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rat renal cortex. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were increased in hypothyroid rat kidney. Co-administration of vitamin E and curcumin to hypothyroid rats resulted in amelioration of lipid peroxidation level, whereas curcumin alone alleviated the protein carbonylation level. The mRNA levels of SOD1 and SOD2 were decreased in hypothyroid rats. Decreased level of SOD1 transcripts was observed in hypothyroid rats supplemented with curcumin alone or co-administrated with vitamin E. Translated products of SOD1 and SOD2 in hypothyroid rats was elevated in response to supplementation of both the antioxidants. Decreased SOD1 and SOD2 activities in hypothyroid rats compared to control were either unaltered or further decreased in response to the antioxidants. Expressions of CAT at transcript and translate level along with its activity were down regulated in hypothyroid rats. Administration of vitamin E to hypothyroid rats resulted in elevated CAT mRNA level. In contrast, expression of CAT protein was elevated in response to both the antioxidants. However, CAT activity was unaltered in response to vitamin E and curcumin. GPx1 and GR mRNA level and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were not affected in response to induced hypothyroidism. The activity of GPx was increased in response to vitamin E treatment, whereas decreased GR activity in hypothyroid rats was further declined by the administration of antioxidants. The over all results suggest that vitamin E and curcumin differentially modulate the altered antioxidant defence mechanism of rat kidney cortex under experimental hypothyroidism.

  8. Monoamine concentrations changes in the PTU-induced hypothyroid rat brain and the ameliorating role of folic acid.

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    Tousson, E; Ibrahim, W; Arafa, N; Akela, M A

    2012-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are recognized as the key metabolic hormones that play a critical role in the development of central nervous system (CNS) throughout life. The present study was designed to determine the changes in brain monoamine concentrations in 6-n-propyl thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats, in addition to the ameliorating role of folic acid treatment. Fifty male albino rats were equally divided into five groups; first and second groups were the control and folic acid groups, respectively, while the third group was the hypothyroid group in which the rats received PTU in drinking water for 6 weeks. The fourth and fifth groups were co- and post-treated folic acid groups with hypothyroid rats, respectively. Our results revealed that serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations were significantly decreased in the hypothalamus and cortex, while it significantly increased in the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats when compared with control group. Serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations were decreased in hypothalamus and cortex in co- and post-treated folic acid groups with hypothyroid rats, while the concentration of dopamine were significantly increased in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of the hypothyroid rats and co-treated folic acid group with hypothyroid rats. In cortex, the dopamine concentration was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats and post-treated folic acid group with hypothyroid rats, while it significantly decreased in co-treated folic acid group with hypothyroid rats when compared with the control group. Also, our results revealed that, folic acid treatment was better if it is administered as an adjuvant after returning to the euthyroid state by withdrawing PTU from the drinking water.

  9. Modulation of antioxidant enzyme expression by PTU-induced hypothyroidism in cerebral cortex of postnatal rat brain.

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    Bhanja, Shravani; Jena, Srikanta

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the effect of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism on oxidative stress parameters and expression of antioxidant enzymes in cerebral cortex of rat brain during postnatal development. A significant decrease in levels of lipid peroxidation and H(2)O(2) were seen in 7 and 30 days old PTU-treated rats with respect to their controls. Significantly decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) along with the translated products of SOD1 and SOD2 were observed in 7, 15 and 30 days old PTU-treated rats as compared to their respective controls. However, increase in translated product of CAT was seen in all age groups of PTU-treated rats. Glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased in 7 days and increased in 15 days old PTU-treated rats with respect to their control groups. Histological sections clearly show a decline in neuronal migration with neurons packed together in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control.

  10. Induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of superoxide dismutase expression in rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum by PTU-induced hypothyroidism and its reversal by curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Srikanta; Anand, Chinmay; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Dandapat, Jagneshwar

    2012-08-01

    The present study was carried out to elucidate the effectiveness of curcumin in ameliorating the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rat brain under 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism. Induction of hypothyroidism in adult rats by PTU resulted in augmentation of lipid peroxidation (LPx), an index of oxidative stress in cerebellum but not in cerebral cortex. Curcumin-supplementation to PTU-treated (hypothyroid) rats showed significant reduction in the level of LPx in both the regions of brain. The decreased translated products (SOD1 and SOD2) and the unchanged activity of SOD in cerebral cortex of PTU-treated rats were increased on supplementation of curcumin to the hypothyroid rats. Declined translated products of SOD1 and SOD2 in cerebellum of PTU-treated rats were alleviated on administration of curcumin to hypothyroid rats. On the other hand, the decreased activity of SOD in cerebellum of PTU-treated rats was further declined on administration of curcumin to the hypothyroid rats. Results of the present investigation indicate that curcumin differentially modulates the expression of superoxide dismutase in rat brain cortex and cerebellum under PTU-induced hypothyroidism.

  11. Curcumin and vitamin E modulate hepatic antioxidant gene expression in PTU-induced hypothyroid rats.

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    Subudhi, U; Chainy, G B N

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, regulatory role of vitamin E and curcumin on antioxidant gene (AOG) expression in hypothyroid rat liver is reported. Adult male rats were rendered hypothyroid by administration of 0.05 % 6-propyl-thiouracil in their drinking water, while vitamin E (200 mg/kg body weight) and curcumin (30 mg/kg body weight) were supplemented orally for 30 days. Expression of antioxidant genes (Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase; SOD1, Mn superoxide dismutase; SOD2, catalase; CAT, glutathione peroxidase; GPx1 and glutathione reductase; GR) was evaluated using RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in mitochondrial fraction (MF) and post-mitochondrial fraction (PMF) of rat liver. In addition measurement of glutathione redox status was also carried out in both the fractions. The enhanced transcripts of CAT, GPx1 and GR in hypothyroid rat liver were alleviated by administration of vitamin E and curcumin. Elevated levels of translated product of all AOGs in hypothyroid group were remained unchanged after antioxidant administration. However, enhanced SOD1, GPx1 and decreased GR activities in PMF were normalized by vitamin E and curcumin. Similarly the increased SOD2, GPx1 and decreased CAT activities in MF were also normalized by vitamin E and curcumin supplementation. Administration of vitamin E and curcumin enhanced mitochondrial GSH level; whereas the enhanced GSH level in PMF of hypothyroid rats was alleviated by vitamin E. Thus it can be concluded that besides the antioxidant role of vitamin E and curcumin, they also regulate hepatic antioxidant gene expression in hypothyroid rats.

  12. Influences of hypertonic and hypovolemic treatments on vasopressin response in propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroid rat and effect on supplementation with L-thyroxine.

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    Aydin, Leyla; Mogulkoc, R; Baltaci, A K

    2010-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of L-thyroxine treatment on plasma vasopressin (AVP) levels in rats with hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). Animals were separated into three groups each having 6 rats: control, PTU, PTU+L-thyroxine groups. Then, the groups were further divided into 3 sub-groups including 6 rats (a; basal, b; hypertonic stimulated and c; hypovolemic stimulated). At the end of the experiments all rats were decapitated in order to obtain plasma samples for analysis in terms of Hct, osmolality, TT 3 , TT 4 and vasopressin. Haematocrit (Hct) levels were the highest in hypovolemic stimulated sub-group (P PTU group and the highest in the L-thyroxine treated group (P PTU group (P PTU-induced hypothyroidism. However, L-thyroxine treatment following hypothyroidism prevents this reduction.

  13. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen as a molecular biomarker for spermatogenesis in PTU-induced hypothyroidism of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousson, Ehab; Ali, Ehab M M; Ibrahim, Wafaa; Mansour, Mohammed A

    2011-07-01

    The thyroid hormone has few serious effects on the testes except during the neonatal stage. There is little knowledge concerning the prolonged effect of thyroid hormone deficiency throughout the rat's life span and its effect on spermatogenesis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear matrix protein, which is essential for multiple cell cycle pathways. Here we used PCNA immunohistochemistry as a marker to differentiate between the testes of control and hypothyroid rats. About 20 rats were equally divided into 2 groups; the first group was the control group, while the second group was the experimental group in which rats were fed 0.05% 6-n-propyl thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Immunohistochemistry, using an antibody against PCNA, showed at least 3 differences in the pattern of PCNA immunoreactivity (PCNA-ir). First, PCNA-ir was not detected in Sertoli and Leydig cells in the testes of control rats and detected in some of the hypothyroid rats. Second, in the control group more than 96% of spermatogonia were PCNA-positive cells; however, hypothyroidism caused the reduction to approximately 25% PCNA staining in spermatogonia. The third difference was in the abnormal distribution of spermatogonia seen in the hypothyroid rat testis, not in the control one. These results suggest that prepubertal hypothyroidism affects the proliferation of spermatogenic cells leading to impaired spermatogenesis and that PCNA index is a useful marker for assessing germ cell kinetics and spermatogenesis in prepubertal hypothyroidism.

  14. Biochemical and histopathological studies of the PTU-induced hypothyroid rat kidney with reference to the ameliorating role of folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Afrah F; Tousson, Ehab; Ibrahim, Wafaa; Hussein, Wesam M

    2013-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for growth and development of the kidney. Also TH influences glomerular filtration and tubular functions. Hypothyroidism negative influences kidney function indirectly by affecting the cardiovascular system and the renal blood flow, and directly by affecting glomerular filtration, tubular functions and the structure of the kidney. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in biochemical markers, oxidative stress parameter and histological changes in kidney of hypothyroid rats before and after treatment with folic acid. Hypothyroidism was induced for 6 weeks by the administration of propylthiouracil in drinking water. Urea and creatinine were measured to evaluate the changes in kidney function. Also malondialdehyde, nitrite, nitrate and other oxidative stress parameter were measured in serum and kidney tissue as indicators of oxidative damage. Kidney function and oxidative stress parameters in hypothyroid rats were significantly changed compared to those in control rats. Treatment with folic acid helps in improving the adverse effect of hypothyroidism; the histological study also confirms this finding.

  15. MUSCULOSKELETAL IMPAIRMENT IN PRYMARY HYPOTHYROIDISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Luliana; Groppa, Liliana; Vudu, Lorina

    2016-01-01

    This article contains bibliographical data concerning the rheumatic clinical manifestations in hypothyroidism: polyarthralgias, lack of recent skill of fine movements of the hands, carpal tunnel syndrome or tarsal, degenerative arthropathy or acute type (gout, chondrocalcinosis), adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder syndrome), generalized muscular stiffness, hypothyroid myopathy, secondary osteoarthritis, Dupuytren's contracture, "trigger finger" (also called as stenosing tenosynovitis or trigger thumb) etc. and data on the short history, epidemiology, of these disorders. Review include 60 bibliographical sources.

  16. Severe hypothyroidism masquerading as renal impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bistrup, C; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Kvetny, J

    1996-01-01

    A case of severe hypothyroidism in a 51-year old male is presented. The patient was especially complaining of weakness, stiffness and moderate pain in the proximal muscle groups together with rhinorrhea and nasal stenosis. Because of severely elevated S-creatine-kinase combined with reduced...

  17. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to meet your body's needs. This condition is hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is more common in women, people with other ... cause. Other causes include thyroid nodules, thyroiditis, congenital hypothyroidism, surgical removal of part or all of the ...

  18. The Possible Mechanisms of the Impaired Insulin Secretion in Hypothyroid Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliashraf Godini

    Full Text Available Although the insulin secretion deficit in hypothyroid male rats has been documented, the underling mechanisms of the effect of hypothyroidism on insulin secretion are not clear. Isolated islets of the PTU-induced hypothyroid and control rats were exposed to glibenclamide, acetylcholine, and nifedipine in the presence of glucose concentrations of 2.8 or 8.3 and 16.7 mmol/L. Glucokinase and hexokinase specific activity, glucokinase content, and glucose transporter 2 protein expression were also determined in the isolated islets. Isolated islets from the hypothyroid rats showed a defect in insulin secretion in response to high glucose. In the presence of glibenclamide or acetylcholine, the isolated islets from the hypothyroid and control rats stimulated by glucose concentration of 16.7 mmol/L secreted similar amounts of insulin. In the presence of glucose concentrations of 8.3 mmol/L and 16.7 mmol/L, nifedipine was able to diminish insulin secretion from isolated islets of both groups, indicating that probably the defect may not arise from L type calcium channels or the steps beyond depolarization or the elements involved in the acetylcoline signaling pathway. Glucokinase content and hexokinase specific activity were also the same in the control and hypothyroid groups. On the other hand, glucokinase specific activity and glucose transporter 2 protein expression were significantly (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively lower in the islets isolated from the hypothyroid rats (6.50 ± 0.46 mU/min/mg protein and 0.55 ± 0.09 arbitrary unit compared to the controls (10.93 ± 0.83 mU/min/mg protein and 0.98 ± 0.07 arbitrary unit respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that hypothyroidism reduced insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets, which confirms the finding of the previous studies; in addition, the insulin secretion deficit observed in hypothyroid rats may arise from the abnormalities in some parts of the glucose sensor

  19. Propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced vasculitis associated with antineutrophil antibody against myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Yoshitaka; Tominaga, Takayuki; Inoue, Yasushi; Shinohara, Kenji

    2003-06-01

    A 54-year-old woman had been administered propylthiouracil (PTU) for Graves' disease for 4 years. Recently, she complained of hemoptysis due to pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage causing anemia, and also had microhematuria. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody against myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) was positive, and she was diagnosed with PTU-induced vasculitis. Cessation of PTU and the administration of corticosteroids ameliorated these manifestations.

  20. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You want to change your thyroxine dose or brand, or change taking your pills with or without ... the ATA , Hypothyroidism | No Comments The American Thyroid Association is pleased with the success of the Hypothyroidism ...

  1. PTU-induced ANCA-positive vasculitis: an innocent or a life-threatening adverse effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, N Sule Yaşar; Kaşifoğlu, Timuçin; Korkmaz, Cengiz

    2013-01-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are rare, but they can be triggered by chemicals, infections and drugs; among them, antithyroid drugs are common. Autoimmune disorders, such as vasculitis, are unusual, but serious complications of antithyroid therapy. Both propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole may induce ANCA-associated vasculitis. PTU-induced vasculitides may have different organ involvement patterns. Herein, we report four cases with ANCA-associated vasculitis with different clinical manifestations.

  2. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the presen

  3. GESTATIONAL AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PROPYLTHIOURACIL INDUCES HYPOTHYROIDISM AND IMPAIRS SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND PLASTICITY IN AREA CA1 OF HIPPOCAMPUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although severe developmental hypothyroidism leads to stunted growth, alterations in hippocampal structure, and impaired performance on a variety of behavioral learning tasks, the impact of milder forms of hypothyroidism has not been adequately assessed. Preliminary reports of ...

  4. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number...... of spontaneous abortions. METHODS: Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. RESULTS: 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism...... with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous...

  5. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Dorthe Feldthusen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Methods. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Results. 6.7% had mild (subclinical hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Conclusion. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.

  6. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob; Toft Kristensen, Tina; Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.

  7. Inhibition of oxidation activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by propylthiouracil (PTU) and anti-MPO antibodies from patients with PTU-induced vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-Hua; Chen, Min; Gao, Ying; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2007-02-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU) could induce antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects on MPO oxidation activity by PTU and MPO-ANCA from patients with primary microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and PTU-induced vasculitis. IgG preparations were purified from MPO-ANCA-positive sera from seven patients with PTU-induced vasculitis and ten patients with primary MPA. The oxidation activity of MPO was measured in the presence of PTU and MPO-ANCA-positive IgG preparations from patients with PTU-induced vasculitis and primary MPA respectively. PTU could competitively inhibit the oxidation activity of MPO dose dependently. MPO-ANCA-positive IgG preparations from 6/7 patients with PTU-induced vasculitis and only 3/10 from patients with primary MPA could inhibit the MPO activity in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusions, the oxidation activity of MPO could be inhibited by PTU and PTU-induced MPO-ANCA in a dose-dependent manner, which might be involved in the pathogenesis PTU-induced vasculitis.

  8. Antenatal Screening for Hypothyroidism and Childhood Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, John H.; Bestwick, Jonathan P.; Channon, Sue; Paradice, Ruth; Maina, Aldo; Rees, Rhian; Chiusano, Elisabetta; John, Rhys; Guaraldo, Varvara; George, Lynne M.; Perona, Marco; Dall’Amico, Daniela; Parkes, Arthur B.; Jooman, Mohammed; Wald, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Children born to women with low thyroid hormone levels have been reported to have decreased cognitive function. Methods We conducted a randomized trial in which pregnant women at a gestation of 15 weeks 6 days or less provided blood samples for measurement of thyrotropin and free thyroxine (T4). Women were assigned to a screening group (in which measurements were obtained immediately) or a control group (in which serum was stored and measurements were obtained shortly after delivery). Thyrotropin levels above the 97.5th percentile, free T4 levels below the 2.5th percentile, or both were considered a positive screening result. Women with positive findings in the screening group were prescribed 150 μg of levothyroxine per day. The primary outcome was IQ at 3 years of age in children of women with positive results, as measured by psychologists who were unaware of the group assignments. Results Of 21,846 women who provided blood samples (at a median gestational age of 12 weeks 3 days), 390 women in the screening group and 404 in the control group tested positive. The median gestational age at the start of levothyroxine treatment was 13 weeks 3 days; treatment was adjusted as needed to achieve a target thyrotropin level of 0.1 to 1.0 mIU per liter. Among the children of women with positive results, the mean IQ scores were 99.2 and 100.0 in the screening and control groups, respectively (difference, 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.1 to 2.6; P = 0.40 by intention-to-treat analysis); the proportions of children with an IQ of less than 85 were 12.1% in the screening group and 14.1% in the control group (difference, 2.1 percentage points; 95% CI, −2.6 to 6.7; P = 0.39). An on-treatment analysis showed similar results. Conclusions Antenatal screening (at a median gestational age of 12 weeks 3 days) and maternal treatment for hypothyroidism did not result in improved cognitive function in children at 3 years of age. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust UK and

  9. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in patients with propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced ANCA positive vasculitis are associated with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F; Zhao, M-H; Zhang, Y-K; Zhang, Y; Wang, H-Y

    2005-03-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that propylthiouracil (PTU) could induce ANCA positive vasculitis. However, our previous work has suggested that only one-fifth of the PTU-induced ANCA positive patients had clinical vasculitis and so the mechanism is not clear. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various vasculitides, including primary ANCA positive systemic vasculitis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of AECA and their possible role in the pathogenesis of patients with PTU-induced ANCA positive vasculitis. Sera from 11 patients with PTU-induced ANCA positive vasculitis at both active and quiescent phases, and sera from 10 patients with PTU-induced ANCA but without clinical vasculitis, were studied. Sera from 30 healthy blood donors were collected as normal controls. Soluble proteins from 1% Triton-100 extracted in vitro cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used as antigens and an immunoblotting technique was performed to determine the presence of AECA, and their specific target antigens were identified. In patients with PTU-induced ANCA positive vasculitis, 10 of the 11 patients in an active phase of disease were serum IgG-AECA positive and six protein bands of endothelial antigens could be blotted (61 kD, 69 kD, 77 kD, 85 kD, 91 kD and 97 kD). However, in the quiescent phase, seven of the 10 positive sera turned negative. None of the ANCA positive but vasculitis negative patients or normal controls were AECA positive. In conclusion, AECA could be found in sera from patients with PTU-induced ANCA positive vasculitis and were associated more closely with vasculitic disease activity.

  10. Effects of induced maternal hypothyroidism on the ovarian development of offspring rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of propylthyouracil (PTU induced hypothyroidism of rats during pregnancy and lactation on offspring ovarian development and maturation were studied. Thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations were determined using the radioimmunoassay method in order to verify the hypothyroid status of treated mothers and their two months old pups. The ovaries of the offspring were processed for light microscopy analysis on the day of the first estrus after the 60th day of age. Histological analysis including follicle count was performed on serial sections stained with haematoxyline/eosin and on semithin sections stained with methylene blue. A significant increase of serum TSH and decrease in T3 and T4 levels was observed in treated mothers compared to controls. The levels of measured hormones in the control and PTU-treated two months old rats were not significantly different. Ten percent of 60-dayold treated females did not reach estrus and they were sacrificed in diestrus. The secondary interstitial cells were the dominant structures in the ovaries. The number of healthy growing and early antral follicles was markedly decreased. Ovaries of treated rats contained relatively few antral follicles, significantly more atretic antral follicles and a decreased number of corpora lutea, compared to controls. These results indicate that lack of thyroid hormones during prenatal and early postnatal development impair ovarian development in rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  11. Chronic nicotine treatment reverses hypothyroidism-induced impairment of L-LTP induction phase: critical role of CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Alkadhi, K A

    2014-06-01

    We have previously shown that adult onset hypothyroidism impairs late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and reduces basal protein levels of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB), mutagen-activated protein kinase (MAPKp42/44), and calcium calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV) in area Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus. These changes were reversed by chronic nicotine treatment. In the present study, levels of signaling molecules important for L-LTP were determined in CA1 area of the hippocampus during the induction phase. Standard multiple high-frequency stimulation (MHFS) was used to evoke L-LTP in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of hypothyroid, nicotine-treated hypothyroid, nicotine, and sham control anaesthetized adult rats. Chronic nicotine treatment reversed hypothyroidism-induced impairment of L-LTP at the induction phase. Five minutes after MHFS, Western blotting showed an increase in the levels of P-CREB, and P-MAPKp42/44 in sham-operated control, nicotine, and nicotine-treated hypothyroid animals, but not in hypothyroid animals. The protein levels of total CREB, total MAPK p42/44, BDNF, and CaMKIV were not altered in all groups 5 min after MHFS. Therefore, normalized phosphorylation of essential kinases such as P-CREB and P-MAPK p42/44 in the CA1 area of nicotine-treated hypothyroid animals plays a crucial role in nicotine-induced rescue of L-LTP induction during hypothyroidism.

  12. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism in rats: Impairments of long-term potentiation are mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Song, Binbin; Min, Hui [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Teng, Weiping, E-mail: twpendocrine@yahoo.com.cn [Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Chen, Jie, E-mail: chenjie@mail.cmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2013-09-01

    Neurotoxicity of iodine deficiency-induced hypothyroidism during developmental period results in serious impairments of brain function, such as learning and memory. These impairments are largely irreversible, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In addition to hypothyroidism, iodine deficiency may cause hypothyroxinemia, a relatively subtle form of thyroid hormone deficiency. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia also potentially impairs learning and memory. However, more direct evidence of the associations between developmental hypothyroxinemia and impairments of learning and memory should be provided, and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism on long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular model of learning and memory, in the hippocampal CA1 region. The activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway – a pathway closely associated with synaptic plasticity and learning and memory – was also investigated. Wistar rats were treated with iodine deficient diet or methimazole (MMZ) to induce developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. The results showed that developmental hypothyroxinemia caused by mild iodine deficiency and developmental hypothyroidism caused by severe iodine deficiency or MMZ significantly reduced the field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) slope and the population spike (PS) amplitude. Decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway was also observed in rats subjected to developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. Our results may support the hypothesis that neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism causes damages to learning and memory. Our results also suggest that decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway may contribute to impairments of LTP caused by neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and

  13. Inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in the hypothalamus, pons and cerebellum of the offspring rat due to experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromilas, Christos; Liapi, Charis; Zarros, Apostolos; Tsela, Smaragda; Zissis, Konstantinos M; Kalafatakis, Konstantinos; Skandali, Nikolina; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Carageorgiou, Haris; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2015-08-01

    Neurodevelopment is known to be particularly susceptible to thyroid hormone insufficiency and can result in extensive structural and functional deficits within the central nervous system (CNS), subsequently leading to the establishment of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptomatology. The current study evaluated the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism (as a suggestive multilevel experimental approach to the study of hypothyroidism-induced changes that has been developed and characterized by the authors) on crucial brain enzyme activities of 21-day-old Wistar rat offspring in a CNS region-specific manner. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase in the offspring hypothalamus, cerebellum and pons were assessed. The study demonstrated that maternal exposure to PTU (0.05% w/v in the drinking water) during the critical periods of neurodevelopment can result in an inhibition of hypothalamic, pontine and cerebellar Na(+),K(+)-ATPase; a major marker of neuronal excitability and metabolic energy production as well as an important regulator of important systems of neurotransmission. On the other hand, no significant changes in the activities of the herein offspring CNS regions' AChE and Mg(2+)-ATPase were recorded. The observed Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibition: (i) is region-specific (and non-detectable in whole brain homogenetes), (ii) could constitute a central event in the pathophysiology of clinically-relevant hypothyroidism-associated developmental neurotoxicity, (iii) occurs under all examined experimental schemes, and (iv) certainly deserves further clarification at a molecular and histopathological level. As these findings are analyzed and compared to the available literature, they also underline the need for the adoption and further study of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity as a consistent neurochemical marker within the context of a systematic

  14. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development in rat hippocampus: involvement of doublecortin and NCAM-180

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Jiapeng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmental iodine deficiency results in inadequate thyroid hormone (TH, which damages the hippocampus. Here, we explored the roles of hippocampal doublecortin and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM-180 in developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. Methods Two developmental rat models were established with either an iodine-deficient diet, or propylthiouracil (PTU-adulterated water (5 ppm or 15 ppm to impair thyroid function, in pregnant rats from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PN 28. Silver-stained neurons and protein levels of doublecortin and NCAM-180 in several hippocampal subregions were assessed on PN14, PN21, PN28, and PN42. Results The results show that nerve fibers in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats were injured on PN28 and PN42. Downregulation of doublecortin and upregulation of NCAM-180 were observed in iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats from PN14 on. These alterations were irreversible by the restoration of serum TH concentrations on PN42. Conclusion Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair the expression of doublecortin and NCAM-180, leading to nerve fiber malfunction and thus impairments in hippocampal development.

  15. Genetics of congenital hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Park, S.; Chatterjee, V

    2005-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder and results in severe neurodevelopmental impairment and infertility if untreated. Congenital hypothyroidism is usually sporadic but up to 2% of thyroid dysgenesis is familial, and congenital hypothyroidism caused by organification defects is often recessively inherited. The candidate genes associated with this genetically heterogeneous disorder form two main groups: those causing thyroid gland dysgenesis and those causin...

  16. The Effects of Epimedii Herba on a Hypothyroidism Rat Model induced by PTU(6-Propyl, 2-thiouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jin Hong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The symptoms of hypothyroidism are fatigue, cold intolerance, arthralgia, muscle cramps, dry skin and etc. Although hypothyroidism is a relatively common endocrinical disease, we do have many difficulties treating it effectively. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are similar to those of Yang-deficiency in Oriental medicine. Epimedii Herba is a popular herb that has the effect of tonifying the kidney and strengthening Yang in Oriental medicine. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of Epimedii Herba on a hypothyroidism rat model induced by PTU(6-Propyl, 2-thiouracil. Methods: 24 two-month-old Spargue-Dawley(SD rats were divided into 4 groups: 1 normal(n=6, 2 PTU-induced hypothyroidism control(n=6, 3 hypothyroidism rat treated with Epimedii Herba(n=6, 4 hypothyroidism rat treated with levothyroxine(n=6. PTU was administered for 4 weeks, Epimedii Herba and levothyroxine was administered for 2 weeks after PTU was initiated for a total duration of 2 week. At the end of the experiment, blood samples from all the rats were taken from their hearts and were analyzed. Results: In comparison with normal group, the PTU-induced control group significantly showed hypothyroidism with low T3, T4 and high TSH. In Epimedii Herba group, T4 was significantly increased(p<0.05. There was no significant difference in TSH between the Epimedii Herba treatment group and the control group. And no significant differences were observed in biochemical labs and weight between the Epimedii Herba group and the control group. Conclusions: These results suggest that Epimedii Herba could help thyroid cells to produce thyroid hormones. And no significant side effects related with Epimedii Herba were found, suggesting that it is safe to administer. According to these results, Epimedii Herba may be a safe alternative medicine for hypothyroidism.

  17. Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body in Balance › Congenital Hypothyroidism Fact Sheet Congenital Hypothyroidism March, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Rosalind S. ... MD Susan R. Rose, MD What is congenital hypothyroidism? Newborn babies who are unable to make enough ...

  18. Subclinical Hypothyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Kalantar Hormozi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: subclnical hypothyroid (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a midly Elevated TSH, is common in adults. Subclinical hypothyroid is a risk factor for developing hypothyroidism complication . the goal of screening is to identify and treatment patients with sublinical hypothyroid before they develop these complication. Methods: The sample size of this study was the articles indexed in pubmed,ovid, tripdatabase, new spring link black coehrane, Elsevirer, Embase and contained the terms subclinical hypothyroid, Anti-tpo, Thyrotropin, levothyroxine trapy. Results: 831 articles were found that 75 articles were investigated for this issue. The results are discussed under. The subtile such as subclinical hypothyroid, screening for subclinical hypothyroid, Indication of treatment of Subclinical hypothyroid. Conclusion: In this summary, we tried to review the current literature about definition, Indection of screening and treatment of subclinical hypothyroid and reach a comprehensive guidline for practical significance of this subject in routines practice.

  19. Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Congenital Hypothyroidism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Rosalind S. ... Pediatric Endocrine Society MedlinePlus (NIH) What is congenital hypothyroidism? Newborn babies who are unable to make enough ...

  20. Hypothyroidism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism is a decreased activity of the thyroid gland which may affect all body functions. The rate ... and physical sluggishness. The most severe form of hypothyroidism is myxedema, which is a medical emergency.

  1. Neonatal hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be observed carefully after birth for signs of hypothyroidism. Also, pregnant women should not avoid iodine-supplemented salt. Most states require a routine screening test to check all newborns for hypothyroidism. If your state does not have this requirement, ...

  2. Antioxidant Potential of ulva rigida c. Agardh Extract: Protection from Oxidative Stress Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAŞ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, one of the green algae, on and antioxidative system in the propylthiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Thirty-two rats randomly divided into four groups: control (C, control+U. rigida extract (C+UR, hypothyroid (H and hypothyroid+U. rigida extract (H+UR. U. rigida (2% was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks after the induction of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid rats were under oxidative stress as reflected by icreased plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA levels. U. rigida reduced serum total cholesterol and,- triglyceride levels and plasma and heart skeletal muscle, liver and,- kidney tissue MDA levels in the H+UR group. Serum total cholesterol and tissues MDA levels were reduced in the C+UR group. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were increased in the H+UR and C+UR groups compared with those of te respective control groups. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were lower in the H group and U. rigida increased paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in C+UR and H+UR groups. We conclude that hypothyroidism is associated with oxidative stress and, U. rigida extract might have a potential use as a protective antioxidant agent in hypothroidism.

  3. [Postoperative hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifirova, O S; Trynov, N N

    2015-01-01

    There is a number of factors such as the thyroidectomy and limiting subtotal thyroid resection against the background of euthyroidism and initial hypothyroidism (in any extent of operation) which leads to the prediction of early postoperative hypothyroidism origin during 10 days of the postoperative peri- od. The early postoperative hypothyroidism is accompanied by activation processes of lipid peroxide oxidation and at the same time by reduction of antioxidant protection.

  4. Developmental Hypothyroidism Reduces the Expression of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) is a known effect of environmental contaminants. Neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been implicated in brain dysfunction resulting from severe developmental TH insufficiency. Neurotrophins are also implicated in activity-dependent plasticity, a process critical for appropriate use-dependent connectivity in the developing brain and for memory formation in the adult. This study examined activity-induced expression of neurotrophin gene products in the hippocampus using the long-term potentiation (LTP) after developmental hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). Pregnant rats were exposed to PTU (0 or I0ppm) via the drinking water from early gestation to weaning. Adult male offspring were anesthetized with urethane and implanted with electrodes in the dentate gyrus (00) and perforant path (PP). LTP was induced by PP stimulation and responses from 00 were monitored at 15m intervals until sacrifice of the animals 5 h later. The 00 was dissected from the stimulated and nonstimulated hemispheres for rtPCR analysis of the neurotrophins Bdnf, Ngf, Ntf3 and related genes Egrl, Arc, Klf9. We found no PTU-induced difference in basal levels of expression of any of these genes in the nonstimulated 00. LTP increased expression of Bdnf, Ngf, Arc and Klj9 in the control DG, and reduced expression of Ntf3. LTP in DG from PTU animals failed to increase expression of Bdnf,

  5. 老年人甲状腺功能低下的认知损害特点研究%Features of cognitive impairment in elderly hypothyroidism patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 王鲁宁; 解恒革

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the features of cognitive impairment in elderly hypothyroidism patients. Methods Sixty primary hypothyroidism patients were divided into old-age group(n=15) and young-age group(n = 45). The patients underwent neuropsychological eamination. Results The scores of figure delayed recall test, trail A test, word list learning test 3, backward reciting digitals test,and digital symbol test were significantly lower in old-age group than in young-age group(P0. 05). Conclusion Cognitive im-pairement in certain easy aging areas is severer in elderly hypothyroidism patients than in young hypothyroidism patients.%目的 探讨老年甲状腺功能低下患者的认知损害特点.方法 选择原发性甲状腺功能减退患者60例,根据年龄分为老年组15例和年轻组45例,并2组患者进行神经心理学检测.结果 老年组在图形延迟回忆、连线A、词表学习3、数字倒背、符号数字试验中较非老年组成绩差,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).而简易智能状态检查量表评分、立体图形、画钟表试验、图像记忆、摆积木、复杂图形描摹、复杂图形回忆、连线B、词表学习1、词表学习2、词表延迟回忆、词语再认、数字顺背、词语流畅性等方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 老年原发性甲状腺功能低下患者的认知损害在一些认知易老化区域表现较年轻患者有更严重的损害.

  6. Hypothyroidism (primary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hypothyroidism is six times more common in women, affecting up to 40 in 10,000 each year (compared with 6/10,000 men). METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for clinical (overt......) hypothyroidism? What are the effects of treatments for subclinical hypothyroidism? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We...

  7. Medicines for Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... f y o ro r idism What is hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid, occurs when the thyroid ... by your body. What is the treatment for hypothyroidism? People who have hypothyroidism must take a pill ...

  8. Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Balance › Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English ... nervous system, body temperature, and weight. What is hypothyroidism and what are its symptoms? Hypothyroidism, also called ...

  9. Hypercaloric cafeteria-like diet induced UCP3 gene expression in skeletal muscle is impaired by hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffolete M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncoupling protein UCP3 belongs to a family of mitochondrial carriers located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of certain cell types. It is expressed almost exclusively at high levels in skeletal muscle and its physiological role has not been fully determined in this tissue. In the present study we have addressed the possible interaction between a hypercaloric diet and thyroid hormone (T3, which are strong stimulators of UCP3 gene expression in skeletal muscle. Male Wistar rats weighing 180 ± 20 g were rendered hypothyroid by thyroidectomy and the addition of methimazole (0.05%; w/v to drinking water after surgery. The rats were fed a hypercaloric cafeteria diet (68% carbohydrates, 13% protein and 18% lipids for 10 days and sacrificed by decapitation. Subsequently, the gastrocnemius muscle was dissected, total RNA was isolated with Trizol? and UCP3 gene expression was determined by Northern blotting using a specific probe. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls post-test. Skeletal muscle UCP3 gene expression was decreased by 60% in hypothyroid rats and UCP3 mRNA expression was increased 70% in euthyroid cafeteria-fed rats compared to euthyroid chow-fed animals, confirming previous studies. Interestingly, the cafeteria diet was unable to stimulate UCP3 gene expression in hypothyroid animals (40% lower as compared to euthyroid cafeteria-fed animals. The results show that a hypercaloric diet is a strong stimulator of UCP3 gene expression in skeletal muscle and requires T3 for an adequate action.

  10. IMPAIRMENT IN SHORT-TERM BUT ENHANCED LONG-TERM SYNAPTIC POTENTIATION AND ERK ACTIVATION IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPAL AREA CA1 FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA must evaluate the risk of exposure of the developing brain to chemicals with the potential to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. The existing literature identifies morphological and neurochemical indices of severe neonatal hypothyroidism in the early postnatal period i...

  11. Co-administration of Apelin and T4 Protects Inotropic and Chronotropic Changes Occurring in Hypothyroid Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akhondali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: One of the most important thyroid hormone targets is the cardiovascular system. Hemodynamic changes, such as decreased resting heart rate (HR, myocardial contractility, and cardiac output, and increased diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance, have been observed in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, in these patients, ECG changes include sinus bradycardia and low voltage complexes (P waves or QRS complexes. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the prophylactic effect of apelin on HR changes and QRS voltage that occur in propylthiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Method: In this study, 48 adult male Wistar rats weighing 170-235g were randomly divided into 6 groups: Control group (normal saline ip injection + tap water gavage; P group (PTU 0.05%, in drinking water; A group (apelin 200 µg.kg-1.day-1, ip; PA group [co-administration of PTU and apelin]; PT group [co-administration of PTU + T4 (0.2 mg/g per day, gavage]; and PAT group (co-administration of PTU, apelin and T4. All experiments were performed for 28 consecutive days, and then the animals were anesthetized with an ip injection of ketamine (80 mg/kg and xylazine (12 mg/kg. Lead II electrocardiogram was recorded to calculate HR and QRS voltage. Results: Heart rate and QRS voltage increased more significantly in the hypothyroid group that consumed both apelin and T4 (201 ± 4 beat/min, 0.71 ± 0.02 mv vs. hypothyroid 145 ± 9 beat/min, 0.563 ± 0.015 mv; respectively. Conclusion: The co-administration of apelin and T4 showed a protective effect on QRS voltage and HR in PTU‑induced hypothyroid rats.

  12. Co-administration of Apelin and T4 Protects Inotropic and Chronotropic Changes Occurring in Hypothyroid Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhondali, Zahra; Badavi, Mohammad; Dianat, Mahin, E-mail: dianat@ajums.ac.ir; Faraji, Farzaneh [Physiology Research Center and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    One of the most important thyroid hormone targets is the cardiovascular system. Hemodynamic changes, such as decreased resting heart rate (HR), myocardial contractility, and cardiac output, and increased diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance, have been observed in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, in these patients, ECG changes include sinus bradycardia and low voltage complexes (P waves or QRS complexes). This study aimed at evaluating the prophylactic effect of apelin on HR changes and QRS voltage that occur in propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats. In this study, 48 adult male Wistar rats weighing 170-235g were randomly divided into 6 groups: Control group (normal saline ip injection + tap water gavage); P group (PTU 0.05%, in drinking water); A group (apelin 200 µg.kg{sup -1}.day{sup -1}, ip); PA group [co-administration of PTU and apelin]; PT group [co-administration of PTU + T4 (0.2 mg/g per day, gavage)]; and PAT group (co-administration of PTU, apelin and T4). All experiments were performed for 28 consecutive days, and then the animals were anesthetized with an ip injection of ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (12 mg/kg). Lead II electrocardiogram was recorded to calculate HR and QRS voltage. Heart rate and QRS voltage increased more significantly in the hypothyroid group that consumed both apelin and T4 (201 ± 4 beat/min, 0.71 ± 0.02 mv vs. hypothyroid 145 ± 9 beat/min, 0.563 ± 0.015 mv; respectively). The co-administration of apelin and T4 showed a protective effect on QRS voltage and HR in PTU‑induced hypothyroid rats.

  13. 原发性甲状腺功能减退症患者认知功能障碍的特点%The characteristics of cognitive impairment in patients with primary hypothyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞淼; 袁鹰; 迟松; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察原发性甲状腺功能减退症患者认知功能障碍的特点.方法 选取未接受治疗的原发性甲减患者90例分为3组,其中亚临床甲减组30例,轻中症甲减组30例,重症甲减组30例以及甲功正常组30例,采用简易智力状态检查(MMSE)和蒙特利尔认知评估量表中文版(MoCA)分别对其定向力、即刻记忆、注意和计算、延迟回忆、语言、视空间及执行、命名、抽象能力等方面进行评估.各项量表得分经方差分析等统计学处理.结果 亚临床甲减组、轻中症甲减组、重症甲减组MMSE总分分别为(27.53±2.16)分,(26.90±1.88)分,(24.80±2.10)分,MoCA总分分别为(23.57 ±3.33)分,(21.60±2.81)分,(20.53 ±3.03)分均明显低于正常对照组[分别为(28.23 ±1.33)分,(26.63 ±2.31)分],均差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).除定向力、即刻记忆外,其他认知功能项,甲减组与对照组相比均差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).随着甲减严重程度的增加,甲减组逐渐出现注意力、计算力、语言力、视空间及执行力、命名力、抽象力的降低(P<0.05),且得分逐渐降低(P<0.05) 结论 原发性甲减患者存在注意和计算、延迟回忆、语言、视空间及执行、命名、抽象力的认知功能损害%Objective To observe the characteristics of cognitive impairment in patients with primary hypothyroidism.Methods A total of 90 primary hypothyroidism patients untreated with thyroid hormone were selected.All the 90 patients were divided into subclinical hypothyroidism group,mild or moderate hypothyroidism group and serious hypothyroidism group,and 30 patients in each group.The other 30 healthy volunteers were selected as controls.Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were used for the testing their orientation,immediate memory,attention and calculation,delayed recalling,linguistic competence,visual space and execution,naming ability and abstracting power

  14. Hypothyroidism in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Donna; Turner, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism, a disease in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone, is the second most common endocrine disorder among women. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, weight gain, alteration in cognition, infertility, and menstrual abnormalities. The most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States is Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The American Thyroid Association recommends an initial screening for thyroid disease at age 35years and every 5years thereafter. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is highly sensitive to thyroid dysfunction and is used to evaluate thyroid disorders. Monotherapy with levothyroxine is the standard for treating hypothyroidism. Diagnosing hypothyroidism requires appropriate diagnostic tests to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions congenital hypothyroidism congenital hypothyroidism Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital hypothyroidism is a partial or complete loss of function ...

  16. Primary and secondary hypothyroidism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism is a decreased activity of the thyroid gland which may affect all body functions. The rate ... and physical sluggishness. The most severe form of hypothyroidism is myxedema, a medical emergency. Hypothyroidism can be ...

  17. Hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan; Patil-Sisodia, Komal; Cooper, David S

    2013-11-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most common pregnancy-related thyroid disorder, affecting 3-5% of all pregnant women. Subclinical hypothyroidism is more common than is overt hypothyroidism, and is usually defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration greater than the pregnancy-specific reference range for each laboratory value, or by serum TSH concentrations greater than 2·5 mIU/L in the first trimester and greater than 3 mIU/L in the second and third trimesters. Some authors have defined subclinical hypothyroidism as a serum TSH between 5 and 10 mIU/L, and overt hypothyroidism as a serum TSH greater than 10 mIU/L, but this is not the commonly accepted definition. Once overt hypothyroidism is diagnosed, treatment with levothyroxine should be started to achieve serum TSH concentrations within the reference ranges for pregnancy as soon as possible. For patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, recommendations for therapy differ between various professional groups as a result of inconsistent data from both observational studies and clinical trials regarding the benefits for the mother or the child. Similarly, because benefits of therapy are still uncertain, universal screening of all pregnant women for subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity is not recommended by most professional groups. During gestation, an increase in levothyroxine dose is required in more than 50% of women with previously diagnosed hypothyroidism, and can be managed by increasing the levothyroxine dose by 30% when pregnancy is confirmed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Humoral and Cellular Immune Response in Canine Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J; Popiel, J; Chełmońska-Soyta, A

    2015-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases in dogs and is generally considered to be autoimmune in nature. In human hypothyroidism, the thyroid gland is destroyed by both cellular (i.e. autoreactive helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes) and humoral (i.e. autoantibodies specific for thyroglobulin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine) effector mechanisms. Other suggested factors include impaired peripheral immune suppression (i.e. the malfunction of regulatory T cells) or an additional pro-inflammatory effect of T helper 17 lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunological changes in canine hypothyroidism. Twenty-eight clinically healthy dogs, 25 hypothyroid dogs without thyroglobulin antibodies and eight hypothyroid dogs with these autoantibodies were enrolled into the study. There were alterations in serum proteins in hypothyroid dogs compared with healthy controls (i.e. raised concentrations of α-globulins, β2- and γ-globulins) as well as higher concentration of acute phase proteins and circulating immune complexes. Hypothyroid animals had a lower CD4:CD8 ratio in peripheral blood compared with control dogs and diseased dogs also had higher expression of interferon γ (gene and protein expression) and CD28 (gene expression). Similar findings were found in both groups of hypothyroid dogs. Canine hypothyroidism is therefore characterized by systemic inflammation with dominance of a cellular immune response.

  19. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive function in people over 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; Jansen, Steffy W; van Bodegom, David

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal thyroid hormone levels, and cognitive impairment are both common in older people. While the relation between overt hypothyroidism and cognitive impairment is well established, data on the association...... criteria for eligibility and methodological quality, and data were extracted using standardized forms. Of the 844 reports initially identified, 270 remained after exclusion of duplicates. Of the 270, 15 studies comprising 19,944 subjects, of whom 1,199 had subclinical hypothyroidism were included. Data...... hypothyroidism was not significantly associated with accelerated cognitive decline. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides no evidence that supports an association between SCH and cognitive impairment in relatively healthy older adults....

  20. Levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation prevents oxidative stress and cognitive deficit in experimental hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianrong; Zhong, Mingkui; Zhong, Xing; Zhang, Yanqing; Zhu, Defa

    2013-04-01

    Hypothyroidism has a variety of adverse effects on cognitive function. The treatment of levothyroxine alone cannot restore cognitive defects of hypothyroid patients. Antioxidant vitamin E supplementation could be useful in disturbances which are associated with oxidative stress and could effectively slow the progression of Alzheimer disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress status of the serum and hippocampus in hypothyroidism and to examine the effects of levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation on cognitive deficit. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, PTU group, PTU + Vit E group, PTU + L-T4 group, and PTU + L-T4 + Vit E group. Serum and hippocampus malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined using the thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances method. Serum and hippocampus superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined by measuring its ability to inhibit the photoreduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze test. In the present study, we found that the rats of PTU + Vit E group spent less time to find the platform on days 2, 3, 4, and 5 than the PTU group. Moreover, the rats of PTU + L-T4 + Vit E group spent less time to find the platform on days 4 and 5 than the PTU + L-T4 group. The time spent in the target quadrants was measured in the probe test and no difference was observed in all groups. Oxidative damage has been observed in the serum and hippocampus of hypothyroidism rat. SOD levels of serum and hippocampus tissue were significantly increased and MDA levels were significantly decreased in the PTU + Vit E and PTU + L-T4 + Vit E groups than the PTU and PTU + L-T4 groups. Therefore, these findings indicate that levothyroxine replacement therapy with vitamin E supplementation may ameliorate cognitive deficit in PTU-induced hypothyroidism through the decrease of oxidative stress status.

  1. A Case of Capgras Syndrome Related to Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Aisha; Stewart, Jonathan T; Catalano, Glenn

    2015-11-01

    Hypothyroidism is commonly associated with a variety of psychiatric conditions, most commonly depression and cognitive impairment, but up to 5% to 15% of symptomatically hypothyroid patients may develop a nonaffective psychosis, classically referred to as "myxedema madness." We report the case of a woman who developed Capgras syndrome in the context of hypothyroidism, and whose psychosis rapidly resolved with levothyroxine supplementation. To date, very few cases of Capgras syndrome related to hypothyroidism have been reported. The pathophysiology of this condition remains unclear but it may be related to global cerebral hypometabolism or possibly to increased cerebral dopamine. Given the robust response of "myxedema madness" to thyroid replacement, psychiatrists should remain vigilant for covert hypothyroidism in patients with psychosis and atypical histories or presentations.

  2. Skin microvascular reactivity in patients with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihor, Ana; Gergar, Maša; Gaberšček, Simona; Lenasi, Helena

    2016-11-04

    Hypothyroidism is associated with impaired vascular function; however, little is known about its impact on microcirculation. We aimed to determine skin microvascular reactivity in hypothyroidism focusing on endothelial function and the sympathetic response. We measured skin laser Doppler (LD) flux (LDF) on the volar forearm and the finger pulp using LD flowmetry in hypothyroid patients (N = 13) and healthy controls (N = 15). Skin microvascular reactivity was assessed by a three-minute occlusion of the brachial artery, inducing postocclusive reactive hyperaemia (PRH), and by a four-minute local cooling of the hand. An electrocardiogram (ECG), digital artery blood pressure and skin temperature at the measuring sites were recorded. Baseline LDF, the digital artery blood pressure and the heart rate were comparable between patients and controls. On the other hand, patients exhibited significantly longer PRH duration, significantly higher blood pressure during cooling (unpaired t-test, p skin microcirculation and an apparent increase in sympathetic reactivity after local cooling in hypothyroid patients. Hypothyroidism induces subtle changes of some haemodynamic parameters in skin microcirculation implying altered endothelial function and altered sympathetic reactivity.

  3. Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2009-02-12

    An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruit peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. Pre-standardized doses (200mg/kg of MI and 100mg/kg both of CV and CM), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic LPO, were administered to Wistar albino male rats for 10 consecutive days and the changes in tissue (heart, liver and kidney) LPO and in the concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)), insulin, glucose, alpha-amylase and different lipids were examined. Administration of three test peel extracts significantly increased both the thyroid hormones (T(3) and T(4)) with a concomitant decrease in tissue LPO, suggesting their thyroid stimulatory and antiperoxidative role. This thyroid stimulatory nature was also exhibited in propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroid animals. However, only minor influence was observed in serum lipid profile in which CM reduced the concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), while CV decreased triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C). When the combined effects of either two (MI+CV) or three (MI+CV+CM) peel extracts were evaluated in euthyroid animals, serum T(3) concentration was increased in response to MI+CV and MI+CV+CM treatments, while T(4) level was elevated by the combinations of first two peels only. Interestingly, both the categories of combinations increased T(4) levels, but not T(3) in PTU treated hypothyroid animals. Moreover, a parallel increase in hepatic and renal LPO was observed in these animals, suggesting their unsafe nature in combination. In conclusion the three test peel extracts appear to be stimulatory to thyroid functions and inhibitory to tissue LPO but only when treated individually.

  4. Macular amyloidosis and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Adarsh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 53 year old woman presented with extensive pruritic hyperpigmented macules in interscapular area and extremities of four years duration.She was an established case of hypothyroidism on treatment for last four years.

  5. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Scintigraphy in Primary Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shoukat H; Madhu, Vijay P; Rather, Tanveer A; Laway, Bashir A

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Esophageal dysmotility is associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility in various systemic and neuroregulatory disorders. Hypothyroidism has been reported to be associated with impaired motor function in esophagus due to accumulation of glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid in its soft tissues, leading to changes in various contraction and relaxation parameters of esophagus, particularly in the lower esophageal sphincter. In this study we evaluated esophageal transit times in patients of primary hypothyroidism using the technique of radionuclide esophageal transit scintigraphy. Methods Thirty-one patients of primary hypothyroidism and 15 euthyroid healthy controls were evaluated for esophageal transit time using 15–20 MBq of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid diluted in 10–15 mL of drinking water. Time activity curve was generated for each study and esophageal transit time was calculated as time taken for clearance of 90% radioactive bolus from the region of interest encompassing the esophagus. Esophageal transit time of more than 10 seconds was considered as prolonged. Results Patients of primary hypothyroidism had a significantly increased mean esophageal transit time of 19.35 ± 20.02 seconds in comparison to the mean time of 8.25 ± 1.71 seconds in healthy controls (P < 0.05). Esophageal transit time improved and in some patients even normalized after treatment with thyroxine. A positive correlation (r = 0.39, P < 0.05) albeit weak existed between the serum thyroid stimulating hormone and the observed esophageal transit time. Conclusions A significant number of patients with primary hypothyroidism may have subclinical esophageal dysmotility with prolonged esophageal transit time which can be reversible by thyroxine treatment. Prolonged esophageal transit time in primary hypothyroidism may correlate with serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels. PMID:27444283

  6. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  7. Central Hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, Annemarie M W Y; Leegwater, Peter A J; Buijtels, Jenny J C W M; Daminet, Sylvie; Kooistra, Hans S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. In contrast, central hypothyroidism is rare in this species. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of central hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers. Additionally, the p

  8. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement......% of newly diagnosed patients with overt hypothyroidism, and demonstrated reversibility following treatment. The evidence for or against a direct effect on pulmonary function was ambiguous. However, each of the above mentioned areas were only dealt with in a limited number of studies. Therefore, we refrain...

  9. Lipid profile in hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, A.; Medeiros, F.; Campos, C.; Medeiros, N.; Kuklinsky-Sobral, J.; Araujo, E. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    1995-12-31

    The elevated levels of cholesterol (T-C), more specifically, the increase of carried cholesterol by low density protein (LDL-C), is the principal responsible to atheroma`s plaque. This elevated levels had been associated with chronic renal disease, bile pathway obstruction and hypothyroidism; this pathology is an important and frequent cause of reversible hyperlipidaemia by hormonal treatment. In 50 hypothyroidism cases diagnosed by radioimmunoassay method, principally primary form, have been met elevated levels of TC (68%), triglyceride (14%), LDL-C (78%), HDL-C (66%) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, LDL-C/HDL-C (82%). These percentages showed that the low concentration of thyroid hormones conduct to high concentration of LDL-C, which represents the risk factor to CHD, despite the increase of HDL-C. Thereby, the hypothyroidism must be always searched in hyperlipemic patients without apparent cause. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. [Hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobelli, D J; Artese, R; Duhart, J E; Katz, D; Benencia, H

    2001-01-01

    Most patients with subclinical hypothyroidism are asymptomatic; however, when this disorder is associated with alterations of the lactotroph, clinical and biochemical manifestations are evident, along with involvement of the gonadotrophic function. In this report, we selected 11 women with hypothyroidism, 5 of them in stage I and 6 in stage II. In all of them, the thyroid function was altered while the most affected was the gonadal axis. The available literature on this subject is scarce, so that we propose a systematic investigation in order to exclude other associated disorders.

  11. Evaluation of autonomic functions in subclinical hypothyroid and hypothyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti S Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction may contribute to cardiovascular morbidity in subclinical hypothyroid patients. It is controversial whether the abnormality exists in sympathetic or the parasympathetic function. It is also not known whether the severity of autonomic dysfunction is related to the degree of thyroid deficiency. Design of Study: Prospective case control. Materials and Methods: Autonomic functions based on heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP responses to various maneuvers were evaluated and scored in twenty two subclinical hypothyroid patients, 30-50 years and compared with twenty hypothyroid patients. Biochemical estimation of TSH, fT 3 , fT 4 , TPO antibody was done. Result: Sympathetic function abnormalities were seen in 82% subclinical hypothyroid patients and 85%hypothyroid patients when one test was abnormal. Parasympathetic dysfunction was also recorded in eight patients in both groups. When two abnormal tests were used as the selection criteria sympathetic function abnormality was observed in about 41% subclinical hypothyroid and 65% hypothyroid patients. There were no intergroup differences in autonomic functions, score and TPO levels. The TSH levels were not related to type or degree of autonomic dysfunction. Systolic BP in both groups and diastolic BP in hypothyroid patients were higher with lower thyroxine levels but the patients were normotensive. Conclusion: Autonomic dysfunction of comparable degree was seen in subclinical hypothyroid and hypothyroid patients. Sympathetic function abnormality was more common although decreased parasympathetic function reactivity was also present. These abnormalities were unrelated to TSH levels.

