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Sample records for ptsd symptoms experienced

  1. Symptom structure of PTSD following breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, M J; Studts, J L; Hann, D M; Jacobsen, P B; Andrykowski, M A

    2000-04-01

    Identification of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and diagnoses in survivors of cancer is a growing area of research, but no published data exist regarding the symptom structure of PTSD in survivors of malignant disease. Findings from investigations of the PTSD symptom structure in other trauma populations have been inconsistent and have not been concordant with the re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, and arousal symptom clusters specified in DSM-IV. The present study employed confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the extent to which the implied second-order factor structure of PTSD was replicated in a sample of 142 breast cancer survivors. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PTSD Checklist--Civilian Version (PCL-C). Fit indices reflected a moderate fit of the symptom structure implied by the DSM-IV. These findings provide some tentative support for the DSM-IV clustering of PTSD symptoms and for the validity of cancer-related PTSD.

  2. Bullying and PTSD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

    2012-01-01

    PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

  3. A multi-level modeling approach examining PTSD symptom reduction during prolonged exposure therapy: moderating effects of number of trauma types experienced, having an HIV-related index trauma, and years since HIV diagnosis among HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junglen, Angela G; Smith, Brian C; Coleman, Jennifer A; Pacella, Maria L; Boarts, Jessica M; Jones, Tracy; Feeny, Norah C; Ciesla, Jeffrey A; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2017-11-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have extensive interpersonal trauma histories and higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is efficacious in reducing PTSD across a variety of trauma samples; however, research has not examined factors that influence how PTSD symptoms change during PE for PLWH. Using multi-level modeling, we examined the potential moderating effect of number of previous trauma types experienced, whether the index trauma was HIV-related or not, and years since HIV diagnosis on PTSD symptom reduction during a 10-session PE protocol in a sample of 51 PLWH. In general, PTSD symptoms decreased linearly throughout the PE sessions. Experiencing more previous types of traumatic events was associated with a slower rate of PTSD symptom change. In addition, LOCF analyses found that participants with a non-HIV-related versus HIV-related index trauma had a slower rate of change for PTSD symptoms over the course of PE. However, analyses of raw data decreased this finding to marginal. Years since HIV diagnosis did not impact PTSD symptom change. These results provide a better understanding of how to tailor PE to individual clients and aid clinicians in approximating the rate of symptom alleviation. Specifically, these findings underscore the importance of accounting for trauma history and index trauma type when implementing a treatment plan for PTSD in PLWH.

  4. Altered DNA Methylation Patterns Associated With Clinically Relevant Increases in PTSD Symptoms and PTSD Symptom Profiles in Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christiana; Cho, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyungsuk; Yun, Sijung; Kanefsky, Rebekah; Lee, Hyunhwa; Mysliwiec, Vincent; Cashion, Ann; Gill, Jessica

    2018-05-01

    Military personnel experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is associated with differential DNA methylation across the whole genome. However, the relationship between these DNA methylation patterns and clinically relevant increases in PTSD severity is not yet clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in DNA methylation associated with PTSD symptoms and investigate DNA methylation changes related to increases in the severity of PTSD in military personnel. In this pilot study, a cross-sectional comparison was made between military personnel with PTSD (n = 8) and combat-matched controls without PTSD (n = 6). Symptom measures were obtained, and genome-wide DNA methylation was measured using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP-seq) from whole blood samples at baseline and 3 months later. A longitudinal comparison measured DNA methylation changes in military personnel with clinically relevant increases in PTSD symptoms between time points (PTSD onset) and compared methylation patterns to controls with no clinical changes in PTSD. In military personnel with elevated PTSD symptoms 3 months following baseline, 119 genes exhibited reduced methylation and 8 genes exhibited increased methylation. Genes with reduced methylation in the PTSD-onset group relate to the canonical pathways of netrin signaling, Wnt/Ca + pathway, and axonal guidance signaling. These gene pathways relate to neurological disorders, and the current findings suggest that these epigenetic changes potentially relate to PTSD symptomology. This study provides some novel insights into the role of epigenetic changes in PTSD symptoms and the progression of PTSD symptoms in military personnel.

  5. PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative symptoms in a highly traumatized sample

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    Powers, Abigail; Cross, Dorthie; Fani, Negar; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to multiple traumas has been shown to result in many negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dissociation, which involves disruptions in memory, identity, and perceptions, may be a component of PTSD, particularly among individuals who have experienced childhood trauma. Emotion regulation difficulties are also strongly associated with childhood trauma and emotion dysregulation may be a particularly important factor to consider in the development and maintenance of dissociative symptoms. The goal of the present study was to determine whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and dissociation in a sample of 154 (80% female, 97% African-American) adults recruited from a public, urban hospital. PTSD was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, emotion dysregulation was measured using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and dissociation was measured using the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory. A linear regression analysis showed that both PTSD and emotion dysregulation were statistically significant predictors of dissociation even after controlling for trauma exposure. Alexithymia and an inability to use emotion regulation strategies in particular were predictive of dissociation above and beyond other predictor variables. Using bootstrapping techniques, we found that overall emotion dyregulation partially mediated the effect of PTSD symptoms on dissociative symptoms. Our results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be important in understanding the relation between PTSD and dissociative symptoms. Treatment approaches may consider a focus on training in emotional understanding and the development of adaptive regulation strategies as a way to address dissociative symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:25573648

  6. Prevalence of Traumatic Events and Symptoms of PTSD Among South Africans Receiving an HIV Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Bantjes, Jason; Saal, Wylene

    2017-11-01

    We studied posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among a community sample of 500 persons seeking an HIV test. The majority of participants (62.2%) indicated that they had experienced at least one index event that qualified for PTSD, even though a small proportion (5%) actually met the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Of those who reported an index event, 25 (8.04%) met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD while 286 (91.96%) did not. On average about one-third of participants who did not meet the criteria for PTSD endorsed PTSD symptoms whereas more than three quarters of those who met the full criteria did so. No demographic factors were associated with PTSD caseness, except number of traumatic events. These results are discussed in the context of the need to address traumatic events and PTSD among persons who undergo HIV testing.

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in PTSD patients' families of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C G; Anderson, P E; Gearhart, L P

    1995-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, psychiatric controls, and hospital employee controls rated their father, mother, and oldest sibling of each sex on 14 PTSD Interview (PTSD-I) symptom ratings. The stress disorder patients assigned their relatives significantly higher PTSD-I ratings than the control group members did in 35 of 120 comparisons. The number of significant differences was nearly identical in the fathers, mothers, sisters, and brothers. Differences were particularly frequent on items pertaining to intrusive thoughts, impoverished relationships, and guilt. The results suggest that a trauma survivor's risk for PTSD may be related to his family's history for PTSD-like behaviors.

  8. Unique relations between counterfactual thinking and DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Contractor, Ateka A; Dranger, Paula; Shea, M Tracie

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) propose that rumination about a trauma may increase particular symptom clusters. One type of rumination, termed counterfactual thinking (CFT), refers to thinking of alternative outcomes for an event. CFT centered on a trauma is thought to increase intrusions, negative alterations in mood and cognitions (NAMC), and marked alterations in arousal and reactivity (AAR). The theorized relations between CFT and specific symptom clusters have not been thoroughly investigated. Also, past work has not evaluated whether the relation is confounded by depressive symptoms, age, gender, or number of traumatic events experienced. The current study examined the unique associations between CFT and PTSD symptom clusters according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) in 51 trauma-exposed treatment-seeking individuals. As predicted, CFT was associated with all PTSD symptom clusters. After controlling for common predictors of PTSD symptom severity (i.e., age, depressive symptoms, and number of traumatic life events endorsed), we found CFT to be significantly associated with the intrusion and avoidance symptom clusters but not the AAR or NAMC symptom clusters. Results from the present study provide further support for the role of rumination in specific PTSD symptom clusters above and beyond symptoms of depression, age, and number of traumatic life events endorsed. Future work may consider investigating interventions to reduce rumination in PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. PTSD symptomics: network analyses in the field of psychotraumatology

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    Armour, Cherie; Fried, Eiko I.; Olff, Miranda

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent years have seen increasing attention on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) research. While research has largely focused on the dichotomy between patients diagnosed with mental disorders and healthy controls — in other words, investigations at the level of diagnoses — recent work has focused on psychopathology symptoms. Symptomics research in the area of PTSD has been scarce so far, although several studies have focused on investigating the network structures of PTSD symptoms. The present special issue of EJPT adds to the literature by curating additional PTSD network studies, each looking at a different aspect of PTSD. We hope that this special issue encourages researchers to conceptualize and model PTSD data from a network perspective, which arguably has the potential to inform and improve the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. PMID:29250305

  10. PTSD symptomics: network analyses in the field of psychotraumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Fried, Eiko I; Olff, Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing attention on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) research. While research has largely focused on the dichotomy between patients diagnosed with mental disorders and healthy controls - in other words, investigations at the level of diagnoses - recent work has focused on psychopathology symptoms. Symptomics research in the area of PTSD has been scarce so far, although several studies have focused on investigating the network structures of PTSD symptoms. The present special issue of EJPT adds to the literature by curating additional PTSD network studies, each looking at a different aspect of PTSD. We hope that this special issue encourages researchers to conceptualize and model PTSD data from a network perspective, which arguably has the potential to inform and improve the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

  11. Aggression inoculates against PTSD symptom severity—insights from armed groups in the eastern DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hecker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, combatants are exposed to massive forms of violence and other traumatic stressors. Nevertheless, many combatants do not suffer from trauma-related disorders, although they have experienced numerous traumatizing events. Perceiving aggressive behavior as fascinating and arousing might be a defense against trauma-related disorders in the violent environment of war and conflict. Objective: Thus, in this study we investigated the relationship between the exposure to traumatic stressors, appetitive aggression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptom severity. We hypothesized that cumulative traumatic experiences correlated positively and appetitive aggression negatively with PTSD symptom severity. Method: In total, 105 voluntary male combatants from different armed groups in the eastern DRC took part in this study. In a semistructured interview, respondents were questioned about their exposure to traumatic stressors, the extent of appetitive aggression (Appetitive Aggression Scale and their PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Symptom Scale - Interview. Results: A multiple sequential regression analysis showed that traumatic events were positively related to PTSD symptom severity. For participants with low to medium PTSD symptom severity, appetitive aggression correlated negatively with PTSD symptom severity. Conclusions: The results of this study provide further support for earlier findings that repeated exposure to traumatic stressors cumulatively heightens the risk of PTSD and revealed that appetitive aggression buffers the risk of developing PTSD symptoms under certain circumstances. Thus, the perception of aggressive behavior as fascinating and arousing seem to help combatants to adapt to violent environments but may also be one reason for recurrent failure of reintegration programs for excombatants.

  12. Toward an empirical definition of pediatric PTSD: the phenomenology of PTSD symptoms in youth.

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    Carrion, Victor G; Weems, Carl F; Ray, Rebecca; Reiss, Allan L

    2002-02-01

    To examine the frequency and intensity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and their relation to clinical impairment, to examine the requirement of meeting all DSM-IV symptom cluster criteria (i.e., criteria B, C, D), and to examine the aggregation of PTSD symptom clusters across developmental stages. Fifty-nine children between the ages of 7 and 14 years with a history of trauma and PTSD symptoms were assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents. Data support the utility of distinguishing between the frequency and the intensity of symptoms in the investigation of the phenomenology of pediatric PTSD. Children fulfilling requirements for two symptom clusters did not differ significantly from children meeting all three cluster criteria with regard to impairment and distress. Reexperience (cluster B) showed increased aggregation with avoidance and numbing (cluster C) and hyperarousal (cluster D) in the later stages of puberty. Frequency and intensity of symptoms may both contribute to the phenomenology of pediatric PTSD. Children with subthreshold criteria for PTSD demonstrate substantial functional impairment and distress.

  13. A Prospective Study of Trait Anger and PTSD Symptoms in Police

    OpenAIRE

    Meffert, Susan M.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Henn-Haase, Clare; McCaslin, Shannon; Inslicht, Sabra; Chemtob, Claude; Neylan, Thomas; Marmar, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    It is unknown whether anger is a risk factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, arises as a consequence of PTSD, or both. Two hypotheses were tested in 180 police recruits: Greater trait anger during training will predict greater PTSD symptoms at one year; greater PTSD symptoms at one year will predict greater state anger at one year. Both hypotheses were confirmed, suggesting that trait anger is a risk factor for PTSD symptoms, but that PTSD symptoms are al...

  14. Impulsivity facets’ predictive relations with DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roley, Michelle E.; Contractor, Ateka A.; Weiss, Nicole H.; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has a well-established theoretical and empirical relation with impulsivity. Prior research has not used a multidimensional approach for measuring both PTSD and impulsivity constructs when assessing their relationship. Method The current study assessed the unique relationship of impulsivity facets on PTSD symptom clusters among a non-clinical sample of 412 trauma-exposed adults. Results Linear regression analyses revealed that impulsivity facets best accounted for PTSD’s arousal symptoms. The negative urgency facet of impulsivity was most predictive, as it was associated with all of PTSD’s symptom clusters. Sensation seeking did not predict PTSD’s intrusion symptoms, but did predict the other symptom clusters of PTSD. Lack of perseverance only predicted intrusion symptoms, while lack of premeditation only predicted PTSD’s mood/cognition symptoms. Conclusions Results extend theoretical and empirical research on the impulsivity-PTSD relationship, suggesting that impulsivity facets may serve as both risk and protective factors for PTSD symptoms. PMID:27243571

  15. A Dyadic Perspective on PTSD Symptoms' Associations with Couple Functioning and Parenting Stress in First-Time Parents.

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    Fredman, Steffany J; Le, Yunying; Marshall, Amy D; Brick, Timothy R; Feinberg, Mark E

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with disruptions in both couple functioning and parenting, and limited research suggests that, among military couples, perceptions of couple functioning and parenting stress are a function of both one's own and one's partner's mental health symptoms. However, this work has not been generalized to civilian couples, and little is known about the associations between PTSD symptoms and family adjustment in specific family developmental contexts. We examined PTSD symptoms' associations with perceived couple functioning and parenting stress within a dyadic context in civilian couples who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a universal, couple-based transition to parenthood program and at least one member of the couple reported having experienced a Criterion A1 traumatic event. Results of actor-partner interdependence models revealed that parents' own and partners' PTSD symptoms were negatively associated with perceived couple functioning; contrary to expectation, the association of partners' PTSD symptoms with perceived couple functioning was strongest among men who received the intervention. A parent's own PTSD symptoms were positively associated with parenting stress for both men and women and were unexpectedly strongest for men who received the intervention. Partner PTSD symptoms were also positively associated with increased parenting stress for both men and women. Findings support a dyadic conceptualization of the associations between spouses' PTSD symptoms and family outcomes during the transition to parenthood and suggest that participating in a couple-based, psychoeducational program during this phase in the family life cycle may be particularly salient for men.

  16. Negative Trauma Appraisals and PTSD Symptoms in Sri Lankan Adolescents.

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    Ponnamperuma, Thyagi; Nicolson, Nancy A

    2016-02-01

    The cognitive model posits that negative appraisals play an important role in posttraumatic stress disorder, in children as well as in adults. This study examined correlates of negative appraisals in relation to trauma exposure and their relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in 414 Sri Lankan adolescents, aged 12 to 16, living in areas impacted in varying degrees by the 2004 tsunami. In 2008, participants completed measures of negative appraisals, lifetime traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, internalizing symptoms, ongoing adversity, and social support. The majority (70 %) of the participants reported multiple traumatic events; 25 % met DSM-IV criteria for full or partial PTSD. Adolescents who had experienced more severe events, abusive events, greater cumulative trauma, or greater current adversity reported more negative appraisals. In regression analyses controlling for known risk factors such as female gender, cumulative trauma, ongoing adversity, and low social support, negative appraisals were the best predictor of PTSS, explaining 22 % of the variance. This relationship appeared specific to PTSS, as negative appraisals did not predict internalizing symptoms. Findings confirm the link between negative cognitions concerning traumatic events and persistent PTSS in adolescents, but longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether appraisals contribute to symptom maintenance over time.

  17. PTSD's risky behavior criterion: Relation with DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters and psychopathology.

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    Contractor, Ateka A; Weiss, Nicole H; Dranger, Paula; Ruggero, Camilo; Armour, Cherie

    2017-06-01

    A new symptom criterion of reckless and self-destructive behaviors (E2) was recently added to posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, which is unsurprising given the well-established relation between PTSD and risky behaviors. Researchers have questioned the significance and incremental validity of this symptom criterion within PTSD's symptomatology. Unprecedented to our knowledge, we aim to compare trauma-exposed groups differing on their endorsement status of the risky behavior symptom on several psychopathology constructs (PTSD, depression, distress tolerance, rumination, anger). The sample included 123 trauma-exposed participants seeking mental health treatment (M age=35.70; 68.30% female) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, depression, rumination, distress tolerance, and anger. Results of independent samples t-tests indicated that participants who endorsed the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level reported significantly greater PTSD subscale severity; depression severity; rumination facets of repetitive thoughts, counterfactual thinking, and problem-focused thinking; and anger reactions; and significantly less absorption and regulation (distress tolerance facets) compared to participants who did not endorse the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level. Results indicate the utility of the E2 criterion in identifying trauma-exposed individual with greater posttraumatic distress, and emphasize the importance of targeting such behaviors in treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Association of PTSD Symptom Severity with Localized Hippocampus and Amygdala Abnormalities

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    Akiki, Teddy J.; Averill, Christopher L.; Wrocklage, Kristen M.; Schweinsburg, Brian; Scott, J. Cobb; Martini, Brenda; Averill, Lynnette A.; Southwick, Steven M.; Krystal, John H.; Abdallah, Chadi G.

    2017-01-01

    Background The hippocampus and amygdala have been repeatedly implicated in the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While numerous structural neuroimaging studies examined these two structures in PTSD, these analyses have largely been limited to volumetric measures. Recent advances in vertex-based neuroimaging methods have made it possible to identify specific locations of subtle morphometric changes within a structure of interest. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between PTSD symptomatology, as measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for the DSM-IV (CAPS), and structural shape of the hippocampus and amygdala using vertex-wise shape analyses in a group of combat-exposed US Veterans (N = 69). Results Following correction for multiple comparisons and controlling for age and cranial volume, we found that participants with more severe PTSD symptoms showed an indentation in the anterior half of the right hippocampus and an indentation in the dorsal region of the right amygdala (corresponding to the centromedial amygdala). Post hoc analysis using stepwise regression suggest that among PTSD symptom clusters, arousal symptoms explain most of the variance in the hippocampal abnormality, whereas re-experiencing symptoms explain most of the variance in the amygdala abnormality. Conclusion The results provide evidence of localized abnormalities in the anterior hippocampus and centromedial amygdala in combat-exposed US Veterans suffering from PTSD symptoms. This novel finding provides a more fine-grained analysis of structural abnormalities in PTSD and may be informative for understanding the neurobiology of the disorder. PMID:28825050

  19. Evidence for a unique PTSD construct represented by PTSD's D1-D3 symptoms.

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    Elhai, Jon D; Biehn, Tracey L; Armour, Cherie; Klopper, Jessica J; Frueh, B Christopher; Palmieri, Patrick A

    2011-04-01

    Two models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have received the most empirical support in confirmatory factor analytic studies: King, Leskin, King, and Weathers' (1998) Emotional Numbing model of reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing and hyperarousal; and Simms, Watson, and Doebbeling's (2002) Dysphoria model of reexperiencing, avoidance, dysphoria and hyperarousal. These models only differ in placement of three PTSD symptoms: sleep problems (D1), irritability (D2), and concentration problems (D3). In the present study, we recruited 252 women victims of domestic violence and tested whether there is empirical support to separate these three PTSD symptoms into a fifth factor, while retaining the Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models' remaining four factors. Confirmatory factor analytic findings demonstrated that separating the three symptoms into a separate factor significantly enhanced model fit for the Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. These three symptoms may represent a unique latent construct. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of traumatic events and PTSD symptoms among secondary school students in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Al-Hadethe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: People in Iraq have been more or less continually exposed to war for more than three decades. Studies with Iraqi participants report high prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and related problems. Methods: The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of traumatic events and to screen the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among Iraqi secondary school students. Four self-report scales were administered to 403 secondary school students, aged 16–19 (61% male and 31% female. These scales were Baghdad Trauma History Screen, the Scale of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS, Social Support Scale, and Scale of Religious Coping. Results: The results showed that 84% of participants experienced at least one traumatic event. Of these, 61% fully met the criteria for PTSD; 65% of the females and 58% of the males. PTSD symptoms were correlated with 20 positive religious coping but not with social support. Conclusions: It’s clear that traumatic events were speared widely among the participants and the result showed that the vast majority of participants were exposed to different types of traumatic events. In addition, many of the participants have met full PTSD criteria and others had partial PTSD.

  1. The relationship between rumination, PTSD, and depression symptoms.

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    Roley, Michelle E; Claycomb, Meredith A; Contractor, Ateka A; Dranger, Paula; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D

    2015-07-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid (Elhai et al., 2008. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 69, (4), 597-602). Rumination is a cognitive mechanism found to exacerbate and maintain both PTSD and MDD (Elwood et al., 2009. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 29, (1), 87-100; Olatunji et al., 2013. Clin. Psychol.: Sci. Pract. 20, (3), 225-257). Assess whether four rumination subtypes moderate the relationship between comorbid PTSD and MDD symptoms. We consecutively sampled patients (N=45) presenting to a mental health clinic using self-report measures of PTSD and MDD symptoms, and rumination in a cross-sectional design. Repetitive rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at one standard deviation above the mean (β=.044, p=.016), while anticipatory rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at mean levels and higher levels of anticipatory rumination (mean β=.030, p=.042; higher β=.060, p=.008). Repetitive and anticipatory rumination should be assessed in the context of comorbid PTSD and MDD and interventions should focus on reducing these rumination subtypes. Results should be replicated with other trauma populations because the number and complexity of traumatic events may impact the assessed symptoms. Constructs should also be assessed longitudinally, in order to establish causality. We are unable to confirm why rumination styles moderated the relationship between PTSD and depression or why counterfactual thinking and problem-focused thinking did not moderate the relationship between the two constructs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Network analysis of PTSD symptoms following mass violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Connor P; Smith, Andrew J; Lewis, Michael; Jones, Russell T

    2018-01-01

    Network analysis is a useful tool for understanding how symptoms interact with one another to influence psychopathology. However, this analytic strategy has not been fully utilized in the PTSD field. The current study utilized network analysis to examine connectedness and strength among PTSD symptoms (employing both partial correlation and regression network analyses) among a community sample of students exposed to the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings. Respondents (N = 4,639) completed online surveys 3-4 months postshootings, with PTSD symptom severity measured via the Trauma Symptom Questionnaire. Data were analyzed via adaptive least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and relative importance networks, as well as Dijkstra's algorithm to identify the shortest path from each symptom to all other symptoms. Relative importance network analysis revealed that intrusive thoughts had the strongest influence on other symptoms (i.e., had many strong connections [highest outdegree]) while computing Dijkstra's algorithm indicated that anger produced the shortest path to all other symptoms (i.e., the strongest connections to all other symptoms). Findings suggest that anger or intrusion likely play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of PTSD (i.e., are more influential within the network than are other symptoms). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. PTSD symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity in recent motor vehicle accident victims: a latent class analysis.

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    Hruska, Bryce; Irish, Leah A; Pacella, Maria L; Sledjeski, Eve M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-10-01

    We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on 249 recent motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims to examine subgroups that differed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, current major depressive disorder and alcohol/other drug use disorders (MDD/AoDs), gender, and interpersonal trauma history 6-weeks post-MVA. A 4-class model best fit the data with a resilient class displaying asymptomatic PTSD symptom levels/low levels of comorbid disorders; a mild psychopathology class displaying mild PTSD symptom severity and current MDD; a moderate psychopathology class displaying severe PTSD symptom severity and current MDD/AoDs; and a severe psychopathology class displaying extreme PTSD symptom severity and current MDD. Classes also differed with respect to gender composition and history of interpersonal trauma experience. These findings may aid in the development of targeted interventions for recent MVA victims through the identification of subgroups distinguished by different patterns of psychiatric problems experienced 6-weeks post-MVA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PTSD and depressive symptoms are linked to DHEAS via personality.

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    Savic, Danka; Knezevic, Goran; Matic, Gordana; Damjanovic, Svetozar

    2018-06-01

    Research results on dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ester (DHEAS) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are inconsistent. We hypothesized that personality traits could be the confounders of DHEAS levels and disease symptoms, which could in part explain the discrepancy in findings. This study was a part of a broader project in which simultaneous psychological and biological investigations were carried out in hospital conditions. 380 male subjects were categorized in four groups: A) current PTSD (n = 132), B) lifetime PTSD (n = 66), C) trauma controls (n = 101), and D) healthy controls (n = 81), matched by age. The level of DHEAS is significantly lower in the current PTSD group than in trauma controls. All groups significantly differ in personality traits Disintegration and Neuroticism (current PTSD group having the highest scores). DHEAS is related to both PTSD and depressive symptoms; however, Structural Equation Model (SEM) shows that the relations are indirect, realized via their confounder - personality trait Disintegration. According to our project results, DHEAS is the second putative biomarker for trauma-related disorders that fails to fulfil this expectation. It appears to be more directly related to personality than to the disease symptoms (the first one being basal cortisol). Our data promote personality as a biologically based construct with seemingly important role in understanding the mental health status. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships between soldiers' PTSD symptoms and spousal communication during deployment.

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    Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard

    2011-06-01

    Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as delayed (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more delayed spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as interactive (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. Factor Structure of the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5: Relationships Among Symptom Clusters, Anger, and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Contractor, Ateka; Shea, Tracie; Elhai, Jon D; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-02-01

    Scarce data are available regarding the dimensional structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and how factors relate to external constructs. We evaluated six competing models of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, including Anhedonia, Externalizing Behaviors, and Hybrid models, using confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 412 trauma-exposed college students. We then examined whether PTSD symptom clusters were differentially related to measures of anger and impulsivity using Wald chi-square tests. The seven-factor Hybrid model was deemed optimal compared with the alternatives. All symptom clusters were associated with anger; the strongest association was between externalizing behaviors and anger (r = 0.54). All symptom clusters, except re-experiencing and avoidance, were associated with impulsivity, with the strongest association between externalizing behaviors and impulsivity (r = 0.49). A seven-factor Hybrid model provides superior fit to DSM-5 PTSD symptom data, with the externalizing behaviors factor being most strongly related to anger and impulsivity.

  7. Examining anxiety sensitivity as a mediator of the association between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among women firefighters.

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    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with increased suicide risk. Anxiety sensitivity (AS)-the fear of anxiety-related sensations-is both a vulnerability factor for and consequence of PTSD symptoms. AS also predicts suicide risk. To our knowledge, no study has examined whether AS concerns account for the association between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk. A total of 254 women firefighters completed a web-based mental health survey. The Life Events Checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5) was administered as a prelude to the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) to assess for exposure to a Criterion A event. The PCL-5, Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were utilized to assess PTSD symptoms, AS concerns, and suicide risk, respectively. Bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted, controlling for depression symptoms as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R). Global and cognitive AS concerns, but neither physical nor social AS concerns, were statistically significant mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms (total score, re-experiencing and numbing clusters) and suicide risk. Alternate mediation models testing PTSD symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between AS concerns and suicide risk were not statistically significant, supporting the specificity of our proposed model. Anxiety sensitivity concerns-specifically, cognitive AS concerns-account for the link between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among women firefighters. Among firefighters with elevated PTSD symptoms, interventions that address cognitive AS concerns may thwart the trajectory to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring Negative Emotion in Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence: Shame, Guilt, and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. Gayle; McNiff, Judiann; Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Avery, Megan L.; Hagewood, J. Houston

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the association of shame and guilt with PTSD among women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Sixty-three women were assessed by a research clinic serving the mental health needs of women IPV survivors. Results indicated that shame, guilt-related distress, and guilt-related cognitions showed significant…

  9. Maternal Factors as Moderators or Mediators of PTSD Symptoms in Very Young Children: A Two-Year Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Scheeringa, Michael S.; Myers, Leann; Putnam, Frank W.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Research has suggested that parenting behaviors and other parental factors impact the long-term outcome of children’s posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. In a sample of 62 children between the ages of one and six who experienced life-threatening traumas, PTSD was measured prospectively two years apart. Seven maternal factors were measured in a multi-method, multi-informant design. Both moderation and mediation models, with different theoretical and mechanism implications, were test...

  10. The Child PTSD Symptom Scale: Psychometric Properties in Female Adolescent Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Aderka, Idan M.; Conklin, Phoebe H.; Capaldi, Sandra; Foa, Edna B.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic experiences are common among youths and can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to identify traumatized children who need PTSD treatment, instruments that can accurately and efficiently evaluate pediatric PTSD are needed. One such measure is the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), which has been found to be a reliable and…

  11. The structure of PTSD symptoms: a test of alternative models using confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark

    2007-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the structure of self-reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Based on previous factor analytic findings and the DSM-IV formulation, six confirmatory factor models were specified and estimated that reflected different symptom clusters. The analyses were based on responses from 1116 participants who had suffered whiplash injuries and screened for full or subclinical PTSD using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. A correlated four-factor model with re-experiencing, avoidance, dysphoria and arousal factors fitted the data very well. Correlations with criteria measures showed that these factors were associated with other trauma related variables in a theoretically predictable way and showed evidence of unique predictive utility. These results concur with previous research findings using different trauma populations but do not reflect the current DSM-IV symptom groupings.

  12. A Latent Growth Mixture Modeling Approach to PTSD Symptoms in Rape Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Mroczek, Dan

    2012-03-01

    The research literature has suggested that longitudinal changes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could be adequately described in terms of one universal trajectory, with individual differences in baseline levels (intercept) and rate of change (slope) being negligible. However, not everyone who has experienced a trauma is diagnosed with PTSD, and symptom severity levels differ between individuals exposed to similar traumas. The current study employed the latent growth mixture modeling technique to test for multiple trajectories using data from a sample of Danish rape victims (N = 255). In addition, the analysis aimed to determine whether a number of explanatory variables could differentiate between the trajectories (age, acute stress disorder [ASD], and perceived social support). Results concluded the existence of two PTSD trajectories. ASD was found to be the only significant predictor of one trajectory characterized by high initial levels of PTSD symptomatology. The present findings confirmed the existence of multiple trajectories with regard to PTSD symptomatology in a way that may be useful to clinicians working with this population.

  13. A Latent Growth Mixture Modeling Approach to PTSD Symptoms in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Mroczek, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The research literature has suggested that longitudinal changes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could be adequately described in terms of one universal trajectory, with individual differences in baseline levels (intercept) and rate of change (slope) being negligible. However, not everyone who has experienced a trauma is diagnosed with PTSD, and symptom severity levels differ between individuals exposed to similar traumas. The current study employed the latent growth mixture modeling technique to test for multiple trajectories using data from a sample of Danish rape victims (N = 255). In addition, the analysis aimed to determine whether a number of explanatory variables could differentiate between the trajectories (age, acute stress disorder [ASD], and perceived social support). Results concluded the existence of two PTSD trajectories. ASD was found to be the only significant predictor of one trajectory characterized by high initial levels of PTSD symptomatology. The present findings confirmed the existence of multiple trajectories with regard to PTSD symptomatology in a way that may be useful to clinicians working with this population. PMID:22661909

  14. Predictors of PTSD symptoms in caregivers of pediatric burn survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Del Carmen Quezada Berumen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Facing a severe injury in the children is one of the most devastating experiences that parents may face. The aim of this study was to explore the role of resilience showed by fathers and mothers of children with burns, the TBSA burned, age at the time of the burn and time since the burn in PTSD symptoms in caregivers. It was a cross-sectional study where fathers, mothers and guardians of 51 burn patients were evaluated. Results showed that the higher strength and confidence in caregivers, less severity in PTSD symptoms. The post-burn reactions of parents and guardians can affect the responses and welfare of their children. Therefore, a better understanding of factors related to the adaptation in caregivers, better attention by health services.

  15. Symptom structure of PTSD: support for a hierarchical model separating core PTSD symptoms from dysphoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, Arthur R.; van Minnen, Agnes; Ebberink, Freek; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Geuze, Elbert

    2012-01-01

    As of yet, no collective agreement has been reached regarding the precise factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several alternative factor-models have been proposed in the last decades. The current study examined the fit of a hierarchical adaptation of the Simms et al. (2002)

  16. Understanding Combat-Related PTSD Symptom Expression Through Index Trauma and Military Culture: Case Studies of Filipino Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz Fajarito, Cariñez; De Guzman, Rosalito G

    2017-05-01

    Few studies demonstrate how the index trauma may influence subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, especially among soldiers. There is still no consensus on specific trauma types and their corresponding PTSD symptom profiles. Furthermore, varied PTSD symptom manifestations that may yield to PTSD trauma subtypes are yet to be known. Importantly, the significance of the military culture's possible influence on soldiers' PTSD has also been underexplored. And the dominant PTSD construct may possibly be unable to capture the essential aspects of the military context in understanding combat-related PTSD. Hence, this study aims to reach an understanding into how index trauma and military culture may possibly shape participants' PTSD expressions. Case study design was used, wherein multiple sources of data-such as PTSD assessments, and interviews with the participants and key informants-enabled data triangulation. The three case reports are the outcomes of the corroboration of evidences that reveal an enriched and holistic understanding of the phenomenon under study. The Ethics Review Board Committee of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Medical Center approved the study. The participants were three Filipino active duty combat soldiers. Although all participants had similar index traumas, their PTSD symptom expressions are unique from one another, in that they differ in terms of their most incapacitating PTSD symptoms and other symptoms that have been potentially shaped by military culture. Their most incapacitating symptoms: hypervigilance (case 1), negative belief in oneself and negative emotions (case 2), prolonged distress, and marked physiological reactions to trauma-related cues (case 3), may be understood in the light of how they personally experienced different circumstances of their index traumas. The way participants have anchored specific components of their sworn soldier's creed (i.e., not leaving a fallen comrade) into some of their PTSD

  17. Veterans’ PTSD Symptoms and their Partners’ Desired Changes in Key Relationship Domains

    OpenAIRE

    LaMotte, Adam D.; Taft, Casey T.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Miller, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing literature investigating the connection between veterans’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and intimate relationship problems. Little to no work, however, has examined the connection between veterans’ PTSD symptoms and their partners’ perceptions of specific relationship areas in need of change. We examined associations between overall PTSD symptoms and symptom cluster scores with partners’ desired changes in the areas of intimacy, shared activities, and respon...

  18. PTSD symptoms associated with the experiences of psychosis and hospitalisation: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Ford, Sarah; Jellicoe-Jones, Lorna; Haddock, Gillian

    2013-06-01

    There is evidence of high rates of PTSD in people with psychosis, but the influence that symptoms or hospitalisation have on PTSD in individuals with psychosis is less clear. This paper reviewed studies investigating the prevalence of PTSD induced as a result of the experience of psychosis and hospitalisation and factors that might influence its development. The review included 24 studies, published between 1980 and 2011. Studies showed high levels of PTSD resulting from the trauma of symptoms and/or hospitalisation, with prevalence rates for actual PTSD resulting from these traumas varying from 11% to 67%. In line with studies of PTSD related to other traumatic events, there were inconsistent associations between PTSD and severity of positive and negative symptoms, but there were consistent associations between affective symptoms and PTSD. There were also inconsistent associations between hospital experiences and PTSD. Consistent with the general PTSD literature, there was some evidence that psychosis-related PTSD was associated with trauma history. There was also some emerging evidence that psychological variables, such as appraisals and coping style may influence psychosis-related PTSD. The review highlights the need for further research into psychological mechanisms that could increase vulnerability to psychosis-related PTSD and treatment approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal Factors as Moderators or Mediators of PTSD Symptoms in Very Young Children: A Two-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeringa, Michael S; Myers, Leann; Putnam, Frank W; Zeanah, Charles H

    2015-07-01

    Research has suggested that parenting behaviors and other parental factors impact the long-term outcome of children's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. In a sample of 62 children between the ages of one and six who experienced life-threatening traumas, PTSD was measured prospectively two years apart. Seven maternal factors were measured in a multi-method, multi-informant design. Both moderation and mediation models, with different theoretical and mechanism implications, were tested. Moderation models were not significant. Mediation models were significant when the mediator variable was maternal symptoms of PTSD or depression (measured at Time 1), self-report of maternal escape/avoidance coping (measured at Time 2), or self-report emotional sensitivity (measured at Time 2). Greater maternal emotional sensitivity was associated with greater Time 2 PTSD symptoms among children. Observational measures of emotional sensitivity as the mediator were not supported. Correlation of parents' and children's symptoms is a robust finding, however caution is warranted in attributing children's PTSD symptoms to insensitive parenting.

  20. Negative Emotionality and Disconstraint Influence PTSD Symptom Course via Exposure to New Major Adverse Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23 – 68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  1. Fear conditioned responses and PTSD symptoms in children: Sex differences in fear-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Kaitlyn; Nylocks, Maria; Cross, Dorthie; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth D; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-11-01

    Fear conditioning studies in adults have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with heightened fear responses and impaired discrimination. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between PTSD symptoms and fear conditioned responses in children from a highly traumatized urban population. Children between 8 and 13 years old participated in a fear conditioning study in addition to providing information about their trauma history and PTSD symptoms. Results showed that females showed less discrimination between danger and safety signals during conditioning compared to age-matched males. In boys, intrusive symptoms were predictive of fear responses, even after controlling for trauma exposure. However, in girls, conditioned fear to the danger cue was predictive of self-blame and fear of repeated trauma. This study suggests there are early sex differences in the patterns of fear conditioning and that these sex differences may translate to differential risk for trauma-related psychopathology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Relations between Social Support, PTSD Symptoms, and Substance Use in Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Daniel F.; Flanagan, Julianne C.; Korte, Kristina J.; Mills, Adam C.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Back, Sudie E.

    2016-01-01

    Social support plays a significant role in the development, maintenance, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there has been little investigation of social support with PTSD and its frequent comorbid conditions and related symptoms. Substance use disorders (SUD) are one set of conditions that have yet to be investigated in combination with PTSD and social support. As compared to civilians, veterans are at increased risk for developing both PTSD and SUD. In this stud...

  3. Improving PTSD Symptoms and Preventing Progression of Subclinical PTSD to an Overt Disorder by Treating Comorbid OSA With CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M I; Campbell, Douglas G; Bhagat, Rajesh; Lyons, Judith A; Tamanna, Sadeka

    2017-10-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common in United States veterans. These conditions often coexist and symptoms overlap. Previous studies reported improvement in PTSD symptoms with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for comorbid OSA but its effect has not been assessed in a non-PTSD cohort. We have prospectively assessed the effect of CPAP therapy on clinical symptom improvement as a function of CPAP compliance levels among PTSD and non-PTSD veterans. Veterans in whom OSA was newly diagnosed were enrolled in our study (n = 192). Assignment to PTSD and non-PTSD cohorts was determined by chart review. Each patient completed the military version of the PTSD Checklist (PCL), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and reported nightmare frequency (NMF) at baseline and 6 months after CPAP therapy. CPAP adherence was objectively documented from machine compliance data. We had complete data for 177 veterans (PTSD n = 59, non-PTSD n = 118) for analysis. The mean ages were 51.24 years in the PTSD cohort and 52.36 years in the non-PTSD cohort ( P = .30). In the PTSD cohort, the mean total PCL score (baseline = 66.06, post-CPAP = 61.27, P = .004, d = -0.34) and NMF (baseline = 4.61, post-CPAP = 1.49, P = .0001, d = -0.51) decreased after 6 months of CPAP treatment. Linear regression analysis showed that the CPAP compliance was the only significant predictor for these changes among veterans with PTSD (PCL score: P = .033, R 2 = .65; NMF; P = .03, R 2 = .61). Further analysis by CPAP compliance quartiles in this cohort (Q1 = 0% to 25%, Q2 = 26% to 50%, Q3 = 51% to 75%, Q4 > 75%) revealed that mean total PCL score declined in Q2 (change = -3.91, P = .045, d = 0.43), Q3 (change = -6.6, P = .002, d = 0.59), and Q4 (change = -7.94, P = .037, d = 0.49). In the non-PTSD cohort, the PCL score increased despite CPAP therapy in lower CPAP compliance quartiles Q1 (change = 8.71, P = .0001, d = 0.46) and Q2 (change = 4.51, P = .046, d = 0

  4. Serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with intrusion and avoidance symptoms of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Chinese earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luobing; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Cao, Xing; Zhu, Ye; Liu, Ping; Luo, Shu; Zhang, Jianxin

    2018-05-01

    Prior studies have found that the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) interacts with trauma exposure to increase general risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, there is little knowledge about the effects of the interaction on distinct symptom clusters of PTSD. This study aimed to investigate the relation between the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and earthquake-related exposures and a contemporary phenotypic model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in a traumatised adult sample from China. A cross-sectional design with gene-environment interaction (G × E) approach was adopted. Participants were 1131 survivors who experienced 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was genotyped with capillary electrophoresis (CE) in ABI 3730xl genetic Analyzer. Although there was no significant interaction between 5-HTTLPR and traumatic exposure on total PTSD symptoms, respondents with the LL genotype of 5-HTTLPR who were highly exposed to the earthquake experienced lower intrusion and avoidance symptoms than those with the S-allele carriers. The findings suggest that the 5-HTTLPR may have an important impact on the development of PTSD and add to the extant knowledge on understanding and treating of posttraumatic psychopathology.

  5. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Paola; Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Pizzo, Rosalia; Pipitone, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thoughts and emotion through a writing task, with the purpose to help new mothers to reflect, understand, evaluate and, thus, reformulate the stressful situation with new beliefs and emotions. 176 women aged from 19 to 43 years (M = 31.55, SD = 4.58) were assessed for depression and PTSD in the prenatal phase (T1). In about 96 hours after childbirth they were randomly assigned to either "Making Sense condition" (MS: in which they wrote about the thoughts and emotions connected with delivery and childbirth) or "Control-Neutral condition" (NC: in which they wrote about the daily events in behavioural terms) and then reassessed for depression and PTSD (T2). A follow up was conducted 3 months later (T3) to verify depression and posttraumatic symptoms. The results showed that depressive symptoms decreased both at 96 hours and at 3 months as a result of making-sense task. Regarding the posttraumatic symptoms the positive effect emerged at three months and not at 96 hours after birth.

  6. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Blasio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thoughts and emotion through a writing task, with the purpose to help new mothers to reflect, understand, evaluate and, thus, reformulate the stressful situation with new beliefs and emotions. 176 women aged from 19 to 43 years (M = 31.55, SD = 4.58 were assessed for depression and PTSD in the prenatal phase (T1. In about 96 hours after childbirth they were randomly assigned to either “Making Sense condition” (MS: in which they wrote about the thoughts and emotions connected with delivery and childbirth or “Control-Neutral condition” (NC: in which they wrote about the daily events in behavioural terms and then reassessed for depression and PTSD (T2. A follow up was conducted 3 months later (T3 to verify depression and posttraumatic symptoms. The results showed that depressive symptoms decreased both at 96 hours and at 3 months as a result of making-sense task. Regarding the posttraumatic symptoms the positive effect emerged at three months and not at 96 hours after birth.

  7. Mismatch of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms and DSM-IV Symptom Clusters in a Cancer Sample: Exploratory Factor Analysis of the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Rebecca A.; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994a) conceptualization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) includes three symptom clusters: reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and arousal. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) corresponds to the DSM-IV PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the PCL-C with two aims: (a) to examine whether the PCL-C evidenced the three-factor solution implied by the DSM-IV symptom clusters, and (b) to identify a factor solution for the PCL-C in a cancer sample. Women (N = 148) with Stage II or III breast cancer completed the PCL-C after completion of cancer treatment. We extracted two-, three-, four-, and five-factor solutions using EFA. Our data did not support the DSM-IV PTSD symptom clusters. Instead, EFA identified a four-factor solution including reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, and arousal factors. Four symptom items, which may be confounded with illness and cancer treatment-related symptoms, exhibited poor factor loadings. Using these symptom items in cancer samples may lead to overdiagnosis of PTSD and inflated rates of PTSD symptoms. PMID:16281232

  8. Oxytocin is associated with PTSD's anxious arousal symptoms in Chinese male earthquake survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqi Cao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a complex and severe mental disorder triggered by exposure to an extraordinarily traumatic event. Human and animal studies have implied the functional role of the oxytocin system in the development of PTSD (Cochran, Fallon, Hill, & Frazier, 2013; Koch et al., 2014; Olff, 2012. Specification of the role of the oxytocin system in the emergence and progression of PTSD symptomatology would provide evidence to inform both theory and clinical practice. Methods: This study examined the association between oxytocin serum levels and PTSD symptoms. A total of 106 Chinese male adults who suffered from the deadly 2008 Wenchuan earthquake participated in this study. PTSD symptoms were measured with PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5, and serum oxytocin level was determined with ELISA oxytocin kits. Results: The mean score on the PCL-5 was 19.30 (SD=14.50, range: 1–65 in this sample. The mean oxytocin level was 101.59 pg/ml (SD=55.89, range: 31.50–286.71. The results indicated that although the oxytocin was not associated with total PTSD symptoms, it was associated with PTSD's anxious arousal symptoms. Conclusion: These findings support that the oxytocin may play an important functional role in the development of PTSD and contribute to the extant knowledge on the genetic basis of the PTSD symptoms.

  9. 50 How can informal support impact child PTSD symptoms following a psychological trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    An estimated 20% of children who present to hospital emergency departments following potentially traumatic events (e.g., serious injuries, road traffic accidents, assaults) will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence. The development of PTSD can have a substantial impact on a child's developmental trajectory, including their emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Despite this, only a small proportion will access mental health services, with the majority relying on informal sources of support. Parents, in particular, are often the primary source of support. However, it remains unclear what types of parental responses may be effective, and parents themselves report experiencing uncertainty about the best approach. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the capacity for specific aspects of parental responding in the aftermath of child trauma to facilitate or hinder children's psychological recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study of 132 parent-child pairs, recruited following the child's experience of trauma and subsequent attendance at one of four regional emergency departments. At an initial assessment, within 1 month post-trauma, we examined how parents appraised and responded to their child following the event, using both questionnaires and direct observations. Child-report questionnaires were used to assess PTSD symptom severity at 1 month, and at a follow up 6 months later. Children also reported on their own appraisals of the trauma and their coping behaviours, which were considered as potential mediators between parental support and later child symptoms. Controlling for relevant covariates and initial PTSD symptoms, parent negative appraisals of the trauma and encouragement of avoidant coping in children were associated with higher child-reported PTSD symptoms at 6 month follow-up. There was some evidence that children's own trauma related appraisals and coping styles mediated these effects. Findings indicate that

  10. Dysregulation in cortical reactivity to emotional faces in PTSD patients with high dissociation symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Klimova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Predominant dissociation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by restricted affective responses to positive stimuli. To date, no studies have examined neural responses to a range of emotional expressions in PTSD with high dissociative symptoms. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that PTSD patients with high dissociative symptoms will display increased event-related potential (ERP amplitudes in early components (N1, P1 to threatening faces (angry, fearful, and reduced later ERP amplitudes (Vertex Positive Potential (VPP, P3 to happy faces compared to PTSD patients with low dissociative symptoms. Methods: Thirty-nine civilians with PTSD were classified as high dissociative (n=16 or low dissociative (n=23 according to their responses on the Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale. ERPs were recorded, whilst participants viewed emotional (happy, angry, fear and neutral facial expressions in a passive viewing task. Results: High dissociative PTSD patients displayed significantly increased N120 amplitude to the majority of facial expressions (neutral, happy, and angry compared to low dissociative PTSD patients under conscious and preconscious conditions. The high dissociative PTSD group had significantly reduced VPP amplitude to happy faces in the conscious condition. Conclusion: High dissociative PTSD patients displayed increased early (preconscious cortical responses to emotional stimuli, and specific reductions to happy facial expressions in later (conscious, face-specific components compared to low dissociative PTSD patients. Dissociation in PTSD may act to increase initial pre-attentive processing of affective stimuli, and specifically reduce cortical reactivity to happy faces when consciously processing these stimuli.