  12. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Tonstad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%] and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%] in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively. Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18. In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant. In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  13. PREVALENCE OF HYPOTHYROID ISM IN UNEXPLAINED RECURRENT MISCARRIAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM AND OBJECTIVES : To establish the prevalence and association of hypothyroidism in women affected with unexplained recurrent miscarriages. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This is an Observational case control study conducted in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of NIMS Medical College and Hospital , Jaipur (Rajasthan ; between July 2011 to June 2012.One hundred non - pregnant women with history of recu rrent pregnancy losses were included in study group and one hundred non - pregnant women of similar age group with at least one successful pregnancy outcome were taken as control. All women who had known Thyroid disorder , diabetes , collagen and heart disease , were excluded from study . Detailed history , thorough physical examination was done and subjected to the quantitative estimation of triiodothyronine { T3} , Thyroxin { T4} and TSH hormone by CLIA method. RESULT : In the study 63% women experienced two or more pregnancy loss while 37% presented with three or more pregnancy losses. Total 7 patients were reported to have hypothyroidism out of which 3 were observed with subclinical hypothyroidism while 4 were detected overt hypothyroidism. In Control group 2 patie nt of subclinical hypothyroidism were detected. CONCLUSION : Prevalence of Hypothyroidism was 7 % and it has a statistically significant relationship with recurrent pregnancy losses in <20 weeks of gestation. Screening for thyroid dysfunction should be done early in pregnancy. Looking at the high percentage of abnormal TSH in pregnancies; universal screening should be considered as impaired thyroid function may predispose to miscarriage

  14. Hypothyroidism: Does It Cause Joint Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Does it cause joint pain? Can hypothyroidism cause joint pain? I have hypothyroidism and have been experiencing severe arthritis-like pain in my shoulders and hips. Answers from Todd B. ...

  15. Hypothyroidism: Can It Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...

  16. A rare presentation of hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Mathew

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we have brought out a very rare presentation of hypothyroidism in the form of cataplexy and this case is of significance because there have been no similar case reports of hypothyroidism presenting as cataplexy so far. The other highlight of the case is that treatment of hypothyroidism alone resulted in complete freedom from cataplexy without the need for agrypnotic drugs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 328-329

  17. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena P Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sporadic congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common cause of hypothyroidism infancy early childhood in iodine sufficient region. Screening for neonatal CH began in 1970s. The rationale and reason for neonatal screening for CH (NSCH are well established. It is mandatory in most developed countries along with the screen for metabolic disorder. The possibility of measuring TSH and thyroid hormones in cord blood paved the way for newborn screening (NS for CH. Worldwide it is estimated that 25% of the live born population of 130 million babies undergo NSCH. Klein et al., by 1972 had shown improved CNS prognosis in CH treated by age 3 months. NSCH has largely eradicated the severe irreversible neurodevelopmental damage and reversed the chances of growth failure in infancy and early childhood.

  18. Hypothyroidism with scholastic excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Salini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 9-year-old boy had presented with not gaining adequate height with complaints of constipation from 5 years, lethargy and loss of appetite from past 6 months. He was diagnosed to have hypothyroidism with high thyroid antibody levels. Though he was stunted his neurocognition and scholastic performance was excellent as evidenced by his school rank cards. His physical symptoms had improved after thyroxin supplement

  19. Congenital hypothyroidism in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneela Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation in children and it occurs in approximately 1:2,000-1:4,000 newborns. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of CH in neonates. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted in neonatal units of the Department of Pediatrics Unit-I, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore and Lady Willington Hospital Lahore in 6 months (January-June 2011. Materials and Methods: Sample was collected by non-probability purposive sampling. After consent, 550 newborn were registered for the study. Demographic data and relevant history was recorded. After aseptic measures, 2-3 ml venous blood analyzed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level by immunoradiometric assay. Treatment was started according to the individual merit as per protocol. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed by SPSS 17 and Chi-square test was applied to find out the association of CH with different variables. Results: The study population consisted of 550 newborns. Among 550 newborns, 4 (0.8% newborns had elevated TSH level. CH had statistically significant association with mother′s hypothyroidism (P value 0.000 and mother′s drug intake during the pregnancy period (P value 0.013. Conclusion: CH is 0.8% in neonates. It has statistically significant association with mother′s hypothyroidism and mother′s drug intake during pregnancy.

  20. Does developmental hypothyroidism produce lasting effects on adult neurogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DO) of the adult hippocampus generates new neurons throughout life. Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development, but impaired neurogenesis with adult hypothyroidism has also been reported. We investigated the role of milder...

  1. Electromyographic Findings in Overt Hypothyroidism and Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Oğuz Akarsu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism may cause neurologic signs and symptoms as its effects neuromuscular system like many other systems. Subclinical hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid dysfuntion, it may cause neuromuscular signs and symptoms. In this retrospective study, it is aimed to compare neuromuscular symptoms and electromyographic (EMG manifestations between hypothyroid patients and control group with normal thyroid function and without a disease causing polyneuropathy. METHODS: 31 overt hypothyroidic, 139 subclinic hypothyroidic patients and 50 individuals with normal thyroid function, without a disease causing polyneuropathy, as control group whom made EMG for another reason were included to the study. Neuromuscular symptoms, neurological examination and electrophysiological findings was obtained from the patient records. RESULTS: In our study, we observed frequent neuromuscular complaints such as fatigue, morning stiffness, cramp, general pain and paresthesia in favor of both for overt and subclinic hypothyroidism. Carpal Tunnel Syndrom(CTS, was statistically higher in overt hypothyroidism group than control group. CTS was also observed higher in subclinic hypothyroidism group when compared with control group but it didn't reach to statistical significance. We did not detect polyneuropathy in any group. Motor nerve velocity and compound muscle action potential amplitudes were found to be statistically significant difference between hypothyroid ve control group. CONCLUSION: Since motor fibres' and neuromuscular area's being affected in hypothyroidism, which we interpret to happen due to basal metabolism's slowing down, can show a significant recovery after thyroid replacement therapy. We consider that, in further studies, comparison of electrophysiological findings after treatment with the findings of pre -treatment is necessary.

  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  3. Management of primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordyke, R A; Gilbert, F I

    1990-07-01

    Primary hypothyroidism is a common condition requiring lifelong treatment and monitoring. The type and amount of thyroid hormone replacement, selection of laboratory tests, and timing of office visits are all important for optimizing patient well-being and reducing the costs of medical care. The aim of treatment is to bring the patient to the euthyroid state. Currently this is defined as a normal serum concentration of TSH by recently developed sensitive and specific immunometric assays, and is accomplished by titrating the dose of levothyroxine and changing it not more often than at 4- to 6-week intervals. As an indicator of euthyroidism, the sensitive TSH assay has advantages over tests of serum T4, FT4I, T3, FT4, and TSH by RIA because it is independent of TBG changes that result from pregnancy, birth-control pills, and estrogen replacement, is not spuriously elevated by the levothyroxine treatment itself, and is the only test that detects both subclinical hypothyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Additional serum tests are not usually necessary but have advantages under special circumstances. Once the optimal replacement dose is determined, monitoring can be done yearly or even bi-yearly, depending on the adequacy of patient education and patient compliance.

  4. Management of hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Anna; Brent, Gregory A

    2011-10-01

    Examine recent studies on the assessment of thyroid status in pregnancy, approach to thyroid testing, the spectrum of hypothyroidism in pregnancy, and strategies for thyroid replacement in women with known hypothyroidism. Trimester-specific references range for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine in pregnancy must take into account iodine and thyroid autoantibody status, race, BMI, as well as other factors. Thyroid testing of only those pregnant women at increased risk for thyroid disease, case finding, will miss 30-80% of women with thyroid disease. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with an increasing number of adverse effects including infertility, miscarriage, preterm delivery, and breech presentation at birth. Many pregnant women with known hypothyroidism have an out-of-range TSH at the time of confirmed pregnancy. A variety of strategies are effective at keeping serum TSH normal during pregnancy including preconception increase in thyroxine, increase in thyroxine dose at the time pregnancy is confirmed, or making adjustments based on serum TSH monitoring. Evaluation of thyroid status in pregnancy requires an understanding of pregnancy-associated changes in thyroid function tests and how they vary by trimester. The spectrum of hypothyroidism in pregnancy includes isolated thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity, isolated hypothyroxinemia, subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. These patterns, in some situations, may be related to iodine status, selenium status, or underlying thyroid disease. There are a variety of approaches to management of thyroxine replacement in known hypothyroid women at the time of pregnancy that are all effective at maintaining a normal range during pregnancy.

  5. Hypothyroidism in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome. [1] This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group. [2] Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55% and 45 were males (45%. Of the 50

  6. Congenital hypothyroidism: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Devi Dayal, Rajendra Prasad Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Abstract: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH, the most common pediatric endocrine disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1:2,000 to 1:4,000, is an under-recognized problem in countries without routine newborn screening (NBS programs. Thyroid dysgenesis (TD is the most common cause of primary CH accounting for approximately 85% of all cases; most of the remaining patients have dyshormonogenesis. Transient CH and CH with eutopic gland, are increasingly being identified after introduction of routine NBS. The clinical features of CH are often subtle resulting in delayed diagnosis and eventually poor intellectual outcome. In developed countries, detection by NBS and early initiation of treatment has largely eliminated the intellectual disability caused by this disorder. The lower screening thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH cutoff and changes in birth demographics in some countries have been associated with an increase in the reported incidence of CH. However, the additional cases detected by the lower TSH cutoff tend to have either milder or transient hypothyroidism. Diagnosis of CH is made on the basis of serum concentrations of TSH and thyroxine (T4. Thyroid ultrasound, radionuclide scintigraphy, serum thyroglobulin (TG levels and specific genetic tests help ascertaining the exact etiological diagnosis. Non-availability of later tests should not deter the pediatrician from initiation of treatment. Age at initiation of treatment and starting dose of levothyroxine are critical factors that determine the long-term outcome. Higher doses of levothyroxine at 10–15 µg/kg/day are required in infants, with titration based on T4 and TSH levels, which are repeated frequently. Coexistence of other congenital anomalies in children with CH adds to the morbidity. Approximately 70% of babies

  7. Pregnancy outcome in overt hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Singh

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Due to adverse pregnancy outcome, women in early pregnancy should be screened for thyroid disorder and those found hypothyroid should be treated. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 3997-4000

  8. Macroglossia in acromegaly and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, A L

    1977-04-29

    The tongues of two patients with macroglossia were examined at autopsy. One of the patients had acromegaly and the other had hypothyroidism. To evaluate the size of the enlarged tongues, the average weight of the tongue in the human adult was determined first in a series of 20 unselected autopsies, 10 males and 10 females (ages 44 to 85). The weight of the tongue was greater in males than in females and was directly correlated with the height of the subject. Cachexia had relatively little effect on the weight. In acromegaly (case 21) and myxedema (case 22) the tongue was enlarged by at least 50%. Histopathology showed enlargement of muscle fibers especially anteriorly in acromegaly and hypothyroidism, thickening of the epithelium and increased subepithelial and interstitial connective tissue. Incidental findings included venous thrombi and telangiectasia in the subepithelial connective tissue in both hypothyroidism and acromegaly and a corpus amylaceum and two islands of hyaline cartilage in the tongue of hypothyroidism.

  9. Primary hypothyroidism masquerading pituitary macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse and reactive pituitary gland enlargement secondary to primary hypothyroidism is an uncommon occurrence and that can masquerade many pituitary disorders. In present article, we report a case of 19 year female severe hypothyroidism presenting with diffuse enlargement of pituitary gland and hyperprolactinemia and review the clinical importance of this entity. Knowledge of this entity is very important to avoid unnecessary surgery and irreversible complications in this sub-group of patients.

  10. Does developmental hypothyroidism produce lasting effects ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DO) of the adult hippocampus generates new neurons throughout life. Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development, but impaired neurogenesis with adult hypothyroidism has also been reported. We investigated the role of milder degrees of TH disruption on adult neurogenesis following hypothyroidism induced during development, in adulthood, or both. Pregnant dams were administered the TH synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU, 0 or 3ppm in drinking water) from gestational day 6 and pups were weaned to control water on postnatal day (PN)2 I. On PN6O, offspring from control or PTU dams were either re-exposed to PTU (3ppm) for I month or maintained on control. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU 50 mg/kg, ip, twice daily) was administered to all animals on the last 5 days of the re-exposure period, and animals sacrificed 28 d later. Animals were perfused intracardially, the brains were removed, embedded in a MultiBrain (NSA) array and freeze sectioned. Every 8th section throughout the hippocampus was stained with an antibody against BrdU to mark actively dividing cells. The volume of the DO and the number of BrdUpositive cells were assessed from images captured on a Nikon microscope (200X) and Nikon Elements software. Preliminary findings indicate that developmental exposure to PTU produced a persistent reduction in the volume of the adult DO. BrdU cell counts were reduced similarly in all P11J-exposed groups. These data

  11. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ADIPOKINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ye. Myasoyedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disorders and dyslipidemia with hypothyroidism. Reference data are presented that are devoted to the study of adipokines content with hypothyroidism and their effect on echocardiographic indicators.

  12. Hypothyroidism incidence in and around pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Carle, Allan; Olsen, Jørn;

    2016-01-01

    -2010 (overall IR 92.3/100,000/year) and 1,572 women developed hypothyroidism in the period from 2 years before to 2 years after birth of the first child birth in the study period. The incidence of hypothyroidism decreased during the pregnancy (incidence rate ratio (IRR) versus overall IR in the rest...... of hypothyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence declined during pregnancy followed by a sharp increase postpartum. Notably, hypothyroidism as opposed to hyperthyroidism showed no early pregnancy peak....

  13. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Gastrointestinal Motility?

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    Olga Yaylali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastrointestinal motility and serum thyroid hormone levels are closely related. Our aim was to analyze whether there is a disorder in esophagogastric motor functions as a result of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods. The study group included 30 females (mean age ± SE 45.17 ± 2.07 years with primary hypothyroidism and 10 healthy females (mean age ± SE 39.40 ± 3.95 years. All cases underwent esophagogastric endoscopy and scintigraphy. For esophageal scintigraphy, dynamic imaging of esophagus motility protocol, and for gastric emptying scintigraphy, anterior static gastric images were acquired. Results. The mean esophageal transit time (52.56 ± 4.07 sec for patients; 24.30 ± 5.88 sec for controls; P=.02 and gastric emptying time (49.06 ± 4.29 min for the hypothyroid group; 30.4 ± 4.74 min for the control group; P=.01 were markedly increased in cases of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism prominently reduces esophageal and gastric motor activity and can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  14. [Age-related characteristics of experimental hypothyroidism in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromakova, I A; Zil'berman, S Ts; Konovalenko, O O

    2002-01-01

    The rate of both the synthesis of liver and plasma proteins and RNA-1 and RNA-2 polymerase activities in liver were studied in rats of various ages at experimental hypothyroidism. There has been marked more significant decrease in plasma protein synthesis with age. Both the rate of liver and plasma protein synthesis have been shown to be reduced at experimental hypothyroidism but synthesis of plasma proteins was inhibited to a greater extent. Considerable changes were observed neither in liver and plasma protein synthesis nor in the balance between these two groups of the protein synthesis in old rats. RNA-1 and RNA-2 polymerase activities decreased at hypothyroidism. At all ages the activity of bound enzymes decreased to a larger extent as compared to free forms. The activity of RNA-polymerase 2 was more inhibited than that of RNA-polymerase 1. Reducing protein- and RNA-synthetic processes in the liver with age correlated with the peculiarities of the carbohydrate metabolism: in those young animals with an impaired glucose tolerance the inhibitory effect of hypothyroidism on the intensity of protein and RNA synthesis was more potent as compared to old animals.

  15. Long-term outcome in levothyroxine treated patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and concomitant heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. M. N.; Olsen, A. M. S.; Madsen, Jesper Clausager

    2016-01-01

    Context: Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition that may lead to impaired cardiac function. Objective: This study sought to examine the effects of levothyroxine treatment in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and heart disease. Design: This was a register-based historical cohort...... study. Setting and Participants: The study was composed of Danish primary care patients and hospital outpatients age 18 years and older with established heart disease who were diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism in 1997-2011. Patients were stratified according to whether they claimed a subsequent...... myocardial infaction and stroke, and all-cause hospital admissions. Results: Of 61 611 patients with a diagnosis of cardiac disease having their first time thyroid function testing, 1192 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism(meanage 73.6 [SD±13.3] y,63.8%female) were included, of whom 136 (11.4%) were...

  16. Evidence for a specific defect in hippocampal memory in overt and subclinical hypothyroidism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Correia, Neuman

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXT: Declarative memory largely depends upon normal functioning temporal lobes (hippocampal complex) and prefrontal cortex. Animal studies suggest abnormal hippocampal function in hypothyroidism. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess declarative memory in overt and subclinical (SCH) hypothyroid patients before and after l-T(4) (LT4) replacement and in matched normal subjects. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective, open-labeled interventional study was conducted at a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION: Hypothyroid (n = 21) and SCH (n = 17) patients underwent neuropsychological tests at baseline and 3 and 6 months after LT4 replacement. Normal subjects were studied at the same time-points. MAIN OUTCOME: Tests of spatial, verbal, associative, and working memory; attention; and response inhibition and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were administered. RESULTS: Baseline deficits in spatial, associative, and verbal memory, which rely upon the integrity of the hippocampal and frontal areas, were identified in patients with overt hypothyroidism. Spatial and verbal memory were impaired in SCH patients (P < 0.05). TSH levels correlated negatively (P < 0.05) with these deficits. After LT4 replacement, verbal memory normalized. Spatial memory normalized in the SCH group but remained impaired in the hypothyroid group. Associative memory deficits persisted in the overt hypothyroid group. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores did not correlate with cognitive function. Measures of attention and response inhibition did not differ from control subjects. CONCLUSION: Cognitive impairment occurs in SCH and more markedly in overt hypothyroidism. These impairments appear predominantly mnemonic in nature, suggesting that the etiology is not indicative of general cognitive slowing. We propose that these deficits may reflect an underlying disruption of normal hippocampal function and\\/or connectivity.

  17. Hypothyroidism and obesity: An intriguing link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to common perception, hypothyroidism is held responsible for obesity. However, linking them causally is controversial. Overt hypothyroidism is associated with modest weight gain, but there is a lack of clarity regarding subclinical hypothyroidism. Novel view indicates that changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH could well be secondary to obesity. The increasing prevalence of obesity further confounds definition of normal TSH range in population studies. Thyroid autoantibody status may help in establishing the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism in obesity. High leptin levels may play a role in the hyperthyrotropinemia of obesity and also increase susceptibility to thyroid autoimmunity and subsequent hypothyroidism. There is at most a modest effect of L-T4 treatment in overt hypothyroidism in inducing weight loss; benefit in subclinical hypothyroidism is not established with no data supporting thyroid hormone use in euthyroid obese patients.

  18. Hypothyroidism advances mammary involution in lactating rats through inhibition of PRL signaling and induction of LIF/STAT3 mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo Verde Arboccó, Fiorella; Sasso, Corina V; Actis, Esteban A; Carón, Rubén W; Hapon, María Belén; Jahn, Graciela A

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid diseases have deleterious effects on lactation, litter growth and survival, and hinder the suckling-induced hormone release, leading in the case of hyperthyroidism, to premature mammary involution. To determine the effects of hypothyroidism (HypoT) on late lactation, we analyzed the effect of chronic 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced HypoT on mammary histology and the expression of members of the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway, milk proteins, prolactin (PRLR), estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and thyroid hormone (TR) receptors, markers of involution (such as stat3, lif, bcl2, BAX and PARP) on lactation (L) day 21. HypoT mothers showed increased histological markers of involution compared with control rats, such as adipose/epithelial ratio, inactive alveoli, picnotic nuclei and numerous detached apoptotic cells within the alveolar lumina. We also found decreased PRLR, β-casein and α-lactoalbumin mRNAs, but increased SOCS1, SOCS3, STAT3 and LIF mRNAs, suggesting a decrease in PRL signaling and induction of involution markers. Furthermore, Caspase-3 and 8 and PARP labeled cells and the expression of structural proteins such as β-Actin, α-Tubulin and Lamin B were increased, indicating the activation of apoptotic pathways and tissue remodelation. HypoT also increased PRA (mRNA and protein) and erβ and decreased erα mRNAs, and increased strongly TRα1, TRβ1, PRA and ERα protein levels. These results show that lactating HypoT rats have premature mammary involution, most probably induced by the inhibition of prolactin signaling along with the activation of the LIF-STAT3 pathway.

  19. Gestational hypothyroidism increases the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Eduardo A; Carreño, Leandro J; Cortes, Claudia M; Gonzalez, Pablo A; Cisternas, Pablo A; Cautivo, Kelly M; Catalán, Tamara P; Opazo, M Cecilia; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Berman, Joan W; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M; Riedel, Claudia A

    2013-12-01

    Maternal thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in appropriate fetal development during gestation. Offspring that have been gestated under maternal hypothyroidism suffer cognitive impairment. Thyroid hormone deficiency during gestation can significantly impact the central nervous system by altering the migration, differentiation, and function of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Given that gestational hypothyroidism alters the immune cell ratio in offspring, it is possible that this condition could result in higher sensitivity for the development of autoimmune diseases. Adult mice gestated under hypothyroidism were induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Twenty-one days after EAE induction, the disease score, myelin content, immune cell infiltration, and oligodendrocyte death were evaluated. We observed that mice gestated under hypothyroidism showed higher EAE scores after disease induction during adulthood compared to mice gestated in euthyroidism. In addition, spinal cord sections of mice gestated under hypothyroidism that suffered EAE in adulthood showed higher demyelination, CD4(+) and CD8(+) infiltration, and increased oligodendrocyte death. These results show for the first time that a deficiency in maternal thyroid hormones during gestation can influence the outcome of a central nervous system inflammatory disease, such as EAE, in their offspring. These data strongly support evaluating thyroid hormones in pregnant women and treating hypothyroidism during pregnancy to prevent increased susceptibility to inflammatory diseases in the central nervous system of offspring.

  20. Hypothyroidism:Symptoms,Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2012 Table ... of its symptoms are seen in other diseases, hypothyroidism usually cannot be diagnosed based on symptoms alone. ...

  1. Hypothyroidism: The Thyroid and You | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Hypothyroidism The Thyroid and You: Coping with a Common ... is made by the pituitary gland. What is hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid ...

  2. [Treatment of primary hypothyroidism in adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Pasi; Metso, Saara; Moilanen, Leena; Niskanen, Leo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is based on the findings of an increased serum TSH (above the reference range) and decreased serum free T4 (below the reference range) concentration. Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism is indicated if serum THS is above 10 mU/l. For less severe forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, the treatment should be individually tailored. The treatment of choice is synthetic human levothyroxine. The goals for treatment are amelioration of symptoms and normalization of TSH and free T4 concentrations.

  3. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Controversies to consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abbas Raza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of subclinicaal hypothyroidism (SCH is biochemically made, when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels is elevated while free thyroid hormone levels are within normal reference range. SCH is diagnosed after excluding all other causes of elevated TSH levels. Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is related to number of factors including initial serum TSH concentration, presence of auto antibodies, family history and presence goiter. Various screening recommendations for thyroid function assessment are in practice. There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, pregnancy outcomes, neuropsychiatric issues, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. Consensus will require more large randomized clinical studies involving various age groups and medical condition, especially in developing countries. All these efforts will definitely improve our understanding of disease and ultimately patient outcomes.

  4. 老年亚临床甲状腺功能减退症患者认知功能障碍及相关因素分析%Investigation of a cognitive function impairment and its related factors in elderly patients with subclinical hypothyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁平; 阚全娥; 马建新; 袁举

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the features of cognitive impairment in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods The cognitive function of the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and the healthy controls was tested using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). The change in cognitive function was observed and analyzed before and after L-T4 treatment. Results Fifty-seven patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and the same number of healthy controls were enrolled in this study. There were no significant differences between two groups in biochemical indexes and MMSE score (all P>0.05). But there were significant differences between two groups in WMS score, including pictures, memories, learning, touch, understanding memory and back several test scores (all P<0.05). There existed certain degree of cognitive dysfunction mainly displayed in memory, attention, etc. After three months of L-T4 treatment, all had significant improvement (all P<0.05). Conclusions Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism have cognitive dysfunction, when the thyroid stimulating hormone is restored to normal level, cognitive function is also improved.%目的 了解亚临床甲状腺功能减退(亚甲减)患者的认知功能及损害的特点.方法 采用简易智力状态检查量表(MMSE)及韦氏记忆量表(WMS)测试亚甲减患者和甲状腺功能正常对照者(甲功正常)的认知功能,及亚甲减患者给予左旋-甲状腺素片(L-T4)治疗后认知功能的变化,并作相关性分析.结果 在两组的生化指标对比中,各项指标差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);亚甲减组治疗前后与甲功正常组,在MMSE评分中的差异无统计学意义;两组在WMS评分中,在图片回忆、联想学习、触摸、理解记忆及背数测试分值上,亚甲减组较甲功正常组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),提示亚甲减患者存在一定程度的认知功能障碍,主要表现在记忆力、

  5. Primary hypothyroidism in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Chew, Rong Quan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Subramanian, Reena Chandini; Sankari, Usha; Meyappan, Meykkumar; Cho, Li Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The goal of treatment in patients with primary hypothyroidism is to attain euthyroidism guided by the stipulated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels range so as to minimize any potential long-term adverse effects. However, various factors may result in their Levothyroxine (T4) under and over-replacement. Our study aimed to evaluate the mean daily dose of L-T4 replacement for Asian patients with primary hypothyroidism. The secondary aims were to determine the proportion of those who were either over or under-replaced, and the factors associated with their thyroid function status and replacement adherence. Data collected using questionnaire survey from targeted patients managed in a typical public primary care center in Singapore: socio-demographic characteristics, clinical parameters, laboratory investigations, mean daily L-T4-replacement doses, and replacement regimens. The thyroid status of patients was classified based on thyroid function investigations. Complete data of 229 patients were analyzed. A total of 59.8% of patients had TSH within the normal range, 27.5% and 12.7% were under and over-replaced, respectively. About 60% of Asian patients with primary hypothyroidism achieved normal TSH status requiring average of 1.1 μg of daily L-T4/kgBW (kg body weight). Subjects who were over-replaced had a higher daily L-T4 dose/kgBW when compared to the euthyroid and the under replaced groups. Those with L-T4 over-replacement were largely due to excessive dosage. Patients who were younger, from lower socioeconomic strata, and higher BMI were more likely to be over or under-replaced. Majority of Asian patients with hypothyroidism required replacement of 1.1 μg of daily L-T4/kgBW. Their thyroid status was influenced by demographic and dosing factors. PMID:28207545

  6. Reversible hypothyroidism and Whipple's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Huy A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major cause of primary hypothyroidism is autoimmune mediated with progressive and permanent destruction of the thyroid gland resulting in life-long replacement therapy. Treatable and reversible hypothyroidism is unusual and here forth is such a case due to infection of the thyroid gland with Tropheryma whippleii, Whipple disease. Case presentation A 45 year-old female presented with symptoms and signs consistent with primary hypothyroidism, which was also confirmed biochemically. Her response to thyroxine replacement therapy was poor however, requiring a significantly elevated amount. Further investigation revealed the presence of Whipple's disease involving the gastrointestinal trace and possibly the thyroid gland. Her thyroxine requirement decreased drastically following appropriate antimicrobial therapy for Whipple's disease to the extent that it was ceased. Thyrotropin releasing hormone testing in the steady state suggested there was diminished thyroid reserve due to Whipple's disease. Conclusion This is the first ante-mortem case report studying the possible involvement of the thyroid gland by Whipple's disease. Despite the normalization of her thyroid function test biochemically after antibiotic therapy, there is diminished thyroid reserve thus requiring close and regular monitoring.

  7. Hypothyroidism and brain developmental players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2015-01-01

    Most of our knowledge on the mechanisms of thyroid hormone (TH) dependent brain development is based on clinical observations and animal studies of maternal/fetal hypothyroidism. THs play an essential role in brain development and hormone deficiency during critical phases in fetal life may lead to severe and permanent brain damage. Maternal hypothyroidism is considered the most common cause of fetal TH deficiency, but the problem may also arise in the fetus. In the case of congenital hypothyroidism due to defects in fetal thyroid gland development or hormone synthesis, clinical symptoms at birth are often mild as a result of compensatory maternal TH supply. TH transporters (THTs) and deiodinases (Ds) are important regulators of intracellular triiodothyronine (T3) availability and therefore contribute to the control of thyroid receptors (TRs)-dependent CNS development and early embryonic life. Defects in fetal THTs or Ds may have more impact on fetal brain since they can result in intracellular T3 deficiency despite sufficient maternal TH supply. One clear example is the recent discovery of mutations in the TH transporter (monocarboxylate transporter 8; MCT8) that could be linked to a syndrome of severe and non reversible psychomotor retardation. Even mild and transient changes in maternal TH levels can directly affect and alter the gene expression profile, and thus disturb fetal brain development. Animal studies are needed to increase our understanding of the exact role of THTs and Ds in prenatal brain development.

  8. Antioxidant Status in the Serum of Persons with Intellectual Disability and Hypothyroidism: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Eli; Bachar, Assad; Barchad, Shemuel; Morad, Mohammed; Merrick, Joav

    2008-01-01

    Hypothyroidism (HPO) in humans is widely believed to impair health. The biochemical factors mediating decline in health, however, are poorly elucidated. Pathological consequences of HPO point to a high potential for antioxidant imbalance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the major antioxidants in persons with intellectual…

  9. Does Acquired Hypothyroidism Affect the Hearing Functions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Arduç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that congenital hypothyroidism can cause hearing loss. However, conflicting results were found in studies investigating hearing functions in acquired hypothyroidism. Therefore, we evaluated the audiometric findings in patients with acquired hypothyroidism. Material and Method: The study included 58 patients with hypothyroidism and age- and gender-matched 34 healthy controls. Twenty eight (48.27% patients had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 30 (51.73% had obvious hypothyroidism. All subjects had a normal otoscopic examination and tympanometry. Pure tone audiometry at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hertz (Hz was performed in both groups. Blood pressure measurements and the levels of plasma electrolytes, lipids and vitamin B12 were available in all subjects. Results: Hypothyroidism group and control group were similar with respect to systolic and diastolic blood pressures and plasma glucose, lipid, vitamin B12, calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride levels. Significantly higher audiometric thresholds (dB at 250 (10 (0-45 vs. 5 (0-15, p<0.001 and 500 Hz (10 (0-40 vs. 10 (-5-15, p=0.003 were recorded in hypothyroid patients compared to that in healthy controls. Hearing thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz correlated positively with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, and negatively with free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had a higher hearing threshold at 250 Hz than healthy controls (p=0.001. Discussion: Our study demonstrated that hearing ability decreases in hypothyroidism, even in subclinical hypothyroidism. The changes in TSH and thyroid hormone levels seem to be directly related to the hearing loss in this population of patients.

  10. Hyperprolactinemia in association with subclinical hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar, Adele; Akha, Ozra; Kashi, Zahra; Vesgari, Zakiie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hyperprolactinemia is the most common endocrine disorder in hypothalamic-pituitary axis and has been reported in variable levels in patients with overt primary hypothyroidism. We decided to determine the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and clinical related symptoms in subclinical hypothyroidism patients.

  11. Exercise-induced hyperkalemia in hypothyroid dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, IA; van Emst, MG; Verkleij, CB; Peeters, ME; Boer, P; Rijnberk, A; Everts, ME

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of hypothyroidism in dogs on (1) the Na+-, K+-ATPase concentration in skeletal muscle, and (2) potassium (K+) homeostasis at rest and during exercise. Prior to and I year after induction of hypothyroidism by surgery and subsequent radiothyroidectomy, the Na+-, K+-ATPase co

  12. Hypothyroidism in late-onset Pompe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Schneider

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Hypothyroidism was found at a higher prevalence in patients with late-onset Pompe disease compared to the general adult population at UMMC. Studies in larger populations of patients with Pompe disease would be needed to confirm an association of Pompe disease and hypothyroidism. Challenges include finding an adequate sample size, due the rarity of Pompe disease.

  13. Excess mortality in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although hypothyroidism is associated with increased morbidity, an association with increased mortality is still debated. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism influences mortality. Methods: In an observational cohort study from...... January 1, 1978 until December 31, 2008 using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers, 3587 singletons and 682 twins diagnosed with hypothyroidism were identified. Hypothyroid individuals were matched 1:4 with nonhypothyroid controls with respect to age and gender and followed over...... a mean period of 5.6 years (range 0-30 years). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Comorbidity was evaluated using the Charlson score (CS). Results: In singletons with hypothyroidism, the mortality risk was increased (HR 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...

  14. Epidemiology of subtypes of hypothyroidism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, Inge B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Studies of hypothyroidism are often based on referred patients. and limited information is available on the incidence rates of subtypes of hypothyroidism in the general population. We therefore studied incidences of subtypes of primary. overt hypothyroidism in a Danish population cohort...... and compared incidences in two subcohorts with different levels of iodine intake. Design: A prospective population-based study, monitoring a well-defined cohort representative of the Danish population. Methods: The Danish Investigation of Iodine Intake and Thyroid Diseases registry of hyper- and hypothyroidism...... was established as part of the monitoring of the iodine fortification of salt in Denmark. A computer-based system linked to laboratory databases identified all patients diagnosed with new. biochemically overt hypothyroidism in populations living in Aalborg (moderate iodine deficiency, n = 311 102) and Copenhagen...

  15. Histone deacetylase inhibition reduces hypothyroidism-induced neurodevelopmental defects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Mohan, Vishwa; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Chagtoo, Megha; Godbole, Madan M

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) through its receptor (TRα/β) influences spatio-temporal regulation of its target gene repertoire during brain development. Though hypothyroidism in WT rodent models of perinatal hypothyroidism severely impairs neurodevelopment, its effect on TRα/β knockout mice is less severe. An explanation to this paradox is attributed to a possible repressive action of unliganded TRs during development. Since unliganded TRs suppress gene expression through the recruitment of histone deacetylase (HDACs) via co-repressor complexes, we tested whether pharmacological inhibition of HDACs may prevent the effects of hypothyroidism on brain development. Using valproate, an HDAC inhibitor, we show that HDAC inhibition significantly blocks the deleterious effects of hypothyroidism on rat cerebellum, evident by recovery of TH target genes like Bdnf, Pcp2 and Mbp as well as improved dendritic structure of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Together with this, HDAC inhibition also rescues hypothyroidism-induced motor and cognitive defects. This study therefore provides an insight into the role of HDACs in TH insufficiency during neurodevelopment and their inhibition as a possible therapeutics for treatment.

  16. Tertiary hypothyroidism in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiel Robert E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A nine-year-old male entire Labrador was diagnosed with pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Following seven months of successful mitotane therapy, the dog presented with marked weight gain, seborrhoea and alopecia. Routine clinicopathological analyses revealed marked hypercholesterolaemia. Serum total and free thyroxine (T4 concentrations were below their respective reference ranges. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (cTSH concentration was within reference range. TSH and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH response tests revealed adequate stimulation of total T4 in both, and cTSH in the latter test. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass arising from the pituitary fossa, with suprasellar extension. A diagnosis of tertiary hypothyroidism was made. Following four weeks of levothyroxine therapy, circulating cholesterol concentration had declined, weight loss had ensued and dermatological abnormalities had improved. Euthanasia was performed four months later due to the development of neurological signs. A highly infiltrative pituitary adenoma, with effacement of the overlying hypothalamus was identified on post mortem examination. Tertiary hypothyroidism has not been previously reported in dogs.

  17. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  18. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nav nav, .header-9#header-section #main-nav, #overlay-menu nav, #mobile-menu, #one-page-nav li . ... How to Care for Your Baby’s TeethRead Article >>Dental Hygiene: How to Care for Your Baby’s TeethSeptember ...

  19. Hypothyroid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2Foundation of Healthcare Technologies Society, New Delhi, India. 3Center for Global Health and Development, College of Public Health, University of .... technology and challenges for seeking information ... radio/television .... literacy both among rural (mean=5.25; SD= 2) and .... endocrine clinics of community hospitals in.

  20. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6 to 10 weeks after a thyroxine dose change. You may need tests more often if you’re pregnant or you’re taking a medicine that interferes with your body’s ability to use thyroxine. The goal of treatment ...

  1. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the more active hormone, directly affecting the tissues. Thyroid hormones affect metabolism, brain development, breathing, 1 Golden SH, Robinson KA, Saldanha I, Anton B, Ladenson PW. Prevalence and incidence of endocrine and metabolic disorders in the United States: a comprehensive review. Journal ...

  2. [Management of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Functional thyropathies present significant health risks for patients. Advanced functional thyropathies are always treated while indications for therapy of subclinical thyropathies are individual and often controversial. It is widely agreed that these disorders should be diagnosed and individuals should be followed. The drug of choice in substitution therapy of hypothyroidism is levothyroxine, in the treatment of hyperthyroidism it is methimazole. Administration of propylthiouracil should be limited to the first trimester of pregnancy, because its serious hepatotoxicity has been described. Hyperthyroidism based on thyroid nodules and immunogenic hyperthyroidism not reaching long-term remission, need to be treated radically: by surgery or radioiodine treatment. When radiation protection requirements are met, radioiodine can also be administered on an outpatient basis. Exceptionally, small doses of methimazole can be administered over an extended period of time in individual cases.

  3. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghwan Suh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH is a common disorder that is characterized by elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in conjunction with free thyroxine concentrations within the normal reference range. Thyroid hormones are known to affect the heart and vasculature and, as a result, the impact of SCH on the cardiovascular (CV system has recently become an important topic of research. Strong evidence points to a link between SCH and CV risk factors such as alterations in blood pressure, lipid levels, and atherosclerosis. Additionally, accumulating evidence indicates that SCH is associated with metabolic syndrome and heart failure. The present review proposes that SCH may be a potentially modifiable risk factor of CV disease and mortality. However, large-scale clinical trials with appropriate power investigating the risks and benefits of SCH treatment are required to determine whether these benefits can be achieved with levothyroxine therapy.

  4. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin; Brocks, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions. METH

  6. Acute compartment syndrome caused by uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Salzman, Matthew; Morgan, Farah

    2017-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures. No precipitating causes were readily identified. Further laboratory testing revealed uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Management included emergent fasciotomy and initiating thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents a rare association between acute compartment syndrome and uncontrolled hypothyroidism. We also discuss the pathogenesis of compartment syndrome in hypothyroid patients and emphasize the importance of evaluating for less common causes, particularly in setting of non-traumatic compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocular changes in primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekel Hamiyet

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy. Findings Thirty-three patients diagnosed to have primary overt hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to underwent central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements with the Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam, Oculus and cup to disc ratio (C/D, mean retinal thickness and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT in addition to ophthalmological examination preceeding the replacement therapy and at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months of treatment. The mean age of the patients included in the study were 40.58 ± 1.32 years. The thyroid hormone levels return to normal levels in all patients during the follow-up period, however the mean intraocular pressure (IOP revealed no significant change. The mean CCT was 538.05 ± 3.85 μ initially and demonstrated no statistically significant change as the anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements did. The mean C/D ratio was 0.29 ± 0.03 and the mean retinal thickness was 255.83 ± 19.49 μ initially and the treatment did not give rise to any significant change. The mean RNFL thickness was also stable during the control visits, so no statistically significant change was encountered. Conclusions Neither hypothyroidism, nor its replacement therapy gave rise to any change of IOP, CCT, anterior chamber parameters, RNFL, retinal thickness and C/D ratio.

  8. Characteristics of anemia in subclinical and overt hypothyroid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Mehmet, Erdogan; Kösenli, Aybike; Aybike, Kosenli; Ganidagli, Sencer; Kulaksizoglu, Mustafa; Mustafa, Kulaksizoglu

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones stimulate directly or indirectly growth of erythroid colonies through erythropoietin. Anemia is often the first sign of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism can cause a wide variety of anemic disorders. Numerous mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of these anemias that can be microcytic, macrocytic and normocytic. We designed this study to investigate the anemia frequency and if present, etiology of anemia in hypothyroid patients. 100 patients with overt hypothyroid, 100 patients with subclinical hypothyroid, and 200 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Overt hypothyroidism diagnosis is done when elevated TSH and low levels of free T4 and/or free T3 have been observed. Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as elevated serum TSH with normal free T(4) and free T(3) levels. Peripheral smears of the anemic patients were examined. Anemia prevalence was 43% in the overt hypothyroid group, 39% in the subclinical hypothyroid group, and 26% in the control group (p=0.0003 and p=0.021 respectively related to controls). Thus, the frequency of anemia in subclinical hypothyroidism is as high as that in overt hypothyroidism. There was no difference between the hypothyroid groups in terms of anemia. Vitamin B12, Fe, and folic acid were similar between these groups. According to our findings, anemia of chronic disease is the most common type of anemia in hypothyroid patients. Suspicion of hypothyroidism should be considered in anemias with uncertain etiology.

  9. Undiagnosed hypothyroidism presenting with sigmoid volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meytes, Vadim; Schulberg, Steven P; Morin, Nicholas; Glinik, Galina

    2016-04-22

    The incidence of hypothyroidism presenting with sigmoid volvulus, a phenomenon known as myxedema pseudovolvulus, is exceedingly rare. A male in his late thirties presented to our institution with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. The patient underwent CT scan, which was consistent with massive colonic dilatation with sigmoid volvulus. He was taken to the operating room for exploration and was found to have sigmoid volvulus and underwent a segmental resection. Postoperatively, the patient was newly diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism.

  10. Assessment of laser photobiomodulation and polarized light on the healing of cutaneous wounds on euthyroid and hypothyroid induced rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Weyll, Barbara Mayoral Pedroso; da Costa Lino, Maíra Dória M.; Ramalho, Maria Jose Pedreira; Barbosa Pinheiro, Antonio Luis

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or polarized light (PL) in cutaneous wound healing of hypothyroid rats at dosages of 20 or 40J/cm2. Bioestimulatory effects of Laser radiation and Polarized light are recognized alternative therapies to improve healing on systemic disease patients, but their usefulness in the improvement of hypothyroidism healing impairment is uncertain till date. Forty Wistar rats were used in this study. Hypothyroidism was propylthiouracil- induced. Standard excisional cutaneous wounds were created without suturing and LLLT (λ660nm, 30mW, φ 3mm) or PL (λ 400-2000nm, 40mW, φ 10mm) was applied every 48 hours up to seven days on experimental groups. The rats were killed on the eighth day when wound contraction was assessed. The healing features were evaluated by light microscopy (H/E and Sirius Red). The cutaneous wounds of hypothyroid rats showed delayed healing process characterized by reduced thickness of epithelial layers, incipient formation of disorganized collagen fibers and wound contraction to a lesser extent (FISHER, p=0.0276), when compared to the euthyroid group. The use of both the Laser and Polarized Light on hypothyroid rats increased the amount of fibroblasts and the thickness of collagen fibers, especially on the L 20J/cm2 group. Euthyroid rats have still demonstrated more regular collagen fibers pattern than hypothyroid rats. It was therefore concluded that hypothyroidism delays wound healing and both Laser photobiomodulation and Polarized Light at 20j/cm2 dosages had improved the healing process in hypothyroid rats.

  11. Two logistic models for the prediction of hypothyroidism in pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mbah, Anthony U; Ejim, Emmanuel C; Onodugo, Obinna D; Ezugwu, Francis O; Eze, Matthew I; Nkwo, Peter O; Ugbajah, Winston C

    2011-01-01

    .... In this study the variables compared between the hypothyroid and non-hypothyroid pregnant women were maternal age, the number of the pregnancy or gravidity, gestational age, social class, body weight...

  12. Unusual occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism in a set of same ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unusual occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism in a set of same sex triplets: challenges of ... Genetic and intrauterine factors have been implicated in its aetiology. ... On testing for thyroid hormones the patients were found to be hypothyroid.

  13. [Molecular-genetic aspects of congenital hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Ogrodowicz, Agnieszka

    2004-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism manifests a complex of symptoms caused by a total lack or significant deficiency of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in foetal life and in the first years of child's life. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism is 1 per 3000-4000 newborns in the world and l per 4800 in Poland. There are two main causes of congenital hypothyroidism: defects of thyroid development (about 90%), defects of thyroid hormones biosynthesis (~10%), and the more seldom occurring defects of the TBG proteins (thyroxine binding globulin) or resistance. syndrome to thyroid hormones. Defects of thyroid gland development include ectopia, hypoplasia or complete lack of the thyroid (athyreosis). These defects are caused by immunological, factors, drugs as well as genetic factors such as: TSH receptor gene or thyroid transcription factors: PAX 8. TTF l, TTF 2, Pit 1, Prop 1. Defects of thyroid hormones biosynthesis are inherited as autosomal recessive. There are 5 main defects of thyroid hormones biosynthesis: iodide transport (mutation of hNIS gene), iodine oxygenation (mutation of TPO, THOX, PDS genes), the iodination of the tyrosine of thyroglobulin and their conjunction (the mutation of TPO TG, PDS genes), the hydrolysis of the T3 and T4 as well as deiodination. Searching molecular-genetic basis of congenital hypothyroidism may improve its diagnostics, make possible to introduce genetic examination among patients with congenital hypothyroidism and their family members and may make gene therapy possible in the future.

  14. [Influence of hypothyroidism on pregnancy outcome and fetus during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, M Q; Wang, Z J; Hou, K Z

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the influence of hypothyroidism on pregnancy outcome and fetus in pregnant women. A total of 4 286 pregnant women, who received prenatal examination in our hospital from January 2013 to October 2015, were selected as study subjects. The incidence of hypothyroidism and the influence on pregnancy outcomes and fetus were investigated. In 4 286 pregnant women surveyed, 209 hypothyroidism cases were detected(4.9%), including 85 clinical hypothyroidism cases and 124 subclinical hypothyroidism cases. In health group, the premature delivery rate was 1.0%, significantly lower than that in clinical hypothyroidism group(10.6%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(6.5%), the differences were significant(χ(2)= 38.884, Phypothyroidism group(18.8%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(9.7%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=30.949, Phypothyroidism group(14.1%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(4.8%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=50.593, Phypothyroidism group(10.6%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(5.6%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=19.257, Phypothyroidism group(9.25 ± 0.45)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(9.28 ± 0.44), the differences were significant(t=8.823, PHypothyroidism during pregnancy has adverse influences on pregnancy outcome and fetus, and it is necessary to strengthen the hypothyroidism detection in pregnant women for the early treatment.

  15. MOTILIN LEVELS AND ELECTROGASTROENTEROGRAM STUDIES IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To study the relationship between gastrointestinal dysfunction and motilin in patients with hypot- hyroidism. The plasma motilin concentration was measured by radiommunoassay(RIA) in 30 patients with hy- pothyroidism and also in 30 controls. At the same time, the electrogastroenterogram was also taken. Among the hypothyroidism patients, 56.6% had decreased gastric motility, especially in gastric body and greater gastric curvature; 86.6 % had decreased colonic motility, especially in the left half of the colon. There were no significant differences of plasma motilin concentration between patients with hypothyroidism and controls ( P > 0.05 ). There were also no differences between pre-treatment and pest-treatment individuals, but significant differences were observed in the electrogastroenterogram. We conclude that the plasma motilin eoncertration in hypothyroidism patients was the same as that in normal patients, and that electrogastmenterogram studies in patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction may be valuable.

  16. The interrelation between hypothyroidism and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    Data on the association between hypothyroidism and glaucoma are conflicting. We sought to shed light on this by conducting a critical review and meta-analyses. The meta-analyses were conducted in adherence with the widely accepted MOOSE guidelines. Using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms......: hypothyroidism, myxoedema and glaucoma or intraocular pressure, case-control studies, cohort studies and cross-sectional studies were identified (PubMed) and reviewed. Using meta-analysis, the relative risk (RR) of coexistence of glaucoma and hypothyroidism was calculated. Based on the literature search......, thirteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and could be categorized into two groups based on the exposure. The designs of the studies varied considerably, and there was heterogeneity related to lack of power, weak phenotype classifications and length of follow-up. Eight studies had glaucoma (5757...

  17. Primary Hypothyroidism With Markedly High Prolactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHD SALEEM ANSARI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secondary Pituitary enlargement due to primary hypothyroidism is not a common manifestation. The loss of thyroxin feedback inhibition in primary hypothyroidism causes overproduction of thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH, which results in secondary pituitary enlargement.TRH has a weak stimulatory effect on lactotroph cells of pituitary, so mild to moderate rise in prolactin (PRL level is expected. We report a 67 years old female who presented with a large pituitary mass and very high level of TSH with a significant rise in PRL level. In this case the diagnosis of seller mass was challenging, it was difficult to distinguish between pituitary prolactinoma and primary hypothyroidism with secondary pituitary hyperplasia. The thyroid hormone replacement proved that hyperprolactinemia was due to hyperplasia of the pituitary gland.Hence, the correct diagnosis and thyroid hormone therapy can prevent unnecessary treatment with dopamine agonist.

  18. Primary Hypothyroidism with Markedly High Prolactin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Saleem; Almalki, Mussa H.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary pituitary enlargement due to primary hypothyroidism is not a common manifestation. The loss of thyroxin feedback inhibition in primary hypothyroidism causes overproduction of thyrotropin-releasing-hormone (TRH), which results in secondary pituitary enlargement. TRH has a weak stimulatory effect on the lactotroph cells of the pituitary, so a mild to moderate increase in prolactin (PRL) levels is expected. We report the case of a 67-year-old female who presented with a large pituitary mass and a very high level of TSH in association with a significant rise in PRL level. In this case, diagnosing a sellar mass was challenging; it was difficult to distinguish between pituitary prolactinoma and primary hypothyroidism with secondary pituitary hyperplasia. Thyroid hormone replacement proved that this patient’s hyperprolactinemia was due to hyperplasia of the pituitary gland. As such, making the correct diagnosis and initiating thyroid hormone therapy can prevent unnecessary treatment with dopamine agonists. PMID:27199892

  19. Subclinical hypothyroidism in HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Marco; Adorni, Fulvio; Casana, Maddalena; Tordato, Federica; Tincati, Camilla; Cicconi, Paola; Bini, Teresa; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2006-11-01

    The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism [thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)>4 mIU/L with normal free triiodothyroxine and free thyroxine levels], HIV infection and HAART is still unclear. To evaluate the predictive factors of subclinical hypothyroidism in an HIV-infected population, we identified three groups of subjects: G1, subjects on stable highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (for at least 1 year) at baseline and at month 24 (n=97); G2, subjects naive at both baseline and month 24 (n=47); G3, subjects starting HAART at baseline (n=46). The three groups were comparable with respect to age, gender, body weight and prevalence of HCV infection. At baseline, subclinical hypothyroidism was detected in 14 subjects in G1 (14.4%), 5 in G2 (10.6%) and 4 in G3 (8.7%) (P=0.18) and these were excluded from the analysis. At month 24, 15 subjects had developed subclinical hypothyroidism: 4 in G1 (4.8%), 3 in G2 (7.1%) and 8 in G3 (19.0%). In the multivariable analysis, the higher increase in total cholesterol was predictive of subclinical hypothyroidism (RR: 1.53 for each additional 10 mg/dL, 95% CI 1.23-1.90; P<0.01); other variables, which were statistically significant in the univariate analysis, such as G3 group, body weight and higher increase in CD4+ cell count and in triglyceride serum levels were not confirmed to be associated with TSH alterations. The occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism in HIV-positive patients seems to be related to the increase in total cholesterol serum levels occurring after HAART initiation. Thyroid function should be monitored in all HIV-infected subjects, especially in those starting HAART.

  20. The Early Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism as a Factor in the Progression of Osteoarthritis and Comorbid Processes, the Features of Phytocorrection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Voloshynа

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the prevalence and forms of hypothyroidism in patients with osteoarthritis (OA and to investigate the effect of phytomedication zobofit on the functional and morphological status of the thyroid gland, the manifestations of comorbid diseases, oxidative status, fibrinolytic and proteolytic activity of the blood. Materials and methods. In 312 patients with OA, we have studied the manifestations of comorbid processes, and among them — hypothyroidism phenomena. We have used clinical, biochemical, radioimmunological, ultrasound methods. Results. All patients with OA after 50 years had the increasing number and severity of comorbid processes. Among them, 4.48 % of patients has symptomatic and 13.78 % — subclinical hypothyroidism. Symptoms of hypothyroidism were marked in people over 55, especially — over 60 years. Subclinical hypothyroidism slightly worsened clinical symptoms of OA and comorbid processes, but enhanced the effects of oxidative stress, reduction of fibrinolytic and increase of proteolytic activity of the blood, impaired glomerular filtration rate of the kidneys. The above is considered as non-specific pathophysiological basis for the progression of identified ailments. Three-month application of the herbal medication zobofit in most patients has normalized thyroid homeostasis, improved overall outcomes of the treatment for underlying and comorbid illnesses, reduced the severity of metabolic disorders. Conclusions. In OA patients aged over 50 years with a high level of comorbidity, it is necessary to carry out screening for hypothyroidism. If you noticed the signs of subclinical hypothyroidism in this population of patients, it is appropriate to use multicomponental phytomedications with diverse thyroid-stimulating action.

  1. Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Demidova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We observed 20 women suffering from adiposity and subclinical hypothyroidism. Lipid spectrum, carbohydrate metabolism, BP and insulinresistance, the extent and variants of fat tissue distribution, a test with physical exercise, all research in dynamics (in the beginning and 6 months after normalization of TSH level against the background of substitution therapy with L-T4 were evaluated. The positive shifts revealed during the afore mentioned research allow us to express our opinion in favour of carrying out substitution therapy with L-T4 at subclinical hypothyroidism .

  2. The dose of levothyroxine in pregnant women with hypothyroidism should be increased by 20-30% in the first trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubaveshka, Julia; Michaelsson, Luba Freja; Nygaard, Birte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Severe hypothyroidism in pregnancy is associated with maternal and foetal complications, and in less severe cases impaired neuropsychological foetal development is seen. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the clinical control suggested in the guidelines....... METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 93 consecutive pregnant women with hypothyroidism who were followed at Herlev Hospital in 2012. The thyroid function was evaluated upon confirmation of pregnancy and thereafter every fourth week. The aim of the treatment was a concentration of serum thyroid...... with a normal thyroid function. We recommend increased attention and monitoring of fertile women with hypothyroidism who are planning pregnancy. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02094079....

  3. Live birth rates following in vitro fertilization in women with thyroid autoimmunity and/or subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Joyce; Yeung, Wing-Yee T; Lee, Chi-Yan V; Li, Hang-Wun R; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Hung-Yu E

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether the live birth rate following in vitro fertilization (IVF) is affected by thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and/or subclinical hypothyroidism in subfertile women. Retrospective study in a university infertility clinic. A total of 627 women without past or current history of thyroid disorder undergoing their first IVF cycle. Pre-IVF archived blood serum samples were tested for TAI and thyroid function tests. Live birth rate. The clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate and miscarriage rate were similar among women with or without TAI and/or subclinical hypothyroidism using a TSH threshold 4·5 mIU/l. Thyroid autoantibody level did not affect these IVF outcomes. The live birth rate and miscarriage rate of women with TAI and/or subclinical hypothyroidism following IVF were not impaired. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Thyroid stimulating hormone and cognition during severe, transient hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraml, Frank V; Goslar, Pamela W; Baxter, Leslie; Beason-Held, Lori L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our pilot study was to explore the relationship between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels during overt hypothyroidism (OH) and hypothyroid-related neuropsychological symptoms. We hypothesized that TSH level may reflect the degree of 'brain hypothyroidism' such that an inverse correlation may exist between serum TSH and cognitive function in patients experiencing overt hypothyroidism (OH), and sought to explore this hypothesis. Eleven thyroidectomized patients underwent neuropsychological and thyroid function testing while overtly hypothyroid, and again following thyroid hormone replacement. Their test performance was compared with that of eleven healthy controls at a similarly separated two points in time, and the change over time for the patient group and the controls was likewise assessed and compared. The patients' neuropsychological test scores were then correlated with their serum TSH levels while hypothyroid. The patients' performance while hypothyroid was worse than that of the controls in only one neurocognitive measure--Working Memory Index. The subjects improved similarly or to a greater degree than the controls, when the subjects were thyroid hormone replaced, on all but one neurocognitive measure - Thurstone Word Fluency. TSH level during hypothyroidism was inversely proportional to the patients' performance on these same two measures, but no others. Serum TSH level during hypothyroidism was inversely proportional to performance on the only two neurocognitive measures evidencing an adverse effect from hypothyroidism in our cohort. This suggests that serum TSH level may reflect the severity of 'brain hypothyroidism' during the overt stage of this condition.