  11. Event centrality in trauma and PTSD: relations between event relevance and posttraumatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Loreto Garcia da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent investigations propose that cognitive characteristics of autobiographical memory significantly interact with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. A traumatic event becoming more or less central in a person’s identity and life story might influence development of the disorder. Studies show high correlations between event centrality (EC and PTSD. Participated in this study 68 treatment-seeking individuals referred to a specialized service for suspected trauma-related disorder: 39 matched criteria for PTSD and 29 were exposed to trauma without PTSD. Our aims were to explore how the groups differ regarding EC, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic cognitions, PTSD symptom severity, and peritraumatic dissociative experience; and how distinctively EC interacts with the measures in each group. The PTSD group had higher scores in all variables but dissociation. EC correlated with overall PTSD symptoms only in the PTSD group and with dissociation only in the no-PTSD group. Findings support a model emphasizing the role of memory processes in PTSD. People exposed to trauma who developed PTSD had the memory of the traumatic experience more intensively governing their sense of self and thus eliciting more negative cognitive reactions. As EC facilitates recollection of the traumatic event, it could also mediate a semantization process that reinforces and increases posttraumatic symptoms.

  12. Longitudinal Associations Between PTSD Symptoms and Dyadic Conflict Communication Following a Severe Motor Vehicle Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Steffany J; Beck, J Gayle; Shnaider, Philippe; Le, Yunying; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Pentel, Kimberly Z; Monson, Candice M; Simon, Naomi M; Marques, Luana

    2017-03-01

    There are well-documented associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and intimate relationship impairments, including dysfunctional communication at times of relationship conflict. To date, the extant research on the associations between PTSD symptom severity and conflict communication has been cross-sectional and focused on military and veteran couples. No published work has evaluated the extent to which PTSD symptom severity and communication at times of relationship conflict influence each other over time or in civilian samples. The current study examined the prospective bidirectional associations between PTSD symptom severity and dyadic conflict communication in a sample of 114 severe motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors in a committed intimate relationship at the time of the accident. PTSD symptom severity and dyadic conflict communication were assessed at 4 and 16weeks post-MVA, and prospective associations were examined using path analysis. Total PTSD symptom severity at 4weeks prospectively predicted greater dysfunctional communication at 16weeks post-MVA but not vice versa. Examination at the level of PTSD symptom clusters revealed that effortful avoidance at 4weeks prospectively predicted greater dysfunctional communication at 16weeks, whereas dysfunctional communication 4weeks after the MVA predicted more severe emotional numbing at 16weeks. Findings highlight the role of PTSD symptoms in contributing to dysfunctional communication and the importance of considering PTSD symptom clusters separately when investigating the dynamic interplay between PTSD symptoms and relationship functioning over time, particularly during the early posttrauma period. Clinical implications for the prevention of chronic PTSD and associated relationship problems are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Latent profiles of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms and the "Big Five" personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Armour, Cherie; Shea, M Tracie; Mota, Natalie; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Typologies of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms and personality traits were evaluated in regard to coping styles and treatment preferences using data from 1266 trauma-exposed military veterans of which the majority were male (n=1097; weighted 89.6%). Latent profile analyses indicated a best-fitting 5-class solution; PTSD asymptomatic and emotionally stable (C1); predominant re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms and less emotionally stable (C2); subsyndromal PTSD (C3); predominant negative alterations in mood/cognitions and combined internalizing-externalizing traits (C4); and high PTSD severity and combined internalizing-externalizing traits (C5). Compared to C5, C1 members were less likely to use self-distraction, denial, and substance use and more likely to use active coping; C2 and C4 members were less likely to use denial and more likely to use behavioral disengagement; C3 members were less likely to use denial and instrumental coping and more likely to use active coping; most classes were less likely to seek mental health treatment. Compared to C1, C2 members were more likely to use self-distraction, substance use, behavioral disengagement and less likely to use active coping; C3 members were more likely to use self-distraction, and substance use, and less likely to use positive reframing, and acceptance; and C4 members were more likely to use denial, substance use, emotional support, and behavioral disengagement, and less likely to use active coping, positive reframing, and acceptance; all classes were more likely to seek mental health treatment. Emotional stability was most distinguishing of the typologies. Other implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of PTSD Coach, a smartphone app for post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eric; Greene, Carolyn; Hoffman, Julia; Nguyen, Tam; Wald, Laura; Schmidt, Janet; Ramsey, Kelly M; Ruzek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    PTSD Coach is a mobile application (app) designed to help individuals who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms better understand and self-manage their symptoms. It has wide-scale use (over 130,000 downloads in 78 countries) and very favorable reviews but has yet to be evaluated. Therefore, this study examines user satisfaction, perceived helpfulness, and usage patterns of PTSD Coach in a sample of 45 veterans receiving PTSD treatment. After using PTSD Coach for several days, participants completed a survey of satisfaction and perceived helpfulness and focus groups exploring app use and benefit from use. Data indicate that participants were very satisfied with PTSD Coach and perceived it as being moderately to very helpful with their PTSD symptoms. Analysis of focus group data resulted in several categories of app use: to manage acute distress and PTSD symptoms, at scheduled times, and to help with sleep. These findings offer preliminary support for the acceptability and perceived helpfulness of PTSD Coach and suggest that it has potential to be an effective self-management tool for PTSD. Although promising, future research is required to validate this, given study limitations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. PTSD symptom reports of patients evaluated for the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, George R; Grob, Charles S; Halberstadt, Adam L

    2014-01-01

    New Mexico was the first state to list post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a condition for the use of medical cannabis. There are no published studies, other than case reports, of the effects of cannabis on PTSD symptoms. The purpose of the study was to report and statistically analyze psychometric data on PTSD symptoms collected during 80 psychiatric evaluations of patients applying to the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program from 2009 to 2011. The Clinician Administered Posttraumatic Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS) was administered retrospectively and symptom scores were then collected and compared in a retrospective chart review of the first 80 patients evaluated. Greater than 75% reduction in CAPS symptom scores were reported when patients were using cannabis compared to when they were not. Cannabis is associated with reductions in PTSD symptoms in some patients, and prospective, placebo-controlled study is needed to determine efficacy of cannabis and its constituents in treating PTSD.

  16. PTSD symptom presentation among people with alcohol and drug use disorders: Comparisons by substance of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Wanklyn, Sonya; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Coffey, Scott F

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accounted for the presence of comorbidity across types of SUDs in understanding symptom patterns. Thus, in the current study, we use a treatment-seeking sample of people with elevated symptoms of PTSD and problem alcohol use to explore differential associations between past-year SUDs with active use and PTSD symptoms, while accounting for the presence of multiple SUDs. When comparing alcohol and drug use disorders, avoidance symptoms were elevated in those with alcohol use disorder, and hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in those who had a drug use disorder. In the subsample with alcohol use disorder, hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring cocaine use disorders and numbing symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic use disorder. These findings provide evidence for different symptom cluster patterns between PTSD and various types of SUDs and highlight the importance of examining the functional relationship between specific substances of abuse when understanding the interplay between PTSD and SUDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters and alcohol misuse among military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jessica L; Raines, Amanda M; Cuccurullo, Lisa-Ann J; Vidaurri, Desirae N; Villarosa-Hurlocker, Margo C; Franklin, C L

    2018-01-01

    Prior research has revealed a strong relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and alcohol misuse. However, previous attempts to understand nuanced associations between PTSD symptom clusters and alcohol misuse within military veteran samples have produced mixed results. In an attempt to better understand the associations between PTSD and alcohol misuse, the current study examined the unique relationships between the newly classified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) PTSD symptom clusters and alcohol misuse in an outpatient sample of military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD and Substance Use Disorders. Veterans (N = 100) were administered a brief battery of self-report questionnaires prior to receiving psychological services to aid in diagnostic assessment and treatment planning. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that PTSD intrusions (cluster B), negative alterations in cognition and mood (cluster D), and arousal/reactivity (cluster E) symptoms were associated with alcohol misuse. The positive association between alcohol misuse and PTSD symptom severity is consistent with a broader body of literature demonstrating the co-occurrence of these disorders, particularly in military samples. Increased alcohol consumption may interfere with current front-line treatments for PTSD, which encourages patients to experience a full range of emotions. As such, future research should explore the impact of substance use on the effectiveness of trauma focused treatments in the alleviation of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. (Am J Addict 2018;27:23-28). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Impulsivity interacts with momentary PTSD symptom worsening to predict alcohol use in male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Anne C; Cooney, Ned L; Sartor, Carolyn E; Arias, Albert J; Rosen, Marc I

    2018-04-11

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent among veterans who served post-9/11, and co-occurs with problem alcohol and substance use. Studies using ecological momentary assessment have examined the temporal association between time-varying PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. Results suggest individual differences in these associations. We tested hypotheses that alcohol use measured by momentary assessment would be explained by acute increases in PTSD symptoms, and the PTSD-alcohol association would be moderated by trait impulsivity. A sample of 28 male post-9/11-era veterans who reported past-month PTSD symptoms and risky alcohol use were enrolled. On a quasi-random schedule, participants completed three electronic assessments daily for 28 days measuring past 2-h PTSD symptoms, alcohol, and substance use. At baseline, trait impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Past-month PTSD symptoms and alcohol use were measured. Using three-level hierarchical models, number of drinks recorded by momentary assessment was modeled as a function of change in PTSD symptoms since last assessment, controlling for lag-1 alcohol and substance use and other covariates. A cross-level interaction tested moderation of the within-time PTSD-alcohol association by impulsivity. A total of 1,522 assessments were completed. A positive within-time association between PTSD symptom change and number of drinks was demonstrated. The association was significantly moderated by impulsivity. Results provide preliminary support for a unique temporal relationship between acute PTSD symptom change and alcohol use among veterans with trait impulsiveness. If replicated in a clinical sample, results may have implications for a targeted momentary intervention.

  19. Social skills deficits as a mediator between PTSD symptoms and intimate partner aggression in returning veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Adam D; Taft, Casey T; Weatherill, Robin P; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2017-02-01

    This study examined social skills deficits as a mediator of the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and use of intimate partner aggression (IPA) among returning veterans. Prior research with veterans has focused on PTSD-related deficits at the decoding stage of McFall's (1982) social information processing model, and the current study adds to this literature by examining social skills deficits at the decision stage. Participants were 92 male veterans recruited from the greater Boston area. PTSD symptoms were assessed through clinician interview, IPA use was assessed through self- and partner report, and social skills deficits were assessed in a laboratory task in which veterans listened to a series of problematic marital situations and responded with what they would say or do in the situation. Responses were coded for social competency. Bivariate correlations revealed several significant associations among PTSD symptoms, social skills deficits, and use of IPA. When all PTSD symptom clusters were entered into a regression predicting social skills deficits, only emotional numbing emerged as a unique predictor. Finally, social skills deficits significantly mediated the relationship between veterans' PTSD symptoms and use of psychological (but not physical) IPA. Findings extend prior research on McFall's (1982) social information processing model as it relates to veterans' PTSD symptoms and use of IPA. More research is needed to understand the associations between PTSD symptoms and deficits at each individual step of this model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Impact of the Developmental Timing of Trauma Exposure on PTSD Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning Among Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (n = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas experienced during childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, midlife, or older adulthood. Each of these developmental periods is characterized by a...

  1. Impulsive responding in threat and reward contexts as a function of PTSD symptoms and trait disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Hayes, Jasmeet P

    2018-01-01

    We examined current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, trait disinhibition, and affective context as contributors to impulsive and self-destructive behavior in 94 trauma-exposed Veterans. Participants completed an affective Go/No-Go task (GNG) with different emotional contexts (threat, reward, and a multidimensional threat/reward condition) and current PTSD, trait disinhibition, and risky/self-destructive behavior measures. PTSD interacted with trait disinhibition to explain recent engagement in risky/self-destructive behavior, with Veterans scoring high on trait disinhibition and current PTSD symptoms reporting the highest levels of these behaviors. On the GNG task, commission errors were also associated with the interaction of PTSD symptoms and trait disinhibition. Specifically, PTSD symptoms were associated with greater commission errors in threat vs. reward contexts for individuals who were low on trait disinhibition. In contrast, veterans high on PTSD and trait disinhibition exhibited the greatest number of commission errors in the multidimensional affective context that involved both threat and reward processing. Results highlight the interactive effects of PTSD and disinhibited personality traits, as well as threat and reward systems, as risk factors for impulsive and self-destructive behavior in trauma-exposed groups. Findings have clinical implications for understanding heterogeneity in the expression of PTSD and its association with disinhibited behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The relation of PTSD symptoms to migraine and headache-related disability among substance dependent inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Michael J; Fulwiler, Joshua C; Smitherman, Todd A; Gratz, Kim L; Connolly, Kevin M; Tull, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    Despite emerging evidence for the comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and migraine, few studies have examined the relation of PTSD and migraine, particularly among clinical populations at-risk for both conditions (e.g., substance-dependent patients). This study examined the role of PTSD symptoms in migraine and headache-related disability within a sample of 153 substance-dependent inpatients (37.25% female, Mean age 36.46). PTSD symptoms predicted both migraine and headache-related disability above and beyond gender, depression and anxiety symptoms, the experience of a Criterion A traumatic event, and current alcohol use disorder. Findings highlight the strong association between migraine and PTSD symptoms in a unique population at risk for both conditions.

  3. Variation in post-traumatic response: the role of trauma type in predicting ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Murphy, Jamie; Shevlin, Mark; Vallières, Frédérique; McElroy, Eoin; Elklit, Ask; Christoffersen, Mogens; Cloitre, Marylène

    2017-06-01

    The World Health Organization's 11th revision to the International Classification of Diseases manual (ICD-11) will differentiate between two stress-related disorders: PTSD and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). ICD-11 proposals suggest that trauma exposure which is prolonged and/or repeated, or consists of multiple forms, that also occurs under circumstances where escape from the trauma is difficult or impossible (e.g., childhood abuse) will confer greater risk for CPTSD as compared to PTSD. The primary objective of the current study was to provide an empirical assessment of this proposal. A stratified, random probability sample of a Danish birth cohort (aged 24) was interviewed by the Danish National Centre for Social Research (N = 2980) in 2008-2009. Data from this interview were used to generate an ICD-11 symptom-based classification of PTSD and CPTSD. The majority of the sample (87.1%) experienced at least one of eight traumatic events spanning childhood and early adulthood. There was some indication that being female increased the risk for both PTSD and CPTSD classification. Multinomial logistic regression results found that childhood sexual abuse (OR = 4.98) and unemployment status (OR = 4.20) significantly increased risk of CPTSD classification as compared to PTSD. A dose-response relationship was observed between exposure to multiple forms of childhood interpersonal trauma and risk of CPTSD classification, as compared to PTSD. Results provide empirical support for the ICD-11 proposals that childhood interpersonal traumatic exposure increases risk of CPTSD symptom development.

  4. Can Post mTBI Neurological Soft Signs Predict Postconcussive and PTSD Symptoms : A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    disorders , including post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), but they have scarcely been studied in TBI. The present study measured NSS in the...including post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), but they have scarcely been studied in TBI. The present study measured NSS in the acute aftermath of...Can Post mTBI Neurological Soft Signs Predict Postconcussive and PTSD Symptoms?: A Pilot Study 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER E-Mail:

  5. Hypoxia training: symptom replication in experienced military aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ben J; Iremonger, Gareth S; Hunt, Sheena; Beattie, Elizabeth

    2012-10-01

    Military aircrew are trained to recognize the signs and symptoms of hypoxia in a safe environment using a variety of methods to simulate altitude. In order to investigate the effectiveness of hypoxia training, this study compared the recall of hypoxia symptoms in military aircrew between two consecutive hypobaric chamber hypoxia training sessions conducted, on average, 4.5 yr apart. Previously trained subjects completed a questionnaire immediately before and after they underwent refresher hypoxia training and recorded the occurrence, order, and severity of symptoms experienced. Responses from refresher training were compared with their recall of symptoms experienced during previous training. There was no difference in the recall of most hypoxia symptoms between training sessions. Slurred speech was recalled more frequently from previous training compared to refresher training (14 vs. 4 subjects), whereas hot/cold flushes were recalled less frequently from previous training compared to refresher training (5 vs. 17 subjects). There was a statistically significant difference in overall hypoxia score (10.3 vs. 8.3), suggesting that from memory subjects may underestimate the level of hypoxia experienced in previous training. A high level of similarity between the recall of previously experienced hypoxia symptoms and recent experience supports the effectiveness of hypoxia training. These results replicate the finding of a 'hypoxia signature' reported by a previous study. Small differences in the recall of some symptoms and in overall hypoxia score highlight the importance of drawing attention to the more subtle symptoms of early hypoxia, and of using training techniques which optimize aircrew recall.

  6. Beyond symptom self-report: use of a computer "avatar" to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E; Radell, Milen L; Shind, Christine; Ebanks-Williams, Yasheca; Beck, Kevin D; Gilbertson, Mark W

    2016-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in the wake of exposure to a traumatic event. Currently, PTSD symptoms are assessed mainly through self-report in the form of questionnaire or clinical interview. Self-report has inherent limitations, particularly in psychiatric populations who may have limited awareness of deficit, reduced attention span, or poor vocabulary and/or literacy skills. Diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy would be aided by behavioral measures. A viable alternative may be virtual environments, in which the participant guides an on-screen "avatar" through a series of onscreen events meant to simulate real-world situations. Here, a sample of 82 veterans, self-assessed for PTSD symptoms was administered such a task, in which the avatar was confronted with situations that might evoke avoidant behavior, a core feature of PTSD. Results showed a strong correlation between PTSD symptom burden and task performance; in fact, the ability to predict PTSD symptom burden based on simple demographic variables (age, sex, combat exposure) was significantly improved by adding task score as a predictor variable. The results therefore suggest that virtual environments may provide a new way to assess PTSD symptoms, while avoiding at least some of the limitations associated with symptom self-report, and thus might be a useful complement to questionnaire or clinical interview, potentially facilitating both diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy.

  7. COMT Val158Met polymorphism moderates the association between PTSD symptom severity and hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jasmeet P; Logue, Mark W; Reagan, Andrew; Salat, David; Wolf, Erika J; Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Sperbeck, Emily; Hayes, Scott M; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Verfaellie, Mieke; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A; Miller, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    Memory-based alterations are among the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may be associated with the integrity of the hippocampus. However, neuroimaging studies of hippocampal volume in individuals with PTSD have yielded inconsistent results, raising the possibility that various moderators, such as genetic factors, may influence this association. We examined whether the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, which has previously been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume in healthy individuals, moderates the association between PTSD and hippocampal volume. Recent war veterans underwent structural MRI on a 3 T scanner. We extracted volumes of the right and left hippocampus using FreeSurfer and adjusted them for individual differences in intracranial volume. We assessed PTSD severity using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Hierarchical linear regression was used to model the genotype (Val158Met polymorphism) × PTSD severity interaction and its association with hippocampal volume. We included 146 white, non-Hispanic recent war veterans (90% male, 53% with diagnosed PTSD) in our analyses. A significant genotype × PTSD symptom severity interaction emerged such that individuals with greater current PTSD symptom severity who were homozygous for the Val allele showed significant reductions in left hippocampal volume. The direction of proposed effects is unknown, thus precluding definitive assessment of whether differences in hippocampal volume reflect a consequence of PTSD, a pre-existing characteristic, or both. Our findings suggest that the COMT polymorphism moderates the association between PTSD and hippocampal volume. These results highlight the role that the dopaminergic system has in brain structure and suggest a possible mechanism for memory disturbance in individuals with PTSD.

  8. Type D personality and the development of PTSD symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Arthur R; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-05-01

    Psychological trauma and prolonged stress may cause mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma personality is an important determinant of posttraumatic adjustment. Specifically, trait neuroticism has been identified as a risk factor for PTSD. Additionally, the combination of high negative affectivity or neuroticism with marked social inhibition or introversion, also called Type D personality (Denollet, 2000), may compose a risk factor for PTSD. There is no research available that examined pretrauma Type D personality in relation to PTSD. The present study examined the predictive validity of the Type D personality construct in a sample of Dutch soldiers. Data were collected prior to and 6 months after military deployment to Afghanistan. Separate multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the predictive validity of Type D personality. First, Type D personality was defined as the interaction between negative affect and social inhibition (Na × Si). In a second analysis, Type D was defined following cutoff criteria recommended by Denollet (2000). Results showed that negative affectivity was a significant predictor of PTSD symptoms. Social inhibition and the interaction Na × Si did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, negative affectivity, and prior psychological symptoms. A second analysis showed that Type D personality (dichotomous) did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, and prior psychological symptoms. Therefore, Type D personality appears to be of limited value to explain development of combat-related PTSD symptoms.

  9. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for PTSD Symptoms after a Road Accident: An Uncontrolled Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. Gayle; Palyo, Sarah A.; Winer, Eliot H.; Schwagler, Brad E.; Ang, Eu Jin

    2007-01-01

    This report examined whether Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) could be used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the aftermath of a serious motor vehicle accident. Six individuals reporting either full or severe subsyndromal PTSD completed 10 sessions of VRET, which was conducted using software designed to…

  10. PTSD Symptoms Mediate the Effect of Attachment on Pain and Somatisation after Whiplash Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The development of persistent pain post-whiplash injury is still an unresolved mystery despite the fact that approximately 50% of individuals reporting whiplash develop persistent pain. There is agreement that high initial pain and PTSD symptoms are indicators of a poor prognosis after whiplash injury. Recently attachment insecurity has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for both pain and PTSD. In order to guide treatment it is important to examine possible mechanisms which may cause persistent pain and medically unexplained symptoms after a whiplash injury. The present study examines attachment insecurity and PTSD symptoms as possible vulnerability factors in relation to high levels of pain and somatisation after sub-acute whiplash injury. Data were collected from 327 patients (women = 204) referred consecutively to the emergency unit after acute whiplash injury. Within 1-month post injury, patients answered a questionnaire regarding attachment insecurity, pain, somatisation, and PTSD symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses were performed to assess whether the PTSD symptom clusters mediated the association between attachment insecurity, pain, and somatisation. A total of 15% fulfilled the DSM-IV symptom cluster criteria for a possible PTSD diagnosis and 11.6% fulfilled the criteria for somatisation. PTSD increased the likelihood of belonging to the moderate-severe pain group three-fold. In relation to somatisation the likelihood of belonging to the group was almost increased four-fold. The PTSD symptom clusters of avoidance and hyperarousal mediated the association between the attachment dimensions, pain, and somatisation. Acknowledging that PTSD is part of the aetiology involved in explaining persistent symptoms after whiplash, may help sufferers to gain early and more suited treatment, which in turn may prevent the condition from becoming chronic.

  11. Depression and Dissociation as Predictors of Physical Health Symptoms Among Female Rape Survivors with PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioli-Salter, Erica R.; Johnides, Benjamin D.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Smith, Brian N.; Resick, Patricia A.; Rasmusson, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relative contributions of depression and dissociation, as well as PTSD, to physical health symptoms and to examine the relationships among somatic symptoms, PTSD, depression, and dissociation in relation to childhood and adult trauma exposure. Method Cross-sectional data are from 132 female rape survivors with PTSD assessed prior to engaging in a study of trauma-focused cognitive therapy for PTSD. Measures included the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trauma Symptom Inventory-Dissociation Subscale, Childhood Sexual Abuse Exposure Questionnaire, and Assessing Environments-III-Physical Punishment Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that only dissociative and depression symptoms contributed significantly to physical health symptoms. Similarly, among the subsample of women with either childhood sexual or physical abuse, depression and dissociation were significant predictors of somatic symptoms. However, among women without childhood abuse, only dissociation significantly predicted somatic symptoms. Conclusion Understanding the psychological and biological mechanisms that link childhood versus adult trauma exposure, PTSD, and comorbid depression or dissociation to physical health symptoms may aid development of individualized treatments for the physical and psychological consequences of trauma. PMID:27149157

  12. Negative appraisals and fear extinction are independently related to PTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuj, Daniel V; Palmer, Matthew A; Gray, Kate E; Hsu, Chia-Ming K; Nicholson, Emma L; Malhi, Gin S; Bryant, Richard A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2017-08-01

    Considerable research has revealed impaired fear extinction to be a significant predictor of PTSD. Fear extinction is also considered the primary mechanism of exposure therapy, and a critical factor in PTSD recovery. The cognitive theory of PTSD proposes that symptoms persist due to excessive negative appraisals about the trauma and its sequelae. Research has not yet examined the relationship between fear extinction and negative appraisals in PTSD. A cross-sectional sample of participants with PTSD (n =21), and trauma-exposed controls (n =33) underwent a standardized differential fear conditioning and extinction paradigm, with skin conductance response (SCR) amplitude serving as the index of conditioned responses. The Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) was used to index catastrophic negative appraisals. Participants with PTSD demonstrated a slower decrease in overall SCR responses during extinction and greater negative appraisals compared to the group. A moderation analysis revealed that both negative trauma-relevant appraisals and fear extinction learning were independently associated with PTSD symptoms, but there was no moderation interaction. The current study was limited by a modest sample size, leading to the inclusion of participants with subclinical PTSD symptoms. Further, the current study only assessed fear extinction learning; including a second day extinction recall task may show alternative effects. These findings indicate that negative appraisals and fear extinction did not interact, but had independent relationships with PTSD symptoms. Here we show for the first time in an experimental framework that negative appraisals and fear extinction play separate roles in PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Latent-level relations between DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters and problematic smartphone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Frankfurt, Sheila B; Weiss, Nicole H; Elhai, Jon D

    2017-07-01

    Common mental health consequences following the experience of potentially traumatic events include Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and addictive behaviors. Problematic smartphone use is a newer manifestation of addictive behaviors. People with anxiety severity (such as PTSD) may be at risk for problematic smartphone use as a means of coping with their symptoms. Unique to our knowledge, we assessed relations between PTSD symptom clusters and problematic smartphone use. Participants ( N = 347), recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), completed measures of PTSD and smartphone addiction. Results of the Wald tests of parameter constraints indicated that problematic smartphone use was more related to PTSD's negative alterations in cognitions and mood (NACM) than to PTSD's avoidance factor, Wald χ 2 (1, N = 347) = 12.51, p = 0.0004; and more to PTSD's arousal compared to PTSD's avoidance factor, Wald χ 2 (1, N = 347) = 14.89, p = 0.0001. Results indicate that problematic smartphone use is most associated with negative affect and arousal among trauma-exposed individuals. Implications include the need to clinically assess problematic smartphone use among trauma-exposed individuals presenting with higher NACM and arousal severity; and targeting NACM and arousal symptoms to mitigate the effects of problematic smartphone use.

  14. Relationship between burnout and PTSD symptoms in firefighters: the moderating effects of a sense of calling to firefighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Insung; Lee, Songhee; Sung, Gyhye; Kim, Minkyoung; Lee, Sanghyuk; Park, Jooeon; Lee, Kangsoo

    2018-01-01

    Firefighting has been reported to lead to burnout and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, burnout and PTSD symptoms may vary depending on personal characteristics, such as having a sense of calling. This study examined the role of calling in the association between burnout and PTSD symptoms. We hypothesized that burnout would be associated with more severe PTSD symptoms and calling would buffer the relationship between burnout and PTSD symptoms. The Korean version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, Sense of Calling Subscale of the Professionalism Scale, and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised-Korean version were used to measure burnout, calling, and PTSD symptoms. Data from 109 of 127 firefighters from Gyeonggi-do, South Korea were analyzed using hierarchical linear regression. Burnout was a significant predictor of PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, the interaction term between burnout and calling accounted for a significant variance in PTSD symptoms. Higher burnout was associated with severe PTSD symptoms, but this relationship differed by the level of calling. The increase in PTSD symptoms due to increased burnout in the high calling group was relatively higher than in the low and average calling groups. Calling, though perceived as a positive variable, can be hazardous to exhausted people. A sense of calling as part of one's job identity should not be encouraged until personal circumstances and characteristics, such burnout symptoms, are evaluated. Identifying context and variables associated with PTSD for interventions with firefighters and persons in other dangerous occupations should aid in their recovery from trauma exposure.

  15. The role of perceived threat in the emergence of PTSD and depression symptoms during warzone deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Cynthia L; Cobb, Adam R; Lee, Han-Joo; Telch, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that level of exposure to combat-related stressors is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among military personnel deployed to a warzone. Threat perception of warzone experiences assessed retrospectively has been consistently linked to increased risk for PTSD and depression months or even years after returning from deployment. However, little is known about concurrent relations between perceived threat, deployment stress, and stress-related symptoms during deployment. Using a novel in-theater web-based assessment system, we investigated the unique and joint contribution of threat perception and deployment stressors in predicting the emergence of PTSD and depression symptoms during deployment. Soldiers (N = 150) completed assessments of deployment stressors, perceived threat, PTSD symptoms, and depression symptoms throughout deployment to Iraq. Results revealed that perceived threat potentiated the increase in PTSD symptoms as a result of increases in deployment stressors. In contrast, perceived threat, but not warzone stressors, uniquely predicted depression symptoms. Results highlight the important role of threat perception as a risk marker for the acute experience of depression and PTSD symptoms during deployment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity predict PTSD symptom increase after trauma exposure during military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Schönfeld, Sabine; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Alexander, Nina; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence on endocrine risk markers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been inconclusive. Here, we report results of the first prospective study to investigate whether long-term hair cortisol levels and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity are predictive of the development of PTSD symptomatology in response to trauma during military deployment. Male soldiers were examined before deployment to Afghanistan and at a 12-month post-deployment follow-up using dimensional measures for psychopathological symptoms. The predictive value of baseline (i) hair cortisol concentrations (HCC, N=90) and (ii) salivary cortisol stress reactivity (measured by the Trier Social Stress Test, N=80) for the development of PTSD symptomatology after being exposed to new-onset traumatic events was analyzed. Baseline cortisol activity significantly predicted PTSD symptom change from baseline to follow-up upon trauma exposure. Specifically, our results consistently revealed that lower HCC and lower cortisol stress reactivity were predictive of a greater increase in PTSD symptomatology in soldiers who had experienced new-onset traumatic events (explaining 5% and 10.3% of variance, respectively). Longitudinal analyses revealed an increase in HCC from baseline to follow-up and a trend for a negative relationship between HCC changes and the number of new-onset traumatic events. Additional pre-deployment analyses revealed that trauma history was reflected in lower HCC (at trend level) and that HCC were negatively related to stressful load. Our data indicate that attenuated cortisol secretion is a risk marker for subsequent development of PTSD symptomatology upon trauma exposure. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in other samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Khat use, PTSD and psychotic symptoms among Somali refugees in Nairobi - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eWidmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In East-African and Arab countries, khat leaves are traditionally chewed in social settings. They contain the amphetamine-like alkaloid cathinone. Especially among Somali refugees khat use has been associated with psychiatric symptoms. We assessed khat use patterns and psychiatric symptoms among male Somali refugees living in a disadvantaged urban settlement area in Kenya, a large group that has not yet received scientific attention. We wanted to explore consume patterns and study the associations between khat use, traumatic experiences and psychotic symptoms.Using privileged access sampling we recruited 33 healthy male khat chewers and 15 comparable non-chewers. Based on extensive preparatory work, we assessed khat use, khat dependence according to DSM-IV, traumatic experiences, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and psychotic symptoms using standardized diagnostic instruments that had been adapted to the Somali language and culture.Hazardous use patterns like chewing for more than 24 hours without interruption were frequently reported. All khat users fulfilled the DSM-IV-criteria for dependence and eighty-five percent reported functional khat-use, i.e. that khat helps them to forget painful experiences. We found that the studied group was heavily burdened by traumatic events and posttraumatic symptoms. Khat users had experienced more traumatic events and had more often PTSD than non-users. Most khat users experience khat-related psychotic symptoms and in a quarter of them we found true psychotic symptoms. In contrast, among control group members no psychotic symptoms could be detected.We found first evidence for the existence and high prevalence of severely hazardous use patterns, comorbid psychiatric symptoms and khat use as a self-medication of trauma-consequences among male Somali refugees in urban Kenyan refugee settlements. There is a high burden by psychopathology and adequate community-based interventions urgently need to be developed.

  18. Neuroticism Increases PTSD Symptom Severity by Amplifying the Emotionality, Rehearsal, and Centrality of Trauma Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Christin M; Siegler, Ilene C; Beckham, Jean C; Rubin, David C

    2017-10-01

    Although it is well established that neuroticism increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the mechanisms that promote PTSD in individuals with elevated levels of neuroticism. Across two studies, we examined the cognitive-affective processes through which neuroticism leads to greater PTSD symptom severity. Community-dwelling adults with trauma histories varying widely in severity (Study 1) and clinically diagnosed individuals exposed to DSM-IV-TR A1 criterion traumas (Study 2) completed measures of neuroticism, negative affectivity, trauma memory characteristics, and PTSD symptom severity. Longitudinal data in Study 1 showed that individuals with higher scores on two measures of neuroticism assessed approximately three decades apart in young adulthood and midlife reported trauma memories accompanied by more intense physiological reactions, more frequent involuntary rehearsal, and greater perceived centrality to identity in older adulthood. These properties of trauma memories were in turn associated with more severe PTSD symptoms. Study 2 replicated these findings using cross-sectional data from individuals with severe trauma histories and three additional measures of neuroticism. Results suggest that neuroticism leads to PTSD symptoms by magnifying the emotionality, availability, and centrality of trauma memories as proposed in mnemonic models of PTSD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. New DSM-5 PTSD guilt and shame symptoms among Italian earthquake survivors: Impact on maladaptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmassi, Claudia; Bertelloni, Carlo Antonio; Gesi, Camilla; Conversano, Ciro; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Rossi, Alessandro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Important changes were introduced concerning posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD) by the DSM-5 recognizing the role of negative emotions such as guilt and shame, but little evidence is yet available on their prevalence in population assessed by means of DSM-5 criteria. In this study we explored the rates of guilt and shame DSM-5 PTSD diagnostic symptoms among Italian survivors to a massive earthquake and their possible correlation with PTSD and maladaptive behaviors. 869 residents of the town of L'Aquila exposed to the earthquake of April 6th, 2009 were investigated by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) with particular attention to guilt and shame feelings. DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD was reported by 41.7% of survivors, further 11.6% endorsed at least one guilt/shame symptoms, with significantly higher rates of endorsement were in PTSD respect to No-PTSD subjects, and in the subgroup with at least one maladaptive behavior respect to those with none. There was a significant main effects of PTSD and at least one guilt/shame symptom on TALS-SR symptomatological domains. Mean TALS-SR Maladaptive coping domain score appeared significantly higher in the subgroup with at least one guilt/shame symptom. Further study are needed to investigate guilt and shame feelings in survivors to a natural disaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PTSD symptoms and onset of neurologic disease in elderly trauma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, A B; Levin, B E; Katzen, H L; Lechner, S

    2004-08-01

    In this case study, we present two Holocaust survivors who appeared to have adapted well post-trauma, but developed severe PTSD symptomatology following the onset of neurologic illness in later life. These individuals were referred fro neuropsychological evaluations by their treating neurologists to assess their levels of cognitive functioning. We present the neuropsychological findings, and discuss possible mechanisms for emergence of PTSD symptoms. These case studies demonstrate the need for systematic research to further investigate the potential relationship between aging, degenerative disease, and PTSD symptoms in elderly trauma survivors.

  1. Predictors of PTSD symptoms in Brazilian police officers: the synergy of negative affect and peritraumatic dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Deborah B.; Marmar, Charles R.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Nóbrega, Augusta; Fiszman, Adriana; Marques-Portella, Carla; Mendlowicz, Mauro V.; Coutinho, Evandro S.F.; Figueira, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to traumatic events is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma, peritrauma and posttrauma factors interact to impact on symptom severity. The aim of the present study is to determine risk factors for PTSD symptoms in Brazilian police officers. Method In a cross-sectional sample of active duty officers (n = 212), participants were asked to complete a socio-demographic questionnaire and self-report scales on affective traits, cumulative critical incident exposure, peritraumatic distress and dissociation, PTSD symptoms, and social support. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to examine predictors of PTSD symptoms. Results Variables related to negative affect, job duration, frequency of critical incident exposure, peritraumatic dissociation, and lack of social support remained significant in the final model and explained 55% of the variance in PTSD symptoms. When interaction terms were evaluated, a synergistic effect between negative affect and peritraumatic dissociation was found. Conclusions The risk factors found in this study provide clues on how to elaborate primary prevention strategies regarding PTSD symptoms in police officers. Such initiatives may lessen the impact of repeated exposure to traumatic events on police officers over the course of their careers. PMID:22189925

  2. The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Among Adolescents: Co-Occurring PTSD, Depersonalization/Derealization, and Other Dissociation Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kristen R; Seng, Julia S; Briggs, Ernestine C; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Lee, Robert C; Ford, Julian D

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation in a clinical sample of trauma-exposed adolescents by evaluating evidence for the depersonalization/derealization dissociative subtype of PTSD as defined by the DSM-5 and then examining a broader set of dissociation symptoms. A sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed adolescents 12 to 16 years old (N = 3,081) from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set was used to meet the study objectives. Two models of PTSD/dissociation co-occurrence were estimated using latent class analysis, one with 2 dissociation symptoms and the other with 10 dissociation symptoms. After model selection, groups within each model were compared on demographics, trauma characteristics, and psychopathology. Model A, the depersonalization/derealization model, had 5 classes: dissociative subtype/high PTSD; high PTSD; anxious arousal; dysphoric arousal; and a low symptom/reference class. Model B, the expanded dissociation model, identified an additional class characterized by dissociative amnesia and detached arousal. These 2 models provide new information about the specific ways PTSD and dissociation co-occur and illuminate some differences between adult and adolescent trauma symptom expression. A dissociative subtype of PTSD can be distinguished from PTSD alone in adolescents, but assessing a wider range of dissociative symptoms is needed to fully characterize adolescent traumatic stress responses. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Veterans’ PTSD Symptoms and their Partners’ Desired Changes in Key Relationship Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Adam D.; Taft, Casey T.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Miller, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing literature investigating the connection between veterans’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and intimate relationship problems. Little to no work, however, has examined the connection between veterans’ PTSD symptoms and their partners’ perceptions of specific relationship areas in need of change. We examined associations between overall PTSD symptoms and symptom cluster scores with partners’ desired changes in the areas of intimacy, shared activities, and responsibilities. The sample consisted of 249 male veterans of different service eras and their female partners. Results indicated that veterans’ PTSD symptoms were associated with greater desired changes from their partners in the veterans’ intimacy behaviors and participation in shared activities. When examining the contribution of each symptom cluster individually, only the veterans’ emotional numbing symptoms emerged as a significant unique predictor and were associated with partners’ desired changes in intimacy. The findings suggest that intimacy and shared activities may be relevant areas to address in PTSD treatment for veterans and their partners, and highlight the particular significance of emotional numbing symptoms to intimacy in veterans’ relationships. PMID:26010109

  4. Ten-Year Follow-Up Study of PTSD Diagnosis, Symptom Severity, and Psychosocial Indices in Aging Holocaust Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James; Labinsky, Ellen; Bell, Amanda; Morris, Adam; Zemelman, Shelly; Grossman, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We performed a longitudinal study of Holocaust survivors with and without PTSD by assessing symptoms and other measures at two intervals, approximately 10 years apart. Method The original cohort consisted of 63 community-dwelling subjects, of whom 40 were available for follow-up. Results There was a general diminution in PTSD symptom severity over time. However, in 10% of the subjects (n=4), new instances of Delayed Onset PTSD developed between the Time 1 and Time 2. Self-report ratings at both assessments revealed a worsening of trauma related symptoms over time in persons without PTSD at Time 1, but an improvement in those with PTSD at Time 1. Conclusion The findings suggest that a nuanced characterization of PTSD trajectory over time is more reflective of PTSD symptomatology than simple diagnostic status at one time. The possibility of Delayed Onset trajectory complicates any simplistic overall trajectory summarizing the longitudinal course of PTSD. PMID:18785948

  5. Police trauma and cardiovascular disease: association between PTSD symptoms and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2006-01-01

    Although prior evidence exists concerning the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cardiovascular disease, few studies have examined associations of PTSD symptomatology and the metabolic syndrome in the high stress occupation of police work. The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors that have also been independently associated with psychological conditions. The aim of this study was to examine associations between the PTSD symptoms and metabolic syndrome in police officers. A stratified sample of 115 police officers was randomly selected from the Buffalo, NY Police Department. PTSD symptoms were measured with the Impact of Event scale (IES), divided into categories of subclinical, mild, moderate and severe symptom levels. The metabolic syndrome was considered present if three or more of its component parameters (obesity, elevated blood pressure, reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and abnormal glucose levels) were present in each officer. Results indicated a significantly increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among those officers in the severe PTSD symptom category compared with the lowest PTSD severity category (prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.31, 95% C.I. = 1.19 - 9.22). Adjustment for age did not alter the association appreciably (PR = 3.12, 95% C.I. = 1.15 - 8.50). Adjustment for several demographic and lifestyle factors (age, education, smoking, alcohol intake) reduced the magnitude of the prevalence ratio slightly for the severe versus subclinical PTSD category (PR = 2.69, 95% C.I. = 0. 79 - 9.13), with adjustment for age and education accounting for most of the attenuation (PR = 2.71, 95% C.I. = 0.99 - 7.37). Thus, officers with severe PTSD symptoms were approximately three times more likely to have the metabolic syndrome and education may account for some of this association.

  6. Risk factors for DSM 5 PTSD symptoms in Israeli civilians during the Gaza war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Sharon; Weinberg, Michael; Or-Chen, Keren; Harel, Hila

    2015-04-01

    In light of the current modifications presented in the diagnostic criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the DSM 5, this study aimed at revalidating well-known PTSD risk factors, including gender, peritraumatic dissociation, social support, level of threat, and trait tendency for forgiveness. Five hundred and one Israeli civilians were assessed during real-time exposure to missile and rocket fire at the eruption of the Gaza war. Assessments took place approximately one to 2 weeks after the beginning of this military operation, relying on web administration of the study, which allowed simultaneous data collection from respondents in the three regions in Israel that were under attack. A structural equation model design revealed that higher levels of forgiveness toward situations were associated with fewer PTSD symptoms, whereas peritraumatic dissociation and high levels of objective and subjective threat were positively associated with PTSD symptoms. Additionally, females were at higher risk for PTSD symptoms than males. The findings of this study provide further evidence for the importance of directing preventive attention to those vulnerable to the development of elevated levels of PTSD symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Investigating Relationships Between PTSD Symptom Clusters Within Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for OEF/OIF Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Price, Matthew; Rauch, Sheila; Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    2017-03-01

    Several cognitive behavioral therapeutic approaches have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (Foa, Keane, Friedman, & Cohen, 2008). The bulk of PTSD treatment research has relied on pre-post designs, which are limited in their ability to investigate the therapeutic process over time. The present study investigated the relations between PTSD symptom clusters using symptom assessment at pretreatment, midtreatment, and posttreatment using cross-lagged panel design over the course of Virtual Reality Exposure (VRE) treatment. Participants were 156 Iraq and/or Afghanistan veterans who met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD due to military trauma. Using structural equation modeling, the final reexperiencing model demonstrated good fit, χ 2 (34)=39.95, p=.22; RMSEA=.034, 90% CI: [0.00, 0.07], CFI=.993, and results suggested that reexperiencing at pretreatment demonstrated a significant effect on numbing, avoidance, hyperarousal at midtreatment, and reexperiencing symptoms at midtreatment demonstrate a significant effect on each of the three symptom clusters at posttreatment. These findings suggest that reexperiencing symptoms are indeed a key aspect of the therapeutic process within exposure therapy for PTSD. Additional research examining the impact of reexperiencing-focused intervention strategies on treatment outcomes is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Is ideology a risk factor for PTSD symptom severity among Israeli political evacuees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Lior; Possick, Chaya

    2010-08-01

    To study the role of ideology in situations of extreme stress, a research questionnaire, measuring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), settlement ideology (the importance of Jewish settlement in Gaza), and type of evacuation was administered to 326 Jewish residents who were evacuated from Gaza settlements by the Israeli government. Forty percent of the participants met the criteria of probable PTSD. Forcibly evicted individuals reported higher levels of settlement ideology and higher levels of PTSD symptom severity compared to voluntarily evacuated individuals. Contrary to previous studies, ideology was found to be positively associated with PTSD symptom severity. The results are explained by the conservation of resources and terror management theories. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  9. Preventing PTSD with oxytoxin : Effects of oxytocin administration on fear neurocircuitry and PTSD symptom development in recently trauma-exposed individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijling, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The overall aim of the current PhD-thesis was to investigate the potential of intranasal oxytocin administration as early preventive intervention for PTSD, by assessing the effects of intranasal oxytocin early after trauma on functioning of the fear neurocircuitry and on PTSD symptom development in

  10. PTSD Symptoms Mediate the Effect of Attachment on Pain and Somatisation after Whiplash Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The development of persistent pain post-whiplash injury is still an unresolved mystery despite the fact that approximately 50% of individuals reporting whiplash develop persistent pain. There is agreement that high initial pain and PTSD symptoms are indicators of a poor prognosis after whiplash injury. Recently attachment insecurity has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for both pain and PTSD. In order to guide treatment it is important to examine possible mechanisms which...

  11. Predictors of PTSD Treatment Response Trajectories in a Sample of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: The Roles of Social Support, Coping, and PTSD Symptom Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Shelley; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark; Armour, Cherie

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to (a) identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories in a sample of Danish treatment-seeking childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors and (b) examine the roles of social support, coping style, and individual PTSD symptom clusters (avoidance, reexperiencing, and hyperarousal) as predictors of the identified trajectories. We utilized a convenience sample of 439 CSA survivors attending personalized psychotherapy treatment in Denmark. Four assessments were conducted on a six monthly basis over a period of 18 months. We used latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to test solutions with one to six classes. Following this, a logistic regression was conducted to examine predictors of the identified trajectories. Results revealed four distinct trajectories which were labeled high PTSD gradual response, high PTSD treatment resistant, moderate PTSD rapid response, and moderate PTSD gradual response. Emotional and detached coping and more severe pretreatment avoidance and reexperiencing symptoms were associated with more severe and treatment resistant PTSD. High social support and a longer length of time since the abuse were associated with less severe PTSD which improved over time. The findings suggested that treatment response of PTSD in CSA survivors is characterized by distinct patterns with varying levels and rates of PTSD symptom improvement. Results revealed that social support is protective and that emotional and detached coping and high pretreatment levels of avoidance and reexperiencing symptoms are risk factors in relation to PTSD severity and course. These factors could potentially identify patients who are at risk of not responding to treatment. Furthermore, these factors could be specifically addressed to increase positive outcomes for treatment-seeking CSA survivors.