  5. Overt hypothyroidism with rhabdomyolysis and myopathy: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUO Hsu-tung; JENG Chii-yuan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Muscle involvement in adults with hypothyroidism is common.At least 79% of patients with hypothyroidism have muscle weakness,cramps,and myalgia complaints~1.The patients with hypothyroidism do have myopathy rather than functional muscle diseases~2.Nonspecific muscle stiffness related to myalgia may be associated with serum muscle enzyme elevations.Serum creatine kinase (CK) elevation can be observed in 57%-90% of patients with hypothyroidism.Skeletal muscle is affected more profoundly in cases of overt hypothyroidism,less so when subclinical hypothyroidism is present~1.However,clinical muscular symptoms are not usually the chief complaint at presentation.More than 40% of patients with hypothyroidism also had neuromuscular complaints at the time of diagnosis~2.

  6. Doctor Pan Cures the Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    THE Pan Danian Clinic. located in the Puhui Residential Area in western Beijing, is small but attracts countless patients. It is specific for those suffering from hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Doctor Pan is gentle and refined, and often smiles with closed lips.

  7. NEOCORTICAL HYPERTROPHY FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential to the normal development of the brain. Although severe congenital hypothyroidism has long been associated with mental retardation and motor defects, it has only recently been established that even subtle decreases in maternal TH alter fetal br...

  8. NEOCORTICAL HYPERTROPHY FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential to the normal development of the brain. Although severe congenital hypothyroidism has long been associated with mental retardation and motor defects, it has only recently been established that even subtle decreases in maternal TH alter fetal br...

  9. Hypothyroidism compromises hypothalamic leptin signaling in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Groba (Claudia); S. Mayerl (Steffen); A.A.A. van Mullem (Alies); T.J. Visser (Theo); V.M. Darras (Veerle); A.J. Habenicht (Andreas); H. Heuer (Heike)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe impact of thyroid hormone (TH) on metabolism and energy expenditure is well established, but the role of TH in regulating nutritional sensing, particularly in the central nervous system, is only poorly defined. Here, we studied the consequences of hypothyroidism on leptin production

  10. Hypothyroidism compromises hypothalamic leptin signaling in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Groba (Claudia); S. Mayerl (Steffen); A.A.A. van Mullem (Alies); T.J. Visser (Theo); V.M. Darras (Veerle); A.J. Habenicht (Andreas); H. Heuer (Heike)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe impact of thyroid hormone (TH) on metabolism and energy expenditure is well established, but the role of TH in regulating nutritional sensing, particularly in the central nervous system, is only poorly defined. Here, we studied the consequences of hypothyroidism on leptin production

  11. Pregnancy outcomes in women with severe hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Dania; Levy, Sigal; Nadler, Varda; Kopel, Vered; Shainberg, Bracha; Toledano, Yoel

    2013-09-01

    Hypothyroidism during pregnancy has been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Most studies have focused on subjects with a mild or subclinical disorder. The aims of the present study were to determine the relative rate of severe thyroid dysfunction among pregnant women with hypothyroidism, identify related factors and analyse the impact on pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective case series design was employed. The study group included 101 pregnant women (103 pregnancies) with an antenatal serum TSH level >20.0 mIU/l identified from the 2009-2010 computerised database of a health maintenance organisation. Data were collected from the medical records. Pregnancy outcomes were compared with those of a control group of 205 euthyroid pregnant women during the same period. The study group accounted for 1.04% of all insured pregnant women with recorded hypothyroidism during the study period. Most cases had an autoimmune aetiology. All women were treated with levothyroxine (L-T₄) during pregnancy. Maximum serum TSH level measured was 20.11-150 mIU/l (median 32.95 mIU/l) and median serum TSH level 0.36-75.17 mIU/l (median 7.44 mIU/l). The mean duration of hypothyroidism during pregnancy was 21.2 ± 13.2 weeks (median 18.5 weeks); in 36 cases (34.9%), all TSH levels during pregnancy were elevated. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included abortions in 7.8% of the cases, premature deliveries in 2.9% and other complications in 14.6%, with no statistically significant differences from the control group. Median serum TSH level during pregnancy was positively correlated with the rate of abortions+premature deliveries and rate of all pregnancy-related complications (Pwomen with severe hypothyroidism. Intense follow-up and L-T₄ treatment may improve pregnancy outcomes even when target TSH levels are not reached.

  12. Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema in a Dog Following Initiation of Therapy for Concurrent Hypoadrenocorticism and Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Jooyae; Kang, Ji-Houn; Chang, Dongwoo; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    A 5 yr old intact female cocker spaniel dog weighing 7.8 kg was referred with anorexia, vomiting, and depression. At referral, the dog was diagnosed initially with typical hypoadrenocorticism, and 2 d later, concurrent primary hypothyroidism was detected. Hormonal replacement therapies, including fludrocortisone, prednisolone, and levothyroxine, were initiated, but a few days later the dog became abruptly tachypneic, and thoracic radiographs indicated the development of pulmonary edema. Echocardiography showed that there were abnormalities indicating impaired left ventricular function, although the heart valves were normal. Following treatment with pimobendan and furosemide, the pulmonary edema resolved. The dog had no recurrence of the clinical signs after 10 mo of follow-up, despite being off all cardiac medications; consequently, the cardiac failure was transient or reversible in this dog. The case report describes the stepwise diagnosis and successful treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema after initiation of hormonal replacement therapy for concurrent hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism in a dog.

  13. The prevalence of hypothyroidism after treatment for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas : are autoantibodies of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo Galbo, Annalisa M.; De Bree, Remco; Kuik, Dirk J.; Lips, Paul Th. A. M.; Von Blomberg, B. Mary E.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. Rene

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions. The incidence rate of hypothyroidism after treatment for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer is high, especially after combination treatment. An association between hypothyroidism and autoantibodies was found. Objectives. The incidences of hypothyroidism and autoantibodies were assessed

  14. Lipid profile alterations and fasting blood glucose levels in primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maram Sushma

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: Hypothyroid patients demonstrate significant increase in serum lipids as compared to healthy individuals. More females are diagnosed with hypothyroidism and dyslipidemia is associated with primary hypothyroidism. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1694-1698

  15. Increased psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormones are necessary for fetal brain development, while hypothyroidism in adults has been associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. Nevertheless, our knowledge regarding the association and temporal relation between hypothyroidism and mental disorders...... is ambiguous. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism is associated with psychiatric morbidity. Methods: Observational cohort study. Based on record-linkage between different Danish health registers, 2822 hypothyroid singletons each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid...... controls were identified and followed over a mean period of 6 years (range 1-13). Additionally, we included 385 same sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders as well as treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotics and anxiolytics were recorded. Logistic and cox...

  16. EVALUATION OF SERUM CREATINE KINASE LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Nanjundasetty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid disorders are common endocrine disorders. Thyroid function tests which are usually done are measurement of blood levels of hormones Triiodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, which are affected by various nonspecific conditions. Therefore, the present study is done to evaluate the role of additional biochemical parameter Creatine Kinase (CK in diagnosing hypothyroidism. Thyroid function and Creatine Kinase activity was measured in 70 patients with clinically suspected cases of hypothyroidism. Patients with hypothyroidism will have decreased T3, T4 levels and increased levels of TSH. However, whether there is any correlation of Creatine Kinase with hypothyroidism is not well established. In our study, we found that in hypothyroid patients there is significant increase in CK levels. Measurement of CK levels is an additional biochemical parameter to diagnose hypothyroidism

  17. Heart rate variability indicators in patients with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Moldabek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of examined patients with hypothyroidism. The examination was performed using computer diagnosis complex “Omega-M” intended for the analysis of biological rhythms. It is concluded that 85.7± 5.4% of patients with hypothyroidism were indicated with sympathetic predominance of VNS. Analysis has revealed increased tension index indicators in patients with hypothyroidism that indicates on dysfunction of the cardiovascular system

  18. Gender differences in symptoms of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    = 140) and controls free of thyroid disease (n = 560) recruited from the same population participated in a population-based study of The Danish Investigation of Iodine Intake and Thyroid Diseases (DanThyr). Participants underwent a comprehensive programme including blood tests and completion...... of questionnaires. The gender-specific distribution of 13 hypothyroidism-associated symptoms and a simple combined score (0-13) was explored in conditional uni- and multivariate models taking into account a broad spectrum of possible confounders. Diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated as measures...... and shortness of breath. In contrast, women free of thyroid disease self-reported at least one hypothyroidism-associated symptom considerably more often than men (73·7% vs 51·1%, P

  19. Permanent post-partum hypothyroidism. Seven cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houdent, C.; Pellenc, P.; Carrara Balacheff, O.; Kuhn, J.M.; Leclerc, P.; Wolf, L.M. (CHU de Rouen, Hopital de Boisguillaume, 76 (France)); Cavelier, B. (Centre de Transfusion Sanguine, 76 - Boisguillaume (France))

    1985-02-09

    Seven cases of hypothyroidism developed within 6 months of delivery are reported. Radioimmunoassays regularly showed very low thyroxin levels and high thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, thus confirming that the thyroid deficiency was of peripheral origin. A significant rise in antimicrosomial or antithyroglobulin antibodies was noted in 5 cases. One patient had HLA-B8 and 4 had HLA-DR3, which was not significantly different from the prevalence in the regional population. In contrast with the transient post-partum hypothyroidism reported mainly in Japan, the condition proved to be permanent in 6 patients followed up for more than two years. The increased frequency of HLA-DR3 and 5 recently described in thyroiditis with transient post-partum thyrotoxicosis was not found in our series. It would appear that pregnancy, which is a period of immune incompetence, may disclose a latent lymphocytic thyroiditis.

  20. Undiagnosed hypothyroidism presenting with sigmoid volvulus

    OpenAIRE

    Meytes, Vadim; Schulberg, Steven P.; Morin, Nicholas; Glinik, Galina

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of hypothyroidism presenting with sigmoid volvulus, a phenomenon known as myxedema pseudovolvulus, is exceedingly rare. A male in his late thirties presented to our institution with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. The patient underwent CT scan, which was consistent with massive colonic dilatation with sigmoid volvulus. He was taken to the operating room for exploration and was found to have sigmoid volvulus and underwent a segmental resection. Postoperatively, the patient w...

  1. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH.......05). These changes were qualitatively similar but quantitatively less pronounced than in 15 women with overt hypothyroidism, also studied. Taking the two groups together (n = 31), pretreatment thyroid function (expressed as either TSH or free T(4) estimate) correlated to CO and SVR as well as the changes induced...... by LT(4) (p hypothyroidism should...

  2. Acute mania after thyroxin supplementation in hypothyroid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature variedly ascribes depressive and manic symptoms to hypo- and hyperthyroid state, respectively, reporting mania in hypothyroidism as an unusual entity. More unusual is precipitation of manic state in hypothyroid subjects after thyroxine supplementation for which studies report otherwise treating manic symptoms in hypothyroid state with thyroxine. We report a case of a patient whose acute mania appears to have been precipitated by thyroxine supplementation in hypothyroidism state. This case underscores the importance of thyroid screening in patients with mood and psychotic disorders, as well as the potency of thyroxine in producing manic symptoms.

  3. Perioperative management of patients with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathatos, Nikolaos; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2003-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disorder affecting the cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, and renal organ systems--each of which is particularly germane in the management of the surgical patient. In general, treatment of recognized hypothyroidism is recommended before any surgical procedure whenever possible and euthyroidism should be documented by measurement of serum TSH as part of the preoperative evaluation. Such a strategy is likely to result in better surgical outcomes with improved morbidity and mortality. One exception to treating first with thyroid hormone is the patient with angina or coronary artery disease requiring bypass grafting, angioplasty or stenting. In this setting, preoperative thyroid hormone therapy could tax the ischemic myocardium. The coronary blood flow should be addressed first, and thyroid hormone therapy initiated afterwards. The authors have emphasized the need for caution in the interpretation of low serum thyroid hormones in sick or surgical patients because of the importance of distinguishing between hypothyroidism and the "euthyroid sick syndrome." There is no clear evidence at this point to support thyroid hormone replacement in the latter patients, and it may be potentially harmful. Rather, we hold that T3 treatment of various surgical and other patients with nonthyroidal illness should be deferred until proof of its therapeutic efficacy is demonstrated.

  4. Antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Oliveira, Kelen Carneiro; de Carvalho Melo, Maria Clara; Kasamatsu, Tereza Sayoko; de Barros Maciel, Rui Monteiro; de Souza, Janaina Sena; Giannocco, Gisele

    2016-04-01

    Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure indicated in cases of several maligned or benign thyroid diseases, thus, the aim of our study was to verify how the hypothyroidism induced by thyroidectomy influences behavioral parameters and its relation to thyroid hormones metabolism and neurogenesis at hippocampus. For this purpose, Adult male Wistar rats underwent to thyroidectomy to induce hypothyroidism. Behavioral tests, the thyroid profile and hippocampal gene expression were evaluated in control and in thyroidectomized animals. It was observed that thyroidectomized group had a significant increasing in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a decreasing in thyroxine (T4) levels as well as in triiodothyronine (T3) serum level. It was also observed reduction of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8), thyroid hormone receptor alfa (Trα1), deiodinase type 2 (Dio2), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (Enpp2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) mRNA expression in hippocampus of thyroidectomized animals. In the forced swimming test, it was verified that thyroidectomy promotes a decrease in time of immobility and climbing when compared with the control group. In summary, we demonstrated that antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism. This effect could be associated to an impaired neuronal activity in acute stress response as it is observed in forced swimming paradigm.

  5. Five-year follow-up for women with subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Beverley M; Knight, Bridget A; Hill, Anita V; Hattersley, Andrew T; Vaidya, Bijay

    2013-12-01

    Increasing numbers of women are being treated with l-thyroxine in pregnancy for mild thyroid dysfunction because of its association with impaired neuropsychological development in their offspring and other adverse obstetric outcomes. However, there are limited data to indicate whether treatment should be continued outside of pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism and maternal hypothyroxinemia resolve postdelivery. A total of 523 pregnant healthy women with no known thyroid disorders were recruited during routine antenatal care and provided blood samples at 28 weeks of pregnancy and at a mean of 4.9 years postpregnancy. TSH, free T₄, free T₃, and thyroid peroxidase antibody levels were measured in serum taken in pregnancy and at follow-up. Subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy (TSH >3 mIU/L) was present in 65 of 523 (12.4%) women. Of these, 49 (75.4%) women had normal thyroid function postpregnancy; 16 of 65 (24.6%) had persistent high TSH (TSH >4.5 mIU/L postpregnancy) with 3 women receiving l-thyroxine treatment. A total of 44 of 523 (8.4%) women had isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia in pregnancy (free T₄ 4.5 mIU/L outside pregnancy. Of the women with subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy with antibody measurements available, those with thyroid peroxidase antibodies in pregnancy were more likely to have persistently elevated TSH or be receiving l-thyroxine replacement after pregnancy (6 of 7 [86%] vs 10 of 57 [18%], P hypothyroidism in pregnancy are transient, so treatment with l-thyroxine in these patients should be reviewed because it may not be warranted after pregnancy.

  6. Effects of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF in rat pups: Beneficial effects of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Seyed Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Hypothyroidism during early development leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in developing brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF levels in both hypothyroid male and female rat pups. To induce hypothyroidism in the mothers, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was added to their drinking water (100mg/L) from their embryonic day 6 to their postnatal day (PND) 21. For 14days, from PNDs 31 to 44, the rat pups were trained with one of the two different exercise protocols, namely the mild treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise. On PNDs 45-52, a water maze was used for testing their learning and memory ability. The rats were sacrificed one day later and their BDNF levels were then measured in the hippocampus. The findings of the present study indicate that hypothyroidism during the fetal period and the early postnatal period is associated with the impairment of spatial learning and memory and reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in both male and female rat offspring. Both the short-term treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise performed during the postnatal period reverse the behavioral and neurochemical deficits induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency in both male and female rat offspring. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a marked reversibility of both behavioral and neurochemical disorders induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency through the performance of exercise.

  7. Pituitary function and morphology in dogs with primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz Espineira, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have effect on almost every organ system in the body. This explains the wide range of clinical manifestations of primary hypothyroidism in dogs. The signs and symptoms are often nonspecific and the disease onset is insidious. It may therefore take a long time before hypothyroidism i

  8. [Should subclinical hypothyroidism in older persons be treated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, W.P. den; Smit, J.W.A.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Gussekloo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in older persons. Clinical guidelines are inconsistent in providing recommendations for the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, especially in older persons. To date, there is no high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials about the effe

  9. How to Give TCM Differential Treatment for Hypothyroidism?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Chunxiang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Hypothyroidism is a disease with a series of decreases in metabolism induced by decrease in thyroid hormonogenesis or decreased sensitivity of peripheral tissues to the thyroid hormone.Since thyroid hormone plays a very important role in growth,development and in the course of tissue oxidation of the human body,hypothyroidism may show varying pathophysiological clinical manifestations in patients of difterent ages.

  10. Pleiotropic Effects of Thyroid Hormones: Learning from Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Franco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism induces several metabolic changes that allow understanding some physiopathological mechanisms. Under experimental hypothyroid conditions in rats, heart and kidney are protected against oxidative damage induced by ischemia reperfusion. An increased resistance to opening of the permeability transition pore seems to be at the basis of such protection. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate of hypothyroid kidney is low as a result of adenosine receptors-induced renal vasoconstriction. The vascular tone of aorta is also regulated by adenosine in hypothyroid conditions. In other context, thyroid hormones regulate lipoprotein metabolism. High plasma level of LDL cholesterol is a common feature in hypothyroidism, due to a low expression of the hepatic LDL receptor. In contrast, HDL-cholesterol plasma levels are variable in hypothyroidism; several proteins involved in HDL metabolism and structure are expressed at lower levels in experimental hypothyroidism. Based on the positive influence of thyroid hormones on lipoprotein metabolism, thyromimetic drugs are promising for the treatment of dyslipidemias. In summary, hypothyroid status has been useful to understand molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia reperfusion, regulation of vascular function and intravascular metabolism of lipoproteins.

  11. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Associated with Severe Hypothyroidism in an Elderly Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes-Salazar, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as stress cardiomyopathy, is a syndrome that affects predominantly postmenopausal women. Despite multiple described mechanisms, intense, neuroadrenergic myocardial stimulation appears to be the main trigger. Hyperthyroidism, but rarely hypothyroidism, has been described in association with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Herein, we present a case of stress cardiomyopathy in the setting of symptomatic hypothyroidism. PMID:27512537

  12. High radio-isotope uptakes in patients with hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, J.; Kalk, W.J.; Ganda, C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine)

    1982-12-04

    Hypothyroidism is usually associated with a low radio-isotope uptake by the thyriod gland. We report 8 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with clinical and biochemical hypothyroidism and with borderline high or overtly increased technetium-99m pertechnetate and/or iodine-131 uptakes.

  13. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with severe hypothyroidism in an elderly female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Brenes-Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as stress cardiomyopathy, is a syndrome that affects predominantly postmenopausal women. Despite multiple described mechanisms, intense, neuroadrenergic myocardial stimulation appears to be the main trigger. Hyperthyroidism, but rarely hypothyroidism, has been described in association with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Herein, we present a case of stress cardiomyopathy in the setting of symptomatic hypothyroidism.

  14. Hypothyroid Symptoms Fail to Predict Thyroid Insufficiency in Old People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    at disease onset were 6.2, 5.0, and 3.6 at the ages of 0 to 49 years, 50 to 59 years, and 60+ years, respectively. In young versus old people with 0 to 1 symptoms, the odds ratio for being hypothyroid was 0.04 (95% CI, 0.007-0.18) versus 0.34 (95% CI, 0.15-0.78) (reference all other groups). In young versus......). Participants filled out questionnaires concerning the presence and duration of symptoms. We compared the usefulness of hypothyroidism-associated symptoms in predicting overt hypothyroidism in different age groups (young: old: ≥60 years) also taking various confounders...... into account. RESULTS: In young hypothyroid patients, all 13 hypothyroidism-associated symptoms studied were more prevalent than in their matched controls, whereas only 3 of those (tiredness, shortness of breath, and wheezing) were more prevalent in old patients. The mean numbers of symptoms presented...

  15. [Risk factors for renal dysfunction in patients with hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didushko, O M

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In order to study the features of kidney function in patients with hypothyroidism, examined 84 patients with primary hypothyroidism. Of the patients 46 patients had postoperative hypothyroidism in 38--hypothyroidism is autoimmune thyroiditis in the background (AIT). According to our results, in patients with manifest hypothyroidism is present renal dysfunction, which is manifested by increased serum creatinine and a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR),the development and progression of which contributes to the presence of risk factors in patients--hyperlipidemia, excessive body weight and abdominal obesity, which is a pronounced in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Stated that more meaningful indicators of dyslipidemia associated with major manifestations of abdominal obesity as defined by waist circumference (OT) ((96.58 ± 1.70) and (98.73 ± 3.35) cm) and higher body mass index (BMI).

  16. Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant D Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered gastrointestinal (GI motility is seen in many pathological conditions. Reduced motility is one of the risk factors for development of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. Hypothyroidism is associated with altered GI motility. The aim of this article was to study the link between hypothyroidism, altered GI motility and development of SIBO. Published literature was reviewed to study the association of altered GI motility, SIBO and hypothyroidism. Altered GI motility leads to SIBO. SIBO is common in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with chronic GI symptoms in hypothyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of SIBO. Both antibiotics and probiotics have been studied and found to be effective in management of SIBO.

  17. Canine hypothyroidism: a review of aetiology and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, C T

    2011-05-01

    Hypothyroidism is recognised as an important endocrine disorder of dogs, and a frequent differential for numerous presenting complaints. Its diagnosis has never been straight forward as results suggestive of hypothyroidism can occur for a variety of reasons in dogs with normal thyroid function (euthyroid). As a consequence, the accurate investigation of hypothyroidism has been hindered by the potential inclusion of a number of cases not truly hypothyroid. In recent years, the development of newer diagnostic tests, e.g. free thyroxine, canine thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin autoantibodies, has significantly improved our ability to reliably differentiate hypothyroidism from other clinically similar disorders. This has led to a marked increase in our knowledge of the phenotypic, genotypic and aetiological aspects of this disorder in dogs.

  18. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenta, Gabriela; Vaisman, Mario; Sgarbi, José Augusto; Bergoglio, Liliana Maria; Andrada, Nathalia Carvalho de; Bravo, Pedro Pineda; Orlandi, Ana Maria; Graf, Hans

    2013-06-01

    Hypothyroidism has long been known for its effects on different organ systems, leading to hypometabolism. However, subclinical hypothyroidism, its most prevalent form, has been recently related to cardiovascular risk and also to maternal-fetal complications in pregnant women. In these clinical practice guidelines, several aspects of this field have been discussed with the clear objectives of helping physicians treat patients with hypothyroidism, and of sharing some of our Latin American-based clinical experience. The Latin American Thyroid Society commissioned a Task Force on Hypothyroidism to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines on hypothyroidism. A systematic review of the available literature, focused on the primary databases of MedLine/PubMed and Lilacs/SciELO was performed. Filters to assess methodological quality were applied to select the best quality studies. The strength of recommendation on a scale from A-D was based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence--based Medicine, Levels of Evidence 2009, allowing an unbiased opinion devoid of subjective viewpoints. The areas of interest for the studies comprised diagnosis, screening, treatment and a special section for hypothyroidism in pregnancy. Several questions based on diagnosis, screening, treatment of hypothyroidism in adult population and specifically in pregnant women were posed. Twenty six recommendations were created based on the answers to these questions. Despite the fact that evidence in some areas of hypothyroidism, such as therapy, is lacking, out of 279 references, 73% were Grade A and B, 8% Grade C and 19% Grade D. These evidence-based clinical guidelines on hypothyroidism will provide unified criteria for management of hypothyroidism throughout Latin America. Although most of the studies referred to are from all over the world, the point of view of thyroidologists from Latin America is also given.

  19. Subclinical hypothyroidism causing hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramtahal, Rishi; Dhanoo, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    This is a case of a 25-year-old primigravida who was referred to the hypertension specialist for elevated blood pressures. The patient had an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal free thyroxine (T4) levels and was positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies resulting in a diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. The patient was successfully treated with levothyroxine which normalized the blood pressure without the need for antihypertensive treatment. This case illustrates a cause of secondary hypertension that is not always considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with hypertension in pregnancy.

  20. Effect of hypothyroidism on female reproductive hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Saran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective was to evaluate reproductive hormones levels in hypothyroid women and impact of treatment on their levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 59 women with untreated primary hypothyroidism were included in this prospective study. Venous blood was taken at baseline and after euthyroidism was achieved for measuring serum free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine (FT3, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin (PRL, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, and thyroid peroxidase antibody. Thirty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any hormonal disturbances served as controls. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 20 ([SPSS] IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: On an average at diagnosis cases have more serum TSH (mean[M] = 77.85; standard error [SE] = 11.72, PRL (M = 39.65; SE = 4.13 and less serum E2(M = 50.00; SE = 2.25 and T (M = 35.40; SE = 2.31 than after achieving euthyroidism (M = 1.74; SE = 0.73, (M = 16.04; SE = 0.84, (M = 76.25; SE = 2.60, and (M = 40.29; SE = 2.27, respectively. This difference was statistically significant t(58 = 6.48, P <0.05; t(58 = 6.49, P < 0.05; t(58 = 12.47; P <0.05; and t(58 = 2.04, P <0.05; respectively. Although average serum FSH(M = 12.14; SE = 0.40 and LH (M = 5.89; SE = 0.27 were lower in cases at diagnosis than after achieving euthyroidism (M = 12.70; SE = 0.40,(M = 6.22; SE = 0.25, respectively, but these differences were statistically insignificant t(58 = 1.61, P = 0.11; t(58 = 1.11, P = 0.27, respectively. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated low E2 and T levels in hypothyroid women which were increased after achieving euthyroidism. Although average serum FSH and LH were increased in hypothyroid women after achieving euthyroidism but this difference was statistically insignificant.

  1. Is There Any Effect on Smell and Taste Functions with Levothyroxine Treatment in Subclinical Hypothyroidism?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Baskoy; Seyid Ahmet Ay; Aytug Altundag; Onuralp Kurt; Murat Salihoglu; Ferhat Deniz; Hakan Tekeli; Arif Yonem; Thomas Hummel

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has been accused for coronary heart disease, lipid metabolism disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, infertility or pregnancy related problems with various strength of evidence. Currently there is insufficient knowledge about olfaction and taste functions in subclinical hypothyroidism. Aim of the present study is to investigate the degree of smell and taste dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. 28 subclinical hypothyroid patients, and 31 controls ...

  2. Hypoparathyroidism and Subclinical Hypothyroidism with Secondary Hemochromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Ki Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemochromatosis is an inherited genetic disorder of iron metabolism which can also occur as a secondary result of iron-overload. It leads to organ damage such as cardiomyopathy, liver cirrhosis, hypogonadism, and diabetes. This paper discusses a case of secondary hemochromatosis associated with repeated transfusions, presenting as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with multiple organ involvement. The 29-year-old female, who had severe aplastic anemia, received multiple transfusions totaling approximately 1,400 units of red blood cells over 15 years. During her routine laboratory examination, hypocalcemia was detected with decreased intact parathyroid hormone and increased thyroid stimulating hormone. Serum ferritin, iron, and total iron binding capacity had increased to 27,583.03 ng/mL, 291 µg/dL, and 389 µg/dL, respectively. She had unusually bronze skin and computed tomography revealed iron deposition in the thyroid, liver, and heart. Multiorgan involvement as seen in this case is rare in hemochromatosis associated with secondary transfusions. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first case report in Korea of hypoparathyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism due to iron deposition in the parathyroid and thyroid gland.

  3. Clinical aspects of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid screening in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Roberto; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the peer-reviewed literature on hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid autoimmunity in pregnancy. We review published studies on thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction in pregnancy, the impact of thyroid disease on pregnancy, and discuss implications for screening. Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are responsible for adverse obstetric and neonatal events. Several studies of association suggest that either subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity increase the risk of complications. One randomized controlled trial showed that pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism benefit from treatment in terms of obstetric and neonatal complications, whereas another study demonstrated no benefit in the intelligence quotient of babies born to women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid autoimmunity has been associated with increased rate of pregnancy loss, recurrent miscarriage, and preterm delivery. Current guidelines agree that overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism need to be promptly treated and that as potential benefits outweigh potential harm, subclinical hypothyroidism also requires substitutive treatment. The chance that women with thyroid autoimmunity may benefit from levothyroxine treatment to improve obstetric outcome is intriguing, but adequately powered randomized controlled trials are needed. The issue of universal thyroid screening at the beginning of pregnancy is still a matter of debate, and aggressive case-finding is supported.

  4. Pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade in a dog with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ojeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between hypothyroidism and cardiovascular diseases in dogs is frequently associated with clinical signs like sinusal bradicardia, myocardial alterations and ECG findings such as low voltage QRS and inverted T wave. Echocardiographic studies in hypothyroid dogs have not identified pericardial effusion. Hypothyroidism in human patients is a well-known cause of pericardial effusion, but cardiac tamponade is not a frequent clinical sign. A Golden Retriever was presented with a clinical history of progressive lethargy, exercise intolerance, cold intolerance and increased respiratory effort for 3 weeks. At the clinical examination the dog presented dyspnea, muffled heart sound and hypertension. Echocardiography showed fluid in the pericardial sac and cardiac tamponade and pericardiocentesis was performed. Analyses of the fluid showed a non-neoplastic etiology. The information given by the owners, the alopecia zones detected in tail and abdomen and the clinical response, led to analise the thyroid hormones, and hypothyroidism was confirmed. Following two pericardiocentesis and levothyroxine supplementation, the effusion resolved. Although the etiology of pericardial effusion was not clear, it is possible that the pericardial effusion had been caused by hypothyroidism or the dog had idiophatic pericardial effusion and coincidental hypothyroidism. However, according to the clinical signs and the evolution of the dog, an evaluation of thyroid hormones in dogs with pericardial effusion must be considered even though pericardial effusion is a non-described sign in canine hypothyroidism.

  5. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

    1997-01-01

    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH.

  6. Two logistic models for the prediction of hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, Anthony U; Ejim, Emmanuel C; Onodugo, Obinna D; Ezugwu, Francis O; Eze, Matthew I; Nkwo, Peter O; Ugbajah, Winston C

    2011-06-18

    The mounting evidence linking hypothyroidism during pregnancy with poor pregnancy outcome underscores the need for screening and, therefore, a search for more reliable and cheaper screening methods. The study was conducted in two phases. The phase one study comprised of healthy women in different stages of pregnancy who attended routine antenatal clinic at St Theresa's Maternity Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria from September 6 to October 18 1994. In this study the variables compared between the hypothyroid and non-hypothyroid pregnant women were maternal age, the number of the pregnancy or gravidity, gestational age, social class, body weight, height, the clinically assessed size of the thyroid gland, serum free thyroxin (FT4) and serum thyrotrophin (TSH). Based on the parameter differences between the two comparison groups of pregnant women two Logistic models, Model I and Model 11, were derived to differentiate the hypothyroid group from their non-hypothyroid counterparts. The two logistic models were then applied in a prospective validation study involving 197 pregnant women seen at presentation in Mother of Christ Specialist Hospital and Maternity, Ogui Road, Enugu from March 2002 to November 2007 The findings were that 82 (50.3%) of the 163 pregnant women had thyroid gland enlargement while 60 (36.8%) had hypothyroidism as defined by FT4 values below and/or TSH above their laboratory reference ranges. The pregnant subjects with hypothyroidism, compared with their non-hypothyroid counterparts, were characterized by a higher gravidity (p hypothyroidism during pregnancy. There is, however, a need for further independent confirmation of these findings.

  7. Investigation of the choroidal thickness in patients with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ulas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effect of hypothyroidism on the choroidal thickness (CT was investigated in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism, and biochemically and clinically euthyroid patients receiving levothyroxine treatment. The patients were compared with healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: One eye of 71 hypothyroid and 22 healthy subjects between 20 and 40 years of age were included in this study. CT measurements were taken at the fovea and at 2 points that were 1500 μm nasal and temporal to the fovea using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Independent sample t-test′s and was used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: The CT was significantly thicker in hypothyroid patients compared to healthy subjects (P values were 0.013 for subfoveal, 0.015 for temporal and 0.020 for nasal segments. The intraocular pressure (IOP and body mass index (BMI were also significantly higher in hypothyroid patients (P values were 0.021 and 0.003, respectively. There was not a statistically significant difference in the BMI and IOP measurements between healthy subjects and euthyroid patients (P > 0.05. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the subfoveal, temporal and nasal CT measurements between healthy subjects and euthyroid patients (P values were 0.006, 0.031 and 0.013, respectively. Conclusions: All subgroups of hypothyroid patients had thicker CT compared to healthy subjects. Euthyroid patients receiving levothyroxine treatment had lower IOP, BMI levels, and serum lipid levels than patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism.

  8. The beneficial effects of olibanum on memory deficit induced by hypothyroidism in adult rats tested in Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hadjzadeh, Mosa Al-Reza; Derakhshan, Mohammad; Havakhah, Shahrzad; Rassouli, Fatemeh Behnam; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Saffarzadeh, Fatema

    2010-03-01

    Functional consequences of hypothyroidism include impaired learning and memory and inability to produce long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus. Olibanum has been used for variety of therapeutic purposes. In traditional medicine, oilbanum is used to enhance learning and memory. In the present study the effect of olibanum on memory deficit in hypothyroid rats was investigated. Male wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated for 180 days. Group 1 received tap drinking water while in group 2, 0.03% methimazol was added to drinking water. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 0.03% methimazole as well as 100 and 500 mg/kg olibanum respectively. The animals were tested in Morris water maze. The swimming speed was significantly lower and the distance and time latency were higher in group 2 compared with group 1. In groups 3 and 4 the swimming speed was significantly higher while, the length of the swim path and time latency were significantly lower in comparison with group 2. It is concluded that methimazole-induced hypothyroidism impairs learning and memory in adult rats which could be prevented by using olibanum.

  9. Concomitant Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, presenting as primary hypothyroidism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Hypothyroidism in patients with Graves\\' disease is usually the result of ablative treatment. We describe a 58 year old man with Graves\\' ophthalmopathy and pre-tibial myxoedema, who presented with spontaneous primary hypothyroidism. Circulating TSH receptor antibody activity was increased, while thyroid microsomal antibody was detectable in titres greater than one in one hundred thousand. It is likely that the TSH receptor antibody of Graves\\' disease was ineffective in stimulating hyperthyroidism because of concomitant thyroid destruction due to Hashimoto\\'s disease. Alternatively, primary hypothyroidism could have resulted from the effects of a circulating TSH receptor blocking antibody.

  10. [Thalidomide-associated hypothyroidism in a patient with multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Ikue; Ikeda, Takashi; Sato, Ken; Kimura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    Thalidomide is highly effective against multiple myeloma, but some patients must discontinue this medication due to adverse effects. We present herein an instructive case report on thalidomide-associated hypothyroidism in a patient with multiple myeloma. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy allowed us to restart administration of thalidomide, a potentially life-saving therapy. Known adverse effects of thalidomide, such as lethargy, constipation, and bradycardia, are potential symptoms of hypothyroidism, but we tend to overlook drug-associated hypothyroidism. Our case highlights the importance of routinely testing thyroid function in patients receiving thalidomide therapy.

  11. [Myocardial contractility and hemodynamics in hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivonenko, V G

    1977-01-01

    The author determined the phasic structure of the systole of the left ventricle by the method of polycardiography and hemodynamics in 20 patients suffering from hypothyrodism. Blood plasma and erythrocyte electrolytes were examined at the same time. Patients with hypothyroidism displayed a phasic syndrome of hypodynamia and a marked correlation between the phase of the synchronous contraction, the period of ejection, the strength of contraction of the left ventricle and the electrolyte content. Sodium and magnesium produced the greatest influence on the phasic structure of the systole; potassium and calcium had a lesser effect. The heart stroke volume diminished; as to the cardiac index, expenditure of the energy of cardiac contractions directed to the maintenance of movement of 1 litre of the minute blood volume; the external work, and the peripheral vascular resistance displayed no significant change.

  12. [Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, A; Loera-Luna, A; Aguirre, B E; Gamboa, S; Vargas, H; Robles, C

    1994-01-01

    A newborn screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and phenylketonuria (PKU) was conducted in 140 163 infants from the Federal District and the states of Mexico and Tlaxcala. These children were born mainly in hospitals for the non-insured population, although some were social security beneficiaries. Their filter-paper blood TSH and phenylalanine concentrations were determined 48 hours after birth. The frequency of CH was 1:1 797, with a 95 per cent confidence interval of 1:1 470 to 1:2 315, and was quite similar in the different types of hospitals. Only two PKU cases were found, for a frequency of 1:70 082, with a 95 per cent confidence interval of 0 to 1:4 762. This work demonstrates the feasibility of newborn screening programs in Mexico, identifies the problems to be solved in order to achieve a wide coverage and establishes the high frequency of CH in the Mexican population.

  13. Is subclinical hypothyroidism increasing exogen obesity in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuna Kirsaclioglu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion:.Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test may be helpful to determine subclinical hypothyroidism in exogen obese children, if basal TSH levels were elevated. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 1-7

  14. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and T99mc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  15. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed El Kholy

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... In children with subclinical hypothyroidism, The American. Thyroid Association in 2014 ... As regards Down syndrome (DS), the therapeutic manage- ment of subclinical ... [8] Samuel Refetoff: personal communication, 2014.

  16. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  17. Hypothyroidism could be the only manifestation of mitochondrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoda Tomoum

    2012-11-24

    Nov 24, 2012 ... to some unknown protective factor. The hypothyroidism could ... Peer review under responsibility of Ain Shams University. Production and ... for 20 days, then progressed to fever and loss of consciousness. She died within 2 ...

  18. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solaf M. Elsayed

    2014-09-16

    Sep 16, 2014 ... The cause of neonatal hypothyroidism in this particular syndrome remains unclear ... delay in the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis [8]. Others postulated that ... in the thyroid gland [11]. The issue whether ...

  19. [Atypical risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhaĭlenko, O Iu

    2013-09-01

    The non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic lesions of the cardiovascular system (C-reactive protein, uric acid, fibrinogen, homocysteine) in blood plasma of patients with manifestative hypothyroidism at the age of 23 to 73 years were assessed in the study. An increase in the average values of C-reactive protein was revealed in patients with hypothyroidism without arterial hypertension (AH), as well as under its presence, and increased BMI. Uric acid level also was increased with the combination of hypothyroidism and hypertension. Average level of fibrinogen was within the values of the control group and increased only in 23.4% of patients with hypothyroidism. Homocysteine content was elevated in 32% of patients and was not associated with the presence of AH. Increased levels of these markers of cardiovascular lesions risk coincided with the increased diameter of the common carotid artery.

  20. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES IN HIPPOCAMPUS AS A FUNCTION OF DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones are essential for maturation and function of the mammalian central nervous system. Severe congenital hypothyroidism results in irreversible structural damage and mental retardation in children. Although a variety of environmental contaminants have been demonstrat...

  1. Altered fructosamine and lipid fractions in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Sridevi V; Manjrekar, Poornima A; Udupa, Vinit A; Vivian, D'Souza

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in the lipoprotein metabolism. To study the lipid and the glycaemic abnormalities in the subclinical hypothyroidism cases and to compare the same with the euthyroid, overt hypothyroid and the hyperthyroid subjects. Four groups, euthyroid (Group-I), hypothyroid (Group-II), subclinical hypothyroid (Group-III) and hyperthyroid (Group-IV), which consisted of 30 subjects each, of either sex, who were aged 25-55 years, underwent Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), fructosamine, lipid profile and total T3, T4 and TSH estimations. The subjects who were on lipid lowering or thyroid disorder drugs and known diabetics were excluded from the study. In Group-III, all the lipid fractions were comparable to those of Group-II and they were significantly deranged, as compared to those of Group-I. The fructosamine levels were significantly higher in Group-II and Group-III (p<0.05), but the subclinical hypothyroid pool had statistically lower levels than the hypothyroid pool (376.63±54.73, 587.80±65.10). In the Group-IV patients, the LDL-C levels were significantly higher as compared to those in the euthyroid pool. The fructosamine levels were significantly lower in comparison with both the euthyroid and the hypothyroid pools (both in Groups-II and III). The FPG levels were higher in all the classes of the thyroid abnormalities (subclinical hypothyroidnot significant) but within the reference range of 70-100mg/dl. Since the lipid derangement in subclinical hypothyroidism is on par with that in overt hypothyrodism, the subclinical hypothyroid cases also need to be treated similarly. The fructosamine values which are largely in excess of the FPG values, indicate a higher propensity to glycation and a decreased turnover of the proteins in the hypothyroid and the subclinical hypothyroid pools. Vice versa is true of the hyperthyroid pool. Fructosamine can be included in the thyroid work up of the patients to assess the metabolic function and the

  2. Hypothyroidism and its rapid correction alter cardiac remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Hajje

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects of mild and overt thyroid disease include a vast array of pathological changes. As well, thyroid replacement therapy has been suggested for preserving cardiac function. However, the influence of thyroid hormones on cardiac remodeling has not been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular levels. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of hypothyroidism and thyroid replacement therapy on cardiac alterations. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: a control (n = 10 group and a group treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU (n = 20 to induce hypothyroidism. Ten of the 20 rats in the PTU group were then treated with L-thyroxine to quickly re-establish euthyroidism. The serum levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL6 and pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, were significantly increased in hypothyroid rats; elevations in cardiac stress markers, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP and cardiac troponin T (cTnT were also noted. The expressions of cardiac remodeling genes were induced in hypothyroid rats in parallel with the development of fibrosis, and a decline in cardiac function with chamber dilation was measured by echocardiography. Rapidly reversing the hypothyroidism and restoring the euthyroid state improved cardiac function with a decrease in the levels of cardiac remodeling markers. However, this change further increased the levels of inflammatory and fibrotic markers in the plasma and heart and led to myocardial cellular infiltration. In conclusion, we showed that hypothyroidism is related to cardiac function decline, fibrosis and inflammation; most importantly, the rapid correction of hypothyroidism led to cardiac injuries. Our results might offer new insights for the management of hypothyroidism-induced heart disease.

  3. A coincidence of addiction to "Kratom" and severe primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheleg, Sergey V; Collins, Gregory B

    2011-12-01

    Here we present a case of a coincidence of addiction to "Kratom" (botanically known as Mitragyna speciosa Korth) and developed severe primary hypothyroidism. We are discussing a possibility that high dose of indole alkaloid mitragynine (the major alkaloid identified from "Kratom") might reduce the normal response of the thyroid gland to thyroid-stimulating hormone resulting in primary hypothyroidism. Further experimental investigations of mitragynine as a possible suppressor of thyroid gland function would be a matter of interest.

  4. Hypothyroid symptoms and the likelihood of overt thyroid failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    of hypothyroidism-associated symptoms (range: 0-13). LR+ for participants with a hypothyroidism-component-score of 0 was 0.21 (0.09-0.39), meaning that the post-test probability was lowered to 21% of what it was before asking for symptoms. LR+ for scores of 1-2/3/4-6/7-9/10-13 were: 0.47 (0.30-0.72)/1.16 (0...

  5. Hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus – a risky dual gestational endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tirosh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Diabetes mellitus (DM and hypothyroidism are each associated with increased rate of pregnancy complications. However, their combined morbidity during gestation is poorly studied. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of the combined morbidity of DM & hypothyroidism and whether it is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcome.Study design. This population based retrospective cohort study included 87,213 women who had 232,293 deliveries. All deliveries were divided into the following groups: (1 hypothyroidism & DM (n = 171; (2 hypothyroidism (n = 1502; (3 DM (n = 13,324; and (4 deliveries of women with neither endocrinopathy, who served as a control group (n = 217, 296.Results. The prevalence of DM & hypothyroidism in our population was 0.17%. In comparisons to the other study groups, women with DM & hypothyroidism had higher rates of infertility (p < 0.001, preeclampsia (p < 0.001, chronic hypertension (p < 0.001, preterm birth (p < 0.001, and cesarean deliveries (p < 0.001. In Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE model, hypothyroidism & DM was an independent risk factor for cesarean section (OR 3.46; 95% CI 2.53–4.75 and for preeclampsia (OR 1.82; 95%CI 1.16–2.84.Conclusion. The combination of DM & hypothyroidism is rare, yet it is associated with higher rate of infertility, cesarean sections, preterm deliveries, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than the rest of the population. This dual endocrinological combination is an independent risk factor for preeclampsia and cesarean section. These findings suggest that these patients are at risk for perinatal complications and should be followed and delivered as high risk pregnancies.

  6. [Hypothyroidism in adults in a basic health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Macías, I; Hidalgo-Requena, A; Pérez-Membrive, E; González-Rodríguez, M E; Bellido-Moyano, C; Pérula-de Torres, L A

    2017-08-29

    The objective of the present study is to study the prevalence, as well as the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hypothyroid disease in adults using the computerised clinical records. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. The target population was the patients of the health centres of Lucena I and II (Córdoba). Patients 14 years or older, diagnosed with hypothyroidism, born and resident in Lucena. Two hundred and fourteen patients were recruited by random sampling, who then underwent a clinical interview using a questionnaire. The mean age of the patients was 49.71 years (SD 17.03; 95% CI 47.34-51.98), with 85.5% women. A diagnosis of sub-clinical hypothyroidism was found in 74.8%, compared to 18.7% of primary hypothyroidism, and 6.5% of secondary hypothyroidism. The 53.7% (95% CI 46.81-60.59) of patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism did not have thyroid antibodies results. However, 75.2% (95% CI 68.89-80.86) were being treated with levothyroxine. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 5.7% (95% CI 5.46-5.96). Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is very common in Primary Care clinics. Many patients are not correctly diagnosed and many are over-medicated, suggesting a need to review the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypothyroidism in diabetes mellitus patients in Eastern Nepal

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    Robin Maskey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The coexistence of diabetes mellitus (DM with hypothyroidism is a known clinical observation. Aims: To estimate prevalence and co-relate that of hypothyroidism in patients with DM in relation to the age and sex, the lipid profile, body mass index visiting diabetes clinic and inpatients in B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. Settings and Design: The hospital-based descriptive study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy-one known or newly detected cases of DM aged more than 15 years were selected randomly from September 2012 to September 2013 and subjected to evaluation for thyroid function - clinically and biochemically and other relevant investigations were done. Statistical Analysis Used: For descriptive statistics mean, standard deviation, percentage, proportion were calculated. For inferential statistics following test were carried out at the level of significant 0.05 where confidence interval is 95%. The statistical operations were done through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 10. Results: Of 271 subjects, the prevalence of hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical in diabetics was, 4.05% (11/271 with females preponderance, of which 7 (30.4% were clinically hypothyroid and 4 (17.4% were subclinical hypothyroid. One (4.3% patient had subclinical hyperthyroidism. The mean age at diagnosis of type 2 DM was 51-60 years. 8.69% of diabetics with primary hypothyroids were having morbid obesity. High-density lipoprotein among different thyroid status were statistically significant (P = 0.042. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is not uncommon in diabetes, and we found body mass index, mean triglyceride and cholesterol levels were more in those diabetic patients having coexisting hypothyroidism.

  8. Evaluation of dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Ahad; Golforoushan, Farideh; Nejad, Amir Bahrami Shahla Babaee; Goldust, Mohamad

    2013-06-01

    Many symptoms arise in thyroid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. In this cross sectional study, 120 patients with hyperthyroidism and 50 patients suffering from hypothyroidism were studied. Cutaneous, hair and nail clinical symptoms were studied and registered in a special questionnaire. Mean age of patients suffering from hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were 38.24 +/- 14.45 and 25.86 +/- 14.69 years old. Dry and Coarse/rough skin were the most prevalent manifestations in the skin involvement in hypothyroidism since softness was the most prevalent ones in hyperthyroidism. Fragileness was the most prevalent symptom in patients with nail involvement in hypothyroidism since soft skin was the most prevalent ones in hyperthyroidism. Coarse/rough skin was observed more in patients with hair involvement in hypothyroidism since the most prevalent ones was separation of nail from its bed in hyperthyroidism. High prevalence of skin, hair and nail symptoms in thyroid patients, early diagnosis of the signs may be helpful in premature diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases.

  9. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of hyperlipemic and hypothyroid patients

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    Castro Ana Valéria Barros de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of hypothyroidism in a sample of hyperlipemic patients and evaluate clinical and laboratory factors indicative of thyropathy among them. METHODS: Fifty-one hyperlipemic patients, grouped according to an earlier or recent diagnosis of their thyroid function into euthyroid and hypothyroid, were evaluated with clinical and laboratory examinations of blood levels of free T4 and TSH (by radioimmunoassay. Patients were on average 46.8±11.7 years old, predominantly of the female sex (62.5%; 31% had a previous diagnosis of hypothyroidism and were under treatment with thyroxin. RESULTS: Fourteen three percent of patients analyzed had hypothyroidism, which had not been detected before. Differentiating attributes of the groups analyzed were: a predominance of females among the hypothyroid patients and a higher HDL serum concentration among those recently diagnosed. CONCLUSION: In the present study, new cases of hypothyroidism in hyperlipemic patients were a frequent occurrence, yet few clinical and laboratory data except tests evaluating free T4 and TSH in the blood indicated which patients had thyroid dysfunction.

  10. PREVALENCE OF SUB CLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IN FIRST TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY

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    Nataraj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorder is s econd most common endocrine disorder in pregnancy . Hypothyroidism is more common in women in their reproductive age. Subclinical hypothyroidism is one of the type of thyroid disorders with incidence of 2 - 5% . The present study is to know the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy . METHODS : A prospective study conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , ESIMC PGI MSR Bangalore , Karnataka . Data collected from One Hundred Fifty pregnant women attending antenatal checkup in our hospital in first trimester . According to Endocrinology society thyroid function test is done , if TSH is high then FT3 , FT4 values are estimated . Normal value for TSH is 0.1 - 2.5IU/ml in 1 st trimester . RESULT: In our study out of 150 women , Primi are 85 in number and Multie are 65 in number , Women with subclinical hypothyroidism is 20 . Prevalence of hypothyroidism in our study is 13% . CONCLUSION: Universal screening of thyroid disorder is necessary during pregnancy to prevent fetal and maternal morbidity associated with subclinical hypothyroidism

  11. Kidney failure in the elderly due to hypothyroidism: a case report

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    Graziela Cristina Pichinin Ledo Silva

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hypothyroidism is more prevalent in the elderly and its symptoms can be confused with other changes due to aging. Doctors caring for the elderly need to be attentive to this diagnostic possibility. This case report case is notable not only because it presents a rare complication of hypothyroidism (kidney failure, but also because patients with chronic kidney failure of any etiology may suffer increased renal dysfunction as a result. CASE REPORT: This was a 66-year-old male outpatient with a history of generalized edema over the preceding eight years, with periods of worsening, that was intractable to treatment with diuretics. Physical examination revealed bradycardia (heart rate: 52 bpm, pallor, dry and infiltrated skin, macroglossia, edema in the lower limbs and a palpable thyroid with hard consistency. Laboratory tests showed: creatinine 3.9 mg/dl; urea 95 mg/dl; potassium 6.0 mEq/l; thyroid-stimulating hormone > 100 mUI/ml; triiodothyronine 0.01 ng/dl; free thyroxin 0.01 ng/dl; antithyroglobulin 31 IU/ml (normal values: < 40 IU/ml; antithyroperoxidase 85 IU/ml (normal values: < 15 IU/ml; creatinine clearance 30 ml/min/1.73 m²; and proteinuria 122 mg/24 h. After five months of treatment with thyroxin (100 mcg/day, the patient returned without any symptoms and presented the following test results: urea 48 mg/dl; creatinine 1.4 mg/dl; creatinine clearance 67 ml/min/1.73 m²; potassium 4.2 mEq/l; thyroid-stimulating hormone: 20.85 mUI/ml; free thyroxin: 0.71 ng/dl. Hypothyroidism alone can cause renal impairment or worsen renal function in preexisting illnesses. Its treatment can stabilize the clinical condition, or possibly improve it.

  12. The magnitude of increased levothyroxine requirements in hypothyroid pregnant women depends upon the etiology of the hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jennifer A; Wartofsky, Leonard; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Burman, Kenneth D

    2009-03-01

    In the United States, many women with hypothyroidism are on thyroid hormone replacement during pregnancy. The optimal management strategy for thyroid hormone dosing in hypothyroid women during pregnancy is controversial. We hypothesized that dosage requirements during pregnancy might differ depending upon the nature of the underlying hypothyroidism. We conducted a retrospective review of 45 pregnancies from 38 women whose hypothyroidism was managed during pregnancy. Thyroid function tests were obtained when pregnancy was confirmed, then every 4-8 weeks. The thyrotropin (TSH) goal was 0.4-4.1 microU/mL (SI unit conversion: multiply TSH by 1.0 for mIU/L). On average, the entire group required a cumulative increase from baseline in levothyroxine (LT(4)) dosage of 13% in the first trimester, 26% in the second trimester, and 26% in the third trimester (p hypothyroidism was 92.5 +/- 32.0 microg daily. These patients required small cumulative dose increases of 11%, 16%, and 16% from baseline in each trimester, respectively (p values = 0.125, 0.016, 0.016). Average baseline LT(4) dose for patients with hypothyroidism resulting from treated Graves' disease or goiter was 140.4 +/- 62.4 microg daily. These patients required the largest cumulative increases in LT(4) dosage (first trimester, 27%; second trimester, 51%; third trimester, 45%; p = 0.063, 0.063, 0.063, respectively). Average baseline LT(4) dose for patients with thyroid cancer was 153.2 +/- 30.3 microg. The cumulative LT(4) dose increases for patients with thyroid cancer were 9%, 21%, and 26% in each trimester, respectively (p = 0.03, p hypothyroidism plays a pivotal role in determining the timing and magnitude of thyroid hormone adjustments during pregnancy. Patients require vigilant monitoring of thyroid function upon confirmation of conception and anticipatory adjustments to LT(4) dosing based on the etiology of their hypothyroidism.

  13. Association of Hypothyroidism with Body Mass Index, Systolic Blood Pressure and Proteinuria in Diabetic Patients: Does treated Hypothyroidism with Thyroxine Replacement Therapy Prevent Nephropathy/Chronic Renal Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Kamran M A

    2016-01-01

    Untreated or sub-clinical hypothyroidism is associated with insulin resistance, obesity, adverse effects on cardiovascular system, hypertension and in turn risk of nephropathy. However, these changes are reversible with thyroxine replacement therapy (TRT). Current research studied 4235 diabetic patients, divided into two groups, those with clinical hypothyroidism /on TRT, compared to those without thyroid disease or undiagnosed. BMI, blood pressure, creatinine, urine microalbumin and spot urine protein levels were compared between these two groups. Study finding demonstrated that for hypothyroid cases, BMI was higher (32.2 ± 7.44 versus 29.4 ± 5.7; p hypothyroidism (on TRT) was strongly associated with obesity (p hypothyroidism.

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Replacement Therapy with L-thyroxine in Women with Postoperative and Autoimmune Hypothyroidism

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    M Sch Madiyarova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the lipid profile, psychoemotional features, cognitive function, quality of life in women receiving adequate replacement therapy with levothyroxine for postoperative hypothyroidism and autoimmune (Hashimoto's hypothyroidism.Methods. 121 women (18-45 y.o. with primary hypothyroidism receiving levothyroxine for more than one year participated in the study. 66 women with autoimmune hypothyroidism, 55 - with hypothyroidism after subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. The scores for the Short-Form 36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, symptoms of hypothyroidism, Inventory of memory and attention, TSH, free T3, free T4 and lipid profiles were analyzed. Results. There were no significant differences between groups in the age, BMI, TSH, fT3, fT4 levels. The total cholesterol was higher in patients with postoperative hypothyroidism in comparison to autoimmune hypothyroidism ( р = 0,041. The levels of social functioning and mental health that reflect mental component of health were lower in patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism than with postoperative hypothyroidism ( p = 0,038, p = 0,019, respectively. The anxiety was higher in the same group ( p = 0,004. There was no difference in memory and attention levels. The anxiety level was higher in autoimmune hypothyroidism and “low-normal” TSH (0,4 - 2 µU/L than in postoperative hypothyroidism and the same TSH ( p = 0,016. Also in the group with postoperative hypothyroidism and “low-normal” TSH the cholesterol and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia were higher than in autoimmune hypothyroidism ( p = 0,017; р = 0,013. Conclusion. In young women with compensated autoimmune hypothyroidism the mental component of health is lower and the anxiety - higher than in postoperative hypothyroidism. Even in stable compensation of postoperative hypothyroidism the cholesterol level is higher comparing to the patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. And even in “low-normal” TSH

  15. Serum fibroblast growth factor 19 is decreased in patients with overt hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yaxin; Wang, Haoyu; Xia, Xinghai; Wang, Zhaojun; Fan, Chenling; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Hongmei; Ding, Shuangning; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan

    2016-09-01

    As a newly emerging metabolic regulator, accumulating evidence suggests that the circulating fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) level correlated with lipid and glucose metabolism. Several independent groups have found that FGF19 was highly likely associated with multiple metabolic disorders. Thyroid dysfunction is believed to be associated with metabolism diseases. However, to date, few studies have investigated the role of FGF19 in patients with thyroid dysfunctions. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was done to estimate the role of FGF19 in patients with different thyroid functions. Compared with the healthy control, the present study revealed that serum FGF19 levels were significantly decreased in overt hypothyroidism patients (78.7 [52.7-121.2] vs 292.4 [210.2-426.5] pg/mL, P FGF19 concentration was also lower in the subclinical hypothyroidism group than it was in the healthy control group (95.8 [71.7-126.3] vs 292.4 [210.2-426.5] pg/mL, P FGF19 level between the isolated thyroid autoantibody positive group and the healthy control group (252.0 [205.9-353.5] vs 292.4 [210.2-426.5] pg/mL, P >0.05). Also, serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was an independent predictor of FGF19. In conclusion, thyroid insufficiency but not thyroid autoimmunity may have impacted serum FGF19 concentrations. As the role of FGF19 is becoming more and more important in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, we proposed that the thyroid hormone level should be taken into account when the serum concentration is explained. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of FGF19 in the development of hypothyroidism.

  16. Hypothyroidism and renal function in patients with systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merla, Ramanna; Martinez, Juan D; Martinez, Milagros A; Khalife, Wissam; Bionat, Susan; Bionat, Joanne; Barbagelata, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which hypothyroidism affects renal function in patients with heart failure remains incompletely explored, despite the known adverse prognostic implications of renal dysfunction in these patients.In a pilot retrospective study, we evaluated 75 patients (age, >or=18 yr) with left ventricular ejection fractions 5.5 micro IU/mL). Renal function, measured in terms of glomerular filtration rate, was analyzed once in each patient, and the populations were statistically compared, with P <0.05 conferring statistical significance.Baseline characteristics in all groups were similar. Mean glomerular filtration rate was better in patients with normal thyroid function than those with hypothyroidism (75.45 +/- 31.48 vs 63.95 +/- 21.43 mL/min/1.73 m2; P=0.032). There was no significant difference between patients with controlled hypothyroidism (66.89 +/- 24.18 mL/min/1.73 m2) and those with normal thyroid function (P=0.131). In patients with uncontrolled hypothyroidism, mean glomerular filtration rate (60.2 +/- 17.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) was significantly worse than in patients with normal thyroid function (P=0.015).We found that heart-failure patients with insufficiently treated hypothyroidism have worse renal function than do patients whose thyroid function is normal or whose hypothyroidism is effectively treated. Larger studies will be needed in order to evaluate this conclusion further. We recommend that hypothyroidism in heart-failure patients be strictly controlled, lest it affect prognosis adversely.

  17. Non-autoimmune subclinical hypothyroidism due to a mutation in TSH receptor: report on two brothers

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    Cerbone Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is a condition characterized by a mild persistent thyroid failure. The main cause is represented by autoimmune thyroiditis, but mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in TSH pathway are thought to be responsible for SH, particularly in cases arising in familial settings. Patients with the syndrome of TSH unresponsiveness may have compensated or overt hypothyroidism with a wide spectrum of clinical and morphological alterations depending on the degree of impairment of TSH-receptor (TSH-R function. We describe the case of two brothers with non autoimmune SH carrying the same heterozygous mutation in the extracellular domain of TSH-R and presenting with different clinical, biochemical and morphological features. The first one had only a slight persistent elevation of TSH, a normal thyroid ultrasound and did never require l- thyroxine (L-T4 replacement treatment. The second one had a neonatal persistent moderate TSH levels increase associated with a thyroid gland hypoplasia and was treated with L-T4 since the first months of life. These two cases support the recent association of TSH-R mutations inheritance as an autosomal dominant pattern with variable expressivity and suggest that the decision to start replacement therapy in patients with persistent SH due to TSH resistance should be individualized.

  18. Subclinical hypothyroidism%亚临床甲状腺功能减退症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海清; 赵家军

    2009-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is one of subclinical thyroid diseases, which is defined as "a serum thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) concentration above the statistically defined upper limit of the ref-erence range when serum free T4 concentration is within its reference range". The average worldwide preva-lence has been reported to be in the range of 4%-10% ,mainly among women and the elderly. The most com-monly cause of subclinical hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with disorders of serum lipid, development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, presence of cognitive impairment,infertility and miscarriage. L-thyroxine substitutive therapy is recommended when TSH is above 10 mIU/L. Patients with serum TSH between 4 and 10 mIU/L should be monitored frequently especially if thyroperoxidase antibody is positive. The goal of the therapy for the pregnant women with subclinical hypothy-roidism is serum TSH less than 2.5 mIU/L.%亚临床甲状腺功能减退症(甲减)是一种业临床甲状腺疾病.诊断标准是血清促甲状腺激素(TSH)水平高于正常上限而游离T4水平尚在正常范围.目前全世界业临床甲减的平均患病率为4%~10%,主要发生在女性和老年人群.桥本甲状腺炎是最常见的病因.其卡要的临床危害包括引起血脂异常、导致动脉粥样硬化和,冠心病、影响认知功能,还可导致不孕和流产.治疗主要针对血清TSH10 mIU/L的患者,应用左旋-T4替代治疗.对于血清TSH 4~10 mIU/L,特别是甲状腺自身抗体阳性者需密切监测.此外,对妊娠期亚临床甲减患者的治疗要求控制TSH<2.5 mlU/L.

  19. Risk of Hypothyroidism following Hemithyroidectomy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prognostic Studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, H.; Louwerens, M.; Schoones, J.W.; Kievit, J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Dekkers, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The reported risk of hypothyroidism after hemithyroidectomy shows considerable heterogeneity in literature. Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the overall risk of hypothyroidism, both clinical and subclinical, after hemithyroidectomy. Furthermore

  20. Noninvasive indicators of atherosclerosis in subclinical hypothyroidism

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    Ismail Dogu Kilic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular system is rich in thyroid hormone receptors and is one of the major sites of action for thyroid hormones. However, the effect of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH on atherosclerosis has not been cleared yet. Materials and Methods: SCH is defined as high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in the presence of normal serum T4 and T3 levels. A total of 32 patients with SCH and 29 controls were included in the study. Carotid intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, and aortic distensibility were compared between the groups. Results: FMD was lower in patients with SCH than in controls. GTN-induced vasodilatation was similar in the patients with SCH and controls. There was no statistically significant difference between the patients with SCH and controls with respect to CIMT and aortic distensibility. Conclusion: SCH is associated with endothelial dysfunction as established by FMD. Inconsistent results of CIMT and aortic stiffness can be explained by these parameters being measures of structural changes whereas FMD is a dynamic measure that reflects the impact of both acute and chronic influences on endothelial function.

  1. National status of testing for hypothyroidism during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Amy J; Nakamoto, Jon M; Kaufman, Harvey W

    2012-03-01

    Hypothyroidism, overt or subclinical, is associated with adverse outcomes for pregnant women and their offspring. Knowledge of current national thyroid testing rates and positivity during pregnancy is limited. The aim of the study was to estimate thyroid testing rate and positivity during pregnancy and postpartum, including testing and positivity rates of thyroperoxidase antibody (TPO Ab) and free T(4) tests in pregnant women with elevated TSH levels (hypothyroid), and in pregnant women having TSH within range (euthyroid). Records from a large, national sample of pregnant women screened from June 2005 through May 2008 were examined. The study included 502,036 pregnant women, for whom gestational age information was available. Testing rates and the prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy and postpartum were measured using assay-specific, trimester-specific reference intervals. Screening and positivity rates of TPO Ab and free T(4) tests were also measured. Of women ages 18 to 40 yr, 23% (117,892 of 502,036) were tested for gestational hypothyroidism (defined as both subclinical and overt hypothyroidism). Of these, 15.5% (18,291 of 117,892) tested positive for gestational hypothyroidism. Twenty-four percent (22,650 of 93,312) of women with TSH within range and 33% (6,072 of 18,291) of women with elevated TSH were also tested for gestational hypothyroxinemia. Gestational hypothyroxinemia was seen in 0.2% (47 of 22,650) of the tested women with TSH within range and was seen in 2.4% (144 of 6,072) of the tested women having elevated TSH; 0.3% (276 of 93,312) of women with TSH within range received a TPO Ab test, and of these, 15% (41 of 276) tested positive; 0.66% (120 of 18,291) of women with elevated TSH received a TPO Ab test, and of these, 65% (78 of 120) tested positive. Only 20.7% (1873 of 9063) of hypothyroid women received thyroid screening within 6 months postpartum; of these, 11.5% (215 of 1873) were diagnosed with postpartum hypothyroidism. Gestational

  2. A new complication of hypothyroid coma: neurogenic dysphagia: presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, A D; Rea, I M; Lawson, L T; Skipper, M

    2001-06-01

    We report the case of a patient with severe hypothyroid coma in whom hypothyroid-related neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia was suspected, videoscopically confirmed, and successfully treated. This complication has not previously been described, and may have contributed to the historically high mortality associated with severe cases of hypothyroid coma. In the future, the early detection and aggressive treatment of this complication and its sequelae should ensure a further reduction in mortality from hypothyroid coma.

  3. A link between hypothyroidism, obesity and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiceles, Veronica; da Fonte Ramos, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the serum levels of thyroid hormones are below that necessary to carry out physiological functions in the body. Hypothyroidism is related to obesity as an increase in body weight gain is seen in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, an inverse correlation between free thyroxine values and body mass index has been reported. Leptin, a polypeptide hormone produced by adipocytes, was originally thought to be an antiobesity hormone due its anorexic effects on hypothalamic appetite regulation. However, nowadays it is known that leptin conveys information about the nutritional status to the brain being considered a crucial endocrine factor for regulating several physiological processes including reproduction. Since the identification of thyroid hormone and leptin receptors on the testes, these hormones are being recognized as having important roles in male reproductive functions. A clear link exists among thyroid hormones, leptin and reproduction. Both hormones can negatively affect spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the overall prevalence of primary infertility ranging from 8 to 15%. The fact that 30% of couples' inability to conceive is related to a male factor and that the longer hypothyroidism persisted, the greater the damage to the testes, strongly suggest that more studies attempting to clarify both hormones actions directly in the testes need to be conducted specially in cases of congenital hypothyroidism. Therefore, the goal of this review is to highlight the relationship of such hormones in the reproductive system.

  4. Prospective evaluation of pregnant women with hypothyroidism: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Leonardo Vieira; De Almeida, Carla Amaral; Da Costa, Sheila Mamede; Vaisman, Mário

    2007-03-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a series of maternal hormonal and metabolic changes which can affect thyroid function and the course of thyroid dysfunction in different ways. Moreover, hypothyroidism is also associated with obstetric complications and morbidity to the fetus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of hypothyroidism during the course of pregnancy and the necessity of adjusting the dose of levothyroxine. We prospectively followed 16 patients with previous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. In ten patients (62.5%) it was necessary to raise the dose of levothyroxine, with a median increase of 20.7%. One pregnancy was complicated by premature amniorrhexis and two by pre-eclampsia. The screening for congenital hypothyroidism was negative in all newborns. We conclude that it is very important to offer screening to high-risk patients who wish to become pregnant. Dose adjustment based on serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is essential. In patients in whom TSH is not measured during the first weeks of pregnancy, a good approach could be to increase the dose of replacement therapy by 20-25% to avoid hypothyroidism.

  5. Thyroid peroxidase antibody in hypothyroidism: it's effect on pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mandakini; Anand, Bhavna; Singh, Neeta; Mehrotra, Manasi

    2013-04-01

    To find out the prevalence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO) in pregnant women with hypothyroidism and to analyze its effect on pregnancy outcome. The prospective study was conducted on well-controlled hypothyroid pregnant patients attending the antenatal clinic at Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India from July 2009 to June 2011 and has delivered. The women were grouped into two groups depending on presence or absence of TPO antibody. Maternal complications during pregnancy and perinatal outcome were noted and compared between these two groups. During the study period, 2479 women attended the high-risk pregnancy clinic. Among which 196 women were found to be hypothyroidism making prevalence of hypothyroidism as 7.91%. A total of 140 were found to be well controlled (5.6%) and included for study. Amongst the women with hypothyroidism, 40% were TPO positive. Complications like threatened abortion, spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, fetal malformations, intrauterine growth restriction, and adverse fetal outcomes like poor apgar scores and prolonged nursery admissions were more in patients with positive TPO antibodies. TPO positivity is considered as high risk for pregnancy complications and hence those patients should be monitored more carefully.

  6. Controversies in the management of hypothyroidism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Phillip E; Samuels, Mary H; Trinidad, Rosen; Caughey, Aaron B

    2014-06-01

    In the last 3 years, we have witnessed the publication of multiple but conflicting guidelines on the management of hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in reproductive-age and pregnant women. Given the prevalence of thyroid disease, it is highly likely that obstetricians will encounter and provide care for pregnant women with thyroid disease. Therefore, a review of current guidelines and management options is clinically relevant. Our goals are to review the changes in thyroid function during pregnancy, the options for testing for thyroid disease, the different categories of thyroid dysfunction and surveillance strategies among subspecialty societies, and the obstetric hazards associated with thyroid dysfunction and review the evidence for benefit of treatment options for thyroid disease. We reviewed key subspecialty guidelines, as well as current and ongoing studies focused on the treatment of hypothyroidism during pregnancy. There are significant differences in the identification and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy among subspecialists. We present our recommendations based on the available evidence. Evidence exists that obstetricians struggle with the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism. According to recent surveys, the management of hypothyroidism during pregnancy is the number 1 endocrine topic of interest for obstetricians. A synopsis of recently published subspecialty guidelines is timely. Recent, evidence-based findings indicate that obstetricians should consider modifying their approach to the identification and treatment of thyroid disease during pregnancy.

  7. Diagnosis and management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Roberto; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2014-10-06

    In prospective studies, the prevalence of undiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women ranges from 3% to 15%. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus, including spontaneous abortion, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, and decreased IQ in the offspring. Only two prospective studies have evaluated the impact of levothyroxine therapy in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, and the results were mixed. Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as raised thyrotropin combined with a normal serum free thyroxine level. The normal range of thyrotropin varies according to geographic region and ethnic background. In the absence of local normative data, the recommended upper limit of thyrotropin in the first trimester of pregnancy is 2.5 mIU/L, and 3.0 mIU/L in the second and third trimester. The thyroid gland needs to produce 50% more thyroid hormone during pregnancy to maintain a euthyroid state. Consequently, most women on levothyroxine therapy before pregnancy require an increase in dose when pregnant to maintain euthyroidism. Ongoing prospective trials that are evaluating the impact of levothyroxine therapy on adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus in women with subclinical hypothyroidism will provide crucial data on the role of thyroid hormone replacement in pregnancy.

  8. Frequency of Celiac Disease in Patients with Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Celiac disease (CD is closely associated with other autoimmune endocrine disorders, particularly autoimmune thyroid disease. The aim of this study was to find the frequency of celiac disease in patients with hypothyroidism in Guilan province, north of Iran. Methods. A total of 454 consecutive patients with hypothyroidism underwent celiac serological tests antiGliadin antibodies (AGA, antitissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG and antiendomysial antibodies (EMA-IgA. Small intestinal biopsy was performed when any of celiac serological tests was positive. Results. Eleven (2.4% patients were positive for celiac serology, and two patients with documented villous atrophy were diagnosed with classic CD (0.4%; 95%. Two patients with classic CD had Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT (0.6%; 95%. Six (54.5% of 11 were suffering from overt hypothyroidism and 45.5% from subclinical hypothyroidism. Six (54.5% had HT, and 45.5% had nonautoimmune hypothyroidism. Conclusions. In this study, prevalence of CD was lower than other studies. Most of the patients with CD were suffering from HT, but there was no significant statistical relation between CD and HT.

  9. The adverse effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy

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    Mahnaz Boroumand Rezazadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the important role of thyroid disorders on reproductive health of the women of childbearing age, pregnancy outcome, fetal health, and neurodevelopment of the infant, providing comprehensive assessment of the treatments used for preventing hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism seems to be essential. Therefore, evaluating the efficacy of different treatments of the thyroid disorders would be beneficial in better managing and controlling the disease during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism (a deficiency of thyroid hormone is a common thyroid disorder, which might increase the incidence rate of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, and preterm delivery. Hyperthyroidism, which is not a common disorder during the pregnancy not only leads to similar adverse effects as hypothyroidism but also can result in stillbirth and intrauterine growth restriction. Levothyroxine is the preferred treatment of hypothyroidism and the only drug therapy recommended for treating hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. In this study, we aimed to briefly review the adverse effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy and review the effects of recent suggested treatments for controlling thyroid disorders on pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Hypothyroidism among former workers of a nuclear weapons facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Anna; Frank, Arthur L; Pinson, Barbara; Shepherd, Sara; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Ionizing radiation alters thyroid function, and workers at a nuclear weapons facility may be exposed to above environmental levels of radiation. Hypothyroid status was determined for 622 former workers of a nuclear weapons facility located in Texas, using a combination of measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and thyroid medication history, as part of an on-going health surveillance program. We classified 916 unique job titles into 35 job categories. According to the most stringent TSH definition used in this study (0.3-3.0 IU/ml), 174 (28.0%) former workers were considered to be hypothyroid; of these 66 (41.8%) were females and 108 (23.3%) were males. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and smoking status, only having worked as a material handler (n = 18) exhibited an elevated risk of developing hypothyroidism compared to other jobs (OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.43-11.07). This is one of the jobs with suspected exposure to radiation. No excess risk of hypothyroidism was observed for any of the other job categories. There is suggestive evidence that only material handlers at this nuclear weapons facility may have elevated risk of hypothyroidism; further evaluation of thyroid health in this population is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Defective fin regeneration in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimizu, Koshin; Tagawa, Masatomo; Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2007-07-01

    Wild-type medaka are known to have remarkable capabilities of fin, or epimorphic, regeneration. However, a hypothyroid mutant, kamaitachi (kmi), frequently suffers from injury in fins, suggesting an important role of thyroid hormone in fin regeneration. This led us to examine the relationship between thyroid hormone and fin regeneration using medaka as a model. For this, we first set up a medaka experimental system in which the rate of regeneration was statistically analyzed after caudal fin amputation under normal and hypothyroid conditions. As expected, the regeneration of amputated caudal fins was delayed in hypothyroid kmi -/- mutants. We then examined wild-type medaka with thiourea-induced hypothyroidism to evaluate the requirement of thyroid hormone during epimorphic fin regeneration. The results demonstrate that the growth rate of regenerates was much reduced in severely hypothyroid medaka throughout the regeneration period. This reduction in regenerative rate was recovered by exogenous administration of L-thyroxine. The present study is thus the first to report the direct involvement of thyroid hormone in teleost fin regeneration, and provides a basic framework for future molecular and genetic analyses.

  12. Hypothyroidism and cardiovascular disease: factors, mechanism and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anil K; Arya, R; Mehta, R; Sharma, R; Sharma, A K

    2013-01-01

    Reduced function of the thyroid gland causes Hypothyroidism which is further attributed to defects in the secretion of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and tetra-iodothyronine or thyroxine (T4). T3 and T4 hormones are not only known to regulate the rate of metabolism but also affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body such as neuromuscular, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism patient usually show higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides, and other lipid molecules associated with heart disease. The question still remained to be addressed though is whether hypothyroidism affects heart and result in cardiovascular disease. The current review updates us with the recent progress in the hypothyroidism area especially in relation to its connecting link with the heart disease. The present study will further enhance our understanding of the intricacies involved in the secretion of thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) subsequently affecting serum lipid levels. The study may help to dice-out cardiovascular risk factors associated with hypothyroidism so that effective measures could be taken prior to occurrence of coronary heart disease.

  13. Patient's Guide to Detecting and Treating Hypothyroidism Before, During, and After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting and Treating Hypothyroidism Before, During, and After Pregnancy A Patient’s Guide Pregnancy causes major changes in the levels of hormones made by ... thyroid hormone, doctors call this underactive thyroid or hypothyroidism . Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is not common. However, the ...

  14. Depression or Endocrine Disorder?: What Mental Health Counselors Need to Know about Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Paula Helen

    1997-01-01

    Describes hypothyroidism, an endocrine disorder characterized by symptoms that resemble those of depression. Discusses features of the disorder, types and grades of hypothyroidism, causes, valuative techniques for the disorder, and implications of hypothyroidism in counseling and in treating patients suffering from this disorder. (RJM)

  15. Depression or Endocrine Disorder?: What Mental Health Counselors Need to Know about Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Paula Helen

    1997-01-01

    Describes hypothyroidism, an endocrine disorder characterized by symptoms that resemble those of depression. Discusses features of the disorder, types and grades of hypothyroidism, causes, valuative techniques for the disorder, and implications of hypothyroidism in counseling and in treating patients suffering from this disorder. (RJM)

  16. Perinatal hypothyroidism modulates antioxidant defence status in the developing rat liver and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Dong, Yan; Su, Qing

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant defence status in perinatal hypothyroid rat liver and heart. We found that the proteincarbonyl content did not differ significantly between the three groups both in the pup liver and in the heart. The OH˙ level was significantly decreased in the hypothyroid heart but not in the liver compared with controls. A slight but not significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in both perinatal hypothyroid liver and heart. A significantly increased activity of CAT was observed in the liver but not in the heart of hypothyroid pups. The GPx activity was considerably increased compared with controls in the perinatal hypothyroid heart and was unaltered in the liver of hypothyroid pups. We also found that vitamin E levels in the liver decreased significantly in hypothyroidism and were unaltered in the heart of perinatal hypothyroid rats. The GSH content was elevated significantly in both hypothyroid liver and heart. The total antioxidant capacity was higher in the liver of the hypothyroid group but not in the hypothyroid heart. Thyroxine replacement could not repair the above changes to normal. In conclusion, perinatal hypothyroidism modulates the oxidative stress status of the perinatal liver and heart.

  17. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic vasoconstrict......Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  18. Treating Hypothyroidism with Thyroxine/Triiodothyronine Combination Therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsson, Luba Freja; Medici, Bjarke Borregaard; la Cour, Jeppe Lerche

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Five to ten percent of patients with hypothyroidism describe persistent symptoms despite being biochemically well regulated on levothyroxine (L-T4). Thyroxine (T4)/triiodothyronine (T3) combination therapy [L-T4/liothyronine (L-T3) or desiccated thyroid] are still regarded as experime......BACKGROUND: Five to ten percent of patients with hypothyroidism describe persistent symptoms despite being biochemically well regulated on levothyroxine (L-T4). Thyroxine (T4)/triiodothyronine (T3) combination therapy [L-T4/liothyronine (L-T3) or desiccated thyroid] are still regarded...... after a patient published a book describing her experiences with hypothyroidism and treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate current Danish trends in the use of T4/T3 combination therapy. METHODS: We used an Internet-based questionnaire, distributed as a link via two Danish patient fora. Further...

  19. Cardiac tamponade as a presenting manifestation of severe hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Ashvin; Chaudhari, Shilpa; Sacerdote, Alan

    2013-02-05

    We report a patient who presented to our hospital with unusual symptoms of non-specific complaints and uncontrolled hypertension. Acute cardiac tamponade was suspected from cardiomegaly on routine chest x-ray and confirmed with an echocardiogram. Analysis of the pericardial fluid and other laboratory data ruled out all the common causes except for hypothyroidism as a cause of cardiac tamponade. Tamponade results from increased intrapericardial pressure caused by the accumulation of pericardial fluid. The rapidity of fluid accumulation is a greater factor in the development of tamponade than absolute volume of the effusion. Hypothyroidism is a well-known cause of pericardial effusion. However, tamponade rarely develops owing to a slow rate of accumulation of pericardial fluid. The treatment of hypothyroidic cardiac tamponade is different from other conditions. Thyroxine supplementation is all that is necessary. Rarely, pericardiocentesis is needed in a severely symptomatic patient.

  20. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Its Association with Increased Cardiovascular Mortality

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    Alvaro Altamirano Ufion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating different metabolism functions and multiple organs’ performance. Changes in the thyroid hormone axis can lead to profound effects on the stability of vital organs and systems, especially the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is classified according to the clinical presentation as overt and subclinical. There is some evidence supporting the benefits of thyroxine hormone replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism on cardiovascular mortality outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of measuring and treating high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in newly diagnosed heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction requires further study. In this report, we review the current evidence regarding the prognostic significance of subclinical hypothyroidism in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction.

  1. Is Thyroid Autoimmunity per se a Determinant of Quality of Life in Patients with Autoimmune Hypothyroidism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between thyroid variables and health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism, using the thyroid-specific QoL questionnaire ThyPRO. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, responses to the ThyPRO from 199 outpatients with autoimmune...... participation in life and QoL. These hypotheses were tested through multiple regression and multivariate path analysis models. RESULTS: None of the thyroid function tests were associated with QoL scores. However, in the pairwise regression, the thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) level was associated...... with several QoL outcomes: Goitre Symptoms (p = 0.024), Depressivity (p = 0.004), Anxiety (p = 0.004), Emotional Susceptibility (p = 0.005) and Impaired Social Life (p = 0.047). In the multivariate model, the TPOAb level was related to Goitre Symptoms (r = 0.17, p = 0.019), Depressivity (r = 0.24, p = 0...

  2. Association of sympathovagal imbalance with cardiovascular risks in overt hypothyroidism

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    Avupati Naga Syamsunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidities have been reported in hypothyroidism. Aims: The objective of this study is to investigate the link of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI to cardiovascular risks (CVRs and the plausible mechanisms of CVR in hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Age-matched 104 females (50 controls, 54 hypothyroids were recruited and their body mass index (BMI, cardiovascular parameters, autonomic function tests by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, heart rate response to standing, deep breathing and blood pressure response to isometric handgrip were studied. Thyroid profile, lipid profile, immunological and inflammatory markers were estimated and their association with low-frequency to the high-frequency ratio (LF-HF of HRV, the marker of SVI was assessed by multivariate regression. Results: Increased diastolic pressure, decreased HRV, increased LF-HF, dyslipidemia and increased high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP were observed in hypothyroid patients and all these parameters had significant correlation with LF-HF. BMI had no significant association with LF-HF. Atherogenic index (β 1.144, P = 0.001 and hsCRP (b 0.578, P = 0.009 had independent contribution to LF-HF. LF-HF could significantly predict hypertension status (odds ratio 2.05, confidence interval 1.110-5.352, P = 0.008 in hypothyroid subjects. Conclusions: SVI due to sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal occurs in hypothyroidism. Dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation, but not obesity contribute to SVI and SVI contributes to cardiovascular risks.

  3. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and oxidative stress in experimental hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariyerli, Nuran; Toplan, Selmin; Akyolcu, Mehmet Can; Hatemi, Husrev; Yigit, Gunnur

    2004-10-01

    The present study was planned to explain the relation between erythrocyte osmotic fragility and oxidative stress and antioxidant statue in primary hypothyroid-induced experimental rats. Twenty-four Spraque Dawley type female rats were divided into two, as control (n = 12) and experimental (n = 12), groups weighing between 160 and 200 g. The experimental group animals have received tap water methimazole added standard fodder to block the iodine pumps for 30 d (75 mg/100 g). Control group animals were fed tap water and only standard fodder for the same period. At the end of 30 d blood samples were drawn from the abdominal aorta of the rats under ether anesthesia. T3, T4, and TSH levels were measured and the animals that had relatively lower T3, T4, and higher TSH levels were accepted as hypothyroid group. Hormone levels of the control group were at euthyroid conditions. Osmotic fragility, as a lipid peroxidation indicator malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant defense system indicators superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in the blood samples. Osmotic fragility test results: There was no statistically significant difference found between maximum osmotic hemolysis limit values of both group. Minimum osmotic hemolysis limit value of hypothyroid group was found to be higher than that of control group values (p proof of increased osmotic fragility of the erythrocytes in hypothyroidism. There is no statistically significant difference found between hypothyroid and control groups in the lipid peroxidation indicator MDA and antioxidant indicators SOD and GSH levels. As a result of our study it may be concluded that hypothyroidism may lead to an increase in osmotic fragility of erythrocytes. But the increase in erythrocyte osmotic fragility does not originate from lipid peroxidation.

  4. The Biochemical Prognostic Factors of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

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    Myung Won Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT are common in clinical practice. However, the clinical significance of SHT, including prognosis, has not been established. Further clarifying SHT will be critical in devising a management plan and treatment guidelines for SHT patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors of SHT.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of Korean patients who visited the endocrinology outpatient clinic of Severance Hospital from January 2008 to September 2012. Newly-diagnosed patients with SHT were selected and reviewed retrospectively. We compared two groups: the SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group.ResultsThe SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group had initial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels that were significantly different (P=0.035. In subanalysis for subjects with TSH levels between 5 to 10 µIU/mL, the spontaneous improvement group showed significantly lower antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer than the SHT maintenance group (P=0.039. Regarding lipid profiles, only triglyceride level, unlike total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, was related to TSH level, which is correlated with the severity of SHT. Diffuse thyroiditis on ultrasonography only contributed to the severity of SHT, not to the prognosis. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and urine iodine excretion, generally regarded as possible prognostic factors, did not show any significant relation with the prognosis and severity of SHT.ConclusionOnly initial TSH level was a definite prognostic factor of SHT. TPO-Ab titer was also a helpful prognostic factor for SHT in cases with mildly elevated TSH. Other than TSH and TPO-Ab, we were unable to validate biochemical prognostic factors in this retrospective study for Korean SHT patients.

  5. [Hyperprolactinemia: unusual association between peripheral hypothyroidism and microprolactinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafik, Asmaa; El Mghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of hyperprolactinemia revealing the association between peripheral hypothyroidism and prolactin pituitary macroadenomas. The patient was a 43-year old woman, presenting with spontaneous bilateral galactorrhea over a period of 1 year. Hyperprolactinemia was confirmed and etiologic investigation revealed peripheral hypothyroidism secondary to autoimmune thyroiditis. Therapy consisted of administration of thyroid hormone, with clinical stabilization and hormonal normalization three months later. The evolution was marked by the persistence of hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea. The diagnosis of microprolactinoma was objectified by pituitary MRI which showed microadenoma, justifying the administration of antidopaminergic therapy Six months later, the evolution was marked by normalization of prolactin levels and disappearance of pituitary microadenoma image.

  6. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

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    Mulic Mersudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  7. Hoffmann's disease: MR imaging of hypothyroid myopathy

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    Chung, Jeewon; Ahn, Kyung-Sik; Kang, Chang Ho [Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Suk-Joo [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Beak Hyun [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Hoffmann's syndrome is a hypothyroid myopathy presenting as muscle stiffness and hypertrophy. It is a rare complication of hypothyroidism. MRI features of this syndrome have seldom been described in the literature. We present a case of Hoffmann's syndrome in a 34-year-old man who underwent lower extremity contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI can demonstrate the hypertrophic configuration, T2 hyperintensity, and enhancement of the involved muscles in Hoffmann's syndrome. Along with clinical, laboratory, and electromyography findings, MRI may be helpful in distinguishing between inflammatory myopathy, myonecrosis, subacute muscle denervation, and infectious myositis. (orig.)

  8. The excess risk of major osteoporotic fractures in hypothyroidism is driven by cumulative hyperthyroid as opposed to hypothyroid time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Laulund, Anne Sofie

    2015-01-01

    The long-term relationship between hypothyroidism and fracture risk is challenging to dissect because of the modifying influence of subsequent thyroxine replacement with the potential for excessive replacement doses. We studied changes in serum thyrotropin concentration (TSH) over time and associ......The long-term relationship between hypothyroidism and fracture risk is challenging to dissect because of the modifying influence of subsequent thyroxine replacement with the potential for excessive replacement doses. We studied changes in serum thyrotropin concentration (TSH) over time...... as a predictor of fracture risk in postmenopausal women whereas hypothyroid time predicted increased fracture risk in men below age 75 years. In conclusion, among patients who present with an elevated TSH, the long-term risk of hip and other osteoporotic fractures is strongly related to the cumulative duration...

  9. Racial and sex differences in prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with cardiomyopathies enrolled into a heart failure disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouka, George; Cortazar, Frank; Alvarez, Jorge Alex; Dias, Andre; Hebert, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with heart failure (HF) to determine whether there are racial and sex differences and to determine the number of new cases of hypothyroidism. The study included 194 patients in an HF disease management program (HFDMP) in South Florida. Patients were interviewed for a history of hypothyroidism and referred for measurement of thyrotropin. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was calculated by race and sex. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 18% for all patients with HF and 23% among Hispanics; however, this trend was not statistically significant (P = .06). More men than women had hypothyroidism (P = .04). Patients with hypothyroidism had higher mean lipid profiles (P < .01) and lower mean heart rates (P = .03) than healthy patients. Hypothyroidism is prevalent among HF patients, especially men. Hispanics with HF may have a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism. The standardized protocol of the HFDMP helped identify new cases of hypothyroidism. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A behavioral and micro positron emission tomography imaging study in a rat model of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Tang, Yi-Yuang; Feng, Hong-Bo; Cheng, Xiao-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Hypothyroidism leads to somatic, neuropsychological, and psychiatric changes that are similar to depression. The mechanisms underlying the behavioral abnormalities in adult onset hypothyroidism remain ambiguous. Hypothyroidism was induced in adult male Wistar rats by the maintenance of 0.05% propylthiouracil (PTU) in drinking water for 5 weeks (hypothyroid group; HP group); control rats (CON group) received an equivalent amount of water. The open field and sucrose preference tests were employed, and the link between behavioral changes and brain glucose metabolism was evaluated using micro positron emission tomography imaging. The open field test revealed slightly decreased locomotor activity and significantly reduced rearing and defecation in the hypothyroid group. Hypothyroid rats were also characterized by decreased body weight, sucrose preference, and relative sucrose intake compared to control rats. Hypothyroidism induced reduced brain glucose metabolism in the bilateral motor cortex, the caudate putamen, the cortex cingulate, the nucleus accumbens, and the frontal association cortex. A decreased sucrose preference was positively correlated with metabolic glucose changes in the caudate putamen and the nucleus accumbens. The results indicate that the activity pattern in adult onset hypothyroidism is different from the activity pattern when hypothyroidism is induced in the developmental period of the central nervous system. Decreased sucrose preference in hypothyroid rats may be attributed to anhedonia. Furthermore, these findings suggest there may be a common mechanism underlying adult onset hypothyroidism and depression.

  11. Thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin auto-antibodies in patients with newly diagnosed overt hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, A.; Laurberg, P.; Knudsen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Thyroid autoimmunity is a major cause for hypothyroidism. We describe thyroid auto-antibodies in patients with various nosological subtypes of hypothyroidism identified in a population study. Design: Population-based follow-up study identifying all new cases of hypothyroidism in an open...... cohort. Methods: We established a monitoring system, and identified all new cases with primary overt hypothyroidism (n = 685) in a 4 year period in a well-defined population cohort (2,027,208 person-years of observation). Patients were sub-classified into: spontaneous hypothyroidism, presumably...... of autoimmune origin ( n 578); non-spontaneous hypothyroidism ( associated with medication, delivery, neck-irradiation or subacute thyroiditis, n 97); and congenital hypothyroidism ( n 10). A total of 186 adult patients (61% of those invited) underwent thyroid ultrasonography and measurements of antibodies...

  12. A review of the evidence for and against increased mortality in hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    The lifetime risk of overt hypothyroidism is around 5%, and this disease is usually preceded by subclinical hypothyroidism, which has an even higher prevalence (estimated to be up to 9%). Hypothyroidism has been linked with cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis, hypertension and coagulopathy....... Intuitively, this increased morbidity is expected to shorten patients' lifespan, but definitive data are lacking on whether either of these hypothyroid states (particularly overt hypothyroidism) increase mortality. Study findings are inconsistent and, overall, the pooled data do not demonstrate increased...... mortality in patients with either subclinical or overt hypothyroidism. However, none of the available studies was adequately designed to answer this question. This Review discusses major shortcomings in those studies, such as population dissimilarities, hypothyroid state classification and misclassification...

  13. The atrial natriuretic peptide- and catecholamine-induced lipolysis and expression of related genes in adipose tissue in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, J; Moro, C; Klimcakova, E; Kovacikova, M; Bajzova, M; Vitkova, M; Kovacova, Z; Sotornik, R; Berlan, M; Viguerie, N; Langin, D; Stich, V

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is associated with several abnormalities in intermediary metabolism, including impairment of lipolytic response to catecholamines in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT). Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a powerful lipolytic peptide; however, the role of ANP-mediated lipolysis in thyroid disease has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of ANP-induced lipolysis as well as in the gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase, phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), natriuretic peptide receptor type A, and beta(2)-adrenergic receptor in SCAAT of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. Gene expression in SCAAT was studied in 13 hypothyroid and 11 hyperthyroid age-matched women before and 2-4 mo after the normalization of their thyroid status. A microdialysis study was performed on a subset of nine hyperthyroid and 10 hypothyroid subjects. ANP- and isoprenaline-induced lipolyses were higher in hyperthyroid subjects, with no differences between the groups following treatment. Hormone-sensitive lipase gene expression was higher in hyperthyroid compared with hypothyroid subjects before treatment, whereas no difference was observed following treatment. No differences in gene expression of other genes were observed between the two groups. Following treatment, the gene expression of UCP2 decreased in hyperthyroid, whereas the expression of PDE3B decreased in hypothyroid subjects. We conclude that thyroid hormones regulate ANP- and isoprenaline-mediated lipolysis in human SCAAT in vivo. Increased lipolytic subcutaneous adipose tissue response in hyperthyroid patients may involve postreceptor signaling mechanisms.

  14. Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism among Bangladeshi pregnant women and its effect on fetomaternal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmeen, M; Shamsunnahar, P A; Laita, T R; Chowdhury, S B

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid disorders are among the common endocrine problems in pregnant women. It is now well established that not only overt but subclinical thyroid dysfunction also has adverse effects on maternal and fetal outcome. There are few data from Bangladesh about the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. With this background, this study aims to find out thyroid dysfunction (both overt and subclinical hypothyroidism) in pregnancy and its impact on obstetrical outcome. We studied the evaluation of 50 admitted pregnancies corresponding to 29 women with subclinical hypothyroidism and rest 21 was overt hypothyroidism. Detailed history and examination were performed. Apart from routine obstetrical investigations, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) estimation was done. Their obstetrical and perinatal outcomes were noted. Overt hypothyroidism was significantly (p hypothyroidism patients. In sub clinical hypothyroidism 86.2% conceived firstly within 2 years and 66.7% in overt hypothyroidism patients conceived firstly in between 3 to 5 years after marriage. Overt hypothyroids were prone to have pregnancy-induced hypertension 42.9%, intrauterine growth restriction (P = 0.001) and gestational diabetes (38.1%) as compared to subclinical cases. Neonatal complications were significantly more in overt hypothyroidism group. Mean TSH level was significantly (p hypothyroidism patients but mean FT4 level was almost similar in both groups. Majority of the patient underwent caesarean section in both groups due to associated medical and obstetrical complications. None of the babies showed hypothyroidism by cord blood tests. In this analysis our results showed that overt hypothyroidism among Bangladeshi pregnant women are associated with more maternal complication & adverse parental outcome than subclinical hypothyroidism. The adequate treatment of hypothyroidism during gestation minimizes risks and generally, makes it possible for pregnancies to be carried to term without complications

  15. Metabolic profiling provides a system understanding of hypothyroidism in rats and its application.

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    Si Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is a chronic condition of endocrine disorder and its precise molecular mechanism remains obscure. In spite of certain efficacy of thyroid hormone replacement therapy in treating hypothyroidism, it often results in other side effects because of its over-replacement, so it is still urgent to discover new modes of treatment for hypothyroidism. Sini decoction (SND is a well-known formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and is considered as efficient agents against hypothyroidism. However, its holistic effect assessment and mechanistic understanding are still lacking due to its complex components. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A urinary metabonomic method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was employed to explore global metabolic characters of hypothyroidism. Three typical hypothyroidism models (methimazole-, propylthiouracil- and thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism were applied to elucidate the molecular mechanism of hypothyroidism. 17, 21, 19 potential biomarkers were identified with these three hypothyroidism models respectively, primarily involved in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism and purine metabolism. In order to avert the interference of drug interaction between the antithyroid drugs and SND, the thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism model was further used to systematically assess the therapeutic efficacy of SND on hypothyroidism. A time-dependent recovery tendency was observed in SND-treated group from the beginning of model to the end of treatment, suggesting that SND exerted a recovery effect on hypothyroidism in a time-dependent manner through partially regulating the perturbed metabolic pathways. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that the metabonomic approach is instrumental to understand the pathophysiology of hypothyroidism and offers a valuable tool for systematically studying the therapeutic effects of SND on

  16. Deafness and permanently reduced potassium channel gene expression and function in hypothyroid Pit1dw mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mirna; Fang, Qing; Gong, Tzy-Wen; Dolan, David F; Raphael, Yehoash; Camper, Sally A; Duncan, R Keith

    2009-01-28

    The absence of thyroid hormone (TH) during late gestation and early infancy can cause irreparable deafness in both humans and rodents. A variety of rodent models have been used in an effort to identify the underlying molecular mechanism. Here, we characterize a mouse model of secondary hypothyroidism, pituitary transcription factor 1 (Pit1(dw)), which has profound, congenital deafness that is rescued by oral TH replacement. These mutants have tectorial membrane abnormalities, including a prominent Hensen's stripe, elevated beta-tectorin composition, and disrupted striated-sheet matrix. They lack distortion product otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonic responses, and exhibit reduced endocochlear potentials, suggesting defects in outer hair cell function and potassium recycling. Auditory system and hair cell physiology, histology, and anatomy studies reveal novel defects of hormone deficiency related to deafness: (1) permanently impaired expression of KCNJ10 in the stria vascularis of Pit1(dw) mice, which likely contributes to the reduced endocochlear potential, (2) significant outer hair cell loss in the mutants, which may result from cellular stress induced by the lower KCNQ4 expression and current levels in Pit1(dw) mutant outer hair cells, and (3) sensory and strial cell deterioration, which may have implications for thyroid hormone dysregulation in age-related hearing impairment. In summary, we suggest that these defects in outer hair cell and strial cell function are important contributors to the hearing impairment in Pit1(dw) mice.

  17. Hipotiroidismo en rumiantes Hypothyroidism in Ruminants

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    R. MATAMOROS

    2003-01-01

    up-to-date information on the endocrine physiology of the ruminant thyroid gland, emphasizing its role in the bovine and ovine species and the more common causes of clinic hypothyroidism in domestic ruminants

  18. Natal teeth in an infant with congenital hypothyroidism

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    C Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teeth erupting at birth are referred to as natal teeth. It is a common and benign finding in the neonatal period. However, they may be associated with genetic syndromes like Ellis Van Creveld syndrome and Hallermann-Streiff syndrome. We report here a case of natal teeth in an infant with congenital hypothyroidism.

  19. Acute hypothyroidism in a severely ill surgical patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Hjortsø, N C

    1988-01-01

    A case of acute postoperative hypothyroidism in a 62-year old woman is presented. One month before emergency admission because of a perforated gastric ulcer the patient had normal thyroid function, despite removal of a thyroid adenoma 20 years earlier. Following surgery the patient developed...

  20. Comparison of QT dispersion between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid patients

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    Muharrem Kıskaç

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroid and QTc dispersionindicating local heterogeneity in repolarization of myocardium, which is well known as independent cardiac risk factor for sudden death and ventricular arrhythmia.Materials and Methods: We compared QTc dispersion of subclinical hypothyroid patients, after treatment and healthy control group. We included a total of 50 patients with 41 women and 9 men in the study group. Electrocardiographywith 12 derivations, thyroid hormones, serum electrolytes and basic biochemical parameters were measured.The control group consisted of 25 healthy individuals.QT distances were calculated by using Bazet formula. The difference between the longest QTc and the shortest QTc distance was accepted as QTc dispersion (QTcd.Results: Comparison of subclinical hypothyroid patients, their euthyroidic period after treatment and healthy controlgroup, gave no significant differences in age, body weight, body mass index and free thyroxin values. However,significant difference was found in durations of QTd and QTcd between the subclinical hypothyroid, the control and the euthyroidic groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our results suggested that subclinical hypothyroidpatients had longer QTc dispersion compared to euthyroidic period and healthy subjects. However there was no QTcd difference between the euthyroidic period and healthy control group.

  1. TRIIODOTHYRONINE RAPIDLY LOWERS PLASMA-LIPOPROTEIN (A) IN HYPOTHYROID SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; HOOGENBERG, K; SLUITER, WJ

    1995-01-01

    Background: Increases in plasma low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo-B) are well known in primary hypothyroidism, but it is uncertain whether thyroid dysfunction is associated with elevated levels of the atherogenic lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Methods: The effect of short

  2. Evaluation of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Fars Province, Iran

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    Hamdollah Karamifar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Iran thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH based neonatal screening program is included in health care services from 2005 for detection of patients with primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH. This study was performed for a critical evaluation of the screening program primary congenital hypothyroidism in Fars province,Iran.Methods: From November 2006 to September 2007, TSH serum concentrations of 63031 newborns, 3 to 5 days old born in Fars province, were measured by heel prick. The newborns with TSH ≥5mIU/L were recalled for measurement of serumT4 and TSH in venous blood samples Findings: Of 127 recalled subjects, 43 were confirmed to be hypothyroid, showing a prevalence of 1:1465 with F:M ratio of 1.05:1. The most common clinical and radiological findings were prolonged jaundice (73%, large anterior fontanel (56%, wide posterior fontanel (55%, absence of distal femoral epiphysis (20%, andumbilical hernia (11%. Scintigraphy of the thyroid with 99mTC revealed eutopia (67.4%, hypoplasia (23.3%,agenesis (4.7% and ectopia (2.3%.Conclusion: It is concluded that a cut off value of TSH≥5mIU/L overestimates recalling the number of patientswith CH. The most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism is not dysgenesis of the gland and perhaps dyshormonogenesis in Iran is more common than what is reported in other countries.

  3. [Central congenital hypothyroidism due to Graves' disease in the mother

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, C.A.; Mol, A.C. de; Kempers, M.J.E.; Noordam, C.

    2006-01-01

    Two male twins were born at a gestational age of 30 weeks. Five days after delivery, the mother was diagnosed with Graves' disease. The thyroid function in the neonates was therefore evaluated, which led to the detection of central congenital hypothyroidism (central CHT), even though the neonatal

  4. Association of Lipids with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

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    Adriana Santi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (n=20 and health controls (n=20. Subjects and Methods. Total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and arylesterase (ARE were analyzed. Results. TC, LDL-C, TBARS, and CAT were higher in subclinical hypothyroidism patients, whereas SOD did not change. Arylesterase activity was significantly lower in the SH group, compared with the control group. Correlation analyses revealed the association of lipids (TC and LDL-C with both oxidative stress biomarkers and thyrotropin (TSH. Thyroid hormones were correlated only with triglyceride levels. In addition, TSH was significantly correlated with TBARS, CAT, and SOD. However, no significant correlations were observed after controlling TC levels. Conclusions. We found that SH patients are under increased oxidative stress manifested by reduced ARE activity and elevated lipoperoxidation and CAT activity. Secondary hypercholesterolemia to thyroid dysfunction and not hypothyroidism per se appears to be associated with oxidative stress in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  5. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

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    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  6. PREVALENCE OF HYPOTHYROIDISM IN PATIENTS WITH PROVISIONAL DIAGNOSIS OF DUB

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    Talasila

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVE: DUB accounts for 10% of all the gynecology related problems. This study is conducted to evaluate and detect the thyroid dysfunction in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding in all age groups especially in menorrhagic patients and to refer positive cases to the physician for the further management of thyroid disorder. METHODS: This prospective study consisted of 100 women who presented with menorrhagia to the out-patient department of OBG at Sri Adichunchunagiri Hospital And Research Centre, B. G. Nagar, Mandya district, which is a tertiary level hospital, over a period of two years from September 2010 to September 2012.These patients were categorized as euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroid, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid based on thyroid profile. RESULTS: In the study conducted, 11% were detected with thyroid disorders of which subclinical hypothyroidism was most prevalent (8%, 2% had hypothyroidism and 1% had hyperthyroidism. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of thyroid disorders in cases clinically diagnosed as DUB. In our study 11% of the patients detected with thyroid disorder were treated medically which was more accurate and cost effective. Hence the biochemical evaluation of T3, T4, TSH is extremely important, valuable and should be made mandatory in cases of DUB to detect thyroid dysfunction thereby avoiding unnecessary surgery

  7. Mutations in TBL1X are associated with central hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, C.A. (Charlotte A.); M. Losekoot (Monique); Sun, Y. (Yu); Watson, P.J. (Peter J.); Fairall, L. (Louise); S.D. Joustra (Sjoerd); N. Zwaveling-Soonawala (Nitash); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica); M. Alders (Mariëlle); G.W.E. Santen (Gijs); R.R. van Rijn (Rick); W.A. Dreschler (Wouter); Surovtseva, O.V. (Olga V.); N.R. Biermasz; R.C.M. Hennekam (Raoul); J.M. Wit (Jan); Schwabe, J.W.R. (John W.R.); A. Boelen (Anita); E. Fliers (Eric); A.S.P. van Trotsenburg (Paul)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractContext: Isolated congenital central hypothyroidism (CeH) can result from mutations in TRHR, TSHB, and IGSF1, but its etiology often remains unexplained. We identified a missense mutation in the transducin X-like protein 1, X-linked (TBL1X) gene in three relatives diagnosed with isolated

  8. To study prevalence of incipient iron deficiency in primary hypothyroidism

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    Tanveer Hassan Banday

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Iron deficiency was present in a significant portion of patients with primary hypothyroidism. It also concluded that frequency of iron deficiency (with or without anemia was higher than iron deficiency anemia. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 472-475

  9. Sustained attention problems in children with early treated congenital hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L.; Van der Meere, J.J.; Vulsma, T.; Kalverboer, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Sustained attention was studied in 48 children with early treated congenital hypothyroidism and 35 healthy controls, using a computer-paced and a self-paced continuous performance task. The performance of the patients, particularly those in the low T4 group (38 patients with T4 levels 50 nmol/l at n

  10. Reactive thrombocytosis accompanying subclinical hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyan, Cengiz; Kaptan, Kürşat

    2013-09-01

    The important thing in a patient in whom platelet values were detected to be greater than normal is whether thrombocytosis is a reactive phenomenon due to a different pathology or due to a clonal hematological pathology. In this case report, reactive thrombocytosis observed in a case with subclinical hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis is reported; and according to our literature review, this is the first reported case of reactive thrombocytosis due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis and/or subclinical hypothyroidism. A 31-year-old man without any complaint was admitted to the Hematology Department for thrombocytosis which was detected in his routine follow-up. He had been using thyroid hormone replacement for 2 years because of hypothyroidism as Hashimoto's thyroiditis was earlier diagnosed. Due to miscommunication, he stopped his medication levothyroxine 0.1 mg/day 2 weeks in advance and he was still off-drug on admission. Platelet count was 715×10/l in the first admission center. Subclinical hypothyroidism diagnosis was made with the present findings and thyroid hormone replacement therapy was again commenced gradually. Platelet counts and thyroid-stimulating hormone value were normal 6 weeks later. As a result, before making diagnosis of thrombocytosis related to myeloproliferative disease or myelodysplastic syndromes, secondary causes should be investigated carefully.

  11. Psychological consequences of congenital hypothyroidism: Cognitive, motor and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs Veer, L.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis shows that although the development of children with (permanent) congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is considerably improved by early treatment as a result of neonatal screening, they are still at risk for motor and cognitive problems. This applies especially for children with severe CH. Fin

  12. Anestrus and Spontaneous Galactorrhea in a Hypothyroid Bitch

    OpenAIRE

    Buckrell, Brian C.; Johnson, Walter H.

    1986-01-01

    A bitch, with a history of prolonged postweaning galactorrhea, dermatitis and lethargy, was examined because of an extended anestrus and the development of spontaneous galactorrhea. A diagnosis of hypothyroidism was made based on the history, a subnormal T4 level and the response to a therapeutic trial of thyroxine replacement. A possible pathogenesis for the spontaneous galactorrhea is discussed.

  13. Scope and limitations of iodothyronine deiodinases in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereben, Balázs; McAninch, Elizabeth A; Ribeiro, Miriam O; Bianco, Antonio C

    2015-11-01

    The coordinated expression and activity of the iodothyronine deiodinases regulate thyroid hormone levels in hypothyroidism. Once heralded as the pathway underpinning adequate thyroid-hormone replacement therapy with levothyroxine, the role of these enzymes has come into question as they have been implicated in both an inability to normalize serum levels of tri-iodothyronine (T3) and the incomplete resolution of hypothyroid symptoms. These observations, some of which were validated in animal models of levothyroxine monotherapy, challenge the paradigm that tissue levels of T3 and thyroid-hormone signalling can be fully restored by administration of levothyroxine alone. The low serum levels of T3 observed among patients receiving levothyroxine monotherapy occur as a consequence of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2) in the hypothalamus being fairly insensitive to ubiquitination. In addition, residual symptoms of hypothyroidism have been linked to a prevalent polymorphism in the DIO2 gene that might be a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. Here, we discuss how these novel findings underscore the clinical importance of iodothyronine deiodinases in hypothyroidism and how an improved understanding of these enzymes might translate to therapeutic advances in the care of millions of patients with this condition.