  12. Functional significance of a novel 7-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms: results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Tsai, Jack; Armour, Cherie; Mota, Natalie; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Southwick, Steven M

    2015-03-15

    While posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) are clustered into four factors, emerging confirmatory factor analytic studies suggest that this disorder is best characterized by seven symptom clusters, including re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal symptoms. To date, however, data are lacking regarding the relation between this novel model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms and measures of clinical significance in this population (e.g., functioning). Using data from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS), a contemporary, nationally representative sample of 1484 U.S. veterans, we evaluated clinical and functional correlates of a novel 7-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. Differential patterns of associations were observed between DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters, and psychiatric comorbidities, suicidal ideation, hostility, and functioning and quality of life. Anhedonia symptoms, in particular, were strongly related to current depression, as well as reduced mental functioning and quality of life. Externalizing behaviors were most strongly related to hostility, supporting the convergent validity of this construct. Cross-sectional design and employment of self-report measures. These results suggest that a more refined 7-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms may provide greater specificity in understanding associations with comorbid psychopathology, suicidal ideation, and functioning and quality of life in U.S. veterans. They further suggest that prevention and treatment efforts that target distinct aspects of the PTSD phenotype may be more effective in mitigating key clinical and functional outcomes in this population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The unique associations between rape acknowledgment and the DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2017-11-01

    It is well documented in the sexual assault literature that more than half of rape survivors do not label their experience as rape. This is called unacknowledged rape. Although this phenomenon is common and undoubtedly has huge implications for psychotherapy, the impact of acknowledgment status on psychological adjustment is unclear. The present study aimed to delineate the unique impact of rape acknowledgment on psychopathology by examining PTSD symptoms at the cluster level. To examine this, 178 female college students who reported rape completed an online survey, including an assessment of PTSD symptoms in the past month. The results suggested that, after accounting for several covariates, acknowledged rape survivors reported significantly greater levels of intrusion and avoidance symptoms compared to unacknowledged rape survivors. The findings suggest that examining PTSD symptoms at the cluster level may provide more insight into the process of recovery following rape and therefore may better inform treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of OSA with CPAP Is Associated with Improvement in PTSD Symptoms among Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jeremy E.; Smales, Carolina; Alexander, Thomas H.; Stepnowsky, Carl; Pillar, Giora; Malhotra, Atul; Sarmiento, Kathleen F.

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among veterans of the military, with sleep disturbance as a hallmark manifestation. A growing body of research has suggested a link between obstructive sleep apnea and PTSD, potentially due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) related sleep disruption, or via other mechanisms. We examined the hypothesis that treatment of OSA with positive airway pressure would reduce PTSD symptoms over 6 months. Methods: A prospective study of Veterans with confirmed PTSD and new diagnosis of OSA not yet using PAP therapy were recruited from a Veteran's Affairs sleep medicine clinic. All subjects were instructed to use PAP each night. Assessments were performed at 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome was a reduction in PTSD symptoms at 6 months. Results: Fifty-nine subjects were enrolled; 32 remained in the study at 6 months. A significant reduction in PTSD symptoms, measured by PCL-S score was observed over the course of the study (60.6 ± 2.7 versus 52.3 ± 3.2 points; p J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(1):57–63. PMID:27707436

  15. PTSD symptomics: network analyses in the field of psychotraumatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armour, Cherie; Fried, Eiko I.; Olff, Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing attention on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) research. While research has largely focused on the dichotomy between patients diagnosed with mental disorders and healthy controls - in other words, investigations at the level of diagnoses - recent work has focused

  16. Psychotic symptoms in refugees diagnosed with PTSD: a series of case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Ekstrøm, Morten; Jensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In our clinical work, we treat refugees who have been exposed to trauma and who subsequently develop psychotic symptoms. However, the literature does not address the relationship between refugees with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms. Therefore...

  17. Psychotic symptoms in refugees diagnosed with PTSD: a series of case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie; Jensen, Mette; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2011-01-01

    In our clinical work, we treat refugees who have been exposed to trauma and who subsequently develop psychotic symptoms. However, the literature does not address the relationship between refugees with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms. Therefore the aim...

  18. Experiential Avoidance and the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and PTSD Symptoms: Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Not every adolescent exposed to child maltreatment develops symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), emphasizing the need to identify variables that explain how some maltreated children come to develop these symptoms. This study tested whether a set of variables, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cortisol reactivity as…

  19. The impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on PTSD symptoms and psychosocial functioning among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Christin M; Rubin, David C; Siegler, Ilene C

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas experienced during childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, midlife, or older adulthood. Each of these developmental periods is characterized by age-related changes in cognitive and social processes that may influence psychological adjustment following trauma exposure. Results revealed that older adults who experienced their currently most distressing traumatic event during childhood exhibited more severe symptoms of PTSD and lower subjective happiness compared with older adults who experienced their most distressing trauma after the transition to adulthood. Similar findings emerged for measures of social support and coping ability. The differential effects of childhood compared with later life traumas were not fully explained by differences in cumulative trauma exposure or by differences in the objective and subjective characteristics of the events. Our findings demonstrate the enduring nature of traumatic events encountered early in the life course and underscore the importance of examining the developmental context of trauma exposure in investigations of the long-term consequences of traumatic experiences.

  20. Perceived social support buffers the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior: implications into suicide resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, M; Gooding, P A; Taylor, P J; Tarrier, N

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has highlighted the importance of identifying resilience factors against suicidal behavior. However, no previous study has investigated potential resilience factors among individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived social support buffered the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. Fifty-six individuals who had previously been exposed to a traumatic event and reported PTSD symptoms in the past month (n = 34, 60.7% participants met the full criteria for a current PTSD diagnosis) completed a range of self-report measures assessing PTSD symptoms, perceived social support and suicidal behavior. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine whether perceived social support moderates the effects of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. The results showed that perceived social support moderated the impact of the number and severity of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. For those who perceived themselves as having high levels of social support, an increased number and severity of PTSD symptoms were less likely to lead to suicidal behavior. The current findings suggest that perceived social support might confer resilience to individuals with PTSD and counter the development of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The milieu of social support potentially provides an area of further research and an important aspect to incorporate into clinical interventions for suicidal behavior in PTSD or trauma populations. © 2013.

  1. Trauma history characteristics and subsequent PTSD symptoms in motor vehicle accident victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Leah; Ostrowski, Sarah A; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Dulmen, Manfred van; Sledjeski, Eve M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2008-08-01

    The present study examined the relationship between trauma history characteristics (number and type of traumas, age at first trauma, and subjective responses to prior traumas) and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following a motor vehicle accident (MVA). One hundred eighty-eight adult MVA victims provided information about prior traumatization and were evaluated for PTSD symptoms 6 weeks and one year following the MVA. Results indicated that after controlling for demographics and depression, prior trauma history characteristics accounted for a small, but significant amount of the variance in PTSD symptoms. Distress from prior trauma and number of types of prior traumas were the most meaningful trauma history predictors. Results encourage further evaluation of trauma history as a multifaceted construct.

  2. Self-worth mediates the effects of violent loss on PTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Anthony D; Prati, Gabriele; Black, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Although research has confirmed that violent losses can exacerbate grief reactions, few investigations have explored underlying mechanisms. In this study, the authors used a dataset on bereaved spouses and bereaved parents at 4- and 18-months postloss to examine the mediating effects of self-worth and worldviews (benevolence and meaningfulness beliefs). Persons bereaved by violent causes had significantly more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), grief, and depression symptoms at 4- and 18-months postloss than persons bereaved by natural causes. Moreover, self-worth but not worldviews mediated the effects of violent loss on PTSD and depression symptoms cross sectionally and PTSD symptoms longitudinally. Findings underscore that self-views are a critical component of problematic reactions to violent loss, but fail to support the role of "shattered" worldviews. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  3. Witnessing versus Experiencing Direct Violence in Childhood as Correlates of Adulthood PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Madhur R.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Seng, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Research has established that childhood violence exposure plays a considerable role in the development of deleterious outcomes in childhood and adulthood. However, important gaps remain in understanding the complex relationships between early violence exposure, adulthood trauma exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study…

  4. Symptoms of PTSD in Frontline Journalists: A Retrospective Examination of 18 Years of War and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Osmann, Jonas; Patel, Viral

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the frequency and severity of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in journalists covering conflict. PTSD data (Impact of Event Scale-Revised) collected over an 18-year period from 684 conflict journalists were analyzed retrospectively for frequency and severity of reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms. Conflicts covered were civil wars in the Balkans ( n = 140 journalists), 9/11 attack in New York City ( n = 46), Iraq war ( n = 84), Mexico drug wars ( n = 104), civil war in Syria ( n = 59), Kenya election violence/Al-Shabab terror ( n = 57), state-sanctioned media intimidation in Iran ( n = 114), and the current migration crisis in Europe ( n = 80). The mean age of the sample was 38.59 (SD = 8.35) years, 461 (67%) journalists were men, and the mean duration of conflict work was 13.42 (SD = 7.74) years. The 5 most frequently endorsed symptoms were in the reexperiencing/intrusion category. Mean intrusion (1.31, SD = 0.97), avoidance (1.08, SD = 0.89), and arousal (1.07, SD = 0.96) scores for the entire sample were in the mild range. Being female and less educated independently predicted PTSD symptoms. PTSD phenomenology in a group of conflict journalists with well over a decade of frontline experience is dominated by reexperiencing symptoms. While symptom severity is for the most part mild, group means can obscure those individuals with significantly more severe difficulties.

  5. A randomized controlled trial of brief Somatic Experiencing for chronic low back pain and comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Ellegaard, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in chronic pain is associated with a more severe symptom profile with respect to pain, disability and psychological distress. However, very few intervention studies exist targeting both PTSD and pain. The current...... study is the first randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of the body-oriented trauma approach of Somatic Experiencing (SE) for comorbid PTSD and low back pain. Although the method is well recognized by clinicians and widely used, SE still needs to be tested in a randomized clinical trial...... in comparison with an active control group. Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare the effect of an SE intervention in addition to treatment-as-usual (TAU) for patients with chronic low back pain and comorbid PTSD compared to TAU alone. Method: The study was a two-group randomized controlled...

  6. Parents bereaved by infant death: PTSD symptoms up to 18 years after the loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Dorte M; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants filled out a questionnaire package including measures of PTSD (the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), coping (the Coping Style Questionnaire), perceived social support (the Crisis Support Scale) and attachment (the Revised Adult Attachment Scale). Associations between variables were examined through the use of analyses of variance, correlation analyses and a regression analysis. We found an estimated PTSD prevalence of 12.3%. Type of loss (pre-, peri- or postnatal) did not have any effect on PTSD severity, but lower gestational age was associated with more symptoms. Time since the loss, female sex, attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping, rational coping, feeling let down and social support satisfaction accounted for 42% of the variance in PTSD severity. The study highlights the long-term impact of infant loss and points to attachment, coping and social support as important contributors to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress symptoms. © 2013.

  7. PTSD Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Alcohol-Related Consequences Among College Students With a Trauma History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Jessica C; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Avery, Megan L; Bracken, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol use, and alcohol-related consequences have been linked to emotion dysregulation. Sex differences exist in both emotion regulation dimensions and alcohol use patterns. This investigation examined facets of emotion dysregulation as potential mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences and whether differences may exist across sexes. Participants were 240 college students with a trauma history who reported using alcohol within the past three months and completed measures of PTSD symptoms, emotion dysregulation, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, and negative affect. The six facets of emotion dysregulation were examined as mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample and by sex. There were differences in sexes on several variables, with women reporting higher PTSD scores and lack of emotional awareness. Men reported significantly more drinks per week in a typical week and a heavy week. There were significant associations between the variables for the full sample, with PTSD showing associations with five facets of emotion dysregulation subscales: impulse control difficulties when upset, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, nonacceptance of emotional responses, lack of emotional clarity, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Alcohol-related consequences were associated with four aspects of emotion dysregulation: impulse control difficulties when upset, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, nonacceptance of emotional responses, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Two aspects of emotion regulation, impulse control difficulties and difficulties engaging in goal directed behavior, mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample, even after adjusting for the effects of negative affect. When examined separately by

  8. Resource Loss Moderates the Association Between Child Abuse and Current PTSD Symptoms Among Women in Primary-Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Guimarães, Sara; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça

    2016-09-01

    This study examined if abuse during childhood, rape in adulthood, and loss of resources predict a woman's probability of reporting symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether resource loss moderates the association between reporting childhood abuse and PTSD symptoms. The sample included 767 women and was collected in publicly funded primary-care settings. Women who reported having been abused during childhood also reported more resource loss, more acute PTSD symptoms, and having suffered more adult rape than those who reported no childhood abuse. Hierarchical logistic regression yielded a two-variable additive model in which child abuse and adult rape predict the probability of reporting or not any PTSD symptoms, explaining 59.7% of the variance. Women abused as children were 1 to 2 times more likely to report PTSD symptoms, with sexual abuse during childhood contributing most strongly to this result. Similarly, women reporting adult rape were almost twice as likely to report symptoms of PTSD as those not reporting it. Resource loss was unexpectedly not among the predictors but a moderation analysis showed that such loss moderated the association between child abuse and current PTSD symptoms, with resource loss increasing the number and severity of PTSD symptoms in women who also reported childhood abuse. The findings highlight the importance of early assessment and intervention in providing mental health care to abused, neglected, and impoverished women to help them prevent and reverse resource loss and revictimization.

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD and Depression Symptoms Reduces Risk for Future Intimate Partner Violence among Interpersonal Trauma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Resick, Patricia A.; Suvak, Michael K.; Smith, Kamala F.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Women who develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression subsequent to interpersonal trauma are at heightened risk for future intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms, yet limited research has investigated the…

  10. The Influence of Exposure to Natural Disasters on Depression and PTSD Symptoms among Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Michelle L; Carpenter, Thomas P; Synett, Samantha J; Torres, Victoria A; Teague, Jennifer; Morissette, Sandra B; Knight, Jeffrey; Kamholz, Barbara W; Keane, Terence M; Zimering, Rose T; Gulliver, Suzy B

    2018-02-01

    Introduction Firefighters represent an important population for understanding the consequences of exposure to potentially traumatic stressors. Hypothesis/Problem The researchers were interested in the effects of pre-employment disaster exposure on firefighter recruits' depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the first three years of fire service and hypothesized that: (1) disaster-exposed firefighters would have greater depression and PTSD symptoms than non-exposed overall; and (2) depression and PTSD symptoms would worsen over years in fire service in exposed firefighters, but not in their unexposed counterparts. In a baseline interview, 35 male firefighter recruits from seven US cities reported lifetime exposure to natural disaster. These disaster-exposed male firefighter recruits were matched on age, city, and education with non-exposed recruits. A generalized linear mixed model revealed a significant exposure×time interaction (e coef =1.04; Pdisaster exposure only. This pattern persisted after controlling for social support from colleagues (e coefficient=1.05; Pdisaster exposure only, even after controlling for social support. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms did not vary between exposure groups. Pennington ML , Carpenter TP , Synett SJ , Torres VA , Teague J , Morissette SB , Knight J , Kamholz BW , Keane TM , Zimering RT , Gulliver SB . The influence of exposure to natural disasters on depression and PTSD symptoms among firefighters. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):102-108.

  11. Examining the diagnostic utility of the DSM-5 PTSD symptoms among male and female returning veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan D; Annunziata, Anthony; Kleiman, Sarah E; Bovin, Michelle J; Harwell, Aaron M; Fox, Annie M L; Black, Shimrit K; Schnurr, Paula P; Holowka, Darren W; Rosen, Raymond C; Keane, Terence M; Marx, Brian P

    2017-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria have been criticized for including symptoms that overlap with commonly comorbid disorders, which critics argue undermines the validity of the diagnosis and inflates psychiatric comorbidity rates. In response, the upcoming 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) will offer PTSD diagnostic criteria that are intended to promote diagnostic accuracy. However, diagnostic utility analyses have not yet assessed whether these criteria minimize diagnostic errors. The present study examined the diagnostic utility of each PTSD symptom in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) for males and females. Participants were 1,347 individuals enrolled in a longitudinal national registry of returning veterans receiving care at a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facility. Doctoral level clinicians assessed all participants using the PTSD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM. Of the 20 symptoms examined, the majority performed in the fair to poor range on test quality indices. Although a few items did perform in the good (or better) range, only half were ICD-11 symptoms. None of the 20 symptoms demonstrated good quality of efficiency. Results demonstrated few sex differences across indices. There were no differences in the proportion of comorbid psychiatric disorders or functional impairment between DSM-5 and ICD-11 criteria. ICD-11 PTSD criteria demonstrate neither greater diagnostic specificity nor reduced rates of comorbidity relative to DSM-5 criteria and, as such, do not perform as intended. Modifications to existing symptoms or new symptoms may improve differential diagnosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Shame versus trauma-related guilt as mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and aggression among returning veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Laura D; Haller, Moira; Norman, Sonya B; Angkaw, Abigail C

    2016-07-01

    It is well established that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with various forms of aggression, though the mechanisms by which PTSD is related to aggression are not fully understood. Some research suggests that the tendency to experience shame, but not guilt, contributes to aggression in individuals with a history of interpersonal trauma. This study tested the hypothesis that trait shame but not trauma-related guilt would mediate the relationship between PTSD symptoms and verbal and physical aggression in veterans with combat/military-related trauma seeking PTSD treatment. In a sample of 127 returning veterans (95% male, mean age = 32.93), negative binomial path analyses tested multiple mediational models in which shame versus trauma-related guilt (separate models entered the effects of global guilt, guilt cognitions, and guilt distress) were examined as mediators of PTSD symptoms on verbal and physical aggression separately. Results indicated that shame partially mediated the association of PTSD symptoms with verbal aggression but not physical aggression when accounting for trauma-related guilt. Although PTSD symptoms were associated with higher scores on all aspects of trauma-related guilt, guilt did not significantly mediate relations between PTSD symptoms and verbal or physical aggression when accounting for shame. These results indicate that it is worthwhile to examine whether addressing shame in PTSD treatment may also reduce verbal aggression in returning veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Preliminary findings on lifetime trauma prevalence and PTSD symptoms among adolescents in Sarawak Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Siti Raudzah; Elklit, Ask; Balang, Rekaya Vincent; Sultan, M Ameenudeen; Kana, Kamarudin

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of lifetime exposure to traumatic events and its relation to PTSD symptoms. Participants were randomly selected from several schools located in the city of Kuching. There were 85 adolescents participating in this study, with ages ranging from 13 to 14 years old, of whom 31% (n=26) were males and 69% (n=59) females. The Child Posttraumatic Stress Index-Revised, The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and a lifetime trauma checklist were used in this study. Results showed that 77.6% of participants were exposed to at least one lifetime trauma. The most frequently reported traumas were road accident (20.1%), death of a family member (19.7%), and almost drowning (10%). There was more indirect trauma than direct trauma exposure. Males were more likely to be involved in traumatic events than females. Results showed that 7.1% (6) exhibited PTSD symptoms. There was no significant difference in the mean score of CPTS-RI between genders and among ethnic groups. Total exposure to traumatic events was significantly correlated with PTSD symptoms. Findings suggest that number of lifetime traumatic events was quite high and multiple exposures to traumatic events were significantly related to PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trauma-focused treatment in PTSD patients with psychosis : symptom exacerbation, adverse events, and revictimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, D.P.G.; de Bont, P.A.J.M.; van der Vleugel, B.M.; de Roos, C.; de Jongh, A.; van Minnen, A.; van der Gaag, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Most clinicians refrain from trauma treatment for patients with psychosis because they fear symptom exacerbation and relapse. This study examined the negative side effects of trauma-focused (TF) treatment in patients with psychosis and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods:

  15. PTSD Symptoms and Sexual Harassment: The Role of Attributions and Perceived Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sadie E.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have compiled significant evidence demonstrating that sexual harassment leads to psychological harm, including the full symptom picture of PTSD, but few have examined the psychological processes involved. Research on attributions among trauma victims would suggest that causal attributions and perceptions of control may be important…

  16. Longitudinal Examination of PTSD Symptoms and Problematic Alcohol Use as Risk Factors for Adolescent Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Kofler, Michael J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and future interpersonal victimization among adolescents, after accounting for the impact of early victimization exposure, gender, ethnicity, and household income. In addition, problematic alcohol use was tested as a mediator of the relation between PTSD…

  17. Assessing impact of differential symptom functioning on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Qiwei; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the generalizability of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to various subpopulations. Besides identifying the differential symptom functioning (also referred to as

  18. PTSD symptom severity is associated with increased recruitment of top-down attentional control in a trauma-exposed sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart F. White

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: We suggest that these data may reflect two phenomena associated with increased PTSD symptomatology in combat-exposed, but PTSD negative, armed services members. First, these data indicate increased emotional responsiveness by: (i the positive relationship between PTSD symptom severity and amygdala responsiveness to emotional relative to neutral stimuli; (ii greater BOLD response as a function of PTSD symptom severity in regions implicated in emotion (striatum and representation (occipital and temporal cortices during emotional relative to neutral conditions; and (iii increased connectivity between the amygdala and regions implicated in emotion (insula/caudate and representation (middle temporal cortex as a function of PTSD symptom severity during emotional relative to neutral trials. Second, these data indicate a greater need for the recruitment of regions implicated in top down attention as indicated by (i greater BOLD response in superior/middle frontal gyrus as a function of PTSD symptom severity in task relative to view conditions; (ii greater BOLD response in dmFC/dACC, lateral frontal and inferior parietal cortices as a function of PTSD symptom severity in emotional relative to neutral conditions and (iii greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and inferior parietal cortex as a function of PTSD symptom severity during emotional relative to neutral conditions.

  19. PTSD symptoms and pain in Canadian military veterans: the mediating roles of anxiety, depression, and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Kara C; Konnert, Candace; Wong, May; O'Neill, Thomas A

    2014-04-01

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and pain are often comorbid among veterans. The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent symptoms of anxiety, depression, and alcohol use mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and pain among 113 treated male Canadian veterans. Measures of PTSD, pain, anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and alcohol use were collected as part of the initial assessment. The bootstrapped resampling analyses were consistent with the hypothesis of mediation for anxiety and depression, but not alcohol use. The confidence intervals did not include zero and the indirect effect of PTSD on pain through anxiety was .04, CI [.03, .07]. The indirect effect of PTSD on pain through depression was .04, CI [.02, .07]. These findings suggest that PTSD and pain symptoms among veterans may be related through the underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression, thus emphasizing the importance of targeting anxiety and depression symptoms when treating comorbid PTSD and pain patients. © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. PTSD symptoms and family versus stranger violence in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Connor P; Elbogen, Eric B

    2014-02-01

    As a diagnosis, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with violence committed by veterans in many studies; however, a potential link to specific PTSD symptoms has received relatively less attention. This paper examines the relationship between PTSD symptoms and different types of violent behavior in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Participants were randomly sampled from a roster of all separated U.S. military service members or national guard/reservists who served after September 11, 2001. Data were collected at baseline and 1-year follow-up from a national sample of N = 1,090 veterans, from 50 states and all military branches. Of these veterans, 13% reported aggression toward a family member and 9% toward a stranger during the 1-year study period. Anger symptoms at baseline predicted higher odds of family violence at follow-up, both severe (OR = 1.30, CI [1.13, 1.48], p violence at follow-up, both severe (OR = 1.26, CI [1.11, 1.42], p violence, whereas females were more likely to endorse aggression in the family context. The results provide limited support to the hypothesis that PTSD "flashbacks" in veterans are linked to violence. The differing multivariate models illustrate distinct veteran characteristics associated with specific types of violence.

  1. PTSD Symptoms and Family vs. Stranger Violence in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Connor P.; Elbogen, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    As a diagnosis, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with violence committed by veterans in many studies; however, a potential link to specific PTSD symptoms has received relatively less attention. This paper examines the relationship between PTSD symptoms and different types of violent behavior in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Participants were randomly sampled from a roster of all separated U.S. military service members or national guard/reservists who served after September 11, 2001. Data were collected at baseline and 1-year follow-up from a national sample of N = 1,090 veterans, from 50 states and all military branches. Of these veterans, 13% reported aggression toward a family member and 9% toward a stranger during the 1-year study period. Anger symptoms at baseline predicted higher odds of family violence at follow-up, both severe (OR = 1.30, CI [1.13, 1.48], p violence at follow-up, both severe (OR = 1.26, CI [1.11, 1.42], p violence, whereas females were more likely to endorse aggression in the family context. The results provide limited support to the hypothesis that PTSD “flashbacks” in veterans are linked to violence. The differing multivariate models illustrate distinct veteran characteristics associated with specific types of violence. PMID:23646917

  2. DSM-5 PTSD's symptom dimensions and relations with major depression's symptom dimensions in a primary care sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contractor, A. A.; Durham, T. A.; Brennan, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature indicates significant comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. We examined whether PTSD's dysphoria and mood/cognitions factors, conceptualized by the empirically supported four-factor DSM-5 PTSD models, account for PTSD's inherent relatio...

  3. The Effects of a Short-term Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Naderi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.

  4. Developing the PTSD Checklist-I/F for the DSM-IV (PCL-I/F: Assessing PTSD Symptom Frequency and Intensity in a Pilot Study of Male Veterans with Combat-Related PTSD

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    Ryan Holliday

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The widely used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist (PCL has established reliability and validity, but it does not differentiate posttraumatic symptom frequency from intensity as elements of posttraumatic symptom severity. Thus, the PCL in its existing form may not provide a comprehensive appraisal of posttraumatic symptomatology. Because of this, we modified the PCL to create the PCL-I/F that measures both frequency and intensity of PTSD symptoms via brief self-report. To establish validity and internal consistency of the PCL-I/F, we conducted a pilot study comparing PCL-I/F scores to structured diagnostic interview for PTSD (the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS] in a male combat veteran sample of 92 participants. Statistically significant correlations between the PCL-I/F and the CAPS were found, suggesting initial validation of the PCL-I/F to screen and assess frequency and intensity of combat-related PTSD symptoms. Implications are discussed for screening and assessment of PTSD related to combat and non-combat trauma.

  5. Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior: Examining the Role of Distinct PTSD Symptoms in the Partner Violence-sexual Risk Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Willie, Tiara C.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. METHODS The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 HIV-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. FINDINGS Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women’s sexual health outcomes are discussed. PMID:25498762

  6. Measuring Symptoms of Moral Injury in Veterans and Active Duty Military with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Koenig

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Moral Injury Symptom Scale-Military Version (MISS-M is a 45-item measure of moral injury (MI symptoms designed to use in Veterans and Active Duty Military with PTSD. This paper reviews the psychometric properties of the MISS-M identified in a previous report, discusses the rationale for the development of the scale, and explores its possible clinical and research applications. The MISS-M consists of 10 theoretically grounded subscales that assess the psychological and spiritual/religious symptoms of MI: guilt, shame, betrayal, moral concerns, loss of meaning/purpose, difficulty forgiving, loss of trust, self-condemnation, spiritual/religious struggles, and loss of religious faith/hope. The scale has high internal reliability, high test-retest reliability, and a factor structure that can be replicated. The MISS-M correlates strongly with PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms, indicating convergent validity, and is relatively weakly correlated with social, spiritual, and physical health constructs, suggesting discriminant validity. The MISS-M is the first multidimensional scale that measures both the psychological and spiritual/religious symptoms of MI and is a reliable and valid measure for assessing symptom severity in clinical practice and in conducting research that examines the efficacy of treatments for MI in Veterans and Active Duty Military personnel.

  7. The structure of PTSD symptoms according to DSM-5 and IDC-11 proposal: A multi-sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyniak-Cieciura, M; Staniaszek, K; Popiel, A; Pragłowska, E; Zawadzki, B

    2017-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms structure is a subject of ongoing debate since its inclusion in DSM-III classification in 1980. Different research on PTSD symptoms structure proved the better fit of four-factor and five-factor models comparing to the one proposed by DSM-IV. With the publication of DSM-5 classification, which introduced significant changes to PTSD diagnosis, the question arises about the adequacy of the proposed criteria to the real structure of disorder symptoms. Recent analyses suggest that seven-factor hybrid model is the best reflection of symptoms structure proposed to date. At the same time, some researchers and ICD-11 classification postulate a simplification of PTSD diagnosis restricting it to only three core criteria and adding additional diagnostic unit of complex-PTSD. This research aimed at checking symptoms' structure according to well-known and supported four-, five-, six- and seven-factor models based on DSM-5 symptoms and the conceptualization proposed by the ICD-11 as well as examining the relation between PTSD symptoms categories with borderline personality disorder. Four different trauma populations were examined with self-reported Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale for DSM-5 (PDS-5) measure. The results suggest that six- and seven-factor hybrid model as well as three-factor ICD-11 concept fits the data better than other models. The core PTSD symptoms were less related to borderline personality disorder than other, broader, symptoms categories only in one sample. Combination of ICD-11 simplified PTSD diagnosis with the more complex approach (e.g. basing on a seven-factor model) may be an attractive proposal for both scientists and practitioners, however does not necessarily lower its comorbidity with borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the underlying dimensionality of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in Chinese adolescents surviving the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Lingmin; Armour, Cherie; Cao, Chengqi; Qing, Yulan; Zhang, Jianxin; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Biao; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Zhihong; Fan, Gaolin

    2015-04-01

    By analyzing data yielded from a sample of Chinese adolescents surviving a high-intensity earthquake, this study investigated the underlying dimensionality of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. The sample included 743 traumatized middle school students (396 females and 332 males) aged 11-17 years (mean=13.6, SD=1.0). Results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that an intercorrelated seven-factor model comprised of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal factors provided a significant better representation of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms than other alternative models. Further analyses indicated that external measures of major depression disorder and panic disorder symptoms displayed unique associations with four PTSD factors. The findings provide further support for the newly proposed seven-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, add to very limited empirical knowledge on the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms among adolescents, and carry implications for further refinement of the current classifications of PTSD symptoms and further clinical practice and research on posttraumatic stress symptomatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating the stability of DSM-5 PTSD symptom network structure in a national sample of U.S. military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stockert, Sophia H H; Fried, Eiko I; Armour, Cherie; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2018-03-15

    Previous studies have used network models to investigate how PTSD symptoms associate with each other. However, analyses examining the degree to which these networks are stable over time, which are critical to identifying symptoms that may contribute to the chronicity of this disorder, are scarce. In the current study, we evaluated the temporal stability of DSM-5 PTSD symptom networks over a three-year period in a nationally representative sample of trauma-exposed U.S. military veterans. Data were analyzed from 611 trauma-exposed U.S. military veterans who participated in the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). We estimated regularized partial correlation networks of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms at baseline (Time 1) and at three-year follow-up (Time 2), and examined their temporal stability. Evaluation of the network structure of PTSD symptoms at Time 1 and Time 2 using a formal network comparison indicated that the Time 1 network did not differ significantly from the Time 2 network with regard to network structure (p = 0.12) or global strength (sum of all absolute associations, i.e. connectivity; p = 0.25). Centrality estimates of both networks (r = 0.86) and adjacency matrices (r = 0.69) were highly correlated. In both networks, avoidance, intrusive, and negative cognition and mood symptoms were among the more central nodes. This study is limited by the use of a self-report instrument to assess PTSD symptoms and recruitment of a relatively homogeneous sample of predominantly older, Caucasian veterans. Results of this study demonstrate the three-year stability of DSM-5 PTSD symptom network structure in a nationally representative sample of trauma-exposed U.S. military veterans. They further suggest that trauma-related avoidance, intrusive, and dysphoric symptoms may contribute to the chronicity of PTSD symptoms in this population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Brain activation to facial expressions in youth with PTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Amy S; Carrion, Victor; Kletter, Hilit; Karchemskiy, Asya; Weems, Carl F; Reiss, Allan

    2012-05-01

    This study examined activation to facial expressions in youth with a history of interpersonal trauma and current posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) compared to healthy controls (HC). Twenty-three medication-naive youth with PTSS and 23 age- and gender-matched HC underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing fearful, angry, sad, happy, and neutral faces. Data were analyzed for group differences in location of activation, as well as timing of activation during the early versus late phase of the block. Using SPM5, significant activation (P effect of group was identified. Activation from selected clusters was extracted to SPSS software for further analysis of specific facial expressions and temporal patterns of activation. The PTSS group showed significantly greater activation than controls in several regions, including the amygdala/hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, insula, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and less activation than controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These group differences in activation were greatest during angry, happy, and neutral faces, and predominantly during the early phase of the block. Post hoc analyses showed significant Group × Phase interactions in the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Traumatic stress may impact development of brain regions important for emotion processing. Timing of activation may be altered in youth with PTSS. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Assessing impact of differential symptom functioning on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiwei; Glas, Cees A W; Veldkamp, Bernard P

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the generalizability of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to various subpopulations. Besides identifying the differential symptom functioning (also referred to as differential item functioning [DIF]) related to various background variables such as gender, marital status and educational level, this study emphasizes the importance of evaluating the impact of DIF on population inferences as made in health surveys and clinical trials, and on the diagnosis of individual patients. Using a sample from the National Comorbidity Study-Replication (NCS-R), four symptoms for gender, one symptom for marital status, and three symptoms for educational level were significantly flagged as DIF, but their impact on diagnosis was fairly small. We conclude that the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD do not produce substantially biased results in the investigated subpopulations, and there should be few reservations regarding their use. Further, although the impact of DIF (i.e. the influence of differential symptom functioning on diagnostic results) was found to be quite small in the current study, we recommend that diagnosticians always perform a DIF analysis of various subpopulations using the methodology presented here to ensure the diagnostic criteria is valid in their own studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Peritraumatic tonic immobility is associated with PTSD symptom severity in Brazilian police officers: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah B. Maia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peritraumatic reactions feature prominently among the main predictors for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Peritraumatic tonic immobility (PTI, a less investigated but equally important type of peritraumatic response, has been recently attracting the attention of researchers and clinicians for its close association with traumatic reactions and PTSD. Our objective was to investigate the role of PTI, peritraumatic panic, and dissociation as predictors of PTSD symptoms in a cohort of police recruits (n=132. Methods: Participants were asked to complete the following questionnaires during academy training and after the first year of work: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C, Physical Reactions Subscale (PRS, Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ, Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS, and Critical Incident History Questionnaire. Results: Employing a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model, we found that each additional point in the TIS was associated with a 9% increment in PCL-C mean scores (RM = 1.09, whereas for PRS, the increment was 7% (RM = 1.07. As the severity of peritraumatic dissociation increased one point in the PDEQ, the chance of having at least one symptom in the PCL-C increased 22% (OR = 1.22. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need to expand investigation on the incidence and impact of PTI on the mental health of police officers.

  13. Peritraumatic tonic immobility is associated with PTSD symptom severity in Brazilian police officers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Deborah B; Nóbrega, Augusta; Marques-Portella, Carla; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Volchan, Eliane; Coutinho, Evandro S; Figueira, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Peritraumatic reactions feature prominently among the main predictors for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Peritraumatic tonic immobility (PTI), a less investigated but equally important type of peritraumatic response, has been recently attracting the attention of researchers and clinicians for its close association with traumatic reactions and PTSD. Our objective was to investigate the role of PTI, peritraumatic panic, and dissociation as predictors of PTSD symptoms in a cohort of police recruits (n=132). Participants were asked to complete the following questionnaires during academy training and after the first year of work: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C), Physical Reactions Subscale (PRS), Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ), Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS), and Critical Incident History Questionnaire. Employing a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model, we found that each additional point in the TIS was associated with a 9% increment in PCL-C mean scores (RM = 1.09), whereas for PRS, the increment was 7% (RM = 1.07). As the severity of peritraumatic dissociation increased one point in the PDEQ, the chance of having at least one symptom in the PCL-C increased 22% (OR = 1.22). Our findings highlight the need to expand investigation on the incidence and impact of PTI on the mental health of police officers.

  14. Rape survivors' trauma-related beliefs before and after Cognitive processing therapy: associations with PTSD and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M; King, Matthew W; Cunningham, Katherine C; Resick, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    This study examined whether cognitive distortions (i.e., assimilated and overaccommodated thoughts) and realistic (i.e., accommodated) thoughts assessed from impact statements written 5-10 years after completing cognitive processing therapy (CPT) accurately predicted posttreatment maintenance or decline in treatment gains during the same period. The sample included 50 women diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) secondary to rape who participated in a randomized clinical trial of CPT for PTSD. Cognitions were assessed via coding and analyses of participants' written impact statements at three time points: beginning of treatment, end of treatment, and at 5-10 years follow-up. Primary mental health outcomes were symptoms of PTSD (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory). Changes in trauma-related beliefs between the end of treatment and long-term follow-up were associated with concomitant changes in PTSD and depression symptoms (effect sizes ranging from r = .35-.54). Declines in accommodated thinking and increases in overaccommodated thinking were associated with elevations in symptomatology. Improvement in accommodated thinking and declines in overaccommodated thinking were associated with lower PTSD and depression symptoms during this same time period. Findings provided support for the role of changes in accommodated and overaccommodated thinking being associated with level of PTSD and depression many years after participating in CPT. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A Meta-Analysis for the Efficacy of Hypnotherapy in Alleviating PTSD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Tudor-Ștefan; Rusu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of hypnotherapy in the treatment of PTSD used literature searches to obtain 47 articles. However, only 6 were experiments testing the efficacy of hypnosis-based treatments. A fixed-effects meta-analysis was applied to postintervention assessment results and 4-week follow-ups. A large effect in favor of hypnosis-based (especially manualized abreactive hypnosis) treatment was found for the studies that reported the posttest results (d = 1.17). The temporal stability of the effect remains strong, as reflected by the 4-week follow-up assessments (d = 1.58) and also by long-term evaluations (e.g., 12 months). Hypnosis appears to be effective in alleviating PTSD symptoms.

  16. Child abuse predicts adult PTSD symptoms among individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCatani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that people with intellectual disabilities (ID are more likely to experience child abuse as well as other forms of traumatic events later in life compared to the general population. Little is known however, about the association of these experiences with adult mental health in individuals with ID. The present study aimed to assess whether child abuse in families and institutions as well as other types of adverse life events, were associated with current Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and depression symptoms in individuals with ID. We conducted clinical interviews which included standardized self-report measures for childhood abuse, PTSD, and depression in an unselected sample of 56 persons with a medical diagnosis of intellectual disability who were attending a specialized welfare center. The frequency of traumatic experiences was very high, with physical and emotional child abuse being the most common trauma types. 87% of the persons reported at least one aversive experience on the family violence spectrum, and 50% of the sample reported a violent physical attack later in adulthood. 25% were diagnosed with PTSD and almost 27% had a critical score on the depression scale. Physical and emotional child abuse was positively correlated with the amount of institutional violence and the number of general traumatic events, whereas childhood sexual abuse was related to the experience of intimate partner violence in adult life. A linear regression revealed child abuse in the family to be the only significant independent predictor of PTSD symptom severity. The current findings underscore the central role of child maltreatment in the increased risk of further victimization and in the development of mental health problems in adulthood in individuals with ID. Our data have important clinical implications and demonstrate the need for targeted prevention and intervention programs that are tailored to the specific needs of children

  17. PTSD in relation to dissociation in traumatized police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, I. V.; Lamberts, R. D.; Fouwels, A. J.; Gersons, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    The assumed relationship between dissociation and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined. From a group of police officers who had experienced a traumatic event, the authors assessed the chronic dissociative symptoms of 42 police officers with PTSD, 50 police officers with

  18. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of PTSD symptoms. Patients (n = 8) with chronic PTSD were randomized to regular TF-CBT or TF-CBT with complementary breathing biofeedback to exposure. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and after TF-CBT with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The results show that breathing biofeedback is feasible and can easily be complemented to TF-CBT. Although PTSD symptoms significantly decreased from pre to post treatment in both conditions, there was a clear trend towards a significantly faster (p = .051) symptom reduction in biofeedback compared to regular TF-CBT. The most important limitation was the small sample size. The hastened clinical improvement in the biofeedback condition supports the idea that breathing biofeedback may be an effective complementary component to exposure in PTSD patients. The mechanism of action of breathing biofeedback may relate to competing working memory resources decreasing vividness and emotionality, similar to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Future research is needed to examine this.

  19. PTSD symptom severity is associated with increased recruitment of top-down attentional control in a trauma-exposed sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F; Costanzo, Michelle E; Blair, James R; Roy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging work suggests that increased amygdala responses to emotional stimuli and dysfunction within regions mediating top down attentional control (dorsomedial frontal, lateral frontal and parietal cortices) may be associated with the emergence of anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This report examines amygdala responsiveness to emotional stimuli and the recruitment of top down attention systems as a function of task demands in a population of U.S. military service members who had recently returned from combat deployment in Afghanistan/Iraq. Given current interest in dimensional aspects of pathophysiology, it is worthwhile examining patients who, while not meeting full PTSD criteria, show clinically significant functional impairment. Fifty-seven participants with sub-threshold levels of PTSD symptoms completed the affective Stroop task while undergoing fMRI. Participants with PTSD or depression at baseline were excluded. Greater PTSD symptom severity scores were associated with increased amygdala activation to emotional, particularly positive, stimuli relative to neutral stimuli. Furthermore, greater PTSD symptom severity was associated with increased superior/middle frontal cortex response during task conditions relative to passive viewing conditions. In addition, greater PTSD symptom severity scores were associated with: (i) increased activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal, lateral frontal, inferior parietal cortices and dorsomedial frontal cortex/dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dmFC/dACC) in response to emotional relative to neutral stimuli; and (ii) increased functional connectivity during emotional trials, particularly positive trials, relative to neutral trials between the right amygdala and dmFC/dACC, left caudate/anterior insula cortex, right lentiform nucleus/caudate, bilateral inferior parietal cortex and left middle temporal cortex. We suggest that these data may reflect two phenomena associated with

  20. Symptoms Experienced and Information Needs of Women Receiving Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Neşe; Toprak, Filiz Ünal; Kutlutsürkan, Sevinç; Erenel, Ayten Şentürk

    2018-01-01

    This study is carried out to determine the symptoms and information necessity on chemotherapy (CT) treatment of the women with breast cancer. A total of 170 women older than 18 years old, who receive CT with breast cancer diagnosis, are volunteered to participate in the study. Mixed method was used in the study. Data are collected using Descriptive Data Form, Interview Form and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. As a result of the cluster analysis, four clusters and the symptoms within have been obtained. These are: pain, lack of energy, feeling drowsy, sweat, swelling of hands, and feet in the first cluster; feeling nervous, difficulty sleeping, feeling sad, worrying in the second cluster; nausea, feeling bloating, change in the way food tastes, hair loss, constipation in the third cluster; vomiting, diarrhea, problems with sexual interest, lack of appetite, dizziness, and weight loss in the forth cluster. Women's information necessity related to the CT are follows: the effects of CT, other treatment options beyond CT, complementary methods, the effect of the CT treatment on reproductive health and sexuality, nutrition, and symptom control. The results of this study will enable determination of symptom clusters, which health professionals are easier to focus on these symptoms. An understanding information need of patients can help to ensure that individual's coping strategies and self-management.

  1. Trajectories of depressive symptoms in foster youth transitioning into adulthood: the roles of emotion dysregulation and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Christine E; Bailey, Brenda E; Santuzzi, Alecia M; Lilly, Michelle M

    2014-01-01

    Foster youth often experience considerable adversity both in and out of foster care, including histories of abuse and/or neglect, and further stressors within the foster system. These adverse experiences often occur at key developmental periods that can compromise emotional functioning and lead to posttraumatic symptomatology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotion dysregulation. In the face of difficult histories and ongoing mental health challenges, youth transitioning into adulthood may be particularly vulnerable to increases in depressive symptoms. We explored the trajectory of depressive symptoms in foster youth from age 17 to 19 using a piecewise linear growth model, examining the effects of PTSD and emotion dysregulation on youth's depressive symptoms over time. Results revealed depressive symptoms decreased from age 17 to 18 but increased from 18 to 19. PTSD and emotion dysregulation predicted greater baseline depressive symptoms and decreases in symptoms from age 17 to 18, whereas only PTSD predicted increases in depressive symptoms from 18 to 19. Females reported higher levels of depressive symptoms compared to males. Additionally, emotion dysregulation was a stronger predictor of depressive symptoms for females than males. Implications for service delivery for foster youth transitioning into adulthood are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Changes in negative cognitions mediate PTSD symptom reductions during client-centered therapy and prolonged exposure for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Carmen P; Yeh, Rebecca; Rosenfield, David; Foa, Edna B

    2015-05-01

    To assess whether changes in negative trauma-related cognitions play an important role in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression during prolonged exposure therapy for adolescents (PE-A). Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial comparing PE-A with client-centered therapy (CCT) for PTSD. Participants were 61 adolescent female sexual assault survivors ages 13-18 who received 8-14 weekly sessions of PE-A or CCT at a community rape crisis center. PTSD severity was assessed at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-months post-treatment. Participants also completed self-report measures of negative posttraumatic cognitions and depressive symptoms at the same assessment points. Cross lag panel mediation analyses showed that change in negative trauma-related cognitions mediated change in PTSD symptoms and depressive symptoms whereas change in PTSD and depressive symptoms did not mediate change in negative cognitions. Our findings support EPT and suggest that change in negative trauma-related cognitions is a mechanism of both PE-A and CCT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cortisol at the emergency room rape visit as a predictor of PTSD and depression symptoms over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Nugent, Nicole R; Kotte, Amelia; Amstadter, Ananda B; Wang, Sheila; Guille, Constance; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S

    2013-11-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, typically reflected by alterations in cortisol responsivity, has been associated with exposure to traumatic events and the development of stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Serum cortisol was measured at the time of a post sexual assault medical exam among a sample of 323 female victims of recent sexual assault. Analyses were conducted among 235 participants who provided data regarding history of previous assault as well as PTSD and depression symptoms during at least one of the three follow-ups. Growth curve models suggested that prior history of assault and serum cortisol were positively associated with the intercept and negatively associated with the slope of PTSD and depression symptoms after controlling for covariates. Prior history of assault and serum cortisol also interacted to predict the intercept and slope of PTSD and depression symptoms such that women with a prior history of assault and lower ER cortisol had higher initial symptoms that decreased at a slower rate relative to women without a prior history and those with higher ER cortisol. Prior history of assault was associated with diminished acute cortisol responsivity at the emergency room visit. Prior assault history and cortisol both independently and interactively predicted PTSD and depression symptoms at first follow-up and over the course a 6-month follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PTSD symptom severity relates to cognitive and psycho-social dysfunctioning - a study with Congolese refugees in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainamani, Herbert E; Elbert, Thomas; Olema, David K; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Background : In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), civilians have been heavily exposed to traumatic stressors. Traumatizing experiences cumulatively heighten the risk for trauma-related disorders, and with it affect cognitive and psycho-social functioning. Objectives : We aimed at investigating the association between trauma-related disorders and cognitive and psycho-social functioning and hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity would negatively correlate with executive functioning, working memory and psycho-social functioning in everyday life. Method : In total, 323 Congolese refugees (mean age: 31.3 years) who arrived in the Ugandan Nakivale refugee settlement after January 2012 were assessed regarding their exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptom severity (posttraumatic symptom scale interview), executive functioning (Tower of London), working memory performance (Corsi block tapping task) and psycho-social dysfunctioning (Luo functioning scale). Results : Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant negative association between PTSD symptom severity and working memory (β = -0.32, p  psycho-social functioning in everyday life was positively related with PTSD symptom severity (β = 0.70, p  psycho-social dysfunctioning (β = 0.09, p  > 0.05). Conclusion : Trauma survivors not only suffer from the core PTSD symptoms but also from impaired cognitive functioning. PTSD symptom severity seems furthermore to be related to impaired psycho-social functioning. Our findings suggest that trauma-related mental health problems may heighten the risk for poverty and lack of prospect and further aggravate the consequences of war and conflict.

  5. PTSD symptom severity relates to cognitive and psycho-social dysfunctioning – a study with Congolese refugees in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainamani, Herbert E.; Elbert, Thomas; Olema, David K.; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), civilians have been heavily exposed to traumatic stressors. Traumatizing experiences cumulatively heighten the risk for trauma-related disorders, and with it affect cognitive and psycho-social functioning. Objectives: We aimed at investigating the association between trauma-related disorders and cognitive and psycho-social functioning and hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity would negatively correlate with executive functioning, working memory and psycho-social functioning in everyday life. Method: In total, 323 Congolese refugees (mean age: 31.3 years) who arrived in the Ugandan Nakivale refugee settlement after January 2012 were assessed regarding their exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptom severity (posttraumatic symptom scale interview), executive functioning (Tower of London), working memory performance (Corsi block tapping task) and psycho-social dysfunctioning (Luo functioning scale). Results: Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant negative association between PTSD symptom severity and working memory (β = –0.32, p psycho-social functioning in everyday life was positively related with PTSD symptom severity (β = 0.70, p psycho-social dysfunctioning (β = 0.09, p > 0.05). Conclusion: Trauma survivors not only suffer from the core PTSD symptoms but also from impaired cognitive functioning. PTSD symptom severity seems furthermore to be related to impaired psycho-social functioning. Our findings suggest that trauma-related mental health problems may heighten the risk for poverty and lack of prospect and further aggravate the consequences of war and conflict. PMID:28326164

  6. Emotional distress and positive and negative memories from military deployment: The influence of PTSD symptoms and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niziurski, Julie Ann; Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    positive deployment memories from a company of 337 soldiers who were deployed together to Afghanistan. We examined how the level of emotional distress of the soldiers and the valence of the memory were related to the emotional intensity, experience of reliving, rehearsal and coherence of the memories......, and how the perceived impact of these memories changed over time. We found that soldiers with higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were more affected by both their negative and positive memories, compared with soldiers with lower levels of PTSD symptoms. Emotional intensity...... of the most negative memory increased over time in the group with highest levels of PTSD symptoms, but dropped in the other groups. The present study adds to the literature on emotion and autobiographical memory and how this relationship interacts with an individual’s present level of emotional distress...

  7. Effectiveness and Patient Acceptability of Stellate Ganglion Block (SGB) for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms Among Active Duty Military Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    you were manic-depressive or had bipolar disorder ?* ○ No ○ Yes 9. Have you received therapy for PTS/PTSD in the past month?* ○ No [Go to Question...Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms among Active Duty Military Members PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bradford B. Walters, MD, PhD CONTRACTING...of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms among Active Duty Military Members 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  8. The Association Between Peritraumatic Dissociation and PTSD Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Negative Beliefs About the Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Jun, Janie J; Sloan, Denise M

    2017-04-01

    Peritraumatic dissociation, a term used to describe a complex array of reactions to trauma, including depersonalization, derealization, and emotional numbness, has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms across a number of studies. Cognitive theory suggests that interpretations of traumatic events and reactions underlie the persistence of PTSD. The present study examined the associations among peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic cognitions, and PTSD symptoms in a group of trauma-exposed adults (N = 169). Results indicated that, after accounting for overall symptom severity and current dissociative tendencies, peritraumatic dissociation was significantly predictive of negative beliefs about the self (R 2 = .06, p < .001). Other categories of maladaptive posttraumatic cognitions did not show a similar relationship (R 2 = .01 to .02, nonsignificant). Negative thoughts about the self partially mediated the association between peritraumatic dissociation and PTSD severity (completely standardized indirect effect = .25). These findings lend support to cognitive theories of PTSD and point to an important area for clinical intervention. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Coping Self-Efficacy Moderates the Association Between Severity of Partner Violence and PTSD Symptoms Among Incarcerated Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Lynch, Shannon M; Cole, Trevor T; Kaplan, Stephanie P

    2015-10-01

    Previous research indicates self-efficacy may function as a protective factor for survivors of partner violence (PV), including coping self-efficacy specific to domestic violence. We hypothesized that domestic violence coping self-efficacy would moderate the association between recent PV and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of incarcerated women, such that the association between PV and PTSD would be strongest at low levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy. Participants (N = 102) were incarcerated women who reported PV in the year prior to incarceration. They were aged 19-55 years (M = 33.57, SD = 9.32), identified predominantly as European American (84.3%), American Indian (15.7%), and Hispanic (14.7%), with 80.4% completing high school or more in terms of education. Participants responded to self-report measures of PV, trauma history, domestic violence coping self-efficacy, and current PTSD symptoms. In a series of sequential regression analyses, PV (β = .65, sr(2) = .06, p = .017) was significantly associated with current PTSD symptoms above and beyond past trauma history (β = .37, sr(2) = .14, p violence coping self-efficacy (Domestic Violence Coping Self-Efficacy × Partner Violence; β = -.54, sr(2) = .03, p = .044). The relationship between PV and PTSD symptoms was greatest at low and average levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy and nonsignificant at high levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy. These findings highlight the importance of assessing domestic violence coping self-efficacy in incarcerated women with recent PV, given that domestic violence coping self-efficacy appeared to be protective against symptoms of PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  10. Differences in Cortisol Response to Trauma Activation in Individuals with and without Comorbid PTSD and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dekel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although depression symptoms are often experienced by individuals who develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD following trauma exposure, little is know about the biological correlates associated with PTSD and depression co-morbidity vs. those associated with PTSD symptoms alone.Methods: Here we examined salivary cortisol responses to trauma activation in a sample of 60 survivors of the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001. Participants recalled the escape from the attacks 7 months post 9/11. Salivary cortisol levels were measured before and after their recollection of the trauma. PTSD, depression, and somatic symptoms were also assessed. From the behavioral assessment scales, the participants were grouped into three conditions: those with comorbid PTSD and depressive symptoms, PTSD alone symptoms, or no-pathology.Results: Baseline and cortisol response levels differed between the comorbid, PTSD alone, and no-pathology groups. Individuals endorsing co-morbid symptoms had higher PTSD and somatic symptom severity and their cortisol response decreased following their trauma reminder while a trend of an elevated response to the trauma was found in the PTSD alone group. Our findings show distinct psychological and biological correlates related to the endorsement of PTSD with and without depression comorbidity.Conclusions: The findings suggest that comorbidity symptoms manifestation entails a separate trauma induced condition from PTSD. Future research on biological correlates of comorbid PTSD and depression is warranted.

  11. Type D personality and the development of PTSD symptoms: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, Arthur R.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-01-01

    Psychological trauma and prolonged stress may cause mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma personality is an important determinant of posttraumatic adjustment. Specifically, trait neuroticism has been identified as a risk factor for PTSD. Additionally, the

  12. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Di Blasio; Sarah Miragoli; Elena Camisasca; Angela Maria Di Vita; Rosalia Pizzo; Laura Pipitone

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thou...

  13. Factor structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed adolescents: Examining stability across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Cao, Xing; Cao, Chengqi; Fang, Ruojiao; Yang, Haibo; Elhai, Jon D

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms using two-wave longitudinal data collected from a sample of adolescents exposed to an explosion accident. Two waves of surveys were conducted approximately 3 and 8 months after the accident, respectively. A total of 836 students completed the baseline survey, and 762 students completed the follow-up survey. The results of confirmatory factor analyses(CFA) indicated that a seven-factor hybrid model composed of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal and dysphoric arousal factors yielded significantly better data fit at both waves than the other models including the DSM-5 four-factor model, the six-factor anhedonia and externalizing behaviors models. Furthermore, the results of CFA invariance tests supported the longitudinal invariance of the model. Implications and limitations in terms of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of acculturative stress on PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms among refugees resettled in Australia and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzenana Kartal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research indicates that exposure to war-related traumatic events impacts on the mental health of refugees and leads to higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, stress associated with the migration process has also been shown to impact negatively on refugees’ mental health, but the extent of these experiences is highly debatable as the relationships between traumatic events, migration, and mental health outcomes are complex and poorly understood. Objective: This study aimed to examine the influence of trauma-related and post-migratory factors on symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety in two samples of Bosnian refugees that have resettled in two different host nations—Austria and Australia. Method: Using multiple recruitment methods, 138 participants were recruited to complete self-report measures assessing acculturative stress, PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. Results: Hierarchical regressions indicated that after controlling for age, sex, and exposure to traumatic events, acculturative stress associated with post-migratory experiences predicted severity of PTSD and anxiety symptoms, while depressive symptoms were only predicted by exposure to traumatic events. This model, however, was only significant for Bosnian refugees resettled in Austria, as PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were only predicted by traumatic exposure in the Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. Conclusion: These findings point toward the importance of assessing both psychological and social stressors when assessing mental health of refugees. Furthermore, these results draw attention to the influence of the host society on post-migratory adaptation and mental health of refugees. Further research is needed to replicate these findings among other refugee samples in other host nations.

  15. Effects of acculturative stress on PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms among refugees resettled in Australia and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Dzenana; Kiropoulos, Litza

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that exposure to war-related traumatic events impacts on the mental health of refugees and leads to higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, stress associated with the migration process has also been shown to impact negatively on refugees' mental health, but the extent of these experiences is highly debatable as the relationships between traumatic events, migration, and mental health outcomes are complex and poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the influence of trauma-related and post-migratory factors on symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety in two samples of Bosnian refugees that have resettled in two different host nations-Austria and Australia. Using multiple recruitment methods, 138 participants were recruited to complete self-report measures assessing acculturative stress, PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. Hierarchical regressions indicated that after controlling for age, sex, and exposure to traumatic events, acculturative stress associated with post-migratory experiences predicted severity of PTSD and anxiety symptoms, while depressive symptoms were only predicted by exposure to traumatic events. This model, however, was only significant for Bosnian refugees resettled in Austria, as PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were only predicted by traumatic exposure in the Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. These findings point toward the importance of assessing both psychological and social stressors when assessing mental health of refugees. Furthermore, these results draw attention to the influence of the host society on post-migratory adaptation and mental health of refugees. Further research is needed to replicate these findings among other refugee samples in other host nations.

  16. Relationships among Adult Attachment, Social Support, and PTSD Symptoms in Trauma-Exposed College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneau, Genevieve Mary Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Although many people are exposed to trauma, substantially fewer develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given this, studies have examined risk and protective factors for developing PTSD. This literature has established that there is a robust negative correlation between social support and PTSD. Attachment insecurity may be an informative…

  17. Preventing PTSD with oxytocin: effects of oxytocin administration on fear neurocircuitry and PTSD symptom development in recently trauma-exposed individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijling, Jessie L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder which develops in approximately 10% of trauma-exposed individuals. Currently, there are few early preventive interventions available for PTSD. Intranasal oxytocin administration early posttrauma may prevent PTSD

  18. Positive Traits versus Previous Trauma: Racially Different Correlates with PTSD Symptoms among Hurricane Katrina-Rita Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Plummer, Carol; Kanno, Hanae; Heo, Grace; Appel, Hoa B.; Simon, Cassandra E.; Spigner, Clarence

    2011-01-01

    This study compared risks and protective factors for acquiring symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) between African-American (n = 299) and European-American (n = 206) student volunteers 3 months after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (H-KR). Respondents retrospectively provided information on peritraumatic emotional reactions and previous…

  19. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    -Revised (SCL-90-R). At the 5 year follow-up, the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) was also administered to confirm the findings from CR-PTSD and to determine whether the women met the DSM-IV symptom criteria of PTSD. ANOVA was performed using treatment group as a between factor and the four time points...... follow-up by the total symptom severity score on the PCL-C (r = 0.929). Of the women participating in the 5-years follow-up, 18 (28%) met the DSM-IV symptom criteria as measured by PCL-C (analytic: 36%, systemic: 21%, χ2 NS). Conclusion: Symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress were reduced...... and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...

  20. Association between facial expression and PTSD symptoms among young children exposed to the Great East Japan Earthquake: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Mizuki, Rie; Miki, Takahiro; Chemtob, Claude

    2015-01-01

    "Emotional numbing" is a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) characterized by a loss of interest in usually enjoyable activities, feeling detached from others, and an inability to express a full range of emotions. Emotional numbing is usually assessed through self-report, and is particularly difficult to ascertain among young children. We conducted a pilot study to explore the use of facial expression ratings in response to a comedy video clip to assess emotional reactivity among preschool children directly exposed to the Great East Japan Earthquake. This study included 23 child participants. Child PTSD symptoms were measured using a modified version of the Parent's Report of the Child's Reaction to Stress scale. Children were filmed while watching a 2-min video compilation of natural scenes ('baseline video') followed by a 2-min video clip from a television comedy ('comedy video'). Children's facial expressions were processed the using Noldus FaceReader software, which implements the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We investigated the association between PTSD symptom scores and facial emotion reactivity using linear regression analysis. Children with higher PTSD symptom scores showed a significantly greater proportion of neutral facial expressions, controlling for sex, age, and baseline facial expression (p software, has the potential to index emotional numbing in young children. This pilot study adds to the emerging literature on using experimental psychopathology methods to characterize children's reactions to disasters.

  1. PTSD symptoms and perception of cognitive problems: The roles of posttraumatic cognitions and trauma coping self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Kristin W; Bartel, Alisa; Valadez, Racquel; Jordan, Joshua T

    2017-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with mild neurocognitive deficits, yet clients often complain of cognitive problems that exceed what their objective performance demonstrates. In addition, PTSD is associated with negative appraisals about the self, traumatic event, and one's ability to cope. This study examined posttraumatic cognitions as a moderator, and trauma coping self-efficacy as a mediator, of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and self-report of cognitive problems. A sample of 268 trauma-exposed adults completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, the Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy Scale, the Cognitive Self-Report Questionnaire, and the Quality of Life Scale. Negative self-appraisals was a significant moderator in the relationship between PTSD symptoms and perception of cognitive problems (β = -.252, p = .001). In participants with high levels of negative posttraumatic cognitions, perception of cognitive problems was high regardless of PTSD symptom level. In a mediator analysis, there was a significant indirect effect of trauma coping self-efficacy (b = .125, 95% CI [.088, .172]). Finally, there was evidence of moderated mediation, such that trauma coping self-efficacy was a mediator only when posttraumatic cognitions were low or average. Results indicate that posttraumatic appraisals and coping self-efficacy play significant roles in perception of cognitive problems following trauma. Clinically, in patients for which there is a perception of cognitive impairment that is not borne out in neuropsychological testing, cognitive-behavioral therapy focused on altering negative self-perceptions and appraisals may be beneficial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Web intervention for OEF/OIF veterans with problem drinking and PTSD symptoms: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brief, Deborah J; Rubin, Amy; Keane, Terence M; Enggasser, Justin L; Roy, Monica; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Lachowicz, Mark; Rybin, Denis; Rosenbloom, David

    2013-10-01

    Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) commonly experience alcohol misuse and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following their return from deployment to a war zone. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a newly developed, 8-module, self-management web intervention (VetChange) based on motivational and cognitive-behavioral principles to reduce alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and PTSD symptoms in returning combat veterans. Six hundred participants, recruited through targeted Facebook ads, were randomized to either an Initial Intervention Group (IIG; n = 404) or a Delayed Intervention Group (DIG; n = 196) that waited 8 weeks for access to VetChange. Primary outcome measures were Drinks per Drinking Day, Average Weekly Drinks, Percent Heavy Drinking Days, and PTSD symptoms. Intent-to-treat analyses compared changes in outcome measures over time between IIG and DIG as well as within-group changes. IIG participants demonstrated greater reductions in drinking (p < .001 for each measure) and PTSD symptoms (p = .009) between baseline and end-of-intervention than did DIG participants between baseline and the end of the waiting period. DIG participants showed similar improvements to those in IIG following participation in VetChange. Alcohol problems were also reduced within each group between baseline and 3-month follow-up. Results indicate that VetChange is effective in reducing drinking and PTSD symptoms in OIF/OEF veterans. Further studies of VetChange are needed to assess web-based recruitment and retention methods and to determine VetChange's effectiveness in demographic and clinical sub-populations of returning veterans. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Parenting in the Wake of Abuse: Exploring the Mediating Role of PTSD Symptoms on the Relationship Between Parenting and Child Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Fredland, Nina; Maddoux, John; Zhou, Weiden

    2016-02-01

    Children whose mothers report partner violence and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at risk for behavior dysfunctions. To examine the mediating effects of maternal PTSD symptoms on the relationship of parenting behaviors to child internalizing and externalizing behavior dysfunctions. Maternal PTSD symptoms have a partial mediating effect on the relationship between inconsistent discipline and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Maternal PTSD symptoms have a fully mediating effect on the relationship between poor supervision and child internalizing behaviors. There is a need to identify women who report partner violence and are at high risk for PTSD and intervene early to prevent problematic parenting and resulting child behavior problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep diaries of Vietnam War veterans with chronic PTSD: the relationships among insomnia symptoms, psychosocial stress, and nightmares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrman, Philip R; Harb, Gerlinde C; Cook, Joan M; Barilla, Holly; Ross, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired sleep and nightmares are known symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the veteran population. In order to assess prospectively the sleep disturbances in this population, sleep diaries are an effective way to obtain information over an extended period of time. In this investigation, a sample of veterans (N = 105) completed daily sleep diaries for a 6-week period. Greater PTSD severity and nightmare-related distress were correlated with more awakenings, shorter duration of sleep, longer sleep latency, and greater frequency of nightmares. Perceived frequency of daytime stressors was associated with an increased number of nightmares, nightmare-related distress, and longer sleep latency. The use of sleep diaries in future investigations may allow targeted treatments for veteran populations with PTSD and sleep disturbances.

  5. Oxytocin is associated with PTSD's anxious arousal symptoms in Chinese male earthquake survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Chengqi Cao; Li Wang; Richu Wang; Yulan Qing; Jianxin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex and severe mental disorder triggered by exposure to an extraordinarily traumatic event. Human and animal studies have implied the functional role of the oxytocin system in the development of PTSD (Cochran, Fallon, Hill, & Frazier, 2013; Koch et al., 2014; Olff, 2012). Specification of the role of the oxytocin system in the emergence and progression of PTSD symptomatology would provide evidence to inform both theory and clinical pra...

  6. Prevalence and correlates of posttrauma distorted beliefs: evaluating DSM-5 PTSD expanded cognitive symptoms in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Keith S; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2014-06-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) modified the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including expanding the scope of dysfunctional, posttrauma changes in belief (symptoms D2-persistent negative beliefs and expectations about oneself or the world, and D3-persistent distorted blame of self or others for the cause or consequences of the traumatic event). D2 and D3 were investigated using a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 2,498) recruited from an online panel. The prevalence of D2 and D3 was substantially higher among those with lifetime PTSD than among trauma-exposed individuals without lifetime PTSD (D2: 74.6% vs 23.9%; D3: 80.6% vs 35.7%). In multivariate analyses, the strongest associates of D2 were interpersonal assault (OR = 2.39), witnessing interpersonal assault (OR = 1.63), gender (female, OR = 2.11), and number of reported traumatic events (OR = 1.88). The strongest correlates of D3 were interpersonal assault (OR = 3.08), witnessing interpersonal assault (OR = 1.57), gender (female, OR = 2.30), and number of reported traumatic events (OR = 1.91). The findings suggested the expanded cognitive symptoms in the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria better capture the cognitive complexity of PTSD than those of the DSM-IV. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  7. Association between facial expression and PTSD symptoms among young children exposed to the Great East Japan Earthquake: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional numbing is a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD characterized by a loss of interest in usually enjoyable activities, feeling detached from others, and an inability to express a full range of emotions. Emotional numbing is usually assessed through self-report, and is particularly difficult to ascertain among young children. We conducted a pilot study to explore the use of facial expression ratings in response to a comedy video clip, and to assess emotional reactivity among preschool children directly exposed to the Great East Japan Earthquake. This study included 23 child participants. Child PTSD symptoms were measured using a modified version of the Parent’s Report of the Child’s Reaction to Stress scale. Children were filmed while watching a 2-minute video compilation of natural scenes (‘baseline video’ followed by a 2-minute video clip from a television comedy (‘comedy video’. Children’s facial expressions were processed using Noldus FaceReader software, which implements the Facial Action Coding System (FACS. We investigated the association between PTSD symptom scores and facial emotion reactivity using linear regression analysis. Children with higher PTSD symptom scores showed a significantly greater proportion of neutral facial expressions, controlling for sex, age and baseline facial expression (p < .05. This pilot study suggests that facial emotion reactivity could provide an index against which emotional numbing could be measured in young children, using facial expression recognition software. This pilot study adds to the emerging literature on using experimental psychopathology methods to characterize children’s reactions to disasters.

  8. Role of the body self and self-esteem in experiencing the intensity of menopausal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Małgorzata; Dolińska-Zygmunt, Grażyna

    2017-10-29

    The aim of the study was to test differences in self-esteem and strength of the body self, body image, comfort with closeness with others and body protection among women reporting high and low intensity of psychological, vasomotor and somatic symptoms of menopause. The sample included 201 women aged 45-55 years. The Menopause Symptom List was used to test the intensity of menopausal symptoms, the Body Self Questionnaire was used to diagnose the body self, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to examine participants'levels of self-esteem. Differences between women experiencing high and low intensity of symptoms were analyzed using Student's t-test for independent samples. Women experiencing high-intensity psychological, vasomotor and somatic symptoms of menopause showed significantly lower self-esteem and poorer body-self functioning in all its dimensions except for body protection. Women experiencing high-intensity psychological, vasomotor and somatic symptoms of menopause demonstrated poorer functioning of the body self and lower self-esteem.

  9. Examining the broader psychosocial effects of mass conflict on PTSD symptoms and functional impairment amongst West Papuan refugees resettled in Papua New Guinea (PNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chan, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-05-01

    Mass conflict and displacement erode the core psychosocial foundations of society, but there is a dearth of quantitative data examining the long-term mental health effects of these macrocosmic changes, particularly in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. In 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional community study (n = 230) of West Papuan refugees residing in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, testing a moderated-mediation structural equation model of PTSD symptoms in which we examined relationships involving the psychosocial effects of mass conflict and displacement based on the Adaptation and Development after Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT) model, a trauma count (TC) of traumatic events (TEs) related to mass conflict, and a count index of current adversity (AC). A direct and an indirect path via AC led to PTSD symptoms. The ADAPT index exerted two effects on PTSD symptoms, an indirect effect via AC, and a moderating effect on TC. PTSD symptoms were directly associated with functional impairment. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings provide support for a core prediction of the ADAPT model, that is, that undermining of the core psychosocial foundations of society brought about by mass conflict and displacement exerts an indirect and moderating influence on PTSD symptoms. The path model supports the importance of repairing the psychosocial pillars of society as a foundation for addressing trauma-related symptoms and promoting the functioning of refugees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Couples Facing the Birth of a Newborn with a Congenital Anomaly: PTSD Symptoms in the First Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Francesca; Morini, Francesco; Zaccara, Antonio; De Marchis, Chiara; Braguglia, Annabella; Gentile, Simonetta; Bagolan, Pietro; Aite, Lucia

    2018-04-18

     The objective of this study was to assess the presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in parental couples of newborn requiring early surgery at 6 and 12 months after birth.  A longitudinal study was set up from January 2014 to June 2015. As a measure of PTSD, we used the Italian version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R).  Thirty-four couples form the object of the study. At 6 months, half of mothers (52.9%) and fathers (44.1%) reported traumatic stress symptoms above the clinical cutoff. Percentages remained stable at 12 months. When parental gender and length of follow-up were compared with two-factor analysis of variance, none had an impact on IES-R score, nor an interaction between these factors was found. A significant correlation of IES-R total score was present within the couple both at 6 and 12 months (6 months- r : 0.6842, p  stressful situation with persistent burden for both parents who are at high risk of developing PTSD symptoms. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Examining cumulative victimization, community violence exposure, and stigma as contributors to PTSD symptoms among high-risk young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2014-05-01

    This study examines patterns of lifetime victimization within the family, community violence exposure, and stigma as contributors to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a sample of 198 high-risk young women who are pregnant or parenting. We used cluster analysis to identify 5 profiles of cumulative victimization, based on participants' levels of witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV), physical abuse by an adult caregiver, and sexual victimization, all beginning by age 12. Hierarchical regression was used to examine these 5 clusters (ranging from a High All Victimization cluster characterized by high levels of all 3 forms of violence, to a Low All Victimization cluster characterized by low levels of all 3 forms), along with community violence exposure and stigma, as predictors of PTSD symptoms. We found that 3 of the cumulative victimization clusters, in comparison with Low All Victimization, were significant predictors of PTSD symptoms, as was stigma, while community violence exposure was not a significant predictor. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Somatoform dissociation and posttraumatic stress syndrome - two sides of the same medal? A comparison of symptom profiles, trauma history and altered affect regulation between patients with functional neurological symptoms and patients with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Johanna; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Bohus, Martin; Fiess, Johanna; Huffziger, Silke; Steffen-Klatt, Astrid

    2017-07-11

    History of traumatic experience is common in dissociative disorder (DD), and similarity of symptoms and characteristics between DD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) encouraged to consider DD as trauma-related disorder. However, conceptualization of DD as a trauma-related syndrome would critically affect diagnosis and treatment strategies. The present study addressed overlap and disparity of DD and PTSD by directly comparing correspondence of symptoms, adverse/traumatic experience, and altered affect regulation between patients diagnosed with dissociative disorder (characterized by negative functional neurological symptoms) and patients diagnosed with PTSD. Somatoform and psychoform dissociation, symptoms of posttraumatic stress, general childhood adversities and lifetime traumata, and alexithymia as index of altered affect regulation were screened with standardized questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in 60 patients with DD (ICD-codes F44.4, F44.6, F44.7), 39 patients with PTSD (ICD-code F43.1), and 40 healthy comparison participants (HC). DD and PTSD patients scored higher than HC on somatoform and psychoform dissociative symptom scales and alexithymia, and reported more childhood adversities and higher trauma load. PTSD patients reported higher symptom severity and more traumata than DD patients. Those 20 DD patients who met criteria of co-occuring PTSD did not differ from PTSD patients in the amount of reported symptoms of somatoform dissociation, physical and emotional childhood adversities and lifetime traumata, while emotional neglect/abuse in childhood distinguished DD patients with and without co-occuring PTSD (DD patients with co-occuring PTSD reporting more emotional maltreatment). The pattern of distinctive somatoform and psychoform dissociative symptom severity, type of childhood and lifetime traumata, and amount of alexithymia suggests that DD and PTSD are distinctive syndromes and, therefore, challenges the conceptualization of DD as

  13. Obese and Overweight Youth: Risk for Experiencing Bullying Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Mehari, Krista; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2018-01-22

    Obese and overweight youth are at an increased risk for poor peer relations and psychosocial adjustment. Of particular concern is the high rate of bullying victimization experienced by obese and overweight youth. While it is known that victimized youth are at an increased risk for internalizing symptoms, few studies have examined if weight status exacerbates the association between victimization and internalizing symptoms. The current study drew upon data from over 43,000 youth attending 107 middle and high schools. Multilevel results suggested that compared with normal weight youth, both overweight and obese youth were at an increased risk for experiencing relational, verbal, and cyber victimization, with only obese youth being at an increased risk for experiencing physical victimization. Notably, the odds for experiencing cyber victimization were higher than the odds for experiencing other forms of victimization. Frequently victimized obese youth, but not frequently victimized overweight youth, had significantly higher levels of internalizing symptoms compared to their frequently victimized, normal-weight peers. Together, these findings highlight the increased risk for psychosocial adjustment problems among frequently victimized overweight and obese youth, suggesting these youth may require preventive interventions tailored to meet their unique needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Factors associated with traumatic symptoms and internalizing problems among adolescents who experienced a traumatic event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deković, M.; Koning, I.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Buist, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify factors that are related to the traumatic symptoms and problem behavior among adolescents who experienced the New Years fire in 2001 in Volendam, The Netherlands. Three groups of factors were considered: pre-trauma (personality and coping), traumarelated

  15. Assessing the structure and meaningfulness of the dissociative subtype of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jana; Baník, Gabriel; Dědová, Mária; Mikulášková, Gabriela; Armour, Cherie

    2018-01-01

    Studies conducted in the USA, Canada and Denmark have supported the existence of the dissociative PTSD subtype, characterized primarily by symptoms of depersonalization and derealization. The current study aimed to examine the dissociative PTSD subtype in an Eastern European, predominantly female (83.16%) sample, using an extended set of dissociative symptoms. A latent profile analysis was applied to the PTSD and dissociation data from 689 trauma-exposed university students from Slovakia. Four latent profiles of varying PTSD and dissociation symptomatology were uncovered. They were named non-symptomatic, moderate PTSD, high PTSD and dissociative PTSD. The dissociative PTSD profile showed elevations on depersonalization and derealization, but also the alternative dissociative indicators of gaps in awareness and memory, sensory misperceptions and cognitive and behavioural re-experiencing. The core PTSD symptoms of 'memory impairment' and 'reckless or self-destructive behaviour' were also significantly elevated in the dissociative PTSD profile. Moreover, anxiety and anger predicted membership in the dissociative PTSD profile. The results provide support for the proposal that the dissociative PTSD subtype can be characterized by a variety of dissociative symptoms.

  16. Brief Treatment of Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) by Use of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART(®)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, Kevin E; Elk, Carrie A; Sullivan, Kelly L; Kadel, Rajendra; Lengacher, Cecile A; Long, Christopher J; Rosenzweig, Laney; Shuman, Amy; Hernandez, Diego F; Street, Jennifer D; Girling, Sue Ann; Diamond, David M

    2012-06-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, disabling anxiety disorder. This prospective cohort study reports on a new exposure-based therapy known as Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART(®)) that incorporates the use of eye movements administered in a brief treatment period (1-5 one-hour sessions within three weeks). Eighty adults aged 21-60 years with symptoms of PTSD were recruited from the Tampa Bay area. The ART-based psychotherapy was designed to minimize anxiety and body sensations associated with recall of traumatic memories and to replace distressing images with favorable ones. Participants' mean age was 40 years, 77% were female, and 29% were Hispanic. Participants underwent a median of three ART sessions, 66 of 80 (82.5%) completed treatment, and 54 of 66 (81.8%) provided 2-month follow-up data. Mean scores pre- and post-ART and at 2-month follow-up were: PTSD Checklist: 54.5 ± 12.2 vs. 31.2 ± 11.4 vs. 30.0 ± 12.4; Brief Symptom Inventory: 30.8 ± 14.6 vs. 10.1 ± 10.8 vs. 10.1 ± 12.1; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: 29.5 ± 10.9 vs. 11.8 ± 11.1 vs. 13.5 ± 12.1; Trauma Related Growth Inventory-Distress scale: 18.9 ± 4.1 vs. 7.4 ± 5.9 vs. 8.2 ± 5.9 (p ART vs. post-ART and 2-month comparisons). No serious adverse events were reported. ART appears to be a brief, safe, and effective treatment for symptoms of PTSD.

  17. Brief Treatment of Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) by Use of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, Kevin E.; Elk, Carrie A.; Sullivan, Kelly L.; Kadel, Rajendra; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Long, Christopher J.; Rosenzweig, Laney; Shuman, Amy; Hernandez, Diego F.; Street, Jennifer D.; Girling, Sue Ann; Diamond, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, disabling anxiety disorder. This prospective cohort study reports on a new exposure-based therapy known as Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART®) that incorporates the use of eye movements administered in a brief treatment period (1–5 one-hour sessions within three weeks). Eighty adults aged 21–60 years with symptoms of PTSD were recruited from the Tampa Bay area. The ART-based psychotherapy was designed to minimize anxiety and body sensations associated with recall of traumatic memories and to replace distressing images with favorable ones. Participants’ mean age was 40 years, 77% were female, and 29% were Hispanic. Participants underwent a median of three ART sessions, 66 of 80 (82.5%) completed treatment, and 54 of 66 (81.8%) provided 2-month follow-up data. Mean scores pre- and post-ART and at 2-month follow-up were: PTSD Checklist: 54.5 ± 12.2 vs. 31.2 ± 11.4 vs. 30.0 ± 12.4; Brief Symptom Inventory: 30.8 ± 14.6 vs. 10.1 ± 10.8 vs. 10.1 ± 12.1; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: 29.5 ± 10.9 vs. 11.8 ± 11.1 vs. 13.5 ± 12.1; Trauma Related Growth Inventory-Distress scale: 18.9 ± 4.1 vs. 7.4 ± 5.9 vs. 8.2 ± 5.9 (p ART vs. post-ART and 2-month comparisons). No serious adverse events were reported. ART appears to be a brief, safe, and effective treatment for symptoms of PTSD. PMID:25379218

  18. Self-compassion influences PTSD symptoms in the process of change in trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapies: A study of within-person processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asle eHoffart

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAlthough self-compassion is considered a promising change agent in the treatment of PTSD, no studies of this hypothesis exist. This study examined the within-person relationship of self-compassion components (self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness, self-judgment, isolation, over-identification and subsequent PTSD symptoms over the course of therapy. Method: PTSD patients (n = 65 were randomized to either standard prolonged exposure, which includes imaginal exposure (IE to the traumatic memory, or modified prolonged exposure, where imagery re-scripting (IR of the memory replaced IE as the imagery component of prolonged exposure in a 10 week residential program. They were assessed weekly on self-compassion and PTSD symptom measures. The centering method of detrending was used to separate the variance related to the within-person process of change over the course of treatment from between-person variance. Results: The self-compassion components self-kindness, self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification had a within-person effect on subsequent PTSD symptoms. These relationships were independent of therapy form. The within-person relationship between self-judgment and subsequent PTSD symptoms was stronger in patients with higher initial self-judgment. By contrast, there were few indications that within-person variations in PTSD symptoms predict subsequent self-compassion components. Conclusion: The results support the role of self-compassion components in maintaining PTSD and imply the recommendation to facilitate decrease of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification and increase of self-kindness in the treatment of PTSD patients. The reduction of self-judgment appears to be most important, especially for patients with a high initial level of self-judgment.

  19. Food addiction as a proxy for eating disorder and obesity severity, trauma history, PTSD symptoms, and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewerton, Timothy D

    2017-06-01

    Food addiction (FA) is a newly defined yet still controversial condition that has important etiological, developmental, treatment, prevention, and social policy implications. In this review, the case is made that FA (or high scores on the Yale Food Addiction Scale) may be used as a proxy measure for a matrix of interrelated clinical features, including greater eating disorder severity, greater obesity severity, more severe trauma histories, greater symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), greater psychiatric comorbidity, as well as greater medical morbidity and mortality. A Medline search was undertaken using the following terms: food addiction cross-referenced with eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and binge eating), obesity, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbidity. The thesis is that the identification and acknowledgment of the concept of FA, when integrated into an overall, trauma-focused and transdiagnostic treatment approach, are supported and can be useful in understanding clinically the "big picture." Food addiction (FA) may be used as a proxy for (1) bulimic eating disorder severity, (2) complex trauma histories, (3) severity of PTSD and PTSD symptoms, (4) intensity of psychiatric comorbidity, (5) severity of obesity, as well as (6) their combination. Implications for developing treatment strategies are discussed. The case for a comprehensive management that requires careful attention to medical and psychiatric assessment and integrated care that incorporates trauma-focused treatment is made.

  20. A Longitudinal Examination of Mothers' Depression and PTSD Symptoms as Impacted by Partner-Abusive Men's Harm to Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Echo A; Sullivan, Cris M; Zeoli, April M; Bybee, Deborah

    2016-02-12

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious and widespread form of gender-based violence that disproportionately affects women. It is well established that IPV victimization contributes to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and that many partner-abusive men continue to perpetuate abuse even after their relationship with the victim ends. In addition, when men harm their partners, they are more likely to harm their children, and evidence suggests that this harm continues post-separation. However, scant research has been conducted on men's harm to their children as an extension of IPV perpetration, with even less known about the mental health impact this form of abuse has on mothers. For this longitudinal cohort study, 40 partner-abused mothers who had separated, or were planning to separate, from an abusive partner with whom they shared children were recruited. Women were interviewed 4 times over 1 year. Results confirmed that, in addition to men's physical abuse perpetration relating to subsequent increases in mothers' depression and PTSD symptoms over time, their harm to the children predicted both mothers' depression and PTSD symptoms as well. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Predicting symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Croatian war veterans: the role of socio-demographics, war experiences and subjective quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončar, Mladen; Plašć, Ivana Dijanić; Bunjevac, Tomislav; Hrabač, Pero; Jakšić, Nenad; Kozina, Slavica; Henigsberg, Neven; Sagud, Marina; Marčinko, Darko

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has documented multiple chains of risk in the development of PTSD among war veterans. However, existing studies were mostly carried out in the West, while they also did not analyze specific symptom clusters of PTSD. The aim of this study was to examine the role of socio-demographic characteristics, war experiences and subjective quality of life in the prediction of three clusters of PTSD symptoms (i.e., avoidance, intrusion, hyperarousal). This study comprised 184 male participants who have survived war imprisonment during the Croatian Homeland War in the period from 1991 to 1995. The data was collected through several self-report measuring instruments: questionnaire on socio-demographic data, war experiences (Questionnaire on Traumatic Combat and War Experiences), subjective quality of life (WHO-Five Well-being Index), and PTSD symptoms (Impact of Events Scale - Revised). The level of three symptom clusters of PTSD was found to be moderate to high, as indicated by the scores on the IES-R. Results of the three hierarchical regression analyses showed the following: traumatic war experiences were significant predictors of avoidance symptoms; traumatic war experiences and subjective quality of life were significant predictors of hyperarousal symptoms; and traumatic war experiences, material status and subjective quality of life were significant predictors of intrusion symptoms. These findings support the widespread belief that the development of war-related PTSD is accounted for by multiple chains of risk, while traumatic war experiences seem to be the only predictor of all three symptom clusters. Future research should put more emphasis on specific PTSD symptom clusters when investigating the etiopathogenesis of this disorder among war-affected populations.

  2. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care » PTSD: National Center for PTSD » Public » Videos PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... Prescribing for PTSD, Know Your Options . × What is PTSD? Right Click here to download "What is PTSD?" ( ...

  3. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care » PTSD: National Center for PTSD » Public » Videos PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... Prescribing for PTSD, Know Your Options . × What is PTSD? Right Click here to download "What is PTSD?" ( ...

  4. Episodic memory after trauma exposure: Medial temporal lobe function is positively related to re-experiencing and inversely related to negative affect symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Stevens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal structure is particularly sensitive to trauma and other stressors. However, previous findings linking hippocampal function with trauma-related psychopathology have been mixed. Heterogeneity in psychological responses to trauma has not been considered with respect to hippocampal function and may contribute to mixed findings. To address these issues, we examined associations between data-driven symptom dimensions and episodic memory formation, a key function of the hippocampus, in a trauma-exposed sample. Symptom dimensions were defined using principal components analysis (PCA in 3881 trauma-exposed African-American women recruited from primary care waiting rooms of a large urban hospital. Hippocampal and amygdala function were subsequently investigated in an fMRI study of episodic memory formation in a subset of 54 women. Participants viewed scenes with neutral, negative, and positive content during fMRI, and completed a delayed cued recall task. PCA analysis produced five symptom dimensions interpreted as reflecting negative affect, somatic symptoms, re-experiencing, hyper-arousal, and numbing. Re-experiencing was the only symptom type associated with hippocampal function, predicting increased memory encoding-related activation in the hippocampus as well as the amygdala. In contrast, the negative affect component predicted lower amygdala activation for subsequently recalled scenes, and lower functional coupling with other important memory-related regions including the precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus, and occipital cortex. Symptom dimensions were not related to hippocampal volume. The fMRI findings for re-experiencing versus negative affect parallel differences in behavioral memory phenomena in PTSD versus MDD, and highlight a need for more complex models of trauma-related pathology.

  5. Self-Compassion as a prospective predictor of PTSD symptom severity among trauma-exposed U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Regina; Meyer, Eric C; Kimbrel, Nathan A; DeBeer, Bryann B; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Morissette, Sandra B

    2015-04-01

    U.S. combat veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars have elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to the general population. Self-compassion, characterized by self-kindness, a sense of common humanity when faced with suffering, and mindful awareness of suffering, is a potentially modifiable factor implicated in the development and maintenance of PTSD. We examined the concurrent and prospective relationship between self-compassion and PTSD symptom severity after accounting for level of combat exposure and baseline PTSD severity in 115 Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans exposed to 1 or more traumatic events during deployment. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS-IV) at baseline and 12 months (n =101). Self-compassion and combat exposure were assessed at baseline via self-report. Self-compassion was associated with baseline PTSD symptoms after accounting for combat exposure (β = -.59; p Afghanistan war veterans. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. The 7-factor hybrid model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption and consequences in a national sample of trauma-exposed veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb Erwin, Meredith; Charak, Ruby; Durham, Tory A; Armour, Cherie; Lv, Xin; Southwick, Steven M; Elhai, Jon D; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate associations between the 7-factor hybrid model of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which includes intrusions, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal symptoms, and alcohol consumption and consequences. A nationally representative sample of 916 trauma-exposed U.S. military veterans were administered the Trauma History Screen, PTSD Checklist-5, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to determine associations between the 7-factor hybrid model of PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and consequences. Results revealed that lifetime dysphoric arousal (r=0.31), negative affect (r=0.30), and anhedonia (r=0.29) symptom clusters were most strongly associated with past-year alcohol consequences. No significant associations were observed for alcohol consumption. While the cross-sectional study design does not allow one to ascertain causative associations between PTSD factors and alcohol consumption and consequences, results generally align with the self-medication hypothesis, as PTSD factors reflecting internalizing were most strongly related to alcohol-related consequences. These results underscore the importance of assessing for alcohol use problems in veterans who score highly on PTSD symptoms reflecting internalizing symptomatology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vets prevail online intervention reduces PTSD and depression in veterans with mild-to-moderate symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobfoll, Stevan E; Blais, Rebecca K; Stevens, Natalie R; Walt, Lisa; Gengler, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Despite heightened rates of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans, the majority of distressed veterans will not receive mental health care. Overcoming barriers to mental health services requires innovative approaches to broaden the reach of evidence-based treatment. The current study examined the efficacy and acceptability of an innovative and dynamic online cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention for PTSD and depression called Vets Prevail. A randomized clinical trial conducted between 2011 and 2013 assessed changes in PTSD and depression in veterans with mild-to-moderate distress. Veterans randomized to Vets Prevail (n = 209) were aged 34.2 ± 7.6 years, mostly male (81.3%), and nonminority (73.7%). Veterans randomized to adjustment as usual (n = 94) were aged 34.7 ± 8.9, mostly male (81.9%), and White (67.0%). Veterans completed the PTSD Checklist-Military Version and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (10-item version) postintervention and at 12-week follow-up. Veterans in the Vets Prevail condition reported significantly greater reductions in PTSD, t(250) = 3.24, p = .001 (Mreduction = 5.51, SD = 9.63), and depression, t(252) = 4.37, p = .001 (Mreduction = 2.31, SD = 5.34), at 12-week follow-up compared with veterans in the adjustment as usual condition (PTSD Mreduction = 1.00, SD = 7.32; depression Mreduction = 0.48, SD = 4.95), with moderate effect sizes for PTSD (Cohen's d = 0.42) and depression (Cohen's d = 0.56). Exploratory analysis shows that Vets Prevail may be effective regardless of combat trauma exposure, gender, and ethnic minority status. Vets Prevail circumvents many barriers to care and effectively addresses the dire mental health needs of veterans. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Suicidality and symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation in patients experiencing manic episodes with depressive symptoms: a naturalistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Eberhard,1 Emmanuelle Weiller2 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Patients with a bipolar I disorder (BD-I manic episode meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5, criteria for “with mixed features” have a high incidence of suicide attempts and of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (AIA symptoms. The aim of this analysis was to explore the relationship between suicidality and AIA symptoms in patients with BD-I experiencing mania with depressive symptoms, using data from a previous naturalistic study.Patients and methods: Psychiatrists completed an online questionnaire about their adult patients who had a current BD-I manic episode. Questions covered the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier, the severity of AIA symptoms, the frequency and controllability of suicidal ideation, and the number of suicide attempts.Results: Of 1,035 patients with BD-I mania who were included in the analyses, 348 (33.6% met the criteria for the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier (three or more depressive symptoms. These patients were further stratified according to the severity of their AIA symptoms: “mild AIA” (zero or one AIA symptom above a severity threshold; 105 patients or “severe AIA” (all three AIA symptoms above a severity threshold; 167 patients. A greater incidence of suicidal ideation was observed in the severe AIA group (71.9% than in the mild AIA group (47.6%. Twice as many patients had easily controlled suicidal ideation than difficult-to-control suicidal ideation in both subgroups. The mean number of suicide attempts was higher in the severe AIA group than in the mild AIA group, during the current episode (0.84 vs 0.34 attempts, respectively; P<0.05 and over the patient’s lifetime (1.56 vs 1.04 attempts, respectively.Conclusion: The high risk of suicide among BD-I mania patients with depressive

  9. The association between discrimination and PTSD in African Americans: exploring the role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Dubowitz, Tamara; Haas, Ann; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; DeSantis, Amy; Troxel, Wendy M

    2018-02-28

    Research has demonstrated the adverse impact that discrimination has on physical and mental health. However, few studies have examined the association between discrimination and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is evidence that African Americans experience higher rates of PTSD and are more likely to develop PTSD following trauma exposure than Whites, and discrimination may be one reason for this disparity. To examine the association between discrimination and PTSD among a cross-sectional sample largely comprising African American women, controlling for other psychosocial stressors (psychological distress, neighborhood safety, crime). A sample of 806 participants was recruited from two low-income predominantly African American neighborhoods. Participants completed self-report measures of PTSD symptoms, perceived discrimination, perceived safety, and psychological distress. Information on neighborhood crime was obtained through data requested from the city. Multivariate linear regression models were estimated to assess adjusted relationships between PTSD symptoms and discrimination. Discrimination was significantly associated with PTSD symptoms with a small effect size, controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables. This association remained consistent after controlling for psychological distress, perceived safety, and total neighborhood crime. There was no evidence of a gender by discrimination interaction. Participants who experienced any discrimination were significantly more likely to screen positive for PTSD. Discrimination may contribute to the disparate rates of PTSD experienced by African Americans. PTSD is associated with a range of negative consequences, including poorer physical health, mental health, and quality of life. These results suggest the importance of finding ways to promote resilience in this at-risk population.

  10. Trauma and PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J; Cardoso, Graça; Degenhardt, Louisa; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Dinolova, Rumyana V; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Scott, Kate M; Stein, Dan J; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Petukhova, Maria V; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2017-01-01

    Background : Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) onset-persistence is thought to vary significantly by trauma type, most epidemiological surveys are incapable of assessing this because they evaluate lifetime PTSD only for traumas nominated by respondents as their 'worst.' Objective : To review research on associations of trauma type with PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of epidemiological surveys that obtained representative data on trauma-specific PTSD. Method : WMH Surveys in 24 countries (n = 68,894) assessed 29 lifetime traumas and evaluated PTSD twice for each respondent: once for the 'worst' lifetime trauma and separately for a randomly-selected trauma with weighting to adjust for individual differences in trauma exposures. PTSD onset-persistence was evaluated with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results : In total, 70.4% of respondents experienced lifetime traumas, with exposure averaging 3.2 traumas per capita. Substantial between-trauma differences were found in PTSD onset but less in persistence. Traumas involving interpersonal violence had highest risk. Burden of PTSD, determined by multiplying trauma prevalence by trauma-specific PTSD risk and persistence, was 77.7 person-years/100 respondents. The trauma types with highest proportions of this burden were rape (13.1%), other sexual assault (15.1%), being stalked (9.8%), and unexpected death of a loved one (11.6%). The first three of these four represent relatively uncommon traumas with high PTSD risk and the last a very common trauma with low PTSD risk. The broad category of intimate partner sexual violence accounted for nearly 42.7% of all person-years with PTSD. Prior trauma history predicted both future trauma exposure and future PTSD risk. Conclusions : Trauma exposure is common throughout the world, unequally distributed, and differential across trauma types with respect to PTSD risk. Although a substantial minority of PTSD cases remits

  11. Potentially traumatic events have negative and positive effects on loneliness, depending on PTSD-symptom levels: evidence from a population-based prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Pijnappel, Bas; van der Meulen, Erik

    2018-02-01

    Examine to what extent adults affected by recent potentially traumatic events (PTE) with different PTSD-symptom levels are more at risk for post-event loneliness than non-affected adults are in the same study period. We extracted data from the Dutch longitudinal LISS panel to measure pre-event loneliness (2011) and post-event loneliness (2013 and 2014), pre-event mental health problems (2011), PTE and PTSD symptoms (2012). This panel is based on a traditional random sample drawn from the population register by Statistics Netherlands. Results of the multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that affected adults with high levels of PTSD symptoms were more at risk for high levels of post-event loneliness than affected adults with very low PTSD-symptom levels and non-affected adults, while controlling for pre-event loneliness, pre-event mental health problems and demographics. However, affected adults with very low levels of PTSD symptoms compared to non-affected adults were less at risk for medium and high levels of post-event loneliness while controlling for the same variables. Yet, pre-event loneliness appeared to be the strongest independent predictor of loneliness at later stages: more than 80% with high pre-event levels had high post-event levels at both follow-ups. Remarkably, potentially traumatic events have depending on PTSD-symptom levels both negative and positive effects on post-event loneliness in favor of affected adults with very low PTSD symptoms levels. However, post-event levels at later stages are predominantly determined by pre-event loneliness levels.