  14. Hypothyroidism after Radiotherapy of Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Eun; Kim, Jae Chul; Park, In Kyu [Kyungpook National Yonsei University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yea, Ji Woon [Dongguk University Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of hypothyroidism in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients who received radiotherapy (RT) either with or without neck dissection. From January 2000 to December 2005, 115 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer and who received definitive RT or postoperative RT including standard anterior low-neck field were recruited to be part of this study. Nineteen patients had undergone ipsilateral neck dissection, whereas, 18 patients underwent bilateral neck dissection, and 78 patients were received RT alone. Patients' ages ranged from 28 to 85 years (median, 59 years) and there were a total of 73 male and 42 female patients. The primary tumor sites were the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and other sites in 18, 40, 28, 22 and 7 patients, respectively. Radiation dose to the thyroid gland ranged from 44 Gy to 66 Gy with a median dose of 50 Gy. Follow-up time ranged from 2 to 91 months, with a median of 29 months. The 1- and 3- year incidence of hypothyroidism was 28.7% (33 patients) and 33.0% (38 patients), respectively. The median time to detection of hypothyroidism was 8.5 months (range, 0 to 36 months). A univariate analysis revealed that neck node dissection was a risk factor for hypothyroidism (p=0.037). However, no factor was statistically significant from the results of a multivariate analysis. Patients treated for advanced head and neck cancer with radiotherapy with or without neck dissection will develop hypothyroidism. It is important to check the thyroid function periodically in these patients especially with the risk factor of neck node dissection.

  15. Disease-Specific as Well as Generic Quality of Life Is Widely Impacted in Autoimmune Hypothyroidism and Improves during the First Six Months of Levothyroxine Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Cramon, Per; Watt, Torquil;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is often diagnosed, and subsequently treated, due to health-related quality of life (HRQL) issues. However, HRQL following treatment has never previously been assessed in longitudinal descriptive studies using validated instruments. OBJECTIVE: To investigate disease......PRO scales had significantly improved. ThyPRO improvements were consistent at six months, where five of eight SF-36 scales had also significantly improved, but deficits persisted for a subset of both ThyPRO and SF-36 scales. CONCLUSIONS: In this population of hypothyroid patients, HRQL was widely affected...... before treatment, with tiredness as the cardinal impairment according to both ThyPRO and SF-36. Many aspects of HRQL improved during the first six months of LT4 therapy, but full recovery was not obtained. Our results may help clinicians inform patients about expected clinical treatment effects....

  16. Developmental hypothyroidism abolishes bilateral differences in sonic hedgehog gene control in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Wang, Liyun; Kimura, Masayuki; Abe, Hajime; Mizukami, Sayaka; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Both developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism disrupt rat hippocampal neurogenesis. We previously showed that exposing mouse offspring to manganese permanently disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis and abolishes the asymmetric distribution of cells expressing Mid1, a molecule regulated by sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. The present study examined the involvement of Shh signaling on the disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in rats with hypothyroidism. Pregnant rats were treated with methimazole (MMI) at 0 or 200 ppm in the drinking water from gestation day 10-21 days after delivery (developmental hypothyroidism). Adult male rats were treated with MMI in the same manner from postnatal day (PND) 46 to PND 77 (adult-stage hypothyroidism). Developmental hypothyroidism reduced the number of Mid1(+) cells within the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of offspring on PND 21, and consequently abolished the normal asymmetric predominance of Mid1(+) cells on the right side through the adult stage. In control animals, Shh was expressed in a subpopulation of hilar neurons, showing asymmetric distribution with left side predominance on PND 21; however, this asymmetry did not continue through the adult stage. Developmental hypothyroidism increased Shh(+) neurons bilaterally and abolished the asymmetric distribution pattern on PND 21. Adult hypothyroidism also disrupted the asymmetric distribution of Mid1(+) cells but did not affect the distribution of Shh(+) hilar neurons. The results suggest that the hippocampal neurogenesis disruption seen in hypothyroidism involves changes in asymmetric Shh(+) neuron distribution in developmental hypothyroidism and altered Mid1 expression in both developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism.

  17. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women in tehran-iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaee, Fakhrolmolouk; Farahani, Masoumeh; Abadi, Ali Reza

    2014-07-01

    Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with various adverse outcomes. Recent consensus guidelines advocate universal thyroid function screening during pregnancy. There are no data from Iran about the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in pregnancy. This study aims to find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. In this descriptive cross sectional study, thyrotropin (TSH) was measured in 3158 pregnant women irrespective of gestational age from October 2008-March 2012. If TSH was more than 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester or more than 3 mIU/L in the second or third trimester, free T4 was measured to diagnose subclinical/ overt hypothyroidism. If serum free T4 was in the normal range (0.7-1.8 ng/dl) the diagnosis was subclinical hypothyroidism and if below the normal range, overt hypothyroidism was diagnosed. A total of 3158 pregnant women were evaluated. One hundred forty seven of them were diagnosed as hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism were present in 131 (89.1%) and 16 (10.9%) women respectively. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 4.15%. Most of the subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases were diagnosed in the first trimester. It appears logical to check TSH during pregnancy due to the observed prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  18. Prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnant Women in Tehran-Iran

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    Fakhrolmolouk Yassaee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with various adverse outcomes. Recent consensus guidelines advocate universal thyroid function screening during pregnancy. There are no data from Iran about the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in pregnancy. This study aims to find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, thyrotropin (TSH was measured in 3158 pregnant women irrespective of gestational age from October 2008-March 2012. If TSH was more than 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester or more than 3 mIU/L in the second or third trimester, free T4 was measured to diagnose subclinical / overt hypothyroidism. If serum free T4 was in the normal range (0.7-1.8 ng/dl the diagnosis was subclinical hypothyroidism and if below the normal range, overt hypothyroidism was diagnosed. Results: A total of 3158 pregnant women were evaluated. One hundred forty seven of them were diagnosed as hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism were present in 131 (89.1% and 16 (10.9% women respectively. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 4.15%. Most of the subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases were diagnosed in the first trimester. Conclusion: It appears logical to check TSH during pregnancy due to the observed prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  19. The Effect of Congenital and Postnatal Hypothyroidism on Depression-Like Behaviors in Juvenile Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Erdoğan; Gürbüz Özgür, Börte; Aksu, Hatice; Cesur, Gökhan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate depression-like behaviors of juvenile rats with congenital and postnatal hypothyroidism. Twenty-seven newborn rat pups were used. First, 6-month-old Wistar Albino female rats were impregnated. Methimazole (0.025% wt/vol) was given to dam rats from the first day of pregnancy until postnatal 21 days (P21) to generate pups with congenital hypothyroidism (n=8), whereas in the postnatal hypothyroidism group (n=10), methimazole was given from P0 to P21. In the control group (n=9), dam rats were fed ad libitum and normal tap water. Offspring were fed with breast milk from their mothers. The behavioral parameters were measured with the juvenile forced swimming test (JFST). The procedure of JFST consisted of two sessions in two consecutive days: the 15-minute pre-test on day 1 and the 5-minute test on day 2. Increased immobility and decreased climbing duration were observed in both congenital and postnatal hypothyroidism groups. Decreased swimming duration was detected in the postnatal hypothyroidism group. Both hypothyroidism groups had a lower body weight gain compared with the control group, while the congenital hypothyroidism group had the lowest body weight. Our results showed that hypothyroidism had negative effects on depression-like behavior as well as on growth and development. Both congenital and postnatal hypothyroidism caused an increase in immobility time in JFST. New studies are required to understand the differing results on depression-like behavior between congenital and postnatal hypothyroidism.

  20. Thyroid volume in hypothyroidism due to autoimmune disease follows a unimodal distribution: evidence against primary thyroid atrophy and autoimmune thyroiditis being distinct diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Primary overt autoimmune hypothyroidism is often divided into primary idiopathic hypothyroidism with thyroid atrophy (Ord's disease) and hypothyroidism with goitre (Hashimoto's disease). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to characterize the two subtypes of disease. DESIGN...

  1. [THE ROLE OF ADIPOCYTOKINES IN THE FORMATION OF INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY HYPOTHYROIDISM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatseba, T S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the levels of adiponectin and indexes of insulin resistance in patients with primary hypothyroidism. In this article published data and personal data about the role of adiponectin in formation insulin resistance in patients with primary hypothyroidism are shown. The study involved 72 patients with primary hypothyroidism. arising on the background of endemic goiter, including 42 women and 30 men. A direct linear correlation between indexes HOMA IR and TSH was established. We found significantly lower levels of adiponectin in all patients with manifest and subclinical hypothyroidism compared with the control group. Low levels of adiponectin may be an independent factor in the development of insulin resistance in hypothyroidism, cardiovascular diseases and can be considered to be the marker of hypothyroidism with components of metabolic syndrome.

  2. Hypothyroidism is a predictor of disability pension and loss of labor market income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-01-01

    before the age of 60 were each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls and followed for a mean of 5 (range 1-31) years. Additionally, we included 277 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. The risk of disability pension was evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. Changes in labor market...... for educational level and comorbidity (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.42-2.51). In an analysis of labor market income, 2 years before compared with 2 years after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, the hypothyroid individuals had on average a €1605 poorer increase than their euthyroid controls (P......, the risk of receiving disability pension (before the age of 60) and the effect on labor market income in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. METHODS: This was an observational register-based cohort study. By record linkage between different Danish health registers, 1745 hypothyroid singletons diagnosed...

  3. Central hypothyroidism and its role for cardiovascular risk factors in hypopituitary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Klose, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    Hypothyroidism is characterized by hypometabolism, and may be seen as a part of secondary failure due to pituitary insufficiency or tertiary due to hypothalamic disease. Secondary and tertiary failures are also referred to as central hypothyroidism. Whereas overt primary hypothyroidism has a well-known affection on the heart and cardiovascular system, and may result in cardiac failure, cardiovascular affection is less well recognized in central hypothyroidism. Studies on central hypothyroidism and cardiovascular outcome are few and given the rarity of the diseases often small. Further, there are several limitations given vast difficulties in diagnosing the condition correctly biochemically, and difficulties monitoring the treatment because normal thyroid-pituitary feedback interrelationships are disrupted. The present review summarizes available studies of central adult hypothyroidism and its possible influence on the cardiovascular system, describe differences from primary thyroid failure and seek evidence for performing guidelines for clinical management of this particular thyroid and hypothalamo-pituitary disorder.

  4. The dose of levothyroxine in pregnant women with hypothyroidism should be increased by 20-30% in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubaveshka, Julia; Michaelsson, Luba Freja; Nygaard, Birte

    2014-12-01

    Severe hypothyroidism in pregnancy is associated with maternal and foetal complications, and in less severe cases impaired neuropsychological foetal development is seen. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the clinical control suggested in the guidelines. This was a retrospective study of 93 consecutive pregnant women with hypothyroidism who were followed at Herlev Hospital in 2012. The thyroid function was evaluated upon confirmation of pregnancy and thereafter every fourth week. The aim of the treatment was a concentration of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (S-TSH) less than 2.5 mU/l. The frequency of an S-TSH of more than 4.1 mU/l was 39%. In 27% of all patients, a single measurement was made of a slight increase in S-TSH during the pregnancy, and only 12% had several increased S-TSH measurements exceeding 4.1 mU/l. Furthermore, 62% had a minimum of one S-TSH measurement above 2.5 mU/l. The pregnant women with increased S-TSH levels in the beginning of their pregnancy had a tendency to be overtreated later in their pregnancy. Although a careful follow-up was performed, we found a high number of patients with a single occurrence of S-TSH outside of the recommended range during their first trimester. The high S-TSH values were registered during the first weeks of the pregnancy, but hereafter corrected, and the number of pregnancy complications recorded did not seem to differ from the number of complications in patients with a normal thyroid function. We recommend increased attention and monitoring of fertile women with hypothyroidism who are planning pregnancy. not relevant. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02094079.

  5. Experimental hypothyroidism delays field excitatory post-synaptic potentials and disrupts hippocampal long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of hippocampal formation and Y-maze performance in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, A S; Bitiktas, S; Taşkın, E; Dolu, N; Liman, N; Suer, C

    2012-03-01

    Manipulations of thyroid hormones have been shown to influence learning and memory. Although a large body of literature is available on the effect of thyroid hormone deficiency on learning and memory functions during the developmental stage, electrophysiological and behavioural findings, particularly on propylthiouracil administration to adult normothyroid animals, are not satisfactory. The experiments in the present study were carried out on 12 adult male Wistar rats aged 6-7 months. Hypothyroidism was induced by administering 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil in their drinking water for 21 days at a concentration of 0.05%. The spatial learning performance of hypothyroid and control rats was studied on a Y-maze. The rats were then placed in a stereotaxic frame under urethane anaesthesia. A bipolar tungsten electrode was used to stimulate the medial perforant path. A glass micropipette was inserted into the granule cell layer of the ipsilateral dentate gyrus to record field excitatory post-synaptic potentials. After a 15-min baseline recording of field potentials, long-term potentiation was induced by four sets of tetanic trains. The propylthiouracil-treated rats showed a significantly attenuated input-output (I/O) relationship when population spike (PS) amplitudes and field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) were compared. fEPSP and PS latencies were found to be longer in the hypothyroid group than in the control group. The PS amplitude and fEPSP slope potentiations in the hypothyroid rats were not statistically different from those in the control rats, except for the field EPSP slope measured in the post-tetanic and maintenance phases. The hypothyroid rats also showed lower thyroxine levels and poor performance in the spatial memory task. The present study provides in vivo evidence for the action of propylthiouracil leading to impaired synaptic plasticity, which might explain deficit in spatial memory tasks in adult hypothyroid rats.

  6. Central hypothyroidism and its role for cardiovascular risk factors in hypopituitary patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Klose, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is characterized by hypometabolism, and may be seen as a part of secondary failure due to pituitary insufficiency or tertiary due to hypothalamic disease. Secondary and tertiary failures are also referred to as central hypothyroidism. Whereas overt primary hypothyroidism has a well...... influence on the cardiovascular system, describe differences from primary thyroid failure and seek evidence for performing guidelines for clinical management of this particular thyroid and hypothalamo-pituitary disorder....

  7. Heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise and recovery in subclinical hypothyroid patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita,; Mahajan, Aarti Sood; Jain, AK; Singh, NP; Mishra, TK

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exercise response of asymptomatic subclinical hypothyroid patients may aid in early diagnosis of cardiovascular morbidity. Aim: To study and compare the heart rate and blood pressure changes during exercise and recovery in subclinical hypothyroid patients and euthyroid controls. Materials and Methods: For the study, 30 each cases (mean age of 40 ± 7 years) of subclinical hypothyroidism and healthy controls underwent exercise as per Bruce protocol. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressur...

  8. Amiodarone-induced Hypothyroidism with EPO-resistant Anemia in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M.S. Chang; Yee-Yung Ng

    2008-01-01

    The overall incidence of amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction ranges from 2% to 24%. One third to half of patients with hypothyroidism have anemia due to some decrease in normal red blood cell mass and erythropoietin (EPO) resistance. Therefore, for patients with chronic renal disease under medication with amiodarone, early regular thyroid function test should be checked in order to avoid amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism and EPO-resistant anemia. If amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism and EP...

  9. The prevalence and determinants of hypothyroidism in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Bao, Cuiping; Deng, Meiyu; Xu, Hui; Fan, Meijuan; Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Xu, Weili; Qi, Xiuying

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypothyroidism among hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related factors, and to assess the prevalence of macrovascular and microvascular diseases among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. A total of 1662 type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients hospitalized at the Metabolic Diseases Hospital, Tianjin Medical University from 1 January 2008 to 1 March 2013 were included in this study. Information on demographic and anthropometric factors and additional variables related to hypothyroidism were collected from medical records. Prevalence rates were calculated and standardized using direct method based on the age-specific and sex-specific structure of all participants. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and 77.0 % of the patients with hypothyroidism had subclinical hypothyroidism. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age, and was higher in women (10.8 %) than in men (3.4 %). Older age (odds ratio, 1.74; 95 % confidence interval, 1. 05 to 2.89), female gender (odds ratio, 2.02; 95 % confidence interval, 1.05 to 3.87), and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody (odds ratio, 4.99; 95 % confidence interval, 2.83 to 8.79) were associated with higher odds of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients. The type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism had higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than those with euthyroidism after adjustment for age and gender. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and most patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. Older age, female gender, and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody could be indicators for detecting hypothyroidism in type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients.

  10. Prevalence of Congenital Heart Diseases in Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel Megied Abo El-Magd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to assess the prevalence of cardiac anomalies in primary congenital hypothyroidism (PCH patients. Fifty patients with PCH recruited after diagnosis by ultrasonography or scintigraphy (64% Dysgenesis, 36% Dyshormonogenesis. The prevalence of cardiac anomalies was 18%, with renal anomalies being 8%. There was no significant difference in the longitudinal follow-up of growth and sexual maturation between a hypothyroid with and without anomalies. Statistically significant difference was found with replacement therapy of both groups. Hence, echocardiography should be done to screen this birth defect as soon as possible so as to prevent or delay the possible complications. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 85-91

  11. SLE or hypothyroidism: who can triumph in cardiac tamponade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Sameer Sadashiv; Wankhedkar, Kashmira Pramod; Mushiyev, Savi

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of systemic lupus erythaematosus (SLE) in remission presented with progressive dyspnoea, bilateral leg swelling and increasing fatigue with rapid weight gain over the past few months. Her physical examination showed mildly tender thyromegaly and pericardial rub. Investigations showed new onset marked hypothyroidism as well as an active lupus serology with echocardiogram confirming severe pericardial effusion and a tamponade phenomenon. Urgent pericardiocentesis relieved her acute symptoms, and prompt treatment with thyroxine replacement and immunosuppression for lupus disease was initiated. Pericardial fluid analysis remained negative for any malignancy and/or infection/s. The patient had a gradual and consistent improvement with this treatment. She was discharged and appeared to be clinically stable at subsequent follow-up visits. However, the case remained a diagnostic dilemma over whether the tamponade was being driven by hypothyroidism versus lupus, leaving us with an opportunity to explore further. PMID:25750217

  12. SLE or hypothyroidism: who can triumph in cardiac tamponade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Sameer Sadashiv; Wankhedkar, Kashmira Pramod; Mushiyev, Savi

    2015-03-06

    A 36-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of systemic lupus erythaematosus (SLE) in remission presented with progressive dyspnoea, bilateral leg swelling and increasing fatigue with rapid weight gain over the past few months. Her physical examination showed mildly tender thyromegaly and pericardial rub. Investigations showed new onset marked hypothyroidism as well as an active lupus serology with echocardiogram confirming severe pericardial effusion and a tamponade phenomenon. Urgent pericardiocentesis relieved her acute symptoms, and prompt treatment with thyroxine replacement and immunosuppression for lupus disease was initiated. Pericardial fluid analysis remained negative for any malignancy and/or infection/s. The patient had a gradual and consistent improvement with this treatment. She was discharged and appeared to be clinically stable at subsequent follow-up visits. However, the case remained a diagnostic dilemma over whether the tamponade was being driven by hypothyroidism versus lupus, leaving us with an opportunity to explore further.

  13. Early Cardiac Tamponade in a Patient with Postsurgical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericardial effusion is a common cardiac manifestation of hypothyroidism, but effusion resulting in cardiac tamponade is extremely rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American woman with slurred speech and altered mental status that was initially suspected to have stroke. Her chest X-ray revealed cardiomegaly and subsequent echocardiogram showed a large pericardial effusion with echocardiographic evidence of cardiac tamponade. Clinically, patient did not have pulsus paradoxus or hypotension. Further questioning revealed a history of total surgical thyroidectomy and noncompliance with thyroid replacement therapy. Pericardiocentesis was performed promptly and thyroxine replacement therapy was started. Thereafter, her mental status improved significantly. The management of pericardial effusion associated with hypothyroidism varies depending on size of effusion and hemodynamic stability of the patient. The management strategy ranges from conservative management with close monitoring and thyroxine replacement to pericardiocentesis or creation of a pericardial window.

  14. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    was then calculated as MAP/CO. Measurements were performed before and after 60 degrees head-up tilting, and before and after LT(4) substitution. Plasma levels of catecholamines were also measured. In 16 otherwise healthy women with SH (ages 44-74 years; serum TSH in mean 17.1 mU/L (range, 6.8-27), and normal free T(4.......05). These changes were qualitatively similar but quantitatively less pronounced than in 15 women with overt hypothyroidism, also studied. Taking the two groups together (n = 31), pretreatment thyroid function (expressed as either TSH or free T(4) estimate) correlated to CO and SVR as well as the changes induced...... by LT(4) (p changes in hemodynamic parameters of potentially beneficial character. SH and overt hypothyroidism should...

  15. Queratodermia palmoplantar asociada a Hipotiroidismo Acquired palmoplantar keratoderma with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Salduna

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Describimos un paciente de 45 años de sexo masculino, con hiperqueratosis palmoplantar. Simultáneamente se diagnosticó hipotiroidismo primario de origen autoinmune. Al realizar tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina, el cuadro dermatológico se resolvió en el transcurso de siete meses. La queratodermia palmoplantar adquirida asociada a hipotiroidismo es una condición reversible. A pesar de ser una asociación infrecuente, debe ser considerada en el diagnóstico diferencial.We report the case of a 45 year-old male with palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. He had chronic thyroiditis with severe hypothyroidism. Skin lesions improved upon thyroid hormone replacement. Complete resolution of palmoplantar keratoderma was achieved after 7 months of therapy. The association of acquired palmoplantar keratoderma with hypothyroidism even though extremely unusual, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. It is a reversible condition.

  16. Submental thyroid ectopy might cause subclinical hypothyroidism in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid ectopy is a rare condition resulting from abnormal embryologic development and migration of the gland. Sublingual is the most common thyroid ectopy; all other ectopic thyroid locations occur very rare. There are no reports in the literature that describe the clinical course of patients with congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid ectopy. Methods and Results: We present a child with congenital hypothyroidism detected on neonatal screening which had a subclinical course during follow-up. Scintigraphy revealed submental thyroid ectopy, a rare ectopic location and no orthotopic thyroid gland. Conclusion: Our case is unique because of the rare ectopic thyroid location but also of the unexpected clinical course; however, further thyroid monitoring is required for the therapy adjustment and detection of any changes in the ectopic tissue.

  17. Development of Hyperthyroidism Following Primary Hypothyroidism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hua Chung

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of hyperthyroidism following primary hypothyroidism is uncommon, and only a few documented cases have been reported. Alterations in thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies in serum are currently considered to play the main role in the pathophysiology, but the exact mechanism is still unknown. Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old man with disturbed consciousness due to hyponatremia. Thyroid function tests showed primary hypothyroidism with a high anti-microsomal antibody titer (1:6,400. The patient experienced weight loss and exophthalmos 6 years later. Serum thyroid hormone levels were increased and thyroxine treatment was discontinued, but the patient remained thyrotoxic 2 months later. 131I thyroid uptake was 40.9% at 24 hours, and bilateral thyroid lobes were not enlarged with diffuse radioactivity. Six months later, the patient was still thyrotoxic and therapy with methimazole 10 mg/day was started. He is now taking methimazole and is euthyroid.

  18. Management of Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, E; Russell, A; Kearney, P M

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as a raised serum thyroid stimulating hormone level with normal thyroxine. Despite a prevalence of up to 9% of the adult population there is widespread uncertainty on how to manage it. The aim of this study was to assess how older adults with SCH are managed in primary care. A retrospective case-note review was carried out on patients attending Mallow Primary Healthcare Centre. This study identified patients 65 years and over meeting the criteria for SCH in one year. The prevalence of SCH in this study was calculated as 2.9%. 22.2% of patients were treated with thyroxine. 6.1% of untreated patients progressed to clinical hypothyroidism within the study period while 18.2% spontaneously reverted to normal TSH levels.

  19. Diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism: Strange bedfellows or mutual companions?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry; I; Joffe; Larry; A; Distiller

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians should be cognizant of the close relationship that exists between two of the most common endocrine disorders, primary hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. This applies to patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus(T1DM and T2 DM respectively). However, the association is greater in T1 DM, probably because of the shared autoimmune predisposition. In patients with T2 DM, the relationship is somewhat weaker and the explanation less clear-cut. Factors such as dietary iodine deficiency, metformin-induced thyroid stimulating hormone suppression and poor glycemic control may all be implicated. Further translational research is required for greater clarification. Biochemical screening for abnormal thyroid function in individuals who have diabetes is warranted, particularly in females with T1 DM, and therapy with L-thyroxine appropriately instituted if hypothyroidism is confirmed.

  20. Impaired tooth root development after treatment of a cerebellar astrocytoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckles, T.A.; Kalkwarf, K.L.

    1989-10-01

    A young man, previously treated by surgical resection of a grade III cerebellar astrocytoma in combination with irradiation and chemotherapy, was found to display severe generalized root agenesis. This patient also exhibited secondary hypothyroidism and decreased levels of growth hormone. These factors are discussed in relation to their possible role in impaired root development.

  1. Maternal screening for hypothyroidism and thyroiditis using filter paper specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, T P; Henry, J J; Hofman, L F; Thomas, R D; Sanfilippo, J S; Naylor, E W

    2013-11-01

    Hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis are more prevalent than previously considered in women during pregnancy and the postpartum, and are associated with adverse effects on the mother and her fetus. We determined the efficacy and accuracy of screening women for primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis by testing TSH and two thyroid antibodies (TAb): thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), in eluates of filter paper specimens collected during early pregnancy and the postpartum. We enrolled 494 first-trimester pregnant women with no exclusion criteria into a prospective study to detect primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis. Finger stick blood was applied to filter paper, dried in room air, eluted, and promptly tested for TSH and TAb. A total of 178 of the pregnant women (36%) were tested in the early postpartum. Women with abnormal results had confirmatory serum tests. It was found that 91 pregnant women (18.4%) and 43 postpartum women (24.2%) had abnormal TSH values (>4.0 mU/L) and/or positive TAb; 140 pregnant women (28.3%) had TSH values >2.5 mU/L. All subjects with TSH values >4.0 mU/L tested positive for TAb. Eighteen women (3.6%) who tested normal during pregnancy tested abnormal in the postpartum. This study confirms that TSH and TPOAb measured in eluates of blood-spotted filter paper specimens are excellent screening tests to detect primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis in pregnant and postpartum women. Results are very comparable to serum data in this population published in the literature.

  2. Rare cases of autoimmune hypothyroidism in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronconi, Giulia Maria; Caiulo, Silvana; Di Frenna, Marianna; Vigone, Maria Cristina; Chiumello, Giuseppe; Weber, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Acquired autoimmune hypothyroidism is common in late childhood and adolescence but is very rare in the first 3 years of life. We report on three cases of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) in young children who presented with constipation, decreased appetite, and increased hours of sleep. Our cases highlight that AT may remain undiagnosed for a long time in young children owing to the rarity of the disease.

  3. The Clinical Study on 39 Cases of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheol Jae; Ahn, Weon Jeon; Lee, Houn Young; Ro, Heung Kyu [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-03-15

    Subclinical hypothyroidism can be defined as an asymptomatic state in which a reduction in thyroid activity has been compensated by an increased TSH output to maintain an euthyroid state. We analysed clinical features, laboratory data, and pathologic findings in 39 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism who were diagnosed at the Dept. of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital from Aug. 1984 to June, 1985. 1) The age distribution was from sixteen to sixty-nine and mean age was 34.8. Peak incidence was in the 4th decade and 3rd, 5th, 6th decade in order. 2) The sex distribution showed female preponderance with a ratio of 18.5 to 1. 3) The major presenting manifestations were nonspecific ones such as fatigue, indigestion, and anorexia. 4) Physical examination revealed diffuse goiter in 47.6%. Major abnormalities were no gross abnormality (30.9%), nodular goiter and facial edema. 5) There was no significant difference of the basal serum T3 and T4 concentrations between subclinical hypothyroidism and normal controls (p>0.05). 6) The basal serum TSH concentration of subclinical hypothyroidism (32.61+-14.95 muU/ml) was significantly higher than that of normal controls (3.92+-1.05 muU/ml) (p<0.005). 7) Microsomal antibody was detected in 80.6% and thyroglobulin antibody was detected in 30%. 8) The pathologic findings in 26 cases revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis in 76.9% (lymphocytic type, 34.6%; oxyphilic type, 26.9%; fibrotic type, 15.4%). The others were adenomatous goiter (15.4%), adenomatous carcinoma (3.8%) and subacute thyroiditis (3.8%).

  4. Muscle morphology and metabolism in hypothyroid myopathy: effects of treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Needle biopsies from vastus lateralis in untreated hypothyroid patients with muscle weakness confirmed by quadriceps force measurements (n = 11) were repeated when the patients had taken L-thyroxine for a mean period of 9.2 months (range 5.3-13.3 months, n = 8) and had been continuously biochemically euthyroid for a mean period of 4.9 months (range 2-11 months). Biopsies were analysed biochemically for mitochondrial function. On light microscopy, histochemical examination, mean fibre areas an...

  5. Biochemical and immunological investigations on hypothyroidism in dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, S J; Capen, C. C.; Martin, S. L.; Targowski, S P

    1980-01-01

    Circulating antibody titers (1:20 to 1:2560) against thyroglobulin were demonstrated in 48% of pet dogs with hypothyroidism by the chromic chloride passive hemagglutination test. Four of six dogs with acanthosis nigricans (1:20) and one of six male dogs with hyperestrogenism (1:40) had low titers of antibody against thyroglobulin whereas clinically normal pet dogs and dogs with other selected endocrinopathies (hypoadrenocorticism, cortisol-excess, diabetes mellitus) or obesity were consistent...

  6. Biochemical and immunological investigations on hypothyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, S J; Capen, C C; Martin, S L; Targowski, S P

    1980-04-01

    Circulating antibody titers (1:20 to 1:2560) against thyroglobulin were demonstrated in 48% of pet dogs with hypothyroidism by the chromic chloride passive hemagglutination test. Four of six dogs with acanthosis nigricans (1:20) and one of six male dogs with hyperestrogenism (1:40) had low titers of antibody against thyroglobulin whereas clinically normal pet dogs and dogs with other selected endocrinopathies (hypoadrenocorticism, cortisol-excess, diabetes mellitus) or obesity were consistently negative. Circulating immune complexes evaluated by the mastocytoma cell-assay were present in the sera of 20% of pet dogs with hypothyroidism but were absent in clinically normal dogs. Although variations in dose significantly altered the quantitative response of the thyroid gland to thyrotropin the qualitative pattern of response was similar for T3 but not T4 in clinically normal laboratory beagles. The peak increases for serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine were observed either at eight (0.1 and 0.2 I.U bTSH/5 lbs) or 12 (1.0 I.U. bTYSH/5 lbs) hours postthyrotropin. Dogs with naturally occurring hypothyroidism had a decreased serum T3 and T4 at baseline and eight hours postthyrotropin (1.0 I.U. bTSH/5 lbs) compared to clinically normal pet dogs, laboratory beagles and dogs with other clinical endocrinopathies. The consistent lack of a significant increase of serum T3 and T4 in response to thyrotropin was necessary for the separation of certain hypothyroid from euthyroid pet dogs in which the baseline level of thyroid hormones were equivocal.

  7. Transient Hypothyroidism after Radioiodine for Graves' Disease: Challenges in Interpreting Thyroid Function Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael T; Doi, Suhail A R

    2016-03-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and is often managed with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. With current dosing schemes, the vast majority of patients develop permanent post-RAI hypothyroidism and are placed on life-long levothyroxine therapy. This hypothyroidism typically occurs within the first 3 to 6 months after RAI therapy is administered. Indeed, patients are typically told to expect life-long thyroid hormone replacement therapy to be required within this timeframe and many providers expect this post-RAI hypothyroidism to be complete and permanent. There is, however, a small subset of patients in whom a transient post-RAI hypothyroidism develops which, initially, presents exactly as the typical permanent hypothyroidism. In some cases the transient hypothyroidism leads to a period of euthyroidism of variable duration eventually progressing to permanent hypothyroidism. In others, persistent hyperthyroidism requires a second dose of RAI. Failure to appreciate and recognize the possibility of transient post-RAI hypothyroidism can delay optimal and appropriate treatment of the patient. We herein describe five cases of transient post-RAI hypothyroidism which highlight this unusual sequence of events. Increased awareness of this possible outcome after RAI for Graves' disease will help in the timely management of patients.

  8. Infliximab-Induced Hypothyroidism: A Novel Case and Postulations concerning the Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Cerniglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with cutaneous sarcoidosis who developed hypothyroidism following 17 months of infliximab therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of hypothyroidism following infliximab administration. While it is possible that the patient’s hypothyroidism was unrelated to the use of infliximab, the time course and lack of alternative explanations make such an association plausible. We postulate that hypothyroidism in this patient may have been related to the development of autoantibodies to infliximab that triggered the development of an autoimmune thyroiditis. Regardless of the mechanism, we would encourage clinicians to keep the potential mechanisms of TNF- in mind when treating patients with TNF- antagonist medications.

  9. Unusual Presentation of Hypothyroidism in a Pregnant Woman, Mimicking Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Karisani, Narmin; Mazloomi, Maryam; Rahimi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    .... We report a woman who experienced an incomplete abortion and undiagnosed hypothyroidism who was referred to the oncologist with the suspicion of metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN...

  10. Effect of short-term hypothyroidism on reproduction in the bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, D L; Purswell, B J; Kolster, K A

    2007-08-01

    Hypothyroidism in bitches has been reported to cause a variable interestrus interval, infertility, abortion, and stillbirth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimentally induced hypothyroidism in bitches on fertility, pregnancy, parturition, and neonatal health. Eighteen healthy multiparous bitches were used; hypothyroidism was induced (by radioiodine administration) in nine bitches and the remaining nine served as untreated controls. After breeding, bitches were evaluated for pregnancy, fetal resorption, gestation length, litter size, duration and strength of uterine contractions (during parturition), interval between delivery of pups, viability of pups at birth, periparturient survival, and weight of pups at birth through 4 weeks of age. Bitches were bred a median of 19 weeks after induction of hypothyroidism. All bitches became pregnant and delivered term litters. There was no difference in the interestrus interval, litter size, or gestation length between hypothyroid and control bitches. Duration of uterine contractions was longer, but contraction strength was weaker in hypothyroid than control bitches; however, the interval between delivery of pups was not affected. Periparturient puppy mortality was significantly higher in litters from hypothyroid bitches. Viability scores and weight at birth were significantly lower in pups from hypothyroid bitches than controls. There was no difference between groups in pup weight gain during the first 4 weeks, in the interval from birth to the eyes opened, or to the onset of walking. Although hypothyroidism of relatively short duration did not affect fertility, it prolonged parturition and reduced pup survival in the periparturient period.

  11. Skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment on skeletal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone mediates growth and development of the skeleton through its direct effects and through its permissive effects on growth hormone. The effect of hypothyroidism on bone is well described in congenital hypothyroidism, but the impact of thyroid hormone deficiency on a growing skeleton, as it happens with juvenile hypothyroidism, is less defined. In addition, the extent to which the skeletal defects of juvenile hypothyroidism revert on the replacement of thyroid hormone is not known. A study was undertaken in 29 juvenile autoimmune hypothyroid patients to study the skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment of hypothyroidism on the skeletal system of juvenile patients. Hypothyroidism has a profound impact on the skeletal system and delayed bone age, dwarfism, and thickened bands at the metaphyseal ends being the most common findings. Post treatment, skeletal findings like delayed bone age and dwarfism improved significantly, but there were no significant changes in enlargement of sella, presence of wormian bones, epihyseal dysgenesis, vertebral changes and thickened band at the metaphyseal ends. With the treatment of hypothyroidism, there is an exuberant advancement of bone age, the catch up of bone age being approximately double of the chronological age advancement.

  12. Influence of thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism on adrenal and gonadal functions in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohei, A; Imai, A; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    1998-04-01

    The effect of hypothyroidism on adrenals and gonads in adult female rats was investigated throughout the estrous cycle. Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of 4-Methyl-2-Thiouracil (Thiouracil) in the drinking water. The weight of ovaries and adrenals, and the plasma levels of corticosterone decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats throughout the estrous cycle. Hypothyroidism resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma LH on the day of diestrus and proestrus, whereas the plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone increased as compared with euthyroid rats. The weight of uteri and plasma concentrations of estradiol decreased during the day of diestrus and proestrus in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. To further clarify the dysfunction of hypothalamo-hypophysial-adrenal axis in hypothyroid rats, animals were stressed by immobilization for 3 hr. In hypothyroid rats, a marked increase in plasma levels of ACTH in response to immobilization stress was observed compared to euthyroid control, whereas increases in plasma concentrations of corticosterone were much smaller in hypothyroid than euthyroid rats. These results clearly indicate that hypothyroidism causes both gonadal and adrenal disturbances in adult female rats. The increased concentrations of plasma progesterone may be due to hypersecretion of prolactin during the day of proestrus and estrus, which in turn result in disruption of the estrous cycle.

  13. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Visual Impairment KidsHealth > For Teens > Visual Impairment Print A A ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual problem ...

  14. Management of gestational hypothyroidism: results of a Brazilian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagelin, Danilo; Comarella, Ana Paula; Tiago, Douglas Bernal; Ward, Laura Sterian

    2016-02-01

    Evaluate the management of hypothyroidism in fertile-aged and pregnant women and compare these practices to the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism (SBEM) and the Latin American Thyroid Society, published in 2013. In the first trimester of 2014, SBEM made available to all members an electronic questionnaire based on clinical scenarios in the management of gestational hypothyroidism. The responses of 406 physicians, most of them endocrinologists, were analyzed. Eighty-one per cent of the endocrinologists screen all their pregnant patients for thyroid dysfunction, mostly during the pregestational period or after the first prenatal visit. Following screening, 82% of the respondents initiate treatment when TSH levels are > 2.5 mIU/L while 67% monitor their pregnant patients even if TSH was normal on first trimester screening. For hypothyroid women who are planning pregnancy, 96% of the clinicians are aware of the importance of adjusting the levothyroxine (LT4) dose as soon as pregnancy is confirmed. However, opinions diverge with respect to adjusting the LT4 dose before or after reassessing thyroid function. The most widely used tests for monitoring pregnant women in use of LT4 are TSH and free T4 (62%) or TSH alone (21%). Unanimously, the treatment goal is to achieve the target TSH level for each trimester of gestation. The recommendations of the consensus statements are incorporated into the respondents' clinical practice. It is noteworthy that the great majority of the clinicians favor universal screening.

  15. Congenital hypothyroidism: follow up of a case for 13 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir M Naik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation in children. The prognosis of infants detected by neonatal screening and started on treatment early is excellent, with intelligence quotients similar to sibling or classmate without the disease. Setting: Department of ENT, Head and Neck Surgery, KVG Medical College, Sullia. 1Case report: A 15 year old boy came with history of head ache, generalized body ache and lack of concentration in school. He was a case of congenital hypothyroidism and was on irregular treatment for the last 13 years. Intervention: The patient was advised strictly to continue the oral l-thyroxine 100μg one hour before food and come for regular follow-up. Conclusion: Definite intellectual deterioration is seen if oral l-thyroxine is not started within 50 days of life and the deterioration is irreversible. So in India newborn screening programs should be implemented as a national program as it is very important to diagnose and treatcongenital hypothyroidism as soon as possible and to treat it effectively.

  16. Homeostasis 3: nurses as external agents of control in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, John; McVicar, Andrew

    The role of healthcare practitioners in reversing homeostatic imbalances essentially makes them external agents of homeostatic control-they are replacing the usual assessment, controlling and effector aspects that operate intrinsically in health (homeostasis) but have failed in ill-health (homeostatic imbalances). This article examines the homeostatic imbalance of hypothyroidism, using a case study to draw analogies between the components of homeostatic theory and those of the nursing process. After reading this article, nurses should be able to explain: how the components of homeostasis are associated with health, and how failure of one or more of these components of homeostasis is associated with illness; that illness arises from a cellular, and therefore chemical, homeostatic imbalance; that hypothyroidism is a cellular imbalance of low levels of thyroid hormone, which is identified by signs and symptoms (i.e. other homeostatic imbalances) related to these low levels; and understand how primary care nurses looking after people with hypothyroidism are acting as external agents of homeostatic control.

  17. A case of kwashiorkor in a child with congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Aneke Tangkilisan

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old Indonesian girl with the body weight of 9.8 kg and length 78 cm was admitted to the Department of Child Health, Manado General Hospital with kwashiorkor and congenital hypothyroidism. The main complaint was edema starting 3 weeks before admission. Physical examination showed body weight for age (BW/A 14.3%, body weight for body length (BW/BL 66.0% and body length for age (BL/A 49.1%. On admission she looked severely ill, apathetic, with hypothermia and hypotonia. Almost all signs and symptoms of kwashiorkor and congenital hypothyroidism were found accompanied bronchopneumonia and dermatologic problems. Laboratory findings showed severe anemia, leukocytosis, hypoproteinemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, elevated thyroid stimulating hormone and low level of Thyroxine-4. Bone age equaled to a newborn baby bone age. There was no thyroid tissue on thyroid ultrasound examination. The patient was treated for severe protein energy malnutrition and ThyraxR. Problems of kwashiorkor could been solved well but not with the congenital hypothyroidism. She was discharged from hospital after 2 months treatment and till now at 14th year of age with her developmental milestones equals to that of 8 month old baby.

  18. Effect of yoga on pulmonary function tests of hypothyroid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Gaurav; Singh, Savita; Singh, K P; Gupta, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to see any effect on respiratory functions in hypothyroid patients after pranayama (yoga). The subjects for the study were 20 hypothyroid females, 39.70 +/- 8.27 years of mean age referred from medicine department of UCMS & G.T.B. Hospital. Spiro metric recordings were taken with hypair (version-1.28). Baseline (first) recordings were taken when patient came for the first time. Patients came to yoga lab in physiology department for 21 days continuously where they were trained by the yoga instructors and then told to do pranayama at home and called at regular intervals after 7 days to see the compliance. The breathing exercises were done for 45 minutes everyday. After 6 months of pranayama second recording was taken and compared with the baseline. There were significant improvement in forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and Inspiratory Capacity(IC). Thus Pranayama and meditation has beneficial effect on pulmonary functions of hypothyroid patients along with conventional treatment.

  19. Thyroid antibodies in euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroidic pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism: effects on hematological parameters and postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Inceefe, Hasbiye; Tatar, Sumeyra; Turan, Guluzar Arzu; Genc, Mine; Guclu, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid antibodies and hematological parameters in euthyroid or subclinical hypothyroidic (S H) pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism and to verity whether these pregnant women are affected by a higher rate of postpartum hemorrhage. Thirty-six out hyroid and 21 S H pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease and 52 healthy pregnant women were evaluated. The relationship between thyroid hormones, thyroid antibodies level, the dosage of Levotroxin (LT4) and hematological parameters and the amount of postpartum bleeding was investigated. The mean platelet volume (MPV), was significantly higher in the SH group than in the euthyroid group and in the euthyroid group than healthy group (ppregnant women with thyroid antibodies do not differ in terms of other coagulation parameters and postpartum hemorrhage from healthy controls.

  20. Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism or Hypothyroxinemia in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brian M; Thom, Elizabeth A; Peaceman, Alan M; Varner, Michael W; Sorokin, Yoram; Hirtz, Deborah G; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Thorp, John M; Saade, George; Tita, Alan T N; Rouse, Dwight J; Sibai, Baha; Iams, Jay D; Mercer, Brian M; Tolosa, Jorge; Caritis, Steve N; VanDorsten, J Peter

    2017-03-02

    Background Subclinical thyroid disease during pregnancy may be associated with adverse outcomes, including a lower-than-normal IQ in offspring. It is unknown whether levothyroxine treatment of women who are identified as having subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy improves cognitive function in their children. Methods We screened women with a singleton pregnancy before 20 weeks of gestation for subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as a thyrotropin level of 4.00 mU or more per liter and a normal free thyroxine (T4) level (0.86 to 1.90 ng per deciliter [11 to 24 pmol per liter]), and for hypothyroxinemia, defined as a normal thyrotropin level (0.08 to 3.99 mU per liter) and a low free T4 level (hypothyroidism underwent randomization at a mean of 16.7 weeks of gestation, and 526 with hypothyroxinemia at a mean of 17.8 weeks of gestation. In the subclinical hypothyroidism trial, the median IQ score of the children was 97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 94 to 99) in the levothyroxine group and 94 (95% CI, 92 to 96) in the placebo group (P=0.71). In the hypothyroxinemia trial, the median IQ score was 94 (95% CI, 91 to 95) in the levothyroxine group and 91 (95% CI, 89 to 93) in the placebo group (P=0.30). In each trial, IQ scores were missing for 4% of the children. There were no significant between-group differences in either trial in any other neurocognitive or pregnancy outcomes or in the incidence of adverse events, which was low in both groups. Conclusions Treatment for subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia beginning between 8 and 20 weeks of gestation did not result in significantly better cognitive outcomes in children through 5 years of age than no treatment for those conditions. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00388297 .).

  1. Effect of magnesium sulfate and thyroxine on inflammatory markers in a rat model of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Amr M; Sakr, Hussein F

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore we investigated the effects of levothyroxine and MgSO4 on inflammatory markers as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in hypothyroid rats. Sixty male rats were divided into 6 groups; normal, normal + MgSO4, hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism + levothyroxine, hypothyroidism + MgSO4, and hypothyroidism + levothyroxine + MgSO4. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured in all rats. Hypothyroidism significantly increased TSH, CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 and decreased triiodothronine and thyroxine. Treatment of hypothyroid rats with levothyroxine or MgSO4 significantly decreased CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Combined therapy of hypothyroid rats with levothyroxine and MgSO4 significantly decreased CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 compared with hypothyroid rats either untreated or treated with levothyroxine or MgSO4. This study demonstrates that hypothyroid rats have chronic low grade inflammation, which may account for increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Combined levothyroxine and MgSO4 is better than levothyroxine or MgSO4 alone in alleviating the chronic low grade inflammatory status and therefore reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in hypothyroid animals.

  2. Role of interleukin-6 on RANKL-RANK/osteoprotegerin system in hypothyroid ovariectomized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Kaminski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal women frequently develop hypothyroidism. Estrogen depletion is accompanied by an increase of IL-6, accelerating bone turnover. The influence of hypothyroidism on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was an attempt to clarify the role of interleukin-6 on RANKL-RANK/osteoprotegerin system in hypothyroid ovariectomized mice. The study was performed on 56, 12-13 weeks old, female mice: C57BL/6J (wild-type; WT and C57BL/6JIL6-/-Kopf (IL-6 knock-out; IL6KO. The mice were randomly divided into 8 groups with 7 mice in each one: 1/ WT controls, 2/ IL6KO controls, 3/ WT hypothyroid mice, 4/ IL6KO hypothyroid mice, 5/ WT ovariectomized, 6/ IL6KO ovariectomized, 7/ WT ovariectomized hypothyroid mice and 8/ IL6KO ovariectomized hypothyroid mice. Experimental model of menopause was produced by bilateral ovariectomy carried out in 8-9 weeks old mice. Experimental model of hypothyroidism was induced by propylthiouracyl administration in driking water. The serum levels of TRACP 5b, osteocalcin, OPG and RANKL were determined by ELISA. Serum RANKL concentrations were elevated significantly in all groups of ovariectomized mice as compared to respective controls, but in a minor degree in IL6KO hypothyroid mice as compared to wild-type animals. Moreover sRANKL values were significantly lower in IL6KO as compared to WT controls and IL6KO PTU injected mice. Osteoprotegerin serum levels were decreased in all IL-6 deficient mice and in a highest degree in sham-operated hypothyroid mice. To sum up, the results of the present study suggest that estrogens deficit is a strong stimulus for RANKL-RANK/OPG pathway that breaks an inhibitory influence of hypothyroidism even in IL-6 deficient mice.

  3. Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Hypothyroid Patients at Saveetha Medical College and Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, S S; Prasad, S; Surapaneni, K M; Joshi, A

    2015-04-01

    Hypothyroidism causes considerable morbidity. Low knowledge coupled with inadequate health literacy may lead to poor prevention and management. This study aimed to assess health information-seeking behavior and hypothyroid knowledge among South Indian hypothyroid patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2013 in Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. Hundred clinically diagnosed hypothyroid patients ≥18 years were interviewed in a hospital using a 57-item questionnaire to gather information on their socio-demographics, self-reported disease history, hypothyroid-related knowledge, health information sources, health literacy and health information-seeking behavior. Hypothyroidism was assessed by free T3 and T4 levels. Mean age of participants was 38 years (SD=12) with median age of 39.5 years, majority of the participants being females (77%) and living in urban setting (52%). Mean free T3 level was 0.0137ng/dl (SD= 0.003) and mean free T4 was 0.7ng/dl (SD= 0.06). Ninety three percent of the participants received initial hypothyroidism education from their physicians at the time of diagnosis. Half of the participants had incorrect hypothyroidism-related knowledge; similar between both genders. Participants with inadequate health literacy had poor knowledge about the hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism-related health information was sought almost exclusively from health professionals, predominantly regarding treatment, linked to their faith in qualified medical assistance. Economic status primarily determined healthcare-seeking behavior. Marital status, education level, annual household income and health literacy were significantly associated with knowledge. Participants having higher educational qualification, higher annual household income and adequate health literacy had considerable knowledge about hypothyroidism. Developing multi-factorial and tailored health education for patients with marginal or inadequate health literacy is needed

  4. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnosed on the basis of laboratory results (serum FT3, FT4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH]. Patients with history of hypothyroidism and receiving levothyroxine therapy or those with serum free T4 5.50 μU/ml, were categorized as hypothyroid. The prevalence of self reported and undetected hypothyroidism, and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibody positivity was assessed. Results: A total of 5376 adult male or non-pregnant female participants ³18 years of age were enrolled, of which 5360 (mean age: 46 ± 14.68 years; 53.70% females were evaluated. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 10.95% (n = 587, 95% CI, 10.11-11.78 of which 7.48% (n = 401 patients self reported the condition, whereas 3.47% (n = 186 were previously undetected. Inland cities showed a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism as compared to coastal cities. A significantly higher ( P 5.50 μIU/ml. Anti - TPO antibodies suggesting autoimmunity were detected in 21.85% (n = 1171 patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high, affecting approximately one in 10 adults in the study population. Female gender and older age were found to have significant association with hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and anti-TPO antibody positivity were the other common observations.

  5. Type and Extent of Somatic Morbidity before and after the Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism. A Nationwide Register Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind;

    2013-01-01

    Hypothyroidism has been linked with an increased risk of other morbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. However, the temporal relationship between these diseases and the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not well illuminated. Such information may provide insight into causal...... relationships between hypothyroidism and other morbidities....

  6. Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Ki Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Tae Young [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Iksan (Korea); See-Sung, Choi [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Iksan (Korea); Kim, Jong Duck [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Iksan (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    We report a 9-year-old girl with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. She presented with growth arrest, abnormal thyroid function studies, and a pituitary mass on MRI. With thyroxine therapy, the pituitary mass regressed and her symptoms resolved. Primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  7. Prognostic Role of Hypothyroidism in Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ning; Gao, Dengfeng; Triggiani, Vincenzo; Iacoviello, Massimo; Mitchell, Judith E; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Yan; Kou, Huijuan

    2015-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is a risk factor of heart failure (HF) in the general population. However, the relationship between hypothyroidism and clinical outcomes in patients with established HF is still inconclusive.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association of hypothyroidism and all-cause mortality as well as cardiac death and/or hospitalization in patients with HF. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases for studies of hypothyroidism and clinical outcomes in patients with HF published up to the end of January 2015. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR) statistics. We included 13 articles that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for hypothyroidism with outcomes in patients with HF. For the association of hypothyroidism with all-cause mortality and with cardiac death and/or hospitalization, the pooled RR was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.29-1.61) and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.22-1.55), respectively. However, the association disappeared on adjustment for B-type natriuretic protein level (RR 1.17, 95% CI: 0.90-1.52) and in studies of patients with mean age hypothyroidism associated with increased all-cause mortality as well as cardiac death and/or hospitalization in patients with HF. Further diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for hypothyroidism may be needed for patients with HF.

  8. Evaluation of body composition changes, epicardial adipose tissue, and serum omentin-1 levels in overt hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerit, Ethem Turgay; Akturk, Mujde; Altinova, Alev E; Tavil, Yusuf; Ozkan, Cigdem; Yayla, Cagri; Altay, Mustafa; Demirtas, Canan; Cakir, Nuri

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to investigate body composition changes, epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT), serum omentin-1 levels, and the relationship among them along with some atherosclerosis markers in overt hypothyroidism. Twenty-eight newly diagnosed overt hypothyroid patients were evaluated before and after 6 months of thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) and compared to the healthy subjects in this prospective longitudinal study. Body compositions were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and EATT was measured by echocardiography. Carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), thyroid hormone levels, lipid parameters, high sensitive c-reactive protein, homocysteine, and omentin-1 levels were measured in all subjects. Body weight and lean body mass were higher in patients with hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid state after THRT (p = 0.012, 0.034, respectively). EATT was higher in patients with hypothyroidism than the control group (p hypothyroid state, omentin-1 levels were lower than controls (p = 0.037) but increased in 6 months with THRT (p = 0.001). The c-IMT was higher, and FMD was lower in hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid state and control group (p hypothyroidism. The increased amount of EATT and decreased omentin-1 levels can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in addition to other factors in hypothyroidism.

  9. Impact of Overt and Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Exercise Tolerance: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankhaar, Jeannette A. C.; de Vries, Wouter R.; Jansen, Jaap A. C. G.; Zelissen, Pierre M. J.; Backx, Frank J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review describes the state of the art of the impact of hypothyroidism on exercise tolerance and physical performance capacity in untreated and treated patients with hypothyroidism. Method: A systematic computer-aided search was conducted using biomedical databases. Relevant studies in English, German, and Dutch, published…

  10. FEATURES PREGNANCY AND BIRTH OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM, LIVING IN THE FAR NORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Николаевна Кравченко

    2017-02-01

    Results. The medication correction of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women in extreme north indicated less thyroid gland, than in women without medication correcting this condition. In newborns of mothers with subclinical hypothyroidism, there has been an increase in the size of the thyroid gland and reduced Apgar score.

  11. The attitude toward hypothyroidism during early gestation : Time for a change of mind?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.J.M.; Broeren, M.; Wiersinga, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The approach not to screen thyroid function of all pregnant women is mainly based on conflicting evidence of whether treatment of women with mild hypothyroidism is beneficial. However, there is consensus that all women with overt hypothyroidism (OH) and those with a thyrotropin (TSH) >10

  12. Evaluation of cardiac ischaemia in cardiac asymptomatic newly diagnosed untreated patients with primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A; Zoet-Nugteren, SK; Berghout, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Hypothyroidism is regarded as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Possible factors involved in this association are hyperlipidaemia and hypertension, both occurring with increased frequency in hypothyroid patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate signs/symptoms of cardiac isc

  13. Rituximab therapy in steroid-resistant severe hypothyroid Grave′s ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Pandit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Association of Grave′s ophthalmopathy with hyperthyroidism is well known, and it has also been reported in euthyroid or hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis, which rarely requires treatment. Here, we report a case of bilaterally symmetrical severe corticosteroid-resistant hypothyroid Grave′s ophthalmopathy successfully treated with rituximab.

  14. [Congenital hypothyroidism--a diagnosis made by abdominal x-ray?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K; Knorr, D; Butenandt, O; Fendel, H

    1986-12-01

    Meteorism in a newborn may be a symptom of different diseases including hypothyroidism. It is caused by a disturbed peristalsis of the gut. Since in rare cases - as demonstrated in one infant - obligatory screening for hypothyroidism may be missed, meteorism should be considered a serious symptom and should lead to the right diagnosis before too much time is lost.

  15. Reliability of Diagnosing Clinical Hypothyroidism in Adults with Down Syndrome. Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasher, V. P.

    1995-01-01

    The accuracy of diagnosing hypothyroidism in 160 adults with Down syndrome was examined. A significant association between a clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism and increasing age was found but no significant association was found between a clinical and a biochemical diagnosis. Regular biochemical screening is recommended. (Author/SW)

  16. Hypothyroidism is associated with signs of endothelial dysfunction despite 1-year replacement therapy with levothyroxine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Mersebach, H; Nielsen, B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk, not fully explained by classical risk factors. Instead, endothelial dysfunction may link hypothyroidism to atherosclerosis. The effect of levothyroxine substitution on endothelial function has been sparsely studied...... and the results are unclear. This study tested endothelial function as estimated by concomitant measurements of endothelial dependent vascular dilatory capacity and plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor antigen in patients with hypothyroidism and further examined the impact of subsequent levothyroxine...... substitution. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Sixteen consecutive patients (13 women, 3 men, aged 46 +/- 11 years) with hypothyroidism were included and compared to 16 matched healthy controls (13 women, 3 men, aged 49 +/- 11 years). Patients with hypothyroidism were reexamined after 3, 6 and 12 months of levothyroxine...

  17. Onset of Graves' disease during pregnancy in a woman with established hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberiche, María; Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa María; López Mérida, Xabier; Wägner, Ana María

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy strongly influences the thyroid gland and its function. Thyroid guidelines recommend a 30 to 50% increase of the preconceptional levothyroxine dose in women with hypothyroidism, when pregnancy is diagnosed. A 33 year-old, 8-week pregnant woman with hypothyroidism, presents with a 2-week history of palpitations, sweating, nervousness and fatigue. Physical examination shows tachycardia (108 bpm), distal tremors and diffuse goiter. After biochemical confirmation of hyperthyroidism, her levothyroxine dose is reduced and finally interrupted. Propylthiouracil is started and maintained until after the delivery of a healthy baby at week 40. Two weeks postpartum, hyperthyroidism worsens and propylthiouracil is replaced by methimazole. Eighteen months after delivery 7.5 mCi 131Iodine was given. Two months later, hypothyroidism developed and levothyroxine was initiated. Although conversion of Hashimoto's hypothyroidism into Graves' disease is exceptional in pregnancy, pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism should ideally have their TSH concentrations measured before empirically increasing their levothyroxine dose.

  18. Hypothyroidism affects astrocyte and microglial morphology in type 2 diabetes*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Min Nam; Yo Na Kim; Dae Young Yoo; Sun Shin Yi; Jung Hoon Choi; In Koo Hwang; Je Kyung Seong; Yeo Sung Yoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on the morphology of astrocytes and microglia in the hippocampus of Zucker diabetic fatty rats and Zucker lean control rats. To in-duce hypothyroidism, Zucker lean control and Zucker diabetic fatty rats at 7 weeks of age oral y received the vehicle or methimazole, an anti-thyroid drug, treatment for 5 weeks and were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age in al groups for blood chemistry and immunohistochemical staining. In the methimazole-treated Zucker lean control and Zucker diabetic fatty rats, the serum circulating tri odothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels were significantly decreased compared to levels ob-served in the vehicle-treated Zucker lean control or Zucker diabetic fatty rats. This reduction was more prominent in the methimazole-treated Zucker diabetic fatty group. Glial fibril ary acidic protein immunoreactive astrocytes and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1)-immunoreactive microglia in the Zucker lean control and Zucker diabetic fatty group were diffusely detected in the hippocampal CA1 region and dentate gyrus. There were no significant differences in the glial fibril ary acidic protein and Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the CA1 region and dentate gyrus between Zucker lean control and Zucker diabetic fatty groups. However, in the methimazole-treated Zucker lean control and Zucker diabetic fatty groups, the processes of glial fibril ary acidic protein immunoreactive astrocytes and Iba-1 immunoreactive microglia, were significantly decreased in both the CA1 region and dentate gyrus compared to that in the vehicle-treated Zucker lean control and Zucker diabetic fatty groups. These results suggest that diabetes has no effect on the mor-phology of astrocytes and microglia and that hypothyroidism during the onset of diabetes promi-nently reduces the processes of astrocytes and microglia.

  19. Insulin Resistance and Glucose Levels in Subjects with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sikandar Hayat; Fazal, Nadeem; Ijaz, Aamir; Manzoor, Syed Mohsin; Asif, Naveed; Rafi, Tariq; Yasir, Muhammad; Niazi, Najmusaquib Khan

    2017-06-01

    To compare insulin resistance and glycemic indicators among subjects with euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. Comparative cross-sectional study. Department of Pathology and Medicine, PNS Hafeez, Islamabad, in collaboration with the Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from December 2015 to September 2016. Subjects referred for executive screening of apparently healthy population (without any known history of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease or other chronic ailments), were included. Subjects were grouped as euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. Median (IQR) insulin resistance indices including fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance in subjects with group-1 (n=176, 87%, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: 0.5 - 3.5 mIU/L) and group-2 (n=26, 13%, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: 3.51 - 15 mIU/L) were 7.6 (6.70) vs. 11.4 (13.72, p=0.040) and 1.77 (1.79) vs. 2.8 (3.07, p=0.071). The median differences for fasting plasma glucose were 5.0 (1.0) in group-1 vs. 5.0 (1.47) for Group-2 [p=0.618], and glycated hemoglobin was 5.60 (1.1) vs. 5.60 (1.7, p=0.824). Homeostasis Model Assessment for beta sensitivity index in paradox showed slightly higher values for group-2 [median (IQR) 86.67 (92.94)] than group-1 [111.6 (189.64, p= 0.040)]. Measures of insulin resistance including Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance and fasting insulin levels were significantly different between subjects with euthyroidism and having subclinical hypothyroidism.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism

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    Pešić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Overt hypothyroidism is disease associated with accelerated arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is associated with increased cardiovascular risk is contraversial. As SH is a high prevalence thyroid dysfunction, specially in older women, it is important to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors in these patients and that was the aim of this study. Methods. We examined 30 patients with SH and 20 healthy controls. Subclinical hypothireoidism was defined as an elevated thyrotropin (TSH (> 4.5 mU/L and normal free thyroxine (FT4 level. In all the participants we determined body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, TSH, FT4, antibodies to thyroid peroxidase, antibodies to thyroglobulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, triglicerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. Results. Mean BMI in patients with SH was significantly higher (p < 0.05, as well as diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.01 compared with the controls. Average levels of total cholesterol (5.40±0.62 vs 5.06±0.19 mmol/l, p < 0.01 and triglycerides (2.16±0.56 vs 1.89±0.24 mmol/l, p < 0.05 were also significantly higher in the group with SH. Individual analysis revealed that the percentage of patients with SH having borderline elevated total cholesterol (63.33%, hypertrigliceridemia (43.33% and elevated total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (26.67% were significantly higher than the percentage in the controls. No significant correlation between TSH and lipid parameters was detected. Conclusion. Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with higher BMI, diastolic hypertension, higher total cholesterol and triglicerides levels and higher total cholesterol/HDL cholesterols ratio. This might increase the risk of accelerated arteriosclerosis in patients with SH.

  1. Primary hypothyroidism associated with empty sella turcica and hypopituitarism

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    Milošević Maja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Empty sella syndrome is a rather frequent neuroradiological finding in the general population and can be associated with hypopituitarism. Examinations reveal low pituitary hormone levels and lack of response to stimuli. Most patients suffer from central hypothyroidism as part of pituitary insufficiency. Primary hypothyreoidism is a rare finding in these patients. Case report We present 3 patients: one female and two male, suffering from complete hypopituitarism, as part of the empty sella syndrome diagnosed due to low concentrations of all pituitary hormones, elevated TSH and low thyroid hormones. TRH, LHRH, ACTH and ITT tests, as well as IGF1 have confirmed hypopituitarism and primary hypothyroidism. CT and NMR in all three patients showed empty sella without a tumor in it. The diagnosis of primary hypothyrodism in the first patient was made before hypopituitarism has taken place, or at the same time in the second patient, whereas in the third patient it was diagnosed twenty years later. In two patients anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibody levels were high, and in the third patient they were not elevated. It can be assumed that the etiology of primary hypothyrodism in all three patients was of autoimmune origin, which caused thyroid hypofunction. High level of TSH in all three patients and especially in the patient whose hypopituitarism was diagnosed twenty years later, showed presence of thyrotrophic cells in the pituitary. Evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis was carried out during the complete substitution therapy of hypopituitarism. Conclusion Diagnosing primary hypothyrodism associated with hypopituitarism helps improving the knowledge on empty sella syndrome and points to different clinical syndromes characterized by lack of mixoedema, although approach to therapy is the same for both primary and central hypothyroidism.

  2. Effects of Ischemic Postconditioning on the Hemodynamic Parameters and Heart Nitric Oxide Levels of Hypothyroid Rats

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    Sajad Jeddi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic postconditioning (IPost is a method of protecting the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. However, the effectiveness of IPost in cases of ischemic heart disease accompanied by co-morbidities such as hypothyroidism remains unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of IPost on myocardial IR injury in hypothyroid male rats. Methods: Propylthiouracil in drinking water (500 mg/L was administered to male rats for 21 days to induce hypothyroidism. The hearts from control and hypothyroid rats were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 min of global ischemia, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. IPost was induced immediately following ischemia. Results: Hypothyroidism and IPost significantly improved the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP and peak rates of positive and negative changes in left ventricular pressure (±dp/dt during reperfusion in control rats (p < 0.05. However, IPost had no add-on effect on the recovery of LVDP and ±dp/dt in hypothyroid rats. Furthermore, hypothyroidism significantly decreased the basal NO metabolite (NOx levels of the serum (72.5 ± 4.2 vs. 102.8 ± 3.7 μmol/L; p < 0.05 and heart (7.9 ± 1.6 vs. 18.8 ± 3.2 μmol/L; p < 0.05. Heart NOx concentration in the hypothyroid groups did not change after IR and IPost, whereas these were significantly (p < 0.05 higher and lower after IR and IPost, respectively, in the control groups. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism protects the heart from IR injury, which may be due to a decrease in basal nitric oxide (NO levels in the serum and heart and a decrease in NO after IR. IPost did not decrease the NO level and did not provide further cardioprotection in the hypothyroid group.

  3. Effects of Ischemic Postconditioning on the Hemodynamic Parameters and Heart Nitric Oxide Levels of Hypothyroid Rats

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    Jeddi, Sajad; Zaman, Jalal; Ghasemi, Asghar, E-mail: ghasemi@endocrine.ac.ir [Endocrine Physiology Research Center - Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences - Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrine Research Center - Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences - Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Ischemic postconditioning (IPost) is a method of protecting the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the effectiveness of IPost in cases of ischemic heart disease accompanied by co-morbidities such as hypothyroidism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of IPost on myocardial IR injury in hypothyroid male rats. Propylthiouracil in drinking water (500 mg/L) was administered to male rats for 21 days to induce hypothyroidism. The hearts from control and hypothyroid rats were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 min of global ischemia, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. IPost was induced immediately following ischemia. Hypothyroidism and IPost significantly improved the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and peak rates of positive and negative changes in left ventricular pressure (±dp/dt) during reperfusion in control rats (p < 0.05). However, IPost had no add-on effect on the recovery of LVDP and ±dp/dt in hypothyroid rats. Furthermore, hypothyroidism significantly decreased the basal NO metabolite (NO{sub x}) levels of the serum (72.5 ± 4.2 vs. 102.8 ± 3.7 μmol/L; p < 0.05) and heart (7.9 ± 1.6 vs. 18.8 ± 3.2 μmol/L; p < 0.05). Heart NO{sub x} concentration in the hypothyroid groups did not change after IR and IPost, whereas these were significantly (p < 0.05) higher and lower after IR and IPost, respectively, in the control groups. Hypothyroidism protects the heart from IR injury, which may be due to a decrease in basal nitric oxide (NO) levels in the serum and heart and a decrease in NO after IR. IPost did not decrease the NO level and did not provide further cardioprotection in the hypothyroid group.

  4. Effect of Thyroid Remnant Volume on the Risk of Hypothyroidism After Hemithyroidectomy: A Prospective Study.

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    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Wong, Carlos K H; Wong, Kai Pun; Chu, Kelvin Ka-Wan; Shek, Tony W H

    2017-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common sequel after a hemithyroidectomy. Although various risk factors leading to hypothyroidism have been reported, the effect of the contralateral lobe's volume has been understudied. This study aimed to examine the association between the preoperative contralateral lobe's volume and the risk of postoperative hypothyroidism. During a 2-year period, 150 eligible patients undergoing a hemithyroidectomy were evaluated. The volume of the contralateral nonexcised lobe was estimated preoperatively by independent assessors on ultrasonography using the following formula: width (in cm) × depth (in cm) × length (in cm) × (π/6), adjusted for the body surface area (BSA). Postoperative hypothyroidism was defined as serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) exceeding 4.78 mIU/L. Any significant characteristics in the univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate analysis to determine independent factors. After a mean follow-up period of 53.5 ± 9.4 months, 44 patients (29.3 %) experienced postoperative hypothyroidism, and 10 of these patients required thyroxine replacement. Hypothyroidism was associated with a higher preoperative TSH level (p < 0.001), a smaller BSA-adjusted volume (p < 0.001), fewer ipsilateral nodules (p = 0.037), and the presence of thyroiditis (p = 0.050). After adjustment for thyroiditis, preoperative TSH (p < 0.001), number of ipsilateral nodules (p = 0.048), and BSA-adjusted volume (p < 0.001) were independent factors for hypothyroidism. Patients with a BSA-adjusted volume smaller than 3.2 ml had a threefold greater hypothyroidism risk than those with a BSA-adjusted volume of 3.2 ml or more (p < 0.001). A significant inverse association between the preoperative contralateral lobe's volume and hypothyroidism risk was observed after hemithyroidectomy. Together with a higher preoperative TSH level and fewer ipsilateral nodules, a smaller BSA-adjusted volume measured by preoperative ultrasonography independently predicted

  5. SCREENING OR AGGRESSIVE CASE FINDING FOR HYPOTHYROID PATIENTS. WHAT IS THE EVIDENCE??

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    Anand Rawat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Backgound: Hypothyroidism enhances atherosclerosis in multiple ways. Carotid intima media thickness(C’IMI as measured by B-Mode ultrasound and color Doppler is a risk determinant of atheroscierosis. hsC’RP is a marker of inflammation and has been incriminated as a risk Jiictorforfuture cardiovascular events. Our study aims at generating evidence Jbr increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors in hypothyroid patients and thus needfor population- based screening for hypothyroidism. Methods: We included 25 consecutive patients in to each of two groups of our study (n=50, Hypothyroid group had patients with Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, > I0miu/l, subclinical hjpothyroid (SCH group patients with TSH 6-1 0miu/l. We compared CIMT and hsCRP in 2 groups along with other atherosclerotic risk factors. Results : We found that in the subclinical hypothyroid patients the mean value of total cholesterol (TC(208.8,84±6.14. LDL-C levels (157.88±33.51, total cholesterol/ LDL cholesterol ratio(5.29±131, LDL cholesterol ratio” HDL cholesterol ratio (3.93±l.25 and plasma hsCRP (2.13±0. 69 levels were higher than the normal values. In hypothyroid patients we found that these values and the CIMT values were statistically signficantly higher than the subclinical hypothyroid patients, in addition diastolic hypertension (95.84±11.06 and higher than normal waist-hip ratio (1.03±0.19 was also seen in hypothyroid group. CIMT and hsCRP also showed positive correlation with other atherosclerotic risk factors. (Waist-hip ratio, diastolic hypertension andLDL cholesterol Conclusion : Cardiovascular risk factors were increased in sub clinical as well as in clinical hypothyroidism so efforts should be made to detect andtreat hypothyroidism at an early stage by aggressive casefinding in high risk population.

  6. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as hypothyroid goitre: a unique presentation.

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    Marupudi, Krishna Chaitanya; Karanth, Suman S; Thomas, Joseph

    2014-12-02

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a disease involving the antigen presenting cells, which can range from a single system involvement with an indolent course to a multisystem disease with increased morbidity. We present a rare case of LCH presenting as hypothyroid goitre that was successfully treated as per the LCH III trial protocol with a combination of vinblastine and oral prednisolone. We highlight the need for awareness of this rare presentation of LCH as a painless goitre which is often misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma or overlooked as a benign disease.

  7. Technetium 99m pertechnetate scans in congenital hypothyroidism

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    Bauman, R.A.; Bode, H.H.; Hayek, A.; Crawford, J.D.

    1976-08-01

    Goiters are rarely palpable in infants with congenital hypothyroidism except in the case of maternal ingestion of iodide. The presence or absence of glandular tissue is, however, important for genetic and prognostic counseling and for acceleration of diagnosis in other affected siblings. The detection of thyroid tissue by /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scans in a significant number of our patients heretofore considered athyreotic establishes that physical findings and traditional laboratory data are not adequate to determine whether or not thyroid tissue is present.

  8. Resolution of chronic severe refractory thrombocytopenia after treatment of hypothyroidism

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    Bowles, K M; Turner, G E; Wimperis, J Z

    2004-01-01

    The case of a 52 year old woman with chronic severe refractory thrombocytopenia is presented. Over a three year period, her platelet count was persistently less than 20 × 109/litre (normal range, 150–400). She required repeated hospital admission for management of bleeding and received multiple blood transfusions. She was given repeated courses of steroids, immunosuppression, immunoglobulin, and splenectomy, without success, in an attempt to stop the chronic blood loss. Eventually, she was found to be profoundly hypothyroid. On correction of her thyroid deficiency the platelet count returned to the normal range and all bleeding stopped. The platelet count remains in the normal range three years later. PMID:15333667

  9. A case of congenital hypothyroidism presented with dysmyelinization findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sevil Ar Yuca; Cahide Ylmaz; Avni Kaya; Lokmanstyol; Ertan Sal; Yasar Cesur; Hseyin Caksen

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system is one of the most crucial targeted systems of hyphotiroidism where tissues undergo various broad developmental processes such as neuronal and glial cellular differentiation, migration and myelinization.However brain images are mainly normal.In this article we present findings related to a1-year-old girl who has been referred to our outpatient clinic with complaints of slowing of movement and lack of interest.She was diagnosed with hypothyroidism.Her brain magnetic resonance image obtained during diagnosis displayed dysmyelinization.It showed improvement afterNa-L thyroxin therapy during follow up.

  10. Effects of hypothyroidism induced by perinatal exposure to PTU on rat behavior and synaptic gene expression.

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    Kobayashi, Kumiko; Tsuji, Ryozo; Yoshioka, Takafumi; Kushida, Masahiko; Yabushita, Setsuko; Sasaki, Madoka; Mino, Terumasa; Seki, Takaki

    2005-09-01

    Hypothyroidism in the rat induced by perinatal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU) is a useful animal model to study molecular changes underlying neurobehavioral defects associated with this condition. Understanding the developmental alterations in gene expression related to the neurobehavioral dysfunction should help to identify molecular markers for developmental neurotoxicity at an early stage of development. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of PTU on the expression of a set of genes implicated in neural network formation or synaptic function at a minimal dose of PTU causing behavioral alteration. Various doses of PTU were administered to dams from late pregnancy to the lactation period and the expression of selected genes in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex of offspring was examined by quantitative RT-PCR. Behavioral performance of PTU-treated rats was also assessed. PTU-treated rats showed increased motor activity and impairment of E-maze learning at weaning and after maturation. At doses causing such behavioral alteration, expression of GAP-43 and M1 mRNAs was changed during neuronal network formation, suggesting that levels of these factors during development are important for accurate postnatal development and function.

  11. Opposing regulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CAR and PXR in hypothyroid mice

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    Park, Young Joo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Kyung [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon Kwang [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Moore, David D., E-mail: moore@bcm.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Clinical hypothyroidism affects various metabolic processes including drug metabolism. CYP2B and CYP3A are important cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes that are regulated by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). We evaluated the regulation of the hepatic expression of CYPs by CAR and PXR in the hypothyroid state induced by a low-iodine diet containing 0.15% propylthiouracil. Expression of Cyp3a11 was suppressed in hypothyroid C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and a further decrement was observed in hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} mice, but not in hypothyroid PXR{sup −/−} mice. In contrast, expression of Cyp2b10 was induced in both WT and PXR{sup −/−} hypothyroid mice, and this induction was abolished in CAR{sup −/−} mice and in and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} double knockouts. CAR mRNA expression was increased by hypothyroidism, while PXR expression remained unchanged. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used antiepileptic that is metabolized by CYP3A isoforms. After CBZ treatment of normal chow fed mice, serum CBZ levels were highest in CAR{sup −/−} mice and lowest in WT and PXR{sup −/−} mice. Hypothyroid WT or PXR{sup −/−} mice survived chronic CBZ treatment, but all hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} mice died, with CAR{sup −/−}PXR{sup −/−} mice surviving longer than CAR{sup −/−} mice (12.3 ± 3.3 days vs. 6.3 ± 2.1 days, p = 0.04). All these findings suggest that hypothyroid status affects xenobiotic metabolism, with opposing responses of CAR and PXR and their CYP targets that can cancel each other out, decreasing serious metabolic derangement in response to a xenobiotic challenge. -- Highlights: ► Hypothyroid status activates CAR in mice and induces Cyp2b10 expression. ► Hypothyroid status suppresses PXR activity in mice and represses Cyp3a11 expression. ► These responses balance each other out in normal mice.

  12. [Ultrastructural changes in the cerebellum of experimental hypothyroidism (cretinism)].

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    Deshimaru, M; Miyakawa, T; Kuramoto, M

    1983-08-01

    We examined the cerebellum of the rats being the experimental hypothyroidism (cretinism) on the 20th day, 35th day and 60th day by the light and electron microscope. The remarkable findings were observed to the experimental group on the 20th day. The maturational states of this group correspond to that of the 16th day of the control group. On the other hand, the remarkable pathological findings were not observed on the 35th and 60th day of the experimental group. According to the findings of the experimental rats on the 20th day, the changes of the cells were the retention of the external granule cells and the maturational changes of the internal granule cells. We recognized the retardation of the maturational timing and a disagreement of the maturational rate of the internal granule cells. The lamellar bodies being the disturbance of the mitochondrial cristae were observed. About the white matter, the myelinated nerve fibers were a small quantity in number, and the deficiency of the myelin synthesis, the maturational disturbance of oligoglia were seen. In the several axons, the lamellar bodies and the honeycomb like structures were seen. It is concluded that the maturational disturbance of the internal granule cells are due to the disturbance of the secondary protein synthesis by the hypothyroid state and the degeneration of the mitocondria. The deficiency of the myelin synthesis is related to the maturational disturbance of oligoglia.

  13. Maternal Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy and Infant Structural Congenital Malformations

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    Bengt Källén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The question is debated on whether maternal hypothyroidism or use of thyroxin in early pregnancy affects the risk for infant congenital malformations. Objectives. To expand the previously published study on maternal thyroxin use in early pregnancy and the risk for congenital malformations. Methods. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register were used for the years 1996–2011 and infant malformations were identified from national health registers. Women with preexisting diabetes or reporting the use of thyreostatics, anticonvulsants, or antihypertensives were excluded from analysis. Risk estimates were made as odds ratios (ORs or risk ratios (RRs after adjustment for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking, and body mass index. Results. Among 23 259 infants whose mothers in early pregnancy used thyroxin, 730 had a major malformation; among all 1 567 736 infants, 48012 had such malformations. The adjusted OR was 1.06 (95% CI 0.98–1.14. For anal atresia the RR was 1.85 (95% CI 1.00–1.85 and for choanal atresia 3.14 (95% CI 1.26–6.47. The risk of some other malformations was also increased but statistical significance was not reached. Conclusions. Treated maternal hypothyroidism may be a weak risk factor for infant congenital malformations but an association with a few rare conditions is possible.

  14. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroidism

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    Manish Bathla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The association between depression and thyroid function is well known. Both conditions express many similar symptoms, thus making the diagnosis and treatment difficult. Aims: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroid. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methodology: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as hypothyroidism were evaluated using Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS and Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows version 17.0 software. The quantitative data were expressed in number and percentage. The results obtained were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Females constituted 70% of the sample. A total of 60% reported some degree of depression based on HDRS (males – 56.63% and females – 64.29% whereas about 63% out of the total patients screened showed some degree of anxiety (males –56.66% and females – 65.72% based on HAM-A. The most common depressive symptom among the males was depressed mood (73.33% and among females was gastrointestinal somatic symptoms (68.54%. The most common anxiety symptom among the males was depressed mood (70.0% and among females was anxious mood (92.85%. Conclusions: Psychiatric symptoms/disorders are common in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

  15. Primary growth hormone insensitivity (Laron syndrome and acquired hypothyroidism: a case report

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    Corneli Ginevra

    2011-07-01

    treatment is daily administration of recombinant insulin-like growth factor 1 starting from early childhood. However, these patients show a dramatically impaired final height. In our case, unexplained central hypothyroidism occurred during treatment.

  16. A Prospective Cohort Study on Radiation-induced Hypothyroidism: Development of an NTCP Model

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    Boomsma, Marjolein J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Christianen, Miranda E.M.C.; Beetz, Ivo; Chouvalova, Olga; Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Laan, Bernard F.A.M. van der [Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. [Department of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Oosting, Sjoukje F. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A., E-mail: j.a.langendijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To establish a multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Methods and Materials: The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 105 patients treated with (chemo-) radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer was prospectively measured during a median follow-up of 2.5 years. Hypothyroidism was defined as elevated serum TSH with decreased or normal free thyroxin (T4). A multivariate logistic regression model with bootstrapping was used to determine the most important prognostic variables for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Results: Thirty-five patients (33%) developed primary hypothyroidism within 2 years after radiation therapy. An NTCP model based on 2 variables, including the mean thyroid gland dose and the thyroid gland volume, was most predictive for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. NTCP values increased with higher mean thyroid gland dose (odds ratio [OR]: 1.064/Gy) and decreased with higher thyroid gland volume (OR: 0.826/cm{sup 3}). Model performance was good with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85. Conclusions: This is the first prospective study resulting in an NTCP model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The probability of hypothyroidism rises with increasing dose to the thyroid gland, whereas it reduces with increasing thyroid gland volume.

  17. An international survey of screening and management of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Mateus Fernandes da Silva; Cerqueira, Taise Lima de Oliveira; Silva Junior, Joaquim Custódio; Amaral, Magali Teresopolis Reis; Vaidya, Bijay; Poppe, Kris Gustave; Carvalho, Gisah Amaral de; Gutierrez, Silvia; Alcaraz, Graciela; Abalovich, Marcos; Ramos, Helton Estrela

    2014-12-01

    To determine how endocrinologists in Latin America deal with clinical case scenarios related to hypothyroidism and pregnancy. In January 2013, we sent an electronic questionnaire on current practice relating to management of hypothyroidism in pregnancy to 856 members of the Latin American Thyroid Society (LATS) who manage pregnant patients with thyroid disease. Subsequently, we have analyzed responses from physician members. Two hundred and ninety-three responders represent clinicians from 13 countries. All were directly involved in the management of maternal hypothyroidism and 90.7% were endocrinologists. The recommendation of a starting dose of L-thyoxine for a woman diagnosed with overt hypothyroidism in pregnancy, preconception management of euthyroid women with known thyroid autoimmunity and approach related to ovarian hyperstimulation in women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies were widely variable. For women with known hypothyroidism, 34.6% of responders would increase L-thyroxine dose by 30-50% as soon as pregnancy is confirmed. With regard to screening, 42.7% of responders perform universal evaluation and 70% recommend TSH hypothyroid pregnant women. Deficiencies in diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism during pregnancy were observed in our survey, highlighting the need for improvement of specialist education and quality of care offered to patients with thyroid disease during pregnancy in Latin America.

  18. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar; Bajaj, Sarita; Rajput, Rajesh; Subramaniam, K A V; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Bhandari, Rajendra; Dharmalingam, Mala; Sahay, Rakesh; Ganie, Ashraf; Kotwal, Narendra; Shriram, Usha

    2016-01-01

    A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh), Bengaluru (Karnataka), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Kolkata (West Bengal), Hyderabad (Telangana), Nasik (Maharashtra), Rohtak (Haryana), Pune (Maharashtra), New Delhi (Delhi), Srinagar (Kashmir), and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh) enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388), using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613), whereas 40% (n = 155) of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%), majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  19. Cardiac tamponade as initial presenting feature of primary hypothyroidism in the ED.

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    Ekka, Meera; Ali, Imran; Aggarwal, Praveen; Jamshed, Nayer

    2014-06-01

    Pericardial effusion is commonly detected in patients with severe hypothyroidism and is typically mild; rarely, it may lead to cardiac tamponade. Cardiac tamponade with myxedema coma as initial presenting feature of previously unrecognized hypothyroidism is rare. This case highlights that previously undiagnosed hypothyroidism can manifest as myxedema coma with shock due to pericardial tamponade particularly in winters because a cold environment can precipitate myxedema.We report an undiagnosed case of primary hypothyroidism who presented to the emergency department for the first time with both cardiac tamponade and myxedema coma. This combination of cardiac tamponade and myxedema coma as the presenting features of primary hypothyroidism has rarely been reported in the literature. The patient was effectively managed with echocardiography-guided pericardiocentesis, levothyroxine, and external rewarming. Cardiac tamponade and myxedema coma as presenting features of previously unrecognized primary hypothyroidism are extremely rare. Urgent bedside echocardiography with pericardiocentesis along with thyroxine therapy is the treatment of choice. It is important to include hypothyroidism as the differential diagnosis in patients with cardiac tamponade and altered level of consciousness especially in winter months.

  20. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh, Bengaluru (Karnataka, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, Kolkata (West Bengal, Hyderabad (Telangana, Nasik (Maharashtra, Rohtak (Haryana, Pune (Maharashtra, New Delhi (Delhi, Srinagar (Kashmir, and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388, using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613, whereas 40% (n = 155 of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%, majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  1. Hypothyroidism associated with acromegaly and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus in a Samoyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, T; Terzo, E; Mooney, C T

    2014-11-01

    The aetiology of insulin resistance (IR) in naturally occurring canine hypothyroidism is poorly understood and likely multifactorial. Excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) by transdifferentiated pituitary cells may contribute to IR in some hypothyroid dogs, but although this has been demonstrated in experimental studies, it has not yet been documented in clinical cases. A 4-year-old male entire Samoyed presented with an 8-month history of pedal hyperkeratosis and shifting lameness, which had been unresponsive to zinc supplementation, antibiotics and glucocorticoid therapy. The dog also exhibited exercise intolerance and polydipsia of 12 and 2 months duration, respectively. On physical examination, obesity, poor coat condition, widened interdental spaces and mild respiratory stridor were noted. Initial laboratory test results revealed concurrent hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus (DM). Further investigations showed IR, GH excess and a paradoxical increase of GH following stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing hormone. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case that suggests that GH alterations may have clinical significance in naturally occurring hypothyroidism. Among other factors, hypothyroidism-induced GH excess should be considered as a possible cause of IR in patients suffering from hypothyroidism and concurrent DM. In such cases, DM may reverse with treatment of hypothyroidism, as was documented in this case. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Obesity and attenuated adiposity rebound in children with congenital hypothyroidism. Normalization of BMI values in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadas, S; Magiakou, M-A; Mengreli, C; Girginoudis, P; Galani, C; Smyrnaki, P; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C; Xekouki, P; Chrousos, G P; Dacou-Voutetakis, C

    2007-07-01

    An earlier adiposity rebound, suggestive of adult obesity, has been reported in children with congenital hypothyroidism. We undertook this study to evaluate the effect of congenital hypothyroidism on: 1) the timing of adiposity rebound, 2) the long-term prognosis of BMI status, and 3) the factors potentially affecting adiposity in subjects with congenital hypothyroidism. We found that in children with congenital hypothyroidism the BMI values were higher during the first years of life compared to normal population, but subsequently normalized. After the initial rise of BMI, the decline (nadir) and subsequent rise (adiposity rebound), usually occurring in normal children at an age greater than 30 months, was less evident in our group of children with congenital hypothyroidism. The severity of hypothyroidism affected BMI values at 6 and 12, but not at 36 months of age. In conclusion, in children with congenital hypothyroidism, 1) the high BMI values in early childhood normalize in adolescence, and 2) the normally expected BMI fluctuations during the first years of life are attenuated. These findings constitute indirect evidence that thyroid function during fetal and neonatal life affects BMI status during the first years of life.

  3. How common is hypothyroidism after external radiotherapy to neck in head and neck cancer patients?

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    Nirmala Srikantia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify the occurrence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism among head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation to the neck and to justify routine performing of thyroid function tests during follow-up. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective nonrandomized study of 45 patients of head and neck cancer, receiving radiotherapy (RT. Thyroid stimulating hormone and T4 estimations were done at baseline and at 4 months and 9 months following RT. Results: Of the 45 patients, 37(82.2 % were males and eight (17.8 % were females. All patients received radiation to the neck to a dose of >40Gy. 35.6% received concurrent chemotherapy. Two patients underwent prior neck dissection. Fourteen patients (31.1% were found to have clinical hypothyroidism (P value of 0.01. Five (11.1% patients were found to have subclinical hypothyroidism with a total 19 of 45 (42.2% patients developing radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Nine of 14 patients with clinical hypothyroidism were in the age group of 51 to 60 years (P=0.0522. Five of 16 patients who received chemoradiation and nine of 29 who received RT alone developed clinical hypothyroidism. Above 40 Gy radiation dose was not a relevant risk factor for hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism (clinical or subclinical is an under-recognized morbidity of external radiation to the neck which is seen following a minimum dose of 40 Gy to neck. Recognizing hypothyroidism (clinical or subclinical early and treating it prevents associated complications. Hence, thyroid function tests should be made routine during follow-up.

  4. [Hypothyroidism during pregnancy risks the child's neurocognitive development. New guidelines and remaining knowledge gaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalkidou, Alkistis; Bixo, Marie; Sköldebrand Sparre, Ann-Charlotte; Strandell, Annika; Lindén Hirschberg, Angelica; Filipsson Nyström, Helena

    2016-02-05

    Thyroid abnormalities are common during pregnancy and can affect pregnancy outcome. In 2012, the working group for endocrinology was assigned by SFOG to develop evidence based guidelines for their management. There is high quality evidence that untreated clinical hypothyroidism increases the risk of pregnancy and fetal complications. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with pregnancy complications. The presence of TPO-antibodies is linked to miscarriage and premature birth. It is uncertain whether subclinical hypothyroidism/maternal TPO-antibodies adversely affect the child's neurocognitive development. Reference intervals for TSH among pregnant women in Sweden need to be established.

  5. MR imaging of pituitary hyperplasia in a child with growth arrest and primary hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papakonstantinou, O.; Bakantaki, A.; Papadaki, E.; Gourtsoyiannis, N. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Bitsori, M.; Mamoulakis, D. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece)

    2000-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary hyperplasia has been rarely described in children with primary hypothyroidism. We report a case of pituitary hyperplasia in a child presented with significant growth arrest and laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed symmetrical pituitary enlargement simulating macroadenoma. After thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the child's height increased and pituitary enlargement regressed to normal. Awareness of MRI appearance of pituitary hyperplasia in children with laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism might avoid misdiagnosis for pituitary tumor, which may also manifest as growth disorder, obviating unnecessary surgery. (orig.)

  6. Premature Menarche Associated with Primary Hypothyroidism in a 5.5-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrubajyoti Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with hypothyroidism generally have delayed pubertal development. Rare association with precocious puberty may occur especially in long standing untreated patients. The cardinal features of hypothyroidism induced pseudo precocious pubertal development include thelarche, galactorrhea and menarche. Other characteristics features are an absence of sexual hair and retardation of linear growth. Its manifestation as isolated menarche has been rarely reported. Recently, a five and half year old girl presented to us with history of one episode of vaginal bleeding. A pelvic ultrasonogram revealed multiple cysts in both ovaries and subsequent investigations led to a diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  7. Impacts of the coexistence of diabetes and hypothyroidism on body weight gain, leptin and various metabolic aspects in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osama M; Gabar, Mohamed Abdel; Ali, Tarek M

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the interrelationship and the influence of the coexistence of diabetes and hypothyroidism on thyroid hormone levels, insulin levels and biochemical variables related to carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism in addition to thyroid gland and Islets of Langerhans histological changes and antioxidant defense system. Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to fasting albino rats at dose level of 45 mg/kg b. w. Hypothyroidism in diabetic and normal rats was induced by adding methimazole in drinking water (0.02% w/v) for 4 weeks. The obtained results revealed that hypothyroidism interacts with diabetes in a way that prevents the progress of the hyperglycemic state. This may be due to the increase in the insulin secretory response in diabetic hypothyroid than diabetic rats. Serum T3 level decreased in order in diabetic (-26.63%), hypothyroid (-61.89%) and diabetic hypothyroid (-65.69%) rats while T4 level was increased in diabetic rats and decreased in hypothyroid ones. The decrease in T3 level in diabetic animals in spite of T4 increase may be attributed to the decrease in conversion of T4 to T3 as a result of hepatic 5'-DI decreased activity. Liver glycogen content was three-fold decreased in diabetic rats and was not significantly altered in both hypothyroid and diabetic hypothyroid rats. The serum leptin level and body weight gain were decreased in diabetic and diabetic hypothyroid rats; the leptin level was more deteriorated in diabetic hypothyroid rats while body weight gain was more affected in diabetic rats. Serum triglycerides level was more increased in diabetic rats than in diabetic hypothyroid ones on one hand, while total lipids, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol levels as well as cardiovascular indices were more deteriorated in diabetic hypothyroid rats than diabetic ones on the other hand. Serum total protein and globulin levels were decreased in diabetic rats and were

  8. Reevaluation of the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake test, with special reference to reversible primary hypothyroidism with elevated thyroid radioiodine uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, K.; Sato, K.; Ikenoue, H.; Yoshinari, M.; Nakagawa, M.; Kuroda, T.; Fujishima, M.

    1988-10-01

    The clinical significance of the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) test was reevaluated in patients with various thyroid disorders. Compared with 262 normal subjects or 194 patients with euthyroid diffuse goiter with normal serum TSH levels, RAIU values were significantly higher in 100 patients with latent primary hypothyroidism (serum TSH, 5-40 mU/L). In 126 patients with overt primary hypothyroidism (serum TSH, greater than 40 mU/L), RAIU values were either extremely high (49 patients with reversible hypothyroidism and 10 patients with postpartum hypothyroidism) or low (67 patients with irreversible hypothyroidism). The increase in RAIU values in latent, or reversible overt hypothyroidism was TSH dependent, and there was a good correlation between RAIU values and serum TSH levels (r = 0.6203; P less than 0.001). In overt primary hypothyroidism, spontaneous recovery of thyroid function during iodide restriction alone occurred in 52 of 53 patients with RAIU values above 35%, in only 7 of 23 patients with RAIU values between 10-35%, and in none of 50 patients with RAIU below 10%. Thus, recovery was predicted by high RAIU values (P less than 0.001; prediction rate, 91.4%). Goiter was found in about 80% of the patients with reversible hypothyroidism, compared with only 34% of the patients with irreversible hypothyroidism. Recovery of thyroid function during iodide restriction also occurred in 71% of the patients with latent hypothyroidism. However, RAIU measurements did not predict the prognosis of patients with latent hypothyroidism. We conclude that iodine-induced reversible hypothyroidism is common in our patient population, and RAIU measurements may be helpful in determining the prognosis of patients with overt primary hypothyroidism.

  9. Cardiac Rhabdomyomas and Congenital Hypothyroidism: A Coincidence or Hamartia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Agarwal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac rhabdomyomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors in children. These tumors are generally asymptomatic, although they may be associated with neonatal tuberous sclerosis complex. Despite the fact that thyroid dysfunction rarely occurs in tuberous sclerosis, papillary adenomas (hamartomas of the thyroid gland have been reported in a number of autopsies. Herein, we present the case of an infant with tuberous sclerosis, congenital hypothyroidism and multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas, leading to atrioventricular node dysfunction. Considering the rarity of this co-occurrence, we decided to report the present case. The co-occurrence of these two disorders in one patient may be a mere coincidence or related to hamartoma of the thyroid gland as a consequence of tuberous sclerosis gene products.

  10. A review on cardiovascular diseases originated from subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2012-01-15

    Thyroid hormones play an important role on the cardiovascular systems and thyroid disorder ultimately have a profound adverse effects on myocardium and vascular functions. There are extensive reports on the role of overt thyroid dysfunction which adversely can modify the cardiovascular metabolism but even at the present of some controversial reports, the subclinical thyroid disorders are able also to manipulate cardiovascular system to some extent. The aim of this study is to review the cardiovascular disorders accompanied with subclinical hypothyroidism. It is concluded that adverse effect of thyroid malfunction on myocardium and vascular organs are through the direct role of thyroid hormone and dyslipidemia on heart muscle cells at nuclear level and vascular system, respectively. It seems many cardiovascular disorders initially would not have been occurred in the first place if the thyroid of affected person had functioned properly, therefore thyroid function tests should be one of a prior laboratory examinations in cardiovascular disorders.

  11. Cardiovascular risk with subclinical hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: pathophysiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Jasleen; Singh, Sarabjeet; Barsano, Charles P; Arora, Rohit

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that subclinical thyroid dysfunction, as manifested by abnormalities in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, are associated with detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by abnormal lipid metabolism, cardiac dysfunction, diastolic hypertension conferring an elevated risk of atherosclerosis, and ischemic heart disease. Similarly, patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism have nearly 3 times the likelihood of atrial fibrillation over a 10-year follow-up interval, raising the question of whether patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism should be treated to prevent atrial fibrillation. A single measurement of low serum TSH in individuals aged 60 years or older has been reported to be associated with increased mortality from all causes and in particular from circulatory and cardiovascular disease in a 10-year follow-up study. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is currently the subject of numerous studies and remains controversial, particularly as it relates to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and clinical applications.

  12. Arecoline aggravates hypothyroidism in metabolic stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Romi; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Sarkar, Supriti; Maiti, B R

    2017-05-01

    Millions of people consume betel nut for increased capacity of work. It contains arecoline which is highly toxic and has several untoward side effects on endocrine functions. In this article, the role of arecoline on thyroid function under metabolic stress was investigated in mice. Water or food-deprivation, each for 5 days, caused ultrastructural degeneration of thyro-follicular cells, evident from pycnotic nuclei, scanty rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria followed by depletion of blood serum T3 and T4 levels with alteration of TSH level as compared with control. Thyroid activity was also suppressed ultrastructurally as well as at hormonal level after arecoline administration. Further, arecoline treatment in water deprivation or food deprivation stress also caused thyroid dysfunction beyond that of metabolic stress, as evident from further ultrastructural degeneration of thyrocytes and depletion of thyroid hormones in mice. The findings suggest that arecoline aggravates hypothyroid condition in metabolic stress in mice.

  13. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esman

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...... and adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1...... overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity....

  14. Adult onset-hypothyroidism increases response latency and long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) influence central nervous system (CNS) function during both development and in adulthood. The hippocampus is critical for some types of learning and memory and is particularly sensitive to thyroid hormone deficiency. Hypothyroidism in adulthood has been ass...

  15. Statin-induced bilateral foot drop in a case of hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle involvement is a common manifestation of both clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism, with serum creatine kinase (CK elevation being probably the most common manifestation, and is seen in up to 90% of patients, but is usually mild (less than 10 times the upper limit of normal. Rhabdomyolysis is a distinctively uncommon presentation of hypothyroidism described usually in the setting of precipitating events such as strenuous exercise, alcohol, or statin use. Rarely rhabdomyolysis and myoedema seen in hypothyroidism can be complicated by the development of anterior compartment syndrome leading to neurovascular compression. We describe a case of a patient with hypothyroidism who developed acute onset bilateral foot drop on initiation of statins. This case highlights the need for cautious use of statins in patients at risk for rhabdomyolysis.

  16. A Genomic Analysis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Hippocampus and Neocortex of the Developing Brain -- JN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the early postnatal period has severe neurological consequences for the developing offspring. The impact of milder degrees of perturbation of the thyroid axis, typically considered subclinical, however, has not been established. Thyroid hormo...

  17. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy in a pregnant women population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cruz-Cruz, Edgar Alonso; Ramírez-Torres, Aurora; Pimentel-Nieto, Diana; Roque Sánchez, Armando Miguel

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in a group of pregnant patients attending antenatal care at the National Institute of Perinatology and to meet cases not detected by universal screening...

  18. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM ALTERS SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN DENTATE GYRUS AND AREA CA1 OF HIPPOCAMPUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain developmental leads to learning deficits and alterations in hippocampal structure. Neurophysiological properties of the hippocampus, however, have not been well characterized. The present study examined field potentials evoked in...

  19. The starting dose of Levothyroxine in primary hypothyroidism treatment - A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A; Linn-Rasker, SP; van Domburg, RT; Tijssen, JP; Berghout, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: The treatment of hypothyroidism with levothyroxine is effective and simple; however, recommendations for the starting dose vary considerably. To our knowledge, the levothyroxine starting dose has never been studied prospectively. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-bl

  20. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Stroke Events and Fatal Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the risk of stroke associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Published prospective cohort studies were identified through a systematic search through November 2013 without restrictions in several databases. Unpublished ...

  1. Unusual Presentation of Hypothyroidism in a Pregnant Woman, Mimicking Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Mazloomi, Maryam; Rahimi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common health issue worldwide with varying clinical manifestations. We report a woman who experienced an incomplete abortion and undiagnosed hypothyroidism who was referred to the oncologist with the suspicion of metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN). A 29-year-old woman with incomplete abortion was referred to an oncologist for possible GTN due to persistent active vaginal bleeding, an elevated beta human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), abnormal cervical inspection exam, abnormal liver function tests, ovarian enlargement, ascites, and a pleural effusion. She was found to have hypothyroidism in further work-up. She was managed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy and her condition improved after 6 weeks. Complete resolution of the ovarian mass and pericardial and pleural effusion was achieved. This case describes an important experience; hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any woman with an incomplete abortion presenting with an ovarian mass. Evaluation and correct diagnosis are important to prevent mismanagement. PMID:27034864

  2. Reversible thyrotroph hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia: A rare presenting manifestation of primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Rajput

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary thyrotroph hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia has been described as a rare presentation of primary hypothyroidism. Premenopausal females with this disorder can present with features of hypothyroidism, menstrual disturbances, galactorrhea, and visual field defects because of enlarged pituitary. Here we describe a 32-year-old female presenting to her gynecologist primarily with galactorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. She was found to have raised serum prolactin, and MRI brain showed enlarged pituitary. She was referred for pituitary surgery when she came to us. Clinical examination and biochemistry were suggestive of primary hypothyroidism. She was prescribed levothyroxine replacement. At 6 weeks follow-up, serum prolactin came down to normal, galactorrhea subsided, and spontaneous menstrual cycles resumed. In 12 weeks, pituitary enlargement completely regressed and in another month after that, she conceived. Hence, primary hypothyroidism can present with thyrotroph hyperplasia, where correct diagnosis and levothyroxine therapy can prevent unnecessary pituitary surgery. Hyperprolactinemia in this setting is of no clinical significance.

  3. Postpartum amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea associated with hyperprolactinaemia and pituitary enlargement in primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Kroese; A.F. Grootendorst; L.J. Schelfhout

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe report a 36-year-old woman with primary hypothyroidism revealed by postpartum amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea associated with hyperprolactinaemia and suprasellar pituitary enlargement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On thyroid hormone replacement therapy all clinical,

  4. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Stroke Events and Fatal Stroke : An Individual Participant Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Blum, Manuel R.; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Drechsler, Christiane; Luben, Robert N.; Hofman, Albert; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Medici, Marco; Iervasi, Giorgio; Stott, David J.; Ford, Ian; Bremner, Alexandra; Wanner, Christoph; Ferrucci, Luigi; Newman, Anne B.; Dullaart, Robin P.; Sgarbi, Jose A.; Ceresini, Graziano; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Westendorp, Rudi G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Imaizumi, Misa; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Walsh, John P.; Razvi, Salman; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Cappola, Anne R.; Voelzke, Henry; Franco, Oscar H.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Rodondi, Nicolas; Peeters, Robin P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine the risk of stroke associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. Data Sources and Study Selection: Published prospective cohort studies were identified through a systematic search through November 2013 without restrictions in several databases. Unpublished stu

  5. Maternal and fetal outcome in subclinical hypothyroidism in Jammu region, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Singh

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: In view of adverse maternal and fetal outcome, detecting and treating the women with subclinical hypothyroidism in early pregnancy will improve the perinatal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2362-2366

  6. 45,X/46,XY Mosaicism and Possible Association With Hypothyroidism in Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Leila; Schweiger, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Mosaicism has a wide phenotypic spectrum but frequently manifests as the normal male phenotype. Its association with short stature has been well recognized and appears to respond effectively to growth hormone therapy. We present 2 phenotypically normal males who both initially presented with short stature and were found to have hypothyroidism. They were treated for hypothyroidism but their growth did not improve as expected. Further testing revealed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in both males. We propose that a potential link exists between 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and hypothyroidism, which has not been previously described in the literature. Furthermore, it may be beneficial to evaluate for other disorders such as 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in young males with short stature and hypothyroidism if their growth does not improve once they become euthyroid.

  7. Postpartum amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea associated with hyperprolactinaemia and pituitary enlargement in primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Kroese; A.F. Grootendorst; L.J. Schelfhout

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe report a 36-year-old woman with primary hypothyroidism revealed by postpartum amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea associated with hyperprolactinaemia and suprasellar pituitary enlargement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On thyroid hormone replacement therapy all clinical,

  8. LOW FRACTIONAL EXCRETION OF UREA IN HYPOTHYROIDISM INDUCED HYPONATREMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algranati L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:El hipotiroidismo puede causar alteraciones del metabolismo del agua, los electrolitos, la hemodinamia e histología renales, siendo la hiponatremia y la reducción del filtrado glomerular sus consecuencias más significativas, pero poco prevalentes. Todos estos cambios son corregibles con el suministro de hormona tiroidea exógena.La excreción fraccional de urea (EFU es un índice útil en la evaluación de la hiponatremia, pero no se ha descripto aun el valor que este índice alcanza en la hiponatremia inducida por hipotiroidismo. En el presente reporte mostramos que la EFU y excreción fraccional de sodio (EFNa fueron baja (EFU: 29% y alta (EFNa: 2.2% respectivamente en un paciente que padecía hipotiroideo severo. El tratamiento con hormona tiroidea normalizó el valor de ambos índices.ABSTRACTHypothyroidism can cause disturbance of renal hemodinamics, kidney histology, water and electrolyte metabolism, being hyponatremia and glomerular filtration reduction their low prevalent but most significant consequences. All these changes are largely corrected by substitution of exogenous thyroid hormone.Fractional excretion of urea (FEU is a useful index in the evaluation of hyponatremia. However, it was not still reported in the literature the FEU value in hyponatremia induced by hypothyroidism. Because of that we presented a case report showing that the value of FEU and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa were low (FEU: 29% and high (FENa: 2.2 % respectively in a severe hypothyroid patient. Treatment based on thyroid hormone normalized both indeces.

  9. Hashimoto's hypothyroidism associated with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid peroxidase activity inhibiting immunoglobulins (anti-TPO Ab is a sign of autoimmune process in the thyroid gland. Association of hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus has been classically described. However, hypometabolic state, as a consequence of hypothyroidism, is not frequently linked with the biological activity of insulin. Case description. A 51-year old man was admitted to the Clinic with unregulated diabetes, untreated for 5 yrs. Insulin therapy was introduced one year before, with 96 units on admission. He had bowel movements every three days. BH 176cm, BW 120kg, a puffy face and swollen body. Fundus examination did not show specific diabetic leasions. Hepatic steatosis was present on ultra­sound examination. Occlusion of coronary arteries and superficial femoral artreries was present on angiography, and stenosis of carotid artreies on doppler duplex examination. HbAlc 14.7%. TSH 85.7 mIU/l. FT4 1.6 pmol/l, FT3 1.4. Anti TPOAb >600 IU/ml, triglycerides 2.26 mmol/l, HDL 1.15. cholesterolemia 10.0. Levothyroxine substitution was introduced starting with 25 mgr, gradually increasing up to 75 mgr. The need for insulin gradually decreased and finally it was switched to glibenclamide 5mg +0+2.5 mg. On discharge his FBG was 7.0 mmol/l. HOMA -B 52.3, HOMA-R 9.8. Discussion. We can conclude that in our patient secondary obesity caused deterioration of diabetes. After introduction of substitution therapy with levothyroxine, decrease of insulin resistance an J of cholesterol level was established. The duration of undiagnosed hypothyroidism can be a matter of speculation. However, the beneficial effect of normalized metabolism on atherosclerotic process will be obvious in the future. .

  10. Multiple ovarian cysts in a young girl with severe hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Annalisa; Lupoli, Gelsy Arianna; Fonderico, Francesco; Colarusso, Sara; Marciello, Francesca; Poggiano, Maria Rita; Del Prete, Michela; Magliulo, Raffaele; Iervolino, Paolo; Lupoli, Giovanni

    2007-12-01

    Case study of a young female patient with severe hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroiditis and multiple ovarian cysts is reported. A 14-year 7-month-old girl presented with pelvic and abdominal pain and severe asthenia. Her last menstrual period was 10 months before presentation. Physical examination showed obesity; apathetic and flat expression; periorbital puffiness; pale, cold, dry skin and slow sustained reflexes; swelling in the hands and feet; no galactorrhea; a hardly palpable thyroid gland; and ovaries with a palpable irregular surface. Her heart rate was 90 bpm with a blood pressure within the normal range (110/70 mmHg). Laboratory findings showed severe hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]: 960 mIU/L), gravis macrocytic anemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hyperprolactinemia. Imaging examinations revealed a normal-size thyroid with irregular echogenicity, strongly hypoechogenous area at the neck ultrasonography, bilateral multilocular ovarian masses with cystic components at pelvic ultrasound and computed tomography, and both anterior and posterior pericardial effusion at echocardiography. As soon as thyroid replacement therapy was initiated, all symptoms progressively disappeared and biochemical and hormonal values normalized, while the right ovary did not decrease in size during the follow-up period. For this reason, our patient underwent right ovarian wedge resection 14 months after the initiation of medication replacement. Ovarian histological examination showed a benign ovarian cyst with extensive hemorrhage and myxedematous infiltration. It is concluded that it is important to recognize early in young girls the association between large multiple ovarian cysts and high elevated levels of TSH in order to resolve this disorder with substitutive therapy.

  11. Muscle morphology and metabolism in hypothyroid myopathy: effects of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleeli, A A; Gohil, K; McPhail, G; Round, J M; Edwards, R H

    1983-05-01

    Needle biopsies from vastus lateralis in untreated hypothyroid patients with muscle weakness confirmed by quadriceps force measurements (n = 11) were repeated when the patients had taken L-thyroxine for a mean period of 9.2 months (range 5.3-13.3 months, n = 8) and had been continuously biochemically euthyroid for a mean period of 4.9 months (range 2-11 months). Biopsies were analysed biochemically for mitochondrial function. On light microscopy, histochemical examination, mean fibre areas and fibre percentages of type I and type II fibres were determined. Electronmicroscopy was also performed. Abnormalities on light microscopy occurred in eight patients of which type II fibre atrophy was the commonest and of the remainder two patients showed a myopathic electromyogram (EMG) and a raised plasma creatine kinase activity and one ultrastructural change on biopsy. After treatment resolution of pathological changes was often slow and half the patients had persistent abnormalities when rebiopsied. The type I mean fibre area was significantly increased in the eight hypothyroid females (p less than 0.05) and type II mean fibre areas tended to be low and in females this was significant (p less than 0.05). After treatment the type I mean fibre area was significantly reduced (p = 0.05). The type II mean fibre area also tended to fall but this was not significant (p greater than 0.05). No change in the fibre percentages occurred. A myopathic EMG, a raised plasma creatine kinase activity, ultrastructural changes and low mitochondrial enzyme activities on needle biopsy were other common findings and their significance is discussed.

  12. Primary hypothyroidism presenting as pituitary hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia

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    Xiao-ling YAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the histological characteristics, immunohistochemical phenotypes, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of one case of primary hypothyroidism presenting as pituitary hyperplasia concurrent with hyperprolactinemia.  Methods and Results A 29-year-old female presented menoxenia for one year, galactorrhea for 3 months, and headache for one week. Head MRI demonstrated a sellar space-occcupying lesion and a pituitary adenoma was suspected. Therefore, the patient underwent an exploratory surgery via transnasal-sphenoidal approach under general anesthesia. During the surgery the lesion was located in the right side of sella turcica. It was hard, tough and gray with poor blood supply. Under optical microscopy, the acinar cells showed a diffuse hyperplasia, with focal nodular expansion. The boundary between hyperplastic and normal acinus was ill-defined. By using immunohistochemical staining, the hyperplastic cells were diffusely positive for synaptophysin (Syn and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, partially positive for prolactin (PRL, and negative for thyoid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1. Lymphocytes were scatteredly positive for leukocyte common antigen (LCA. Ki-67 labeling index was less than 1%. Pathological diagnosis was pituitary hyperplasia. The final clinical diagnosis was hypothyroidism. The patient took levothyroxine sodium (Euthyrox 100 μg/d continously, and was well during the 13-month follow-up.  Conclusions Preopertive diagnosis of pituitary hyperplasia is difficult.Definite diagnosis could be made by clinical history, typical histopathological characteristics and immunohistochemical phenotypes. Differential diagnosis from pituitary adenoma, especially microadenoma, should be paid attention. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.04.009

  13. The History and Future of Treatment of Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAninch, Elizabeth A; Bianco, Antonio C

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than a century to treat hypothyroidism. Natural thyroid preparations (thyroid extract, desiccated thyroid, or thyroglobulin), which contain both thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), were the first pharmacologic treatments available and dominated the market for the better part of the 20th century. Dosages were adjusted to resolve symptoms and to normalize the basal metabolic rate and/or serum protein-bound iodine level, but thyrotoxic adverse effects were not uncommon. Two major developments in the 1970s led to a transition in clinical practice: 1) The development of the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) radioimmunoassay led to the discovery that many patients were overtreated, resulting in a dramatic reduction in thyroid hormone replacement dosage, and 2) the identification of peripheral deiodinase-mediated T4-to-T3 conversion provided a physiologic means to justify l-thyroxine monotherapy, obviating concerns about inconsistencies with desiccated thyroid. Thereafter, l-thyroxine monotherapy at doses to normalize the serum TSH became the standard of care. Since then, a subgroup of thyroid hormone-treated patients with residual symptoms of hypothyroidism despite normalization of the serum TSH has been identified. This has brought into question the inability of l-thyroxine monotherapy to universally normalize serum T3 levels. New research suggests mechanisms for the inadequacies of l-thyroxine monotherapy and highlights the possible role for personalized medicine based on deiodinase polymorphisms. Understanding the historical events that affected clinical practice trends provides invaluable insight into formulation of an approach to help all patients achieve clinical and biochemical euthyroidism.

  14. PREVALENCE OF OVERT AND SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM AMONG INDIAN PREGNANT WOMEN AND ITS EFFECT ON FOETOMATERNAL OUTCOME

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    Deeksha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid disorders are amongst the commonest endocrinological disorders encountered in pregnancy. It is now well established that not only overt (OH, but Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SCH also has adverse effects on maternal and foetal outcomes. Most of the studies are from the western population and only a few studies have analysed pregnancy outcome in hypothyroid Indian pregnant women. Presently, there is a paucity of Indian data on the prevalence and effect of hypothyroidism in pregnancy. Keeping all these things in mind, present study was aimed to find prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy and its effect on foetomaternal outcome in Indian pregnant women studying a large population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, Delhi, in collaboration with the Departments of Endocrinology, Laboratory Medicine and Paediatrics. MATERIAL AND METHODS All women attending antenatal clinic between October 2010 and April 2011, underwent thyroid screening using Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH assay. Women with hypothyroidism were grouped into OH and SCH on the basis of Free T4 estimation. Pregnancy outcomes of these women were compared with pregnant women with normal TSH values. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED Data was analysed using Pearson Chi square test. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 12.0 for windows. RESULTS Overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 10.2% with SCH (6.4% being commoner than OH (3.8%, 33 hypothyroid women excluded who were already on treatment. Out of 69 remaining hypothyroid women, 48 had SCH (69.56% and 21 had OH (30.43% and were categorised as group A1 and A2 successively. Preeclampsia (PE, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM and Intrauterine Foetal Demise (IUFD developed in significantly higher number of women in OH group as compared to controls (p=0.009, p=0.002, p=0.002. Anaemia, placental abruption

  15. Skewed distribution of hypothyroidism in the coastal communities of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Knight, John C; Babichuk, Nicole A; Mulay, Shree

    2015-10-01

    Several studies published in the recent past have shown that rising levels of thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) in the environment affect thyroid function in humans. These TDCs are the anthropogenic organic compounds that enter the human body mostly by ingestion and may trigger autoimmune thyroiditis, the most common cause of hypothyroidism. The studies also show the presence of high levels of TDCs in marine animals; therefore, consumption of contaminated seafood might trigger hypothyroidism. So far, there is no readily available population-based data, showing the regional distribution of hypothyroidism cases. We collected administrative data from the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information on hospitalizations with hypothyroidism (from 1998 to 2012) in 41 coastal communities of Newfoundland and found that mean hypothyroidism rates of west and south coasts were significantly higher than in the east coast (1.8 and 1.9 times respectively). A one-way analysis of variance was used to test for regional differences in rates. A significant between-group difference in the rate of hypothyroidism was found (F2,38 = 8.309; p = 0.001). The St. Lawrence River, its estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence are heavily polluted with TDCs from industries, their effluents, and urbanization in the Great Lakes Watershed and along the river. Environment Canada has already identified this river along with the Great Lakes Watershed as one of the top TDCs polluted water sources in the country. The west and south coasts are in contact with the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Local marine products are a regular diet of the coastal communities of Newfoundland. Based on these available evidence, we hypothesize the role of TDCs in the rise of hypothyroidism on the western and southern coasts. However, further study will be needed to establish any association between abnormally high rates of hypothyroidism and exposure to TDCs.

  16. Morphofunctional changes in the kidneys in chronic endotoxemia against the background of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, S A; Kovnatskaya, G A; Shchyogolev, A I

    2012-08-01

    We studied morphological structure of the kidneys in chronic endotoxemia modeled against the background of hypothyroidism. The detected changes did not differ from those under conditions of basic endotoxemia model and were characterized by the development of glomerulosclerosis and glomerulohyalinosis. The changes were less severe in rats with hypothyroidism and appeared at the late terms of the experiment. This indicated a moderate protective effect of preexisting thyroid hormone deficiency.

  17. Is the infertility in hypothyroidism mainly due to ovarian or pituitary functional changes?

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    Armada-Dias L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether hypothyroidism affects the reproductive system of adult female rats by evaluating ovarian morphology, uterus weight and the changes in serum and pituitary concentrations of prolactin and gonadotropins. Three-month-old female rats were divided into three groups: control (N = 10, hypothyroid (N = 10, treated with 0.05% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU in drinking water for 60 days, and T4-treated group (N = 10, receiving daily sc injections of L-thyroxine (0.8 µg/100 g body weight during the last 10 days of the experiment. At the end of 50 days of hypothyroidism no hypothyroid animal showed a regular cycle, while 71% of controls as well as the T4-treated rats showed regular cycles. Corpora lutea, growing follicles and mature Graafian follicles were found in all ovaries studied. The corpora lutea were smaller in both the hypothyroid and T4-replaced rats. Graafian follicles were found in 72% of controls and only in 34% of hypothyroid and 43% of T4-treated animals. Serum LH, FSH, progesterone and estradiol concentrations did not differ among the three groups. Serum prolactin concentration and the pituitary content of the three hormones studied were higher in the hypothyroid animals compared to control. T4 treatment restored serum prolactin concentration to the level found in controls, but only partially normalized the pituitary content of gonadotropins and prolactin. In conclusion, the morphological changes caused by hypothyroidism can be a consequence of higher prolactin production that can block the secretion and action of gonadotropins, being the main cause of the changes observed.

  18. Is the infertility in hypothyroidism mainly due to ovarian or pituitary functional changes?

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    L. Armada-Dias

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether hypothyroidism affects the reproductive system of adult female rats by evaluating ovarian morphology, uterus weight and the changes in serum and pituitary concentrations of prolactin and gonadotropins. Three-month-old female rats were divided into three groups: control (N = 10, hypothyroid (N = 10, treated with 0.05% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU in drinking water for 60 days, and T4-treated group (N = 10, receiving daily sc injections of L-thyroxine (0.8 µg/100 g body weight during the last 10 days of the experiment. At the end of 50 days of hypothyroidism no hypothyroid animal showed a regular cycle, while 71% of controls as well as the T4-treated rats showed regular cycles. Corpora lutea, growing follicles and mature Graafian follicles were found in all ovaries studied. The corpora lutea were smaller in both the hypothyroid and T4-replaced rats. Graafian follicles were found in 72% of controls and only in 34% of hypothyroid and 43% of T4-treated animals. Serum LH, FSH, progesterone and estradiol concentrations did not differ among the three groups. Serum prolactin concentration and the pituitary content of the three hormones studied were higher in the hypothyroid animals compared to control. T4 treatment restored serum prolactin concentration to the level found in controls, but only partially normalized the pituitary content of gonadotropins and prolactin. In conclusion, the morphological changes caused by hypothyroidism can be a consequence of higher prolactin production that can block the secretion and action of gonadotropins, being the main cause of the changes observed.

  19. 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine activates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in hypothyroid rats.

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    Assunta Lombardi

    Full Text Available 3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine (T2, a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient and mitochondria (longer lasting, suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis.

  20. Isolated right ventricular cardiomyopathy with autoimmune hypothyroidism: a rare association in an adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelve, Kavita; Panandikar, Gajanan Ashok; Pazare, Amar; Bajpai, Smrati

    2015-01-01

    A 13-year-old girl presented with progressive dyspnoea and palpitation, diagnosed on echocardiography as primary right ventricular cardiomyopathy with atrial fibrillation. Her thyroid profile was positive for antithyroid microsomal antibody, and antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were suggestive of autoimmune hypothyroidism. She was managed with furosemide, digoxin, acenocoumarol and thyroxine following which she showed significant improvement. This is a rare case of isolated right ventricular cardiomyopathy and its association with autoimmune hypothyroidism presenting at the age of 13. PMID:25795745

  1. Graves' disease in two pregnancies complicated by fetal goitrous hypothyroidism: successful in utero treatment with levothyroxine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Sundberg, Karin Milner

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of Graves' disease during pregnancy with antithyroid drugs (ATDs) poses a risk of inducing hypothyroidism and, thus, development of a goiter to the fetus. PATIENT FINDINGS: We report two patients referred to our department after discovery of a fetal goiter by ultrasound examination in t...... hypothyroidism as the cause of goiter development. Reduction of maternal ATD dose and injection of levothyroxine intra-amniotically quickly reduced the goiter size, and both babies were born euthyroid and without goiters....

  2. Prevalence of neonatal hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria in Southern Thailand: A 10-year report

    OpenAIRE

    Yavamal Sutivijit; Arirat Banpavichit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Background: Congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria, the two major problems of several metabolic errors are presently the focus of attention, in Thailand. These two conditions are assigned as diseases to be controlled under the National Public Health Policies of Thailand. Materials and Methods: Here, the authors summarize and report the 10-year study on the prevalence of neonatal hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria in Southern Thailand. Results: This report is good representative data fr...

  3. Prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism In South Khorasan province (2006-2010

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    Kokab Namakin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is among the most common endocrine disorders in children and a preventable cause of mental retardation. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence and related risk factors of hypothyroidism in neonates in South Khorasan.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive-retrospective study was conducted on the data collected through the Neonatal CH Screening Project in South Khorasan during four years (March 2006 - March 2010. Neonates whose TSH of the heel blood was ≥5 mU/L were recalled and if the serum TSH was ≥10 mU/L they were accounted as hypothyroid cases. Finally, SPSS software was used to analyze the obtained data.   Results: From 38987 neonates, 1248 cases (3.21% were recalled and serum TSH of 71 neonates was ≥10 mU/L which was a symptom of hypothyroidism. In the initial screening of hypothyroidism in neonates TSH of the heel blood in 45% was found to be 5-10 mU/L, in 20% it was 10-19.9, and in 35% it was ≥ 20. Prevalence of the disease was 1 in 549 living births. Hypothyroidism in boys was 6% more than girls.98.6% of the sick neonates' mothers did not have hypothyroidism 50.7 % of the cases lived in city.   Conclusion: Regarding the significance of the disease in developing mental retardation, it is necessary to persuade parents to have their neonates take part in neonatal hypothyroidism screening plan.

  4. Polycystic Thyroid Disease in Pediatric Patients: An Uncommon Cause of Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Isaac Daimiel; Robinot, David Coca; Rojo, Jaime Cruz; Ponferrada, Miguel Rasero

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic thyroid disease has been described as a rare cause of hypothyroidism. This uncommon entity has been reported in adults within areas with high iodine intake. Sonographic findings of multiple small thin-walled simple thyroid cysts in the context of hypothyroidism without thyroid autoantibodies are highly suggestive of this diagnosis. To our knowledge, we report the first 2 cases of polycystic thyroid disease in pediatric patients in Europe.

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypothyroidism - merely concurrence or causal association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczyński, Wojciech; Gabryelska, Agata; Mokros, Łukasz; Białasiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) ranges from 4 to 7% in men and from 2 to 5% in women. Its deleterious consequences such as traffic accidents, cardiovascular complications increasing morbidity and mortality, make it a major health problem. Apart from obesity (a major risk factor for OSAHS), hypothyroid patients are prone to reveal this phenotype. Although hypothyroidism seems an acknowledged risk factor for OSAHS, some authors report the lack of clinically relevant association. The argument partly depends on the increased prevalence of hypothyroidism in OSAHS patients, but the epidemiological data is limited and somehow inconsistent; even less is known about sub-clinical hypothyroidism in OSAHS patients. Even if frequency of overt and sub-clinical hypothyroidism in OSAHS patients is comparable to the general population, screening for it seems beneficial, as hormone replacement therapy may improve sleep disordered breathing. Unfortunately, this favorable outcome was found only in a few studies with limited number of patients with hypothyroidism. Yet, despite the lack of international guidelines and no large multicentre studies on the topic available, we think that TSH screening might prove beneficial in vast majority of OSAHS patients.

  6. Relation between Hormonal Disorders and Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Primary Hypothyroidism

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    Т.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade plenty of the researches dedicated to the problem of hypothyroidism were published, that radically changed views to the value of thyroid pathology on the whole. Neurohumoral changes are considered as a nosotropic factor of hypothyroidism development in persons with metabolic syndrome (MS. Aim of the research is to study the features of hormonal disorders and their correlation with the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and methods. The study involved 80 patients with primary hypothyroidism: 61 had metabolic syndrome and 19 did not have metabolic syndrome. Results. Statistically significant increased levels of leptin, insulin, cortisol, C-peptide were revealed in patients with hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome while the most marked changes were found in patients with multiple metabolic abnormalities. Conclusions. The interrelations between hyperleptinemia and fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin levels, thyroid-stimulating hormone, index HOMA were determined indicating the modulating role of chronic hyperglycemia, hormonal disorders and insulin resistance in the expression and realization of the biological action of leptin in patients with hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome.

  7. Evaluation of LED photobiomodulation on wound healing in hypothyroid and euthyroid rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; Xavier, Flávia Calo Aquino; Rodriguez, Tânia Tavares; Ramalho, Maria José Pedreira; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2012-09-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency has been associated to disruption of the body's metabolism, including healing process. LED phototherapy has been shown to be effective in improving healing in many situations, but their usefulness in the improvement of hypothyroidism wound healing remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess histologically the effect of LED (λ630 ± 20nm, 150mW, CW, φ=0.5 cm2, 24J/cm2 per session) on wounds healing in hypothyroid and euthyroid Wistar rats. Standard cutaneous wound (1cm2) was created on the dorsum of 24 animals divided into four groups of 6 animals each: G1: Euthyroid; G2: Euthyroid + LED; G3: Hypothyroid; G4: Hypothyroid + LED. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats with propylthiouracil (0.05g/100mL) administered orally for 4 weeks and maintained until the end of the experiment. The irradiation started immediately after surgery and was repeated every other day for 7 days. Animals were killed 8 days after surgery. The specimens were removed, routinely processed and stained with H&E and Sirius red. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher's Test and significance level was 5%. The results of the present investigation showed delayed wounds healing process in hypothyroid rats characterized by incomplete reepithelialization and formation of disorganized collagen fibers (p0.05). It is concluded that LED light has a positive biomodulative effect on the wound healing process, even when hipothyroidism was present.

  8. Usefulness of blink reflex in hypothyroid patients with or without polyneuropathy: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sachin; Udan, Vikas; Jain, Jyoti; Shende, Vinod; Singh, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is an important consequence of thyroid deficiency. Cranial nerves are frequently affected in hypothyroid process. On routine nerve conduction studies, symptomatic peripheral and cranial neuropathy can be detected, however, diagnosing subclinical cranial neuropathy pose the major problem. Blink reflex (BR), has been shown to be an effective method for revealing subclinical involvement of cranial nerves in generalized neuropathies. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of BR as a method for early diagnosis of subclinical cranial neuropathy in hypothyroid patients with or without overt peripheral polyneuropathy. A case control study was conducted on 150 subjects aged 18 years and above (100 controls, 50 cases). A routine nerve conduction study and BR evaluation was done in all the subjects. We found abnormal BR response in 50% of hypothyroid patients studied. In hypothyroid patient without polyneuropathy R1 latency was significantly prolonged (P < 0.05 Vs control). Ipsilateral and contralateral R2 latencies were significantly prolonged in hypothyroid cases with or without polyneuropathy on bilateral stimulation. Magnitude of prolongation was greater in with polyneuropathy group. In conclusion, study suggests that BR is a useful non-invasive method for the detection of clinically silent cranial nerve compromise in hypothyroid patients.

  9. Tissue-specific effects of hypothyroidism on postnatal muscle development in the barnacle goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, K E; Bishop, C M; Butler, P J

    1998-03-01

    The hypothesis that tissue-specific levels of thyroid hormones may be required for normal locomotor muscle development was investigated in the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Hypothyroidism was induced in goslings by treatment with methimazole from either 3 days or 2 weeks of age, and birds were killed at 7 weeks of age. The masses of the pectoralis, iliofibularis, semimembranosus and cardiac ventricle muscles were measured, and samples from these tissues were analysed for the mass-specific activity of the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase (CS). An ultrastructural electron micrograph analysis of the pectoralis was also carried out. No significant differences were found between the two hypothyroid groups except for the effect on the relative mass of the iliofibularis muscle. Developmental responses to hypothyroidism were found to be tissue-specific. Hypothyroidism resulted in a significantly lower relative cardiac ventricle mass (by 17 %) and CS activity of the leg muscles (by 34 %), while absolute leg muscle mass was not affected. The relative mass of the pectoralis was significantly lower (by 57 %) in hypothyroid birds and showed a significant, uniformly lower CS activity (by 60-83 %) as a result of a lower mitochondrial fractional volume. Haematocrit and capillary-to-fibre ratio in the pectoralis were also significantly lower in hypothyroid birds, and skeletal growth and plumage development were affected.

  10. Effect of LED phototherapy (λ630 +/- 20nm) on mast cells during wound healing in hypothyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraguassú, Gardênia M.; De Castro, Isabele Cardoso V.; Vasconcelos, Rebeca M.; da Guarda, Milena G.; Rodriguez, Tânia T.; Ramalho, Maria José P.; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz B.; Ramalho, Luciana Maria P.

    2014-02-01

    Hypothyroidism has been associated with the disruption of the body's metabolism, including the healing process. LED phototherapy has been studied using several healing models, but their effects on mast cells proliferation associated to hypothyroidism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect LED (λ630+/-20nm) phototherapy on mast cells proliferation during tissue repair in hypothyroid rats. Under general anesthesia, a standard surgical wound (1cm2) was created on the dorsum of 24 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each: EC-Control Euthyroid; ED-Euthyroid+LED; HC-Control Hypothyroid and HD-Hypothyroid+LED. The irradiation started immediately after surgery and was repeated every other day for 7 days, when animals death occurred. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats with propylthiouracil (0.05g/100mL) administered orally for 4 weeks and maintained until the end of the experiment. The specimens removed were processed to wax and stained with toluidine blue for mast cell identification. The mast cell proliferation was significantly higher in HC group than in EC group (Mann Whitney, phypothyroidism, prolonging the inflammatory phase of repair, and the LED light has a biomodulative effect on mast cell population, even when hipothyroidism was present.

  11. Low incidence rate of overt hypothyroidism compared with hyperthyroidism in an area with moderately low iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Bülow Pedersen, I; Pedersen, K M

    1999-01-01

    In areas with relatively high iodine intake, the incidence rate of hypothyroidism is several-fold higher than that of hyperthyroidism. Recently, we found a similarly high prevalence rate of subclinical hypothyroidism compared with hyperthyroidism in a high iodine intake area, while a relatively low...... prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in a low iodine intake area. In the present study we compared the incidence rate (newly diagnosed in primary care and at hospital) of overt hypothyroidism with that of hyperthyroidism in a well-defined geographical area in Jutland, Denmark, with an iodine...... intake around 60 microg/day. The number of personsxyears studied was 569,108. Data on hyperthyroidism have been published previously. The overall incidence of hypothyroidism was 13.5/100,000 per year (F/M 22.9/3.6), hyperthyroidism 38.7/100.000 per year (F/M 63.0/13.0). The incidence of hypothyroidism...

  12. Hypothyroidism after x irradiation to the neck: three case reports and a brief review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, R.A.; Corrigan, D.F.; Wartofsky, L.

    1976-05-01

    Three patients who developed hypothyroidism after x irradiation to the neck are presented. The first two cases demonstrate that patients can develop clinical and chemical hypothyroidism after a very short interval following radiotherapy. Hypothyroidism developed in the first patient in the absence of surgical manipulation of the neck, or a large iodine load 4 months after receiving 6800 rad of x-ray therapy to his neck for carcinoma of the larynx. The second patient developed hypothyroidism approximately 6 months after his radiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Both of these patients demonstrated high titers of serum antithyroid antibodies. A third patient with Hodgkin's disease did not manifest clinical symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism until 6 years after radiation therapy. These cases demonstrate the variability of onset of hypothyroidism after radiotherapy and emphasize the need for careful evaluation of thyroid function before and after neck irradiation.

  13. Hypothyroidism in adults. Levothyroxine if warranted by clinical and laboratory findings, not for simple TSH elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disorder due to inadequate thyroid hormone secretion. When a patient has signs and symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism, how is it determined whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy will have a favourable harm-benefit balance? How should treatment be managed? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are due to slow metabolism (constipation, fatigue, sensitivity to cold, weight gain, etc.) and to polysaccharide accumulation in certain tissues, leading to hoarseness, eyelid swelling, etc. A blood TSH concentration of less than 4 or 5 mlU/L rules out peripheral hypothyroidism. TSH levels increase with age. Between 30% and 60% of high TSH levels are not confirmed on a second blood test. In overt hypothyroidism, the TSH level is high and the free T4 (thyroxine) level is low. Most of these patients are symptomatic. So-called subclinical hypothyroidism, which is rarely symptomatic, is characterised by high blood TSH levels and normal free T4 levels. The natural history of hypothyroidism depends on its cause. In chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, the most common form seen in rich countries, hypothyroidism generally worsens over time. However, other situations can lead to transient hypothyroidism that may last several weeks or months. Subclinical hypothyroidism, as the name implies, is usually asymptomatic. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is about 3% to 4% per year overall but increases with the initial TSH level. Treatment guidelines are mainly based on physiological and pharmacological considerations and generally recommend levothyroxine therapy. The adverse effects of levothyroxine are signs of thyrotoxicosis in case of overdose (tachycardia, tremor, sweating, etc.). Even a slight overdose carries a risk of osteoporotic fractures and atrial fibrillation, especially in the elderly. In young adults, levothyroxine is usually started

  14. Native Magnetic Resonance T1-Mapping Identifies Diffuse Myocardial Injury in Hypothyroidism.

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    Xia Gao

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism (HT is characterized by thyroid hormone deficiencies, which can lead to diffuse myocardial interstitium lesions in patients with HT. Myocardial longitudinal relaxation time (T1 mapping is a potential diagnostic tool for quantifying diffuse myocardial injury. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of T1 mapping in identifying myocardial involvement in HT, and determine the relationship between T1 values and myocardial function.A cross-sectional study was conducted with 30 untreated HT patients alongside 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR with non-contrast (native T1 mapping using a modified Look-Locker inversion-recovery (MOLLI sequence to assess the native T1 values of myocardium and cardiac function.Native myocardial T1 values were significantly increased in HT patients, especially those with pericardial effusion (p < 0.05, compared with healthy controls. In addition, significantly reduced peak filling rate (PFR and prolonged peak filling time (PFT were obtained (p < 0.05 in HT patients compared with controls. Furthermore, stroke volume (SV and cardiac index (CI were significantly lower in HT patients than controls (all p < 0.05. Interestingly, native T1 values were negatively correlated with free triiodothyronine (FT3, PFR, SV and CI (all p < 0.05.Diffuse myocardial injuries are common in HT patients, and increased T1 values are correlated with FT3 and cardiac function impairment. These findings indicate that T1 mapping might be useful in evaluating myocardial injuries in HT patients.

  15. Hypothyroidism minimizes the effects of acute hepatic failure caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress and redox environment alterations in rats.

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    Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Cano-Europa, Edgar; Martinez-Perez, Yoalli; Lezama-Palacios, Ruth; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a protective effect from hypothyroidism in acute liver failure resulted from reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in four groups: (1) euthyroid (sham surgery), (2) hypothyroid, (3) euthyroid (sham surgery)+thioacetamide and (4) hypothyroid+thioacetamide. Hypothyroidism was confirmed two weeks after thyroidectomy, and thioacetamide (TAA) (400mg/kg, ip) was administrated to the appropriate groups for three days with supportive therapy. Grades of encephalopathy in all animals were determined using behavioral tests. Animals were decapitated and their blood was obtained to assess liver function. The liver was dissected: the left lobe was used for histology and the right lobe was frozen for biochemical assays. Body weight, rectal temperature and T4 concentration were lower in hypothyroid groups. When measurements of oxidative stress markers, redox environment, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione-S-transferase were determined, we observed that hypothyroid animals with TAA compensated better with oxidative damage than euthyroid animals treated with TAA. Furthermore, we measured reduced expressions of GADD34, caspase-12 and GRP78 and subsequently less hypothyroidism-induced cellular damage in hypothyroid animals. We conclude that hypothyroidism protects against hepatic damage caused by TAA because it reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment.

  16. Assessment of the effects of laser or LED photobiomodulation on hypothyroid rats of cutaneous wound healing: A morphometric study.

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    De Castro, Isabele Cardoso Vieira; Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; dod Reis Júnior, João Alves; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Rodriguez, Tânia Tavares; Ramalho, Maria José Pedreira; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2012-09-01

    Hypothyroid has been associated to a disruption of the body's metabolism, including the healing process. Laser and LED have been shown to be effective on improving healing in many situations, but their benefit in the improvement of healing on hypothyroidism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess, morphometrically, the influence of Laser (λ660nm, 24 J/cm2, 40mW, CW, spot output= 4mm2;) and LED (λ630nm ± 20, 24 J/cm2, 150mW, CW, spot output= 0.5 cm2) on the wound healing of rats with Hypothyroid. Under general anesthesia, a standard surgical wound (1cm2) was created on the dorsum of 72 male Wistar rats divided into 6 groups of 12 animals each: G1: Euthyroid; G2: Euthyroid + Laser; G3: Euthyroid + LED; G4: Hypothyroid; G5: Hypothyroid + Laser and G6: Hypothyroid + LED. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats with propylthiouracil (0.05g/100mL) administered orally for 4 weeks and maintained until the end of the experiment. Rats were irradiated after surgery each 48h then killed after 7 and 14 days. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Hypothyroid rats with phototherapy laser or LED showed significant less wound contraction than euthyroid's rats at the 7th day (pphotobiomodulation using 24 J/cm2 per session improved cutaneous wound healing in hypothyroid rats.

  17. Hypothyroidism is a predictor of disability pension and loss of labor market income: a Danish register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-09-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased somatic and psychiatric disease burden. Whether there are any socioeconomic consequences of hypothyroidism, such as early retirement or loss of income, remains unclarified. Our aim was to examine, compared with a matched control group, the risk of receiving disability pension (before the age of 60) and the effect on labor market income in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. This was an observational register-based cohort study. By record linkage between different Danish health registers, 1745 hypothyroid singletons diagnosed before the age of 60 were each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls and followed for a mean of 5 (range 1-31) years. Additionally, we included 277 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. The risk of disability pension was evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. Changes in labor market income progression over 5 years were evaluated using a difference in difference model. With a hazard ratio of 2.24 (95% confidence interval = 1.73-2.89), individuals diagnosed with hypothyroidism had a significantly increased risk of disability pension. This remained significant when adjusting for educational level and comorbidity (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.42-2.51). In an analysis of labor market income, 2 years before compared with 2 years after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, the hypothyroid individuals had on average a €1605 poorer increase than their euthyroid controls (P market income and an 89% increased risk of receiving a disability pension.

  18. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Causes Visual Impairment? People rarely lose their eyesight during their teen years. When they do, it's ... inflammation in the eye. It's often found in poor rural countries that have overcrowded living conditions and ...

  19. Association of hypothyroidism with adverse events in patients with heart failure receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay K; Vegh, Eszter; Orencole, Mary; Miller, Alexandra; Blendea, Dan; Moore, Stephanie; Lewis, Gregory D; Singh, Jagmeet P; Parks, Kimberly A; Heist, E Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with an adverse prognosis in cardiac patients in general and in particular in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of hypothyroidism on patients with HF receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Additionally, the impact of level of control of hypothyroidism on risk of adverse events after CRT implantation was also evaluated. We included consecutive patients in whom a CRT device was implanted from April 2004 to April 2010 at our institution with sufficient follow-up data available for analysis; 511 patients were included (age 68.5±12.4 years, women 20.4%); 84 patients with a clinical history of hypothyroidism, on treatment with thyroid hormone repletion or serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level≥5.00 μU/ml, were included in the hypothyroid group. The patients were followed for up to 3 years after implant for a composite end point of hospitalization for HF, left ventricular assist device placement, or heart transplant and cardiac death; 215 composite end point events were noted in this period. In a multivariate model, hypothyroidism (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.027 to 2.085, p=0.035), female gender (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.428 to 0.963, p=0.032), and creatinine (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.145 to 1.382, phypothyroidism at baseline developed the composite end point compared with 39.8% of those with euthyroidism (p=0.02). In conclusion, hypothyroidism is associated with a worse prognosis after CRT implantation.

  20. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Gordon, E-mail: gordon.gong@ttuhsc.edu [F. Marie Hall Institute for Rural and Community Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Basom, Janet [F. Marie Hall Institute for Rural and Community Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Mattevada, Sravan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Onger, Frederick [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2015-04-15

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population.

  1. Hypothyroid state reduces calcium channel function in 18-day pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parija, S C; Mishra, S K; Raviprakash, V

    2006-01-01

    Hypothyroidism significantly reduced the mean amplitude and increased the mean frequency of spontaneous rhythmic contractions in 18 day pregnant rat uterus. Nifedipine (10(-12)-10(-9) M) and diltiazem (10(-10)-10(-6) M) caused concentration related inhibition of the myogenic responses of the uterine strips obtained from both pregnant and hypothyroid state. However, nifedipine was less potent (IC50:2.11 x 10(-11) M) in pregnant hypothyroid state as compared to pregnant control (IC50: 3.1 x 10(-12) M). Similarly, diltiazem was less potent (IC50: 3.72 x 10(-9) M) in inhibiting the uterine spontaneous contractions in hypothyroid than in pregnant rat uterus (IC50:5.37 x 10(-10) M). A similar decrease in the sensitivity to nifedipine and diltiazem for reversal of K+ (100 mM)-induced tonic contraction and K(+)-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx was observed with these calcium channel antagonists in uterus obtained from hypothyroid pregnant rats compared to the controls. Nifedipine-sensitive influx of 45Ca(2+)-stimulated either by K+ (100 mM) or by Bay K8644 (1,4-dihydro-2,6-methyl-5-nitro-4-[2'-(trifluromethyl)phenyl]-3-pyridine carboxylic acid methyl ester) (10(-9) M) was significantly less in uterine strips from hypothyroid rats compared to controls. The results suggest that the inhibition of uterine rhythmic contractions may be attributable to a reduction in rat myometrial Ca2+ channel function in the hypothyroid state.

  2. Primary goitrous hypothyroidism in a young adult domestic longhair cat: diagnosis and treatment monitoring

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    Mark E Peterson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Primary goitrous hypothyroidism was diagnosed in a 12-month-old cat examined because of small stature, mental dullness, severe lethargy, generalized weakness and gait abnormalities. Radiographs of the long bones and spine revealed delayed epiphyseal ossification and epiphyseal dysgenesis. Diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism was confirmed by low serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine (T4 with high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed severe enlargement of both thyroid lobes, as evidenced by a seven-fold increase in calculated thyroid volume above the reference interval. In addition, this bilateral goiter had an extremely high radionuclide uptake, about 10-fold higher than the normal feline thyroid gland. Treatment with twice-daily levothyroxine (L-T4, administered on an empty stomach, resulted in increased alertness, playfulness, strength and improvement in gait, as well as an increase in body length and weight. L-T4 replacement also led to normalization of serum thyroid hormone and TSH concentrations, and complete resolution of goiter. Relevance and novel information Spontaneous hypothyroidism is rarely reported in cats, with congenital hypothyroidism in kittens diagnosed most frequently. Despite the fact that this cat was a young adult, it likely had a form of congenital hypothyroidism caused by dyshormonogenesis (defect in thyroid hormone synthesis that led to compensatory development of goiter. In hypothyroid cats, treatment with L-T4 is best given twice daily on an empty stomach to ensure adequate absorption. Normalization of serum TSH and shrinkage of goiter, as well as improvement in clinical signs, is the goal of treatment for cats with goitrous hypothyroidism.

  3. Clinical features of spontaneous hypothyroidism in one physician’s practice in Jamaica

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    Rosemarie A Wright-Pascoe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosemarie A Wright-PascoeDepartment of Medicine, The University of the West Indies, Kingston, JamaicaObjective: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with spontaneous hypothyroidism, the frequency of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and the thyroid autoantibody most often associated with this condition in a referral population in Jamaica.Methods: A retrospective study of all cases referred to the author’s endocrinology practice from 1995 to 2005 with a diagnosis of spontaneous hypothyroidism was undertaken. The clinical history, examination findings, biochemical test results, thyroid autoimmune antibodies, and imaging data were reviewed.Results: Spontaneous primary hypothyroidism was correctly diagnosed in 53 subjects. Fifty of the patients were females and three were males. Mean age was 43.3 years (range 12–82 years; 24.4% of the patients had a family member with thyroid disease; 27.1% presented because of a goiter; and 54.2% because of symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism. The thyroid was palpable in 56.3% and thyroid ultrasound was consistent with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis on 64% of occasions. Only 8% of the patients had the atrophic variant of hypothyroidism. Antithyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibody were positive in 75.8% and 37.5% of patients, respectively. Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was confirmed in 78.8% of cases.Conclusion: In these cases in Jamaica, spontaneous hypothyroidism was predominantly a female disorder. Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was the commonest cause, and antithyroid peroxidase antibody was the thyroid antibody most likely to be positive in this population.Keywords: spontaneous hypothyroidism, Jamaican, thyroid autoantibodies, L-thyroxine, autoimmune thyroiditis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

  4. Hypothyroidism among military infants born in countries of varied iodine nutrition status

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    Smith Tyler C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency is a global problem representing the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. Recently, the impact of subtle deficiencies in iodine intake on children and pregnant women has been questioned. This study was designed to compare hypothyroidism among infants born to US military families in countries of varied iodine nutrition status. Methods A cohort design was used to analyze data from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry for infants born in 2000-04 (n = 447,691. Hypothyroidism was defined using ICD-9-CM codes from the first year of life (n = 698. The impact of birth location on hypothyroidism was assessed by comparing rates in Germany, Japan, and US territories with the United States, while controlling for infant gender, plurality, gestational age, maternal age, maternal military status, and military parent's race/ethnicity. Results Hypothyroidism did not vary by birth location with adjusted odds ratios (OR as follows: Germany (OR 0.82, [95% CI 0.50, 1.35], Japan (OR 0.67, [95% CI 0.37, 1.22], and US territories (OR 1.29, [95% CI 0.57, 2.89]. Hypothyroidism was strongly associated with preterm birth (OR 5.44, [95% CI 4.60, 6.42]. Hypothyroidism was also increased among infants with civilian mothers (OR 1.24, [95% CI 1.00, 1.54], and older mothers, especially ages 40 years and older (OR 2.09, [95% CI 1.33, 3.30]. Conclusions In this study, hypothyroidism in military-dependent infants did not vary by birth location, but was associated with other risk factors, including preterm birth, civilian maternal status, and advanced maternal age.

  5. Nitric Oxide Overproduction Reduces Insulin Secretion from Isolated Islets in Fetal Hypothyroid Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouintan, Z; Farrokhfall, K; Karbalaei, N; Ghasemi, A

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid hormones have developmental effects during fetal life. Fetal hypothyroidism leads to glucose intolerance and reduced insulin secretion capacity. Activity of nitric oxide synthases follows a heterogeneous pattern in hypothyroidism. Overactivity of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS), inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin release. The aim of this study was to examine if reduction in insulin secretion in fetal hypothyroidism is due to overproduction of nitric oxide. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups; the experimental group consumed water containing 0.02% of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil till delivery, while the control group consumed tap water. After delivery serum thyroid hormones were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed in 6-month old offspring (n=8). After 3 weeks recovery, pancreatic islets were isolated and insulin secretion, inducible and constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity were measured (n=4). Compared to controls, during intravenous glucose tolerance test, fetal hypothyroid rats had high plasma glucose concentration (p=0.003) and low plasma insulin levels (p=0.012) at 5-20 min and their insulin secretion from isolated islets at basal glucose concentration and in the presence of l-arginine was lower. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester significantly improved insulin secretion in fetal hypothyroid rats at basal glucose concentration and in the presence of l-arginine. The results showed higher NOS activities in fetal hypothyroid rats (constitutive 17.60±1.09 vs. 47.34±4.44 and inducible 4.09±0.96 vs. 19.97±1.14 pmol/min/mg proteins, p=0.002). In conclusion, NO overproduction through NOS participates in decreased insulin secretion in fetal hypothyroid rats.

  6. Hypothyroidism in polycystic ovarian syndrome: a comparative study of clinical characteristics, metabolic and hormonal parameters in euthyroid and hypothyroid polycystic ovarian syndrome women

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    Ramanand SJ

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Presence of hypothyroidism significantly increased severity of insulin resistance as well as obesity in PCOS. This could have adverse metabolic consequences in them. Concurrent occurrence of both these disorder could also possibly affect other features of the PCOS viz. hair loss and infertility. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3181-3185

  7. Adult-onset hypothyroidism and the cerebral metabolism of (1,2-13C2) acetate as detected by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, F; Künnecke, B; Calvo, R; Escobar del Rey, F; Morreale de Escobar, G; Cerdán, S

    1995-01-01

    The effects of adult-onset hypothyroidism on the metabolic compartmentation of the cerebral tricarboxylic acid cycle and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt have been investigated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rats thyroidectomized as adults and age-matched controls were infused in the right jugular vein with unlabeled or (1,2-13C2) acetate solutions for 60 min. At the end of the infusion, the brains were frozen in situ and perchloric acid extracts were prepared and analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and reverse-phase HPLC. Thyroidectomized animals showed a decrease in the incorporation of 13C from (1,2-13C2) acetate in cerebral metabolites and an increase in the concentrations of unlabeled glutamate and GABA. Computer-assisted interpretation of the 13C multiplets observed for the carbons of glutamate, glutamine, and GABA indicated that adult-onset hypothyroidism produced 1) a decrease in the contribution of infused (1,2-13C2) acetate to the glial tricarboxylic acid cycle; 2) an increase in the contribution of unlabeled acetyl-CoA to the neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle; and 3) impairments in the exchange of glutamate, glutamine, and GABA between the neuronal and glial compartments. Despite the fact that the adult brain has often been considered metabolically unresponsive to thyroid hormone status, present results show metabolic alterations in the neuronal and glial compartments that are reversible with substitution therapy.

  8. Congenital hypothyroidism, as studied in rats. Crucial role of maternal thyroxine but not of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in the protection of the fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, R; Obregón, M J; Ruiz de Oña, C; Escobar del Rey, F; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1990-09-01

    To study the protective effects of maternal thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in congenital hypothyroidism, we gave pregnant rats methimazole (MMI), an antithyroid drug that crosses the placenta, and infused them with three different doses of T4 or T3. The concentrations of both T4 and T3 were determined in maternal and fetal plasma and tissues (obtained near term) by specific RIAs. Several thyroid hormone-dependent biological end-points were also measured. MMI treatment resulted in marked fetal T4 and T3 deficiency. Infusion of T4 into the mothers increased both these pools in a dose-dependent fashion. There was a preferential increase of T3 in the fetal brain. Thus, with a T4 dose maintaining maternal euthyroidism, fetal brain T3 reached normal values, although fetal plasma T4 was 40% of normal and plasma TSH was high. The infusion of T3 pool into the mothers increased the total fetal extrathyroidal T3 pool in a dose-dependent fashion. The fetal T4 pools were not increased, however, and this deprived the fetal brain (and possibly the pituitary) of local generation of T3 from T4. As a consequence, fetal brain T3 deficiency was not mitigated even when dams were infused with a toxic dose of T3. The results show that (a) there is a preferential protection of the brain of the hypothyroid fetus from T3 deficiency; (b) maternal T4, but not T3, plays a crucial role in this protection, and (c) any condition which lowers maternal T4 (including treatment with T3) is potentially harmful for the brain of a hypothyroid fetus. Recent confirmation of transplacental passage of T4 in women at term suggests that present results are relevant for human fetuses with impairment of thyroid function. Finding signs of hypothyroidism at birth does not necessarily mean that the brain was unprotected in utero, provided maternal T4 is normal. It is crucial to realize that maintainance of maternal "euthyroidism" is not sufficient, as despite hypothyroxinemia, the mothers may be

  9. The effect of life-long thyroxine treatment and physical activity on bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.E. Kempers; T. Vulsma; B.M. Wiedijk; M. de Vijlder; B.L.F. van Eck-Smit; H.J. Verberne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Normalization of plasma thyrotropin in T-4-Supplemented patients with thyroidal congenital hypothyroidism (CH) requires elevated plasma FT4-concentrations compared to patients with acquired thyroidal hypothyroidism. We investigated bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with CH. Patients

  10. Hypothyroidism during neonatal and perinatal period induced by thyroidectomy of the mother causes depressive-like behavior in prepubertal rats

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    Marisol Pineda-Reynoso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marisol Pineda-Reynoso, Edgar Cano-Europa, Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Adelaida Hernandez-Garcia, Margarita Franco-Colin, Rocio Ortiz-ButronDepartamento de Fisiología ‘Mauricio Russek Berman,’ Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, IPN, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, MéxicoAbstract: The objective of this study was to see if neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: 1 thyroidectomy caused hypothyroidism, in which the thyroid gland had been removed and the parathyroid reimplanted; and 2 false thyroidectomy. The thyroidectomy was made on rats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine. The rats were mated and one day after giving birth, eight pups were assigned to each group randomly and they were distributed into two groups: a hypothyroid group containing male pups of a hypothyroid mother with a hypothyroid wet nurse; and a euthyroid group of male pups of a euthyroid mother with a euthyroid wet nurse. We analyzed the behavioral test at a prepubertal age. The neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused by the mother’s thyroidectomy caused a decrease in body weight and length. We found that the neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism enhanced the total exploratory activity without affecting social contact and the time spent in the open and closed arms in an elevated plus-maze. The hypothyroidism caused immobility without altering the lower climbing duration in the swimming test. This study shows a novel model to cause neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism without using pharmacological drugs. We demonstrated that hypothyroid animals had a reduction in body weight and length, a retardation of neurodevelopment, and they had depressive-like behavior.Keywords: perinatal hypothyroidism, thyroidectomy, thyroid hormone, behavior, metabolism

  11. Prospective Analysis of Risk for Hypothyroidism after Hemithyroidectomy

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    Virgilijus Beisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate risk factors and to develop a simple scoring system to grade the risk of postoperative hypothyroidism (PH. Methods. In a controlled prospective study, 109 patients, who underwent hemithyroidectomy for a benign thyroid disease, were followed up for 12 months. The relation between clinical data and PH was analyzed for significance. A risk scoring system based on significant risk factors and clinical implications was developed. Results. The significant risk factors of PH were higher TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone level and lower ratio of the remaining thyroid weight to the patient’s weight (derived weight index. Based on the log of risk factor, preoperative TSH level greater than 1.4 mU/L was assigned 2 points; 1 point was for 0.8–1.4 mU/L. The derived weight index lower than 0.8 g/kg was assigned 1 point. A risk scoring system was calculated by summing the scores. The incidences of PH were 7.3%, 30.4%, and 69.2% according to the risk scores of 0-1, 2, and 3. Conclusion. Risk factors for PH are higher preoperative TSH level and lower derived weight index. Our developed risk scoring system is a valid and reliable tool to identify patients who are at risk for PH before surgery.

  12. Poorly Controlled Congenital Hypothyroidism due to an Underlying Allgrove Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tellingen, V.; Finken, M.J.J.; Israëls, J.; Hendriks, Y.M.C.; Kamp, G.A.; van Santen, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenital hypothyroidism of thyroidal origin (CHT) is a common disorder in pediatric endocrinology practices, which can be difficult to manage. Elevated thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations are in the great majority of cases explained by poor compliance to levothyroxine therapy. Methods Case description. Results We present a boy with CHT, with 2 heterozygous mutations in the TSH receptor gene, who showed persistently elevated TSH concentrations and psychomotor retardation, initially misinterpreted as malcompliance. At the age of 4 years, he was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency, wherefore a broad diagnostic search was initiated. After the start of glucocorticoid replacement therapy, his TSH normalized and the levothyroxine could be lowered. At the age of 6 years, his TSH increased again, this time caused by malabsorption of levothyroxine due to esophageal achalasia. In retrospect, alacrima was also present and the diagnosis of Allgrove syndrome was genetically confirmed. The CHT was considered a separate disease entity. Conclusions In case of persistently elevated TSH levels in children with CHT, causes other than noncompliance must be considered. Second, in establishing the cause of adrenal insufficiency, specific symptoms, such as alacrima, are easily overlooked. Third, Allgrove syndrome is a rare disorder, in which diagnostic delay can lead to potentially life-threatening complications. PMID:27255745

  13. Prevalence of permanent congenital hypothyroidism in isfahan-iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Ghasemi, Mahmoud; Hovsepian, Silva; Heiydari, Kamal; Sajadi, Ali; Hadian, Rezvaneh; Mansourian, Marjan; Mirshahzadeh, Naghme; Dalvi, Marzie

    2013-12-01

    Considering the importance to determine the reasons for the higher occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Iran, in this study we report the prevalence of permanent CH (PCH) in Isfahan province 7 years after initiation of CH screening program in Isfahan. In this cross-sectional study, children with a primary diagnosis of CH studied. They clinically examined and their medical files were reviewed by a pediatric endocrinologist. Considering screening and follow-up lab data, radiologic findings and the decision of pediatric endocrinologists the final diagnosis of PCH was determined. A total of 464,648 neonates screened in Isfahan province. The coverage percent of the CH screening and recall rate was 98.9% and 2.1%, respectively. A total of 1990 neonates were diagnosed with primary CH. PCH was diagnosed in 410 neonates. The prevalence of PCH and transient CH (TCH) was 1 in 1133 and 1 in 294 live births. The most common etiology of CH was thyroid dyshormonogenesis. Though the prevalence of PCH is high, but the higher prevalence of CH in Isfahan is commonly due to cases with TCH. Hence, the necessity of determining new strategies for earlier diagnosis of patients with TCH is recommended.

  14. Prevalence of permanent congenital hypothyroidism in Isfahan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Hashemipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the importance to determine the reasons for the higher occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH in Iran, in this study we report the prevalence of permanent CH (PCH in Isfahan province 7 years after initiation of CH screening program in Isfahan. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, children with a primary diagnosis of CH studied. They clinically examined and their medical files were reviewed by a pediatric endocrinologist. Considering screening and follow-up lab data, radiologic findings and the decision of pediatric endocrinologists the final diagnosis of PCH was determined. Results: A total of 464,648 neonates screened in Isfahan province. The coverage percent of the CH screening and recall rate was 98.9% and 2.1%, respectively. A total of 1990 neonates were diagnosed with primary CH. PCH was diagnosed in 410 neonates. The prevalence of PCH and transient CH (TCH was 1 in 1133 and 1 in 294 live births. The most common etiology of CH was thyroid dyshormonogenesis. Conclusions: Though the prevalence of PCH is high, but the higher prevalence of CH in Isfahan is commonly due to cases with TCH. Hence, the necessity of determining new strategies for earlier diagnosis of patients with TCH is recommended.

  15. [National congenital hypothyroidism screening in Peru: a broken program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Sáenz, Lina; Del Águila, Carlos; Espinoza, Oscar; Falen-Boggio, Juan; Mitre, Naim

    2015-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most important cause of preventable mental retardation. The prevalence of CH varies by geographic region, race and ethnicity. In the countries of the Northern hemisphere, the prevalence has been reported as 1:4,000 live newborns. The prevalence is remarkably different among the countries of Latin America not only because of their different races and ethnicities but also because of the heterogeneous social-economic development. The prevalence of CH in 1984 in Peru was reported as 1:1250. In 2007, the reported incidence by the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal was 1:1638. A recent retrospective study performed by the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño in Lima, Peru described the average age of diagnosis of CH as 5,9 months +/- 5,28. This late age of CH diagnosis certainly suggests the poor efficiency of the current neonatal CH screening programs in Peru. Every Peruvian infant deserves a timely newborn screening and treatment for CH. The Peruvian government is responsible for ensuring this mandatory goal is achieved promptly.

  16. Investigation of Regorafenib-induced Hypothyroidism in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Kazuo; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Yokokawa, Takashi; Mae, Yutaro; Toya, Wataru; Hagino, Akane; Suzuki, Kenichi; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu; Hama, Toshihiro

    2015-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the side-effects caused by regorafenib. In the Japanese subset of the CORRECT study, hypothyroidism developed in 1.5% of the patients, but was not grade 3 or higher in any patient. Regorafenib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor that has the same mechanism of action as sunitinb. However, the reported incidence of sunitinb-related hypothyroidism varies widely, ranging from 16.0% in clinical trials to 35.4% in post-marketing surveillance studies. In general, symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue and dysphonia. Hyperthyroidism must, therefore, be appropriately managed in order to maintain patient quality of life and avoid a critical level of hypothyroidism. During the first cycle of treatment with regorafenib, the incidence of abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) elevation was 31.4%. Our results suggest that thyroid function tests should be performed from day 1 of treatment with regorafenib. It would be prudent to consider routine monitoring of thyroid function in all patients who receive regorafenib and to recommend endocrinological consultation as necessary.

  17. Prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in a highly specialised referral centre in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Eunice; Ibarra-Avalos, Jorge Antonio; Chan-Verdugo, Rosario Guadalupe; Mateos-Sánchez, Leovigildo; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Olivia

    2016-11-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism, and isolated hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy, thyroid hormone reference values established by UMAE HGO4, IMSS in Mexico City and those suggested by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) were used. All pregnant patients, whose thyroid function was measured and whose pregnancy was monitored and resolved in UMAE HGO4, IMSS from 1 January to 31 December 2013, were included. Significant differences (p = .00419) were observed in the frequency of subclinical hypothyroidism, being higher when using ATA criteria (18.21% vs. 9.66%). The prevalence rate (UMAE HGO4 vs. ATA) for overt hypothyroidism was 1.11 vs. 1.63, for subclinical hypothyroidism 0.84 vs. 1.41 and for isolated hypothyroxinemia 3.17 vs. 2.79 per 1000 consults during the study period. Independently of prevalence rate, it is essential to provide information on the possible risks involved in pregnancy to all women of childbearing age at the time of hypothyroidism diagnosis.

  18. [The course and outcome of pregnancy in pregnant women with hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodić, Lj; Sulović, V; Milacić, D; Terzić, M

    1993-01-01

    The report presents the analysis of 56 pregnant women with hypothyroidism as a consequence of different aetiopathogenetic factor, and 20 healthy pregnant women with normal pregnancies and term deliveries. Patients with hypothyroidism diagnosed prior pregnancy (46) were treated before and during pregnancy with thyroid hormone preparations. Patients with hypothyroidism verified in subclinical form during pregnancy (10) were not treated. In all examined pregnant women the mean values with standard deviations for thyroid-stimulating form hormone levels, total thyroxine and triiodothyronine, in each trimester of pregnancy, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the first and the last trimester were recorded; dynamics of their trends, as well as correlation of values in healthy pregnant women were presented. The analysis of the pregnancy course revealed a significantly higher incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia (p hypothyroidism is one of the risk factors for development of gestational diabetes, and also one of the pre-existing factors for development of preeclampsia. Delivery occurred in 83.9% of patients; in 12.8% of patients delivery was prior to term while spontaneous abortion occurred in 16.1% of cases (in one third in the first trimester). Similar results were observed in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. There were 4.2% of stillbirths which corresponded to the rate of perinatal mortality. One infant was born with hydrocephalus and the others were healthy. In the authors' opinion it is necessary to achieve normal metabolic state before pregnancy which should be maintained with substitutional therapy during the whole pregnancy.

  19. The effects of hypothyroidism on strength-duration properties of peripheral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen, Deniz; Ertorer, Eda; Koç, Filiz

    2010-07-15

    Axonal injury and/or demyelination commonly result in peripheral mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy or entrapment neuropathies in hypothyroidism. In this study, we aimed to measure the strength-duration time constants (SDTC) of motor and sensory fibres in patients with primary hypothyroidism before and after hormone replacement treatment. The motor and sensory SDTC and rheobase of 14 patients with overt hypothyroidism (TSH>10mg/ml, free T4ulnar nerve at the wrist. Nerve conduction velocity studies revealed carpal tunnel syndrome in 3 of 14 patients. When the values of patients and control group were compared, motor and sensory rheobase, thresholds using 0.1 ms and 1 ms stimulus for motor and sensory fibres were significantly different (psensory rheobase, thresholds using 0.1 ms and 1 ms stimulus for motor and sensory fibres were significantly different (p<0.05). When the values of 10 of 14 patients who had undergone hormone therapy were compared with the control group, there wasn't any significant difference. Some reports suggest that axonal injury develop in hypothyroidism. Our results suggest that even in the absence of polyneuropathy findings, an increased threshold and in consequence an increased axonal excitability which can improve after hormone therapy may be present in overt hypothyroidism.

  20. [Subclinical and manifested hypothyroidism as a consequence of thyroid autoimmune disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Dragoslav P; Djurica, Snezana; Davidović, Mladen; Stević, Radmila; Rajić, Miodrag; Marković, Natasa

    2005-10-01

    Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) is a slowly developing persistent inflamation of the thyroid gland, which frequently leads to hypothyroidism. Some of the up-to-date knowledge about hypothyroidism, both subclinical and manifested, caused by autoimmune disease, was presented. Autoimmune thyroid gland disease can occur at any age, but predominantly affects women after periods of high emotional and physical stress or accidents, as well as during periods of hormonal changes. It can also develop in families, and having an autoimmune disease slightly increases the risk of developing another. This paper showed an increasing incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism (4.17%) in elderly, and, at the same time, the incidence of primary hypothyroidism accounting for 1%. It is very usefull to estimate the stimulated thyrotropin (TSH) response, as well as the value of fast, short time thyroid gland reserves, analyzed by T3 and T4 serum level at 60th minute after TRH stimulation. Treatment of choice for HT (hypothyroidism of any cause) is thyroid hormone replacement. Drug of choice is orally administered levothyroxine sodium, usually for life-time. The standard dose is 1.6-1.8 mcg/kg body weight per day, but is in most cases patient dependent. Elderly patients usually require smaller replacement dose of levothyroxine, sometimes less than 1 mcg/kg body weight per day with coronary dilatator at the same time.

  1. Thyroid dysfunction, either hyper or hypothyroidism, promotes gallstone formation by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Xing; Zhao, Qun-Zi; Zheng, Shu; Qing, Wen-Jie; Miao, Chun-di; Sanjay, Jaiswal

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated comprehensively the effects of thyroid function on gallstone formation in a mouse model. Gonadectomized gallstone-susceptible male C57BL/6 mice were randomly distributed into three groups each of which received an intervention to induce hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or euthyroidism. After 5 weeks of feeding a lithogenic diet of 15% (w/w) butter fat, 1% (w/w) cholesterol, and 0.5% (w/w) cholic acid, mice were killed for further experiments. The incidence of cholesterol monohydrate crystal formation was 100% in mice with hyperthyroidism, 83% in hypothyroidism, and 33% in euthyroidism, the differences being statistically significant. Among the hepatic lithogenic genes, Trβ was found to be up-regulated and Rxr down-regulated in the mice with hypothyroidism. In contrast, Lxrα, Rxr, and Cyp7α1 were up-regulated and Fxr down-regulated in the mice with hyperthyroidism. In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction, either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, promotes the formation of cholesterol gallstones in C57BL/6 mice. Gene expression differences suggest that thyroid hormone disturbance leads to gallstone formation in different ways. Hyperthyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by regulating expression of the hepatic nuclear receptor genes such as Lxrα and Rxr, which are significant in cholesterol metabolism pathways. However, hypothyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by promoting cholesterol biosynthesis.

  2. [Improvement in functional capacity after levothyroxine treatment in patients with chronic heart failure and subclinical hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curotto Grasiosi, Jorge; Peressotti, Bruno; Machado, Rogelio A; Filipini, Eduardo C; Angel, Adriana; Delgado, Jorge; Cortez Quiroga, Gustavo A; Rus Mansilla, Carmen; Martínez Quesada, María del Mar; Degregorio, Alejandro; Cordero, Diego J; Dak, Marcelo; Izurieta, Carlos; Esper, Ricardo J

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether levothyroxine treatment improves functional capacity in patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association class i-iii) and subclinical hypothyroidism. One hundred and sixty-three outpatients with stable chronic heart failure followed up for at least 6 months were enrolled. A physical examination was performed, and laboratory tests including thyroid hormone levels, Doppler echocardiogram, radionuclide ventriculography, and Holter monitoring were requested. Functional capacity was assessed by of the 6-min walk test. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were detected and, after undergoing the s6-min walk test, were given replacement therapy. When they reached normal thyrotropin (TSH) levels, the 6-min walk test was performed again. The distance walked in both tests was recorded, and the difference in meters covered by each patient was analyzed. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with heart failure was 13%. These patients walked 292±63m while they were hypothyroid and 350±76m when TSH levels returned to normal, a difference of 58±11m (P<.011). Patients with normal baseline TSH levels showed no significant difference between the 2 6-min walk tests. Patients with chronic heart failure and subclinical hypothyroidism significantly improved their physical performance when normal TSH levels were reached. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypothyroidism Affects Vascularization and Promotes Immune Cells Infiltration into Pancreatic Islets of Female Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castelán, Julia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela

    2015-01-01

    Thyroidectomy induces pancreatic edema and immune cells infiltration similarly to that observed in pancreatitis. In spite of the controverted effects of hypothyroidism on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, the number and proliferation of Langerhans islet cells as well as the presence of extracellular matrix are affected depending on the islet size. In this study, we evaluated the effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on the vascularization and immune cells infiltration into islets. A general observation of pancreas was also done. Twelve Chinchilla-breed female adult rabbits were divided into control (n = 6) and hypothyroid groups (n = 6, methimazole, 0.02% in drinking water for 30 days). After the treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and their pancreas was excised, histologically processed, and stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) or Masson's Trichrome techniques. Islets were arbitrarily classified into large, medium, and small ones. The external and internal portions of each islet were also identified. Student-t-test and Mann-Whitney-U test or two-way ANOVAs were used to compare variables between groups. In comparison with control rabbits, hypothyroidism induced a strong infiltration of immune cells and a major presence of collagen and proteoglycans in the interlobular septa. Large islets showed a high vascularization and immune cells infiltration. The present results show that hypothyroidism induces pancreatitis and insulitis. PMID:26175757

  4. Effects of subacute hypothyroidism on metabolism and growth-related molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Jui; Hwu, Chii-Min; Yeh, Chii-Chang; Wang, Paulus S; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2014-07-30

    Thyroid hormones are crucial hormones that primarily regulate the metabolism of entire body cells. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into sham thyroidectomy (Sham Tx), thyroidectomy (Tx), Tx with thyroxine replacement (Tx + T4), and PTU injection (PTU) groups. Metabolic parameters were measured by means of metabolic cages for 14 days. After 14 days, the rats were sacrificed while the levels of plasma or serum TSH and growth-related molecules, such as active and total ghrelin, GH, and IGF-1, were assayed. The results revealed that hypothyroid rats tended to eat less food and experienced substantial body weight gain, whereas the rats with T4 replacement tended to eat more food while continuing to lose weight. In hypothyroid rats, the growth-related molecules, such as active ghrelin and total ghrelin secretion, were enhanced, and the ghrelin receptors were also up-regulated. However, circulating GH levels were not elevated and IGF-1 secretion was inhibited in hypothyroid rats. In the Tx + T4 group, the changes of active ghrelin, total ghrelin, GHS-R expression, and IGF-1 were reversed, whereas the GH secretion was higher than that of the Sham Tx group and hypothyroid groups. This study resulted in the novel finding that the ghrelin/GHS-R axis and GH/IGF-1 axis are interrupted in hypothyroid rats.

  5. Effects of Subacute Hypothyroidism on Metabolism and Growth-Related Molecules

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    Yen-Jui Chang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are crucial hormones that primarily regulate the metabolism of entire body cells. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into sham thyroidectomy (Sham Tx, thyroidectomy (Tx, Tx with thyroxine replacement (Tx + T4, and PTU injection (PTU groups. Metabolic parameters were measured by means of metabolic cages for 14 days. After 14 days, the rats were sacrificed while the levels of plasma or serum TSH and growth-related molecules, such as active and total ghrelin, GH, and IGF-1, were assayed. The results revealed that hypothyroid rats tended to eat less food and experienced substantial body weight gain, whereas the rats with T4 replacement tended to eat more food while continuing to lose weight. In hypothyroid rats, the growth-related molecules, such as active ghrelin and total ghrelin secretion, were enhanced, and the ghrelin receptors were also up-regulated. However, circulating GH levels were not elevated and IGF-1 secretion was inhibited in hypothyroid rats. In the Tx + T4 group, the changes of active ghrelin, total ghrelin, GHS-R expression, and IGF-1 were reversed, whereas the GH secretion was higher than that of the Sham Tx group and hypothyroid groups. This study resulted in the novel finding that the ghrelin/GHS-R axis and GH/IGF-1 axis are interrupted in hypothyroid rats.

  6. Response of slow and fast muscle to hypothyroidism: maximal shortening velocity and myosin isoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined both the shortening velocity and myosin isoform distribution of slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) skeletal muscles under hypothyroid conditions. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 7) or hypothyroid (n = 7). In both muscles, the relative contents of native slow myosin (SM) and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) increased in response to the hypothyroid treatment. The effects were such that the hypothyroid soleus muscle expressed only the native SM and type I MHC isoforms while repressing native intermediate myosin and type IIA MHC. In the plantaris, the relative content of native SM and type I MHC isoforms increased from 5 to 13% and from 4 to 10% of the total myosin pool, respectively. Maximal shortening velocity of the soleus and plantaris as measured by the slack test decreased by 32 and 19%, respectively, in response to hypothyroidism. In contrast, maximal shortening velocity as estimated by force-velocity data decreased only in the soleus (-19%). No significant change was observed for the plantaris.

  7. Histopathologic Evaluation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hypothyroidism-Induced Rats

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    Şule Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is speculated that thyroid hormones may be involved in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD pathogenesis. A literature scan, however, demonstrated conflicting results from studies investigating the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD. Therefore, our study aims to evaluate NAFLD, from the histopathologic perspective, in hypothyroidism-induced rats. Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: the experimental group consumed water containing methimazole 0.025% (MMI, Sigma, USA for 12 weeks and the control group consumed tap water. At the end of week 12, serum glucose, ALT, AST, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, TSH, fT4, fT3, visfatin, and insulin assays were performed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and “Oil Red-O” for histopathologic examination of the livers. In our study, we detected mild hepatosteatosis in all hypothyroidism-induced rats. There was statistically significant difference with respect to obesity between the two groups (p0.05. In conclusion, we found that hypothyroidism-induced rats had mild hepatosteatosis as opposed to the control group histopathologically. Our study indicates that hypothyroidism can cause NAFLD.

  8. Hypothyroidism Affects Vascularization and Promotes Immune Cells Infiltration into Pancreatic Islets of Female Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Rodríguez-Castelán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroidectomy induces pancreatic edema and immune cells infiltration similarly to that observed in pancreatitis. In spite of the controverted effects of hypothyroidism on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, the number and proliferation of Langerhans islet cells as well as the presence of extracellular matrix are affected depending on the islet size. In this study, we evaluated the effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on the vascularization and immune cells infiltration into islets. A general observation of pancreas was also done. Twelve Chinchilla-breed female adult rabbits were divided into control n=6 and hypothyroid groups (n=6, methimazole, 0.02% in drinking water for 30 days. After the treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and their pancreas was excised, histologically processed, and stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS or Masson’s Trichrome techniques. Islets were arbitrarily classified into large, medium, and small ones. The external and internal portions of each islet were also identified. Student-t-test and Mann-Whitney-U test or two-way ANOVAs were used to compare variables between groups. In comparison with control rabbits, hypothyroidism induced a strong infiltration of immune cells and a major presence of collagen and proteoglycans in the interlobular septa. Large islets showed a high vascularization and immune cells infiltration. The present results show that hypothyroidism induces pancreatitis and insulitis.

  9. Alterations of Functional Connectivity Among Resting-State Networks in Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Kumar, M; Modi, S; Kaur, P; Shankar, L R; Khushu, S

    2015-07-01

    Hypothyroidism affects brain functioning as suggested by various neuroimaging studies. The primary focus of the present study was to examine whether hypothyroidism would impact connectivity among resting-state networks (RSNs) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Twenty-two patients with hypothyroidism and 22 healthy controls were recruited and scanned using rsfMRI. The data were analysed using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach that was applied on five RSNs that were identified using fsl software (http://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk). Hypothyroid patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity in the regions of the right frontoparietal network (frontal pole), the medial visual network (lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus cortex and cuneus) and the motor network (precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, precuneus cortex, paracingulate gyrus, cingulate gyrus and supramarginal gyrus) compared to healthy controls. The reduced functional connectivity in the right frontoparietal network, the medial visual network and the motor network suggests neurocognitive alterations in hypothyroid patients in the corresponding functions. However, the study would be further continued to investigate the effects of thyroxine treatment and correlation with neurocognitive scores. The findings of the present study provide further interesting insights into our understanding of the action of thyroid hormone on the adult human brain.

  10. Efficacy of Levothyroxine in Migraine Headaches in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

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    Mehrdad MIROULIAEI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveHypothyroidism may be an exacerbating factor for primary headaches and migraine is one of the most common primary headaches in childhood. Thepurpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism on children with migraine headache.Materials & MethodsIn a quasi-experimental study, the severity and monthly frequency of headache of 25 migraineur children with subclinical hypothyroidism who were referred to the pediatric neurology clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran between January 2010 and February 2011and were treated with levothyroxine for two months were evaluated.ResultsThirteen girls (52% and 12 boys (48% with the mean age of 10.2 ± 2.76years were evaluated.In children with hypothyroidism, the monthly frequency of headache (mean± SD: 17.64 ± 9.49 times vs. 1.2 ± 1.1 times and the severity of headache(mean± SD: 6.24±1.8 scores vs. 1.33 ± 0.87 scores were significantly decreased by treatment.ConclusionBased on the results of this study, treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism was effective in reducing migraine headaches. Therefore, it is logical to check thyroid function tests in migraineur children.

  11. Cognitive Outcomes for Congenital Hypothyroid and Healthy Children: A Comparative Study

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    Mahtab ORDOOEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ordooei M, MottaghiPisheh H, Fallah R, Rabiee A. Cognitive Outcomes for Congenital Hypothyroid andHealthy Children: A Comparative Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4: 28-32.AbstractObjectiveEarly diagnosis and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH and the prevention of developmental retardation is the main goal of public health national screening programs. This study compares the cognitive ability of children with CH diagnosed by neonatal screening with a healthy control group (2007 in Yazd, Iran.Materials & MethodsIn a case-controlled study, the intelligent quotient (IQ of 40 five-year-old children with early treated CH and good compliance were evaluated by the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligent test and compared to 40 healthy age and gender matched children as controls.Results22 boys (55% and 18 girls (45% in both groups were evaluated. In children with CH, 19 (47.5% and 21 (52.5% persons had transient and permanent hypothyroidism, respectively.Range of TSH and T4 level at the onset of diagnosis were 11.41–81 mu/l and 1.50–14.20 μg/dl, respectively.The intelligence levels of all children with CH were within the average or normal range and IQs ranged from 91–108.Children with CH had lower full-scale IQs (107.25 ± 2. 9 versus 110.50 ± 2.66, p=0.001, verbal IQ (106.95 ± 3.5 versus 109.90 ± 3.44, P-value=0.001 and performance IQ (106.3 ± 3.68 versus 108.87 ± 3.70 than the control group.However, no statistically significant differences were observed for mean IQ scores in permanent and transient CH.ConclusionChildren with CH who had early treatment and good compliance had normal cognitive abilities, but may have a decreased IQ relative to the healthy control group.ReferencesLeFranchi S. Hypothyroidism. Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Schor NF, St. Geme JW, Behrman RE. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia, Saunders 2011; 19th edition, Pp: 1895-1900.Nouri-Shadkam M, Jafarizadeh M

  12. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study from North India

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    Abhilash Chandra

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: There is growing evidence of increased prevalence of hypothyroidism in dialysis-independent CKD patients. A number of findings such as lower serum albumin, serum calcium, and hemoglobin levels and higher intact parathyroid hormone levels are seen in this group. Specific treatment can help improve these. Hence, there is a need to formulate guidelines to screen this population for hypothyroidism.

  13. Loss-of-function mutations in IGSF1 cause an X-linked syndrome of central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Y.; Bak, B.; Schoenmakers, N.; Trotsenburg, A.S. van; Oostdijk, W.; Voshol, P.; Cambridge, E.; White, J.K.; Tissier, P. le; Gharavy, S.N.; Martinez-Barbera, J.P.; Stokvis-Brantsma, W.H.; Vulsma, T.; Kempers, M.J.; Persani, L.; Campi, I.; Bonomi, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Zhu, H.; Davis, T.M.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.; Del Blanco, D.G.; Rangasami, J.J.; Ruivenkamp, C.A.; Laros, J.F.; Kriek, M.; Kant, S.G.; Bosch, C.A.; Biermasz, N.R.; Appelman-Dijkstra, N.M.; Corssmit, E.P.; Hovens, G.C.; Pereira, A.M.; Dunnen, J.T. den; Wade, M.G.; Breuning, M.H.; Hennekam, R.C.; Chatterjee, K.; Dattani, M.T.; Wit, J.M.; Bernard, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital central hypothyroidism occurs either in isolation or in conjunction with other pituitary hormone deficits. Using exome and candidate gene sequencing, we identified 8 distinct mutations and 2 deletions in IGSF1 in males from 11 unrelated families with central hypothyroidism, testicular enl

  14. Loss-of-function mutations in IGSF1 cause an X-linked syndrome of central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Y.; Bak, B.; Schoenmakers, N.; Trotsenburg, A.S. van; Oostdijk, W.; Voshol, P.; Cambridge, E.; White, J.K.; Tissier, P. le; Gharavy, S.N.; Martinez-Barbera, J.P.; Stokvis-Brantsma, W.H.; Vulsma, T.; Kempers, M.J.; Persani, L.; Campi, I.; Bonomi, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Zhu, H.; Davis, T.M.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.; Del Blanco, D.G.; Rangasami, J.J.; Ruivenkamp, C.A.; Laros, J.F.; Kriek, M.; Kant, S.G.; Bosch, C.A.; Biermasz, N.R.; Appelman-Dijkstra, N.M.; Corssmit, E.P.; Hovens, G.C.; Pereira, A.M.; Dunnen, J.T. den; Wade, M.G.; Breuning, M.H.; Hennekam, R.C.; Chatterjee, K.; Dattani, M.T.; Wit, J.M.; Bernard, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital central hypothyroidism occurs either in isolation or in conjunction with other pituitary hormone deficits. Using exome and candidate gene sequencing, we identified 8 distinct mutations and 2 deletions in IGSF1 in males from 11 unrelated families with central hypothyroidism, testicular enl

  15. Hearing Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

    For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

  16. The relationship of preconception thyrotropin levels to requirements for increasing the levothyroxine dose during pregnancy in women with primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalovich, Marcos; Alcaraz, Graciela; Kleiman-Rubinsztein, Jessica; Pavlove, María Magdalena; Cornelio, Cecilia; Levalle, Oscar; Gutierrez, Silvia

    2010-10-01

    Most women with hypothyroidism require an increase in their dose of levothyroxine (LT4) after conception. To minimize fetal and maternal complications of maternal hypothyroidism, it is thought that women should be rapidly restored to the euthyroid state. The objectives of this study was to determine the percentage of hypothyroid women who would need to increase their dose of LT4 dose even if they had a preconception (pre-C) serum thyrotropin (TSH) of pregnant women with hypothyroidism on LT4 treatment in whom the pre-C serum TSH was women with hypothyroidism who are planning to become pregnant, serum TSH levels should be in the normal range but should not be greater than about 1.2 mIU/mL.

  17. Maternal Overt Hypothyroidism and Neurobehavioral Outcome of Neonates: A Cohort Study from an Iodine-deficient Area of Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Charoo, Bashir A; Sofi, Riyaz Ahmad; Ahmed, Asif; Bhat, Javeed Iqbal

    2015-10-01

    To study the relation between maternal overt hypothyroidism and neurodevelopmental outcome of neonates in iodine-deficient region of Northern India (Kashmir Valley). Prospective cohort study. Endocrinology department of a tertiary-care hospital. 82 hypothyroid pregnant women were enrolled and followed up till delivery. The neonates born to this group represented the case neonates. 51 euthyroid healthy pregnant women were selected as control group. The neonates born to these mothers served as controls. Early neonatal behavioral assessment at 3-4 weeks of age. The mean TSH and free T4 in neonates of mothers with well controlled hypothyroidism was significantly different from those born to mothers with poorly controlled hypothyroidism and controls in 1st trimester, but the difference was statistically insignificant for 2nd and 3rd trimester values. Overt maternal hypothyroidism in iodine-deficient area constitutes a risk factor for an abnormal neurobehavioral development of affected child.

  18. Influence of neonatal hypothyroidism on hepatic gene expression and lipid metabolism in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santana-Farré, Ruymán; Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Bocos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are required for normal growth and development in mammals. Congenital-neonatal hypothyroidism (CH) has a profound impact on physiology, but its specific influence in liver is less understood. Here, we studied how CH influences the liver gene expression program in adulthood......, triglyceride assembly, bile acid synthesis, and lipogenesis. These changes were associated with a decrease of intrahepatic lipids. Finally, CH rats responded to the onset of hypothyroidism in adulthood with a reduction of serum fatty acids and hepatic cholesteryl esters and to T3 replacement with an enhanced...... activation of malic enzyme. In summary, we provide in vivo evidence that neonatal hypothyroidism influences the hepatic transcriptional program and tissue sensitivity to hormone treatment in adulthood. This highlights the critical role that a euthyroid state during development plays on normal liver...

  19. Subclinical hypothyroidism in the first trimester of pregnancy in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubbin Jagan Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism based on population and trimester specific cut-offs is reported to complicate 1-2% of all pregnancies. Using the recent Endocrine Society guidelines of 2.5 mIU/L of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone as the upper level of normal in the first trimester the reported prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is much higher. Recent publications have also emphasized that there is considerable racial variation in the prevalence of thyroid disorders in pregnancy. Among published literature North Indian women appear to have the highest rates of subclinical hypothyroidism in the first trimester of pregnancy. More widespread use of universal screening and trimester specific ranges in pregnancy for thyroid hormonal assays will lead to a large number of North Indian women requiring treatment for thyroid disorders in pregnancy.

  20. Levothyroxine substitution in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of myocardial infarction and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors, yet only limited data exist on long-term outcome of levothyroxine treatment of this condition with respect to hard end-points. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine effects...... of levothyroxine treatment on myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primary care patients aged 18 years and older that underwent thyroid function tests between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled. Participants were...... identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism at baseline were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included a history of thyroid disease, related medication or medication affecting thyroid function. The total cohort comprised 628,953 patients...

  1. Transient Hypothyroidism in Premature Infants After Short-term Topical Iodine Exposure: An Avoidable Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan E. Pinsker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies in preterm infants have shown that prolonged treatment with topical iodine (multiple doses, often over multiple days can transiently suppress thyroid function. However, it is uncertain if topical iodine exposure for very short periods of time can cause significant changes in thyroid function. We report two cases of transient hypothyroidism in preterm infants after short-term exposure to topical iodine during surgical preparation, and review their clinical and laboratory findings before and after iodine exposure. We conclude that premature infants are at risk of developing transient hypothyroidism in response to a single, short-term exposure to topical iodine, even in iodine-sufficient geographical areas. We advise monitoring of thyroid function in these infants after iodine exposure, as treatment with levothyroxine may be needed for a limited duration to prevent the sequelae of untreated hypothyroidism. Consideration of using alternative cleansing agents is also advised.

  2. Blood Fibrinolytic Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated with Hypothyroidism

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    Т.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 in the blood serum of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in combination with hypothyroidism. We have observed 62 patients with type 2 DM, 32 of them had primary hypothyroidism. Control group consisted of 20 persons without carbohydrate metabolism disorders and thyroid pathology. In patients with type 2 DM, we have detected violations in the fibrinolytic system as an increase of PAI-1, whose level depends on the body mass index, waist circumference, level of glycated haemoglobin, indexes of insulin resistance, blood lipid spectrum, as well as on the presence of microalbuminuria. The presence of hypothyroidism has an additional negative impact on the parameters of carbohydrate, lipid metabolism and PAI-1 level in patients with type 2 DM.

  3. Evaluating autoimmunity markers (TPO Ab, Tg Ab and TM Ab in hypothyroid patients of Bushehr province

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    Iraj Nabipour

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is the common cause of primary hypothyroidism in iodine sufficient countries. Iran is named an iodine sufficient country, in this century. Methods: A total of 88 hypothyroid patients, on suppressing dose of levothyroxine who were followed in a university endocrine disorder clinic were evaluated for serum thyroid autoimmunity markers: thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO Ab, thyroglobulin antibody (Tg Ab and thyroid microsomal antibody (TM Ab using ELISA method. Results: The prevalence of TPO Ab, Tg Ab and TM Ab were 73.9%, 45.5% and 71.6%, respectively. Among the patients with high level of TPO Ab (> 75 u/ml, 45.3% had grade 1 or 2 of goiter (P< 0.05. Conclusion: Autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in Bushehr province.

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption may protect against overt autoimmune hypothyroidism: a population-based casecontrol study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Blow; Knudsen, Nils;

    2012-01-01

    , previous diseases, education, and family history of hypothyroidism. The association between alcohol intake and development of hypothyroidism was analyzed in conditional regression models. RESULTS: Hypothyroid cases had reported a lower alcohol consumption than controls (median units of alcohol (12 g) per...... of alcohol per week were as follows: 0 units/week, 1.98 (1.21-3.33); 11-20 units/week, 0.41 (0.20-0.83); and ≥21 units/week, 0.90 (0.41-2.00). Similar results were found for maximum previous alcohol consumption during a calendar year. No interaction was found with type of alcohol consumed (wine vs beer), sex...

  5. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Asato, Ryo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT{sub 4}), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT{sub 4} levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  6. Amiodarone-induced Hypothyroidism with EPO-resistant Anemia in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M.S. Chang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall incidence of amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction ranges from 2% to 24%. One third to half of patients with hypothyroidism have anemia due to some decrease in normal red blood cell mass and erythropoietin (EPO resistance. Therefore, for patients with chronic renal disease under medication with amiodarone, early regular thyroid function test should be checked in order to avoid amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism and EPO-resistant anemia. If amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism and EPO-resistant anemia occur in patients with chronic renal failure, early thyroxine should be given instead of waiting for spontaneous recovery by amiodarone discontinuation only. Here, we report a patient with chronic renal failure who developed EPO-resistant anemia after amiodarone treatment for arrhythmia. The hemoglobin level responded to EPO therapy rapidly after thyroxine administration and amiodarone discontinuation.

  7. Aortic stenosis with abnormal eccentric left ventricular remodeling secondary to hypothyroidism in a Bourdeaux Mastiff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Minozzo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper describes a case of congenital aortic stenosis with eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy associated with hypothyroidism in a 1-year-old Bourdeaux Mastiff dog. The dog had ascites, apathy, alopecic and erythematous skin lesions in different parts of the body. A two-dimensional echocardiogram revealed aortic valve stenosis, with poststenotic dilation in the ascending aorta. The same exam showed eccentric hypertrophy and dilation of the left ventricle during systole and diastole. Aortic stenosis usually results in concentric left ventricular hypertrophy instead of eccentric hypertrophy; and therefore, this finding was very unusual. Hypothyroidism, which is uncommon in young dogs, may be incriminated as the cause of ventricular dilation, making this report even more interesting. Because hypothyroidism would only result in dilatation, the eccentric hypertrophy was attributed to pressure overload caused by aortic stenosis. Thus, cardiac alterations of this case represent a paradoxical association of both diseases.

  8. Biological half-time of tritiated water: comparison of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberstadt, P.; Fernandez, M.V.G.; Gonzalez, O.

    1986-01-01

    The half-time values of tritiated water were explored in eleven hyperthyroid patients and in two hypothyroid ones. For reasons of comparability the numbers are expressed in days per square meter (d/m/sup 2/) of body surface. Against the estimated 5.4d/m/sup 2/ in normal subjects, the hyperthyroids reflected 3.9+-0.66 and the two determinations of hypothyroids were 6.42 and 7.13, respectively. During the study neither diagnostic nor therapeutic procedures were ever postponed. The half-time values are not representative of extreme conditions in hyper- or hypothyroids, but are sufficiently clear to indicate well-defined differences from normal people. The total exposure to radiation for the exploratory procedure was minimal, estimated at less than 12 mrem for the normal standard man.

  9. Effects of thyroxin therapy on different analytes related to obesity and inflammation in dogs with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, A; Jaillardon, L; Cerón, J J; Siliart, B

    2013-04-01

    Hypothyroidism in dogs is accompanied by changes in intermediary metabolism including alterations in bodyweight (BW), insulin resistance, and lipid profile. In this study, changes in selected adipokines (adiponectin, leptin), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and acute phase proteins, including C-reactive protein, haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were studied in dogs with hypothyroidism under thyroxin therapy. Blood samples were collected when hypothyroidism was diagnosed (before treatment) and after treatment with thyroxin. Twenty-eight of 39 dogs exhibited a good therapeutic response (group A), whereas the remainder were considered to have been insufficiently treated (group B). Following treatment, group A dogs demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in canine thyroid stimulating hormone (c-TSH) (Pdogs showed no statistically significant changes in c-TSH, but had a significant increase in fT4 (Pdogs. The mean increase in Hp values and decrease in SAA for some of the dogs after treatment warrants further investigation.

  10. All Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...

  11. Sunitinib-induced hypothyroidism predicts progression-free survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda-Nowak, Anna; Kucharz, Jakub; Dumnicka, Paulina; Kuzniewski, Marek; Herman, Roman Maria; Zygulska, Aneta L; Kusnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-04-01

    Sunitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) used in treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), gastrointestinal stromal tumors and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. One of the most common side effects related to sunitinib is hypothyroidism. Recent trials suggest correlation between the incidence of hypothyroidism and treatment outcome in patients treated with TKI. This study evaluates whether development of hypothyroidism is a predictive marker of progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib. Twenty-seven patients diagnosed with clear cell mRCC, after nephrectomy and in 'good' or 'intermediate' MSKCC risk prognostic group, were included in the study. All patients received sunitinib as a first-line treatment on a standard schedule (initial dose 50 mg/day, 4 weeks on, 2 weeks off). The thyroid-stimulating hormone serum levels were obtained at the baseline and every 12 weeks of treatment. In statistic analyses, we used Kaplan-Meier method for assessment of progression-free survival; for comparison of survival, we used log-rank test. In our study, the incidence of hypothyroidism was 44%. The patients who had developed hypothyroidism had better median PFS to patients with normal thyroid function 28,3 months [95% (CI) 20.4-36.2 months] versus 9.8 months (6.4-13.1 months). In survival analysis, we perceive that thyroid dysfunction is a predictive factor of a progression-free survival (PFS). In the unified group of patients, the development of hypothyroidism during treatment with sunitinib is a positive marker for PFS. During that treatment, thyroid function should be evaluated regularly.

  12. Effect of steroid replacement on thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Selviambigapathy, Jayakumar; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Nagarajan, K; Vivekanandan, Muthupillai

    2016-01-01

    Steroid replacement without thyroxine supplementation normalizes thyroid function test (TFT) in some but not all Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to this improvement in TFT. However, the documentation of the change in thyroid autoimmunity after cortisol replacement is very limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of steroid replacement on TFT and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab) titer in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism. This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care center in South India. Six Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism, who were only on steroid replacement, were included in the study. Low serum cortisol (22 pmol/L) and/or hyperpigmentation of skin/mucous membranes was considered as the diagnostic criteria for Addison's disease. Primary hypothyroidism (both overt and subclinical) was defined as high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with/without low free thyroxine (fT4). TFT and anti-TPO-Ab were performed before and after steroid replacement in all of them. Poststeroid replacement, there was a normalization of TSH in all but one subjects. In overt hypothyroidism patients, fT4 also normalized. The improvement in TFT was not associated with decreasing titer of the anti-TPO-Ab in all six patients. However, there was a significant difference in TSH after steroid replacement compared to the baseline status. The concept of normalization of primary hypothyroidism with cortisol replacement in patients with Addison's disease should be recognized to avoid iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis caused by thyroxine replacement. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to these alterations.

  13. Study of Salvia Officinalis Hydroethanolic Extract on Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Hypothyroid Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mirazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Medicinal plants are widely used throughout the world. Hypothyroid-ism is an important hormonal disease that causes some disorders in body organs. Salvia offi-cinalis has been known as a medicinal plant since ancient times. In this study the Salvia offi-cinalis extract (SOE effects on thyroid hormones and TSH in hypothyroid rats have been investigated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the SOE extract was prepared and 40 male rats were randomly divided in five groups. Control, propylthiouracil (PTU in 4 groups + SOE. The animals were induced hypothyroidism by administration of PTU 0.1% orally in tap water for 14 days. The blood samples were collected and T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed. Hypothyroid groups were divided into 4 groups and received (PTU+ SOE 40 mg/kg +levothyroxine sodium, 15mcg/kg, orally in tap water and LV+ SOE. All test groups were treated with SOE and levothyroxine sodium for one week. The blood samples were col-lected and for T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed at the end of the 3rd week. All data were expressed as mean ± SEM and all statistical procedures were performed by MANOVA test.Results: Our results showed that the T3 & T4 plasma levels in hypothyroid animals treated by SOE had significant differences (P<0.05 compared with the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the SOE has stimulatory effect on thyroid gland func-tion and raises plasma T3 & T4 levels.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:27-35

  14. Incidence of hypothyroidism and its correlation with polysomnography findings in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, K Murat; Selcuk, Adin; Ozcan, Ibrahim; Ozdas, Talih; Ozdogan, Fatih; Acar, Mustafa; Dere, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the thyroid functions and its correlation with polysomnography findings in obstructive sleep apnea patients. This study was conducted on 203 patients evaluated with the complaints of snoring, witnessed apnea and daytime sleepiness and established polysomnography (PSG) indication between May 2008 and August 2011. All patients' nocturnal PSG recordings were carried out. The thyroid function was classified as euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroidism and clinical hypothyroidism after analyzing serum TSH and free T4 values. The correlation between the data obtained from PSG records and thyroid function values was statistically compared. Apnea hypopnea index obtained from PSG was in the range of 5.4-132.9/h, and mean value was 32.7/h. The lowest oxygen saturation level was in the range of 20-92 %, and the mean value was 76.4 %. According to PSG results, 55 patients (27.09 %) had mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), 48 patients (23.65 %) had moderate OSAS and 100 patients (49.26 %) had severe OSAS. On evaluation of the thyroid function test results, 10.8 % (n = 22) of the patients were defined to have subclinical hypothyroidism and 1.97 % (n = 4) clinical hypothyroidism. We found a total of 12.77 % subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism in patients with OSAS. Though the incidence of hypothyroidism was pretty high in patients with OSA, there was no statistically significant correlation between thyroid functions and polysomnography findings. We suggest that evaluation of the thyroid functions is important and necessary in patients with OSAS. Polysomnography findings do not correlate statistically with thyroid function tests, addressing the need for thyroid screening for all OSAS patients.

  15. Pathogenetic significance of proinflammatory cytokines and dyslipidemia in the development of cardiovascular complications in patients with hypothyroidism

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    V.S. Vernygorodskyi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The manifestation of violations in the morphofunctional state of the cardiovascular system is on one of the first places in the symptomatology of hypothyroidism, which is associated with various direct and indirect effects of thyroid hormones on the heart and blood vessels. The urgency of the question about the prevalence and peculiarities of dyslipidemia in patients with different types of hypothyroidism is still open. The purpose of our work is to study the prevalence of subclinical inflammatory syndrome (by the levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 and to investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia, proinflammatory factors and the state of blood vessels in patients with hypothyroidism. Materials and methods. 101 patients with hypothyroidism were examined. The content of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein was determined by the enzyme immunoassay using NSCRP, ELISA (USA, IL-6 ELISA (Diaclone, France kits according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Results. It was found that levels of C-reactive protein were higher in patients with hypothyroidism than in euthyroid individuals. Also, the interleukin-6 content in patients with hypothyroidism was significantly higher (by 66.6 % than in healthy individuals. According to the analysis of average values, the content of interleukin-6 in idiopathic hypothyroidism exceeded the level in health persons by 16.5 %. The content of total cholesterol in patients with hypothyroidism was 18.5 % higher than in apparently healthy individuals. Conclusions. The obtained data showed that persistence of proinflammatory states and dyslipidemia is one of the important factors of cardiovascular system lesion in patients with hypothyroidism. The proportion of people with aberrant levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and dyslipidemia is prevalent among patients with idiopathic hypothyroidism.

  16. Congenital Hypothyroidism: A Review of the Risk Factors

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    Mostafa Mirzanejad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the situation of congenital hypothyroidism (CH in Guilan using the screening program and determine the correlation of CH with birth weight, gestational age and seasonality. During 2006 to 2010, in Guilan province, neonatal screening for CH by measurement of serum TSH level was performed in 3-5 days after birth. All neonates with TSH level ≥ 5mu/l were referred to endocrinologists and serum TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. Based on public health data and profiles, total number of newborns, gestational age, route of delivery, birth season and birth weight in all screened neonates was reviewed and for ones with CH, their TSH measurements was also recorded. During 5 years, 119701 neonates were screened and CH was confirmed in 10.8% (221 of the referral cases (prevalence=1:542. No significant statistical difference was seen between gender and birth season among patients with CH and the rest of the population. Interestingly, low birth weight (LBW (31% vs. 4.9%, P<0.01, postdate delivery (1.4% vs. 0.2%, P<0.01 and macrosomia were more prevalent in CH versus normal population (Odds ratio for post-date delivery was 6.9 and for LBW was 3.2. Rate of normal vaginal delivery (NVD was significantly higher in neonates with CH compared to normal population (39.2% vs. 29.2%, P=0.01. LBW, postdate delivery and macrosomia are risk factors for CH. No association between sex, birth season or caesarian section delivery was seen.

  17. Psychosis associated with methimazole-induced hypothyroidism: a case report

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    Priscila C. F. Lazaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Thyroid dysfunction has often been associated with several psychiatric manifestations. Previous case reports/series suggest the possible role played by acute alteration of thyroid status in the onset of psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 45-year-old woman with no psychiatric antecedents was brought to the ER with a full-blown psychotic episode, marked by paranoid delusions, which developed gradually over two months. She had been treated elsewhere for hyperthyroidism for five years with methimazole 40 mg/d, with poor compliance. One month before the beginning of the psychotic symptoms, methimazole was raised to 60 mg/d and she started taking it correctly. Five months earlier she had TSH: 0.074 uUI/ml and free T4: 1.3 ng/dl. At admission we found a diffuse thyroid goiter, TSH: 70.9 uUI/ml and free T4: 0.03 ng/dl. Brain CT was normal. We hospitalized her with the diagnosis of a psychosis secondary to hypothyroidism, suspended methimazole, and gave her levothyroxine (up to 75 µg/d and risperidone (2 mg/d. The patient had a quick remission and was discharged after 15 days. Within one month she had TSH: 0.7 uUI/ml and was completely recovered psychiatrically. She has been well since then, with risperidone in the first 8 months, and without it for 10 months now. CONCLUSION: This case report is a reminder of the necessity of checking thyroid status as part of clinical assessment of psychoses. It also supports the hypothesis that antithyroid drugs may have severe psychiatric consequences, especially when they lead to an acute change of thyroid status.

  18. A concomitant review of the effects of diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism in wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos A Ekmektzoglou; Georgios C Zografos

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the negative impact of diabetes mellitus or hypothyroidism on wound healing, both in experimental and clinical settings. Since both are metabolic disorders of great clinical importance, special attention is given, not only to their pathophysiology,but also to their biochemical and histological effects on tissue integrity and regeneration. Also, special focus is awarded on wound healing of the gastrointestinal tract,i.e. in intestinal anastomosis, and how these disorders can lead to wound dehiscence. Since diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism can coexist in clinical settings, more research must be directed on their influence on wound healing, considering them as one clinical entity.

  19. Late-onset mania with psychosis associated with hypothyroidism in an elderly Chinese lady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tor, P C; Lee, H Y; Fones, C S L

    2007-04-01

    Late-onset bipolar disorder is rare and can be precipitated by organic brain disorders. While the association between hyperthyroidism and mania is well described, mania or hypomania precipitated by hypothyroidism is rare. The authors present late-onset bipolar disorder in a 72-year-old woman presenting with mania and psychosis, which appear to have been precipitated by autoimmune hypothyroidism. This case shows the importance of ascertaining the thyroid status in patients with mood and psychotic disorders, especially in elderly patients and in patients lacking prominent signs of thyroid disease.

  20. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?; Die canine Hypothyreose. Eine diagnostische Herausforderung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretti, Felicitos; Reusch, C.E. [Klinik fuer Kleintiermedizin, Vetsuisse Fakultaet Zuerich, Univ. Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen {sup registered}) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high

  1. Bone health in children with long–term idiopathic subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Mase Raffaella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is a relatively common condition characterized by a mild persistent thyroid failure. The management of children with SH is still a controversial issue and the decision to treat with L-thyroxine represents a clinical dilemma. Thyroid hormone and TSH play an important role in skeletal growth and bone mineral homeostasis. Aim To evaluate whether untreated idiopathic SH may affect bone health in childhood and to compare two different diagnostic tools such as dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DXA and quantitative ultrasound (QUS. Patients and Methods Twenty-five children and adolescents (11 males aged 9.8 ± 3.5 years (range 4.2-18.7 with untreated idiopathic SH were enrolled in the study. SH was diagnosed on the basis of normal FT4 levels with TSH concentrations between 4.2 and 10 mU/l. Children have been followed for 3.3 ± 0.3 years from the time of SH diagnosis. Twenty-five healthy children, age- and sex-matched, were enrolled as controls. Patients and controls underwent DXA to evaluate lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD and QUS at proximal phalanges of the non-dominant hand to assess bone quality, measured as amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS and bone transmission time (BTT. Results Mean BMD Z-score was −0.4 ± 1.36 in patients and −0.2 ± 1.2 in controls. Mean Ad-SoS Z-score was 0.01 ± 1.0 in patients and 0.1 ± 1.2 in controls and mean BTT Z-score was −0.03 ± 0.8 and 0.04 ± 1.1 respectively. All values were within the normal range, both in patients and in controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion Bone health, evaluated by lumbar spine DXA and phalangeal QUS, is not impaired in our children, despite long-term duration of idiopathic SH. Data about bone status provided by QUS are comparable to those provided by DXA. Therefore, QUS may represent a good, cheaper and safe screening test for bone evaluation in children with SH.

  2. The impact of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiatong; Yu, Ping; Zhu, Huijuan; Pan, Hui; Li, Naishi; Yang, Hongbo; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Linjie; Wang, Bo; Wang, Yanhong; You, Lili; Chen, Shi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of maternal hypothyroidism on neonatal outcomes were not definitely confirmed. We conduct a systematic review of the literatures on the impact of maternal hypothyroidism on neonatal outcomes. We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register databases complemented by manual searches in article references without language restrictions published from 1946 to April 2015. Nine trials are included. For preterm birth in pregnancies of hypothyroidism women, there is an increased tendency (RR 1.18; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.40; p = 0.06). The same result is seen relating to the low birth weight (RR 1.31; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.72; p = 0.05). Regarding small for gestational age there is no significant increase. Children who were born from mothers with hypothyroidism during pregnancy have increased birth weight (MD 32.35, 95% CI 7.46 to 57.24; p = 0.01). The impact of maternal hypothyroidism shows a trend of reduced risk of large for gestational age (RR 1.17; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.38; p = 0.06). Our review suggests that mothers with hypothyroidism during pregnancy are more likely to give birth to children with higher birth weight or LGA, and L-T4 supplementation should be recommended. The risk of preterm birth and low birth weight also tends to be higher in children with hypothyroidism mothers.

  3. Pattern of Altered Lipid Profile in Patients with Subclinical and Clinical Hypothyroidism and its Correlation with Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humerah, Sobia; Siddiqui, Arif; Khan, Humaira Fayyaz

    2016-06-01

    To compare the lipid profile of the subclinical and clinical hypothyroid patients and to evaluate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile in hypothyroidism. Cross-sectional study. Islamic International Medical College, Riphah International University, Islamabad, and Citi Laboratory, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. The subjects were selected through non-probability, purposive sampling. On the basis of thyroid profile, the subjects were divided into 3 groups: euthyroids (n=20), subclinical hypothyroids (n=50), and clinical hypothyroids (n=30). The blood of these subjects was then analyzed for lipid profile. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18 statistical software. Both hypothyroid groups showed altered lipid profile which was observed to be significantly raised when compared with the euthyroid subjects. Comparison of lipid profile in euthyroid, subclinical, and clinical hypothyroid groups showed significant differences by non-parametric tests (p lipid profile with the BMI was found to be significant (p lipid profile. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroid patients have altered lipid profile as compared to euthyroids. Thyroid status monitoring is very important, since it can induce changes in lipid profile. Such dyslipidemic status is significant not only for the management of thyroid disorders but also for common diseases like obesity and coronary atherosclerosis in the population.

  4. Incidence of hypothyroidism after irradiation of the neck with special reference to lymphoma patients; A retrospective and prospective analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feyerabend, T.; Kapp, B.; Richter, E.; Becker, W.; Reiners, C. (Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Radioonkologie Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients were studied prospectively in order to determine the incidence of hypothyroidism after mantle irradiation for malignant lymphoma. This group was compared with a historical group of 65 patients, among them 36 patients with malignant lymphoma. The mean follow-up was 30 months for the prospective group and 46 months for the retrospective group. The mean thyroid dose for irradiated malignant lymphomas in the prospective and the retrospective group was 45 Gy and 43 Gy respectively. For other tumors with neck irradiation (retrospective group) the mean thyroid dose was 53 Gy. There were no cases of clinical hypothyroidism in our study. As for subclinical hypothyroidism which is characterised by elevated TSH, the incidence was 22% in the prospective group and 3% in the retrospective group, i.e. 8/93 patients showed a hypothyroid dysfunction. Three of the 8 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had undergone lymphangiography before radiotherapy. Due to the elevated iodine pool a lymphangiogram is considered as a risk factor for hypothyroidism as well as for hyperthyroidism, which we observed twice in the prospective group. Evaluation of the thyroid function before lymphangiography and irradiation as well as regular thyroid function studies during the follow-up are recommended in order to detect hypothyroidism in time. (orig.).

  5. Voxel-based morphometric analysis in hypothyroidism using diffeomorphic anatomic registration via an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Modi, S; Bagga, D; Kaur, P; Shankar, L R; Khushu, S

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether brain morphological differences exist between adult hypothyroid subjects and age-matched controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with diffeomorphic anatomic registration via an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were taken in ten healthy controls and ten hypothyroid subjects. The analysis was conducted using statistical parametric mapping. The VBM study revealed a reduction in grey matter volume in the left postcentral gyrus and cerebellum of hypothyroid subjects compared to controls. A significant reduction in white matter volume was also found in the cerebellum, right inferior and middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, right inferior occipital gyrus and right temporal gyrus of hypothyroid patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, no meaningful cluster for greater grey or white matter volume was obtained in hypothyroid subjects compared to controls. Our study is the first VBM study of hypothyroidism in an adult population and suggests that, compared to controls, this disorder is associated with differences in brain morphology in areas corresponding to known functional deficits in attention, language, motor speed, visuospatial processing and memory in hypothyroidism. © 2012 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  6. [Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Major Psychiatric Disorders in Hospitalised Patients in Montserrat Hospital During the period March to October 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Navarro, Pedro; Ibañez Pinilla, Edgar Antonio; Galeano España, Alejandra; Noguera Bravo, Ana María; Milena Pantoja, Sandra; Suárez Acosta, Ana María

    Hypothyroidism results from inadequate production of thyroid hormone. It is known that there is a relationship between the major psychiatric disorders and hypothyroidism. To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients admitted due to major psychiatric disorders in Montserrat Hospital during the period from March to October 2010. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 105 patients admitted to Montserrat Hospital with a primary diagnosis of major psychiatric disorder (major depression, bipolar affective disorder, generalised panic disorder, panic disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, and schizophrenia) in the aforementioned period. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was performed to assess the evidence of hypothyroidism. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 10.5% (95% CI; 5%-16%). It was 12.5% in anxiety disorder, 11.1% in depressive disorder, with a lower prevalence of 10.3% for bipolar disorder, and 9.9% for schizophrenia. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be less than in the general population, which is between 4.64% and 18.5%, and hypothyroidism was found in disorders other than depression. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Defective organification of iodide causing congenital goitrous hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, N; Eguchi, K; Ohmori, T; Momotani, N; Nagayama, Y; Hosoya, T; Oguchi, H; Mimura, T; Kimura, S; Nagataki, S; Ito, K

    1996-01-01

    A 26-yr-old Japanese woman with congenital goitrous hypo-thyroidism and sensorineural deafness underwent a thyroidectomy. Examination of the thyroid gland revealed characteristic features of multinodular goiter. The T3 and T4 content in thyroglobulin (Tg) were 0.03 and 0.02 mol/mol Tg, respectively. Iodide incorporation into Tg, using slices of the thyroid tissue, revealed that iodide organification of thyroid tissue from our patient was markedly lower than that of normal controls. Then, guaiacol and iodide oxidation activities of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in our patient's thyroid tissue were lower than those of normal controls (guaiacol assay: 1.92 vs. 30.0 +/- 5.7 mGU/mg protein; iodide assay: 1.1 vs. 6.6 +/- 2.8 mIU/mg protein). Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis of the oxidation rates of guaiacol and iodide indicated that this patient's TPO had a defect in the binding of guaiacol and iodide, but the coupling activity of the patient's TPO was not decreased compared with those of two normal thyroids. In this case and in control subjects, Nothern gel analysis of TPO messenger RNA from unstimulated and TSH-stimulated thyroid cells revealed a 3.2 kilobase species in the former and four distinct messenger RNA species of 4.0, 3.2, 2.1, and 1.7 kilobases in the latter. Western blot analysis of TPOs obtained from this patient and from control subjects identified the same 107 kDa protein, using antimicrosomal antibody-positive serum. We analyzed the coding sequence in the patient's TPO gene by using polymerase chain reaction technique. A single point mutation of G-->C at 1265 base pair was detected only in the TPO gene, but this point mutation does not alter the amino acid residue. It is possible that posttranslational modification such as abnormal glycosylation may occur in the TPO molecules. Furthermore, it is possible that there are differences in the tertiary structures of the TPO molecules between our patient and normal subjects. The above abnormalities of TPO molecules

  8. Efficacy of the Therapy of Goiter with Subclinical Hypothyroidism Associated with Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G M Panyushkina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presented results of the treatment (150 mcg/day KI of goitre with subclinical hypothyroidism associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in 54 women. In conclusion total eradication of Helicobacter pylori could increase efficacy of goitre treatment up to 90%.

  9. Radiation-induced hypothyroidism in head and neck cancer patients : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Marjolein J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review literature on the relationship between the dose distribution in the thyroid gland and the incidence of radiation-induced hypothyroidism in adults. Material and Methods: Articles were identified through a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Approximately 2449 articl

  10. Coexistence of hypothyroidism with inflammatory arthritis is associated with cardiovascular disease in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raterman, H.G.; Nielen, M.M.J.; Peters, M.J.L.; Verheij, R.A.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypothyroidism and inflammatory arthritis tend to coexist, but data on this association are sparse. In terms of cardiovascular risk, this association may have clinical relevance as this coexistence may carry an additional cardiovascular risk. This study calculates, first, the prevalence

  11. A Prospective Cohort Study on Radiation-induced Hypothyroidism : Development of an NTCP Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Marjolein J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Christianen, Miranda E. M. C.; Beetz, Ivo; Chouvalova, Olga; Steenbakkers, Roel J. H. M.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Oosting, Sjoukje F.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Methods and Materials: The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 105 patients treated with (chemo-) radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer was prospectively measure

  12. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Hypothyroidism in a School for Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Shivani; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.; Gupta, Seema; Kaur, Harjeet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pediatrician is the first contact in the Pathway to Care in children with Mental retardation (MR). Following the recent advancements in the area of molecular genetics, understanding of specific conditions of MR or Developmental Delay (DD) is expanding. Hypothyroidism is a treatable metabolic/endocrinological cause of MR. The aim of this…

  13. Rapid resolution of consumptive hypothyroidism in a child with hepatic hemangioendothelioma following liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a unique case of a 3-mo-old female with consumptive hypothyroidism and liver hemangioendothelioma who required pharmacological doses of thyroid hormones and was cured following liver transplantation. Liver hemangioendotheliomas are capable of producing an excess of the thyroid hormone inac...

  14. Well-being and depression in individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjaellegaard, Katrine; Kvetny, Jan; Allerup, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), with and without raised thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), and well-being or depression is still controversial, in spite of many studies on the topic. AIMS: In this large general population study of 8214 individuals, we...

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM INDUCES A NEURONAL HETEROTOPIA IN THE CORPUS CALLOSUM OF THE RAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that severe hypothyroidism leads to profound alterations in brain development and mental retardation. In this study we examined the effect of subtle decreases in maternal thyroid hormones (TH) on brain development in the rat. To induce TH insufficiency pr...

  16. Study of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and subclinical hypothyroidism is important as both of these conditions are common in patients with metabolic syndrome who are prone to develop cerebrovascular and cardiovascular complications. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the burden of subclinical hypothyroidism defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH (>4.2IU/mL with normal concentrations of serum total thyroxin (T4 and free T4 (FT4 in 50 patients with T2DM and 50 age-and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Results: We observed a significantly higher proportion of patients with T2DM had subclinical hypothyroidism compared to healthy control subjects [9/50 (18% Vs 3/60 (6%; p=0.009]. We also observed a statistically significant positive correlation between the fasting plasma glucose and serum TSH levels (p<0.001. Conclusion: Our observations suggest that screening for subclinical hypothyroidism may be beneficial in patients with T2DM and may help in detecting the condition early.

  17. Adenohypophyseal function in dogs with primary hypothyroidism and non-thyroidal illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz-Espineira, M.M.; Mol, J.A.; Rijnberk, A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    J Vet Intern Med. 2009 Jan-Feb;23(1):100-7. Adenohypophyseal function in dogs with primary hypothyroidism and nonthyroidal illness. Diaz-Espiñeira MM, Mol JA, Rijnberk A, Kooistra HS. Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: A recent stud

  18. TSH Isoforms: About a Case of Hypothyroidism in a Down's Syndrome Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Gauchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. For unknown reasons, the prevalence of thyroid autoimmune disorders is higher in patients with Down's syndrome than in the general population. The present case strongly supports a recent evaluation of propagating screening for thyroid disease in this group of patients to assure early diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Methods. In a 25-year-old man diagnosed with Down's syndrome, clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism were lacking, but profound biochemical abnormalities were found with particularly high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH. Antigenic properties of TSH were characterized using a panel of anti-TSH antibodies. Results. Technical problems not infrequently associated with TSH measurements are convincingly ruled out. Antigenic characterization of the patient's circulating TSH revealed circulating forms of TSH different from pituitary TSH which closely resembled TSH recombinant human hormone. Conclusions. It appears counterintuitive that the bioactivity of TSH decreases in the hypothyroid state as higher bioactivity of TSH is anticipated in hypothyroidism promoted by an increased hypothalamic TRH drive. In contrast, diminished negative thyroid hormone feedback will enhance posttranslational glycosylation of TSH subunits and increase sialylation of the carbohydrate side chains. Both exert a negative effect on TSH bioactivity, only compensated by the very high levels of the hormone as in the present case.

  19. Characterization of a novel loss-of-function mutation of PAX8 associated with congenital hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Palma, Tina; Zampella, Emilia; Filippone, Maria Grazia; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; de Vroede, Monique; Zannini, Mariastella

    2010-01-01

    P>Background Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a common endocrine disease that occurs in about 1:3000 newborns. In 80-85% of the cases, CH is presumably secondary to thyroid dysgenesis (TD), a defect in the organogenesis of the gland leading to an ectopic (30-45%), absent (agenesis, 35-40%) or hypop

  20. Coexistence of hypothyroidism with inflammatory arthritis is associated with cardiovascular disease in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raterman, H.G.; Nielen, M.M.J.; Peters, M.J.L.; Verheij, R.A.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypothyroidism and inflammatory arthritis tend to coexist, but data on this association are sparse. In terms of cardiovascular risk, this association may have clinical relevance as this coexistence may carry an additional cardiovascular risk. This study calculates, first, the prevalence