  12. Resonance Frequency Breathing Biofeedback to Reduce Symptoms of Subthreshold PTSD with an Air Force Special Tactics Operator: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, Lorene M

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been estimated to be several times higher in military populations compared to the national average. Special Tactics operators are a group that is more likely to avoid seeking psychological care due to the stigma and other consequences the diagnosis may have on their military careers. There is a need for more effective and less stigmatizing interventions to treat this population. Psychophysiological methods have been proven to be efficacious in treating PTSD, yet have received less attention as an adjunctive intervention. Resonance frequency (RF) biofeedback is a form of cardiorespiratory intervention that has shown promise as an effective treatment. The current case study examined the use of RF biofeedback in combination with other physiological and evidence-based methods as part of a comprehensive treatment approach. The client showed a significant drop from his initial scores on a screening assessment by the end of treatment, and demonstrated continued progress despite a 3-month break from the therapy. This author proposed that the synergistic effects of the multi-phased treatment approach contributed to the client's progress. Furthermore, a case was made for using multiple techniques when treating subthreshold PTSD and related symptoms within a treatment resistant population.

  13. Symptoms experienced during menopausal transition: Korean women in South Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2003-10-01

    This article reports on cultural influences on symptoms experienced during menopausal transition of Korean women in South Korea and Korean immigrant women in the United States. Data from independent studies of two groups of Korean women were triangulated and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis indicated that Korean women in South Korea tended to report more symptoms than Korean immigrant women in the United States. Types and severity of prevalent symptoms were also found to be different between the two groups. The findings suggest that recent introduction of menopausal industries in South Korea and contextual influences on Korean women's work and immigration in the United States would be the reason for differences. Based on the findings, implications for future research are proposed.

  14. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for PTSD, Know Your Options . × What is PTSD? Right Click here to download "What is PTSD?" (30.5 MB) Close × PTSD Treatment: Know Your Options Right Click here to download "PTSD Treatment: Know Your ...

  15. The Relationship Between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms and Career Outcomes of Army Enlisted Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    genetic analysis on the serotonin transporter gene 5-HTTLPR. Researchers found evidence to suggest that servicemembers with low-transcription...after exposure to trauma, suggesting a servicemember’s likelihood for developing PTSD may change throughout time regardless of genetic ...Training Requirements and Resources System (ATRRS), this automated promotion system generates a final promotion score. Table 3.2 presents the rubric

  16. The Mediating Role of Anger in the Relationship Between PTSD Symptoms and Impulsivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contractor, A. A.; Armour, C.; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates a significant relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anger (Olatunji, Ciesielski, & Tolin, 2010; Orth & Wieland, 2006). Individuals may seek urgent coping to deal with the distress of anger, which is a mobilizing and action-oriented emotion (Novaco & Chem...

  17. Anxiety, depression and PTSD-related symptoms in spouses and close relatives of burn survivors: When the supporter needs to be supported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Suzie; Gourlay, Catherine; Desjardins, Alexandra; Bodson-Clermont, Paule; Boucher, Marie-Ève

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD-related symptoms reported by spouses and close relatives of adult burn survivors. Potential associations between these symptoms and variables such as the severity of the burn were also explored. Participants were spouses (n=31) and close relatives (n=25) of hospitalized patients with acute burns. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed by the Hospital Distress Anxiety and Depression Scale and PTSD-related symptoms by the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale at both admission to and discharge from the burn unit. At admission, 77% of spouses and 56% of close relatives of burn patients reported anxiety, depression or PTSD-related symptoms in the clinical range. While spouses had higher scores than close relatives on symptom measures, significant differences were only established for anxiety symptoms (p<.02). A significant effect was found for gender, with women reporting more anxiety (p=.01) and depression (p=.02) symptoms than men. Results also showed a main effect for time, with anxiety (p<.0001), depression (p<.0001) and PTSD-related (p<.0001) symptoms being higher at admission than at discharge. Variables associated with the index patient, such as total body surface area burned, length of stay, number of ventilated days, facial burns, or level of care at admission, were not associated with outcome measures. Spouses and close relatives of burn survivors showed high levels of psychological distress in the first few days following admission, and more than a quarter still reported symptoms in the clinical range at discharge. Our analysis points to the need to offer psychological support and guidance to family members so that they can in turn provide effective support to the burn survivor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Experienced bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace and symptoms of burnout in teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mościcka-Teske

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the exposure to workplace bullying and hostile behavior and occupational burnout in a sample of Polish teachers. Material and Methods: In our research we studied a nationwide random sample of 1214 teachers. The frequency and type of hostile behaviors against employees was measured with the use of MDM Questionnaire, (“Mobbing, dręczenie, molestowanie” – “Bullying, harrasement, maltreatment” by Mościcka, Drabek, Merecz, developed in the Department of Occupational Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź (Poland, and the level of burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey (MBI-GS. Results: As many as 63% of teachers experienced hostile behavior in their workplace and 7% of them experienced workplace bullying. Employees affected by bullying and hostile behavior reported more symptoms of professional burnout, such as emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lower level of professional efficacy. Conclusions: The majority of teachers in this study experienced some form of hostile behavior in the workplace. One in ten respondents was the subject of workplace bullying. The experience of hostile behavior and bullying at work was significantly connected with symptoms of professional burnout. Therefore, it is desirable to take care of good interpersonal relationships in educational institutions, strengthen teachers’ abilities to cope with difficult interpersonal situations, and implement procedures to prevent bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace. Med Pr 2014;65(4:535–542

  19. Identification of PTSD in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, C L; Pelcovitz, D; Axelrod, A; Goldenberg, B; Harris, H; Meyers, B; Grobois, B; Mandel, F; Septimus, A; Kaplan, S

    1996-01-01

    The authors measured the rate and determinants of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a group of cancer survivors. Patients who had a history of cancer diagnosis with at least 3 years since diagnosis, receiving no active treatment, such as chemotherapy or radiation, were interviewed (N = 27). Patients, who were part of the DSM-IV PTSD field trial, were compared with a community-based control group matched for age and socioeconomic status. One member of the survivor group (4%) and no members of the control group met criteria for current PTSD (NS). Six of the survivors (22%) and no control subjects met lifetime criteria (P Cancer patients have a higher rate of PTSD than found in the community. Symptoms closely resemble those of individuals who have experienced other traumatic events.

  20. Early PTSD Symptom Trajectories: Persistence, Recovery, and Response to Treatment: Results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Ankri, Yael; Freedman, Sara; Israeli-Shalev, Yossi; Roitman, Pablo; Gilad, Moran; Shalev, Arieh Y.

    2013-01-01

    Context Uncovering heterogeneities in the progression of early PTSD symptoms can improve our understanding of the disorder's pathogenesis and prophylaxis. Objectives To describe discrete symptom trajectories and examine their relevance for preventive interventions. Design Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) of data from a randomized controlled study of early treatment. LGMM identifies latent longitudinal trajectories by exploring discrete mixture distributions underlying observable data. Setting Hadassah Hospital unselectively receives trauma survivors from Jerusalem and vicinity. Participants Adult survivors of potentially traumatic events consecutively admitted to the hospital's emergency department (ED) were assessed ten days and one-, five-, nine- and fifteen months after ED admission. Participants with data at ten days and at least two additional assessments (n = 957) were included; 125 received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) between one and nine months. Approach We used LGMM to identify latent parameters of symptom progression and tested the effect of CBT on these parameters. CBT consisted of 12 weekly sessions of either cognitive therapy (n = 41) or prolonged exposure (PE, n = 49), starting 29.8±5.7 days after ED admission, or delayed PE (n = 35) starting at 151.8±42.4 days. CBT effectively reduced PTSD symptoms in the entire sample. Main Outcome Measure Latent trajectories of PTSD symptoms; effects of CBT on these trajectories. Results Three trajectories were identified: Rapid Remitting (rapid decrease in symptoms from 1- to 5-months; 56% of the sample), Slow Remitting (progressive decrease in symptoms over 15 months; 27%) and Non-Remitting (persistently elevated symptoms; 17%). CBT accelerated the recovery of the Slow Remitting class but did not affect the other classes. Conclusions The early course of PTSD symptoms is characterized by distinct and diverging response patterns that are centrally relevant to understanding the disorder

  1. Supporting the education goals of post-9/11 veterans with self-reported PTSD symptoms: a needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Marsha Langer; Mueller, Lisa; Smelson, David; Corrigan, Patrick W; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; Bokhour, Barbara G; Najavits, Lisa M; Vessella, Jennifer M; Drebing, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The influx of young adult veterans with mental health challenges from recent wars combined with newly expanded veteran education benefits has highlighted the need for a supported education service within the Veterans Administration. However, it is unknown how such a service should be designed to best respond to these needs. This study undertook a qualitative needs assessment for education supports among veterans with post-9/11 service with self-reported PTSD symptoms. Focus groups were held with 31 veterans, 54% of whom were under age 30. Transcripts were analyzed and interpreted using a thematic approach and a Participatory Action Research team. Findings indicate a need for age relevant services that assist with: education planning and access, counseling for the G.I. Bill, accommodations for PTSD symptoms, community and family re-integration, and outreach and support. The veterans recommended that supported education be integrated with the delivery of mental health services, that services have varied intensity, and there be linkages between colleges and the Veterans Health Administration.

  2. Examining the effects of a novel training program and use of psychiatric service dogs for military-related PTSD and associated symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloep, Megan L; Hunter, Richard H; Kertz, Sarah J

    2017-01-01

    This study explored an intensive 3-week training program and use of psychiatric service dogs for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated symptoms. The sample included 2 separate cohorts of military veterans (n = 7 and n = 5) with prior diagnoses of PTSD. Participants completed self-report measures assessing PTSD, depression, perception of social support, anger, and overall quality of life 1 month prior to the training (baseline), at arrival to the training site, and 6-month follow-up. Results indicated that, for this sample, there was a statistically significant decrease in PTSD and depression symptoms from pre- to posttreatment, as well as 6-month follow-up. For most participants decreases were both clinically significant and reliable changes. Further, participants reported significant reductions in anger and improvement in perceived social support and quality of life. Limitations of the study include a lack of control group, a limitation of most naturalistic studies, as well as small sample size. Despite this, the findings indicate that utilizing psychiatric service dogs, coupled with an intensive trauma resilience training program for veterans with ongoing symptoms, is feasible as a complementary treatment for PTSD that could yield beneficial results in terms of symptom amelioration and improvement to overall quality of life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Relationship of early-life trauma, war-related trauma, personality traits, and PTSD symptom severity: a retrospective study on female civilian victims of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Stevanović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consequences of war-related traumatisation have mostly been investigated in military and predominant male populations, while research on female civilian victims of war has been neglected. Furthermore, research of post-war posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women has rarely included early-life trauma in their prediction models, so the contribution of trauma in childhood and early youth is still unexplored. Objective: To examine the relationship of early-life trauma, war-related trauma, personality traits, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress among female civilian victims of the recent war in Croatia. Method: The cross-sectional study included 394 participants, 293 war-traumatised adult women civilians, and 101 women without war-related trauma. Participants were recruited using the snowball sampling method. The applied instruments included the Clinician-Administrated PTSD Scale (CAPS, the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R, the War Stressors Assessment Questionnaire (WSAQ, and the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the prediction model of PTSD symptom severity measured by CAPS score for current PTSD. Results: The prevalence of current PTSD (CAPS cut-off score=65 in this cohort was 20.7%. The regression model that included age, early-life trauma, war-related trauma, neuroticism, and extraversion as statistically significant predictors explained 45.8% of variance in PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: Older age, exposure to early-life trauma, exposure to war-related traumatic events, high neuroticism, and low extraversion are independent factors associated with higher level of PTSD symptoms among women civilian victims of war.

  4. 'Living a life in shades of grey': experiencing depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Siren E; Kirkevold, Marit; Engedal, Knut; Kim, Hesook S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lived experience of stroke survivors suffering from depressive symptoms in the acute phase; addressing the following questions: (a) what is the nature of depression as experienced by post-stroke patients in the acute phase? (b) what is it like to live with depression within the first weeks following stroke? Post-stroke depression occurs in at least one quarter of stroke survivors and is linked to poorer outcomes. This qualitative study is methodologically grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology, influenced by van Manen and Ricoeur. A descriptive, qualitative design was used applying in-depth interviews as the method of data collection with nine participants. The data collection took place in 2008. The material revealed two main themes that generate the feeling and description of 'living a life in shades of grey': (a) being trapped and (b) losing oneself. 'Shades of grey' could be understood as being confined in a new life-world and losing oneself as the person one knew. The participants confirmed suffering from depressive symptoms, but depression was not seen as meaningful on its own. They related their experiences of post-stroke depression in the acute phase to the losses they experienced. Nurses ought to take into account the depth of the life changes that stroke survivors may experience. There is a need for continued empirical research on how nurses may help and support stroke survivors dealing with depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke and how depressive symptoms develop over time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sitong; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Li, Li

    2017-11-01

    Among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms associated with HIV diagnosis is a common problem. This study examined HIV diagnosis-related PTSD symptoms and its associated factors among PLHA in rural China. We used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui Province, China. Surveys of 522 PLHA were conducted via computer-assisted personal interview method. PTSD symptoms were measured based on re-experiencing, avoidance and arousal of the day of HIV diagnosis. Association between PTSD symptoms and demographic characteristics, physical and social functioning were assessed by multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling. Social functioning exhibited a direct association with HIV diagnosis-related PTSD symptoms, and also mediated the association between PTSD symptoms and age, family income, and physical functioning. The study findings underscore the importance of developing interventions that alleviate PTSD symptoms and improve social functioning among PLHA in rural China.

  6. Re-experiencing phenomena following a disaster: The long-term predictive role of intrusion symptoms in the development of post-trauma depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence-Wood, Ellie; Van Hooff, Miranda; Baur, Jenelle; McFarlane, Alexander C

    2016-01-15

    Contention in the literature regarding the diagnostic utility of intrusion symptoms highlights that they have high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting PTSD. They are highly prevalent following a range of traumatic events, and across a range of disorders. The prevalence of intrusion symptoms in the absence of PTSD suggests their relevance to the development of other psychopathology. Therefore, the predictive role of intrusion symptoms for other post-trauma psychopathology was examined using data from an epidemiological, longitudinal sample of adults recruited in childhood. From 5 phases of data collection for this sample, these analyses focused on the 20 year and 28 year follow-ups (n=583). Lifetime exposure to trauma was assessed using a modified set of 10 Criterion-A events from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), with PTSD assessed in reference to a self-nominated worst lifetime event, and other DSM-IV disorder also assessed using the CIDI. Results showed that the presence of intrusion symptoms without PTSD at the 20 year follow-up was predictive of increased risk at 28 years for depressive but not anxiety disorders. There was limited psychopathology in the sample, reducing the power to examine many individual disorders. Furthermore, trauma history and psychiatric symptoms were retrospectively reported, introducing the possibility of recall bias. Together the findings suggest that intrusion symptoms may play an aetiological role in the development and/or maintenance of disorders other than PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship of PTSD to key somatic complaints and cultural syndromes among Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic: the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Kredlow, M Alexandra; Pich, Vuth; Bui, Eric; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-06-01

    This article describes a culturally sensitive questionnaire for the assessment of the effects of trauma in the Cambodian refugee population, the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI), and gives the results of a survey with the instrument. The survey examined the relationship of the CSSI, the two CSSI subscales, and the CSSI items to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and self-perceived functioning. A total of 226 traumatized Cambodian refugees were assessed at a psychiatric clinic in Lowell, MA, USA. There was a high correlation of the CSSI, the CSSI somatic and syndrome scales, and all the CSSI items to the PTSD Checklist (PCL), a measure of PTSD severity. All the CSSI items varied greatly across three levels of PTSD severity, and patients with higher levels of PTSD had very high scores on certain CSSI-assessed somatic items such as dizziness, orthostatic dizziness (upon standing), and headache, and on certain CSSI-assessed cultural syndromes such as khyâl attacks, "fear of fainting and dying upon standing up," and "thinking a lot." The CSSI was more highly correlated than the PCL to self-perceived disability assessed by the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12). The study demonstrates that the somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes described by the CSSI form a central part of the Cambodian refugee trauma ontology. The survey indicates that locally salient somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes need be profiled to adequately assess the effects of trauma.

  8. The underlying dimensions of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms and their relations with anxiety and depression in a sample of adolescents exposed to an explosion accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibo; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Cao, Xing; Fang, Ruojiao; Zhang, Jianxin; Elhai, Jon D

    2017-01-01

    Background: A large number of empirical studies pertaining to the latent dimensions of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms have accumulated. However, there is still a lack of studies specific to youths. Objective: This study sought to investigate the latent dimensions of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in a sample of adolescents exposed to an explosion accident. Method: Participants were 836 students (407 females and 428 males). Self-reported measures including the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and the anxiety and depression subscales of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were administered to participants. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was implemented to test competing factor models. Results: A seven-factor model composed of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviours, anxious arousal and dysphoric arousal factors emerged as the best fitting model, and PTSD's factors displayed distinguishable correlations with external measures of anxiety and depression. Conclusions: The findings provide and extend empirical evidence supporting the newly refined seven-factor hybrid model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, and have implications for further trauma-related clinical practice and research.

  9. Surveying treatment preferences in U.S. Iraq-Afghanistan Veterans with PTSD symptoms: a step toward veteran-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Eric F; Elbogen, Eric B; Wagner, H Ryan; Kudler, Harold; Calhoun, Patrick S; Brancu, Mira; Straits-Troster, Kristy A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined health care barriers and preferences among a self-selected sample of returning U.S. veterans drawn from a representative, randomly selected frame surveyed about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and mental health utilization in the prior year. Comparisons between treated (n = 160) and untreated (n = 119) veterans reporting PTSD symptoms were conducted for measures of barriers and preferences, along with logistic models regressing mental health utilization on clusters derived from these measures. Reported barriers corroborated prior research findings as negative beliefs about treatment and stigma were strongly endorsed, but only privacy concerns were associated with lower service utilization (B = -0.408, SE = 0.142; p = .004). The most endorsed preference (91.0%) was for assistance with benefits, trailed by help for physical problems, and particular PTSD symptoms. Help-seeking veterans reported stronger preferences for multiple interventions, and desire for services for families (B = 0.468, SE = 0.219; p = .033) and specific PTSD symptoms (B = 0.659, SE = 0.302; p = .029) were associated with increased utilization. Outcomes of the study suggested PTSD severity drove help-seeking in this cohort. Results also support the integration of medical and mental health services, as well as coordination of health and benefits services. Finally, the study suggested that outreach about privacy protections and treatment options could well improve engagement in treatment. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  10. Grief Symptoms in Relatives who Experienced Organ Donation Request in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Chevret, Sylvie; Cheisson, Gaëlle; Joseph, Liliane; Martin-Lefèvre, Laurent; Si Larbi, Anne Gaelle; Viquesnel, Gérald; Marqué, Sophie; Donati, Stéphane; Charpentier, Julien; Pichon, Nicolas; Zuber, Benjamin; Lesieur, Olivier; Ouendo, Martial; Renault, Anne; Le Maguet, Pascale; Kandelman, Stanislas; Thuong, Marie; Floccard, Bernard; Mezher, Chaouki; Galon, Marion; Duranteau, Jacques; Azoulay, Elie

    2018-03-19

    In the case of organ donation, the family is highly involved in the decision process. To assess experience of organ donation process and grief symptoms in relatives of brain dead patients who discussed organ donation in the ICU. Multicentre cross-sectional study in 28 ICUs in France. Participating subjects were relatives of brain dead patients who were approached to discuss organ donation. Relatives were followed-up by phone at 3 time points: at 1 month to complete a questionnaire describing their experience of organ donation process; At 3 months to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised; At 9 months, to complete the IES-R and the Inventory of Complicated Grief. 202 relatives of 202 patients were included, of whom 158 consented and 44 refused organ donation. Interviews were conducted at 1, 3 and 9 months for 157, 137 and 117 relatives respectively. Experience was significantly more burdensome for relatives of non-donors. However there were no significant differences in grief symptoms measured at 3 and 9 months between the 2 groups. Understanding of brain death was associated with grief symptoms with higher prevalence of complicated grief symptoms in relatives who did not understand (75% vs 46.1%, p=0.026). Experience of the organ donation process varies between relatives of donor vs non-donor patients with relatives of non-donors experiencing lower quality communication, but the decision was not associated with subsequent grief symptoms. Importantly, understanding of brain death is a key element for relatives.

  11. Effect of asthma and PTSD on persistence and onset of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms among adults exposed to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehui; Brackbill, Robert M; Jordan, Hannah T; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Stellman, Steven D

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the direction of causality among asthma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and onset of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) after exposure to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. Using data from the WTC Health Registry, we investigated the effects of early diagnosed post-9/11 asthma and PTSD on the late onset and persistence of GERS using log-binomial regression, and examined whether PTSD mediated the asthma-GERS association using structural equation modeling. Of 29,406 enrollees, 23% reported GERS at follow-up in 2011-2012. Early post-9/11 asthma and PTSD were each independently associated with both the persistence of GERS that was present at baseline and the development of GERS in persons without a prior history. PTSD mediated the association between early post-9/11 asthma and late-onset GERS. Clinicians should assess patients with post-9/11 GERS for comorbid asthma and PTSD, and plan medical care for these conditions in an integrated fashion. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:805-814, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 5-HTTLPR genotype potentiates the effects of war zone stressors on the emergence of PTSD, depressive and anxiety symptoms in soldiers deployed to iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telch, Michael J; Beevers, Christopher G; Rosenfield, David; Lee, Han-Joo; Reijntjes, Albert; Ferrell, Robert E; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to war zone stressors is common, yet only a minority of soldiers experience clinically meaningful disturbance in psychological function. Identification of biomarkers that predict vulnerability to war zone stressors is critical for developing more effective treatment and prevention strategies not only in soldiers but also in civilians who are exposed to trauma. We investigated the role of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype in predicting the emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive and anxiety symptoms as a function of war zone stressors. A prospective cohort of 133 U.S. Army soldiers with no prior history of deployment to a war zone, who were scheduled to deploy to Iraq, was recruited. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations between 5-HTTLPR genotype, level of war zone stressors, and reported symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety while deployed to Iraq. Level of war zone stressors was associated with symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. Consistent with its effects on stress responsiveness, 5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the relationship between level of war zone stressors and symptoms of emotional disturbance. Specifically, soldiers carrying one or two low functioning alleles (S or LG ) reported heightened symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety in response to increased levels of exposure to war zone stressors, relative to soldiers homozygous for the high functioning allele (LA ). These data suggest that 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates individual sensitivity to war zone stressors and the expression of emotional disturbance including PTSD symptoms. Replication of this association along with identification of other genetic moderators of risk can inform the development of biomarkers that can predict relative resilience vs. vulnerability to stress. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  13. Symptom structure and severity: a comparison of responses to the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) between patients with PTSD or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina A; Krystal, John H; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    To describe and compare the structure and relative severity of symptoms in clinical trial patients diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or schizophrenia using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), developed originally to evaluate symptoms of schizophrenia. This secondary data analysis used baseline PANSS symptom ratings (n=267) from a six-month multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive risperidone in patients with chronic military-related PTSD. First, using a split-half design, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was employed to identify independent factors which were then compared to published factor structures for schizophrenia. Next, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was applied to the second half of the sample to compare the results of the EFA and published factor structures. Finally, T-tests were used to compare the severity of factor scores between the PTSD sample and the baseline PANSS ratings from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial for Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia sample (n=1460). EFA suggested five factors similar to those identified in a summary of 29 schizophrenia studies by Wallwork (Schizophrenia Research, 137:246-250). CFA showed that the five factor Wallwork model fit the data better than the EFA, although both had relatively high goodness of fit. T-tests showed that the PTSD sample had more severe symptoms on the Depressive factor, and the schizophrenia sample on the Positive, Negative, and Disorganized factors, with no significant difference on the Excited factor. Veterans with PTSD had similar symptom structure to patients with schizophrenia on the PANSS, but were less symptomatic on psychosis-related factors and more symptomatic on depression. Dimensional symptom factors can be virtually the same across diagnoses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Gender differences in the effects of deployment-related stressors and pre-deployment risk factors on the development of PTSD symptoms in National Guard Soldiers deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polusny, Melissa A; Kumpula, Mandy J; Meis, Laura A; Erbes, Christopher R; Arbisi, Paul A; Murdoch, Maureen; Thuras, Paul; Kehle-Forbes, Shannon M; Johnson, Alexandria K

    2014-02-01

    Although women in the military are exposed to combat and its aftermath, little is known about whether combat as well as pre-deployment risk/protective factors differentially predict post-deployment PTSD symptoms among women compared to men. The current study assesses the influence of combat-related stressors and pre-deployment risk/protective factors on women's risk of developing PTSD symptoms following deployment relative to men's risk. Participants were 801 US National Guard Soldiers (712 men, 89 women) deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan who completed measures of potential risk/protective factors and PTSD symptoms one month before deployment (Time 1) and measures of deployment-related stressors and PTSD symptoms about 2-3 months after returning from deployment (Time 2). Men reported greater exposure to combat situations than women, while women reported greater sexual stressors during deployment than men. Exposure to the aftermath of combat (e.g., witnessing injured/dying people) did not differ by gender. At Time 2, women reported more severe PTSD symptoms and higher rates of probable PTSD than did men. Gender remained a predictor of higher PTSD symptoms after accounting for pre-deployment symptoms, prior interpersonal victimization, and combat related stressors. Gender moderated the association between several risk factors (combat-related stressors, prior interpersonal victimization, lack of unit support and pre-deployment concerns about life/family disruptions) and post-deployment PTSD symptoms. Elevated PTSD symptoms among female service members were not explained simply by gender differences in pre-deployment or deployment-related risk factors. Combat related stressors, prior interpersonal victimization, and pre-deployment concerns about life and family disruptions during deployment were differentially associated with greater post-deployment PTSD symptoms for women than men. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. PTSD Symptoms and Self-Rated Recovery among Adult Sexual Assault Survivors: The Effects of Traumatic Life Events and Psychosocial Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that self-blame is predictive of more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and poorer recovery (Frazier, 2003; Koss, Figueredo, & Prince, 2002), and perceived control over recovery is associated with less distress (Frazier, 2003) in adult sexual assault (ASA) survivors. A structural equation model was…

  16. Assessing PTSD in the military

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Andersen, Søren B.; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen

    2017-01-01

    Since 1998, soldiers deployed to war zones with the Danish Defense (≈31,000) have been invited to fill out a questionnaire on post-mission reactions. This provides a unique data source for studying the psychological toll of war. Here, we validate a measure of PTSD-symptoms from the questionnaire...... including symptoms of PTSD (PRIM-PTSD). They also filled out a validated measure of PTSD-symptoms in DSM-IV, the PTSD-checklist (PCL). We tested reliability of PRIM-PTSD by estimating Cronbach's alpha, and tested validity by correlating items, clusters, and overall scale with corresponding items in the PCL....... Furthermore, we conducted two confirmatory factor analytic models to test the factor structure of PRIM-PTSD, and tested measurement invariance of the selected model. Finally, we established a screening and a clinical cutoff score by application of ROC analysis. We found high internal consistency of the PRIM-PTSD...

  17. THE ATTENUATING EFFECT OF EMPOWERMENT ON IPV-RELATED PTSD SYMPTOMS IN BATTERED WOMEN LIVING IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SHELTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Sara; Johnson, Dawn M.; Wright, Caroline Vaile

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with significant psychological distress, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, factors that attenuate the impact of IPV on PTSD remain largely unknown. Using hierarchical regression, this investigation explored the impact of resource acquisition and empowerment on the relationship between IPV and PTSD. Empowerment demonstrated greater relative importance over resource acquisition. Specifically, empowerment was found to attenuate the impact of IPV severity on PTSD at low and moderate levels of violence. The importance of fostering empowerment and addressing PTSD in addition to provision of resources in battered women is discussed. PMID:22411301

  18. Trauma exposure, resilience, social support, and PTSD construct validity among former prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P B; Engdahl, B E; Eberly, R E; Blake, R J; Page, W F; Frueh, B C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of persistent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to examine the construct validity of PTSD in a national sample of 270 World War II and Korean Conflict prisoners of war (POWs). POWs were interviewed at two points in time (1965 and 1990). Predictors included PTSD symptomatology measured in 1965 by items from the Cornell Medical Index (CMI), severity of captivity trauma, resilience factors, and post-trauma social support. The criterion, symptomatology in the early 1990s, was evaluated with the PTSD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). The CMI provided only partial coverage of PTSD criteria and appeared to provide only a general index of distress. Clustering of SCID items in two-dimensional space via multidimensional scaling analysis offers some construct validation for the DSM's differentiation of PTSD symptoms into criterion groups, although there was not a perfect match. Trauma severity is best related to PTSD symptomatology experienced in 1990, mitigated in part by greater education level and age at the time of trauma exposure. Surprisingly, 1965 distress added only a modest amount to the prediction of current distress, while post-trauma social support added none. These findings support previous work showing the severe psychological sequelae of POW status 40-50 years after captivity, and indicate that trauma severity during captivity is the best predictor of current PTSD symptomatology. Results also add to our understanding of the conceptual differentiation of PTSD symptoms into separate and distinct symptom clusters.

  19. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, S; Lin, C; Ji, G; Li, L

    2017-01-01

    Among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms associated with HIV diagnosis is a common problem. This study examined HIV diagnosis-related PTSD symptoms and its associated factors among PLHA in rural China. We used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui Province, China. Surveys of 522 PLHA were conducted via computer-assisted personal interview method. PTSD symptoms were measured based on re-experiencing...

  20. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  1. PTSD, depression and anxiety among former abductees in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Northern Uganda has been exposed to extreme levels of traumatic stress and thousands abducted forcibly became rebel combatants. Methods Using structured interviews, the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety was assessed in 72 former abducted adults, 62 of them being former child soldiers. Results As retrospective reports of exposure to traumatic stress increased, anxiety and PTSD occurrence increased (r = .45. 49% of respondents were diagnosed with PTSD, 70% presented with symptoms of depression, and 59% with those of anxiety. In a multiple linear regression analysis four factors could best explain the development of PTSD symptoms: male respondents (sex living in an IDP-Camp (location with a kinship murdered in the war (family members killed in the war and having experienced a high number of traumatic events (number of traumatic events were more likely to develop symptoms of PTSD than others. In disagreement to a simple dose-response-effect though, we also observed a negative correlation between the time spent with the rebels and the PTSD symptom level. Conclusions Former abductees continue to suffer from severe mental ill-health. Adaptation to the living condition of rebels, however, may lower trauma-related mental suffering.

  2. Stigma associated with PTSD: perceptions of treatment seeking combat veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Dinesh; Drummond, Karen L; Blevins, Dean; Curran, Geoffrey; Corrigan, Patrick; Sullivan, Greer

    2013-06-01

    Although stigma associated with serious mental illness, substance abuse disorders, and depression has been studied very little is known about stigma associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This study explored stigma related to PTSD among treatment-seeking Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combat veterans. Sixteen treatment-seeking OEF/OIF veterans with combat-related PTSD participated in focus groups. We used qualitative methods to explore PTSD-related stigma. Common perceived stereotypes of treatment-seeking veterans with PTSD included labels such as "dangerous/violent," or "crazy," and a belief that combat veterans are responsible for having PTSD. Most participants reported avoiding treatment early on to circumvent a label of mental illness. Participants initially reported experiencing some degree of self-stigma; however, following engagement in treatment they predominantly resisted these stereotypes. Although most participants considered combat-related PTSD as less stigmatizing than other mental illnesses, they reported difficulties with reintegration. Such challenges likely stem from both PTSD symptoms and veterans' perceptions of how the public views them. Most reported that fellow combat veterans best understood them. Awareness of public stereotypes impacts help seeking at least early in the course of illness. Peer-based outreach and therapy groups may help veterans engage in treatment early and resist stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Update to an evaluation of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD criteria in a sample of adult survivors of childhood institutional abuse by Knefel & Lueger-Schuster (2013: a latent profile analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Knefel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization (WHO International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11, has proposed a trauma-related diagnosis of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD separate and distinct from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Objective: To determine whether the symptoms endorsed by individuals who had experienced childhood institutional abuse form classes that are consistent with diagnostic criteria for ICD-11 CPTSD as distinct from PTSD. Methods: A latent profile analysis (LPA was conducted on 229 adult survivors of institutional abuse using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the PTSD Checklist—Civilian Version to assess current psychopathological symptoms. Results: The LPA revealed four classes of individuals: (1 a class with elevated symptoms of CPTSD (PTSD symptoms and disturbances in self-organization; (2 a class with elevated symptoms of PTSD and low disturbances in self-organization; (3 a class with elevated disturbances in self-organization symptoms and some elevated PTSD symptoms; and (4 a class with low symptoms. Conclusions: The results support the existence of a distinct group in our sample, that could be described by the proposed diagnostic category termed CPTSD more precisely than by normal PTSD. In addition, there seems to be a group of persons that do not fulfill the criteria for a trauma-related disorder but yet suffer from psychopathological symptoms.

  4. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  5. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  6. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  7. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... Adult Self Report Child Measures Deployment Measures DSM-5 Measures PTSD Screens Trauma Exposure Measures Assessment Request ... Click here to download "What is PTSD?" (30.5 MB) Close × PTSD Treatment: Know Your Options Right ...

  8. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... the Public Public Section Home PTSD Overview PTSD Basics Return from War Specific to Women Types of ... Section Home PTSD Overview Types of Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military Trauma Violence & other Trauma ...

  9. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... Locations Contact Us FAQs Ask a Question Toll Free Numbers ... it PTSD? Treatment and Coping Treatment Self-Help and Coping PTSD Research Where to Get Help for PTSD Help with ...

  10. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... VA PTSD Care or Benefits Other Common Problems Family and Friends PTSD and Communities Paginas en Espanol ... Cultural Considerations Women Children Older Adults Working with Families PTSD Consultation For Specific Providers VA Providers and ...

  11. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... PTSD or Get Help with VA PTSD Care, Benefits, or Claims For Web site help: Web Policies PTSD Information Voice Mail: (802) 296-6300 ... Complete Directory EMAIL UPDATES Email Address Required Button ...

  12. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  13. Late-Onset PTSD in Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Exploring the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Geert E.; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty J. L. M.; Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2011-01-01

    Following resettlement in Western countries, unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear to what extent PTSD in this group may become manifest at later stages following resettlement and which factors are associated with late onset. We examined data from URM collected 1 (T1) and 2…

  14. Razlike med spoloma pri nekaterih simptomih stresa ter intenzivnost doživljanja stresnih simptomov = Gender Differences in Some Stress Symptoms and Intensity of Experiencing Stress Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Meško

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the symptoms of stress and to establishgender differences in stress symptoms. We tried to find out ifthere are gender differences in the stress level at work, if there aregender differences in terms of stress symptoms frequency, and if thereare gender differences in terms of the intensity of experiencing stresssymptoms. In this study 85 randomly selected managers from Slovenecompanies participated. The results of the study have shown that thereare gender differences in terms of all the above mentioned factors,namely a statistically higher level of stress in women. In terms of stresssymptoms occurrence there are gender differences in some stress symptomsas well as in the intensity of experiencing stress symptoms.

  15. PTSD Symptom Severities, Interpersonal Traumas, and Benzodiazepines Are Associated with Substance-Related Problems in Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Goldberg, Adam J.; Farnsworth, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma is commonly associated with substance-related problems, yet associations between specific substances and specific posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSSs) are understudied. We hypothesized that substance-related problems are associated with PTSS severities, interpersonal traumas, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma histories (n = 472), we used logistic regression to examine substance-related problems in general (primary, confirmatory analysis), as well as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems specifically (secondary, exploratory analyses) in relation to demographics, trauma type, PTSSs, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, several factors were significantly associated with substance-related problems, particularly benzodiazepines (AOR = 2.78; 1.99 for alcohol, 2.42 for tobacco, 8.02 for illicit drugs), DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis (AOR = 1.92; 2.38 for alcohol, 2.00 for tobacco, 2.14 for illicit drugs), most PTSSs (especially negative beliefs, recklessness, and avoidance), and interpersonal traumas (e.g., assaults and child abuse). Conclusion: In this clinical sample, there were consistent and strong associations between several trauma-related variables and substance-related problems, consistent with our hypotheses. We discuss possible explanations and implications of these findings, which we hope will stimulate further research, and improve screening and treatment. PMID:27517964

  16. PTSD Symptom Severities, Interpersonal Traumas, and Benzodiazepines Are Associated with Substance-Related Problems in Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Guina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trauma is commonly associated with substance-related problems, yet associations between specific substances and specific posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSSs are understudied. We hypothesized that substance-related problems are associated with PTSS severities, interpersonal traumas, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma histories (n = 472, we used logistic regression to examine substance-related problems in general (primary, confirmatory analysis, as well as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems specifically (secondary, exploratory analyses in relation to demographics, trauma type, PTSSs, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, several factors were significantly associated with substance-related problems, particularly benzodiazepines (AOR = 2.78; 1.99 for alcohol, 2.42 for tobacco, 8.02 for illicit drugs, DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis (AOR = 1.92; 2.38 for alcohol, 2.00 for tobacco, 2.14 for illicit drugs, most PTSSs (especially negative beliefs, recklessness, and avoidance, and interpersonal traumas (e.g., assaults and child abuse. Conclusion: In this clinical sample, there were consistent and strong associations between several trauma-related variables and substance-related problems, consistent with our hypotheses. We discuss possible explanations and implications of these findings, which we hope will stimulate further research, and improve screening and treatment.

  17. In search of the trauma memory: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sartory

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients' attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being

  18. Activation of professional and personal network relations when experiencing a symptom: a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elnegaard, Sandra; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Pedersen, Anette Fischer

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe patterns of disclosure of symptoms experienced among people in the general population to persons in their personal and/or professional network. Design A population-based cross-sectional study. Data were collected from a web-based survey. Setting The general population...... in Denmark. Participants 100 000 individuals randomly selected, representative of the adult Danish population aged ≥20 years were invited. Approximately 5% were not eligible for inclusion. 49 706 (men=23 240; women=26 466) of 95 253 eligible individuals completed the questionnaire; yielding a response rate...... of 52.2%. Individuals completing all questions regarding social network relations form the study base (n=44 313). Primary and secondary outcome measures Activation of personal and/or professional relations when experiencing a symptom. Results The 44 313 individuals reported in total 260 079 symptom...

  19. Distinguishing PTSD, Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder: A latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylène Cloitre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been debate regarding whether Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD is distinct from Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD when the latter is comorbid with PTSD. Objective: To determine whether the patterns of symptoms endorsed by women seeking treatment for childhood abuse form classes that are consistent with diagnostic criteria for PTSD, Complex PTSD, and BPD. Method: A latent class analysis (LCA was conducted on an archival dataset of 280 women with histories of childhood abuse assessed for enrollment in a clinical trial for PTSD. Results: The LCA revealed four distinct classes of individuals: a Low Symptom class characterized by low endorsements on all symptoms; a PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD but low endorsement of symptoms that define the Complex PTSD and BPD diagnoses; a Complex PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD and self-organization symptoms that defined the Complex PTSD diagnosis but low on the symptoms of BPD; and a BPD class characterized by symptoms of BPD. Four BPD symptoms were found to greatly increase the odds of being in the BPD compared to the Complex PTSD class: frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, unstable sense of self, unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, and impulsiveness. Conclusions: Findings supported the construct validity of Complex PTSD as distinguishable from BPD. Key symptoms that distinguished between the disorders were identified, which may aid in differential diagnosis and treatment planning.

  20. A psychometric assessment of Disturbances in Self-Organization symptom indicators for ICD-11 Complex PTSD using the International Trauma Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, Mark; Hyland, Philip; Roberts, Neil P; Bisson, Jonathan I; Brewin, Chris R; Cloitre, Marylene

    2018-01-01

    Background : Two 'sibling disorders' have been proposed for the 11 th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11): Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). To date, no research has attempted to identify the optimal symptom indicators for the 'Disturbances in Self-Organization' (DSO) symptom cluster. Objective : The aim of the current study was to assess the psychometric performance of scores of 16 potential DSO symptom indicators from the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ). Criteria relating to score variability and their ability to discriminate were employed. Method : Participants ( N  = 1839) were a nationally representative household sample of non-institutionalized adults currently residing in the US. Item scores from the ITQ were examined in relation to basic criteria associated with interpretability, variability, homogeneity, and association with functional impairment. The performance of the DSO symptoms was also assessed using 1- and 2-parameter item response theory (IRT) models. Results : The distribution of responses for all DSO indicators met the criteria associated with interpretability, variability, homogeneity, and association with functional impairment. The 1-parameter graded response model was considered the best model and indicated that each set of indictors performed very similarly. Conclusions : The ITQ contains 16 DSO symptom indicators and they perform well in measuring their respective symptom cluster. There was no evidence that particular indicators were 'better' than others, and it was concluded that the indicators are essentially interchangeable.

  1. Effect of Prolonged Exposure Therapy Delivered Over 2 Weeks vs 8 Weeks vs Present-Centered Therapy on PTSD Symptom Severity in Military Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, Edna B; McLean, Carmen P; Zang, Yinyin; Rosenfield, David; Yadin, Elna; Yarvis, Jeffrey S; Mintz, Jim; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Borah, Elisa V; Dondanville, Katherine A; Fina, Brooke A; Hall-Clark, Brittany N; Lichner, Tracey; Litz, Brett T; Roache, John; Wright, Edward C; Peterson, Alan L

    2018-01-23

    Effective and efficient treatment is needed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active duty military personnel. To examine the effects of massed prolonged exposure therapy (massed therapy), spaced prolonged exposure therapy (spaced therapy), present-centered therapy (PCT), and a minimal-contact control (MCC) on PTSD severity. Randomized clinical trial conducted at Fort Hood, Texas, from January 2011 through July 2016 and enrolling 370 military personnel with PTSD who had returned from Iraq, Afghanistan, or both. Final follow-up was July 11, 2016. Prolonged exposure therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy involving exposure to trauma memories/reminders, administered as massed therapy (n = 110; 10 sessions over 2 weeks) or spaced therapy (n = 109; 10 sessions over 8 weeks); PCT, a non-trauma-focused therapy involving identifying/discussing daily stressors (n = 107; 10 sessions over 8 weeks); or MCC, telephone calls from therapists (n = 40; once weekly for 4 weeks). Outcomes were assessed before and after treatment and at 2-week, 12-week, and 6-month follow-up. Primary outcome was interviewer-assessed PTSD symptom severity, measured by the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I; range, 0-51; higher scores indicate greater PTSD severity; MCID, 3.18), used to assess efficacy of massed therapy at 2 weeks posttreatment vs MCC at week 4; noninferiority of massed therapy vs spaced therapy at 2 weeks and 12 weeks posttreatment (noninferiority margin, 50% [2.3 points on PSS-I, with 1-sided α = .05]); and efficacy of spaced therapy vs PCT at posttreatment. Among 370 randomized participants, data were analyzed for 366 (mean age, 32.7 [SD, 7.3] years; 44 women [12.0%]; mean baseline PSS-I score, 25.49 [6.36]), and 216 (59.0%) completed the study. At 2 weeks posttreatment, mean PSS-I score was 17.62 (mean decrease from baseline, 7.13) for massed therapy and 21.41 (mean decrease, 3.43) for MCC (difference in decrease, 3.70 [95% CI,0.72 to 6.68]; P = .02

  2. How Common Is PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » How Common Is PTSD? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... here Enter ZIP code here How Common Is PTSD? Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, ...

  3. How Is PTSD Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public » Is it PTSD? » How is PTSD Measured? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... code here Enter ZIP code here How is PTSD Measured? Public This section is for Veterans, General ...

  4. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... to download "What is PTSD?" (30.5 MB) Close × PTSD Treatment: Know Your Options Right Click here ... PTSD Treatment: Know Your Options" (29.5 MB) Close × Cognitive Processing Therapy for PTSD Right Click here ...

  5. Trauma-related dreams of Australian veterans with PTSD: content, affect and phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Andrea J; Forbes, David; Hopwood, Malcolm; Creamer, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Consensus on the parameters of trauma-related dreams required to meet criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critical when: (i) the diagnosis requires a single re-experiencing symptom; and (ii) trauma dreams are prevalent in survivors without PTSD. This study investigated the phenomenology of PTSD dreams in 40 veterans, using structured interview and self-report measures. Dream content varied between replay, non-replay, and mixed, but affect was largely the same as that experienced at the time of trauma across all dream types. ANOVA indicated no difference between dream types on PTSD severity or nightmare distress. The findings provide preliminary support for non-replay dreams to satisfy the DSM B2 diagnostic criterion when the affect associated with those dreams is the same as that experienced at the time of the traumatic event.

  6. Biomarkers of PTSD: military applications and considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Lehrner; Rachel Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although there are no established biomarkers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as yet, biological investigations of PTSD have made progress identifying the pathophysiology of PTSD. Given the biological and clinical complexity of PTSD, it is increasingly unlikely that a single biomarker of disease will be identified. Rather, investigations will more likely identify different biomarkers that indicate the presence of clinically significant PTSD symptoms, associate with risk fo...

  7. Beyond Pathologizing Harm: Understanding PTSD in the Context of War Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Patricia; Halpern, Jodi; Gordon, Deborah R; Popell, Catherine Long; Kelley, Patricia W

    2018-03-01

    An alternative to objectifying approaches to understanding Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology is presented. Nurses who provided care for soldiers injured in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, and sixty-seven wounded male servicemen in the rehabilitation phase of their recovery were interviewed. PTSD is the one major psychiatric diagnosis where social causation is established, yet PTSD is predominantly viewed in terms of the usual neuro-physiological causal models with traumatic social events viewed as pathogens with dose related effects. Biologic models of causation are applied reductively to both predisposing personal vulnerabilities and strengths that prevent PTSD, such as resiliency. However, framing PTSD as an objective disease state separates it from narrative historical details of the trauma. Personal stories and cultural meanings of the traumatic events are seen as epiphenomenal, unrelated to the understanding of, and ultimately, the therapeutic treatment of PTSD. Most wounded service members described classic symptoms of PTSD: flashbacks, insomnia, anxiety etc. All experienced disturbance in their sense of time and place. Rather than see the occurrence of these symptoms as decontextualized mechanistic reverberations of war, we consider how these symptoms meaningfully reflect actual war experiences and sense of displacement experienced by service members.

  8. Guilt, Shame and Compassionate Imagery in War: Traumatized German Soldiers with PTSD, a Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alliger-Horn, Christina; Zimmermann, Peter Lutz; Schmucker, Mervyn

    2016-01-01

    Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop...

  9. Interdisciplinary Residential Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Symptom Severity and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Sarah M.; Walter, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory–2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25005504

  10. An evaluation of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD criteria in a sample of adult survivors of childhood institutional abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Knefel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : The WHO recently launched the proposal for the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11 that also includes two diagnoses related to traumatic stress. In contrast to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5, ICD-11 will probably, in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, also define a new diagnosis termed “complex posttraumatic stress disorder” (CPTSD. Objective : We aimed to apply the proposed ICD-11 criteria for PTSD and CPTSD and to compare their prevalence to the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases [10th revision] PTSD prevalence. In addition, we compiled a list of symptoms for CPTSD based on subthreshold PTSD so as to include a wider group of individuals. Methods : To evaluate the appropriateness of the WHO ICD-11 proposal compared to the criteria of ICD-10, we applied the newly introduced criteria for PTSD and CPTSD deriving from the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI scales, to a sample of adult survivors (N=229 of childhood institutional abuse. We evaluated the construct validity of CPTSD using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Results : More individuals fulfilled the criteria for PTSD according to ICD-10 (52.8% than the ICD-11 proposal (17% for PTSD only; 38.4% if combined with complex PTSD. The new version of PTSD neutralized the gender effects. The prevalence of CPTSD was 21.4%, and women had a significantly higher rate of CPTSD than men (40.4 and 15.8%, respectively. Those survivors who were diagnosed with CPTSD experienced institutional abuse for a longer time. CFA showed a strong model fit. Conclusion : CPTSD is a highly relevant classification for individuals with complex trauma history, but surprisingly, effects of gender were apparent. Further research should thus address gender effects.

  11. Associations of Immigration Transition to Cardiovascular Symptoms Experienced in Menopausal Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of immigration transition to cardiovascular symptoms among 4 major racial/ethnic groups of 1054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from 2 large national survey studies. The instruments included questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including hierarchical multiple regressions. Immigrants reported fewer numbers (t = 5.268, P < .01) and lower severity scores (t = 5.493, P < .01) of cardiovascular symptoms compared with nonimmigrants. Self-reported racial/ethnic identify was a significant factor influencing cardiovascular symptoms (P < .01).

  12. Biomarkers for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Intern Med 167, 476-82 (2007). 5 P. B. Watson and B. Daniels, Follow up of post - traumatic stress disorder symptoms in Australian servicemen...for DOD and VA as objective indicators of PTSD for use in post - deployment medical screening, treatment selection, treatment outcome monitoring...mitigating the associations between war zone-related PTSD and physical health problems, including cardiovascular and metabolic disorders 6-10. In

  13. Prospective risk factors for adolescent PTSD: sources of differential exposure and differential vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Zona, Kate; Acker, Jenna; Turcios-Cotto, Viana

    2013-02-01

    There are two types of risk factors for developing PTSD: factors that increase the likelihood of experiencing a potentially traumatizing event and factors that increase the likelihood of developing symptoms following such events. Using prospective data over a two-year period from a large, diverse sample of urban adolescents (n = 1242, Mean age = 13.5), the current study differentiates these two sources of risk for developing PTSD in response to violence exposure. Five domains of potential risk and protective factors were examined: community context (e.g., neighborhood poverty), family risk (e.g., family conflict), behavioral maladjustment (e.g., internalizing symptoms), cognitive vulnerabilities (e.g., low IQ), and interpersonal problems (e.g., low social support). Time 1 interpersonal violence history, externalizing behaviors, and association with deviant peers were the best predictors of subsequent violence, but did not further increase the likelihood of PTSD in response to violence. Race/ethnicity, thought disorder symptoms, and social problems were distinctly predictive of the development of PTSD following violence exposure. Among youth exposed to violence, Time 1 risk factors did not predict specific event features associated with elevated PTSD rates (e.g., parent as perpetrator), nor did interactions between Time 1 factors and event features add significantly to the prediction of PTSD diagnosis. Findings highlight areas for refinement in adolescent PTSD symptom measures and conceptualization, and provide direction for more targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, underlying affective vulnerabilities, and smoking for affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Cook, Jessica W; Japuntich, Sandra J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is overrepresented among cigarette smokers. It has been hypothesized that those with PTSD smoke to alleviate negative affect and counteract deficient positive affect commonly associated with the disorder; however, limited research has examined associations between PTSD symptoms, smoking motives, and affective vulnerability factors. In the current study, we examined (1) whether PTSD symptoms were associated with positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement smoking motives; and (2) whether two affective vulnerability factors implicated in PTSD-anxiety sensitivity and anhedonia-mediated relationships between PTSD symptoms and smoking motives. Data were drawn from a community sample of non-treatment-seeking smokers recruited without regard for trauma history (N = 342; 10+ cig/day). We used the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) to assess overall PTSD symptom severity as well as individual PTSD subfactors. Overall, PTSD symptom severity was significantly associated with negative reinforcement, but not positive reinforcement, smoking motives. Variation in anxiety sensitivity significantly mediated the relation between PTSD symptom severity and negative reinforcement smoking motives, whereas anhedonia did not. Regarding PTSD subfactors, emotional numbing was the only PTSD subfactor associated with smoking rate, while re-experiencing symptoms were uniquely associated with both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement smoking motives. Findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be an important feature associated with PTSD that enhances motivation to smoke for negative reinforcement purposes. Smoking cessation interventions that alleviate anxiety sensitivity and enhance coping with negative affect may be useful for smokers with elevated PTSD symptoms. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  15. Depressive Symptoms among Female College Students Experiencing Gender-Based Violence in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Arnold, Dodie; Williams, Michelle A.; Goshu, Miruts; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Little epidemiologic research has focused on the mental health effects of gender-based violence among sub-Saharan African women. The objective of this study was to assess risk of depression and depressive symptoms among 1,102 female undergraduate students who were victims of gender-based violence. Students who reported experience of any…

  16. Palliative Care: The Relief You Need When You're Experiencing Symptoms of Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to you can bene fi t from this type of care. What is palliative care? Palliative care is ... that pain and other symptoms affect your quality of life and can leave you lacking the energy or motivation to pursue the things you enjoy. They also ...

  17. A longitudinal fMRI investigation in acute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jun; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Li, Weihui; Hou, Cailan; Zhong, Yuan; He, Zhong; Li, Lingjiang; Lu, Guangming

    2016-11-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies have implicated limbic, paralimbic, and prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about the neural substrates of acute PTSD and how they change with symptom improvement. Purpose To examine the neural circuitry underlying acute PTSD and brain function changes during clinical recovery from this disorder. Material and Methods Nineteen acute PTSD patients and nine non-PTSD subjects who all experienced a devastating mining accident underwent clinical assessment as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while viewing trauma-related and neutral pictures. Two years after the accident, a subgroup of 17 patients completed a second clinical evaluation, of which 13 were given an identical follow-up scan. Results Acute PTSD patients demonstrated greater activation in the vermis and right posterior cingulate, and greater deactivation in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobules than controls in the traumatic versus neutral condition. At follow-up, PTSD patients showed symptom reduction and decreased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral posterior cingulate/precuneus, and cerebellum. Correlation results confirmed these findings and indicated that brain activation in the posterior cingulate/precuneus and vermis was predictive of PTSD symptom improvement. Conclusion The findings support the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate, and vermis in the pathogenesis of acute PTSD. Brain activation in the vermis and posterior cingulate/precuneus appears to be a biological marker of recovery potential from PTSD. Furthermore, decreased activation of the middle frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate/precuneus, and cerebellum may reflect symptom improvement.

  18. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... Overview PTSD Basics Return from War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse ... Treatment Treatment Overview Early Intervention Veterans Cultural Considerations Women Children Older Adults Working with Families PTSD Consultation ...

  19. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  1. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  16. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... PTSD Basics Return from War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters Is ... Search For Professionals Professional Section Home PTSD Overview Types of Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military Trauma ...

  17. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  18. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  19. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... and More Mobile Apps Videos Web Links PTSD Site Search For Professionals Professional Section Home PTSD Overview Types of Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military Trauma Violence & other Trauma Assessment ...

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Symptoms Among Women Seeking Help for Relationship Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Casey T.; Vogt, Dawne S.; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between intimate partner aggression and physical health symptoms among a sample of help-seeking women experiencing relationship aggression (N = 388). Using a structural equation modeling framework, the authors found posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to fully mediate the associations of both physical and psychological aggression with physical health symptoms. The influence of PTSD symptoms on physical health symptoms was partially mediated by anger/irritability. Results were consistent with studies from other trauma groups suggesting that PTSD is pivotal with respect to explaining the effects of trauma on health. PMID:17874920

  1. Sudden losses and sudden gains during a DBT-PTSD treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Krüger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure-based treatment approaches are first-line interventions for patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the dissemination of exposure-based treatments for PTSD is challenging, as a large proportion of clinicians report being concerned about symptoms worsening as a result of this type of intervention and are therefore reluctant to offer it to patients with PTSD. However, there is only little empirical evidence to date on the pattern of symptom worsening during exposure-based treatment for PTSD. Objective: The goal of the present study was to explore the frequency of sudden losses and sudden gains in the course of an exposure-based treatment programme for female patients suffering from PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse who also show severe comorbidity. In addition, the relationship between sudden changes and treatment outcome was examined. Methods: Female participants (N=74 were randomised to either a 12-week residential DBT-PTSD programme or a treatment-as-usual wait list. The pattern of symptom change was assessed via weekly assessments using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS. Sudden changes were computed as suggested by the literature on sudden gains. Results: During treatment, only one participant (3% experienced a sudden loss, whereas 25% of participants experienced sudden gains. In the waiting condition, 8% of the participants experienced sudden losses and 5% experienced sudden gains during the same time period. No symptom worsening was observed in response to exposure sessions. However, sudden gains occurred during exposure and non-exposure treatment weeks. Patients with sudden gains showed better treatment outcome in the post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Exposure-based treatment did not lead to PTSD symptom worsening in the study sample. Results show that sudden gains occur frequently during PTSD treatment and have a prognostic value for treatment outcome.

  2. A prospective cohort study on posttraumatic stress disorder in liver transplantation recipients before and after transplantation : Prevalence, symptom occurrence, and intrusive memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Coby; Drent, Gerda; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Metselaar, Herold J.; Van Hoek, Bart; Porte, Robert J.; Schroevers, Maya J.; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed at increasing the understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in liver transplant patients by describing the course of PTSD, symptom occurrence, psychological co-morbidity, and the nature of re-experiencing symptoms. Methods: A prospective cohort study was

  3. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  11. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  13. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, D.; Olff, Miranda

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of

  14. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosaura Polak, A.; Witteveen, Anke B.; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of

  15. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by women experiencing menopausal symptoms in Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardo Flavia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study describes Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM use amongst Italian women transitioning through menopause. Popularity and perceived effectiveness of CAM treatments, use of pharmaceutical medications, characteristics of CAM users, the extent of communication between medical practitioners and women about their use of CAM, and variables associated with CAM use were also investigated. Methods Women, aged 45-65 years attending Family Planning and Women's Health clinics or Menopause Centres in Bologna were invited to complete a voluntary, anonymous, self administered questionnaire, which was used in a previous study in Sydney. The questionnaire was translated and adapted for use amongst Italian women. Data on general demographic and health characteristics, menopause related symptoms and the use of CAM and pharmaceutical treatments during the previous 12 months were collected. Results In total, 1,203 women completed the survey, of which 1,106 were included in the final sample. Of women who had symptoms linked with menopause and/or used remedies to alleviate symptoms, 33.5% reported to have used CAM. Among these, 23.5% had consulted one or more practitioners and 24% had used at least one CAM product. Approximately nine out of ten respondents reported medical practitioners did not seek information about their use of CAM; while one third of CAM users did not disclose the use of CAM to their physician. Nevertheless, medical practitioners were the most popular source of information. From the multivariate analysis, variables associated with CAM use were: professional employment, time since the last natural menses, use of CAM for conditions other than menopause, and presence of some severe symptoms. Conclusions The relatively high prevalence of CAM use by women transitioning through menopause should encourage research initiatives into determining which CAM treatments are the safest and effective. The increasing and

  16. The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by women experiencing menopausal symptoms in Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardini, Francesco; Lesi, Grazia; Lombardo, Flavia; van der Sluijs, Corinne

    2010-02-27

    The present study describes Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use amongst Italian women transitioning through menopause. Popularity and perceived effectiveness of CAM treatments, use of pharmaceutical medications, characteristics of CAM users, the extent of communication between medical practitioners and women about their use of CAM, and variables associated with CAM use were also investigated. Women, aged 45-65 years attending Family Planning and Women's Health clinics or Menopause Centres in Bologna were invited to complete a voluntary, anonymous, self administered questionnaire, which was used in a previous study in Sydney. The questionnaire was translated and adapted for use amongst Italian women. Data on general demographic and health characteristics, menopause related symptoms and the use of CAM and pharmaceutical treatments during the previous 12 months were collected. In total, 1,203 women completed the survey, of which 1,106 were included in the final sample. Of women who had symptoms linked with menopause and/or used remedies to alleviate symptoms, 33.5% reported to have used CAM. Among these, 23.5% had consulted one or more practitioners and 24% had used at least one CAM product.Approximately nine out of ten respondents reported medical practitioners did not seek information about their use of CAM; while one third of CAM users did not disclose the use of CAM to their physician. Nevertheless, medical practitioners were the most popular source of information. From the multivariate analysis, variables associated with CAM use were: professional employment, time since the last natural menses, use of CAM for conditions other than menopause, and presence of some severe symptoms. The relatively high prevalence of CAM use by women transitioning through menopause should encourage research initiatives into determining which CAM treatments are the safest and effective. The increasing and likely concomitant use of CAM with HRT and other pharmaceuticals

  17. PTSD-8: A Short PTSD Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Palic, Sabina; Mackrill, Thomas

    2010-09-28

    Traumatic events pose great challenges on mental health services in scarcity of specialist trauma clinicians and services. Simple short screening instruments for detecting adverse psychological responses are needed. Several brief screening instruments have been developed. However, some are limited, especially in relation to reflecting the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Recently, several studies have challenged pre-existing ideas about PTSD's latent structure. Factor analytic research currently supports two four factor models. One particular model contains a dysphoria factor which has been associated with depression and anxiety. The symptoms in this factor have been hailed as less specific to PTSD. The scope of this article is therefore to present a short screening instrument, based on this research; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - 8 items. The PTSD-8 is shown to have good psychometric properties in three independent samples of whiplash patients (n=1710), rape victims (n=305), and disaster victims (n=516). Good test-rest reliability is also shown in a pilot study of young adults from families with alcohol problems (n=56).

  18. The effects of antenatal education on fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following childbirth: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe İsbir, Gözde; İnci, Figen; Önal, Hatice; Yıldız, Pelin Dıkmen

    2016-11-01

    Fear of birth and low childbirth self-efficacy is predictive of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following childbirth. The efficacy of antenatal education classes on fear of birth and childbirth self-efficacy has been supported; however, the effectiveness of antenatal classes on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after childbirth has received relatively little research attention. This study examined the effects of antenatal education on fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following childbirth. Quasi-experimental study. The study was conducted in a city located in the Middle Anatolia region of Turkey and data were collected between December 2013 and May 2015. Two groups of women were compared-an antenatal education intervention group (n=44), and a routine prenatal care control group (n=46). The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire, Version A and B, Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory and Impact of Event Scale-Revised was used to assess fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and PTSD symptoms following childbirth. Compared to the control group, women who attended antenatal education had greater childbirth self-efficacy, greater perceived support and control in birth, and less fear of birth and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following childbirth (all comparisons, ppost-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after childbirth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD WITH SEVERE DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS WITH ACUTE PSYCHOTIC IN PATIENT WITH HISTORY AS A PEDOPHILE VICTIMS AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN 22 YEARS OLD MAN : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Agus Indra Adhiputra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD is a disorder that is fairly common in thecommunity. Every event in the life will have its own meaning in later, especially eventsthat occur in childhood. Data in the U.S. showed 60% men and 50% women have atraumatic experience, which develops into PTSD approximately 6.7% of the entirepopulation. While data from the Indonesian National Commission of Women, since 20072010there has been 91311 cases of sexual violence against women, as well as cases ofchild sexual abuse reported to reach 250 cases. Presenting symptoms can range fromanxiety disorders, depression, until psychotic. The severity of symptoms depends on eachself-defense mechanism thus the PTSD symptoms are very diverse.

  20. PTSD symptom severity is associated with increased recruitment of top-down attentional control in a trauma-exposed sample

    OpenAIRE

    White, Stuart F.; Costanzo, Michelle E.; Blair, James R.; Roy, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent neuroimaging work suggests that increased amygdala responses to emotional stimuli and dysfunction within regions mediating top down attentional control (dorsomedial frontal, lateral frontal and parietal cortices) may be associated with the emergence of anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This report examines amygdala responsiveness to emotional stimuli and the recruitment of top down attention systems as a function of task demands in a populat...

  1. Anger, hostility, and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans reporting PTSD and subthreshold PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Conybeare, Daniel; Phelps, Lori; Hunt, Stephen; Holmes, Hollie A; Felker, Bradford; Klevens, Michele; McFall, Miles E

    2007-12-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans were grouped by level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and compared on self-report measures of trait anger, hostility, and aggression. Veterans who screened positive for PTSD reported significantly greater anger and hostility than those in the subthreshold-PTSD and non-PTSD groups. Veterans in the subthreshold-PTSD group reported significantly greater anger and hostility than those in the non-PTSD group. The PTSD and subthreshold-PTSD groups did not differ with respect to aggression, though both groups were significantly more likely to have endorsed aggression than the non-PTSD group. These findings suggest that providers should screen for anger and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who exhibit symptoms of PTSD and incorporate relevant anger treatments into early intervention strategies.

  2. Psychometric properties of the child PTSD checklist in a community sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Boyes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the basic psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Checklist and examined the structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in a large sample of South African youth. METHODOLOGY: The checklist was completed by 1025 (540 male; 485 female South African youth (aged between 10 and 19 years. The factor structure of the scale was assessed with a combination of confirmatory and exploratory techniques. Internal consistencies for the full scale and all subscales were evaluated with Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Validity was assessed by comparing PTSD scores obtained by children who had and had not experienced a traumatic event, and by examining associations between total PTSD scores and known correlates of PTSD. RESULTS: Scores on the Child PTSD Checklist clearly discriminated between youth who had experienced a traumatic event and those who had not. Internal consistencies for the full scale (and all subscales were acceptable to good and hypothesized correlations between PTSD, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and age were observed. Two of the reported fit statistics for the tripartite DSM-IV-TR model of PTSD did not meet traditional criteria and further exploratory analyses revealed a four-factor structure (broadly consistent with Simms and colleagues' Dysphoria Model of PTSD symptoms which provided a better fit to the observed data. CONCLUSION: Given the continued use of the Child PTSD Checklist in South Africa, findings offer an important first step in establishing the reliability and validity of the checklist for use with South African youth. However, further evaluation of the checklist in South African samples is clearly required before conclusions regarding its use as diagnostic tool in this context can be made.

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Child PTSD Checklist in a Community Sample of South African Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E.; Cluver, Lucie D.; Gardner, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study assessed the basic psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Checklist and examined the structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a large sample of South African youth. Methodology The checklist was completed by 1025 (540 male; 485 female) South African youth (aged between 10 and 19 years). The factor structure of the scale was assessed with a combination of confirmatory and exploratory techniques. Internal consistencies for the full scale and all subscales were evaluated with Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega. Validity was assessed by comparing PTSD scores obtained by children who had and had not experienced a traumatic event, and by examining associations between total PTSD scores and known correlates of PTSD. Results Scores on the Child PTSD Checklist clearly discriminated between youth who had experienced a traumatic event and those who had not. Internal consistencies for the full scale (and all subscales) were acceptable to good and hypothesized correlations between PTSD, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and age were observed. Two of the reported fit statistics for the tripartite DSM-IV-TR model of PTSD did not meet traditional criteria and further exploratory analyses revealed a four-factor structure (broadly consistent with Simms and colleagues’ Dysphoria Model of PTSD symptoms) which provided a better fit to the observed data. Conclusion Given the continued use of the Child PTSD Checklist in South Africa, findings offer an important first step in establishing the reliability and validity of the checklist for use with South African youth. However, further evaluation of the checklist in South African samples is clearly required before conclusions regarding its use as diagnostic tool in this context can be made. PMID:23056523

  4. Prospective Risk Factors for Adolescent PTSD: Sources of Differential Exposure and Differential Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Zona, Kate; Acker, Jenna; Turcios-Cotto, Viana

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of risk factors for developing PTSD: factors that increase the likelihood of experiencing a potentially traumatizing event and factors that increase the likelihood of developing symptoms following such events. Using prospective data over a two-year period from a large, diverse sample of urban adolescents (n = 1242, Mean age =…

  5. Examination of the interrelations between the factors of PTSD, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder in a heterogeneous trauma-exposed sample using DSM 5 criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to traumatic events places individuals at high risk for multiple psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The high rates of comorbidity among these conditions merit evaluation in order to improve diagnosis and treatment approaches. The current study evaluated the association between PTSD, MDD, and GAD factors as presented in the DSM 5. 602 trauma-exposed individuals who experienced an event that met Criterion A for the DSM 5 PTSD diagnosis were recruited through Amazon.com, Inc.'s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to complete an assessment of the impact of stressful events on their lives. High interrelations were detected among the 4 PTSD factors, 2 MDD factors that corresponded to somatic and affective symptoms, and the single GAD factor. The affective factor of MDD was most strongly related to the emotional numbing factor of PTSD, whereas the somatic factor of MDD was most strongly related to the hyperarousal factor of PTSD. The GAD factor was most strongly related to the hyperarousal factor of PTSD, relative to the other PTSD factors. The strength of the interrelations between factors of the three disorders is largely a function of the overlap in symptoms and calls into question the uniqueness of negative affective symptoms of PTSD, MDD and GAD. Results suggest that improved understanding of the trauma reaction requires a focus on the unique presentation of each individual and assessment of multiple disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  7. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  8. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  9. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  10. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  11. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms mediate the relationship between traumatic experiences and drinking behavior among women attending alcohol-serving venues in a South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Melissa H; Ranby, Krista W; Meade, Christina S; Sikkema, Kathleen J; MacFarlane, Jessica C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C

    2012-07-01

    South Africa has high rates of traumatic experiences and alcohol abuse or dependence, especially among women. Traumatic experiences often result in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD has been associated with hazardous drinking. This article examines the relationship between traumatic events and hazardous drinking among women who patronized alcohol-serving venues in South Africa and examines PTSD as a mediator of this relationship. A total of 560 women were recruited from a Cape Town township. They completed a computerized assessment that included alcohol consumption, history of traumatic events, and PTSD symptoms. Mediation analysis examined whether PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between the number of traumatic event categories experienced (range: 0-7) and drinking behavior. The mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score in the sample was 12.15 (range: 0-34, SD = 7.3), with 70.9% reaching criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT > 8). The mean PTSD score was 36.32 (range: 17-85, SD = 16.3),with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version ≥ 50). Endorsement of traumatic experiences was high, including adult emotional (51.8%), physical (49.6%), and sexual (26.3%) abuse; childhood physical (35.0%) and sexual (25.9%) abuse; and other types of trauma (83%). All categories of traumatic experiences, except the "other" category, were associated with hazardous drinking. PTSD symptoms mediated 46% of the relationship between the number of traumatic categories experienced and drinking behavior. Women reported high rates of hazardous drinking and high levels of PTSD symptoms, and most had some history of traumatic events. There was a strong relationship between traumatic exposure and drinking levels, which was largely mediated by PTSD symptoms. Substance use interventions should address histories of trauma in this population, where alcohol may be

  13. Comparison of Psychopathological Symptoms in Adolescents Who Experienced Sexual Violence as a Victim and/or as a Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlert, Jeannine; Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Allroggen, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Research on sexual violence victims and perpetrators indicates that victims in general are found to report higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, especially internalizing behavior, whereas perpetrators often show externalizing behavior. Little is known, however, about the psychopathology of perpetrators of sexual violence who have also experienced sexual victimization (victim-perpetrators). Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine this group within a sample of adolescents living in residential care or federal boarding schools. Participants reported their lifetime experience with sexual violence (both as victim and perpetrator) and completed the Youth Self Report. Results indicate that all three groups of adolescents with sexual violence experience report higher total problem scores than adolescents without this experience. Victim-perpetrators show results more similar to those of perpetrators only than those of victims only. The discussion deals with the implications of our findings for the treatment of victims of sexual violence.

  14. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  15. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  16. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  17. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... Web Site Policies Important Links Linking Policies Small Business POC Subscribe PTSD Awareness PTSD Consultation More Health Care Veterans Health Administration Health Benefits Health Benefits Home Apply for VA Care Apply Online Application Process Veteran Eligibility Active Duty Families of ...

  18. Victimisation and PTSD in a Greenlandic youth sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel H. Karsberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite a growing number of studies and reports indicating a very high and increasing prevalence of trauma exposure in Greenlandic adolescents, the knowledge on this subject is still very limited. The purpose of the present study was twofold: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and to examine the relationship between PTEs, estimated PTSD, and sociodemographic variables. Methods. In a Greenlandic sample from 4 different schools in 2 different minor towns in Northern Greenland, 269 students, aged 12–18 (M=15.4; SD=1.84 were assessed for their level of exposure to 20 PTEs along with the psychological impact of these events. Results. Of the Greenlandic students, 86% had been directly exposed to at least 1 PTE and 74.3% had been indirectly exposed to at least 1 PTE. The mean number of directly experienced PTEs was 2.8 and the mean number of indirectly experienced PTEs was 3.9. The most frequent direct events recorded were death of someone close, near drowning, threat of assault/beating, humiliation or persecution by others and attempted suicide. The estimated lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 17.1%, whereas another 14.2% reached a subclinical level of PTSD (missing the full diagnosis by 1 symptom. Education level of the father, and being exposed to multiple direct and indirect PTEs were significantly associated with an increase in PTSD symptoms. Conclusion. The findings indicate substantial mental health problems in Greenlandic adolescents and that these are associated with various types of PTEs. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Greenlandic adolescents are more exposed to certain specific PTEs than adolescents in similar studies from other nations. The present study revealed that Greenlandic girls are particularly vulnerable towards experiencing PTEs. Indeed, in general, girls reported more experiences of direct and indirect PTEs. Furthermore, girls

  19. Evidence for proposed ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD: a latent profile analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylène Cloitre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The WHO International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11, has proposed two related diagnoses, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and complex PTSD within the spectrum of trauma and stress-related disorders. Objective: To use latent profile analysis (LPA to determine whether there are classes of individuals that are distinguishable according to the PTSD and complex PTSD symptom profiles and to identify potential differences in the type of stressor and severity of impairment associated with each profile. Method: An LPA and related analyses were conducted on 302 individuals who had sought treatment for interpersonal traumas ranging from chronic trauma (e.g., childhood abuse to single-incident events (e.g., exposure to 9/11 attacks. Results: The LPA revealed three classes of individuals: (1 a complex PTSD class defined by elevated PTSD symptoms as well as disturbances in three domains of self-organization: affective dysregulation, negative self-concept, and interpersonal problems; (2 a PTSD class defined by elevated PTSD symptoms but low scores on the three self-organization symptom domains; and (3 a low symptom class defined by low scores on all symptoms and problems. Chronic trauma was more strongly predictive of complex PTSD than PTSD and, conversely, single-event trauma was more strongly predictive of PTSD. In addition, complex PTSD was associated with greater impairment than PTSD. The LPA analysis was completed both with and without individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD yielding identical results, suggesting the stability of these classes regardless of BPD comorbidity. Conclusion: Preliminary data support the proposed ICD-11 distinction between PTSD and complex PTSD and support the value of testing the clinical utility of this distinction in field trials. Replication of results is necessary.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  20. PTSD in Children and Teens

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    ... for PTSD » Public » PTSD in Children and Teens PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here PTSD in Children and Teens Public This section is ...

  1. Effects of PTSD on Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for PTSD » Public » Effects of PTSD on Family PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... code here Enter ZIP code here Effects of PTSD on Family Public This section is for Veterans, ...

  2. One-year follow up of PTSD and depression in elderly aboriginal people in Taiwan after Typhoon Morakot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chung; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a 1-year follow-up of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and depression in an elderly minority population who experienced Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The PTSD Symptom Scale--Interview and the 10-item short form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale were used to examine PTSD symptomatology and depression in 120 victims at 3-6 months and in 88 victims (73.3% reinterview rate) at 11-12 months after the disaster. Further, we looked for associations between stress, prognosis, and development of PTSD symptomatology and depression. The prevalence of PTSD symptomatology decreased from 29.2% (35/120) at 3-6 months to 15.9% (14/88) at 11-12 months. The prevalence of depression, however, increased from 43.3% (52/120) to 46.6% (41/88). No factor was associated with follow-up PTSD symptomatology, and only the level of education was related to follow-up depression. Generally, the risk factors of age, sex, symptomatology of PTSD and depression at baseline, and stressor of unemployment predicted new-onset or chronic PTSD symptomatology and depression. Delayed-onset depression 48.0% (24/50) was more common than delayed-onset PTSD symptomatology 11.3% (7/62). Chronic and delayed-onset PTSD symptomatology were more easily developed with depression. Although PTSD and depression were separate consequences of trauma, they emerged and affected mental health together. We documented the courses of PTSD and depression among elderly aboriginal people, and the possible effects of demographic, symptomatology, and adverse life stressors were discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder following asthma attack (post-asthma attack PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity: the impact of alexithymia and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Rudd, Hannah; Wall, Natalie

    2012-05-30

    This study investigated the prevalence of post-asthma attack posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the severity of psychiatric co-morbidity among a group of college students and whether alexithymia and coping strategies would relate to health outcomes. This is a cross-sectional study in which 156 college students who had previously experienced asthma attack were recruited. They completed a demographic page, Asthma Symptom Checklist, PTSD Checklist, General Health Questionnaire-28, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the COPE. They were also matched with 141 students without asthma. The results showed that 3% met the criteria for full-PTSD, 44% for partial and 53% for no-PTSD. There were no significant differences between the asthma and control groups in severity of psychiatric co-morbid symptoms. Path analyses showed that asthma severity was significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. It was also correlated with alexithymia which was in turn associated with psychiatric co-morbidity but not PTSD. Coping strategies were not correlated with health outcomes. To conclude, people can develop PTSD symptoms and degrees of psychiatric co-morbid symptoms after suffering asthma attack. The severity of these symptoms relates to people's perceptions of asthma severity and alexithymia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of Adjunctive Sleep Interventions for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    MURI; BAA 08-019: Topic #1; PI: M. Hall, University of Pittsburgh). This multidisciplinary translational project focuses on investigating sleep...rate variability (high & low frequency) CAPS Part 2 PTSD symptom checklist (civilian version) Beck Depression Inventory Beck Anxiety...be completed by a CNRC RN) PTSD symptom checklist (civilian version) Beck Depression Inventory Beck Anxiety Inventory Inventory of

  5. Common paths to ASD and PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Wittmann, Lutz

    Numerous studies have investigated the prediction of acute and long term posttraumatic symptoms following traumatic exposure. As a result several factors have been shown to be predictive of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) respectively. Furthermore, research...... suggests a strong relationship between ASD severity and subsequent PTSD severity. However, little is known in relation to whether there are common pathways to the development of ASD and PTSD. Peritraumatic responses to trauma are found to be associated with both the development of ASD and PTSD. Although...... of peritraumatic factors such as symptoms of tonic immobility, panic, and dissociation on the development of ASD (N = 458) and PTSD (n = 378) symptoms in a national study of Danish bank robbery victims. The estimated ASD rate was 11.1 % (n = 41) and the estimated PTSD rate was 6.2 % (n = 23). The results...

  6. Relation between aggression exposure in adolescence and adult posttraumatic stress symptoms: Moderating role of the parasympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Samantha A; Rabkin, Ari N; Olezeski, Christy L; Rivers, Alison J; Gordis, Elana B

    2015-03-15

    The present study examines the impact of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), on the link between family aggression experienced during adolescence and posttraumatic stress symptoms during young adulthood. Participants completed retrospective self-report measures of interparental aggression and harsh parenting exposure during adolescence and measures of current posttraumatic stress symptoms. RSA indexed PNS activity. Among females, the three-way interaction between harsh parenting, interparental aggression, and resting RSA was significant in accounting for young adulthood PTSD symptoms. At higher values of resting RSA and higher levels of interparental aggression exposure, harsh parenting experienced during adolescence was positively associated with adulthood PTSD symptoms. Among males, adolescent aggression exposure and resting RSA did not significantly account for variation in adulthood PTSD symptoms. Thus, this study suggests that resting PNS activity may play an important role in the relationship between stressors during adolescence and later PTSD in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  8. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  14. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  17. Vulnerable, But Why? Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Older Adults Exposed to Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Allison R; Christman, Zachary; Pruchno, Rachel; Cartwright, Francine P; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on pre-disaster, peri-disaster, and post-disaster data, this study examined factors associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in older adults exposed to Hurricane Sandy. We used a sample of older participants matched by gender, exposure, and geographic region (N=88, mean age=59.83 years) in which one group reported clinically significant levels of PTSD symptoms and the other did not. We conducted t-tests, chi-square tests, and exact logistic regressions to examine differences in pre-disaster characteristics and peri-disaster experiences. Older adults who experienced PTSD symptoms reported lower levels of income, positive affect, subjective health, and social support and were less likely to be working 4 to 6 years before Hurricane Sandy than were people not experiencing PTSD symptoms. Those developing PTSD symptoms reported more depressive symptoms, negative affect, functional disability, chronic health conditions, and pain before Sandy and greater distress and feelings of danger during Hurricane Sandy. Exact logistic regression revealed independent effects of preexisting chronic health conditions and feelings of distress during Hurricane Sandy in predicting PTSD group status. Our findings indicated that because vulnerable adults can be identified before disaster strikes, the opportunity to mitigate disaster-related PTSD exists through identification and resource programs that target population subgroups. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:362-370).

  18. Identification of Risk Factors for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shea, M. T; Hebert, Norman J

    2007-01-01

    The primary research aims are to examine the early longitudinal course of PTSD symptoms and test hypotheses regarding risk factors for chronic PTSD in military personnel returning from Iraq or Afghanistan...

  19. Auditory hallucinations and PTSD in ex-POWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crompton, Laura; Lahav, Yael; Solomon, Zahava

    2017-01-01

    (PTSD) symptoms, over time. Former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) from the 1973 Yom Kippur War (n = 99) with and without PTSD and comparable veterans (n = 103) were assessed twice, in 1991 (T1) and 2003 (T2) in regard to auditory hallucinations and PTSD symptoms. Findings indicated that ex-POWs who suffered...... from PTSD reported higher levels of auditory hallucinations at T2 as well as increased hallucinations over time, compared to ex-POWs without PTSD and combatants who did not endure captivity. The relation between PTSD and auditory hallucinations was unidirectional, so that the PTSD overall score at T1...... predicted an increase in auditory hallucinations between T1 and T2, but not vice versa. Assessing the role of PTSD clusters in predicting hallucinations revealed that intrusion symptoms had a unique contribution, compared to avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms. The findings suggest that auditory...

  20. Post-traumatic stress symptoms in Swedish obstetricians and midwives after severe obstetric events: a cross-sectional retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Å; Andreen Sachs, M; Johannesson, K; Hallberg, G; Jonsson, M; Skoog Svanberg, A; Högberg, U

    2017-07-01

    To examine post-traumatic stress reactions among obstetricians and midwives, experiences of support and professional consequences after severe events in the labour ward. Cross-sectional online survey from January 7 to March 10, 2014. Members of the Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Swedish Association of Midwives. Potentially traumatic events were defined as: the child died or was severely injured during delivery; maternal near-miss; maternal mortality; and other events such as violence or threat. The validated Screen Questionnaire Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD), based on DSM-IV (1994) 4th edition, was used to assess partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and probable PTSD. Partial or probable PTSD. The response rate was 47% for obstetricians (n = 706) and 40% (n = 1459) for midwives. Eighty-four percent of the obstetricians and 71% of the midwives reported experiencing at least one severe event on the delivery ward. Fifteen percent of both professions reported symptoms indicative of partial PTSD, whereas 7% of the obstetricians and 5% of the midwives indicated symptoms fulfilling PTSD criteria. Having experienced emotions of guilt or perceived insufficient support from friends predicted a higher risk of suffering from partial or probable PTSD. Obstetricians and midwives with partial PTSD symptoms chose to change their work to outpatient care significantly more often than colleagues without these symptoms. A substantial proportion of obstetricians and midwives reported symptoms of partial or probable PTSD after severe traumatic events experienced on the labour ward. Support and resilience training could avoid suffering and consequences for professional carers. In a survey 15% of Swedish obstetricians and midwives reported PTSD symptoms after their worst obstetric event. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Biomarkers of PTSD: military applications and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Lehrner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are no established biomarkers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as yet, biological investigations of PTSD have made progress identifying the pathophysiology of PTSD. Given the biological and clinical complexity of PTSD, it is increasingly unlikely that a single biomarker of disease will be identified. Rather, investigations will more likely identify different biomarkers that indicate the presence of clinically significant PTSD symptoms, associate with risk for PTSD following trauma exposure, and predict or identify recovery. While there has been much interest in PTSD biomarkers, there has been less discussion of their potential clinical applications, and of the social, legal, and ethical implications of such biomarkers. Objective: This article will discuss possible applications of PTSD biomarkers, including the social, legal, and ethical implications of such biomarkers, with an emphasis on military applications. Method: Literature on applications of PTSD biomarkers and on potential ethical and legal implications will be reviewed. Results: Biologically informed research findings hold promise for prevention, assessment, treatment planning, and the development of prophylactic and treatment interventions. As with any biological indicator of disorder, there are potentially positive and negative clinical, social, legal, and ethical consequences of using such biomarkers. Conclusions: Potential clinical applications of PTSD biomarkers hold promise for clinicians, patients, and employers. The search for biomarkers of PTSD should occur in tandem with an interdisciplinary discussion regarding the potential implications of applying biological findings in clinical and employment settings.

  2. Biomarkers of PTSD: military applications and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrner, Amy; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Although there are no established biomarkers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as yet, biological investigations of PTSD have made progress identifying the pathophysiology of PTSD. Given the biological and clinical complexity of PTSD, it is increasingly unlikely that a single biomarker of disease will be identified. Rather, investigations will more likely identify different biomarkers that indicate the presence of clinically significant PTSD symptoms, associate with risk for PTSD following trauma exposure, and predict or identify recovery. While there has been much interest in PTSD biomarkers, there has been less discussion of their potential clinical applications, and of the social, legal, and ethical implications of such biomarkers. This article will discuss possible applications of PTSD biomarkers, including the social, legal, and ethical implications of such biomarkers, with an emphasis on military applications. Literature on applications of PTSD biomarkers and on potential ethical and legal implications will be reviewed. Biologically informed research findings hold promise for prevention, assessment, treatment planning, and the development of prophylactic and treatment interventions. As with any biological indicator of disorder, there are potentially positive and negative clinical, social, legal, and ethical consequences of using such biomarkers. Potential clinical applications of PTSD biomarkers hold promise for clinicians, patients, and employers. The search for biomarkers of PTSD should occur in tandem with an interdisciplinary discussion regarding the potential implications of applying biological findings in clinical and employment settings.

  3. A qualitative study on coping behaviors and influencing factors among mothers in Japan raising children under three years old while experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaso, Misato; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Nakayama, Takeo

    2018-01-10

    No studies illustrating the coping behaviors of mothers experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms, or the factors that contribute to these behaviors, have been investigated. Therefore, the present study sought to develop a conceptual framework on the coping behaviors and contributing factors of mothers experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms. This qualitative study involved theoretical sampling and semi-structured interviews of mothers who were raising children under 3 years of age in Japan and had experienced physical and mental subjective symptoms since giving birth. Women who were pregnant, required regular medical exams, or had difficulty communicating in Japanese were excluded. All mothers were recruited via personal contacts, snowball sampling, and posters at a community center and nursery schools. Analysis was conducted using the constant comparative method. The interview data were extracted in contextual units based on analytical themes, and concepts were generated. Relationships between concepts were investigated and categorized. To confirm theoretical saturation and ensure the validity of the data, a study supervisor was appointed, four qualitative researchers examined the results, and the interview respondents underwent member checking. There were a total of 21 participants. Thirteen categories were created from 29 concepts identified from the analytical theme "What do mothers do when raising children under 3 years of age while experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms?" While experiencing subjective symptoms, mothers raising children under 3 years of age tended to lead a child-centric lifestyle and were hesitant to visit the doctor, not only because of typical reasons such as time and costs, but also because of factors related to their child. Some circumstances occurring while experiencing physical and mental subjective symptoms led mothers to put their own needs first and attempt to cope on their own as much as

  4. Predictors of PTSD and delayed PTSD after disaster: the impact of exposure and psychosocial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2006-07-01

    In the present study we sought to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) and examine changes in PTSD status over time. Our data come from a two-wave, prospective cohort study of New York City adults who were living in the city on September 11, 2001. We conducted a baseline survey 1 year after the attacks (year 1), followed by a survey 1 year later (year 2). Overall, 2368 individuals completed the year 1 survey, and 1681 were interviewed at year 2. Analyses for year 1 indicated that being younger, being female, experiencing more WTCD events, reporting more traumatic events other than the WTCD, experiencing more negative life events, having low social support, and having low self-esteem increased the likelihood of PTSD. For year 2, being middle-aged, being Latino, experiencing more negative life events and traumas since the WTCD, and having low self-esteem increased the likelihood of PTSD. Exposure to WTCD events was not related to year 2 PTSD once other factors were controlled. Following previous research, we divided study respondents into four categories: resilient cases (no PTSD years 1 or 2), remitted cases (PTSD year 1 but not year 2), delayed cases (no PTSD year 1 but PTSD year 2), and acute cases (PTSD both years 1 and 2). Factors predicting changes in PTSD between year 1 and year 2 suggested that delayed PTSD cases were more likely to have been Latino, to have experienced more negative life events, and to have had a decline in self-esteem. In contrast, remitted cases experienced fewer negative life events and had an increase in self-esteem. We discuss these findings in light of the psychosocial context associated with community disasters and traumatic stress exposures.

  5. Chronic idiopathic urticaria and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): an under-recognized comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2012-01-01

    A large body of literature supports the role of psychologic stress in urticaria; however, the comorbidity between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a classic stress-mediated syndrome, has received little attention. The underlying etiology of urticaria is not identifiable in about 70% of patients, possibly because of difficulties with identification of a direct cause-and-effect relationship between a potential causative factor and the onset of urticaria. The core features of PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision [DSMIV-TR]) that are important in urticaria include (1) autonomic nervous system reactivity and state of sympathetic hyperarousal that can manifest as CIU, and (2) the persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic events in PTSD, which can manifest as urticaria or angioedema, or both, affecting a previously traumatized body region (eg, urticarial wheals affecting the body region where the patient had been stabbed years earlier). The following features of PTSD make it difficult to use the cause-and-effect model for the determination of causation: (1) PTSD may first emerge years after the initial trauma and is classified as PTSD with Delayed Onset (DSMIV-TR); and (2) the traumatic triggers that precipitate the PTSD symptoms may be unique and idiosyncratic to the patient and not even qualify as stressful or traumatic by standard criteria (eg, precipitating events for the PTSD may include smell of a certain cologne that was used by the perpetrator or witnessing a scene in a movie that was reminiscent of the location where the abuse occurred). Finally, in PTSD with Delayed Onset, patients may not make a conscious association between their recurrent urticaria and their earlier traumas because they can develop classically conditioned associations between stimuli that are reminiscent of the original abuse situation and their somatic reactions such as urticaria. The clinician

  6. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  7. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  9. Dissociative, depressive, and PTSD symptom severity as correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidality in dissociative disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webermann, Aliya R; Myrick, Amie C; Taylor, Christina L; Chasson, Gregory S; Brand, Bethany L

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether symptom severity can distinguish patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified with a recent history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts from those patients without recent self-harm. A total of 241 clinicians reported on recent history of patient NSSI and suicide attempts. Of these clinicians' patients, 221 completed dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology measures. Baseline cross-sectional data from a naturalistic and prospective study of dissociative disorder patients receiving community treatment were utilized. Analyses evaluated dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity as methods of classifying patients into NSSI and suicide attempt groupings. Results indicated that dissociation severity accurately classified patients into NSSI and suicidality groups, whereas depression severity accurately classified patients into NSSI groups. These findings point to dissociation and depression severity as important correlates of NSSI and suicidality in patients with dissociative disorders and have implications for self-harm prevention and treatment.

  10. A model comparison approach to trauma-related guilt as a mediator of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and suicidal ideation among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Farmer, Chloe; LoSavio, Stefanie T; Dennis, Paul A; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Collie, Claire F; Calhoun, Patrick S; Beckham, Jean C

    2017-10-15

    Suicidal ideation (SI) is a serious issue affecting U.S. veterans, and those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at an especially high risk of SI. Guilt has been associated with both PTSD and SI and may therefore be an important link between these constructs. The present study compared models of trauma-related guilt and used path analysis to examine the direct and indirect effects of PTSD and trauma-related guilt on SI among a sample of 988 veterans receiving outpatient PTSD treatment at a Veterans Affairs (VA) specialty clinic. Results showed that a model of trauma-related guilt including guilt-cognitions and global guilt (but not distress) provided the best model fit for the data. PTSD and trauma-related guilt had direct effects on SI, and PTSD exhibited indirect effects on SI via trauma-related guilt. The use of cross-sectional data limits the ability to make causal inferences. A treatment-seeking sample composed primarily of Vietnam veterans limits generalizability to other populations. Trauma-related guilt, particularly guilt cognitions, may be an effective point of intervention to help reduce SI among veterans with PTSD. This is an important area of inquiry, and suggestions for future research are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Anxiety sensitivity explains associations between anxious arousal symptoms and smoking abstinence expectancies, perceived barriers to cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts among low-income smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Langdon, Kirsten J; Robles, Zuzuky; Garey, Lorra; Norton, Peter J; Businelle, Michael S

    2017-05-01

    Disproportionately more smokers report low-income and mental health problems relative to non-smokers. Low-income smokers may use smoking to alleviate negative emotional states resulting from exposure to multiple stressors. Yet, little work has been devoted to elucidating mechanisms that may explain the association between negative emotional states and smoking-related processes among low-income smokers. The present study sought to address this gap by examining anxiety sensitivity, a transdiagnostic factor related to both anxiety and smoking, as a potential mediator for the influence of anxiety symptoms on smoking-related processes, including threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), perceived barriers for cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. Participants included treatment-seeking daily cigarette smokers (n=101; 68.3% male; M age =47.1; SD=10.2). Results indicated that anxiety symptoms exerted a significant indirect effect through anxiety sensitivity for threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), perceived barriers for cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. The present results provide empirical support that anxiety sensitivity may be an underlying mechanism that partially explains the relation between anxiety symptoms and smoking processes among low-income treatment-seeking smokers. Findings broaden current theoretical understanding of pathways through which anxiety symptoms contribute to maladaptive smoking processes and cognitions among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A longitudinal analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and their relationship with Fear and Anxious-Misery disorders: implications for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Parslow, Ruth; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Bryant, Richard; McFarlane, Alexander; Silove, Derrick; Shalev, Arieh

    2010-12-01

    This paper examined the hypothesis that PTSD-unique symptom clusters of re-experiencing, active avoidance and hyperarousal were more related to the fear/phobic disorders, while shared PTSD symptoms of dysphoria were more closely related to Anxious-Misery disorders (MDD/GAD). Confirmatory factor and correlation analyses examining PTSD, anxiety and mood disorder data from 714 injury survivors interviewed 3, 12 and 24-months following their injury supported this hypothesis with these relationships remaining robust from 3-24 months posttrauma. Of the nine unique fear-oriented PTSD symptoms, only one is currently required for a DSM-IV diagnosis. Increasing emphasis on PTSD fear symptoms in DSM-V, such as proposed DSM-V changes to mandate active avoidance, is critical to improve specificity, ensure inclusion of dimensionally distinct features and facilitate tailoring of treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining various subthreshold definitions of PTSD using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, C Laurel; Raines, Amanda M; Chambliss, Jessica L; Walton, Jessica L; Maieritsch, Kelly P

    2018-07-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) includes Other- and Unspecified- Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders to capture subthreshold Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, the DSM-5 does not specify the number or type of symptoms needed to assign them. The purpose of the current study was to extend our understanding of subthreshold PTSD by comparing four commonly used definitions adapted to the DSM-5 PTSD criteria in an outpatient treatment-seeking sample. Veterans (N = 193) presenting to PTSD clinics were assessed using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). Participants reported a criterion A traumatic event, but did not meet criteria for threshold-PTSD. We hypothesized that the number of veterans captured would be highest when fewer specific criterion sets were required by the subthreshold definition. Our hypothesis was upheld in that the more criteria required by the subthreshold PTSD definition, the lower the number of veterans counted within the group. The study consisted primarily of trauma treatment-seeking male veterans, with chronic PTSD symptoms. In addition, the sample size was small and was collected as part of routine clinical care. These results support previous contentions around careful decision making when defining what constitutes subthreshold PTSD in research and clinical work. It also points to the need for continued research to better understand the diagnostic and treatment implications of subthreshold PTSD. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The effects of gluten-free diet versus hypocaloric diet among patients with fibromyalgia experiencing gluten sensitivity symptoms: protocol for a pilot, open-label, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Mahmoud; Molina-Barea, Rocio; Garcia-Leiva, Juan Miguel; Rodríguez-Lopez, Carmen Maria; Morillas-Arques, Piedad; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Calandre, Elena P

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome characterized by a broad spectrum of manifestations. Patients with fibromyalgia frequently suffer from manifestations similar to those experienced by patients with gluten-related disorders raising the possibility that some patients with fibromyalgia could suffer from underlying gluten sensitivity. This study aims to assess whether avoiding gluten among patients with fibromyalgia and gluten sensitivity is beneficial. Adult patients with fibromyalgia presenting gluten sensitivity symptoms are randomly allocated to receive gluten-free diet or hypocaloric diet for 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the mean change in the number of experienced gluten sensitivity symptoms. Secondary outcome measures include the mean changes in the body mass index, Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Brief Pain Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Short-Form Health Survey and Patient Global Impression Scale of Severity. Other secondary outcome measures include the frequency of potential adverse events and the proportion of responders according to the Patient Global Impression Scale of Improvement. Previous studies assessing dietary interventions in fibromyalgia primarily evaluated their effects on the severity and impact of fibromyalgia symptoms and pain. The current study is the first to evaluate the effects of gluten-free diet on the gluten sensitivity symptoms experienced by patients with fibromyalgia. The results of this study will contribute to a better understanding of the potential role of gluten sensitivity in fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Examining the relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and cigarette smoking in people with substance use disorders: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Bryce; Bernier, Jennifer; Kenner, Frank; Kenne, Deric R; Boros, Alec P; Richardson, Christopher J; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in people with substance use disorders (SUDs) and is associated with significant physical health problems. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is also highly associated with both SUDs and cigarette smoking and may serve as a barrier to smoking cessation efforts. In addition, people with PTSD are more likely to hold positive smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs that smoking cigarettes results in positive outcomes); these beliefs may contribute to cigarette smoking in people with SUDs experiencing PTSD symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between PTSD symptoms and typical daily cigarette smoking/cigarette dependence symptoms in a sample of 227 trauma-exposed current smokers with SUDs (59.9% male, 89.4% Caucasian) seeking detoxification treatment services. Additionally, the indirect effects of multiple types of positive smoking outcome expectancies on these relationships were examined. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, cigarette consumption, and cigarette dependence symptoms. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were not directly related to cigarette consumption or cigarette dependence symptoms. However, negative affect reduction outcome expectancies were shown to have a significant indirect effect between PTSD symptoms and cigarette consumption, while negative affect reduction, boredom reduction, and taste-sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies were all found to have significant indirect effects between PTSD symptoms and cigarette dependence symptoms. The indirect effect involving negative affect reduction outcome expectancies was statistically larger than that of taste sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies, while negative affect reduction and boredom reduction outcome expectancies were comparable in magnitude. These results suggest that expectancies that smoking can manage negative affective experiences are related to

  16. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... on ASD severity and sexual problems following the rape accounted for only 28% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, the ASD diagnosis is not an optimal method for identifying those most at risk for PTSD. It remains to be seen whether a better way can be found....

  17. Anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom pathways to substance use problems among community women experiencing intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquier, Véronique; Flanagan, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) has demonstrated strong associations with anxiety and posttraumatic stress, these constructs have rarely been examined simultaneously in IPV research. Gaps in knowledge remain as to their differential associations to substance use problems among IPV-victimized women. A sample of 143 community women self-reported on their current IPV victimization, mental health and substance use problems. Hierarchical entry multiple regressions were used to test for the direct and indirect effects of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV to alcohol and drug problems through anxiety and posttraumatic stress. Higher anxiety symptom severity and higher physical IPV severity were associated with greater alcohol and drug problems. Higher posttraumatic stress symptom severity was associated with greater alcohol and drug problems. Mediation analyses indicated (i) significant indirect pathways of IPV types to alcohol problems through posttraumatic stress symptom severity controlling for anxiety symptom severity and (ii) significant indirect pathways of IPV types to drug problems through anxiety symptom severity controlling for posttraumatic stress symptom severity. In examining the indirect pathways of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV to substance use problems this study highlights that anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom severity have unique effects on alcohol and drug problems among IPV-victimized women.

  18. An investigation of war trauma types, symptom clusters, and risk-factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder: where does gender fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhood, Laila; Fares, Souha; Hamady, Carmen

    2018-05-25

    The female-male ratio in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is approximately 2:1. Gender differences in experienced trauma types, PTSD symptom clusters, and PTSD risk factors are unclear. We aimed to address this gap using a cross-sectional design. A sample of 991 civilians (522 women, 469 men) from South Lebanon was randomly selected in 2007, after the 2006 war. Trauma types were grouped into disaster and accident, loss, chronic disease, non-malignant disease, and violence. PTSD symptom clusters involved re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and arousal. These were assessed using parts I and IV of the Arabic version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Risk factors were assessed using data from a social support and life events questionnaire in multiple regression models. Females were twice as likely as males to score above PTSD threshold (24.3 vs. 10.4%, p ˂ 0.001). Total scores on all trauma types were similar across genders. Females scored higher on all symptom clusters (p < 0.001). Social support, social life events, witnessed traumas, and domestic violence significantly were associated with PTSD in both genders. Social support, social life events, witnessed traumas and domestic violence were significantly associated with PTSD in both genders. Conversely, gender difference in experienced traumas was not statistically significant. These findings accentuate the need to re-consider the role of gender in the assessment and treatment of PTSD.

  19. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Association of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with migraine and headache after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaya, Mariana C; Lowe, Sarah R; Asad, Asad L; Subramanian, S V; Waters, Mary C; Rhodes, Jean

    2017-05-01

    Previous research shows that migraine and general headache symptoms increase after traumatic events. Questions remain about whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) produces migraine/headache symptoms, or if individuals afflicted by migraine/headache are especially likely to develop PTSD. We test whether PTSD symptoms following a natural disaster are associated with higher odds of reporting frequent headaches/migraines postdisaster. We decompose PTSD into intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptom clusters to examine which, if any, are uniquely related to headache/migraine postdisaster. We use prospectively collected pre- and postdisaster data to explore whether overall PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters are associated with migraine/headache in a sample of Hurricane Katrina survivors. We account for severity of hurricane exposure and control for baseline migraine and headache problems to reduce the probability that heightened PTSD susceptibility among those who already suffered from the conditions could explain observed associations. PTSD symptoms were associated with higher odds of experiencing frequent headaches or migraines with a standard deviation change in PTSD score corresponding to over twice the odds (95% confidence interval [1.64, 2.68]) of having trouble with frequent headaches or migraines in the post-Katrina period. Each additional point on the intrusion subscale (sample M [SD] = 1.6 [1.1]) was associated with 55% higher odds of reporting frequent headache/migraine (95% confidence interval [1.03, 2.33]), but we found no association with avoidance or hyperarousal symptoms. Clinicians and disaster planners should be aware that disaster survivors might be at heightened risk of migraine/headache episodes, and those experiencing intrusive reminders may be most affected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Original article The structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder according to DSM-5 and assessed by PDS-5 – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Zawadzki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms has been studied and discussed since the introduction of PTSD as a diagnostic entity in the DSM-III (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III in 1980. Many studies supported a four-factor or a five-factor models, both inconsistent with DSM-IV. It is unclear whether current DSM-5 criteria appropriately reflect the empirical structure of PTSD symptoms. Participants and procedure In this study the structure of PTSD symptoms was examined by confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the data obtained from 388 individuals (150 males and 239 females aged 18-83 who experienced a traumatic event and completed the PDS-5 (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale-5, a self-report scale according to the DSM-5 criteria. Results Fitting of different models based on DSM-IV, DSM-5 and other the most common four- and five-factor conceptualizations of PTSD symptoms structure was examined. The data analyses demonstrated the best fit of the six-factor model based on the conceptualization of Elhai et al. (2011 with the additional factor of negative cognitions and mood. Conclusions The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria do not reflect the empirical PTSD symptom structure. The data suggest also that it is reasonable to separate the core PTSD symptoms from broad PTSD symptomatology.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Lingling; Jia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhe; Mu, Huitong; Liu, Xin; Peng, Boshi; Li, Anqi; Fan, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological maladjustment to undergoing a traumatic event. Our aim was to measure the prevalence of PTSD among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence‚ and explore the associations of their demographic characteristics, social support, personality traits‚ and coping styles with their PTSD symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Workplace Violence Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire. We used convenience sampling method to collect data from March 2015 to September 2016. Healthcare workers (n=2706) from 39 public hospitals located in Heilongjiang, Hebei and Beijing provinces of China completed the questionnaires (effective response rate=84.25%). Results Overall, the prevalence of physical violence in the previous 12 months was 13.60% (n=2706). The prevalence of PTSD among the healthcare workers who experienced physical violence was 28.0% (n=368). Most of the victims of physical violence (50.80%) did not exhibit PTSD symptoms based on their PCL-C scores, and 47.0% did not manifest the diagnostic criteria for PTSD after experiencing physical violence. The level of PTSD symptoms was negatively correlated with their scores on the SSRS (r=−0.188, pviolence contributes to the current prevalence of PTSD. The positive effects of social support on PTSD symptoms suggest that it has practical implications for interventions to promote psychological health. The healthcare workers’ coping styles influenced the development of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, adopting effective coping styles and receiving social support have potential roles in the recovery from trauma after experiencing physical violence. PMID:28765135

  3. Self-stigma in PTSD: Prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, Kelsey A; Lysaker, Paul H; Yanos, Philip T; Siegel, Alysia; Leonhardt, Bethany L; James, Alison V; Brustuen, Beth; Luedtke, Brandi; Davis, Louanne W

    2018-04-03

    Self-stigma is the internalization of negative societal stereotypes about those with mental illnesses. While self-stigma has been carefully characterized in severe mental disorders, like schizophrenia, the field has yet to examine the prevalence and correlates of self-stigma in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, we assessed self-stigma in veterans diagnosed with PTSD and compared with veterans with schizophrenia. We further examined associations between PTSD, depressive symptoms and self-stigma in the PTSD sample. Data came from two larger studies of people with PTSD (n = 46) and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n = 82). All participants completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS). Results revealed that people with schizophrenia report more experiences of discrimination as a result of stigma than do those with PTSD, but these diagnostic groups did not differ for other subscales. In the PTSD group, feelings of alienation positively correlated with PTSD and depressive symptoms; other subscales positively correlated with depressive symptoms only. Taken together, results suggest a significant level of self-stigma exists among veterans with PTSD, and that self-stigma has an effect on PTSD and commonly comorbid symptoms, like depression. Future work should investigate whether current self-stigma interventions for other groups could be applicable for those with PTSD. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The dissociative post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype: A treatment outcome cohort study in veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagen, Joris F G; van Rijn, Allison; Knipscheer, Jeroen W; van der Aa, Niels; Kleber, Rolf J

    2018-06-01

    Dissociation is a prevalent phenomenon among veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that may interfere with the effectiveness of treatment. This study aimed to replicate findings of a dissociative PTSD subtype, to identify corresponding patterns in coping style, symptom type, and symptom severity, and to investigate its impact on post-traumatic symptom improvement. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was applied to baseline data from 330 predominantly (97%) male treatment-seeking veterans (mean age 39.5 years) with a probable PTSD. Multinomial logistic models were used to identify predictors of dissociative PTSD. Eighty veterans with PTSD that commenced with psychotherapy were invited for a follow-up measure after 6 months. The majority (n = 64, 80% response rate) completed the follow-up measure. Changes in post-traumatic stress between baseline and follow-up were explored as a continuous distal outcome. Latent profile analysis revealed four distinct patient profiles: 'low' (12.9%), 'moderate' (33.2%), 'severe' (45.1%), and 'dissociative' (8.8%) PTSD. The dissociative PTSD profile was characterized by more severe pathology levels, though not post-traumatic reactions symptom severity. Veterans with dissociative PTSD benefitted equally from PTSD treatment as veterans with non-dissociative PTSD with similar symptom severity. Within a sample of veterans with PTSD, a subsample of severely dissociative veterans was identified, characterized by elevated severity levels on pathology dimensions. The dissociative PTSD subtype did not negatively impact PTSD treatment. The present findings confirmed the existence of a distinct subgroup veterans that fit the description of dissociative PTSD. Patients with dissociative PTSD subtype symptoms uniquely differed from patients with non-dissociative PTSD in the severity of several psychopathology dimensions. Dissociative and non-dissociative PTSD patients with similar post-traumatic severity levels showed similar levels of

  5. One-year follow-up of basic body awareness therapy in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. A small intervention study of effects on movement quality, PTSD symptoms, and movement experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauwendraat, Conny; Levy Berg, Adrienne; Gyllensten, Amanda Lundvik

    2017-07-01

    The present study with mixed methods design evaluated the long-term effects of Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT) for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifteen patients received 12 individual sessions of BBAT treatment as usual (TAU) when needed. The patients were assessed at baseline (T0), directly after treatment (T1) and at one-year follow-up (T2), using the Body Awareness Scale Movement Quality and Experience (BAS MQ-E), the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). The results at T1 showed significant improvement in the quality of movement (p = 0.001), body experience (p = 0.007), and symptoms (p = 0.001). At T2, the improvements were sustained. Pain in stillness (p = 0.017) and during movement (p = 0.007) had decreased. The verbal ability to describe the body experiences in words was poor at T0, but became more detailed at T1 and even more so at T2. Our findings suggest that BBAT in addition to TAU can be a viable physiotherapeutic treatment for patients with PTSD. This knowledge may influence future treatment strategies for patients with PTSD and be of guidance to physiotherapists working with persons with trauma experiences in the community or psychiatry/mental healthcare areas.

  6. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14); CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling

  7. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Wietse A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i purpose of instrument, (ii construct measured, (iii contents of construct, (iv local idioms employed, (v structure of response sets, and (vi comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64 aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old. The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14; CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20. The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7, "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10, and

  8. Validación Preliminar de la Escala Infantil de Síntomas del Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático (Child PTSD Symptom Scale, CPSS en Niños/as y Adolescentes Víctimas de Violencia Sexual Preliminary Validation of the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS in Children and Adolescent Victims of Sexual Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bustos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la validación preliminar en Chile de la Escala Infantil de Síntomas del Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático, desarrollada por Foa, Johnson, Feeny y Treadwell (2001 para evaluar el trastorno en niños/as y adolescentes expuestos a situaciones traumáticas, con arreglo a criterios DSM-IV. La muestra fue de 75 niños y adolescentes chilenos de la región del Bío Bío que sufrieron abuso sexual o violación. Los resultados indican una alta consistencia interna, medida con alfa de Cronbach, de 0,916. Asimismo, la consistencia interna de cada subescala es alta. La validez convergente con el criterio de juicio experto es adecuada, con puntuaciones significativas en la escala y todas las subescalas.The preliminary validation in Chile of the Infantile Scale of Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (CPSS is presented. This instrument was developed by Johnson, Feeny, and Treadwell (2001 to evaluate PTSD in children and adolescents exposed to traumatic events, in accordance with DSM-IV criteria. The sample consisted of 75 Chilean children and adolescents of the Bio Bio region of Chile who suffered sexual abuse or rape. The results indicate high internal consistency, measured with Cronbach's alpha, of 0.916. The convergent validity with the criterion of expert judgment is also adequate, with significant punctuations in the scale and all the subscales.

  9. Enhanced Cognitive Rehabilitation to Treat Comorbid TBI and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) benefit fully from interventions for both conditions. PTSD and TBI occur together frequently in...veterans with comorbid traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. CONCLUSION: In...moderate TBI (mTBI) and PTSD . Emotional symptoms are likely a main cause of the persistence of post -concussive symptoms while thinking problems

  10. Sleep and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Center for PTSD » Public » Sleep and PTSD PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... code here Enter ZIP code here Sleep and PTSD Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, ...

  11. PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PTSD » Public » PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use Public This section ...

  12. Firearm Ownership Among Military Veterans With PTSD: A Profile of Demographic and Psychosocial Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Cohen, Nicole L; Holleran, Lori; Alvarez, Jennifer A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a condition that disproportionately affects military veterans, is associated with heightened rates of aggression and suicide. Although experience with firearms is common among this population, virtually nothing is known regarding who is more likely to own a firearm and whether firearm ownership is differentially associated with psychological and behavioral risk factors among veterans with PTSD. Of 465 veterans (79% male) entering PTSD treatment, 28% owned a firearm (median number of firearms among owners = 3, range = 1-40). Firearm owners reported higher income were less likely to be unemployed, and were more likely to be male, Caucasian, married, and living in permanent housing. Ownership was associated with higher combat exposure and driving aggression, yet lower rates of childhood and military sexual trauma, suicidal ideation, and incarceration. Ownership was not associated with previous suicide attempt, arrest history, number of traumas experienced, PTSD symptoms, or depression. Together, among a sample of treatment-seeking military veterans with PTSD, those who owned a firearm appeared to demonstrate greater stability across a number of domains of functioning. Importantly though, routine firearm safety discussions (e.g., accessibility restrictions; violence risk assessments) and bolstering of anger management skills remain critical when working with this high-risk population. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. History of Solitary Confinement Is Associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Individuals Recently Released from Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Brian O; Wang, Emily A; Aminawung, Jenerius A; Albizu-Garcia, Carmen E; Zaller, Nickolas; Nyamu, Sylviah; Shavit, Shira; Deluca, Joseph; Fox, Aaron D

    2018-04-01

    This study assessed the relationship between solitary confinement and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a cohort of recently released former prisoners. The cross-sectional design utilized baseline data from the Transitions Clinic Network, a multi-site prospective longitudinal cohort study of post-incarceration medical care. Our main independent variable was self-reported solitary confinement during the participants' most recent incarceration; the dependent variable was the presence of PTSD symptoms determined by primary care (PC)-PTSD screening when participants initiated primary care in the community. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders, such as prior mental health conditions, age, and gender. Among 119 participants, 43% had a history of solitary confinement and 28% screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Those who reported a history of solitary confinement were more likely to report PTSD symptoms than those without solitary confinement (43 vs. 16%, p history of solitary confinement (OR = 3.93, 95% CI 1.57-9.83) and chronic mental health conditions (OR = 4.04, 95% CI 1.52-10.68) were significantly associated with a positive PTSD screen after adjustment for the potential confounders. Experiencing solitary confinement was significantly associated with PTSD symptoms among individuals accessing primary care following release from prison. Larger studies should confirm these findings.

  14. Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Young Children 2 Years After the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Yagi, Junko; Homma, Hiroaki; Mashiko, Hirofumi; Nagao, Keizo; Okuyama, Makiko

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its association with each traumatic experience among 5- to 8-year-old children 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children ages 5-8 years who were in selected preschool classes on March 11, 2011, in 3 prefectures affected by the earthquake and 1 prefecture that was unaffected, participated in the study (N=280). PTSD symptoms were assessed through questionnaires completed by caregivers and interviews by psychiatrists or psychologists conducted between September 2012 and May 2013 (ie, 1.5-2 years after the earthquake). Among children who experienced the earthquake, 33.8% exhibited PTSD symptoms. Of the different traumatic experiences, experiencing the earthquake and the loss of distant relatives or friends were independently associated with PTSD symptoms; prevalence ratios: 6.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.06-23.0) and 2.48 (95% CI: 1.21-5.08), respectively. Approximately 1 in 3 young children in the affected communities exhibited PTSD symptoms, even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. These data may be useful for preventing PTSD symptoms after natural disasters and suggest the importance of providing appropriate mental health services for children. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:207-215).

  15. A network approach to the comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder: The role of overlapping symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Mohammad H; Sunderland, Matthew; Teesson, Maree; Carragher, Natacha; Mills, Katherine; Slade, Tim

    2017-01-15

    The role of symptom overlap between major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in comorbidity between two disorders is unclear. The current study applied network analysis to map the structure of symptom associations between these disorders. Data comes from a sample of 909 Australian adults with a lifetime history of trauma and depressive symptoms. Data analysis consisted of the construction of two comorbidity networks of PTSD/MDD with and without overlapping symptoms, identification of the bridging symptoms, and computation of the centrality measures. The prominent bridging role of four overlapping symptoms (i.e., sleep problems, irritability, concentration problems, and loss of interest) and five non-overlapping symptoms (i.e., feeling sad, feelings of guilt, psychomotor retardation, foreshortened future, and experiencing flashbacks) is highlighted. The current study uses DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and does not take into consideration significant changes made to PTSD criteria in DSM-5. Moreover, due to cross-sectional nature of the data, network estimates do not provide information on whether a symptom actively triggers other symptoms or whether a symptom mostly is triggered by other symptoms. The results support the role of dysphoria-related symptoms in PTSD/MDD comorbidity. Moreover, Identification of central symptoms and bridge symptoms will provide useful targets for interventions that seek to intervene early in the development of comorbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dating violence and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Taiwanese college students: the roles of cultural beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2014-03-01

    This study has examined the effects that young adults' experience of dating-violence victimization can have on their manifestation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This study has also examined the possible roles that cultural beliefs can play in dating-violence experience, coping choices, and PTSD symptoms. This study has used self-reporting measures to collect data from a nationally stratified random sample of 1,018 college students in Taiwan. Results demonstrate that college students who had experienced dating-violence victimization reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms than those who had not. The results reveal that psychological-violence victimization and cultural beliefs have direct and indirect effects on PTSD symptoms via the mediation of young adults' use of emotion-focused coping strategies. Greater frequencies of psychological-violence victimization were associated with a greater use of emotion-focused coping, which was in turn associated with increases in PTSD symptoms. This study illustrates that traditional Chinese beliefs have played significant roles in exacerbating the risk for dating violence and PTSD, and in shaping victims' coping choices with dating violence.

  17. Longitudinal interactions of pain and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in U.S. Military service members following blast exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Kelcey J; Clark, Shaunna L; Hawn, Sage E; Amstadter, Ananda B; Cifu, David X; Walker, William C

    2014-10-01

    Military personnel returning from conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan often endorse pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, either separately or concurrently. Associations between pain and PTSD symptoms may be further complicated by blast exposure from explosive munitions. Although many studies have reported on the prevalence and disability associated with polytraumatic injuries following combat, less is known about symptom maintenance over time. Accordingly, this study examined longitudinal interactive models of co-occurring pain and PTSD symptoms in a sample of 209 military personnel (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 7.6) who experienced combat-related blast exposure. Autoregressive cross-lagged analysis examined longitudinal associations between self-reported pain and PTSD symptoms over a 1-year period. The best-fitting covariate model indicated that pain and PTSD were significantly associated with one another across all assessment periods, χ² (3) = 3.66, P = .30, Tucker-Lewis index = .98, comparative fit index = 1.00, root mean squared error of approximation = .03. PTSD symptoms had a particularly strong influence on subsequent pain symptoms. The relationship between pain and PTSD symptoms is related to older age, race, and traumatic brain injury characteristics. Results further the understanding of complex injuries among military personnel and highlight the need for comprehensive assessment and rehabilitation efforts addressing the interdependence of pain and co-occurring mental health conditions. This longitudinal study demonstrates that pain and PTSD symptoms strongly influence one another and interact across time. These findings have the potential to inform the integrative assessment and treatment of military personnel with polytrauma injuries and who are at risk for persistent deployment-related disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Suicide and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... higher for those with PTSD who have certain styles of coping with stress, such as not expressing ... manage stress. Search Pilots Search PILOTS *, the largest citation database on PTSD. What is PILOTS? Subscribe Sign ...

  19. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress following elective lumbar spinal arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisseroth, Kate; Hart, Robert A

    2012-08-15

    A prospective cohort study with 100% follow-up. To assess incidence and risk factors for development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after elective lumbar arthrodesis. Invasive medical care results in substantial physical and psychological stress to patients. The reported incidence of PTSD after medical care delivery in patients treated for trauma, cancer, and organ transplantation ranges from 5% to 51%. Similar data after elective lumbar spinal arthrodesis have not been reported. A consecutive series of 73 elective lumbar spine arthrodesis patients were evaluated prospectively, using the PTSD checklist-civilian version at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months after surgery. Patient's sex, age, education level, job status, marital status, psychiatric history, prior surgery with general anesthetic, surgical approach, blood loss, postoperative intubation, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay, and occurrence of perioperative complications were analyzed as predictors of PTSD symptoms, using χ analyses. The overall incidence of symptoms of PTSD identified at at least 1 time point was 19.2% (14 of 73). At each time point, the percentage of the population that was positive was 7.5% (6 wk), 11.6% (3 mo), 7.8%, (6 mo), 13.6% (9 mo), and 11.0% (12 mo). The presence of a prior psychiatric diagnosis proved to be the strongest predictor of postarthrodesis symptoms of PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 7.05, P = 0.002). Occurrence of a complication also proved to be significantly correlated with the development of PTSD symptoms (OR = 4.33, P = 0.04). Age less than 50 years, blood loss of more than 1 L, hospital stay of more than 10 days, and diagnosis trended toward but failed to reach statistical significance. None of the remaining variables approached statistical significance. Positive PTSD symptoms occurred at least once in 19.2% of patients after elective lumbar arthrodesis, with 7.5% to 13.6% of patients experiencing these symptoms at any 1

  20. Social phobia and PTSD in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsillo, S M; Heimberg, R G; Juster, H R; Garrett, J

    1996-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most prevalent psychological disorder experienced by Vietnam veterans. However, there are many other disorders and problems of adjustment, like social anxiety and social phobia, that have not been fully investigated in this population. This study examined the prevalence of social phobia and the comorbidity of social phobia and PTSD, and tested out a theory of the etiology of social anxiety in trauma victims. Forty one Vietnam combat veterans were interviewed and completed self-report measures assessing PTSD and social phobia. Adversity of homecoming was also assessed. Using a conservative multi-method assessment approach, 32% of the sample were found to be positive for both social phobia and PTSD. Veterans with PTSD were significantly more likely to carry an additional diagnosis of social phobia as compared to veterans without PTSD. Adversity of homecoming and shame about one's experience in Vietnam were significant predictors of current level of social anxiety over and above the effects of pre-military anxiety and severity of combat exposure. These observations suggest that social anxiety and social phobia may be significant problems among individuals with PTSD. Further, these findings offer preliminary support for the theory that posttrauma environment may impact upon the later development of social anxiety.

  1. SOME NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS EXPERIENCED BY USERS OF MOBILE PHONES: A SURVEY STUDY - CEP TELEFONLARINI KULLANANLAR TARAFINDAN YAŞANAN BAZI NÖROLOJİK BELİRTİLER: ANKET ÇALIŞMASI

    OpenAIRE

    KÜÇER, Nermin

    2014-01-01

    SOME NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS EXPERIENCED BY USERS OF MOBILE PHONES: A SURVEY STUDYIn the last twenty years, it has been discussed frequently whether there are any harmful effects ofthe radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on human health. Among radiofrequency emitting devices, there isa great importance of mobile (cellular) phones. The aim of this study is to determine the possibleneurological symptoms experienced by users of mobile phones. This survey study was conducted, using aquestionnaire...

  2. Guilt, Shame and Compassionate Imagery in War: Traumatized German Soldiers with PTSD, a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alliger-Horn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then. Method: The sample comprised 24 male German soldiers diagnosed with PTSD who were examined on the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS and two additional measures: the Emotional Distress Inventory (EIBE and the Quality of Interaction between the CURRENT SELF and the TRAUMATIZED SELF (QUI-HD: Qualität der Interaktion zwischen HEUTIGEN ICH und DAMALIGEN ICH at pre- and post-treatment and again at follow-up. The treatment used was imagery rescripting and reprocessing therapy (IRRT. Results: Eighteen of the 24 soldiers showed significant improvement in their PTSD symptoms at post-treatment and at follow-up (on their reliable change index. A significant change in trauma-associated guilt and shame emerged when compassionate imagery was developed towards one’s TRAUMATIZED SELF. The degree and intensity of the guilt and shame felt at the beginning of treatment and the degree of compassionate imagery developed toward the TRAUMATIZED SELF were predictors for change on the PDS scores. Conclusions: For soldiers suffering from specific war-related trauma involving PTSD, the use of self-nurturing, compassionate imagery that fosters reconciling with the traumatized part of the self can effectively diminish trauma-related symptoms, especially when guilt and shame are central emotions.

  3. Perceived Discrimination and Mental Health Symptoms among Black Men with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Galvan, Frank H.; Landrine, Hope; Klein, David J.; Sticklor, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms than do members of the general public (including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder/PTSD symptoms). We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). Method A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Results In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales) (all p-values discrimination types (p discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmas when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH. PMID:21787061

  4. Avoidance symptoms and assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in Arab immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E; Aroian, Karen J

    2008-10-01

    This study investigates whether the avoidance symptom criterion required for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is overly conservative. Arab immigrant women (N = 453), many of whom reported experiencing multiple traumatic events, completed the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale in Arabic as part of a face to face interview. Analyses indicated all but one avoidance symptom was reported less frequently than reexperiencing and arousal symptoms. However, those who fully met reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptom criteria had worse symptom severity and functioning than those who fully met reexperiencing and arousal symptom criteria, but only partially met avoidance symptom criterion. Study findings support importance of the PTSD avoidance symptom criterion.

  5. Assessing the existence of dissociative PTSD in sub-acute patients of whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Tonny E

    2018-03-16

    Numerous studies investigating dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD) have emerged. However, there is a lack of studies investigating D-PTSD following a wider range of traumatic exposure. Thus, the present study investigates D-PTSD using latent class analysis (LCA) in sub-acute patients of whiplash and associated risk factors. The results of LCA showed a three-class solution primarily distributed according to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and thus no indication of D-PTSD. Dissociative symptoms, psychological distress (i.e. anxiety/depression), and pain severity significantly predicted PTSD severity. Combined, the results support the component model of dissociation and PTSD, while still stressing the importance of dissociative symptoms when planning treatment for PTSD.

  6. PTSD's factor structure and measurement invariance across subgroups with differing count of trauma types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Caldas, Stephanie V; Dolan, Megan; Lagdon, Susan; Armour, Chérie

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the effect of the count of traumatizing event (TE) types on post-trauma mental health, several studies have compared posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity between individuals experiencing one versus multiple TE types. However, the validity of these studies depends on the establishment of measurement invariance of the construct(s) of interest. The current study examined the stability of the most optimal PTSD Model symptom cluster constructs (assessed by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 [PCL-5]) across subgroups experiencing one versus multiple TE types. The sample included university students (n = 556) endorsing at least one TE (Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire). Using data from the entire sample, results suggest that the PCL-5-assessed Hybrid Model provided a significantly better fit compared to other models. Results also indicated invariance of factor loadings (metric), and intercepts (scalar) for the PCL-5-assessed Hybrid Model factors across subgroups endorsing one (n = 191) versus multiple TE types (n = 365). Our findings thus support the stability, applicability, and meaningful comparison of the PCL-assessed Hybrid Model factor structure (including subscale severity scores) across subgroups experiencing one versus multiple TE types. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Replicability and generalizability of PTSD networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiko I., Fried; Eidhof, Marloes B.; Palic, Sabina

    2018-01-01

    The growing literature conceptualizing mental disorders like Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as networks of interacting symptoms faces three key challenges. Prior studies predominantly used (a) small samples with low power for precise estimation, (b) non-clinical samples, and (c) single...... samples. This renders network structures in clinical data, and the extent to which networks replicate across datasets, unknown. To overcome these limitations, the present cross-cultural multisite study estimated regularized partial correlation networks of 16 PTSD symptoms across four datasets...... of traumatized patients receiving treatment for PTSD (total N=2,782). Despite differences in culture, trauma-type and severity of the samples, considerable similarities emerged, with moderate to high correlations between symptom profiles (0.43-0.82), network structures (0.62-0.74), and centrality estimates (0...

  8. Testing alternative factor models of PTSD and the robustness of the dysphoria factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This study first aimed to examine the structure of self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms using three different samples. The second aim of the paper was to test the robustness of the factor analytic model when depression scores were controlled for. Based on previous factor analytic findings and the DSM-IV formulation, six confirmatory factor models were specified and estimated that reflected different symptom clusters. The best fitting model was subsequently re-fitted to the data after including a depression variable. The analyses were based on responses from 973 participants across three samples. Sample 1 consisted of 633 parents who were members of 'The National Association of Infant Death' and who had lost a child. Sample 2 consisted of 227 victims of rape, who completed a questionnaire within 4 weeks of the rape. Each respondent had been in contact with the Centre for Rape Victims (CRV) at the Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Sample 3 consisted of 113 refugees resident in Denmark. All participants had been referred to a treatment centre which focused on rehabilitating refugees through treatment for psychosocial integration problems (RRCF: Rehabliterings og Revliderings Centre for Flygtninge). In total 500 participants received a diagnosis of PTSD/sub-clinical PTSD (Sample 1, N=214; 2, N=176; 3, N=110). A correlated four-factor model with re-experiencing, avoidance, dysphoria, and arousal factors provided the best fit to the sample data. The average attenuation in the factor loadings was highest for the dysphoria factor (M=-.26, SD=.11) compared to the re-experiencing (M=-.14, SD=.18), avoidance (M=-.10, SD=.21), and arousal (M=-.09, SD=.13) factors. With regards to the best fitting factor model these results concur with previous research findings using different trauma populations but do not reflect the current DSM-IV symptom groupings. The attenuation of dysphoria factor loadings suggests that dysphoria is a non-specific component of

  9. Associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jodie B; Ameringer, Katherine J; Trujillo, Michael A; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve; Brightman, Molly; Pitts, Stephanie R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cigarette smoking has been difficult because of PTSD's symptomatic heterogeneity. This study examined common and unique lifetime cross-sectional relationships between PTSD symptom clusters [Re-experiencing (intrusive thoughts and nightmares about the trauma), Avoidance (avoidance of trauma-associated memories or stimuli), Emotional Numbing (loss of interest, interpersonal detachment, restricted positive affect), and Hyperarousal (irritability, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, insomnia)] and three indicators of smoking behavior: (1) smoking status; (2) cigarettes per day; and (3) nicotine dependence. Participants were adult respondents in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions with a trauma history (n = 23,635). All four symptom clusters associated with each smoking outcome in single-predictor models (ps Emotional Numbing was the only cluster to retain a significant association with lifetime smoking over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.30, p dependence in multivariate models, these relations fell below significance after adjusting for demographics and comorbidity. No clusters uniquely associated with cigarettes per day. Hyperarousal uniquely related with nicotine dependence over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.51, p < .001). These results suggest the following: (a) common variance across PTSD symptom clusters contribute to PTSD's linkage with smoking in the American population; and (b) certain PTSD symptom clusters may uniquely associate with particular indicators of smoking behavior. These findings may clarify the underpinnings of PTSD-smoking comorbidity and inform smoking interventions for trauma-exposed individuals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. The association between pregnancy intendedness and experiencing symptoms of postpartum depression among new mothers in the United States, 2009 to 2011: A secondary analysis of PRAMS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthreaux, Christina; Negron, Jenesis; Castellanos, Daniel; Ward-Peterson, Melissa; Castro, Grettel; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Acuña, Juan Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a form of major depressive disorder affecting approximately 13% of women worldwide. Unintended pregnancies, reaching close to 50% of the pregnancies in the United States, have become a major health concern. While many physiologic and psychosocial causes have been analyzed, few studies have examined the relationship between unintended pregnancy and symptoms of PPD.A cross-sectional study was conducted using surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2009 to 2011. The PRAMS population-based random sample included women who have had recent live births and is representative of 78% of the United States population. The chi-squared test was used to examine bivariate associations. Binary logistic regression was utilized to study unadjusted and adjusted associations between PPD and pregnancy intendedness, as well as other demographic and clinical characteristics of mothers in the sample. Multicollinearity in the adjusted model was evaluated using variance inflation factors. Sampling weights were used to account for PRAMS' complex sampling design.Of the 110,231 mothers included in the sample, only 32.3% reported desiring the pregnancy at the time of conception. Women with pregnancies categorized as mistimed: desired sooner, mistimed: desired later, or unwanted were 20% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3), 30% (AOR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.2-1.4), and 50% (AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7) more likely to experience symptoms of PPD, respectively, compared to women with desired pregnancies. Other factors found to be associated with experiencing symptoms of PPD were a gestational age of pregnancy (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-2.0).We found that women with mistimed or unwanted pregnancies were more likely to experience symptoms of PPD. Our findings support the current US Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of

  11. Did the DSM-5 Improve the Traumatic Stressor Criterion?: Association of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Criterion A with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sadie E; Berenbaum, Howard

    2017-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis found that DSM-III- and DSM-IV-defined traumas were associated with only slightly higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than nontraumatic stressors. The current study is the first to examine whether DSM-5-defined traumas were associated with higher levels of PTSD than DSM-IV-defined traumas. Further, we examined theoretically relevant event characteristics to determine whether characteristics other than those outlined in the DSM could predict PTSD symptoms. One hundred six women who had experienced a trauma or significant stressor completed questionnaires assessing PTSD, depression, impairment, and event characteristics. Events were rated for whether they qualified as DSM-IV and DSM-5 trauma. There were no significant differences between DSM-IV-defined traumas and stressors. For DSM-5, effect sizes were slightly larger but still nonsignificant (except for significantly higher hyperarousal following traumas vs. stressors). Self-reported fear for one's life significantly predicted PTSD symptoms. Our results indicate that the current DSM-5 definition of trauma, although a slight improvement from DSM-IV, is not highly predictive of who develops PTSD symptoms. Our study also indicates the importance of individual perception of life threat in the prediction of PTSD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Treatment Preference among Suicidal and Self-Injuring Women with Borderline Personality Disorder and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Melanie S.; Tkachuck, Mathew A.; Youngberg, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined treatment preferences among suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and PTSD. Method Women (N = 42, Mage =34) with BPD, PTSD and recent intentional self-injury were evaluated upon entry into a psychotherapy outcome study. Results The majority preferred a combined dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and prolonged exposure (PE) treatment (73.8%), followed by DBT alone (26.2%), and PE alone (0%). Women who preferred the combined treatment were more likely to report a desire to obtain relief from PTSD and to receive specific DBT and PE treatment components as reasons underlying this preference. Few women (21.4%) reported concerns about PE, but those who did were more likely to prefer DBT alone. More severe PTSD re-experiencing symptoms, a childhood index trauma, and less reduction in positive affect after a trauma interview predicted a preference for the combined treatment. Conclusions These results may help to inform treatment for these complex patients. PMID:23444147

  13. PTSD: An Elusive Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, Jared F

    2012-01-01

    The Global War on Terrorism became the longest standing conflict in United States military history on June 7, 2010. It is estimated that 1.64 million U.S. troops have been deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (p xix).1 Both conflicts have produced high numbers of casualties as the result of ground combat. The amount of casualties though has been relatively low compared to other conflicts. Some of this can be attributed to the advances in body armor and emergency medicine that allow many servicemembers to survive conditions that previously led to death. Conversely, surviving these situations leaves those same members with memories that are psychologically difficult to live with and cause chronic difficulties. Unlike an amputee, or the victim of severe burns where the signs and symptoms of their injuries are obvious, patients with psychological disorders can have a range of signs and symptoms common in many other mental disorders, making it difficult to diagnose and treat Soldiers suffering from Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). 2012.

  14. Resource Loss and Naturalistic Reduction of PTSD among Inner-City Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Kristen H.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Halting the process of psychosocial and material resource loss has been theorized as being associated with the reduction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examines how the limiting of resource loss is related to alleviation of PTSD symptoms among 102 inner-city women, who originally met diagnostic criteria for PTSD after…

  15. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder: an exploratory investigation of PTSD and DES NOS among Dutch war veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, R. A.; Carlier, I. V.; Schreuder, B. J.; Gersons, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    The recently developed concept Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DES NOS) or complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) is designed to encompass long-standing symptoms not present in PTSD. An exploratory investigation of PTSD and DES NOS was performed with the Structured

  16. Predicting Treatment Outcome in PTSD : A Longitudinal Functional MRI Study on Trauma-Unrelated Emotional Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, Sanne J H; Kennis, Mitzy; Vink, Matthijs; Geuze, Elbert

    2016-01-01

    In about 30-50% of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms persist after treatment. Although neurobiological research has advanced our understanding of PTSD, little is known about the neurobiology underlying persistence of PTSD. Two functional MRI scans were collected from 72

  17. Relationship between serum lipid concentrations and posttraumatic stress symptoms in the bereaved after the Sewol ferry disaster: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Hyejin; Huh, Hyu Jung; Hwang, Jihyun; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2018-05-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum lipid concentrations and PTSD symptoms in the bereaved after a traumatic familial loss. Eighteen months after the Sewol ferry disaster, 107 subjects who experienced traumatic losses as a result of the accident completed a mental and medical survey as well as laboratory tests for lipid profiles. At 30 months after the trauma, a total of 64 individuals completed a follow-up psychometric survey and biochemical measurements. We performed multiple linear regression analyses, examining the association between PTSD symptoms and lipid profiles. Other potential influences on lipid profiles such as metabolic risk factors, demographic risk factors, and underlying medical history were accounted for. Participants reporting clinically significant PTSD symptoms exhibited lower serum HDL-C levels than those without PTSD symptoms. In addition, we found that the severity of PTSD symptoms and sex could explain the changes in lipid profiles independently of other possible risk factors of changes. The results of this study suggest that PTSD symptoms may contribute to an increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome via detrimental changes in lipid concentrations. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management to prevent metabolic syndrome in individuals who experience traumatic losses would therefore be valuable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Water Associated Zero Maze: A novel rat test for long term traumatic re-experiencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad eRitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Often, freezing and startle behaviors in the context of a previously experienced stress are taken as an indication of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD-like symptoms in rats. However, PTSD is characterized by large individual variations of symptoms. In order to take into consideration the complex and long term distinctive variations in effects of trauma exposure additional behavioral measures are required.The current study used a novel behavioral test, the Water Associated Zero Maze (WAZM. This test was planned to enable a formation of an association between the context of the maze and an underwater trauma or swim stress in order to examine the impact of exposure to the context which immediately precedes a stressful or a traumatic experience on rat's complex behavior. Rats were exposed to the WAZM and immediately after to an underwater trauma or short swim. One month later rats were re-exposed to the context of the WAZM while their behavior was video recorded. Furthermore, c-Fos expression in the amygdala was measured 90 min after this exposure.The results of the current study indicate that the WAZM can be used to discern behavioral changes measured a long time after the actual traumatic or stressful events. Furthermore, the behavioral changes detected were accompanied by changes of c-Fos expression in the amygdala of exposed rats. We suggest that the WAZM can be used to model traumatic memories re-experiencing in rodent models of human stress-related pathologies such as PTSD.

  19. The influence of sense of coherence and mindfulness on PTSD symptoms and posttraumatic cognitions in a sample of elderly Austrian survivors of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Raninger, Simone; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Sense of Coherence (SOC) and mindfulness are known protective factors against psychopathology, also in older age. We set out to investigate the influence of SOC and mindfulness on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions in the context of lifetime trauma in elderly persons with a history of childhood war-experiences. Elderly Austrians (N = 97) filled in questionnaires on traumatic lifetime experiences and posttraumatic symptoms (ETI), posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI), SOC (SOC-13) and mindfulness (FFMQ). We expected the influence of SOC scores on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions to be on one hand influenced by mindfulness. On the other hand, we expected that both aspects would uniquely explain fewer posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions. Participants reported various lifetime traumas (M = 2.42), including experiences during World War II (WWII) as children and adolescents. Mindfulness partially mediated the association of SOC scores with posttraumatic cognitions, but not with posttraumatic symptoms. However, in a two-stage mediation model, mindfulness significantly predicted posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. Although SOC was the strongest predictor of posttraumatic symptoms, mindfulness influenced the severity of posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. We discuss implications for mindfulness-based interventions on trauma-related cognitions in the elderly.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does the current evidence say about treatment for PTSD? Read Psych Health Evidence Briefs , which summarize available ... first-line and emerging PTSD treatments. Psychotherapy for PTSD According to the VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline ...

  1. Social relationship satisfaction and PTSD: which is the chicken and which is the egg?

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Sara A.; Gilad, Moran; Ankri, Yael; Roziner, Ilan; Shalev, Arieh Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired social relationships are linked with higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the association’s underlying dynamics are unknown. PTSD may impair social relationships, and, vice versa, poorer relationship quality may interfere with the recovery from PTSD.Objective: This work longitudinally evaluates the simultaneous progression of PTSD symptoms and social relationship satisfaction (SRS) in a large cohort of recent trauma survivors. It also explores the ef...

  2. A cross-cultural validation of the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents in a Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehle, Julia; de Roos, Carlijn; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Trauma-focused interventions for children could be administered more efficiently and effectively if posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related symptoms were first investigated by a reliable and valid instrument. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents

  3. Can the dissociative PTSD subtype be identified across two distinct trauma samples meeting caseness for PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Műllerová, Jana; Elklit, Ask; Armour, Cherie

    2016-08-01

    For over a century, the occurrence of dissociative symptoms in connection to traumatic exposure has been acknowledged in the scientific literature. Recently, the importance of dissociation has also been recognized in the long-term traumatic response within the DSM-5 nomenclature. Several studies have confirmed the existence of the dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype. However, there is a lack of studies investigating latent profiles of PTSD solely in victims with PTSD. This study investigates the possible presence of PTSD subtypes using latent class analysis (LCA) across two distinct trauma samples meeting caseness for DSM-5 PTSD based on self-reports (N = 787). Moreover, we assessed if a number of risk factors resulted in an increased probability of membership in a dissociative compared with a non-dissociative PTSD class. The results of LCA revealed a two-class solution with two highly symptomatic classes: a dissociative class and a non-dissociative class across both samples. Increased emotion-focused coping increased the probability of individuals being grouped into the dissociative class across both samples. Social support reduced the probability of individuals being grouped into the dissociative class but only in the victims of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) suffering from whiplash. The results are discussed in light of their clinical implications and suggest that the dissociative subtype can be identified in victims of incest and victims of MVA suffering from whiplash meeting caseness for DSM-5 PTSD.

  4. Substance use disorders and PTSD: an exploratory study of treatment preferences among military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Sudie E; Killeen, Therese K; Teer, Andrew P; Hartwell, Emily E; Federline, Amanda; Beylotte, Frank; Cox, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur among Veterans and are associated with poor treatment outcomes. Historically, treatments for SUDs and PTSD have been delivered sequentially and independently. More recently, however, integrated treatments have shown promise. This study investigated Veterans' perceptions of the interrelationship between SUDs and PTSD, as well as treatment preferences. Participants were 35 Veterans of recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, and prior operations, who completed the Treatment Preferences Questionnaire as well as an in-depth interview. The majority (94.3%) perceived a relationship between their SUD and PTSD symptoms. Veterans reported that PTSD symptom exacerbation was typically (85.3%) associated with an increase in substance use, and PTSD symptom improvement was typically (61.8%) followed by a decrease in substance use (pdevelopment and provision of care for Veterans with SUDs and PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Lingling; Jia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhe; Mu, Huitong; Liu, Xin; Peng, Boshi; Li, Anqi; Fan, Lihua

    2017-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological maladjustment to undergoing a traumatic event. Our aim was to measure the prevalence of PTSD among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence' and explore the associations of their demographic characteristics, social support, personality traits' and coping styles with their PTSD symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Workplace Violence Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire. We used convenience sampling method to collect data from March 2015 to September 2016. Healthcare workers (n=2706) from 39 public hospitals located in Heilongjiang, Hebei and Beijing provinces of China completed the questionnaires (effective response rate=84.25%). Overall, the prevalence of physical violence in the previous 12 months was 13.60% (n=2706). The prevalence of PTSD among the healthcare workers who experienced physical violence was 28.0% (n=368). Most of the victims of physical violence (50.80%) did not exhibit PTSD symptoms based on their PCL-C scores, and 47.0% did not manifest the diagnostic criteria for PTSD after experiencing physical violence. The level of PTSD symptoms was negatively correlated with their scores on the SSRS (r=-0.188, pPTSD symptoms (β=-0.376, p=0.001). However, the effect of positive coping was not significant in men. The results suggest that the aftermath of physical violence contributes to the current prevalence of PTSD. The positive effects of social support on PTSD symptoms suggest that it has practical implications for interventions to promote psychological health. The healthcare workers' coping styles influenced the development of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, adopting effective coping styles and receiving social support have potential roles in the recovery from trauma after experiencing physical

  6. The impact of the refugee decision on the trajectory of PTSD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among asylum seekers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Steel, Zachary; Susljik, Ina; Frommer, Naomi; Loneragan, Celia; Chey, Tien; Brooks, Robert; le Touze, Dominique; Ceollo, Mariano; Smith, Mitchell; Harris, Elizabeth; Bryant, Richard

    2007-01-01

    To examine prospectively the trajectory of trauma-related psychiatric symptoms and disability amongst asylum seekers over the course of the refugee determination process. To identify the direct impact of the refugee decision on psychiatric symptoms by adjusting for other variables, namely sociodemographic characteristics, past trauma, and ongoing postmigration stresses. A prospective cohort study of asylum seekers recruited from a random sample of immigration agents in Sydney, Australia. Consecutive asylum seekers were referred for interview by immigration agents. Interviews were undertaken after the initial application and on average, 3.8 months after the refugee decision. Measures assessed premigration trauma and postmigration stressors. Mental health status was assessed using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Functional impairment was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form 12. Sixty-two of 73 asylum seekers were retained at follow-up. The accepted (16) and rejected (46) groups did not differ on premigration trauma or baseline psychiatric symptoms. Postdecision, the accepted group showed substantial improvements in posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and in mental health functioning, whereas the rejected group maintained high levels of symptoms on all psychiatric indices. Establishing secure residency status for asylum seekers may be important to their recovery from trauma-related psychiatric symptoms. The practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  7. The underlying role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in the association between intimate partner violence and deliberate self-harm among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicole H; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Duke, Aaron A; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-05-01

    African American women are at heightened risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) and its negative consequences, including health-compromising behaviors. Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is one clinically-relevant behavior that has been understudied among African American women generally and those with exposure to IPV in particular. To date, no studies have examined factors that may account for the relationship between IPV and DSH. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations among IPV (physical, psychological, and sexual), PTSD, and DSH history and versatility, and the potentially mediating role of PTSD symptoms in the IPV-DSH relation. Participants were 197 African American community women currently experiencing IPV. Sixty participants (31%) reported a history of DSH. Among participants who reported DSH, there was an average endorsement of 2.3 unique forms of deliberate self-harm (i.e., DSH versatility). Significant positive associations were detected among physical IPV severity, psychological IPV severity, PTSD symptom severity, and DSH history and versatility. PTSD symptom severity mediated the relationships between physical and psychological IPV severity and DSH history and versatility. Results highlight the relevance of PTSD symptoms to DSH and suggest that treatments targeting PTSD symptoms may be useful in reducing DSH among IPV-exposed African American women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Emergence of delayed posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms related to sexual trauma: patient-centered and trauma-cognizant management by physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Kim; Kubo Slowik, Amy

    2012-02-01

    Sexual violence has been identified as one of the most common predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This case report describes the emergence of delayed PTSD symptoms, disclosure of history of sexual trauma, and the influence of re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms on physical therapy treatment. A 60-year-old woman was seen for treatment of low back pain. of a discord between fear of falling and no balance impairments led to disclosure of sexual assault by a physician at 19 years of age. The patient's PTSD symptoms emerged after 10 weeks of physical therapy. The physical therapists monitored somatic responses and body language closely and modified and planned treatment techniques to avoid PTSD triggers and limit hyperarousal. Collaborative communication approaches included reinforcement of cognitive-behavioral strategies introduced by her psychotherapists. Trauma-cognizant approaches supported the patient's efforts to manage PTSD symptoms sufficiently to tolerate physical therapy and participate in a back care class. Nonlinear psychological healing is illustrated. Symptoms of PTSD may emerge during physical therapy treatment, and patient-sensitive responses to disclosure are important. The trauma-cognizant approach (2-way communication, patient-centered management, and integration of psychological elements into clinical decision making) helped identify and respond to triggers. The physical therapists reinforced cognitive-behavioral strategies introduced by psychotherapists to manage PTSD symptoms. Patient-centered care with further refinement to a trauma-cognizant approach may play an important role in assisting patients with PTSD or a history of sexual trauma to manage symptoms while addressing rehabilitation needs.

  9. In-Home Exposure Therapy for Veterans with PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    the therapist comes to the Veterans’ homes for treatment). We aim to investigate whether symptoms of PTSD, depression , and anxiety get better (less...if symptoms of PTSD, depression , and anxiety get better (less severe) after the treatment and six months later. We will also see if there are...preferences for care (see full reference below) For the full project sample, we have been referred 900 Veterans. Of the 900 referred, 736 are males (82

  10. Brain structural covariance network centrality in maltreated youth with PTSD and in maltreated youth resilient to PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Delin; Haswell, Courtney C; Morey, Rajendra A; De Bellis, Michael D

    2018-04-10

    covariance network topology that is unique to experiencing maltreatment. This work is the first to identify cortical thickness-based structural covariance network differences between maltreated youth with and without PTSD. We demonstrated network differences in both networks unique to maltreated youth with PTSD and those resilient to PTSD. The networks identified are important for the successful attainment of age-appropriate social cognition, attention, emotional processing, and inhibitory control. Our findings in maltreated youth with PTSD versus those without PTSD suggest vulnerability mechanisms for developing PTSD.

  11. ICD-11 trauma questionnaires for PTSD and complex PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokkedahl, Sarah Bøgelund; Oboke, Henry; Ovuga, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: ICD-11 is expected to introduce a new diagnosis of C-PTSD, along with a revision of the current PTSD diagnosis. Are the suggested diagnostic tools for PTSD and C-PTSD valid in a developing country? Method: The tools have been tested on former abducted and regular civilians in northern...

  12. Shamanic Healing for Veterans with PTSD: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Shainsky, Lauri; Weaver, Angela; Engels-Smith, Jan

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious health concern. Current evidence-based treatments for PTSD are efficacious; however, they are not appropriate or tolerated by everyone who needs them. Alternative treatment approaches are needed. Shamanic healing is one such therapy that may potentially be beneficial but no systematic research has been conducted on it for PTSD. The objectives of the case series are to (1) develop a structured replicable shamanic treatment plan for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); (2) collect preliminary data on PTSD-related outcomes, and (3) explore the feasibility and potential for adverse events of the plan. Case series. Clinical. Veterans with PTSD. Shamanic healing. PTSD symptoms, quality of life, and piritual wellness. A semi-structured shamanic healing protocol was created with the following components: rapport building, power animal retrieval, extraction, compassionate spirit release, curse unraveling, soul retrieval, forgiveness/cord-cutting, aspect maturing/soul rematrixing, and divination. Six veterans enrolled in the study (mean age = 49.3 ± 13.1). Qualitative descriptions of the participants, their histories, and effects from the intervention are reported. Preliminary data was collected on PTSD-related outcomes. The protocol was found feasible and acceptable and recommendations for its future use are suggested. Future research is warranted and needed to evaluate the efficacy of shamanic healing as a potential therapy for veterans with PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Specificity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: an investigation of comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depression in treatment-seeking veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F; Simms, Leonard J; Acierno, Ron

    2010-12-01

    In response to high levels of comorbidity and symptom overlap between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and other disorders, much attention has been devoted to the role of specific and nonspecific symptoms among the disorders. The present study investigated the overlapping symptoms of PTSD and MDD in treatment-seeking veterans. Exploratory factor analyses were used to identify latent factors of both self-reported and clinician-rated symptoms of PTSD and MDD. Results of exploratory factor analyses supported a 2-factor model representing symptoms of depression and PTSD; however, a subset of PTSD symptoms, characterized by emotional numbing and dysphoria, loaded onto the depression factor, rather than the PTSD factor. These nonspecific PTSD symptoms were predictive of comorbid MDD and increased depression symptomatology in patients with PTSD. Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of accounting for nonspecific symptoms in diagnosis and treatment of PTSD, highlighting a need for revisions to our current diagnostics.

  14. Experiencing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Bingley, P.; Rajagopalan, R.; Triki, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the activities carried out in the first part of the Experiencing Control project (2008-324). The guiding idea of the project is to make control part of the experience, exploring new interaction solutions for complex, engaging interactions with Philips devices in the living

  15. Heart rate response to fear conditioning and virtual reality in subthreshold PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael J; Costanzo, Michelle E; Jovanovic, Tanja; Leaman, Suzanne; Taylor, Patricia; Norrholm, Seth D; Rizzo, Albert A

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant health concern for U.S. military service members (SMs) returning from Afghanistan and Iraq. Early intervention to prevent chronic disability requires greater understanding of subthreshold PTSD symptoms, which are associated with impaired physical health, mental health, and risk for delayed onset PTSD. We report a comparison of physiologic responses for recently deployed SMs with high and low subthreshold PTSD symptoms, respectively, to a fear conditioning task and novel virtual reality paradigm (Virtual Iraq). The high symptom group demonstrated elevated heart rate (HR) response during fear conditioning. Virtual reality sequences evoked significant HR responses which predicted variance of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version self-report. Our results support the value of physiologic assessment during fear conditioning and combat-related virtual reality exposure as complementary tools in detecting subthreshold PTSD symptoms in Veterans.

  16. Psychological and physical intimate partner violence and young children's mental health: The role of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Carolyn A; Chan, Grace; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2018-03-01

    Young children are at significant risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and vulnerable to exposure-related psychopathology, yet few studies investigate the effects of exposure to IPV on children under the age of 5 years. The current study investigated the role of maternal PTSD symptoms and parenting strategies in the relationship between mothers' IPV experiences and psychopathology in their young children, ages 3-6 years in a community-based cohort of 308 mother-child dyads at high risk for family violence. Data were collected from 2011 to 2014. IPV history and maternal PTSD symptoms were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Children's symptoms were assessed with a developmentally-sensitive psychiatric interview administered to mothers. Punitive/restrictive parenting was independently-coded from in-depth interviews with mothers about their disciplinary practices. Hypothesized direct and indirect pathways between physical and psychological IPV, maternal PTSD, maternal parenting style, and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms were examined with mediation models. Results indicated that neither physical nor psychological IPV experienced by mothers was directly associated with children's symptoms. However, both types of victimization were associated with maternal PTSD symptoms. Examination of indirect pathways suggested that maternal PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological and physical IPV experiences and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mothers' restrictive/punitive parenting mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological IPV and children's externalizing symptoms. In addition, there was a path from maternal physical IPV to child externalizing symptoms through both maternal PTSD symptoms and restrictive/punitive parenting. Findings highlight the importance of supporting parents in recovering from the sequelae of their own traumatic experiences, as their ensuing mental health

  17. The Utility and Comparative Incremental Validity of the MMPI-2 and Trauma Symptom Inventory Validity Scales in the Detection of Feigned PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendov, Adele A.; Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the comparative predictive capacity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) Atypical Response Scale (ATR) and the standard set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) fake-bad validity scales (i.e., F, F[subscript B[prime

  18. Different regional gray matter loss in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gray matter loss in the limbic structures was found in recent onset post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients. In the present study, we measured regional gray matter volume in trauma survivors to verify the hypothesis that stress may cause different regional gray matter loss in trauma survivors with and without recent onset PTSD. METHOD: High resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were obtained from coal mine flood disaster survivors with (n = 10 and without (n = 10 recent onset PTSD and 20 no trauma exposed normal controls. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM method was used to measure the regional gray matter volume in three groups, the correlations of PTSD symptom severities with the gray matter volume in trauma survivors were also analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS: Compared with normal controls, recent onset PTSD patients had smaller gray matter volume in left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and non PTSD subjects had smaller gray matter volume in the right pulvinar and left pallidum. The gray matter volume of the trauma survivors correlated negatively with CAPS scores in the right frontal lobe, left anterior and middle cingulate cortex, bilateral cuneus cortex, right middle occipital lobe, while in the recent onset PTSD, the gray matter volume correlated negatively with CAPS scores in bilateral superior medial frontal lobe and right ACC. CONCLUSION: The present study identified gray matter loss in different regions in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure. The gray matter volume of left dorsal ACC associated with the development of PTSD, while the gray matter volume of right pulvinar and left pallidum associated with the response to the severe stress. The atrophy of the frontal and limbic cortices predicts the symptom severities of the PTSD.

  19. Aerobic Exercise Reduces Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzner, Mathew G; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests aerobic exercise has anxiolytic effects; yet, the treatment potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and responsible anxiolytic mechanisms have received little attention. Emerging evidence indicates that attentional focus during exercise may dictate the extent of therapeutic benefit. Whether benefits are a function of attentional focus toward or away from somatic arousal during exercise remains untested. Thirty-three PTSD-affected participants completed two weeks of stationary biking aerobic exercise (six sessions). To assess the effect of attentional focus, participants were randomized into three exercise groups: group 1 (attention to somatic arousal) received prompts directing their attention to the interoceptive effects of exercise, group 2 (distraction from somatic arousal) watched a nature documentary, and group 3 exercised with no distractions or interoceptive prompts. Hierarchal linear modeling showed all groups reported reduced PTSD and anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of arousal-related somatic sensations) during treatment. Interaction effects between group and time were found for PTSD hyperarousal and AS physical and social scores, wherein group 1, receiving interoceptive prompts, experienced significantly less symptom reduction than other groups. Most participants (89%) reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity after the two-week intervention. Findings suggest, regardless of attentional focus, aerobic exercise reduces PTSD symptoms.

  20. Validation of two screening instruments for PTSD in Dutch substance use disorder inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Tim; de Haan, Hein A; van der Velden, Helena J W; van der Meer, Margreet; Najavits, Lisa M; de Jong, Cor A J

    2013-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in substance use disorder (SUD) populations. Because resources for extensive and thorough diagnostic assessment are often limited, reliable screening instruments for PTSD are needed. The aim of the current study was to test two short PTSD measures for diagnostic efficiency in predicting PTSD compared to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). The sample consisted of 197 SUD patients receiving residential substance use treatment who completed questionnaires regarding substance use and trauma-related symptoms, all abstinent from substance for 4weeks. The PTSD section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview plus (MINIplus) and the Self-Report Inventory for PTSD (SRIP) are compared to the CAPS. Results showed low sensitivity (.58) and high specificity (.91) for the PTSD section of the MINIplus. The SRIP showed high sensitivity (.80) and moderately high specificity (.73) at a cut-off score of 48. The prevalence of PTSD as measured with the CAPS was 25.4% current and 46.2% lifetime. Results indicate that the MINIplus, a short clinical interview, has insufficient quality as a screener for PTSD. The SRIP, however, is a reliable instrument in detecting PTSD in a SUD inpatient population in The Netherlands. Screening for PTSD is time efficient and increases detection of PTSD in SUD treatment settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pre-migration Trauma, Repatriation Experiences, and PTSD Among North Korean Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunyoung; Yun, Minwoo; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Woong-Sub

    2018-04-12

    Many studies on refugees suggested that refugees' traumatic events associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether refugees' PTSD was caused by their negative experience before or after the entry of their destination country. Thus, a separation of refugees' pre-migration from their post-migration experience is particularly important in understanding the causal impact of trauma. Using a sample from North Korean refugees, this study investigates the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, the impact of tortured trauma, repatriation experiences, on PTSD among North Korean refugees (n = 698). We found that North Korean refugees in our sample (a) demonstrated a high rate of current probable PTSD; (b) were demonstrated a higher frequency of repatriation experiences with a greater risk for PTSD symptoms. The findings suggest that particular types of trauma for populations with particular socio-demographic characteristics may be at a greater risk of PTSD.

  2. Cognitive predictors and risk factors of PTSD following stillbirth: a short-term longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Horsch, A.; Jacobs, I.; McKenzie-McHarg, K.

    2015-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated cognitive predictors and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers following stillbirth. After a stillbirth at ≥ 24 weeks gestational age, 65 women completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, cognitive predictors (appraisals, dysfunctional strategies), and risk factors (perceived social support, trauma history, obstetric history) at 3 and 6 months. PTSD symptoms decreased between 3 a...

  3. Posttraumatic stress symptoms seen in children within the 3-month period after the Van earthquake in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükoğlu, Sibel; Yıldırım, Naci; Dursun, Onur Burak

    2015-10-01

    The research was conducted to determine the posttraumatic stress symptoms seen in children within the 3 month period after the Van earthquake in Turkey. The research was conducted between December 2011 and January 2012 with the earthquake survivor children in the 7-12 age group living in the tent city built in the central area of Van. The research data were collected by the researcher using the Childhood Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) and a questionnaire prepared by the researchers that contained questions on some information about the earthquake and on sociodemographic characteristics.It was found out that 8.6% (26) of the children had mild symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 19.7% (60) of the children had moderate symptoms of PTSD, 47.7% (145) of the children had severe symptoms of PTSD and 24.0% (73) of the children had very severe symptoms of PTSD. Furthermore, a significant difference (P children. In the study, PTSD was identified in the majority of children in the 7-12 age group who experienced the Van earthquake. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. The Effectiveness of Behavior Therapy and Symptoms of PTSD in Trauma Survivors Fire Accident in Industrial Pole of Shahid Babaie City Shazand

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sadeghi; M. Naderi-Nabi; M. Chegini; A. Ghaedniaye-Jahromi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this present study was to the effectiveness of behavior therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and general health of in Trauma Survivors Fire Accident in Industrial Pole of Shahid Babaie City Shazand in 1387. Methods: The present plan study of experimental design with pre - and post - test method after the test. community study all the survivors industrial hub of fire martyr Babaie city shazand township to approach the census initial screenin...

  5. PTSD symptoms among tsunami exposed mothers in Sri Lanka: the role of disaster exposure, culturally specific coping strategies, and recovery efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Thulitha; Wickrama, K A S; Banford, Alyssa; Lambert, Jessica

    2017-07-01

    Women in Sri Lanka have been uniquely exposed to a complex and protracted set of stressors stemming from a civil war conflict spanning over 25 years and the tsunami which struck Southeast Asia in 2004. This study investigates coping strategies and their association with trauma-related symptoms of tsunami-exposed mothers in Sri Lanka at two time points. Data for this study come from surveys administered in two waves of data collection to investigate both mothers' and adolescent children's post-tsunami mental health in early 2005, three months after the tsunami struck, and again in 2008, three years later. Latent-variable structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypotheses among 160 tsunami-affected mothers in the Polhena village, Matara district, Sri Lanka. Among the various coping strategies examined, the use of cultural rituals as well as inner psychological strength was associated with lower levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms. In contrast, passive religious beliefs were associated with greater posttraumatic stress levels. The results of this study reveal the differential associations of various coping strategies including rituals used by mothers exposed to the tsunami in Sri Lanka and their posttraumatic stress symptom levels.

  6. The Effectiveness of Behavior Therapy and Symptoms of PTSD in Trauma Survivors Fire Accident in Industrial Pole of Shahid Babaie City Shazand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadeghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this present study was to the effectiveness of behavior therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and general health of in Trauma Survivors Fire Accident in Industrial Pole of Shahid Babaie City Shazand in 1387. Methods: The present plan study of experimental design with pre - and post - test method after the test. community study all the survivors industrial hub of fire martyr Babaie city shazand township to approach the census initial screening . 111 people , including the study sample of adults in post - traumatic stress disorder after the damage to the non - random sampling method available and chosen at random in 2 men's and 6 women's group exposure. at the beginning of the Check - List post - traumatic stress disorder , and public health , then 7 completed training session behavioral therapy group manner, and again in the final session by evaluated questionnaires. Results: Do intervention in increasing public health survivors and reduce the symptoms of post - traumatic stress disorder, anxiety , depression , the signs of physical and social function is effective survivors (p<0/0001. Conclusion: Psychological treatments to reduce the symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder is effective in the survivors.

  7. A study on reintegration of street children in Burundi: experienced violence and maltreatment are associated with mental health impairments and impeded educational progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Street children are exposed to violence, and subsist in poor and generally precarious conditions. In conflict regions, institutional care facilities are often the only well established way to care for vulnerable children. Providing access to school education is considered to be key to allow successful integration into society. However, adverse effects of psychological disorders may pose another serious obstacle. In semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 Burundian male youths (mean age = 15.9 years), we assessed exposure to traumatic stressors, regularly and recently occurring violence as well as prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, substance dependence, suicidal risk, and progress in school. Former street children (n = 32) and other vulnerable children (n = 50) in a residential center were compared to children living in the streets (n = 15) or with families (n = 15). While the children living in the center were less regularly exposed to violence and reported less substance dependence than street children, PTSD symptoms were common among the former street children. Furthermore, we provided empirical evidence that for the children living in the center, recently experienced violence – mostly minor physical conflicts, psychological violence and neglect – was associated with increased PTSD symptomatology and impeded progress in school. In a population of children who experienced many traumatic incidences and a lot of violence, even minor violent events may trigger and reinforce PTSD symptoms. Hence controlling exposure to violence and addressing mental ill-health in vulnerable children is mandatory for reintegration. PMID:25566123

  8. Social support and negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21-57 years (M=35.27; SD=8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale--Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive--social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance.

  9. Accelerated Resolution Therapy for treatment of pain secondary to symptoms of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E. Kip

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As many as 70% of veterans with chronic pain treated within the US Veterans Administration (VA system may have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and conversely, up to 80% of those with PTSD may have pain. We describe pain experienced by US service members and veterans with symptoms of PTSD, and report on the effect of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART, a new, brief exposure-based therapy, on acute pain reduction secondary to treatment of symptoms of PTSD. Methods: A randomized controlled trial of ART versus an attention control (AC regimen was conducted among 45 US service members/veterans with symptoms of combat-related PTSD. Participants received a mean of 3.7 sessions of ART. Results: Mean age was 41.0 + 12.4 years and 20% were female. Most veterans (93% reported pain. The majority (78% used descriptive terms indicative of neuropathic pain, with 29% reporting symptoms of a concussion or feeling dazed. Mean pre-/post-change on the Pain Outcomes Questionnaire (POQ was −16.9±16.6 in the ART group versus −0.7±14.2 in the AC group (p=0.0006. Among POQ subscales, treatment effects with ART were reported for pain intensity (effect size = 1.81, p=0.006, pain-related impairment in mobility (effect size = 0.69, p=0.01, and negative affect (effect size = 1.01, p=0.001. Conclusions: Veterans with symptoms of combat-related PTSD have a high prevalence of significant pain, including neuropathic pain. Brief treatment of symptoms of combat-related PTSD among veterans by use of ART appears to acutely reduce concomitant pain.

  10. Cognitive predictors and risk factors of PTSD following stillbirth: a short-term longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Antje; Jacobs, Ingo; McKenzie-McHarg, Kirstie

    2015-04-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated cognitive predictors and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers following stillbirth. After a stillbirth at ≥ 24 weeks gestational age, 65 women completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, cognitive predictors (appraisals, dysfunctional strategies), and risk factors (perceived social support, trauma history, obstetric history) at 3 and 6 months. PTSD symptoms decreased between 3 and 6 months (Cohen's d ranged .34-.52). Regression analyses also revealed a specific positive relationship between Rumination and concurrent frequency of PTSD symptoms (β = .45). Negative Self-View and Negative World-View related positively and Self-Blame related negatively to concurrent number of PTSD symptoms (β = .48, .44, -.45, respectively). Suppression and Distraction predicted a decrease and Numbing predicted an increase in time-lagged number of PTSD symptoms (β = -.33, -.28, .30, respectively). Risk factors for PTSD symptoms were younger age (β = -.25), lower income (β = -.29), fewer previous pregnancies (β = -.31), and poorer perceived social support (β = -.26). Interventions addressing negative appraisals, dysfunctional strategies, and social support are recommended for mothers with PTSD following stillbirth. Knowledge of cognitive predictors and risk factors of PTSD may inform the development of a screening instrument. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  11. Peace and War: Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms before, during, and after military deployment in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Johannessen, Kim Berg; Thomsen, Yvonne D.

    2012-01-01

    , they show that factors other than immediately preceding stressors are critical for PTSD development, with childhood adversities being central. Second, they demonstrate that the development of PTSD symptoms shows heterogeneity, which indicates the need for multiple measurements to understand PTSD...

  12. The relationship between forgiveness, spirituality, traumatic guilt and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people with addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Louise; Chung, Man Cheung

    2013-03-01

    Spirituality and forgiveness have been shown to be associated with psychological well-being, while guilt has been associated with poor health. Little is known, however, about the relationship between forgiveness, spirituality, guilt, posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and psychological co-morbidity among people in recovery from addiction. Eighty-one people (F = 36, M = 45) in recovery from drug and alcohol addiction were recruited from two residential units and two drop-in centres in a city in the United Kingdom. They completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS), the Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS), the Traumatic Guilt Inventory (TGI), the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-22) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-20). The control group comprised of 83 (F = 34, M = 49) individuals who confirmed that they did not have addiction and completed the PDS & GHQ-28. 54 % of the addiction group met the criteria for full PTSD and reported anxiety, somatic problems and depression. They described themselves as spiritual, had strong feelings of guilt associated with their addiction, and had difficulty in forgiving themselves. Controlling for demographics, number of events and medication management, regression analyses showed that spirituality predicted psychological co-morbidity, whilst feelings of guilt predicted PTSD symptoms and psychological co-morbidity. Unexpectedly, forgiveness did not predict outcomes. This study supports existing literature, which shows that people with drug and alcohol addiction tend to have experienced significant past trauma and PTSD symptoms. Their posttraumatic stress reactions and associated psychological difficulties can be better understood in the light of guilt and spirituality. Meanwhile, their ability to forgive themselves or others did not seem to influence health outcomes.

  13. Mental health symptoms following war and repression in eastern Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Willem F; Olff, Miranda; Ventevogel, Peter; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Jansveld, Eveline; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol A Gotway

    2004-08-04

    Decades of armed conflict, suppression, and displacement resulted in a high prevalence of mental health symptoms throughout Afghanistan. Its Eastern province of Nangarhar is part of the region that originated the Taliban movement. This may have had a distinct impact on the living circumstances and mental health condition of the province's population. To determine the rate of exposure to traumatic events; estimate prevalence rates of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety; identify resources used for emotional support and risk factors for mental health symptoms; and assess the present coverage of basic needs in Nangarhar province, Afghanistan. A cross-sectional multicluster sample survey of 1011 respondents aged 15 years or older, conducted in Nangarhar province during January and March 2003; 362 households were represented with a mean of 2.8 respondents per household (72% participation rate). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and traumatic events using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire; depression and general anxiety symptoms using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist; and resources for emotional support through a locally informed questionnaire. During the past 10 years, 432 respondents (43.7%) experienced between 8 and 10 traumatic events; 141 respondents (14.1%) experienced 11 or more. High rates of symptoms of depression were reported by 391 respondents (38.5%); anxiety, 524 (51.8%); and PTSD, 207 (20.4%). Symptoms were more prevalent in women than in men (depression: odds ratio [OR], 7.3 [95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4-9.8]; anxiety: OR, 12.8 [95% CI, 9.0-18.1]; PTSD: OR, 5.8 [95% CI, 3.8-8.9]). Higher rates of symptoms were associated with higher numbers of traumas experienced. The main resources for emotional support were religion and family. Medical care was reported to be insufficient by 228 respondents (22.6%). In this survey of inhabitants of Nangarhar province, Afghanistan, prevalence rates of having experienced

  14. Assessing the existence of dissociative PTSD in sub-acute patients of whiplash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Armour, Cherie

    2018-01-01

    -acute patients of whiplash and associated risk factors. The results of LCA showed a three-class solution primarily distributed according to PTSD symptom severity and thus no indication of D-PTSD. Dissociative symptoms, psychological distress (i.e. anxiety/depression), and pain severity significantly predicted...

  15. Gender Differences in the Clinical Presentation of PTSD and Its Concomitants in Survivors of Interpersonal Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galovski, Tara E.; Mott, Juliette; Young-Xu, Yinong; Resick, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares a sample of PTSD-positive, female survivors of interpersonal assault (n = 162) to a sample of similarly traumatized male counterparts (n = 45) on a number of variables, including PTSD-symptom severity, depressive symptoms, anger, guilt, and health-related concerns. Results indicate that male and female interpersonal assault…

  16. Neurobiological basis of PTSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasue, Hidenori; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2006-01-01

    This review describes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from the aspect that it is one of precious neurobiological models where the stress caused by an outer environmental factor affects the livings afterwards. Also described are the actual imaging investigations of PTSD in people encountered the sarin subway terrorism in Tokyo (1995). High resolution MRI has revealed the decreased volume of hippocampus in PTSD patients in recent years. In victims of the terrorism above, authors have found that the volume of anterior cingulate cortical (ACC) gray matter is reduced in voxel-based MRI morphometry and the reduction is well correlated with PTSD severity and lower P300 amplitude. PET and fMRI have shown the hyperactivity of amygdala and hypoactivity of medial prefrontal region around ACC in PTSD. Findings in conditioned animal studies have indicated the importance of ACC neuronal cell activation for fear extinction, where, in humans, fMRI has revealed the cooperation between amygdala and ACC. At present, genetic factors like serotonin transporter polymorphism, environmental ones at infantile stage and their interactive activity are subject to investigation and discussion. Imaging studies will contribute to the clinical diagnosis, treatment and intervention of PTSD. (T.I)

  17. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Schwartz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130. There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = −0.33, p < 0.01 and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD scores (mean difference = −1.98, p = 0.001 between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1–1.4] but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1–6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3–24.1 and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1–14.6] at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  18. Design of VA Cooperative Study #591: CERV-PTSD, comparative effectiveness research in veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Paula P; Chard, Kathleen M; Ruzek, Josef I; Chow, Bruce K; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Resick, Patricia A; Foa, Edna B; Marx, Brian P; Huang, Grant D; Lu, Ying

    2015-03-01

    CERV-PTSD is a randomized controlled trial of two of the most effective treatments for PTSD, Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT). Despite solid evidence that both treatments are effective, there is limited evidence about their effectiveness relative to one another. The primary objective is to compare the effectiveness of PE and CPT for reducing PTSD symptom severity in a healthcare system that offers both treatments. The secondary objective is to compare the effectiveness of PE and CPT for reducing the severity of comorbid mental health problems and service utilization as well as improving functioning and quality of life. The tertiary objective is to examine whether discrepancy between patient preferences and treatment assignment reduces the effectiveness of each treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine whether demographic and clinical characteristics predict differential response to PE and CPT. The study is designed to randomize 900 male and female veterans with PTSD due to any traumatic military event to receive PE or CPT. The standard dose of treatment is 12 weekly sessions but veterans who improve more rapidly may finish in fewer sessions and veterans who improve more slowly may have additional sessions. The primary outcome is improvement in PTSD symptoms, measured during and after treatment and then 3 and 6 months later. As a large multi-site trial with men and women, CERV-PTSD is designed to advance the delivery of care for PTSD by providing conclusive information about whether one treatment is better than the other, overall, and for different types of patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks). These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  20. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Levy-Gigi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks. These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  1. Secondary Prevention of Chronic PTSD by Early and Short-Term Administration of Escitalopram: A Prospective Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Joseph; Fostick, Leah; Juven-Wetzler, Alzabeta; Kaplan, Zeev; Shalev, Hadar; Schreiber, Gavriel; Miroshnik, Natalie; Shalev, Arieh Y; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya; Suliman, Sharain; Klein, Ehud

    Prospective studies have not identified a viable pharmacologic strategy for secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors examined whether preventive intervention via early and short-term administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), within 1 month of exposure to a traumatic event (before diagnosis of PTSD could be made), may reduce the severity of PTSD symptoms according to DSM-IV at 13 months' follow-up. Over 25,000 screening calls to patients referred to an emergency department for a traumatic event performed between June 2006 and December 2008 yielded 353 participants who were recruited within the month following a traumatic event . Participants were randomly assigned in a double-blind design to escitalopram (n = 176) or placebo (n = 177). The per-protocol analysis comprised 198 participants (escitalopram, n = 102; placebo, n = 96) who received treatment for 12 to 24 weeks and were available for follow-up at week 56. The primary outcome measure, the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), revealed no prevention effect. However, a secondary outcome, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI), showed better results for the SSRI group than for the placebo group. For a subset of participants who experienced intentional trauma (missile attacks, rape, or physical assault; n = 50), the prevention effect was found on both primary and secondary measures (CAPS, PSQI and measures of depression and global illness severity). Early and short-term administration of escitalopram was not shown to prevent PTSD, although it did improve sleep quality. In a subgroup of participants who experienced intentional trauma, however, this early-treatment approach may be effective as secondary prevention. This large study is the first to investigate the preventive effect of early administration of escitalopram on PTSD. It highlights the relevance of the type of trauma (intentional vs unintentional) to the outcome. Clinical

  2. PTSD in Primary Care: A Physician’s Guide to Dealing with War-Induced PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Engel, C.C. (2007). Association of posttraumatic stress disorder with somatic symptoms, health care visits, and absenteeism among Iraq War veterans...L., Orazem, R., & Gutner, C. (2005). Can we cure PTSD? Five-year follow-up of a clinical trial comparing Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged

  3. Alternative models of DSM-5 PTSD: Examining diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siobhan; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask; Yong Chen, Yoke; Raudzah Ghazali, Siti; Shevlin, Mark

    2018-04-01

    The factor structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively debated with evidence supporting the recently proposed seven-factor Hybrid model. However, despite myriad studies examining PTSD symptom structure few have assessed the diagnostic implications of these proposed models. This study aimed to generate PTSD prevalence estimates derived from the 7 alternative factor models and assess whether pre-established risk factors associated with PTSD (e.g., transportation accidents and sexual victimisation) produce consistent risk estimates. Seven alternative models were estimated within a confirmatory factor analytic framework using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Data were analysed from a Malaysian adolescent community sample (n = 481) of which 61.7% were female, with a mean age of 17.03 years. The results indicated that all models provided satisfactory model fit with statistical superiority for the Externalising Behaviours and seven-factor Hybrid models. The PTSD prevalence estimates varied substantially ranging from 21.8% for the DSM-5 model to 10.0% for the Hybrid model. Estimates of risk associated with PTSD were inconsistent across the alternative models, with substantial variation emerging for sexual victimisation. These findings have important implications for research and practice and highlight that more research attention is needed to examine the diagnostic implications emerging from the alternative models of PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence of the dissociative PTSD subtype: A systematic literature review of latent class and profile analytic studies of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Ross, Jana; Armour, Cherie

    2017-04-15

    The dissociative PTSD (D-PTSD) subtype was first introduced into the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013. Prior to this, studies using latent profile analysis (LPA) or latent class analysis (LCA), began to provide support for the D-PTSD construct and associated risk factors. This research is important, because dissociative symptoms in the context of PTSD may potentially interfere with treatment course or outcome. The aims of the present study were twofold: to systematically review the LCA and LPA studies investigating support for the D-PTSD construct; and to review the associated research on the risk factors or covariates of D-PTSD in the identified studies. Six databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, PILOTS, PsychInfo, and Embase) were systematically searched for relevant papers. Eleven studies were included in the present review. The majority of the studies were supportive of the D-PTSD subtype; primarily characterized by depersonalization and derealization. Several covariates of the D-PTSD subtype have been investigated with mixed results. Many limitations relate to the state of the current literature, including a small number of studies, the use of self-report measurements of PTSD, and heterogeneity across the samples in investigated covariates. The results were overall supportive of the D-PTSD construct. Future research on D-PTSD and associated risk factors is needed to shed light on the possibilities of facilitating preventive actions, screening, and implications on treatment effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The co-occurrence of PTSD and dissociation: differentiating severe PTSD from dissociative-PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Richardson, J Don

    2014-08-01

    A dissociative-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype has been included in the DSM-5. However, it is not yet clear whether certain socio-demographic characteristics or psychological/clinical constructs such as comorbid psychopathology differentiate between severe PTSD and dissociative-PTSD. The current study investigated the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype and explored whether a number of trauma and clinical covariates could differentiate between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The current study utilized a sample of 432 treatment seeking Canadian military veterans. Participants were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and self-report measures of traumatic life events, depression, and anxiety. CAPS severity scores were created reflecting the sum of the frequency and intensity items from each of the 17 PTSD and 3 dissociation items. The CAPS severity scores were used as indicators in a latent profile analysis (LPA) to investigate the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Subsequently, several covariates were added to the model to explore differences between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The LPA identified five classes: one of which constituted a severe PTSD group (30.5 %), and one of which constituted a dissociative-PTSD group (13.7 %). None of the included, demographic, trauma, or clinical covariates were significantly predictive of membership in the dissociative-PTSD group compared to the severe PTSD group. In conclusion, a significant proportion of individuals report high levels of dissociation alongside their PTSD, which constitutes a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Further investigation is needed to identify which factors may increase or decrease the likelihood of membership in a dissociative-PTSD subtype group compared to a severe PTSD only group.

  6. An exploration of how psychotic-like symptoms are experienced, endorsed, and understood from the National Latino and Asian American Study and National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Tara R; Fortuna, Lisa Roxanne; Gao, Shan; Williams, David R; Neighbors, Harold; Takeuchi, David; Alegría, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    . To examine racial-ethnic differences in the endorsement and attribution of psychotic-like symptoms in a nationally representative sample of African-Americans, Asians, Caribbean Blacks, and Latinos living in the USA. Data were drawn from a total of 979 respondents who endorsed psychotic-like symptoms as part of the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). We use a mixed qualitative and quantitative analytical approach to examine sociodemographic and ethnic variations in the prevalence and attributions of hallucinations and other psychotic-like symptoms in the NLAAS and NSAL. The lifetime presence of psychotic-like symptoms was assessed using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) psychotic symptom screener. We used logistic regression models to examine the probability of endorsing the four most frequently occurring thematic categories for psychotic-like experiences by race/ethnicity (n > 100). We used qualitative methods to explore common themes from participant responses to open ended questions on their attributions for psychotic-like symptoms. African-Americans were significantly less likely to endorse visual hallucinations compared to Caribbean Blacks (73.7% and 89.3%, p supernatural, ghosts/unidentified beings, death and dying, spirituality or religiosity, premonitions, familial and other. Respondents differed by race/ethnicity in the attributions given to psychotic like symptoms. Findings suggest that variations exist by race/ethnicity in both psychotic-like symptom endorsement and in self-reported attributions/understandings for these symptoms on a psychosis screening instrument. Ethnic/racial differences could result from culturally sanctioned beliefs and idioms of distress that deserve more attention in conducting culturally informed and responsive screening, assessment and treatment.

  7. Natural Course of Co-Occurring PTSD and Alcohol Use Disorder Among Recent Combat Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possemato, Kyle; Maisto, Stephen A; Wade, Michael; Barrie, Kimberly; Johnson, Emily M; Ouimette, Paige C

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) commonly co-occur in veterans, yet little is known about the longitudinal course of PTSD and drinking in comorbid populations. This study assessed the natural course of daily alcohol consumption and weekly changes in PTSD symptoms in 112 recent combat veterans over the course of 11 months. Latent class growth mixture modeling was used to classify individuals into distinct classes with similar PTSD symptom and alcohol use growth trajectories. We then investigated theorized predictors of class membership including sociodemographics; pre-, peri-, and postdeployment factors; coping; symptom severity; and number of mental health/substance use appointments attended. Results revealed that most participants had severe and nonremitting PTSD. Trajectories for alcohol use included gradual and drastic declines, and chronic low-level drinking. The use of behavioral health services (odds ratio = 2.47) and fewer current stressors (odds ratio = 0.42) predicted AUD remission. Because little variation was observed in the PTSD course, our study did not observe coordinated fluctuations of PTSD symptoms and heavy drinking. Our findings suggest that treatment impacts the course of AUD and that recent combat veterans who do not seek PTSD treatment may have chronic and severe PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Experiencing variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have based...... the study on four video-recorded sessions, with four different PhD students and their supervisors, all from life sciences. Our analysis revealed that learning opportunities in the supervision sessions concerned either the content matter of research (for instance, understanding soil structure......), or the research methods— more specifically how to produce valid results. Our results illustrate how supervisors and PhD students create a space of learning together in their particular discipline by varying critical aspects of their research in their discussions. Situations where more openended research issues...

  9. Altered resting state functional connectivity of fear and reward circuitry in comorbid PTSD and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Helpman, Liat; Papini, Santiago; Schneier, Franklin; Markowitz, John C; Van Meter, Page E; Lindquist, Martin A; Wager, Tor D; Neria, Yuval

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder (PTSD-MDD) often exhibit greater functional impairment and poorer treatment response than individuals with PTSD alone. Research has not determined whether PTSD-MDD is associated with different network connectivity abnormalities than PTSD alone. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) patterns of brain regions involved in fear and reward processing in three groups: patients with PTSD-alone (n = 27), PTSD-MDD (n = 21), and trauma-exposed healthy controls (TEHCs, n = 34). Based on previous research, seeds included basolateral amygdala (BLA), centromedial amygdala (CMA), and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Regardless of MDD comorbidity, PTSD was associated with decreased connectivity of BLA-orbitalfrontal cortex (OFC) and CMA-thalamus pathways, key to fear processing, and fear expression, respectively. PTSD-MDD, compared to PTSD-alone and TEHC, was associated with decreased connectivity across multiple amygdala and striatal-subcortical pathways: BLA-OFC, NAcc-thalamus, and NAcc-hippocampus. Further, while both the BLA-OFC and the NAcc-thalamus pathways were correlated with MDD symptoms, PTSD symptoms correlated with the amygdala pathways (BLA-OFC; CMA-thalamus) only. Comorbid PTSD-MDD may be associated with multifaceted functional connectivity alterations in both fear and reward systems. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  11. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  12. Experiencing time

    CERN Document Server

    Prosser, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Our engagement with time is a ubiquitous feature of our lives. We are aware of time on many scales, from the briefest flicker of change to the way our lives unfold over many years. But to what extent does this encounter reveal the true nature of temporal reality? To the extent that temporal reality is as it seems, how do we come to be aware of it? And to the extent that temporal reality is not as it seems, why does it seem that way? These are the central questions addressed by Simon Prosser in Experiencing Time. These questions take on a particular importance in philosophy for two reasons. Firstly, there is a view concerning the metaphysics of time, known as the B-theory of time, according to which the apparently dynamic quality of change, the special status of the present, and even the passage of time are all illusions. Instead, the world is a four-dimensional space-time block, lacking any of the apparent dynamic features of time. If the B-theory is correct, as the book argues, then it must be explained why ...

  13. Behavioral inhibition and risk for posttraumatic stress symptoms in Latino children exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiño, Omar G

    2013-08-01

    Latino children in urban contexts marked by poverty are at high risk of being exposed to violence and developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nonetheless, there is great variability in individual responses to violence exposure. This study examines risk for developing re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of PTSD as a function of individual differences in behavioral inhibition and exposure to community violence. Participants were 148 Latino students (M age =11.43 years, SD = 0.69; 55 % girls) living in an area marked by poverty and crime. Children completed self-report measures of behavioral inhibition and posttraumatic stress symptoms during a baseline assessment. During a follow-up interview 6 months later, children completed self-report measures of exposure to community violence since the baseline assessment and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Structural equation models revealed that behavioral inhibition at baseline was positively associated with PTSD avoidance and arousal symptoms at follow-up, after controlling for symptoms at baseline. Furthermore, behavioral inhibition moderated the association between violence exposure and symptoms such that violence was more strongly associated with the development of PTSD avoidance symptoms as behavioral inhibition increased. Results suggest that individual differences in behavioral inhibition contribute to risk for specific PTSD symptoms and are important for understanding variation in responses to trauma exposure. By examining diathesis--stress models within a disorder, we may be better able to elucidate the etiology of a disorder and translate this improved understanding into personalized intervention approaches that maximize effectiveness.

  14. Deployment stressors and physical health among OEF/OIF veterans: the role of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillni, Yael I; Gradus, Jaimie L; Gutner, Cassidy A; Luciano, Matthew T; Shipherd, Jillian C; Street, Amy E

    2014-11-01

    There is a large body of literature documenting the relationship between traumatic stress and deleterious physical health outcomes. Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been proposed to explain this relationship, previous research has produced inconsistent results when moderating variables such as gender or type of traumatic stressor are considered. Within a large sample of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans, the current study examined if deployment stressors (i.e., combat stress, harassment stress) contributed unique variance to the prediction of physical health symptoms (i.e., pain, nonpain) beyond the effects of PTSD symptoms. A total of 2,332 OEF/OIF Veterans, with equal representation of women and men, completed a series of self-report measures assessing deployment stressors, PTSD symptoms, and physical health symptoms. RESULTS revealed that harassment, but not combat stress, added unique variance in the prediction of pain and nonpain symptoms after accounting for PTSD symptoms. This study extends the existing literature by demonstrating the unique influence of harassment stress on physical health outcomes. Specifically, the relationship between combat stress and physical health symptoms appears to be explained mainly by an individual's experience of PTSD symptoms, whereas the relationship between harassment stress and physical health symptoms is not fully explained by PTSD symptoms, suggesting that other variables may be involved in the pathway from harassment stress to physical health symptoms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Alia; Crutzen, Rik; Van den Borne, H W

    2012-08-03

    With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW) in Omdurman city. An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123) was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure dimensions and PTSD symptom sub-scales, while Pearson correlations tested for the strength of association between dimensions of war exposures and PTSD symptom sub-scales. Approximately 42 % of the Darfuri participants reported being displaced and 54 % have experienced war-related traumatic exposures either as victims or as witnesses (M = 28, SD = 14.24, range 0 - 40 events). Also, there was a strong association between the experiential dimension of war-related trauma exposures and the full symptom of PTSD. Moreover, the refugee-specific self-perception of functioning sub-scale within the PTSD measurement scored a mean of 3.2 (SD = .56), well above the 2.0 cut-off. This study provides evidence for a relationship between traumatic war-related exposures and symptom rates of PTSD among AUW Darfuri female students. Findings are discussed in terms of AUW counseling service improvement.

  16. Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Alia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW in Omdurman city. Methods An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123 was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ, war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure d