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Sample records for ptsd cluster analyses

  1. Simple versus complex PTSD: a cluster analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    A cluster analytic investigation was conducted on measures of PTSD associated features (e.g., personality pathology, dissociative tendencies) to investigate whether empirically-defined clusters correspond to Herman's [1992, Complex PTSD: a syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 377-391; 1997, Trauma and recovery (Rev. ed.). New York: Basic Books] distinction between simple and complex PTSD. Results from a sample of 60 PTSD patients were broadly consistent with this distinction, although some inconsistencies were observed. Treatment outcome generally did not differ between the two clusters. Implications for classifying and treating PTSD are discussed.

  2. Factor Structure of the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5: Relationships Among Symptom Clusters, Anger, and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Contractor, Ateka; Shea, Tracie; Elhai, Jon D; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-02-01

    Scarce data are available regarding the dimensional structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and how factors relate to external constructs. We evaluated six competing models of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, including Anhedonia, Externalizing Behaviors, and Hybrid models, using confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 412 trauma-exposed college students. We then examined whether PTSD symptom clusters were differentially related to measures of anger and impulsivity using Wald chi-square tests. The seven-factor Hybrid model was deemed optimal compared with the alternatives. All symptom clusters were associated with anger; the strongest association was between externalizing behaviors and anger (r = 0.54). All symptom clusters, except re-experiencing and avoidance, were associated with impulsivity, with the strongest association between externalizing behaviors and impulsivity (r = 0.49). A seven-factor Hybrid model provides superior fit to DSM-5 PTSD symptom data, with the externalizing behaviors factor being most strongly related to anger and impulsivity.

  3. Sexual Assault Characteristics Effects on PTSD and Psychosocial Mediators: A Cluster Analysis Approach to Sexual Assault Types

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    Peter-Hagene, Liana C.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Using cluster analysis, we investigated the effects of assault characteristics (i.e., levels of violence, subjective distress, alcohol consumption, perpetrator identity) on PTSD symptoms, and whether these effects are mediated by post-assault social and psychological reactions. A large community sample of women sexual assault survivors completed two mail surveys at a one-year interval. In line with prior research, cluster analyses revealed the existence of three general categories of sexual a...

  4. The Unique Associations of Sexual Assault and Intimate Partner Violence With PTSD Symptom Clusters in a Traumatized Substance-Abusing Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Mota, Natalie P; Schumacher, Julie A; Vinci, Christine; Coffey, Scott F

    2016-10-13

    Objective: There is a high occurrence of sexual assault (SA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) among people with substance use disorders and an established association between substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no research has examined associations between combinations of these traumas and PTSD symptom profiles among people who abuse substances. Thus, this study aimed to examine how combinations of SA and IPV histories contribute to the severity of symptoms within PTSD symptom clusters above and beyond the impact of exposure to other traumas in a substance abusing population. Method: Participants were men and women (N = 219) with trauma histories seeking treatment in a substance abuse facility. Multivariate analyses of covariance examined differences on Clinician Administrated PTSD Scale cluster scores in people with experiences of SA and/or IPV in comparison to people with other types of trauma, controlling for number of PTSD criterion A events. Results: SA was associated with increased symptom severity across all 3 PTSD symptom clusters, whereas IPV was not associated with differences in cluster scores. In addition, survivors of IPV had consistent levels of avoidance symptoms regardless of whether they had also experienced SA, but people who had not experienced IPV only evidenced increased avoidance symptoms when they had experienced SA. Follow-up analyses testing gender differences indicated that these findings were largely similar for men and women. Conclusions: SA should be assessed in people in substance use treatment settings to conceptualize their unique presentations of PTSD symptoms and inform treatment planning. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. PTSD's risky behavior criterion: Relation with DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Weiss, Nicole H; Dranger, Paula; Ruggero, Camilo; Armour, Cherie

    2017-06-01

    A new symptom criterion of reckless and self-destructive behaviors (E2) was recently added to posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, which is unsurprising given the well-established relation between PTSD and risky behaviors. Researchers have questioned the significance and incremental validity of this symptom criterion within PTSD's symptomatology. Unprecedented to our knowledge, we aim to compare trauma-exposed groups differing on their endorsement status of the risky behavior symptom on several psychopathology constructs (PTSD, depression, distress tolerance, rumination, anger). The sample included 123 trauma-exposed participants seeking mental health treatment (M age=35.70; 68.30% female) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, depression, rumination, distress tolerance, and anger. Results of independent samples t-tests indicated that participants who endorsed the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level reported significantly greater PTSD subscale severity; depression severity; rumination facets of repetitive thoughts, counterfactual thinking, and problem-focused thinking; and anger reactions; and significantly less absorption and regulation (distress tolerance facets) compared to participants who did not endorse the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level. Results indicate the utility of the E2 criterion in identifying trauma-exposed individual with greater posttraumatic distress, and emphasize the importance of targeting such behaviors in treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  7. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  8. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  9. Impact of evidence-based standardized assessment on the disability clinical interview for diagnosis of service-connected PTSD: a cluster-randomized trial.

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    Speroff, Theodore; Sinnott, Patricia L; Marx, Brian; Owen, Richard R; Jackson, James C; Greevy, Robert; Sayer, Nina; Murdoch, Maureen; Shane, Andrea C; Smith, Jeffrey; Alvarez, JoAnn; Nwosu, Samuel K; Keane, Terence; Weathers, Frank; Schnurr, Paula P; Friedman, Matthew J

    2012-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the fastest growing compensated medical conditions. The present study compared usual disability examiner practices for PTSD with a standardized assessment that incorporates evidence-based assessments. The design was a multicenter, cluster randomized, parallel-group study involving 33 clinical examiners and 384 veterans at 6 Veterans Affairs medical centers. The standardized group incorporated the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II into their assessment interview. The main outcome measures were completeness and accuracy of PTSD diagnosis and completeness of functional assessment. The standardized assessments were 85% complete for diagnosis compared to 30% for nonstandardized assessments (p < .001), and, for functional impairment, 76% versus 3% (p < .001). The findings demonstrate that the quality of PTSD disability examination would be improved by using evidence-based assessment. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Considering PTSD for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Matthew J; Resick, Patricia A; Bryant, Richard A; Brewin, Chris R

    2011-09-01

    This is a review of the relevant empirical literature concerning the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Most of this work has focused on Criteria A1 and A2, the two components of the A (Stressor) Criterion. With regard to A1, the review considers: (a) whether A1 is etiologically or temporally related to the PTSD symptoms; (b) whether it is possible to distinguish "traumatic" from "non-traumatic" stressors; and (c) whether A1 should be eliminated from DSM-5. Empirical literature regarding the utility of the A2 criterion indicates that there is little support for keeping the A2 criterion in DSM-5. The B (reexperiencing), C (avoidance/numbing) and D (hyperarousal) criteria are also reviewed. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the latent structure of PTSD appears to consist of four distinct symptom clusters rather than the three-cluster structure found in DSM-IV. It has also been shown that in addition to the fear-based symptoms emphasized in DSM-IV, traumatic exposure is also followed by dysphoric, anhedonic symptoms, aggressive/externalizing symptoms, guilt/shame symptoms, dissociative symptoms, and negative appraisals about oneself and the world. A new set of diagnostic criteria is proposed for DSM-5 that: (a) attempts to sharpen the A1 criterion; (b) eliminates the A2 criterion; (c) proposes four rather than three symptom clusters; and (d) expands the scope of the B-E criteria beyond a fear-based context. The final sections of this review consider: (a) partial/subsyndromal PTSD; (b) disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS)/complex PTSD; (c) cross- cultural factors; (d) developmental factors; and (e) subtypes of PTSD. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  12. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  13. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  14. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  15. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  16. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  17. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  18. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  19. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  1. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  2. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  3. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  4. On the Viability of PTSD Checklist (PCL) Short Form Use: Analyses from Mississippi Gulf Coast Hurricane Katrina Survivors

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    Hirschel, Michael J.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.

    2010-01-01

    One measure commonly used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder is the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Lang and Stein (2005) extracted 4 subsets of PCL items, validating 2 of them for possible use in screening in primary care settings. The viability of the 4 item subsets was evaluated psychometrically in the present study with a sample of Hurricane…

  5. Executive function in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the influence of comorbid depression.

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    Olff, Miranda; Polak, A Rosaura; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, such as impaired verbal memory and executive functioning. Less is known about executive function and the role of comorbid depression in PTSD. Recently, studies have shown that verbal memory impairments may be associated with comorbid depressive symptoms, but their role in executive function impairments is still unclear. To examine several domains of executive functioning in PTSD and the potentially mediating role of comorbid depressive symptoms in the relationship between executive function and PTSD. Executive functioning was assessed in 28 PTSD patients and 28 matched trauma-exposed controls. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) with subtests measuring response inhibition (SST), flexibility/set shifting (IED), planning/working memory (OTS) and spatial working memory (SWM) was administered in PTSD patients and trauma-exposed controls. Regression analyses were used to assess the predictive factor of PTSD symptoms (CAPS) and depressive symptoms (HADS-D) in relation to executive function when taking into account the type of trauma. Pearson's correlations were used to examine the association between PTSD symptom clusters (CAPS) and executive function. The mediating effects of depression and PTSD were assessed using regression coefficients and the Sobel's test for mediation. Our findings indicate that PTSD patients performed significantly worse on executive function than trauma-exposed controls in all domains assessed. PTSD symptoms contributed to executive functioning impairments (SST median correct, IED total errors, OTS latency to correct, SWM total errors and SWM strategy). Adding depressive symptoms to the model attenuated these effects. PTSD symptom clusters 'numbing' and to a lesser extent 'avoidance' were more frequently associated with worse executive function (i.e., IED total errors, OTS latency to correct and SWM total errors) than

  6. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  7. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  9. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  10. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  11. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  12. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  13. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  1. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  3. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  8. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  9. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  10. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  11. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  12. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  13. Cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD improves various PTSD symptoms and trauma-related cognitions: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

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    Macdonald, Alexandra; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Wagner, Anne C; Fredman, Steffany J; Monson, Candice M

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies document an association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and impairments in intimate relationship functioning, and there is evidence that PTSD symptoms and associated impairments are improved by cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (CBCT for PTSD; Monson & Fredman, 2012). The present study investigated changes across treatment in clinician-rated PTSD symptom clusters and patient-rated trauma-related cognitions in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBCT for PTSD with waitlist in a sample of 40 individuals with PTSD and their partners (N = 40; Monson et al., 2012). Compared with waitlist, patients who received CBCT for PTSD immediately demonstrated greater improvements in all PTSD symptom clusters, trauma-related beliefs, and guilt cognitions (Hedge's gs -.33 to -1.51). Results suggest that CBCT for PTSD improves all PTSD symptom clusters and trauma-related cognitions among individuals with PTSD and further supports the value of utilizing a couple-based approach to the treatment of PTSD.

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  17. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  18. Dynamical Analyses of Galaxy Clusters With Large Redshift Samples

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    Mohr, J. J.; Richstone, D. O.; Wegner, G.

    1998-12-01

    We construct equilibrium models of galaxy orbits in five nearby galaxy clusters to study the distribution of binding mass, the nature of galaxy orbits and the kinematic differences between cluster populations of emission-line and non emission-line galaxies. We avail ourselves of 1718 galaxy redshifts (and 1203 cluster member redshifts) in this Jeans analysis; most of these redshifts are new, coming from multifiber spectroscopic runs on the MDM 2.4m with the Decaspec and queue observing on WIYN with Hydra. In addition to the spectroscopic data we have V and R band CCD mosaics (obtained with the MDM 1.3m) of the Abell region in each of these clusters. Our scientific goals include: (i) a quantitative estimate of the range of binding masses M500 consistent with the optical and X-ray data, (ii) an estimate of the typical galaxy oribital anisotropies required to make the galaxy data consistent with the NFW expectation for the cluster potential, (iii) a better understanding of the systematics inherent in the process of rescaling and ``stacking'' galaxy cluster observations, (iv) a reexamination of the recent CNOC results implying that emission-line (blue) galaxies are an equilibrium population with a more extended radial distribution than their non emission-line (red) galaxy counterparts and (v) a measure of the galaxy contribution to the cluster mass of baryons.

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  12. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  13. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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  14. Genomic Analyses of Bacterial Porin-Cytochrome Gene Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eShi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The porin-cytochrome (Pcc protein complex is responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. The identified and characterized Pcc complex of G. sulfurreducens PCA consists of a porin-like outer-membrane protein, a periplasmic 8-heme c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt and an outer-membrane 12-heme c-Cyt, and the genes encoding the Pcc proteins are clustered in the same regions of genome (i.e., the pcc gene clusters of G. sulfurreducens PCA. A survey of additionally microbial genomes has identified the pcc gene clusters in all sequenced Geobacter spp. and other bacteria from six different phyla, including Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans 2CP-1, A. dehalogenans 2CP-C, Anaeromyxobacter sp. K, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, Denitrovibrio acetiphilus DSM 12809, Desulfurispirillum indicum S5, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus AHT2, Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum DSM 11699, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans DSM 684, Ignavibacterium album JCM 16511, and Thermovibrio ammonificans HB-1. The numbers of genes in the pcc gene clusters vary, ranging from two to nine. Similar to the metal-reducing (Mtr gene clusters of other Fe(III-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella spp., additional genes that encode putative c-Cyts with predicted cellular localizations at the cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm and outer membrane often associate with the pcc gene clusters. This suggests that the Pcc-associated c-Cyts may be part of the pathways for extracellular electron transfer reactions. The presence of pcc gene clusters in the microorganisms that do not reduce solid-phase Fe(III and Mn(IV oxides, such as D. alkaliphilus AHT2 and I. album JCM 16511, also suggests that some of the pcc gene clusters may be involved in extracellular electron transfer reactions with the substrates other than Fe(III and Mn(IV oxides.

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  18. Adjusting the Scott-Knott cluster analyses for unbalanced designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Vincenzi Conrado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scott-Knott cluster analysis is an alternative approach to mean comparisons with high power and no subset overlapping. It is well suited for the statistical challenges in agronomy associated with testing new cultivars, crop treatments, or methods. The original Scott-Knott test was developed to be used under balanced designs; therefore, the loss of a single plot can significantly increase the rate of type I error. In order to avoid type I error inflation from missing plots, we propose an adjustment that maintains power similar to the original test while adding error protection. The proposed adjustment was validated from more than 40 million simulated experiments following the Monte Carlo method. The results indicate a minimal loss of power with a satisfactory type I error control, while keeping the features of the original procedure. A user-friendly SAS macro is provided for this analysis.

  19. Clusters, Graphs, and Networks for Analysing Internet-Web-Supported Communication within a Virtual Community

    CERN Document Server

    Polanco, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    The proposal is to use clusters, graphs and networks as models in order to analyse the Web structure. Clusters, graphs and networks provide knowledge representation and organization. Clusters were generated by co-site analysis. The sample is a set of academic Web sites from the countries belonging to the European Union. These clusters are here revisited from the point of view of graph theory and social network analysis. This is a quantitative and structural analysis. In fact, the Internet is a computer network that connects people and organizations. Thus we may consider it to be a social network. The set of Web academic sites represents an empirical social network, and is viewed as a virtual community. The network structural properties are here analysed applying together cluster analysis, graph theory and social network analysis.

  20. Evidence for proposed ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD: a latent profile analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylène Cloitre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The WHO International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11, has proposed two related diagnoses, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and complex PTSD within the spectrum of trauma and stress-related disorders. Objective: To use latent profile analysis (LPA to determine whether there are classes of individuals that are distinguishable according to the PTSD and complex PTSD symptom profiles and to identify potential differences in the type of stressor and severity of impairment associated with each profile. Method: An LPA and related analyses were conducted on 302 individuals who had sought treatment for interpersonal traumas ranging from chronic trauma (e.g., childhood abuse to single-incident events (e.g., exposure to 9/11 attacks. Results: The LPA revealed three classes of individuals: (1 a complex PTSD class defined by elevated PTSD symptoms as well as disturbances in three domains of self-organization: affective dysregulation, negative self-concept, and interpersonal problems; (2 a PTSD class defined by elevated PTSD symptoms but low scores on the three self-organization symptom domains; and (3 a low symptom class defined by low scores on all symptoms and problems. Chronic trauma was more strongly predictive of complex PTSD than PTSD and, conversely, single-event trauma was more strongly predictive of PTSD. In addition, complex PTSD was associated with greater impairment than PTSD. The LPA analysis was completed both with and without individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD yielding identical results, suggesting the stability of these classes regardless of BPD comorbidity. Conclusion: Preliminary data support the proposed ICD-11 distinction between PTSD and complex PTSD and support the value of testing the clinical utility of this distinction in field trials. Replication of results is necessary.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  1. Permutation Tests of Hierarchical Cluster Analyses of Carrion Communities and Their Potential Use in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Joris L

    2016-05-19

    Forensic entomologists can use carrion communities' ecological succession data to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). Permutation tests of hierarchical cluster analyses of these data provide a conceptual method to estimate part of the PMI, the post-colonization interval (post-CI). This multivariate approach produces a baseline of statistically distinct clusters that reflect changes in the carrion community composition during the decomposition process. Carrion community samples of unknown post-CIs are compared with these baseline clusters to estimate the post-CI. In this short communication, I use data from previously published studies to demonstrate the conceptual feasibility of this multivariate approach. Analyses of these data produce series of significantly distinct clusters, which represent carrion communities during 1- to 20-day periods of the decomposition process. For 33 carrion community samples, collected over an 11-day period, this approach correctly estimated the post-CI within an average range of 3.1 days.

  2. [Study of the clinical phenotype of symptomatic chronic airways disease by hierarchical cluster analysis and two-step cluster analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, P; Guo, Y F; Sun, T Y; Zhang, H S; Chai, D; Li, X M

    2016-09-01

    (SGRQ) score, acute exacerbation in the past one year, PEF variability and allergic dermatitis (Pclusters were also identified by two-step cluster analysis as followings, cluster 1, COPD patients with moderate to severe airflow limitation; cluster 2, asthma and COPD patients with heavy smoking, airflow limitation and increased airways reversibility; cluster 3, patients having less smoking and normal pulmonary function with wheezing but no chronic cough; cluster 4, chronic bronchitis patients with normal pulmonary function and chronic cough. Significant differences were revealed regarding gender distribution, respiratory symptoms, pre-salbutamol FEV1/FVC%, pre-salbutamol FEV1% pred, post-salbutamol change in FEV1%, MMEF% pred, DLCO/VA% pred, RV% pred, PEF variability, total serum IgE level, cumulative tobacco cigarette consumption (pack-years), and SGRQ score (Pcluster analyses, distinct clinical phenotypes of chronic airway diseases are identified. Thus, individualized treatments may guide doctors to provide based on different phenotypes.

  3. Project VALOR: Trajectories of Change in PTSD in Combat-Exposed Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    suicidal ideation. 2. KEYWORDS: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), military sexual trauma (MST), suicide , combat-exposed veterans, PTSD... affects employment in our sample longitudinally; how different types of combat affect rates of PTSD; factors that influence treatment seeking behaviors...to better understand how PTSD affects other outcomes across time. For example, our interim analyses have provided insight into how psychopathology

  4. Comparative analyses of vertebrate posterior HoxD clusters reveal atypical cluster architecture in the caecilian Typhlonectes natans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amemiya Chris T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The posterior genes of the HoxD cluster play a crucial role in the patterning of the tetrapod limb. This region is under the control of a global, long-range enhancer that is present in all vertebrates. Variation in limb types, as is the case in amphibians, can probably not only be attributed to variation in Hox genes, but is likely to be the product of differences in gene regulation. With a collection of vertebrate genome sequences available today, we used a comparative genomics approach to study the posterior HoxD cluster of amphibians. A frog and a caecilian were included in the study to compare coding sequences as well as to determine the gain and loss of putative regulatory sequences. Results We sequenced the posterior end of the HoxD cluster of a caecilian and performed comparative analyses of this region using HoxD clusters of other vertebrates. We determined the presence of conserved non-coding sequences and traced gains and losses of these footprints during vertebrate evolution, with particular focus on amphibians. We found that the caecilian HoxD cluster is almost three times larger than its mammalian counterpart. This enlargement is accompanied with the loss of one gene and the accumulation of repeats in that area. A similar phenomenon was observed in the coelacanth, where a different gene was lost and expansion of the area where the gene was lost has occurred. At least one phylogenetic footprint present in all vertebrates was lost in amphibians. This conserved region is a known regulatory element and functions as a boundary element in neural tissue to prevent expression of Hoxd genes. Conclusion The posterior part of the HoxD cluster of Typhlonectes natans is among the largest known today. The loss of Hoxd-12 and the expansion of the intergenic region may exert an influence on the limb enhancer, by having to bypass a distance seven times that of regular HoxD clusters. Whether or not there is a correlation with the

  5. PTSD Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elements of Cognitive Behavioral Therapies Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) for PTSD involve a relatively structured, short-term treatment that ... time does it take? A usual course of CBT for PTSD lasts about eight to 20 sessions but can ...

  6. PTSD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature PTSD Symptoms, Diagnosis , Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms As with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), PTSD ...

  7. Comparing methods of analysing datasets with small clusters: case studies using four paediatric datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Louise; Peacock, Janet L; Yu, Keming; Brocklehurst, Peter; Calvert, Sandra A; Greenough, Anne; Marlow, Neil

    2009-07-01

    Studies of prematurely born infants contain a relatively large percentage of multiple births, so the resulting data have a hierarchical structure with small clusters of size 1, 2 or 3. Ignoring the clustering may lead to incorrect inferences. The aim of this study was to compare statistical methods which can be used to analyse such data: generalised estimating equations, multilevel models, multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Four datasets which differed in total size and in percentage of multiple births (n = 254, multiple 18%; n = 176, multiple 9%; n = 10 098, multiple 3%; n = 1585, multiple 8%) were analysed. With the continuous outcome, two-level models produced similar results in the larger dataset, while generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GLS 'xtreg' in Stata) and maximum likelihood multilevel modelling (ML MLE 'xtmixed' in Stata) produced divergent estimates using the smaller dataset. For the dichotomous outcome, most methods, except generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GH 'xtlogit' in Stata) gave similar odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals within datasets. For the continuous outcome, our results suggest using multilevel modelling. We conclude that generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GLS 'xtreg' in Stata) and maximum likelihood multilevel modelling (ML MLE 'xtmixed' in Stata) should be used with caution when the dataset is small. Where the outcome is dichotomous and there is a relatively large percentage of non-independent data, it is recommended that these are accounted for in analyses using logistic regression with adjusted standard errors or multilevel modelling. If, however, the dataset has a small percentage of clusters greater than size 1 (e.g. a population dataset of children where there are few multiples) there appears to be less need to adjust for clustering.

  8. A Parallel Multigrid Solver for High Frequency Electromagnetic Field Analyses with Small-scale PC Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosui, Kuniaki; Iwashita, Takeshi; Mori, Michiya; Kobayashi, Eiichi

    Finite element analyses of electromagnetic field are commonly used for designing of various electronic devices. The scale of the analyses becomes larger and larger, therefore, a fast linear solver is needed to solve linear equations arising from the finite element method. Since a multigrid solver is the fastest linear solver for these problems, parallelization of a multigrid solver is a quite useful approach. From the viewpoint of industrial applications, an effective usage of a small-scale PC cluster is important due to initial cost for introducing parallel computers. In this paper, a distributed parallel multigrid solver for a small-scale PC cluster is developed. In high frequency electromagnetic field analyses, a special block Gauss-Seidel smoother is used for the multigrid solver instead of general smoothers such as Gauss-Seidel smoother or Jacobi smoother in order to improve a convergence rate. The block multicolor ordering technique is applied to parallelize the smoother. A numerical exsample shows that a 3.7-fold speed-up in computational time and a 3.0-fold increase in the scale of the analysis were attained when the number of CPU was increased from one to five.

  9. A Pilot Study of Group Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for Combat Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony P.; Erickson, Thane M.; Giardino, Nicholas D.; Favorite, Todd; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Robinson, Elizabeth; Kulkarni, Madhur; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Background “Mindfulness-based” interventions show promise for stress-reduction in general medical conditions, and initial evidence suggests that they are well accepted in trauma-exposed individuals. Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) shows substantial efficacy for prevention of depression relapse, but it has been less studied in anxiety disorders. This study investigated the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcomes of an MBCT group intervention adapted for combat PTSD. Methods Consecutive patients seeking treatment for chronic PTSD (veterans of Vietnam, Korea, WWII, Desert Storm) at a VA outpatient clinic were enrolled in eight week MBCT groups, modified for PTSD (four groups, n=20) or brief treatment-as-usual (TAU) comparison group interventions (three groups, n=16). MBCT consisted of PTSD psychoeducation, mindfulness of body, breath, and emotions, mindful movement, exercises for managing intrusive thoughts and feelings, and daily home practice though audio recording. Pre- and post-therapy psychological assessments with clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS) were performed with all patients, and self-report measures (PTSD diagnostic scale, PDS, and Posttraumatic cognitions inventory, PTCI) were administered in the MBCT group. Results Pre- to post-treatment effects analysis demonstrated significant improvement in PTSD symptoms. Intent to treat analyses showed significant improvement in CAPS (t(19)=4.8, p<.001) in the MBCT condition but not the TAU conditions, and a significant Condition*Time interaction (F[1,26]=16.4, p<.005). MBCT completers analysis (n =15, 75%) also showed good compliance with assigned homework exercises, and significant and clinically meaningful improvement in PTSD symptom severity on post-treatment assessment in CAPS and PDS (particularly in avoidance/numbing symptoms), and reduced PTSD-relevant cognitions in PTCI (in particular, self-blame). Conclusions These data suggest group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as an

  10. Identification of Clinical Phenotypes Using Cluster Analyses in COPD Patients with Multiple Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Régis Burgel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by persistent airflow limitation, the severity of which is assessed using forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1, % predicted. Cohort studies have confirmed that COPD patients with similar levels of airflow limitation showed marked heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and outcomes. Chronic coexisting diseases, also called comorbidities, are highly prevalent in COPD patients and likely contribute to this heterogeneity. In recent years, investigators have used innovative statistical methods (e.g., cluster analyses to examine the hypothesis that subgroups of COPD patients sharing clinically relevant characteristics (phenotypes can be identified. The objectives of the present paper are to review recent studies that have used cluster analyses for defining phenotypes in observational cohorts of COPD patients. Strengths and weaknesses of these statistical approaches are briefly described. Description of the phenotypes that were reasonably reproducible across studies and received prospective validation in at least one study is provided, with a special focus on differences in age and comorbidities (including cardiovascular diseases. Finally, gaps in current knowledge are described, leading to proposals for future studies.

  11. Cluster and principle component analyses of maize accessions under normal and water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hafiz Saad Bin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current set of an experiment, forty maize genotypes were assessed for drought associated traits. For evaluation of these traits, PC and correlation analyses were employed to obtain suitable parents that can be further exploited in future breeding programmes. Correlation analysis revealed some important associations among the traits studied. Fresh root length had positive and significant associations, but leaf temperature had a significant negative correlation with root density at both 40% and 100% moisture levels while root density had negative association at 100% and positive correlation at 40% moisture level with chlorophyll content. The positive correlation among these yield contributing traits suggested that these characters are important for direct selection of drought tolerant high yielding genotypes. Principal component (PC analysis showed first 4 PCs having Eigen value >1 explaining 86.7% and 88.4% of the total variation at 40% and 100% moisture levels respectively with different drought related traits. Cluster analysis classified 40 accessions into four divergent groups. The members of clusters 1 and 2 may be combined in future breeding programmes to obtain genotypes/hybrids that can perform well under drought stress conditions. Members of cluster 3 may be selected on the basis of root density, leaf temperature, dry root weight and root shoot ratio by weight and can be combined with members of cluster 4 due to higher leaf temperature and root shoot ratio by length. The results showed that the germplasm having a wide genetic diversity can be thus utilized for future breeding programme to obtain drought tolerant maize genotypes/ hybrids for adaptation to water scarce areas.

  12. Validity of PTSD diagnoses in VA administrative data: Comparison of VA administrative PTSD diagnoses to self-reported PTSD Checklist scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A. Gravely, MA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Little research has been done on the validity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD diagnoses that are found in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA administrative data, even though they are often used in VA research. We compared PTSD diagnoses found in VA administrative data with PTSD Checklist (PCL scores self-reported by 4,777 newly diagnosed participants in a national postal survey study. Using PCL scores of at least 50 as the gold standard, we compared positive predictive values (PPVs for at least one versus at least two PTSD diagnoses (found within 4 months of the first in VA administrative data overall and by subgroups of interest: age, sex, and clinic where first diagnosed. The overall PPV was 75% for at least one PTSD diagnosis and 82% for at least two PTSD diagnoses. Similarly, the PPV significantly increased for all subgroup analyses when at least two PTSD diagnoses were used. The increase in PPV was greatest for those first diagnosed in primary care and for those older than 65. To select a sample of veterans with more definitive PTSD from administrative data, researchers should select those veterans with at least two PTSD diagnoses as opposed to at least one.

  13. Women’s experiences of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic childbirth: a review and critical appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    James, Stella

    2015-01-01

    This paper critically analyses nine studies on postnatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following traumatic childbirth, in order to find common themes of PTSD symptoms, using the cognitive model of PTSD as a guide; it critically appraised one of the studies in depth and it attempted to explain the lived experience of women suffering from postnatal PTSD following traumatic childbirth and the suitability of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for postnatal PTSD. This paper found that wome...

  14. Infrared High-Resolution Integrated Light Spectral Analyses of M31 Globular Clusters from APOGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Sakari, Charli M; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Beers, Timothy C; Caldwell, Nelson; Garcia-Hernandez, Domingo Anibal; Lucatello, Sara; Majewski, Steven; O'Connell, Robert W; Pan, Kaike; Strader, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Chemical abundances are presented for 25 M31 globular clusters (GCs), based on moderately high resolution (R = 22, 500) H-band integrated light spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). Infrared spectra offer lines from new elements, of different strengths, and at higher excitation potentials compared to the optical. Integrated abundances of C, N, and O are derived from CO, CN, and OH molecular features, while Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, and Ti abundances are derived from atomic features. These abundances are compared to previous results from the optical, demonstrating the validity and value of infrared integrated light analyses. The CNO abundances are consistent with typical tip of the red giant branch stellar abundances, but are systematically offset from optical, Lick index abundances. With a few exceptions, the other abundances agree between the optical and the infrared within the 1{\\sigma} uncertainties. The first integrated K abundances are also presented, and demo...

  15. Proportion and cluster analyses of the skull in various species of the tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hideki; Hikida, Tsutomu; Chou, Loke Ming; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Stafford, Brian J

    2004-01-01

    The skull adaptation was functional-morphologically examined in 14 species of the tree shrews. From the data of the proportion indices, the similarities were confirmed between T. minor and T. gracilis, T. tana and T. dorsalis, and T. longipes and T. glis. We demonstrated that the splanchnocranium was elongated in terrestrial T. tana and T. dorsalis and shortened in arboreal T. minor and T. gracilis from the proportion data. In both dendrogram from the matrix of the Q-mode correlation coefficients and scattergram from the canonical discriminant analysis, the morphological similarities in the skull shape suggested the terrestrial-insectivorous adaptation of T. tana and T. dorsalis, and the arboreal adaptation of T. minor and T. gracilis. Since the osteometrical skull similarities were indicated among the three species of Tupaia by cluster and canonical discriminant analyses, the arbo-terrestrial behavior and its functional-morphological adaptation may be commonly established in T. montana, T. longipes and T. glis.

  16. Examining PTSD Treatment Choice Among Individuals with Subthreshold PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Hannah E.; Kline, Alexander C.; Feeny, Norah C.; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with impairment and has a prevalence rate comparable to full PTSD. Yet, little is known regarding treatment preferences among individuals with subthreshold PTSD, even though they seek trauma-related treatment at a similar rate to those with full PTSD. This study explored subthreshold diagnostic PTSD diagnostic category and treatment preference in undergraduate (N = 439) and trauma-exposed community (N = 203) samples. Participants...

  17. Portuguese version of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M)-I: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Teresa; Cunha, Marina; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Joana

    2015-03-30

    The PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M) is a brief self-report instrument widely used to assess Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in war Veterans, according to DSM-IV. This study sought out to explore the factor structure and reliability of the Portuguese version of the PCL-M. A sample of 660 Portuguese Colonial War Veterans completed the PCL-M. Several Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to test different structures for PCL-M PTSD symptoms. Although the respecified first-order four-factor model based on King et al.'s model showed the best fit to the data, the respecified first and second-order models based on the DSM-IV symptom clusters also presented an acceptable fit. In addition, the PCL-M showed adequate reliability. The Portuguese version of the PCL-M is thus a valid and reliable measure to assess the severity of PTSD symptoms as described in DSM-IV. Its use with Portuguese Colonial War Veterans may ease screening of possible PTSD cases, promote more suitable treatment planning, and enable monitoring of therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Women's experiences of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic childbirth: a review and critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stella

    2015-12-01

    This paper critically analyses nine studies on postnatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following traumatic childbirth, in order to find common themes of PTSD symptoms, using the cognitive model of PTSD as a guide; it critically appraised one of the studies in depth and it attempted to explain the lived experience of women suffering from postnatal PTSD following traumatic childbirth and the suitability of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for postnatal PTSD. This paper found that women following traumatic childbirth do experience postnatal PTSD; postnatal PTSD symptoms are similar to PTSD symptoms of other events and that CBT for PTSD of other events is just as effective for postnatal PTSD. Future recommendations include more qualitative studies with interpretative phenomenological approach in order to establish evidence-based CBT treatment for this client group, and more referrals need to be sent to the psychological services for CBT intervention.

  19. PTSD as a mediator of sexual revictimization: the role of reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Heather J; Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D; Thomsen, Cynthia J; McCanne, Thomas R

    2006-10-01

    Theory and research suggest that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault. However, little empirical research has examined the mediational role of PTSD. In the present study, the authors use structural equation modeling to examine the degree to which the three symptom clusters that define PTSD (reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) contribute to sexual revictimization. To assess PTSD symptomatology, undergraduate women completed questionnaires (N = 1,449), which detailed the history and severity of childhood and adult sexual assault experiences. Results indicated that PTSD mediated sexual revictimization. When PTSD symptom clusters were examined individually, only the hyperarousal cluster was a significant mediator. Results are discussed in terms of information-processing mechanisms that may underlie sexual revictimization.

  20. PTSD Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force photo by Staff Sgt. Timothy Chacon Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can significantly affect a person’s thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationships. The ...

  1. Biomarkers for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    anxiety disorders. Ressler hopes that by understanding how fear works in the mammalian brain in the laboratory, it will improve understanding of and...provide translational treatments and possibly prevention for fear-based disorders, such as PTSD, phobic disorders and panic disorder. Dr. Ressler...PROVE (Project for Return and Opportunity in Veterans Education) Queens Vet Center Rutgers Anxiety Disorders Clinic Veteran PTSD Support Group

  2. Analysing star cluster populations with stochastic models: the HST/WFC3 sample of clusters in M83

    CERN Document Server

    Fouesneau, Morgan; Chandar, Rupali; Whitmore, Bradley C

    2012-01-01

    The majority of clusters in the Universe have masses well below 10^5 Msun. Hence their integrated fluxes and colors can be affected by the random presence of a few bright stars introduced by stochastic sampling of the stellar mass function. Specific methods are being developed to extend the analysis of cluster SEDs into the low-mass regime. In this paper, we apply such a method to observations of star clusters, in the nearby spiral galaxy M83. We reassess ages and masses of a sample of 1242 objects for which UBVIHalpha fluxes were obtained with the HST/WFC3 images. Synthetic clusters with known properties are used to characterize the limitations of the method. The ensemble of color predictions of the discrete cluster models are in good agreement with the distribution of observed colors. We emphasize the important role of the Halpha data in the assessment of the fraction of young objects, particularly in breaking the age-extinction degeneracy that hampers an analysis based on UBVI only. We find the mass distri...

  3. HYPODD Relocations and Stress Tensor Inversion Analyses of Local Earthquake Clusters in the Sea of Marmara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan

    2016-04-01

    Extensional focal mechanism solutions are mostly observed even in the Central Marmara by this comprehensive research although the main Marmara Fault that is the western branch of the NAF, is dominated by a right lateral strike-slip regime. Marmara Region, a seismically very active area, is located at the western section of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The 1912 Mürefte and 1999 Izmit earthquakes are the last devastating events of the western and eastern sections of this region, respectively. The region between the locations of these earthquakes, is prone to a large earthquake. Therefore, the analysis of the Sea of Marmara is significant. The main objective of this research is to determine earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanism solutions accurately, hence we obtain recent states of stresses for this region. Accordingly, this research aims to define branches of fault structures and its geometrical orientations in the Sea of Marmara. In this study, a cluster of events in the Central Marmara is analyzed using hypocenter program as a usual location technique. In addition, these events and other clustered events (Korkusuz Öztürk et al., 2015) are relocated using HYPODD relocation procedure. Even though NAF is mostly dominated by a right lateral strike slip fault, we found out many extensional source mechanisms. Also, from the comparison of relocation results of hypocenter and HYPODD programs, it is found out that most of the relocations have the same orientations and dipping angles of the segments of the main Marmara Fault are not clear. As a result, since we observe many normal faulting mechanisms in the Sea of Marmara, we expect to observe some deviations in orientations of vertical orientations of the fault segments comparing a dip-slip model. Therefore, this research will continue to clearly identify fault dip angles of main fault segments in Marmara Sea. Further, our sensitive relocation and stress analyses will make an important contribution to a

  4. Double feature selection and cluster analyses in mining of microarray data from cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkins Thea A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome of major biological and economic importance. In recent years, genomic approaches such as microarray-based expression profiling were used to study fiber growth and development to understand the developmental mechanisms of fiber at the molecular level. The vast volume of microarray expression data generated requires a sophisticated means of data mining in order to extract novel information that addresses fundamental questions of biological interest. One of the ways to approach microarray data mining is to increase the number of dimensions/levels to the analysis, such as comparing independent studies from different genotypes. However, adding dimensions also creates a challenge in finding novel ways for analyzing multi-dimensional microarray data. Results Mining of independent microarray studies from Pima and Upland (TM1 cotton using double feature selection and cluster analyses identified species-specific and stage-specific gene transcripts that argue in favor of discrete genetic mechanisms that govern developmental programming of cotton fiber morphogenesis in these two cultivated species. Double feature selection analysis identified the highest number of differentially expressed genes that distinguish the fiber transcriptomes of developing Pima and TM1 fibers. These results were based on the finding that differences in fibers harvested between 17 and 24 day post-anthesis (dpa represent the greatest expressional distance between the two species. This powerful selection method identified a subset of genes expressed during primary (PCW and secondary (SCW cell wall biogenesis in Pima fibers that exhibits an expression pattern that is generally reversed in TM1 at the same developmental stage. Cluster and functional analyses revealed that this subset of genes are primarily regulated during the transition stage that overlaps the termination of PCW and onset of SCW biogenesis, suggesting

  5. Oxytocin improves compassion toward women among patients with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Sharon; Klein, Ehud; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2016-02-01

    Although impairments in social skills, including empathic abilities, are common in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the ability to feel compassion-a pro-social behavior that is based on empathy and drives us to help others-has never been assessed among these patients. The first aim of this study was to examine whether patients with PTSD suffer from deficits in compassion and to examine the association between the clusters of PTSD symptoms and these deficits. Furthermore, given that intranasal oxytocin (OT) has been suggested to possibly modulate social behaviors, the second aim of this study was to investigate whether intranasal OT may enhance compassion in these patients. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, we administered 24 IU of OT and placebo at a one-week interval to 32 patients with PTSD and to 30 matched healthy control participants. The results indicate that patients with PTSD exhibit deficits in compassion and that the numbing cluster emerged as the key predictor of those deficits. Moreover, the results indicate that a single intranasal dose of OT enhances compassion toward women (but not towards men), both in patients with PTSD and in controls. These results offer support for recent suggestions that intranasal OT may potentially be an effective pharmacological intervention for patients with PTSD.

  6. Orientation Bias of Optically Selected Galaxy Clusters and Its Impact on Stacked Weak Lensing Analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Jörg P; Song, Jeeseon; McKay, Christopher P Davis Timothy A; Baruah, Leon; Becker, Matthew; Benoist, Christophe; Busha, Michael; da Costa, Luiz A N; Hao, Jiangang; Maia, Marcio A G; Miller, Christopher J; Ogando, Ricardo; Romer, A Kathy; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Wechsler, Risa

    2014-01-01

    Weak-lensing measurements of the averaged shear profiles of galaxy clusters binned by some proxy for cluster mass are commonly converted to cluster mass estimates under the assumption that these cluster stacks have spherical symmetry. In this paper we test whether this assumption holds for optically selected clusters binned by estimated optical richness. Using mock catalogues created from N-body simulations populated realistically with galaxies, we ran a suite of optical cluster finders and estimated their optical richness. We binned galaxy clusters by true cluster mass and estimated optical richness and measure the ellipticity of these stacks. We find that the processes of optical cluster selection and richness estimation are biased, leading to stacked structures that are elongated along the line-of-sight. We show that weak-lensing alone cannot measure the size of this orientation bias. Weak lensing masses of stacked optically selected clusters are overestimated by up to 3-6 per cent when clusters can be uni...

  7. The co-occurrence of PTSD and dissociation: differentiating severe PTSD from dissociative-PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Richardson, J Don

    2014-08-01

    A dissociative-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype has been included in the DSM-5. However, it is not yet clear whether certain socio-demographic characteristics or psychological/clinical constructs such as comorbid psychopathology differentiate between severe PTSD and dissociative-PTSD. The current study investigated the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype and explored whether a number of trauma and clinical covariates could differentiate between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The current study utilized a sample of 432 treatment seeking Canadian military veterans. Participants were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and self-report measures of traumatic life events, depression, and anxiety. CAPS severity scores were created reflecting the sum of the frequency and intensity items from each of the 17 PTSD and 3 dissociation items. The CAPS severity scores were used as indicators in a latent profile analysis (LPA) to investigate the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Subsequently, several covariates were added to the model to explore differences between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The LPA identified five classes: one of which constituted a severe PTSD group (30.5 %), and one of which constituted a dissociative-PTSD group (13.7 %). None of the included, demographic, trauma, or clinical covariates were significantly predictive of membership in the dissociative-PTSD group compared to the severe PTSD group. In conclusion, a significant proportion of individuals report high levels of dissociation alongside their PTSD, which constitutes a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Further investigation is needed to identify which factors may increase or decrease the likelihood of membership in a dissociative-PTSD subtype group compared to a severe PTSD only group.

  8. Infrared High-resolution Integrated Light Spectral Analyses of M31 Globular Clusters from APOGEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakari, Charli M.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, Timothy C.; Caldwell, Nelson; Aníbal García-Hernández, Domingo; Lucatello, Sara; Majewski, Steven; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pan, Kaike; Strader, Jay

    2016-10-01

    Chemical abundances are presented for 25 M31 globular clusters (GCs), based on moderately high resolution (R = 22,500) H-band integrated light (IL) spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). Infrared (IR) spectra offer lines from new elements, lines of different strengths, and lines at higher excitation potentials compared to the optical. Integrated abundances of C, N, and O are derived from CO, CN, and OH molecular features, while Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, and Ti abundances are derived from atomic features. These abundances are compared to previous results from the optical, demonstrating the validity and value of IR IL analyses. The CNO abundances are consistent with typical tip of the red giant branch stellar abundances but are systematically offset from optical Lick index abundances. With a few exceptions, the other abundances agree between the optical and the IR within the 1σ uncertainties. The first integrated K abundances are also presented and demonstrate that K tracks the α elements. The combination of IR and optical abundances allows better determinations of GC properties and enables probes of the multiple populations in extragalactic GCs. In particular, the integrated effects of the Na/O anticorrelation can be directly examined for the first time.

  9. The DSM-5 dissociative-PTSD subtype: can levels of depression, anxiety, hostility, and sleeping difficulties differentiate between dissociative-PTSD and PTSD in rape and sexual assault victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Lauterbach, Dean; Elhai, Jon D

    2014-05-01

    The DSM-5 currently includes a dissociative-PTSD subtype within its nomenclature. Several studies have confirmed the dissociative-PTSD subtype in both American Veteran and American civilian samples. Studies have begun to assess specific factors which differentiate between dissociative vs. non-dissociative PTSD. The current study takes a novel approach to investigating the presence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype in its use of European victims of sexual assault and rape (N=351). Utilizing Latent Profile Analyses, we hypothesized that a discrete group of individuals would represent a dissociative-PTSD subtype. We additionally hypothesized that levels of depression, anger, hostility, and sleeping difficulties would differentiate dissociative-PTSD from a similarly severe form of PTSD in the absence of dissociation. Results concluded that there were four discrete groups termed baseline, moderate PTSD, high PTSD, and dissociative-PTSD. The dissociative-PTSD group encompassed 13.1% of the sample and evidenced significantly higher mean scores on measures of depression, anxiety, hostility, and sleeping difficulties. Implications are discussed in relation to both treatment planning and the newly published DSM-5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alternative models of DSM-5 PTSD: Examining diagnostic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Siobhan; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2017-01-01

    The factor structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively debated with evidence supporting the recently proposed seven-factor Hybrid model. However, despite myriad studies examining PTSD symptom structure few have assessed the diagnostic implications of these proposed...... estimated within a confirmatory factor analytic framework using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Data were analysed from a Malaysian adolescent community sample (n=481) of which 61.7% were female, with a mean age of 17.03 years. The results indicated that all models provided satisfactory model fit...... with statistical superiority for the Externalizing Behaviours and seven-factor Hybrid models. The PTSD prevalence estimates varied substantially ranging from 21.8% for the DSM-5 model to 10.0% for the Hybrid model. Estimates of risk associated with PTSD were inconsistent across the alternative models...

  11. Alternative models of DSM-5 PTSD: Examining diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siobhan; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask; Yong Chen, Yoke; Raudzah Ghazali, Siti; Shevlin, Mark

    2017-09-09

    The factor structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively debated with evidence supporting the recently proposed seven-factor Hybrid model. However, despite myriad studies examining PTSD symptom structure few have assessed the diagnostic implications of these proposed models. This study aimed to generate PTSD prevalence estimates derived from the 7 alternative factor models and assess whether pre-established risk factors associated with PTSD (e.g., transportation accidents and sexual victimisation) produce consistent risk estimates. Seven alternative models were estimated within a confirmatory factor analytic framework using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Data were analysed from a Malaysian adolescent community sample (n = 481) of which 61.7% were female, with a mean age of 17.03 years. The results indicated that all models provided satisfactory model fit with statistical superiority for the Externalising Behaviours and seven-factor Hybrid models. The PTSD prevalence estimates varied substantially ranging from 21.8% for the DSM-5 model to 10.0% for the Hybrid model. Estimates of risk associated with PTSD were inconsistent across the alternative models, with substantial variation emerging for sexual victimisation. These findings have important implications for research and practice and highlight that more research attention is needed to examine the diagnostic implications emerging from the alternative models of PTSD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sources of the increasing number of Vietnam era veterans with a diagnosis of PTSD using VHA services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Eric D A; Hoff, Rani; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    Correlates of the sharp increase in Vietnam era veterans diagnosed as having posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) were examined. Analyses compared receipt of a PTSD diagnosis and service-connected disability compensation in 2004-2006 and 2007-2009. Among Vietnam era veterans, the percentage with a PTSD diagnosis in 2007-2009 was 22.2% higher than the percentage with PTSD in 2004-2006; the percentage without PTSD was 6.2% higher than in 2004-2006. Of those with PTSD in 2007-2009, 22.6% were previous VHA service users newly diagnosed ("conversions"); only 12.8% were entirely new to VHA ("recents"). Rates of disability compensation among recents and conversions were almost two and three times higher, respectively, than among those without PTSD. The increase in Vietnam era veterans with PTSD is associated with more frequent "conversion" to PTSD among previous VHA users and receipt of disability compensation.

  13. DSM-5 PTSD's symptom dimensions and relations with major depression's symptom dimensions in a primary care sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contractor, A. A.; Durham, T. A.; Brennan, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature indicates significant comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. We examined whether PTSD's dysphoria and mood/cognitions factors, conceptualized by the empirically supported four-factor DSM-5 PTSD models, account for PTSD's inherent...... and somatic/non-somatic depression. Using 181 trauma-exposed primary care patients, confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) indicated a well-fitting DSM-5 PTSD dysphoria model, DSM-5 numbing model and two-factor depression model. Both somatic and non-somatic depression factors were more related to PTSD's dysphoria...

  14. The co-occurrence of PTSD and dissociation: differentiating severe PTSD from dissociative-PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armour, C.; Karstoft, K. I.; Richardson, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    A dissociative-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype has been included in the DSM-5. However, it is not yet clear whether certain socio-demographic characteristics or psychological/clinical constructs such as comorbid psychopathology differentiate between severe PTSD and dissociative......-PTSD. The current study investigated the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype and explored whether a number of trauma and clinical covariates could differentiate between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The current study utilized a sample of 432 treatment seeking Canadian military veterans. Participants...... were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and self-report measures of traumatic life events, depression, and anxiety. CAPS severity scores were created reflecting the sum of the frequency and intensity items from each of the 17 PTSD and 3 dissociation items. The CAPS severity...

  15. Relationship between PTSD symptomatology and nicotine dependence severity in crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschnagel, Joseph S; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Drobes, David J; Saladin, Michael E

    2008-11-01

    Smoking rates are higher and cessation rates are lower among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to the general population, thus understanding the relationship between PTSD and nicotine dependence is important. In a sample of 213 participants with a crime-related trauma (109 with PTSD), the relationship between PTSD status, smoking status (smoker vs. non-smoker), substance abuse diagnosis (SUD), PTSD symptoms, and sex was assessed. SUD diagnosis was significantly related to smoking status, but PTSD symptomatology and sex were not. Among smokers (n=117), increased nicotine dependence severity was associated with being male and with increased level of PTSD avoidance symptoms. Correlations indicated that PTSD avoidance and hyperarousal symptom clusters and total PTSD symptom scores were significantly related to nicotine dependence severity in males, while PTSD symptomatology in general did not correlate with dependence severity for females. The results suggest that level of PTSD symptomatology, particularly avoidance symptoms, may be important targets for smoking cessation treatment among male smokers who have experienced a traumatic event.

  16. Initiation of pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder among veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan: a dimensional, symptom cluster approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, Robert; Mohamed, Somaia; Pietrzak, Robert; Hoff, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Background The pharmacological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is extremely challenging, as no specific agent has been developed exclusively to treat this disorder. Thus, there are growing concerns among the public, providers and consumers associated with its use as the efficacy of some agents is still in question. Aims We applied a dimensional and symptom cluster-based approach to better understand how the heterogeneous phenotypic presentation of PTSD may relate to the initiation of pharmacotherapy for PTSD initial episode. Method US veterans who served in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and received an initial PTSD diagnosis at the US Veterans Health Administration between 2008 and 2011 were included in this study. Veterans were followed for 365 days from initial PTSD diagnosis to identify initiation for antidepressants, anxiolytics/sedatives/hypnotics, antipsychotics and prazosin. Multivariable analyses were used to assess the relationship between the severity of unique PTSD symptom clusters and receiving prescriptions from each medication class, as well as the time from diagnosis to first prescription. Results Increased severity of emotional numbing symptoms was independently associated with the prescription of antidepressants, and they were prescribed after a substantially shorter period of time than other medications. Anxiolytics/sedatives/hypnotics prescription was associated with heightened re-experiencing symptoms and sleep difficulties. Antipsychotics were associated with elevated re-experiencing and numbing symptoms and prazosin with reported nightmares. Conclusions Prescribing practices for military-related PTSD appear to follow US VA/DoD clinical guidelines. Results of this study suggest that a novel dimensional and symptom cluster-based approach to classifying the phenotypic presentation of military-related PTSD symptoms may help inform prescribing patterns for PTSD. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The

  17. Dietary patterns in Irish adolescents: a comparison of cluster and principal component analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Áine P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Pattern analysis of adolescent diets may provide an important basis for nutritional health promotion. The aims of the present study were to examine and compare dietary patterns in adolescents using cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) and to examine the impact of the format of the dietary variables on the solutions. Analysis was based on the Irish National Teens Food Survey, in which food intake data were collected using a semi-quantitative 7 d food diary. Thirty-two food groups were created and were expressed as either g/d or percentage contribution to total energy. Dietary patterns were identified using cluster analysis (k-means) and PCA. Republic of Ireland, 2005-2006. A representative sample of 441 adolescents aged 13-17 years. Five clusters based on percentage contribution to total energy were identified, 'Healthy', 'Unhealthy', 'Rice/Pasta dishes', 'Sandwich' and 'Breakfast cereal & Main meal-type foods'. Four principal components based on g/d were identified which explained 28 % of total variance: 'Healthy foods', 'Traditional foods', 'Sandwich foods' and 'Unhealthy foods'. A 'Sandwich' and an 'Unhealthy' pattern are the main dietary patterns in this sample. Patterns derived from either cluster analysis or PCA were comparable, although it appears that cluster analysis also identifies dietary patterns not identified through PCA, such as a 'Breakfast cereal & Main meal-type foods' pattern. Consideration of the format of the dietary variable is important as it can directly impact on the patterns obtained for both cluster analysis and PCA.

  18. Comparison of Poisson and Bernoulli spatial cluster analyses of pediatric injuries in a fire district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warden Craig R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited resources available, injury prevention efforts need to be targeted both geographically and to specific populations. As part of a pediatric injury prevention project, data was obtained on all pediatric medical and injury incidents in a fire district to evaluate geographical clustering of pediatric injuries. This will be the first step in attempting to prevent these injuries with specific interventions depending on locations and mechanisms. Results There were a total of 4803 incidents involving patients less than 15 years of age that the fire district responded to during 2001–2005 of which 1997 were categorized as injuries and 2806 as medical calls. The two cohorts (injured versus medical differed in age distribution (7.7 ± 4.4 years versus 5.4 ± 4.8 years, p Conclusion Significant clustering occurs overall for all injury mechanisms combined and for each mechanism depending on the cluster detection method used. There was some overlap in geographic clusters identified by both methods. The Bernoulli method allows more focused cluster mapping and evaluation since it directly uses location data. Once clusters are found, interventions can be targeted to specific geographic locations, location types, ages of victims, and mechanisms of injury.

  19. Bullying and PTSD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

    2012-01-01

    PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

  20. Changes in social adjustment with cognitive processing therapy: effects of treatment and association with PTSD symptom change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Candice M; Macdonald, Alexandra; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Shnaider, Philippe; Goldstein, Elizabeth S R; Ferrier-Auerbach, Amanda G; Mocciola, Katharine E

    2012-10-01

    The current study sought to determine if different spheres of social adjustment, social and leisure, family, and work and income improved immediately following a course of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) when compared with those on a waiting list in a sample of 46 U.S. veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We also sought to determine whether changes in different PTSD symptom clusters were associated with changes in these spheres of social adjustment. Overall social adjustment, extended family relationships, and housework completion significantly improved in the CPT versus waiting-list condition, η(2) = .08 to .11. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that improvements in total clinician-rated PTSD symptoms were associated with improvements in overall social and housework adjustment. When changes in reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal were all in the model accounting for changes in total social adjustment, improvements in emotional numbing symptoms were associated with improvements in overall social, extended family, and housework adjustment (β = .38 to .55). In addition, improvements in avoidance symptoms were associated with improvements in housework adjustment (β = .30), but associated with declines in extended family adjustment (β = -.34). Results suggest that it is important to consider the extent to which PTSD treatments effectively reduce specific types of symptoms, particularly emotional numbing and avoidance, to generally improve social adjustment.

  1. Analyses of crime patterns in NIBRS data based on a novel graph theory clustering method: Virginia as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peixin; Darrah, Marjorie; Nolan, Jim; Zhang, Cun-Quan

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a novel clustering method for analyzing the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data, which include the determination of correlation of different crime types, the development of a likelihood index for crimes to occur in a jurisdiction, and the clustering of jurisdictions based on crime type. The method was tested by using the 2005 assault data from 121 jurisdictions in Virginia as a test case. The analyses of these data show that some different crime types are correlated and some different crime parameters are correlated with different crime types. The analyses also show that certain jurisdictions within Virginia share certain crime patterns. This information assists with constructing a pattern for a specific crime type and can be used to determine whether a jurisdiction may be more likely to see this type of crime occur in their area.

  2. Analyses of Crime Patterns in NIBRS Data Based on a Novel Graph Theory Clustering Method: Virginia as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a novel clustering method for analyzing the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS data, which include the determination of correlation of different crime types, the development of a likelihood index for crimes to occur in a jurisdiction, and the clustering of jurisdictions based on crime type. The method was tested by using the 2005 assault data from 121 jurisdictions in Virginia as a test case. The analyses of these data show that some different crime types are correlated and some different crime parameters are correlated with different crime types. The analyses also show that certain jurisdictions within Virginia share certain crime patterns. This information assists with constructing a pattern for a specific crime type and can be used to determine whether a jurisdiction may be more likely to see this type of crime occur in their area.

  3. Engineering, Trade, and Technical Cluster. Task Analyses. Drafting and Design Technology, Precision Machining Technology, Electronics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    Developed in Virginia, this publication contains task analysis guides to support selected tech prep programs that prepare students for careers in the engineering, trade, and technical cluster. Three occupations are profiled: drafting and design technology, precision machining technology, and electronics technology. Each guide contains the…

  4. Whisper, a resonance sounder and wave analyser: Performances and perspectives for the Cluster mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decreau, P.M.E.; Fergeau, P.; KrannoselsKikh, V.

    1997-01-01

    The WHISPER sounder on the Cluster spacecraft is primarily designed to provide an absolute measurement of the total plasma density within the range 0.2-80 cm(-3). This is achieved by means of a resonance sounding technique which has already proved successful in the regions to be explored. The wav...

  5. Cluster and factor analyses using water quality data in the Sapkyo reservoir watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Chang-Soo [Chungwoon University, Hongsung(Korea); Shin, Jae-Ki [Inje University, Kimhae(Korea)

    2002-04-30

    The monthly water quality data measured at 19 stations located in the Sapkyo reservoir watershed were clustered into 2 to 7 clusters and factor analysis was conducted to characterize the water quality, using the information obtained from cluster analysis. The result of cluster analysis shows that Sapkyo reservoir and each stream (Sapkyo stream, Muhan stream and Kokkyo stream) in Sapkyo reservoir watershed have their own water quality characteristics. The result of water quality analysis indicates that the concentration of suspended solids from Sapkyo reservoir is much higher than those of other streams, and which is probably because of increment of phytoplankton biomass with rich nutrient flowing into Sapkyo reservoir from the upper stream of watershed. Furthermore, the concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were 3.5 to 4.8 times and 1.7 to 2.5 times those of other streams, respectively. The overall water quality of Sapkyo reservoir watershed was considered to exceed eutrophic condition. Based on factor analysis, the water quality characteristics of Sapkyo stream and Muhan stream were closely related with farm land and residence. The water quality of Kokkyo stream was influenced by superabundant organic matter flowing from Chonan city and district wastewater treatment plant located in the upper stream of Kokkyo stream. The water quality factor influencing Sapkyo reservoir was closely related with water quality factors of other three streams. (author). 20 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Non-Hierarchical Clustering as a method to analyse an open-ended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple

    tests, provide instructors with tools to probe students' conceptual knowledge of various fields of science and ... quantitative non-hierarchical clustering analysis method known as k-means (Everitt, Landau, Leese & Stahl, ...... undergraduate engineering students in creating ... mathematics-formal reasoning and the contextual.

  7. Group analyses of connectivity-based cortical parcellation using repeated k-means clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanetti, Luca; Cerliani, Leonardo; Gazzola, Valeria; Renken, Remco; Keysers, Christian

    2009-01-01

    K-means clustering has become a popular tool for connectivity-based cortical segmentation using Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) data. A sometimes ignored issue is, however, that the output of the algorithm depends on the initial placement of starting points, and that different sets of starting poin

  8. Whisper, a resonance sounder and wave analyser: Performances and perspectives for the Cluster mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decreau, P.M.E.; Fergeau, P.; KrannoselsKikh, V.;

    1997-01-01

    The WHISPER sounder on the Cluster spacecraft is primarily designed to provide an absolute measurement of the total plasma density within the range 0.2-80 cm(-3). This is achieved by means of a resonance sounding technique which has already proved successful in the regions to be explored. The wav...

  9. Creative clusters and place-making: analysing the quality of place in Soho and Beyoglu

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade creativity has become one of the buzz concepts of urban practice and research, and new concepts such as the creative city, creative economy, the creative class, creative industries and creative clusters have emerged (Florida, 2002; Landry, 2000). There are studies in economics and cultural geography, sociology and, to some extent in urban planning, exploring the creative city phenomenon. To date, however, there have only been a limited number of studies on understanding...

  10. Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) data quality indexes as a support for analysing magnetospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandouras, Iannis; Barthe, Alain; Brunato, Sylvain; Rème, Henri; Laakso, Harri

    2016-04-01

    The Cluster Science Archive (CSA) aims at preserving the complete set of the measurements collected by the four Cluster spacecraft, so that they are usable in the long-term by the world-wide scientific community as well as by the instrument teams. This implies that the instrument data, properly calibrated, are filed together with the descriptive and documentary elements making it possible to select and interpret them. The CIS (Cluster Ion Spectrometry) experiment is a comprehensive ionic plasma spectrometry package onboard the Cluster spacecraft, capable of obtaining full three-dimensional ion distributions (about 0 to 40 keV/e) with a time resolution of one spacecraft spin (4 sec) and with mass-per-charge composition determination. For the archival of the CIS data a multi-level approach has been adopted. The CSA archival includes processed raw data, moments of the ion distribution functions, and calibrated high-resolution data in a variety of physical units. The latter are 3-D ion distribution functions, 2-D pitch-angle distributions and 1-D omni-directional fluxes. The CIS data archive includes also experiment documentation, graphical products for browsing through the data, data caveats and data quality indexes. The later constitute a novel product, which has been prepared in order to help the user asses the quality of the data acquired in different magnetospheric regions and during various operational modes. It provides information on which are in each case the issues that can affect the data quality, which are the data products affected, and gives a simple quantitative measurement of the severity of these issues. The principle of the CIS data quality indexes will be described and the various issues, that can under some conditions affect the data quality and are thus taken into account in generating the data quality indexes, will be discussed.

  11. Identification and comparative analyses of Siamois cluster genes in Xenopus laevis and tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Saijyo, Tomohito; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Furuno, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ito, Yuzuru; Kondo, Mariko; Taira, Masanori; Takahashi, Shuji

    2017-06-15

    Two siamois-related homeobox genes siamois (sia1) and twin (sia2), have been reported in Xenopus laevis. These genes are expressed in the blastula chordin- and noggin-expressing (BCNE) center and the Nieuwkoop center, and have complete secondary axis-inducing activity when over-expressed on the ventral side of the embryo. Using whole genome sequences of X. tropicalis and X. laevis, we identified two additional siamois-related genes, which are tandemly duplicated near sia1 and sia2 to form the siamois gene cluster. Four siamois genes in X. tropicalis are transcribed at blastula to gastrula stages. In X. laevis, the siamois gene cluster is present on both homeologous chromosomes, XLA3L and XLA3S. Transcripts from seven siamois genes (three on XLA3L and four on XLA3S) in X. laevis were detected at blastula to gastrula stages. A transcribed gene, sia1p. S, encodes an inactive protein without a homeodomain. When over-expressed ventrally, all siamois-related genes tested in this study except for sia1p. S induced a complete secondary axis, indicating that X. tropicalis and X. laevis have four and six active siamois-related genes, respectively. Of note, each gene required different amounts of mRNA for full activity. These results suggest the possibility that siamois cluster genes have functional redundancy to endow robustness and quickness to organizer formation in Xenopus species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Testing the validity of the proposed ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD criteria using a sample from Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Murphy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11 is currently under development with proposed changes recommended for the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD diagnosis and the inclusion of a separate complex PTSD (CPTSD disorder. Empirical studies support the distinction between PTSD and CPTSD; however, less research has focused on non-western populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether distinct PTSD and CPTSD symptom classes emerged and to identify potential risk factors and the severity of impairment associated with resultant classes. Methods: A latent class analysis (LCA and related analyses were conducted on 314 young adults from Northern Uganda. Fifty-one percent were female and participants were aged between 18 and 25 years. Forty percent of the participants were former child soldiers (n=124 while the remaining participants were civilians (n=190. Results: The LCA revealed three classes: a CPTSD class (40.2%, a PTSD class (43.8%, and a low symptom class (16%. Child soldier status was a significant predictor of both CPTSD and PTSD classes (OR=5.96 and 2.82, respectively. Classes differed significantly on measures of anxiety/depression, conduct problems, somatic complaints, and war experiences. Conclusions: To conclude, this study provides preliminary support for the proposed distinction between PTSD and CPTSD in a young adult sample from Northern Uganda. However, future studies are needed using larger samples to test alternative models before firm conclusions can be made.

  13. Clustering Analyses of 300,000 Photometrically Classified Quasars--I. Luminosity and Redshift Evolution in Quasar Bias

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, A D; Nichol, R C; Richards, G T; Schneider, D P; Bahcall, N A; Myers, Adam D.; Brunner, Robert J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2006-01-01

    Using ~300,000 photometrically classified quasars, by far the largest quasar sample ever used for such analyses, we study the redshift and luminosity evolution of quasar clustering on scales of ~50 kpc/h to ~20 Mpc/h from redshifts of z~0.75 to z~2.28. We parameterize our clustering amplitudes using realistic dark matter models, and find that a LCDM power spectrum provides a superb fit to our data with a redshift-averaged quasar bias of b_Q = 2.41+/-0.08 ($P_{99.6% using our data set alone, increasing to >99.9999% if stellar contamination is not explicitly parameterized. We measure the quasar classification efficiency across our full sample as a = 95.6 +/- ^{4.4}_{1.9}%, a star-quasar separation comparable with the star-galaxy separation in many photometric studies of galaxy clustering. We derive the mean mass of the dark matter halos hosting quasars as MDMH=(5.2+/-0.6)x10^{12} M_solar/h. At z~1.9 we find a $1.5\\sigma$ deviation from luminosity-independent quasar clustering; this suggests that increasing our ...

  14. Cluster analysis application for analysing a diversification in a perception of cooperative banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyse a regional diversification in a perception of cooperative banks among students who come from farms in central and west Poland. The aim was realised by the comparison of the students’ in the analysed voivodships view about 13 statements concerning cooperative banks. The next step was to distinguish between voivodships 3 segments – with positive, neutral and negative outlook on the cooperative banks and to describe the distinguished segments.

  15. PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use PTSD and alcohol use problems are often ...

  16. Relations between PTSD and distress dimensions in an Indian child/adolescent sample following the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Mehta, Panna; Tiamiyu, Mojisola F; Hovey, Joseph D; Geers, Andrew L; Charak, Ruby; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Elhai, Jon D

    2014-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) four-factor dysphoria model has substantial empirical support (reviewed in Elhai & Palmieri, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 849-854, 2011; Yufik & Simms, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 764-776, 2010). However, debatable is whether the model's dysphoria factor adequately captures all of PTSD's emotional distress (e.g., Marshall et al., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(1), 126-135, 2010), which is relevant to understanding the assessment and psychopathology of PTSD. Thus, the present study assessed the factor-level relationship between PTSD and emotional distress in 818 children/adolescents attending school in the vicinity of the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. The effective sample had a mean age of 12.85 years (SD = 1.33), with the majority being male (n = 435, 53.8 %). PTSD and emotional distress were measured by the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) assessed the PTSD and BSI-18 model fit; Wald tests assessed hypothesized PTSD-distress latent-level relations; and invariance testing examined PTSD-distress parameter differences using age, gender and direct exposure as moderators. There were no moderating effects for the PTSD-distress structural parameters. BSI-18's depression and somatization factors related more to PTSD's dysphoria than PTSD's avoidance factor. The results emphasize assessing for specificity and distress variance of PTSD factors on a continuum, rather than assuming dysphoria factor's complete accountability for PTSD's inherent distress. Additionally, PTSD's dysphoria factor related more to BSI-18's depression than BSI-18's anxiety/somatization factors; this may explain PTSD's comorbidity mechanism with depressive disorders.

  17. Selection of key ambient particulate variables for epidemiological studies - applying cluster and heatmap analyses as tools for data reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianwei; Pitz, Mike; Breitner, Susanne; Birmili, Wolfram; von Klot, Stephanie; Schneider, Alexandra; Soentgen, Jens; Reller, Armin; Peters, Annette; Cyrys, Josef

    2012-10-01

    The success of epidemiological studies depends on the use of appropriate exposure variables. The purpose of this study is to extract a relatively small selection of variables characterizing ambient particulate matter from a large measurement data set. The original data set comprised a total of 96 particulate matter variables that have been continuously measured since 2004 at an urban background aerosol monitoring site in the city of Augsburg, Germany. Many of the original variables were derived from measured particle size distribution (PSD) across the particle diameter range 3 nm to 10 μm, including size-segregated particle number concentration, particle length concentration, particle surface concentration and particle mass concentration. The data set was complemented by integral aerosol variables. These variables were measured by independent instruments, including black carbon, sulfate, particle active surface concentration and particle length concentration. It is obvious that such a large number of measured variables cannot be used in health effect analyses simultaneously. The aim of this study is a pre-screening and a selection of the key variables that will be used as input in forthcoming epidemiological studies. In this study, we present two methods of parameter selection and apply them to data from a two-year period from 2007 to 2008. We used the agglomerative hierarchical cluster method to find groups of similar variables. In total, we selected 15 key variables from 9 clusters which are recommended for epidemiological analyses. We also applied a two-dimensional visualization technique called "heatmap" analysis to the Spearman correlation matrix. 12 key variables were selected using this method. Moreover, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to the PSD data to characterize the possible particle sources. Correlations between the variables and PMF factors were used to interpret the meaning of the cluster and the heatmap analyses

  18. Formation of bimetallic clusters in superfluid helium nanodroplets analysed by atomic resolution electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfehlner, Georg; Thaler, Philipp; Knez, Daniel; Volk, Alexander; Hofer, Ferdinand; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Kothleitner, Gerald

    2015-10-01

    Structure, shape and composition are the basic parameters responsible for properties of nanoscale materials, distinguishing them from their bulk counterparts. To reveal these in three dimensions at the nanoscale, electron tomography is a powerful tool. Advancing electron tomography to atomic resolution in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope remains challenging and has been demonstrated only a few times using strong constraints or extensive filtering. Here we demonstrate atomic resolution electron tomography on silver/gold core/shell nanoclusters grown in superfluid helium nanodroplets. We reveal morphology and composition of a cluster identifying gold- and silver-rich regions in three dimensions and we estimate atomic positions without using any prior information and with minimal filtering. The ability to get full three-dimensional information down to the atomic scale allows understanding the growth and deposition process of the nanoclusters and demonstrates an approach that may be generally applicable to all types of nanoscale materials.

  19. Contribution of criterion A2 to PTSD screening in the presence of traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Noemí; Forero, Carlos G

    2012-10-01

    Criterion A2 according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4(th) ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) aims to assess the individual's subjective appraisal of an event, but it has been claimed that it might not be sufficiently specific for diagnostic purposes. We analyse the contribution of Criterion A2 and DSM-IV criteria to detect PTSD for the most distressing life events experienced by our subjects. Young adults (N = 1,033) reported their most distressing life events, together with PTSD criteria (Criteria A2, B, C, D, E, and F). PTSD prevalence and criterion specificity and agreement with probable diagnoses were estimated. Our results indicate 80.30% of the individuals experienced traumatic events and met one or more PTSD criteria; 13.22% cases received a positive diagnosis of PTSD. Criterion A2 showed poor agreement with the final probable PTSD diagnosis (correlation with PTSD .13, specificity = .10); excluding it from PTSD diagnosis did not the change the estimated disorder prevalence significantly. Based on these findings it appears that Criterion A2 is scarcely specific and provides little information to confirm a probable PTSD case.

  20. Resilient but addicted: The impact of resilience on the relationship between smoking withdrawal and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaani, Anu; Alpert, Elizabeth; McLean, Carmen P; Foa, Edna B

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine use is common among people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Resilience, which is reflected in one's ability to cope with stress, has been shown to be associated with lower cigarette smoking and posttraumatic stress symptoms, but relationships among these three variables have not been examined. This study investigates the relationships of resilience and nicotine withdrawal with each other and in relation to PTSD symptoms. Participants were 118 cigarette smokers with PTSD seeking treatment for PTSD and nicotine use. Data were randomly cross-sectionally sampled from three time points: week 0, week 12, and week 27 of the study. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed main effects of both resilience and nicotine withdrawal symptoms on PTSD severity, controlling for the sampled time point, negative affect, and expired carbon monoxide concentration. Consistent with prior research, PTSD severity was higher among individuals who were less resilient and for those who had greater nicotine withdrawal. There was an interaction between resilience and nicotine withdrawal on self-reported PTSD severity, such that greater resilience was associated with lower PTSD severity only among participants with low nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Among individuals with high nicotine withdrawal, PTSD severity was high, regardless of resilience level. These results suggest that resilience is a protective factor for PTSD severity for those with low levels of nicotine withdrawal, but at high levels of nicotine withdrawal, the protective function of resilience is mitigated.

  1. Predicting PTSD following bank robbery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    exposed to robbery (N = 371, response rate = 73 %, dropout rate = 18 %). The results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that 51 % of the variance in PTSD severity could be explained with only peritraumatic dissociation, acute stress disorder (ASD) severity, and negative cognitions about self......Each year, numerous bank robberies take place worldwide. Even so, only few studies have investigated the psychological sequelae of bank robbery and little is known about the risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following this potentially traumatic...... event. Knowledge about risk factors related to PTSD may allow for preventive measures to be taken against the development of PTSD and reduce the large cost associated with the disorder. We investigated multiple predictors of PTSD severity in a highly representative Danish cohort study of bank employees...

  2. Predicting PTSD following bank robbery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    Each year, numerous bank robberies take place worldwide. Even so, only few studies have investigated the psychological sequelae of bank robbery and little is known about the risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following this potentially traumatic...... event. Knowledge about risk factors related to PTSD may allow for preventive measures to be taken against the development of PTSD and reduce the large cost associated with the disorder. We investigated multiple predictors of PTSD severity in a highly representative Danish cohort study of bank employees...... exposed to robbery (N = 371, response rate = 73 %, dropout rate = 18 %). The results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that 51 % of the variance in PTSD severity could be explained with only peritraumatic dissociation, acute stress disorder (ASD) severity, and negative cognitions about self...

  3. Longitudinal Associations Between PTSD Symptoms and Dyadic Conflict Communication Following a Severe Motor Vehicle Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Steffany J; Beck, J Gayle; Shnaider, Philippe; Le, Yunying; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Pentel, Kimberly Z; Monson, Candice M; Simon, Naomi M; Marques, Luana

    2017-03-01

    There are well-documented associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and intimate relationship impairments, including dysfunctional communication at times of relationship conflict. To date, the extant research on the associations between PTSD symptom severity and conflict communication has been cross-sectional and focused on military and veteran couples. No published work has evaluated the extent to which PTSD symptom severity and communication at times of relationship conflict influence each other over time or in civilian samples. The current study examined the prospective bidirectional associations between PTSD symptom severity and dyadic conflict communication in a sample of 114 severe motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors in a committed intimate relationship at the time of the accident. PTSD symptom severity and dyadic conflict communication were assessed at 4 and 16weeks post-MVA, and prospective associations were examined using path analysis. Total PTSD symptom severity at 4weeks prospectively predicted greater dysfunctional communication at 16weeks post-MVA but not vice versa. Examination at the level of PTSD symptom clusters revealed that effortful avoidance at 4weeks prospectively predicted greater dysfunctional communication at 16weeks, whereas dysfunctional communication 4weeks after the MVA predicted more severe emotional numbing at 16weeks. Findings highlight the role of PTSD symptoms in contributing to dysfunctional communication and the importance of considering PTSD symptom clusters separately when investigating the dynamic interplay between PTSD symptoms and relationship functioning over time, particularly during the early posttrauma period. Clinical implications for the prevention of chronic PTSD and associated relationship problems are discussed.

  4. An epigenome-wide DNA methylation study of PTSD and depression in World Trade Center responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, P-F; Waszczuk, M A; Kotov, R; Marsit, C J; Guffanti, G; Gonzalez, A; Yang, X; Koenen, K; Bromet, E; Luft, B J

    2017-06-27

    Previous epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) have been inconsistent. This may be due to small sample sizes, and measurement and tissue differences. The current two EWA analyses of 473 World Trade Center responders are the largest to date for both PTSD and MDD. These analyses investigated DNA methylation patterns and biological pathways influenced by differentially methylated genes associated with each disorder. Methylation was profiled on blood samples using Illumina 450 K Beadchip. Two EWA analyses compared current versus never PTSD, and current versus never MDD, adjusting for cell types and demographic confounders. Pathway and gene set enrichment analyses were performed to understand the complex biological systems of PTSD and MDD. No significant epigenome-wide associations were found for PTSD or MDD at an FDR P<0.05. The majority of genes with differential methylation at a suggestive threshold did not overlap between the two disorders. Pathways significant in PTSD included a regulator of synaptic plasticity, oxytocin signaling, cholinergic synapse and inflammatory disease pathways, while only phosphatidylinositol signaling and cell cycle pathways emerged in MDD. The failure of the current EWA analyses to detect significant epigenome-wide associations is in contrast with disparate findings from previous, smaller EWA and candidate gene studies of PTSD and MDD. Enriched gene sets involved in several biological pathways, including stress response, inflammation and physical health, were identified in PTSD, supporting the view that multiple genes play a role in this complex disorder.

  5. Healing Touch with Guided Imagery for PTSD in returning active duty military: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shamini; McMahon, George F; Hasen, Patricia; Kozub, Madelyn P; Porter, Valencia; King, Rauni; Guarneri, Erminia M

    2012-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a significant problem in returning military and warrants swift and effective treatment. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether a complementary medicine intervention (Healing Touch with Guided Imagery [HT+GI]) reduced PTSD symptoms as compared to treatment as usual (TAU) returning combat-exposed active duty military with significant PTSD symptoms. Active duty military (n = 123) were randomized to 6 sessions (within 3 weeks) of HT+GI vs. TAU. The primary outcome was PTSD symptoms; secondary outcomes were depression, quality of life, and hostility. Repeated measures analysis of covariance with intent-to-treat analyses revealed statistically and clinically significant reduction in PTSD symptoms (p biofield therapy approaches for mitigating PTSD in military populations is warranted.

  6. Analysing the spatial patterns of livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan in relation to environmental factors: a comparison of local (Gi* and morphology cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Kracalik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared a local clustering and a cluster morphology statistic using anthrax outbreaks in large (cattle and small (sheep and goats domestic ruminants across Kazakhstan. The Getis-Ord (Gi* statistic and a multidirectional optimal ecotope algorithm (AMOEBA were compared using 1st, 2nd and 3rd order Rook contiguity matrices. Multivariate statistical tests were used to evaluate the environmental signatures between clusters and non-clusters from the AMOEBA and Gi* tests. A logistic regression was used to define a risk surface for anthrax outbreaks and to compare agreement between clustering methodologies. Tests revealed differences in the spatial distribution of clusters as well as the total number of clusters in large ruminants for AMOEBA (n = 149 and for small ruminants (n = 9. In contrast, Gi* revealed fewer large ruminant clusters (n = 122 and more small ruminant clusters (n = 61. Significant environmental differences were found between groups using the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann- Whitney U tests. Logistic regression was used to model the presence/absence of anthrax outbreaks and define a risk surface for large ruminants to compare with cluster analyses. The model predicted 32.2% of the landscape as high risk. Approximately 75% of AMOEBA clusters corresponded to predicted high risk, compared with ~64% of Gi* clusters. In general, AMOEBA predicted more irregularly shaped clusters of outbreaks in both livestock groups, while Gi* tended to predict larger, circular clusters. Here we provide an evaluation of both tests and a discussion of the use of each to detect environmental conditions associated with anthrax outbreak clusters in domestic livestock. These findings illustrate important differences in spatial statistical methods for defining local clusters and highlight the importance of selecting appropriate levels of data aggregation.

  7. Analysing the spatial patterns of livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan in relation to environmental factors: a comparison of local (Gi*) and morphology cluster statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, Ian T; Blackburn, Jason K; Lukhnova, Larisa; Pazilov, Yerlan; Hugh-Jones, Martin E; Aikimbayev, Alim

    2012-11-01

    We compared a local clustering and a cluster morphology statistic using anthrax outbreaks in large (cattle) and small (sheep and goats) domestic ruminants across Kazakhstan. The Getis-Ord (Gi*) statistic and a multidirectional optimal ecotope algorithm (AMOEBA) were compared using 1st, 2nd and 3rd order Rook contiguity matrices. Multivariate statistical tests were used to evaluate the environmental signatures between clusters and non-clusters from the AMOEBA and Gi* tests. A logistic regression was used to define a risk surface for anthrax outbreaks and to compare agreement between clustering methodologies. Tests revealed differences in the spatial distribution of clusters as well as the total number of clusters in large ruminants for AMOEBA (n = 149) and for small ruminants (n = 9). In contrast, Gi* revealed fewer large ruminant clusters (n = 122) and more small ruminant clusters (n = 61). Significant environmental differences were found between groups using the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Logistic regression was used to model the presence/absence of anthrax outbreaks and define a risk surface for large ruminants to compare with cluster analyses. The model predicted 32.2% of the landscape as high risk. Approximately 75% of AMOEBA clusters corresponded to predicted high risk, compared with ~64% of Gi* clusters. In general, AMOEBA predicted more irregularly shaped clusters of outbreaks in both livestock groups, while Gi* tended to predict larger, circular clusters. Here we provide an evaluation of both tests and a discussion of the use of each to detect environmental conditions associated with anthrax outbreak clusters in domestic livestock. These findings illustrate important differences in spatial statistical methods for defining local clusters and highlight the importance of selecting appropriate levels of data aggregation.

  8. Analysing a large dataset on long-term monitoring of water quality and plankton with the SOM clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voutilainen A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Self-Organizing Map (SOM proved to be the method of choice for analysing a large heterogeneous ecological dataset. In addition to distributing the data into clusters, the SOM enabled hunting for correlations between the data components. This revealed logical and plausible relationships between and within the environment and groups of organisms. The main conclusions derived from the results were: (i the structure of early summer plankton community significantly differed from that of late summer community in Lake Pyhäselkä and (ii plankton community in late summer was characterized by two functional groups. The first group was formed mainly by phytoplankton, rotifers, and small cladocerans, such as Bosmina spp., and driven by water temperature. The second group was formed by small copepods and the abundant generalist herbivorous cladocerans Daphnia cristata and Limnosida frontosa, which, in turn, associated with chlorophyll a concentration. Biomasses of Bosmina spp. and D. cristata showed decreasing monotonic trends during a 20-year study period supposedly due to oligotrophication. Versatile possibilities to cluster data and hunt for correlations between data components offered by the SOM decisively helped to reveal associations across the original variables and draw conclusions. The results would have been undetectable solely on the basis of unorganised values.

  9. Time clustered sampling can inflate the inferred substitution rate in foot-and-mouth disease virus analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil Tingskov; Frandsen, Peter; Wekesa, Sabenzia N.;

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of analytical software for the inference of viral evolution, a number of studies have focused on estimating important parameters such as the substitution rate and the time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for rapidly evolving viruses. Coupled with an increasing...... through a study of the foot-and-mouth (FMD) disease virus serotypes SAT 1 and SAT 2. Our study shows that clustered temporal sampling in phylogenetic analyses of FMD viruses will strongly bias the inferences of substitution rates and tMRCA because the inferred rates in such data sets reflect a rate closer...... to the mutation rate rather than the substitution rate. Estimating evolutionary parameters from viral sequences should be performed with due consideration of the differences in short-term and longer-term evolutionary processes occurring within sets of temporally sampled viruses, and studies should carefully...

  10. Physiological reactivity to nonideographic virtual reality stimuli in veterans with and without PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Andrea K; Vincent, Ashley L; Jin, Alvin B; Pollack, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) currently is diagnosed via clinical interview in which subjective self reports of traumatic events and associated experiences are discussed with a mental health professional. The reliability and validity of diagnoses can be improved with the use of objective physiological measures. In this study, physiological activity was recorded from 58 male veterans (PTSD Diagnosis n = 16; Trauma Exposed/No PTSD Diagnosis: n = 23; No Trauma/No PTSD Diagnosis: n = 19) with and without PTSD and combat trauma exposure in response to emotionally evocative non-idiographic virtual reality stimuli. Statistically significant differences among the Control, Trauma, and PTSD groups were present during the viewing of two virtual reality videos. Skin conductance and interbeat interval features were extracted for each of ten video events (five events of increasing severity per video). These features were submitted to three stepwise discriminant function analyses to assess classification accuracy for Control versus Trauma, Control versus PTSD, and Trauma versus PTSD pairings of participant groups. Leave-one-out cross-validation classification accuracy was between 71 and 94%. These results are promising and suggest the utility of objective physiological measures in assisting with PTSD diagnosis.

  11. Finalizing PTSD in DSM-5: getting here from there and where to go next.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Matthew J

    2013-10-01

    The process that resulted in the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association; ) was empirically based and rigorous. There was a high threshold for any changes in any DSM-IV diagnostic criterion. The process is described in this article. The rationale is presented that led to the creation of the new chapter, "Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders," within the DSM-5 metastructure. Specific issues discussed about the DSM-5 PTSD criteria themselves include a broad versus narrow PTSD construct, the decisions regarding Criterion A, the evidence supporting other PTSD symptom clusters and specifiers, the addition of the dissociative and preschool subtypes, research on the new criteria from both Internet surveys and the DSM-5 field trials, the addition of PTSD subtypes, the noninclusion of complex PTSD, and comparisons between DSM-5 versus the World Health Association's forthcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) criteria for PTSD. The PTSD construct continues to evolve. In DSM-5, it has moved beyond a narrow fear-based anxiety disorder to include dysphoric/anhedonic and externalizing PTSD phenotypes. The dissociative subtype may open the way to a fresh approach to complex PTSD. The preschool subtype incorporates important developmental factors affecting the expression of PTSD in young children. Finally, the very different approaches taken by DSM-5 and ICD-11 should have a profound effect on future research and practice. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Management of trauma and PTSD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturer, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town and Consultant Psychiatrist, ... PTSD.[2,3] In the primary healthcare setting .... psychiatric history were more uniform .... trials support the use of selective serotonin.

  13. Sentiment analysis for PTSD signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Vadim; Sapounas, Demetrios

    2013-01-01

    This book describes a computational framework for real-time detection of psychological signals related to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in online text-based posts, including blogs and web forums. Further, it explores how emerging computational techniques such as sentiment mining can be used in real-time to identify posts that contain PTSD-related signals, flag those posts, and bring them to the attention of psychologists, thus providing an automated flag and referral capability.

  14. Symptom cluster analyses based on symptom occurrence and severity ratings among pediatric oncology patients during myelosuppressive chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Christina; Cooper, Bruce A; Marina, Neyssa; Matthay, Katherine K; Miaskowski, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Symptom cluster research is an emerging field in symptom management. The ability to identify symptom clusters that are specific to pediatric oncology patients may lead to improved understanding of symptoms' underlying mechanisms among patients of all ages. The purpose of this study, in a sample of children and adolescents with cancer who underwent a cycle of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, was to compare the number and types of symptom clusters identified using patients' ratings of symptom occurrence and symptom severity. Children and adolescents with cancer (10-18 years of age; N = 131) completed the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale 10-18 on the day they started a cycle of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, using a 1-week recall of experiences. Symptom data based on occurrence and severity ratings were examined using exploratory factor analysis. The defined measurement model suggested by the best exploratory factor analysis model was then examined with a latent variable analysis. Three clusters were identified when symptom occurrence ratings were evaluated, which were classified as a chemotherapy sequela cluster, mood disturbance cluster, and a neuropsychological discomfort cluster. Analysis of symptom severity ratings yielded similar cluster configurations. Cluster configurations remained relatively stable between symptom occurrence and severity ratings. The evaluation of patients at a common point in the chemotherapy cycle may have contributed to these findings. Additional uniformity in symptom clusters investigations is needed to allow appropriate comparisons among studies. The dissemination of symptom cluster research methodology through publication and presentation may promote uniformity in this field.

  15. Reduced anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal volumes in child abuse-related complex PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Kathleen; Dorrepaal, Ethy; Draijer, Nel; de Ruiter, Michiel B; van Balkom, Anton J; Smit, Johannes H; Veltman, Dick J

    2010-12-01

    Classic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with smaller hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes. We investigated whether child abuse-related complex PTSD--a severe form of PTSD with affect dysregulation and high comorbidity--showed similar brain volume reductions. We used voxel-based morphometry to measure gray matter concentrations in referred outpatients with child abuse-related complex PTSD (n = 31) compared to matched healthy nontraumatized controls (n = 28). Complex PTSD was diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR and the Structured Clinical Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress. All respondents were scanned on a 1.5-T magnetic resonance system at the VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, between September 2005 and February 2006. As was hypothesized, patients with child abuse-related complex PTSD showed reductions in gray matter concentration in right hippocampus (P(SVC corrected) = .04) and right dorsal ACC (P(SVC corrected) = .02) compared to controls. In addition, a reduction in gray matter concentration in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was found. Severity of child abuse and PTSD-hyperarousal correlated negatively with ACC volume. Impulsivity correlated negatively with hippocampus volume, and anger, with hippocampus and OFC volume. Comorbidity of borderline personality disorder--compared to comorbid cluster C personality disorder--accounted for more extensive reductions in the ACC and OFC volume. In complex PTSD, not only the hippocampus and the ACC but also the OFC seem to be affected, even in the absence of comorbid borderline personality disorder. These results suggest that neural correlates of complex PTSD are more severe than those of classic PTSD. © Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Beyond Exposure for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms: Broad-Spectrum PTSD Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Thomas W.; Gray, Matt J.

    2005-01-01

    Although cases of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with comorbid disorders are common, the first generation of PTSD treatment approaches, including exposure and cognitive-behavioral therapy, generally ignore symptoms beyond those specific to PTSD. Optimum PTSD treatment outcome requires more comprehensive strategies, and the development and…

  17. The psychobiology and psychopharmacology of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Kolk, Bessel A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the currently available knowledge about the psychobiology and psychopharmacology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It also reviews the various studies that have elucidated changes in brain function and structure in PTSD populations, including position emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and event-related potential (ERP) studies. It then reviews the literature on catecholamine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities in PTSD, and finally reviews the literature available on the psychopharmacology of PTSD. It discusses how the pathophysiology of PTSD determines the nature of psychopharmacological interventions. Psychopharmacological interventions in PTSD are largely limited to good studies on the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In order to effectively intervene in PTSD, studies of other psychopharmacological agents are necessary, specifically of agents which affect limbic activation, decreased frontal lobe functioning, altered HPA activity, and other biological features of PTSD. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history), a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive ...

  19. Type D personality and the development of PTSD symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Arthur R; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-05-01

    Psychological trauma and prolonged stress may cause mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma personality is an important determinant of posttraumatic adjustment. Specifically, trait neuroticism has been identified as a risk factor for PTSD. Additionally, the combination of high negative affectivity or neuroticism with marked social inhibition or introversion, also called Type D personality (Denollet, 2000), may compose a risk factor for PTSD. There is no research available that examined pretrauma Type D personality in relation to PTSD. The present study examined the predictive validity of the Type D personality construct in a sample of Dutch soldiers. Data were collected prior to and 6 months after military deployment to Afghanistan. Separate multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the predictive validity of Type D personality. First, Type D personality was defined as the interaction between negative affect and social inhibition (Na × Si). In a second analysis, Type D was defined following cutoff criteria recommended by Denollet (2000). Results showed that negative affectivity was a significant predictor of PTSD symptoms. Social inhibition and the interaction Na × Si did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, negative affectivity, and prior psychological symptoms. A second analysis showed that Type D personality (dichotomous) did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, and prior psychological symptoms. Therefore, Type D personality appears to be of limited value to explain development of combat-related PTSD symptoms.

  20. Differences in relationship conflict, attachment, and depression in treatment-seeking veterans with hazardous substance use, PTSD, or PTSD and hazardous substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gina P; Held, Philip; Blackburn, Laura; Auerbach, John S; Clark, Allison A; Herrera, Catherine J; Cook, Jerome; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-05-01

    Veterans (N = 133) who were seeking treatment in either the Posttraumatic Stress Program or Substance Use Disorders Program at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) and, based on self-report of symptoms, met clinical norms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or hazardous substance use (HSU) completed a survey related to relationship conflict behaviors, attachment styles, and depression severity. Participants were grouped into one of three categories on the basis of clinical norm criteria: PTSD only, HSU only, and PTSD + HSU. Participants completed the PTSD Checklist-Military, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Short Form, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, and Psychological Aggression and Physical Violence subscales of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Most participants were male and Caucasian. Significant differences were found between groups on depression, avoidant attachment, psychological aggression perpetration and victimization, and physical violence perpetration and victimization. Post hoc analyses revealed that the PTSD + HSU group had significantly higher levels of depression, avoidant attachment, and psychological aggression than the HSU only group. The PTSD + HSU group had significantly higher levels of physical violence than did the PTSD only group, but both groups had similar mean scores on all other variables. Potential treatment implications are discussed.

  1. PTSD contributes to teen and young adult cannabis use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Jack R; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen; Clark, Duncan B; Hayes, Jeanine; Tarter, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies involving adults suggest that Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) increases the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD) (cannabis dependence and cannabis abuse). However, little work with PTSD and CUD has been conducted involving adolescents, despite the fact that CUD typically have their onset during adolescence. This study addresses the effect of PTSD on CUD among teenagers transitioning to young adulthood. The subjects in this ongoing study were the offspring of adult men with a lifetime history of a substance use disorder (SUD) (SUD+probands, N=343) vs those with no lifetime history of a SUD (SUD-probands, N=350). The participants were initially recruited when the index sons of these fathers were 10-12 years of age, and subsequent assessments were conducted at age 12-14, 16, 19, 22, and 25. Other variables examined were an index of behavioral undercontrol associated with future risk for developing SUD, known as the Transmissible Liability Index, or TLI, and affiliation with deviant peers. Multivariate logistic regression and path analyses were conducted. Of these 693 subjects, 31 subjects were diagnosed with PTSD, and 161 were diagnosed with a CUD. The CUD subjects included 136 male participants and 25 female participants, including 103 (64%) Caucasian participants and 58 (36%) participants of other races. Logistic regression demonstrated that the development of a CUD was associated with deviance of peers (Wald=63.4, p=0.000), the TLI (Wald=28.8, p=0.000), African American race (Wald=14.2, p=0.000), PTSD (Wald=12.7, p=0.000), male gender (Wald=12.0, p=0.001), household SES (Wald=9.2, p=0.002), and being an offspring of a SUD+proband (Wald=6.9, p=0.009). Path analyses demonstrated that PTSD is directly associated with the presence of a CUD and with peer deviance, that higher peer deviance is associated with the presence of a CUD, and that PTSD mediated the association between peer deviance and CUD. These findings suggest that PTSD

  2. Strategies for Coping With Individual PTSD Symptoms: Experiences of African American Victims of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Tami P; Weiss, Nicole H; Price, Carolina; Pugh, Nicole; Hansen, Nathan B

    2017-05-08

    Understanding how populations at particular risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its deleterious outcomes cope with individual PTSD symptoms is critical to developing interventions that promote resilience, support recovery, and ultimately empower traumatized populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify specific strategies women use to cope with individual PTSD symptoms among a population at particular risk for experiencing trauma and its negative sequelae-African American victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) who use substances. This 30-day study included 107 African American women who reported experiencing current IPV and using a substance. During their follow-up interviews, women participated in a structured interview to retrospectively report on the strategies they typically used to cope with various PTSD symptoms during the 30-day period. Results of content analysis revealed that women used 19 different strategies to cope with symptoms (e.g., social support, substance use, electronic media, religious or spiritual coping), which varied as a function of the PTSD symptom experienced. Aggregating symptoms to the cluster level obscured the variability in strategies used to cope with individual symptoms. Findings are discussed in the context of the larger literature on coping and PTSD, specifically regarding (a) coping strategies that may be adaptive or maladaptive and (b) directions for future research that attend to experiences of individual PTSD symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Trauma and PTSD rates in an irish psychiatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fiona E; Hennessy, Eilis; Dooley, Barbara; Kelly, Brendan D; Ryan, Dermot A

    2013-01-01

    Although Western mental health services are increasingly finding themselves concerned with assisting traumatized individuals migrating from other countries, trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are under-detected and undiagnosed in psychiatric populations. This study examined and compared rates of traumatic experiences, frequency of traumatic events, trauma symptomatology levels, rates of torture, rates of PTSD and chart documentation of trauma and PTSD between (a) Irish and migrant service-users and (b) forced migrant and voluntary migrant service-users in Dublin, Ireland. Data were gathered from 178 psychiatric outpatients attending using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Revised Cambodian Version and the SCID-I/P. A substantial number of service-users had experienced at least one lifetime trauma (71.3%), and a high percentage of both the Irish (47.4%) and migrant groups (70.3%) of service-users had experienced two or more events. Overall, analyses comparing rates between Irish, forced migrant and voluntary migrant service-users found that forced migrants displayed more traumatic life events, posttraumatic symptoms, and higher levels of PTSD than their voluntary migrant and Irish counterparts, with over 50% experiencing torture prior to arrival in Ireland. The lifetime rate of PTSD in the overall sample was 15.7% but only 53.57% of cases were documented in patient charts. The results of this study are informative about the nature and extent of the problem of trauma and PTSD among migrant mental health service users as well as highlighting the under-detected levels of trauma among native-born service users.

  4. Evidence-based treatment for adult women with child abuse-related Complex PTSD: a quantitative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethy Dorrepaal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Effective first-line treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are well established, but their generalizability to child abuse (CA-related Complex PTSD is largely unknown. Method: A quantitative review of the literature was performed, identifying seven studies, with treatments specifically targeting CA-related PTSD or Complex PTSD, which were meta-analyzed, including variables such as effect size, drop-out, recovery, and improvement rates. Results: Only six studies with one or more cognitive behavior therapy (CBT treatment conditions and one with a present centered therapy condition could be meta-analyzed. Results indicate that CA-related PTSD patients profit with large effect sizes and modest recovery and improvement rates. Treatments which include exposure showed greater effect sizes especially in completers’ analyses, although no differential results were found in recovery and improvement rates. However, results in the subgroup of CA-related Complex PTSD studies were least favorable. Within the Complex PTSD subgroup, no superior effect size was found for exposure, and affect management resulted in more favorable recovery and improvement rates and less drop-out, as compared to exposure, especially in intention-to-treat analyses. Conclusion: Limited evidence suggests that predominantly CBT treatments are effective, but do not suffice to achieve satisfactory end states, especially in Complex PTSD populations. Moreover, we propose that future research should focus on direct comparisons between types of treatment for Complex PTSD patients, thereby increasing generalizability of results.

  5. PTSD and re-offending risk: the mediating role of worry and a negative perception of other people's support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Ardino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are mainly focused on victims of trauma. Very few studies explored the links between PTSD symptoms and re-offending risk in perpetrators of violence. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of PTSD symptoms on re-offending risk in prisoner populations with a focus on indirect effects of worry and a negative perception of other people’s support on the relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Methods: 75 prisoners (25 females, mean age: 44.36 years; 50 males, mean age: 34.7 years were assessed for exposure to child abuse and neglect, PTSD symptoms, worry, a negative perception of other people’s support and re-offending risk. Mediation analyses tested the indirect effects of worry and a negative perception of other people’s support on the relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Results: 72% participants presented PTSD symptoms and 30.7% were at risk of re-offending. Mediation analyses supported the hypothesis of a mediation pathway from PTSD to worry and a negative perception of other people’s support to an increased risk of re-offending. Conclusion: The results indicate that prisoners report high rates of PTSD symptoms; furthermore, they highlight an important relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Findings suggest that future research should test further the indirect effects of negative cognitive and emotional states on the relationship of PTSD and re-offending risk and explore more in depth the role of PTSD to assess and treat prisoners.

  6. DSM-5 Criteria and Its Implications for Diagnosing PTSD in Military Service Members and Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Welton, Randon S; Broderick, Pamela J; Correll, Terry L; Peirson, Ryan P

    2016-05-01

    This review addresses how changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria has the potential to affect the care and careers of those who have served in the military, where the diagnosis often determines fitness for duty and veterans' benefits. PTSD criteria changes were intended to integrate new knowledge acquired since previous DSM editions. Many believe the changes will improve diagnosis and treatment, but some worry these could have negative clinical, occupational, and legal consequences. We analyze the changes in classification, trauma definition, symptoms, symptom clusters, and subtypes and possible impacts on the military (e.g., over- and under-diagnosis, "drone" video exposure, subthreshold PTSD, and secondary PTSD). We also discuss critiques and proposals for future changes. Our objectives are to improve the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of those service members who have survived trauma and to improve policies related to the military mental healthcare and disability systems.

  7. Integrated Light Chemical Tagging Analyses of Seven M31 Outer Halo Globular Clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sakari, Charli M; Mackey, Dougal; Shetrone, Matthew D; Dotter, Aaron; Ferguson, Annette M N; Huxor, Avon

    2015-01-01

    Detailed chemical abundances are presented for seven M31 outer halo globular clusters (with projected distances from M31 greater than 30 kpc), as derived from high resolution integrated light spectra taken with the Hobby Eberly Telescope. Five of these clusters were recently discovered in the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS)---this paper presents the first determinations of integrated Fe, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, and Eu abundances for these clusters. Four of the target clusters (PA06, PA53, PA54, and PA56) are metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1.5), alpha-enhanced (though they are possibly less alpha-enhanced than Milky Way stars at the 1 sigma level), and show signs of star-to-star Na and Mg variations. The other three globular clusters (H10, H23, and PA17) are more metal rich, with metallicities ranging from [Fe/H] = -1.4 to -0.9. While H23 is chemically similar to Milky Way field stars, Milky Way globular clusters, and other M31 clusters, H10 and PA17 have moderately low [Ca/Fe], compared to Milky Way fi...

  8. Integrated Light Chemical Abundance Analyses of 7 M31 Outer Halo Globular Clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakari, Charli; Venn, Kim; Mackey, Dougal; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Dotter, Aaron L.; Wallerstein, George

    2015-01-01

    Detailed chemical abundances of globular clusters provide insight into the formation and evolution of galaxies and their globular cluster systems. This talk presents detailed chemical abundances for seven M31 outer halo globular clusters (with projected radii greater than 30 kpc), as derived from high resolution integrated light spectra. Five of these clusters were recently discovered in the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS). The integrated abundances show that 4 of these clusters are metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1.5) while the other 3 are more metal-rich. The most metal-poor globular clusters are α-enhanced, though 3 of the 4 are possibly less α-enhanced than MW stars (at the 1σ level). Other chemical abundance ratios ([Ba/Eu], [Eu/Ca], and [Ni/Fe]) are consistent with origins in low mass dwarf galaxies (similar to Fornax). The most metal-rich cluster ([Fe/H] ~ -1) stands out as being chemically distinct from Milky Way field stars of the same metallicity---its chemical abundance ratios agree best with the stars and clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal (Sgr) than with the Milky Way field stars. The other metal-rich clusters, H10 and H23, look similar to the LMC and Milky Way field stars in all abundance ratios. These results indicate that M31's outer halo is being at least partially built up by the accretion of dwarf satellites, in agreement with previous observations.

  9. Grapheme-color Synesthesia and PTSD: Preliminary Results from the Veterans Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stuart N.; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Erlich, Porat M.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered neuropsychological function, possibly including complex visual information processing. Grapheme-color synesthesia refers to the phenomenon that a particular letter or number elicits the visual perception of a specific color. The study objective was to assess if grapheme-color synesthesia was associated with PTSD among US veterans. Method We surveyed 700 veterans who were outpatients in a multi-hospital system in Pennsylvania. All veterans had served at least one warzone deployment. PTSD and grapheme-color synesthesia were assessed using a validated research instruments. Results The mean age of veterans was 59 and 96% were men. The prevalence of current PTSD was 7% (95% C.I. = 5.1–8.8) and current partial PTSD was 11% (95% C.I. = 9.3–14.0). The prevalence of current depression was 6% (95% C.I. = 4.7–8.3). Altogether, 6% (95% C.I. = 4.8–8.5) of veterans screened positive for grapheme-color synesthesia. Bivariate analyses suggested that grapheme-color synesthesia was associated with current PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, p = 0.004) and current partial PTSD (OR = 2.4, p = 0.013), but not current depression (OR = 1.1, p = 0.91). Multivariate logistic regression results, adjusting for age, gender, marital status, level of education, current psychotropic medication use, and concussion history, confirmed these results. Conclusion Grapheme-color synesthesia appears to be associated with PTSD among veterans who had been deployed. This finding may have implications for PTSD diagnostic screening and treatment. Research is recommended to confirm this finding and to determine if synesthesia is a risk indicator for PTSD among nonveterans. PMID:23115347

  10. Phylogenomic analyses of clostridia and identification of novel protein signatures that are specific to the genus Clostridium sensu stricto (cluster I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S; Gao, Beile

    2009-02-01

    The species of Clostridium comprise a very heterogeneous assemblage of bacteria that do not form a phylogenetically coherent group. It has been proposed previously that only a subset of the species of Clostridium that form a distinct cluster in the 16S rRNA tree (cluster I) should be regarded as the true representatives of the genus Clostridium (i.e. Clostridium sensu stricto). However, this cluster is presently defined only in phylogenetic terms, and no biochemical, molecular or phenotypic characteristic is known that is unique to species from this cluster. We report here phylogenomic and comparative analyses based on sequenced clostridial genomes in an attempt to bridge this gap and to clarify the evolutionary relationships among species of clostridia. In phylogenetic trees for species of clostridia based on concatenated sequences for 37 highly conserved proteins, the species of Clostridium cluster I formed a strongly supported clade that was separated from all other clostridia by a long branch. Several other Clostridium species that are not part of this cluster grouped reliably with other species of clostridia in a number of well-resolved clades. Our comparative genomic analyses have identified three conserved indels in three highly conserved proteins (a 4 aa insert in DNA gyrase A, a 1 aa deletion in ATP synthase beta subunit and a 1 aa insert in ribosomal protein S2) that are unique to the species of Clostridium cluster I and are not found in any other bacteria. blastp searches on various proteins in the genomes of Clostridium tetani E88 and Clostridium perfringens SM101 have also identified more than 10 proteins that are found uniquely in the cluster I species. These results provide evidence that the species of Clostridium cluster I not only are phylogenetically distinct but also share many unique molecular characteristics. These newly identified molecular markers provide useful tools to define and circumscribe the genus Clostridium sensu stricto in more

  11. SKA2 methylation is associated with decreased prefrontal cortical thickness and greater PTSD severity among trauma-exposed veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, N; Spielberg, J M; Logue, M W; Wolf, E J; Smith, A K; Lusk, J; Hayes, J P; Sperbeck, E; Milberg, W P; McGlinchey, R E; Salat, D H; Carter, W C; Stone, A; Schichman, S A; Humphries, D E; Miller, M W

    2016-03-01

    Methylation of the SKA2 (spindle and kinetochore-associated complex subunit 2) gene has recently been identified as a promising biomarker of suicide risk. Based on this finding, we examined associations between SKA2 methylation, cortical thickness and psychiatric phenotypes linked to suicide in trauma-exposed veterans. About 200 trauma-exposed white non-Hispanic veterans of the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (91% male) underwent clinical assessment and had blood drawn for genotyping and methylation analysis. Of all, 145 participants also had neuroimaging data available. Based on previous research, we examined DNA methylation at the cytosine-guanine locus cg13989295 as well as DNA methylation adjusted for genotype at the methylation-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7208505) in relationship to whole-brain cortical thickness, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Whole-brain vertex-wise analyses identified three clusters in prefrontal cortex that were associated with genotype-adjusted SKA2 DNA methylation (methylation(adj)). Specifically, DNA methylation(adj) was associated with bilateral reductions of cortical thickness in frontal pole and superior frontal gyrus, and similar effects were found in the right orbitofrontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus. PTSD symptom severity was positively correlated with SKA2 DNA methylation(adj) and negatively correlated with cortical thickness in these regions. Mediation analyses showed a significant indirect effect of PTSD on cortical thickness via SKA2 methylation status. Results suggest that DNA methylation(adj) of SKA2 in blood indexes stress-related psychiatric phenotypes and neurobiology, pointing to its potential value as a biomarker of stress exposure and susceptibility.

  12. Screening for PTSD among detained adolescents: Implications of the changes in the DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrowski, Crosby A; Bennett, Diana C; Chaplo, Shannon D; Kerig, Patricia K

    2017-01-01

    Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly relevant for youth involved in the juvenile justice system given their high rates of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms. However, to date, no studies have investigated the implications of the recent revisions to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (5th ed., DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) diagnostic criteria for PTSD for screening in this population. To this end, the present study compared PTSD screening rates using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev., DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2013) versus DSM-5 criteria in a group of detained adolescents. Participants included 209 youth (60 girls) aged 13-19 (M = 15.97, SD = 1.24). Youth completed measures of lifetime trauma exposure and past-month posttraumatic stress symptoms. Over 95% of youth in the sample reported exposure to at least 1 type of traumatic event. Approximately 19.60% of the sample screened positive for PTSD according to the DSM-5 compared to 17.70% according to the DSM-IV-TR. Girls were more likely than boys to screen positive for PTSD according to the DSM-IV-TR compared to the DSM-5. The main factors accounting for the differences in screening rates across the versions of PTSD criteria involved the removal of Criterion A2 from the DSM-5, the separation of avoidance symptoms (Criterion C) into their own cluster, the addition of a cluster involving negative alterations in cognitions and mood (Criterion D), and revisions to the cluster of arousal symptoms (Criterion E). Future research should continue to investigate gender differences in PTSD symptoms in youth and consider the implications of these diagnostic changes for the accurate diagnosis and referral to treatment of adolescents who demonstrate posttraumatic stress reactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Distinguishing PTSD, Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder: A latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylène Cloitre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been debate regarding whether Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD is distinct from Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD when the latter is comorbid with PTSD. Objective: To determine whether the patterns of symptoms endorsed by women seeking treatment for childhood abuse form classes that are consistent with diagnostic criteria for PTSD, Complex PTSD, and BPD. Method: A latent class analysis (LCA was conducted on an archival dataset of 280 women with histories of childhood abuse assessed for enrollment in a clinical trial for PTSD. Results: The LCA revealed four distinct classes of individuals: a Low Symptom class characterized by low endorsements on all symptoms; a PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD but low endorsement of symptoms that define the Complex PTSD and BPD diagnoses; a Complex PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD and self-organization symptoms that defined the Complex PTSD diagnosis but low on the symptoms of BPD; and a BPD class characterized by symptoms of BPD. Four BPD symptoms were found to greatly increase the odds of being in the BPD compared to the Complex PTSD class: frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, unstable sense of self, unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, and impulsiveness. Conclusions: Findings supported the construct validity of Complex PTSD as distinguishable from BPD. Key symptoms that distinguished between the disorders were identified, which may aid in differential diagnosis and treatment planning.

  14. Common paths to ASD and PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Wittmann, Lutz

    Numerous studies have investigated the prediction of acute and long term posttraumatic symptoms following traumatic exposure. As a result several factors have been shown to be predictive of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) respectively. Furthermore, research...... suggests a strong relationship between ASD severity and subsequent PTSD severity. However, little is known in relation to whether there are common pathways to the development of ASD and PTSD. Peritraumatic responses to trauma are found to be associated with both the development of ASD and PTSD. Although...... of peritraumatic factors such as symptoms of tonic immobility, panic, and dissociation on the development of ASD (N = 458) and PTSD (n = 378) symptoms in a national study of Danish bank robbery victims. The estimated ASD rate was 11.1 % (n = 41) and the estimated PTSD rate was 6.2 % (n = 23). The results...

  15. PTSD in Primary Care: A Physician’s Guide to Dealing with War-Induced PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    with mild TBI and ASD could be effectively treated with a brief CBT protocol designed to prevent development of PTSD . Impaired family functioning...7 PTSD in Primary Care: A Physician’s Guide to Dealing with War-Induced PTSD Jeffrey S. Yarvis1 and Grace D. Landers2 1Department of Psychiatry...stress disorder ( PTSD ), as defined in DSM IV-TR, is the most common and conspicuous psychiatric problem associated with the stress experienced by

  16. Avoidant symptoms in PTSD predict fear circuit activation during multimodal fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Rebecca K; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Convergent evidence suggests that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit exaggerated avoidance behaviors as well as abnormalities in Pavlonian fear conditioning. However, the link between the two features of this disorder is not well understood. In order to probe the brain basis of aberrant extinction learning in PTSD, we administered a multimodal classical fear conditioning/extinction paradigm that incorporated affectively relevant information from two sensory channels (visual and tactile) while participants underwent fMRI scanning. The sample consisted of fifteen OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD. In response to conditioned cues and contextual information, greater avoidance symptomatology was associated with greater activation in amygdala, hippocampus, vmPFC, dmPFC, and insula, during both fear acquisition and fear extinction. Heightened responses to previously conditioned stimuli in individuals with more severe PTSD could indicate a deficiency in safety learning, consistent with PTSD symptomatology. The close link between avoidance symptoms and fear circuit activation suggests that this symptom cluster may be a key component of fear extinction deficits in PTSD and/or may be particularly amenable to change through extinction-based therapies.

  17. Defining reference sequences for Nocardia species by similarity and clustering analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Helal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intra- and inter-species genetic diversity of bacteria and the absence of 'reference', or the most representative, sequences of individual species present a significant challenge for sequence-based identification. The aims of this study were to determine the utility, and compare the performance of several clustering and classification algorithms to identify the species of 364 sequences of 16S rRNA gene with a defined species in GenBank, and 110 sequences of 16S rRNA gene with no defined species, all within the genus Nocardia. METHODS: A total of 364 16S rRNA gene sequences of Nocardia species were studied. In addition, 110 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned only to the Nocardia genus level at the time of submission to GenBank were used for machine learning classification experiments. Different clustering algorithms were compared with a novel algorithm or the linear mapping (LM of the distance matrix. Principal Components Analysis was used for the dimensionality reduction and visualization. RESULTS: The LM algorithm achieved the highest performance and classified the set of 364 16S rRNA sequences into 80 clusters, the majority of which (83.52% corresponded with the original species. The most representative 16S rRNA sequences for individual Nocardia species have been identified as 'centroids' in respective clusters from which the distances to all other sequences were minimized; 110 16S rRNA gene sequences with identifications recorded only at the genus level were classified using machine learning methods. Simple kNN machine learning demonstrated the highest performance and classified Nocardia species sequences with an accuracy of 92.7% and a mean frequency of 0.578. CONCLUSION: The identification of centroids of 16S rRNA gene sequence clusters using novel distance matrix clustering enables the identification of the most representative sequences for each individual species of Nocardia and allows the quantitation of inter- and intra

  18. Review of group treatment for PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M. Sloan, PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a brief review of group treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. This review includes a description of group-based treatments for PTSD and the available data on the efficacy of group treatment for PTSD. The literature review indicates that group treatment for PTSD is efficacious compared with no treatment. However, specific types of group treatment are not efficacious when compared with a nonspecific group treatment, such as psychoeducation or supportive counseling. Recommendations for practice and research are made in light of the available literature.

  19. The use of principle component and cluster analyses to differentiate banana pulp flours based on starch and dietary fiber components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Saifullah Bin; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Yong, Yeoh Shin; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    Flour prepared from green and ripe Cavendish and Dream banana fruits were assessed for total starch, digestible starch, resistant starch, total dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber. Principle component analysis identified only one component responsible for explaining 83.83% of the total variance in the starch and dietary fiber components data to indicate that ripe banana flour had different characteristics from the green. Cluster analysis applied on similar data obtained two statistically significant clusters of green and ripe banana to indicate difference in behaviors according to the stages of ripeness. In conclusion, starch and dietary fiber components could be used to discriminate between flour prepared from fruits of different stage of ripeness. Results are also suggestive of the potential of green as well as the ripe banana flour as functional ingredients in food.

  20. Quantitative binomial distribution analyses of nanoscale like-solute atom clustering and segregation in atom probe tomography data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Michael P; Stephenson, Leigh T; Ceguerra, Anna V; Ringer, Simon P

    2008-07-01

    The applicability of the binomial frequency distribution is outlined for the analysis of the evolution nanoscale atomic clustering of dilute solute in an alloy subject to thermal ageing in 3D atom probe data. The conventional chi(2) statistics and significance testing are demonstrated to be inappropriate for comparison of quantity of solute segregation present in two or more different sized system. Pearson coefficient, mu, is shown to normalize chi(2) with respect to sample size over an order of magnitude. A simple computer simulation is implemented to investigate the binomial analysis and infer meaning in the measured value of mu over a series of systems at different solute concentrations and degree of clustering. The simulations replicate the form of experimental data and demonstrate the effect of detector efficiency to significantly underestimate the measured segregation. The binomial analysis is applied to experimental atom probe data sets and complementary simulations are used to interpret the results.

  1. Incidence analyses and space-time cluster detection of hepatitis C in Fujian Province of China from 2006 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunquan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is limited epidemiologic information about the incidence of hepatitis C in China, and few studies have applied space-time scan statistic to detect clusters of hepatitis C and made adjustment for temporal trend and relative risk of regions. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the temporal changes and characteristics of incidence of hepatitis C in Fujian Province from 2006 through 2010. The discrete Poisson model of space-time scan statistic was chosen for cluster detection. Data on new cases of hepatitis C were obtained from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Fujian Province. Between 2006 and 2010, there was an annualized increase in the incidence of hepatitis C of 23.0 percent, from 928 cases (2.63 per 100,000 persons to 2,180 cases (6.01 per 100,000 persons. The incidence among women increased more rapidly. The cumulative incidence showed that people who were over 60 years had the highest risk to suffer hepatitis C (52.51 per 100,000 persons, and women had lower risk compared to men (OR=0.69. Putian had the highest cumulative incidence among all the regions (86.95 per 100,000 persons. The most likely cluster was identified in Putian during March to August in 2009 without adjustment, but it shifted to three contiguous cities with a two-month duration after adjustment for temporal trend and relative risk of regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The incidence of hepatitis C is increasing in Fujian Province, and women are at a more rapid pace. The space-time scan statistic is useful as a screening tool for clusters of hepatitis C, with adjustment for temporal trend and relative risk of regions recommended.

  2. CLASH-VLT: constraints on f(R) gravity models with galaxy clusters using lensing and kinematic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Amendola, L.; Borgani, S.; Biviano, A.; Umetsu, K.; Mercurio, A.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Caminha, G. B.; Girardi, M.; Grillo, C.; Nonino, M.

    2017-07-01

    We perform a maximum likelihood kinematic analysis of the two dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters MACS J1206.2-0847 at z=0.44 and RXC J2248.7-4431 at z=0.35 to determine the total mass profile in modified gravity models, using a modified version of the MAMPOSSt code of Mamon, Biviano and Bou&apose. Our work is based on the kinematic and lensing mass profiles derived using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (hereafter CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (hereafter CLASH-VLT). We assume a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW hereafter) profile in order to obtain a constraint on the fifth force interaction range λ for models in which the dependence of this parameter on the environment is negligible at the scale considered (i.e. λ=const) and fixing the fifth force strength to the value predicted in f(R) gravity. We then use information from lensing analysis to put a prior on the other NFW free parameters. In the case of MACSJ 1206 the joint kinematic+lensing analysis leads to an upper limit on the effective interaction range λdistribution. For RXJ 2248 instead a possible tension with the ΛCDM model appears when adding lensing information, with a lower limit λ>=0.14 mpc at Δχ2=2.71. This is consequence of the slight difference between the lensing and kinematic data, appearing in GR for this cluster, that could in principle be explained in terms of modifications of gravity. We discuss the impact of systematics and the limits of our analysis as well as future improvements of the results obtained. This work has interesting implications in view of upcoming and future large imaging and spectroscopic surveys, that will deliver lensing and kinematic mass reconstruction for a large number of galaxy clusters.

  3. Comparison of KENO-VI and MCNP5 Criticality Analyses for a Lunar Regolith Clustered-Reactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, John Darrell

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Clustered-Reactor System design has been presented as an alternative method for providing surface power to a lunar facility using a fast-fission, heatpipe-cooled nuclear reactor. The reactor system is divided into subcritical units that can be safely launched into orbit without risk of inadvertent criticality in the event of a launch accident. The reactor subunits are emplaced into the lunar surface to form a clustered-reactor system, utilizing the regolith as both radiation shielding and neutron-reflector material. Coordinated placement of multiple subunits can provision a critical reactor system proportional to localized lunar surface power demand. Reactor units assembled using proven and tested materials in radiation environments such as UO2 fuel, stainless-steel cladding and support, and compatible liquid-metal heatpipes promote safety and reliability, with ease of manufacture and testing. Reactor power levels of approximately 100 kWth per subunit significantly reduces the negative effects of elevated temperature and radiation environments associated with single nuclear power reactors operated at higher power levels. The analysis of subunit criticality in various accident scenarios differs by up to 4% (~$6 in reactivity) between results generated using conventional criticality analysis codes, MCNP5 and KENO-VI. A demonstrated trend exists between results of the two criticality codes as accident conditions approach a multiplication factor of one. Code comparison of a tri-cluster system on the lunar surface provides comparable results with calculated system reactivity within 0.5%. Iron concentration is confirmed as the dominant element in the lunar regolith influencing system reactivity.

  4. Identifying Unique Neighborhood Characteristics to Guide Health Planning for Stroke and Heart Attack: Fuzzy Cluster and Discriminant Analyses Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Ashley; Seaver, William; Odoi, Agricola

    2011-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic factors are known determinants of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) risk. Clustering of these factors in neighborhoods needs to be taken into consideration during planning, prioritization and implementation of health programs intended to reduce disparities. Given the complex and multidimensional nature of these factors, multivariate methods are needed to identify neighborhood clusters of these determinants so as to better understand the unique neighborhood profiles. This information is critical for evidence-based health planning and service provision. Therefore, this study used a robust multivariate approach to classify neighborhoods and identify their socio-demographic characteristics so as to provide information for evidence-based neighborhood health planning for stroke and MI. Methods and Findings The study was performed in East Tennessee Appalachia, an area with one of the highest stroke and MI risks in USA. Robust principal component analysis was performed on neighborhood (census tract) socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, obtained from the US Census, to reduce the dimensionality and influence of outliers in the data. Fuzzy cluster analysis was used to classify neighborhoods into Peer Neighborhoods (PNs) based on their socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Nearest neighbor discriminant analysis and decision trees were used to validate PNs and determine the characteristics important for discrimination. Stroke and MI mortality risks were compared across PNs. Four distinct PNs were identified and their unique characteristics and potential health needs described. The highest risk of stroke and MI mortality tended to occur in less affluent PNs located in urban areas, while the suburban most affluent PNs had the lowest risk. Conclusions Implementation of this multivariate strategy provides health planners useful information to better understand and effectively plan for the unique

  5. Extended clustering analyses to constrain the deflection angular scale and source density of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Decerprit, Guillaume; Parizot, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    The search of a clustering signal in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) is a standard method to assess the level of anisotropy of the data sets under investigation. Here, we first show how to quantify the sensitivity of a UHECR detector to the detection of anisotropy, and then propose a new method that pushes forward the study of the two-point auto-correlation function, enabling one to put astrophysically meaningful constraints on both the effective UHECR source density and the angular deflections that these charged particles suffer while they propagate through the galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields. We apply the method to simulated data sets obtained under various astrophysical conditions, and show how the input model parameters can be estimated through our analysis, introducing the notion of "clustering similarity" (between data sets), to which we give a precise statistical meaning. We also study how the constraining power of the method is influenced by the size of the ...

  6. Unsupervised clustering analyses of features extraction for a caries computer-assisted diagnosis using dental fluorescence images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessani, Michel; da Costa, Mardoqueu M.; Lins, Emery C. C. C.; Maciel, Carlos D.

    2014-02-01

    Computer-assisted diagnoses (CAD) are performed by systems with embedded knowledge. These systems work as a second opinion to the physician and use patient data to infer diagnoses for health problems. Caries is the most common oral disease and directly affects both individuals and the society. Here we propose the use of dental fluorescence images as input of a caries computer-assisted diagnosis. We use texture descriptors together with statistical pattern recognition techniques to measure the descriptors performance for the caries classification task. The data set consists of 64 fluorescence images of in vitro healthy and carious teeth including different surfaces and lesions already diagnosed by an expert. The texture feature extraction was performed on fluorescence images using RGB and YCbCr color spaces, which generated 35 different descriptors for each sample. Principal components analysis was performed for the data interpretation and dimensionality reduction. Finally, unsupervised clustering was employed for the analysis of the relation between the output labeling and the diagnosis of the expert. The PCA result showed a high correlation between the extracted features; seven components were sufficient to represent 91.9% of the original feature vectors information. The unsupervised clustering output was compared with the expert classification resulting in an accuracy of 96.88%. The results show the high accuracy of the proposed approach in identifying carious and non-carious teeth. Therefore, the development of a CAD system for caries using such an approach appears to be promising.

  7. Pharmacotherapy treatment of PTSD and comorbid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica

    2009-09-01

    Comorbity is very high in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. PTSD is very often complicated with depressive disorder, substance abuse, other anxiety disorders, personality disorders, psychotic features, etc. There have been few pharmacotherapy studies in this complicated field. In the past few years the literature on pharmacotherapy treatment for PTSD and comorbidity has arisen. From empirical evidence (level A) exist three sertraline studies in PTSD comorbid with: 1) anxiety, 2) depression, and 3) anxiety and depression, and one risperidone study in PTSD comorbid with psychotic symptoms. From empirical evidence (level B) exist two disulfiram, naltrexone, and their combination studies in patients with PTSD comorbid with alcohol dependence and one paroxetine or bupropion versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus community mental health referral study in PTSD women outpatients with major depressive disorder. The results from our label trials in the Croatian war veterans with chronic PTSD comorbid with psychotic features treated with novel antipsychotics (olanzapine, risperidone, or quetiapine) are promising. In the future more rigorously designed, comparative studies are needed to determine the usefulness, efficacy, tolerability, and safety of particular psychopharmaceutical drugs in the treatment of this therapeutically and functionally challenging disorder, especially the trials from level A.

  8. Recovery from PTSD following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Berglund, Patricia; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2011-06-01

    We examined patterns and correlates of speed of recovery of estimated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people who developed PTSD in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. A probability sample of prehurricane residents of areas affected by Hurricane Katrina was administered a telephone survey 7-19 months following the hurricane and again 24-27 months posthurricane. The baseline survey assessed PTSD using a validated screening scale and assessed a number of hypothesized predictors of PTSD recovery that included sociodemographics, prehurricane history of psychopathology, hurricane-related stressors, social support, and social competence. Exposure to posthurricane stressors and course of estimated PTSD were assessed in a follow-up interview. An estimated 17.1% of respondents had a history of estimated hurricane-related PTSD at baseline and 29.2% by the follow-up survey. Of the respondents who developed estimated hurricane-related PTSD, 39.0% recovered by the time of the follow-up survey with a mean duration of 16.5 months. Predictors of slow recovery included exposure to a life-threatening situation, hurricane-related housing adversity, and high income. Other sociodemographics, history of psychopathology, social support, social competence, and posthurricane stressors were unrelated to recovery from estimated PTSD. The majority of adults who developed estimated PTSD after Hurricane Katrina did not recover within 18-27 months. Delayed onset was common. Findings document the importance of initial trauma exposure severity in predicting course of illness and suggest that pre- and posttrauma factors typically associated with course of estimated PTSD did not influence recovery following Hurricane Katrina. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. A systematic literature review of PTSD's latent structure in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV to DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Műllerová, Jana; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-03-01

    The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been widely researched, but consensus regarding the exact number and nature of factors is yet to be reached. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the extant literature on PTSD's latent structure in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in order to identify the best-fitting model. One hundred and twelve research papers published after 1994 using confirmatory factor analysis and DSM-based measures of PTSD were included in the review. In the DSM-IV literature, four-factor models received substantial support, but the five-factor Dysphoric arousal model demonstrated the best fit, regardless of gender, measurement instrument or trauma type. The recently proposed DSM-5 PTSD model was found to be a good representation of PTSD's latent structure, but studies analysing the six- and seven-factor models suggest that the DSM-5 PTSD factor structure may need further alterations.

  10. Support for the 7-factor hybrid model of PTSD in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligowski, Antonia V; Orcutt, Holly K

    2016-03-01

    Research suggests that 4-factor models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be improved upon by the addition of novel factors, such as Dysphoric Arousal, Externalizing Behaviors, and Anhedonia. However, a novel 7-factor hybrid model has demonstrated superior fit in veteran and undergraduate samples. The current study sought to replicate this finding in a trauma-exposed community sample and examined relations with positive (PA) and negative affect (NA). Participants included 403 adults (M(age) = 37.75) recruited through Amazon's MTurk. PTSD was measured using the PTSD Checklist-5 (PCL-5). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted in Mplus. The 7-factor hybrid model demonstrated good fit: CFI = .96, TLI = .95, RMSEA = .06 (90% CI [.05, .07]), SRMR = .03. This model was superior to the 5- and 6-factor models. All factors demonstrated significant relations with PA and NA, the largest of which were the Externalizing Behaviors (with NA) and Anhedonia (with PA) factors. Results provide support for the 7-factor hybrid model of PTSD using the PCL-5 in a community sample. Findings replicate previous research suggesting that PTSD is highly related to NA, which has been purported as an underlying dimension of PTSD. It is recommended that future research use clinical measures to further examine the hybrid model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Validation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD using the International Trauma Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, P; Shevlin, M; Brewin, C R; Cloitre, M; Downes, A J; Jumbe, S; Karatzias, T; Bisson, J I; Roberts, N P

    2017-09-01

    The 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) has proposed two related trauma diagnoses: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). Using a newly developed, disorder-specific measure of PTSD and CPTSD called the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) the current study will (i) assess the factorial validity of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD; (ii) provide the first test of the discriminant validity of these constructs; and (iii) provide the first comparison of ICD-11, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), PTSD diagnostic rates using disorder-specific measures. ICD-11 and DSM-5 PTSD-specific measures were completed by a British clinical sample of trauma-exposed patients (N = 171). The structure and validity of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD were assessed by means of factor analysis and assessing relationships with criterion variables. Diagnostic rates under ICD-11 were significantly lower than those under DSM-5. A two-factor second-order model reflecting the distinction between PTSD and CPTSD best represented the data from the ITQ; and the PTSD and CPTSD factors differentially predicted multiple psychological variables. The factorial and discriminant validity of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD was supported, and ICD-11 produces fewer diagnostic cases than DSM-5. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. PTSD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abuse. Loss. Pain. In South Africa, trauma has been described as a regular occurrence and ... as a condition of memory impairment3 that manifests only in psycho-genetically ... of both trauma and its long term sequelae. A brief overview of the ...

  13. PTSD in Depressed Mothers in Home Visitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T.; Putnam, Frank W.; Chard, Kathleen M.; Stevens, Jack; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that mothers participating in home visitation programs have a high incidence of mental health problems, particularly depression. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common comorbidity with depression, yet its prevalence among home visiting populations and implications for parenting and maternal functioning have not been examined. This study contrasted depressed mothers with (n = 35) and without PTSD (n = 55) who were enrolled in a home visitation program. Results indicated that depressed mothers with comorbid PTSD were more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse, had greater severity of depressive symptoms, increased social isolation, and lower overall functioning than their counterparts without PTSD. Among PTSD mothers, greater severity of PTSD symptoms, in particular avoidance and emotional numbness, were associated with increased maternal psychopathology and parenting deficits even after controlling for depression severity. These findings add to the literature documenting the negative impacts of PTSD on maternal functioning and parenting. Implications for screening and treatment in the context of home visitation are discussed. PMID:24307928

  14. Comparing the dimensional structure and diagnostic algorithms between DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Cedric; Berliner, Lucy; Holt, Tonje; Jensen, Tine; Jungbluth, Nathaniel; Risch, Elizabeth; Rosner, Rita; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2017-07-31

    In contrast to the DSM-5, which expanded the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom profile to 20 symptoms, a workgroup of the upcoming ICD-11 suggested a reduced symptom profile with six symptoms for PTSD. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the dimensional structure of DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD in a clinical sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents and to compare the diagnostic rates of PTSD between diagnostic systems. The study sample consisted of 475 self-reports and 424 caregiver-reports on the child and adolescent trauma screen (CATS), which were collected at pediatric mental health clinics in the US, Norway and Germany. The factor structure of the PTSD construct as defined in the DSM-5 and in alternative models of both DSM-5 and ICD-11 was investigated using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). To evaluate differences in PTSD prevalence, McNemar's tests for correlated proportions were used. CFA results demonstrated excellent model fit for the proposed ICD-11 model of PTSD. For the DSM-5 models we found the best fit for the hybrid model. Diagnostic rates were significantly lower according to ICD-11 (self-report: 23.4%; caregiver-report: 16.5%) compared with the DSM-5 (self-report: 37.8%; caregiver-report: 31.8%). Agreement was low between diagnostic systems. Study findings provide support for an alternative latent dimensionality of DSM-5 PTSD in children and adolescents. The conceptualization of ICD-11 PTSD shows an excellent fit. Inconsistent PTSD constructs and significantly diverging diagnostic rates between DSM-5 and the ICD-11 will result in major challenges for researchers and clinicians in the field of psychotraumatology.

  15. Psychometric properties of the child PTSD checklist in a community sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Boyes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the basic psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Checklist and examined the structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in a large sample of South African youth. METHODOLOGY: The checklist was completed by 1025 (540 male; 485 female South African youth (aged between 10 and 19 years. The factor structure of the scale was assessed with a combination of confirmatory and exploratory techniques. Internal consistencies for the full scale and all subscales were evaluated with Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Validity was assessed by comparing PTSD scores obtained by children who had and had not experienced a traumatic event, and by examining associations between total PTSD scores and known correlates of PTSD. RESULTS: Scores on the Child PTSD Checklist clearly discriminated between youth who had experienced a traumatic event and those who had not. Internal consistencies for the full scale (and all subscales were acceptable to good and hypothesized correlations between PTSD, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and age were observed. Two of the reported fit statistics for the tripartite DSM-IV-TR model of PTSD did not meet traditional criteria and further exploratory analyses revealed a four-factor structure (broadly consistent with Simms and colleagues' Dysphoria Model of PTSD symptoms which provided a better fit to the observed data. CONCLUSION: Given the continued use of the Child PTSD Checklist in South Africa, findings offer an important first step in establishing the reliability and validity of the checklist for use with South African youth. However, further evaluation of the checklist in South African samples is clearly required before conclusions regarding its use as diagnostic tool in this context can be made.

  16. Comparative phylogenomics and multi-gene cluster analyses of the Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB-associated bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Civerolo Edwin L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huanglongbing (HLB, previously known as citrus greening, is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter species and is a serious threat to citrus production world-wide. The pathogen is a Gram negative, unculturable, phloem-limited bacterium with limited known genomic information. Expanding the genetic knowledge of this organism may provide better understanding of the pathogen and possibly develop effective strategies for control and management of HLB. Results Here, we report cloning and characterization of an additional 14.7 Kb of new genomic sequences from three different genomic regions of the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las. Sequence variation analyses among the available Ca. Liberibacter species sequences as well as the newly cloned 1.5 Kb of rpoB gene from different Ca. Liberibacter strains have identified INDELs and SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced protein sequences from the cloned regions characterizes the HLB-associated Candidatus Liberibacter as a new clade in the sub-division of the α-proteobacteria. Conclusion Comparative analyses of the cloned gene regions of Candidatus Liberibacter with members of the order Rhizobiales suggest overall gene structure and order conservation, albeit with minor variations including gene decay due to the identified pseudogenes. The newly cloned gene regions contribute to our understanding of the molecular aspects of genomic evolution of Ca. Liberibacter.

  17. Common paths to ASD and PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Wittmann, Lutz

    Numerous studies have investigated the prediction of acute and long term posttraumatic symptoms following traumatic exposure. As a result several factors have been shown to be predictive of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) respectively. Furthermore, research...... of peritraumatic factors such as symptoms of tonic immobility, panic, and dissociation on the development of ASD (N = 458) and PTSD (n = 378) symptoms in a national study of Danish bank robbery victims. The estimated ASD rate was 11.1 % (n = 41) and the estimated PTSD rate was 6.2 % (n = 23). The results...

  18. Stratification and analysis of housing indicators of rural areas of Isfahan province using factor and cluster analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Seidaiy

    2013-01-01

    : market economy and planned economy. In view of market economy, housing problems are solved through the market mechanisms and housing needs are provided by private sector (Chadwick, 1987:88, Ziyari, et al., 210:4. In planned economy government has the role of planner, designer and manager (Aghasi, 1996:201, Chadwick, 1987:88, Shucksmith, 2003:213. In Islam's ideological system the importance of housing is as far as that the housing provision is considered as one of the bases of economic independency, and eradication of poverty in the society.3– DiscussionTo evaluate and analyze the housing indicators in the rural areas of Isfahan province, first data and the related variables are collected and based on them the desired indicators are obtained (Table-1; then, in line with goals of research, we will go through the following steps:Analysis of housing situation in rural areas of Isfahan province by using housing indicators,Determining effective factors in improving housing indicators,And stratification of rural areas based on these indicators.Applying statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster analysis, analysis of indicators and prioritization of rural areas of the province are performed. Table 1: Housing IndicatorsROWindicatorsROWindicators1The population of rural areas12The average of infrastructure lifetime2The number of households13The share of households that have a minimum electricity4The family size14The share of households that have a minimum telephone4The number of residential units,15The share of households that have a minimum water piping5The household density in residential units16The share of households that have a minimum gas piping6The density of people in residential units17The share of households that have a minimum central heating and cooling system7The housing shortages18The share of households that have a minimum kitchen8The average of number of rooms in the household19The share of households that have a minimum bathroom9The average of number

  19. PTSD in older bereaved people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2010-01-01

    bereaved elderly people compared to married controls and to investigate whether the loss of a spouse in old age, in contrast with earlier assumptions, could lead to PTSD. Two hundred and ninety six Danish elderly bereaved people (mean age 73 years, 113 males) were chosen from national registers and were...... subsequently assessed two months post-bereavement. They were compared with a control group of 276 married elderly people. The prevalence of PTSD and depression were measured through a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that 16% of the bereaved and 4% of the control group had a PTSD diagnosis (ES=.35......; Cohen's d=.74). It was also concluded that 37% of the bereaved and 22% of the control group had mild to severe depression (ES=.19; Cohen's d=.37). The results suggested that late life spousal bereavement, in some cases, does result in PTSD, and that the disorder is as common in elderly bereaved people...

  20. PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking on your PTSD symptoms. As noted above, alcohol can affect sleep, anger and irritability, anxiety, depression, and work or relationship problems. Treatment should include education, therapy, and support ...

  1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... relevant brain structures, biological or genetic traits, and psychosocial factors. Some examples include: In 2009, NIH-funded ... the optimal time to begin exposure therapy after trauma exposure to prevent the development of PTSD. This ...

  2. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales.

  3. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.

    1985-08-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references.

  4. Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Kaysen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history, a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms, they were more likely to drink. For a 2 SD increase in symptoms, there was a 5% increased likelihood of drinking, and for a 2 SD increase in dysphoric symptoms or negative affect, women drank approximately half drink less. Daily-level coping self-efficacy moderated the association between distress and drinking (IRR=0.91, p<0.01. Women who reported less coping drank more as their distress increased on a certain day whereas women who reported more coping drank about the same regardless of distress. Overall, findings suggest that specific PTSD symptoms are associated with higher alcohol use and that these relationships are moderated by daily coping self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for informing models of PTSD/AUD comorbidity, as well as clinical implications will be discussed.

  5. Application of cluster and discriminant analyses to diagnose lithological heterogeneity of the parent material according to its particle-size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giniyatullin, K. G.; Valeeva, A. A.; Smirnova, E. V.

    2017-08-01

    Particle-size distribution in soddy-podzolic and light gray forest soils of the Botanical Garden of Kazan Federal University has been studied. The cluster analysis of data on the samples from genetic soil horizons attests to the lithological heterogeneity of the profiles of all the studied soils. It is probable that they are developed from the two-layered sediments with the upper colluvial layer underlain by the alluvial layer. According to the discriminant analysis, the major contribution to the discrimination of colluvial and alluvial layers is that of the fraction >0.25 mm. The results of canonical analysis show that there is only one significant discriminant function that separates alluvial and colluvial sediments on the investigated territory. The discriminant function correlates with the contents of fractions 0.05-0.01, 0.25-0.05, and >0.25 mm. Classification functions making it possible to distinguish between alluvial and colluvial sediments have been calculated. Statistical assessment of particle-size distribution data obtained for the plow horizons on ten plowed fields within the garden indicates that this horizon is formed from colluvial sediments. We conclude that the contents of separate fractions and their ratios cannot be used as a universal criterion of the lithological heterogeneity. However, adequate combination of the cluster and discriminant analyses makes it possible to give a comprehensive assessment of the lithology of soil samples from data on the contents of sand and silt fractions, which considerably increases the information value and reliability of the results.

  6. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). IX. The dual origin of low-mass cluster galaxies as revealed by new structural analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Morishita, Takahiro; Treu, Tommaso; Vulcani, Benedetta; Schmidt, Kasper B; Dressler, Alan; Poggianti, Bianca; Malkan, Matthew A; Wang, Xin; Huang, Kuang-Han; Trenti, Michele; Bradac, Marusa; Hoag, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Using deep Hubble Frontier Field imaging and slitless spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space, we analyze 2200 cluster and 1748 field galaxies at $0.2\\leq z\\leq0.7$ to determine the impact of environment on galaxy size and structure at $\\log M_*/M_\\odot>7.8$, an unprecedented limit at these redshifts. Based on both simple--$r_e= f(M_*)$--and more complex analyses--$r_e = f(M_*, C, n, z,\\Sigma)$--we find local density ($\\Sigma$) to induce a $7\\%\\pm3\\%$ ($95\\%$ confidence) reduction in half-light radii ($r_e$) beyond what can be accounted for by stellar mass ($M_*$), $U-V$ color ($C$), S\\'ersic index ($n$), and redshift ($z$) effects. Almost any size difference between galaxies in high- and low-density regions is thus attributable to their different distributions in properties other than environment. Yet, we do find a clear correlation between $U-V$ color and $r_{e}$ in low-mass red cluster galaxies ($\\log M_*/M_\\odot<9.8$) such that bluer systems are larger, with the bluest having sizes...

  7. Dhurrin metabolism in the developing grain of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench investigated by metabolite profiling and novel clustering analyses of time-resolved transcriptomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Janniche; Stuart, Peter; Pičmanová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Background: The important cereal crop Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench biosynthesize and accumulate the defensive compound dhurrin during development. Previous work has suggested multiple roles for the compound including a function as nitrogen storage/buffer. Crucial for this function is the endogenous...... turnover of dhurrin for which putative pathways have been suggested but not confirmed. Results: In this study, the biosynthesis and endogenous turnover of dhurrin in the developing sorghum grain was studied by metabolite profiling and time-resolved transcriptome analyses. Dhurrin was found to accumulate...... in dhurrin content in the course of grain maturationrepresents the operation of hitherto uncharacterized endogenous dhurrin turnover pathways. Evidence for theoperation of two such pathways was obtained by metabolite profiling and time-resolved transcriptome analysis. By combining cluster- and phylogenetic...

  8. Parameterization and Observability Analysis of Scalable Battery Clusters for Onboard Thermal Management Paramétrage et analyse d’observabilité de clusters de batteries de taille variable pour une gestion thermique embarquée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xinfan

    2013-03-01

    paramétrage en ligne et un observateur adaptatif sont conçus pour une batterie cylindrique. Le modèle thermique à une seule cellule est ensuite agrandi afin de créer un modèle de cluster de batteries dans le but d’étudier le schéma de température du cluster. Les interconnexions thermiques modélisées entre les cellules incluent la conduction de chaleur de cellule à cellule et la convection au flux du liquide de refroidissement environnant. Une analyse d’observabilité est effectuée sur le cluster avant la conception, pour le pack, d’un observateur en boucle fermée. Sur la base de l’analyse, les lignes directrices permettant la détermination du nombre minimal de sondes requises et leurs positionnements exacts sont déduites permettant d’assurer l’observabilité de tous les états thermiques.

  9. Predicting Child Ptsd: The Relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and PTSD in Injured Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Winston, Flaura Koplin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in injured children and to evaluate the utility of ASD as a predictor of PTSD. Method: Children hospitalized for injuries sustained in a traffic crash were enrolled in a prospective study. ASD was assessed in 243 children within 1 month…

  10. Clinical phenomenology of childhood abuse-related complex PTSD in a population of female patients: patterns of personality disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Smit, Johannes H; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan; Veltman, Dick J; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Draijer, Nel

    2012-01-01

    Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves a variety of personality disturbances presumed to result from repeated interpersonal trauma such as child abuse. As Complex PTSD patients are a heterogeneous population, we searched for clinically relevant personality-based subtypes. This study used a cluster analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Axis II features within a sample of 71 female outpatients with systematically assessed child abuse-related Complex PTSD. Two main subtypes were found: adaptive and nonadaptive. The latter was further differentiated into withdrawn, alienated, suffering, and aggressive subtypes, characterized by different levels of introversion and disinhibition. Among the nonadaptive subtypes, the severity of Complex PTSD symptoms was lowest in the withdrawn (introverted only) subtype. The subtypes differed in their level of dissociation and depression but did not differ regarding PTSD symptoms, trauma history, or parental bonding characteristics. Confirming earlier findings, our study found personality-based Complex PTSD subtypes, which could implicate differential treatment needs and results.

  11. Exposure to prolonged socio-political conflict and the risk of PTSD and depression among Palestinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Daphna; Galea, Sandro; Hall, Brian J; Johnson, Robert J; Palmieri, Patrick A; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of traumatic experiences and stressful life conditions on people in low-income countries who live in conditions of ongoing political violence. In order to determine the prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) among Palestinians subjected to chronic political violence and upheaval, we used a stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling strategy to interview a representative sample of 1,200 Palestinian adults living in Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. Prevalence of PTSD/MD for men living in the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem was 25.4%/29.9%, 22.6%/27.6%, and 16.1%/16.1%, respectively. For women, the prevalence of PTSD/MD was 23.8%/29.0%, 23.9%/28.9%, and 19.7%/27.6%. Among men, PTSD was significantly positively associated with age group, two or more incidences of political violence (compared to none), greater intrapersonal resource loss, and loss of faith in government. MD was positively associated with experiencing exposure to one, or two or more, incidences of political violence (compared to none), and greater interpersonal and intrapersonal resource loss. Among women, PTSD was positively associated with greater interpersonal and intrapersonal resource loss, and MD was positively associated with death of a loved one, two or more socio-political stressors (compared to none) previous to the past year, one or more socio-political stressors (compared to none) in the past year, and greater interpersonal and intrapersonal resource loss. Interpersonal and intrapersonal resource losses were consistently associated with PTSD and MD, suggesting potential targets for intervention and prevention efforts and thus provide important keys to treatment in areas of ongoing conflict.

  12. Understanding the relationship between PTSD and social support: the role of negative network orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Joshua D; Gayle Beck, J

    2009-03-01

    Network orientation is conceptualized as an individual's attitudes and expectations regarding the usefulness of support networks in coping with stress. The present research examined the potential for network orientation to explicate the well documented association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and attenuated social support. Data collected from survivors of serious motor vehicle trauma (N=458) were used to test the hypothesis that severity of PTSD would hold a significant indirect relationship with social support through negative network orientation. Childhood victimization and elapsed time from the accident were examined as potential moderators of this indirect relationship. Consistent with hypotheses, path analyses demonstrated a significant indirect relationship between PTSD and social support through negative network orientation. Specifically, this indirect effect was the result of a direct association between PTSD severity and negative network orientation and an inverse association between negative network orientation and social support. This pattern of relationships was invariant across mode of PTSD assessment (interview vs. self-report). No moderation effects were noted. These data suggest that network orientation may be an important factor in understanding interface of interpersonal processes and post-trauma pathology.

  13. PTSD and Depression Among Museum Workers After the March 18 Bardo Museum Terrorist Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Chennoufi, Leila; Cheour, Mejda

    2017-02-07

    On March 18, 2015, two gunmen attacked the Bardo museum in Tunis, Tunisia, killing 23 foreign tourists. We assessed PTSD and depression symptoms 4-6 weeks after the event among museum workers, in relation to sociodemographic factors and social support, and we analysed the determinants and predictor factors of PTSD and depression symptoms among the participants. Our findings indicated that 68.6% of the respondents had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cutoff point (IER-S scores >33), and 40.6% reported severe levels of depressive symptoms (DASS-depression scores >20). Male and female participants did not significantly differ in terms of their symptom severities. Low social support was the best predictor of PTSD and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that interventions designed to reinforce ties within social networks may be particularly helpful for victims in the aftermath of a terrorist attack.

  14. Aberrant Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala Complexes in PTSD during Conscious and Subconscious Processing of Trauma-Related Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by altered functional connectivity of the amygdala complexes at rest. However, amygdala complex connectivity during conscious and subconscious threat processing remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate specific connectivity of the centromedial amygdala (CMA) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) during conscious and subconscious processing of trauma-related words among individuals with PTSD (n = 26) as compared to non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 20). Psycho-physiological interaction analyses were performed using the right and left amygdala complexes as regions of interest during conscious and subconscious trauma word processing. These analyses revealed a differential, context-dependent responses by each amygdala seed during trauma processing in PTSD. Specifically, relative to controls, during subconscious processing, individuals with PTSD demonstrated increased connectivity of the CMA with the superior frontal gyrus, accompanied by a pattern of decreased connectivity between the BLA and the superior colliculus. During conscious processing, relative to controls, individuals with PTSD showed increased connectivity between the CMA and the pulvinar. These findings demonstrate alterations in amygdala subregion functional connectivity in PTSD and highlight the disruption of the innate alarm network during both conscious and subconscious trauma processing in this disorder.

  15. Complex PTSD, affect dysregulation, and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D; Courtois, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    Complex PTSD (cPTSD) was formulated to include, in addition to the core PTSD symptoms, dysregulation in three psychobiological areas: (1) emotion processing, (2) self-organization (including bodily integrity), and (3) relational security. The overlap of diagnostic criteria for cPTSD and borderline personality disorder (BPD) raises questions about the scientific integrity and clinical utility of the cPTSD construct/diagnosis, as well as opportunities to achieve an increasingly nuanced understanding of the role of psychological trauma in BPD. We review clinical and scientific findings regarding comorbidity, clinical phenomenology and neurobiology of BPD, PTSD, and cPTSD, and the role of traumatic victimization (in general and specific to primary caregivers), dissociation, and affect dysregulation. Findings suggest that BPD may involve heterogeneity related to psychological trauma that includes, but extends beyond, comorbidity with PTSD and potentially involves childhood victimization-related dissociation and affect dysregulation consistent with cPTSD. Although BPD and cPTSD overlap substantially, it is unwarranted to conceptualize cPTSD either as a replacement for BPD, or simply as a sub-type of BPD. We conclude with implications for clinical practice and scientific research based on a better differentiated view of cPTSD, BPD and PTSD.

  16. A meta-analysis of risk factors for combat-related PTSD among military personnel and veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chen; Ge, Yang; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Yuan; Kang, Peng; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a complex and chronic disorder caused by exposure to a traumatic event, is a common psychological result of current military operations. It causes substantial distress and interferes with personal and social functioning. Consequently, identifying the risk factors that make military personnel and veterans more likely to experience PTSD is of academic, clinical, and social importance. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO) were used to search for observational studies (cross-sectional, retrospective, and cohort studies) about PTSD after deployment to combat areas. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted by two of the authors independently. Thirty-two articles were included in this study. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed. The prevalence of combat-related PTSD ranged from 1.09% to 34.84%. A total of 18 significant predictors of PTSD among military personnel and veterans were found. Risk factors stemming from before the trauma include female gender, ethnic minority status, low education, non-officer ranks, army service, combat specialization, high numbers of deployments, longer cumulative length of deployments, more adverse life events, prior trauma exposure, and prior psychological problems. Various aspects of the trauma period also constituted risk factors. These include increased combat exposure, discharging a weapon, witnessing someone being wounded or killed, severe trauma, and deployment-related stressors. Lastly, lack of post-deployment support during the post-trauma period also increased the risk of PTSD. The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for combat-related PTSD in military personnel and veterans. More research is needed to determine how these variables interact and how to best protect against susceptibility to PTSD.

  17. A meta-analysis of risk factors for combat-related PTSD among military personnel and veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xue

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, a complex and chronic disorder caused by exposure to a traumatic event, is a common psychological result of current military operations. It causes substantial distress and interferes with personal and social functioning. Consequently, identifying the risk factors that make military personnel and veterans more likely to experience PTSD is of academic, clinical, and social importance. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were used to search for observational studies (cross-sectional, retrospective, and cohort studies about PTSD after deployment to combat areas. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted by two of the authors independently. Thirty-two articles were included in this study. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed. The prevalence of combat-related PTSD ranged from 1.09% to 34.84%. A total of 18 significant predictors of PTSD among military personnel and veterans were found. Risk factors stemming from before the trauma include female gender, ethnic minority status, low education, non-officer ranks, army service, combat specialization, high numbers of deployments, longer cumulative length of deployments, more adverse life events, prior trauma exposure, and prior psychological problems. Various aspects of the trauma period also constituted risk factors. These include increased combat exposure, discharging a weapon, witnessing someone being wounded or killed, severe trauma, and deployment-related stressors. Lastly, lack of post-deployment support during the post-trauma period also increased the risk of PTSD. The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for combat-related PTSD in military personnel and veterans. More research is needed to determine how these variables interact and how to best protect against susceptibility

  18. Relationship between damage clustering and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus in early and late stages of the disease: cluster analyses in a large cohort from the Spanish Society of Rheumatology Lupus Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pego-Reigosa, José María; Lois-Iglesias, Ana; Rúa-Figueroa, Íñigo; Galindo, María; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo; Balboa-Barreiro, Vanessa; Ibáñez Ruan, Jesús; Olivé, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Gómez, Manuel; Fernández Nebro, Antonio; Andrés, Mariano; Erausquin, Celia; Tomero, Eva; Horcada Rubio, Loreto; Uriarte Isacelaya, Esther; Freire, Mercedes; Montilla, Carlos; Sánchez-Atrio, Ana I; Santos-Soler, Gregorio; Zea, Antonio; Díez, Elvira; Narváez, Javier; Blanco-Alonso, Ricardo; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Ruiz-Lucea, María Esther; Fernández-Castro, Mónica; Hernández-Beriain, José Ángel; Gantes-Mora, Marian; Hernández-Cruz, Blanca; Pérez-Venegas, José; Pecondón-Español, Ángela; Marras Fernández-Cid, Carlos; Ibáñez-Barcelo, Mónica; Bonilla, Gema; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Castellví, Iván; Alegre, Juan José; Calvet, Joan; Marenco de la Fuente, José Luis; Raya, Enrique; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Tomás Ramón; Quevedo-Vila, Víctor; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; Otón, Teresa; Rahman, Anisur; López-Longo, Francisco Javier

    2016-07-01

    To identify patterns (clusters) of damage manifestations within a large cohort of SLE patients and evaluate the potential association of these clusters with a higher risk of mortality. This is a multicentre, descriptive, cross-sectional study of a cohort of 3656 SLE patients from the Spanish Society of Rheumatology Lupus Registry. Organ damage was ascertained using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index. Using cluster analysis, groups of patients with similar patterns of damage manifestations were identified. Then, overall clusters were compared as well as the subgroup of patients within every cluster with disease duration shorter than 5 years. Three damage clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (80.6% of patients) presented a lower amount of individuals with damage (23.2 vs 100% in clusters 2 and 3, P Cluster 2 (11.4% of patients) was characterized by musculoskeletal damage in all patients. Cluster 3 (8.0% of patients) was the only group with cardiovascular damage, and this was present in all patients. The overall mortality rate of patients in clusters 2 and 3 was higher than that in cluster 1 (P clusters. Both in early and late stages of the disease, there was a significant association of these clusters with an increased risk of mortality. Physicians should pay special attention to the early prevention of damage in these two systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. PTSD as a criminal defense: a review of case law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Omri; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been offered as a basis for criminal defenses, including insanity, unconsciousness, self-defense, diminished capacity, and sentencing mitigation. Examination of case law (e.g., appellate decisions) involving PTSD reveals that when offered as a criminal defense, PTSD has received mixed treatment in the judicial system. Courts have often recognized testimony about PTSD as scientifically reliable. In addition, PTSD has been recognized by appellate courts in U.S. jurisdictions as a valid basis for insanity, unconsciousness, and self-defense. However, the courts have not always found the presentation of PTSD testimony to be relevant, admissible, or compelling in such cases, particularly when expert testimony failed to show how PTSD met the standard for the given defense. In cases that did not meet the standard for one of the complete defenses, PTSD has been presented as a partial defense or mitigating circumstance, again with mixed success.

  20. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): NIH Research to Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... virtual reality" (VR) exposure therapy. The VR therapy combines traditional therapy and exposure via VR technology that ... families. Read More "Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)" Articles PTSD: A Growing Epidemic / Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment / NIH ...

  1. Can the dissociative PTSD subtype be identified across two distinct trauma samples meeting caseness for PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Műllerová, Jana; Elklit, Ask; Armour, Cherie

    2016-08-01

    For over a century, the occurrence of dissociative symptoms in connection to traumatic exposure has been acknowledged in the scientific literature. Recently, the importance of dissociation has also been recognized in the long-term traumatic response within the DSM-5 nomenclature. Several studies have confirmed the existence of the dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype. However, there is a lack of studies investigating latent profiles of PTSD solely in victims with PTSD. This study investigates the possible presence of PTSD subtypes using latent class analysis (LCA) across two distinct trauma samples meeting caseness for DSM-5 PTSD based on self-reports (N = 787). Moreover, we assessed if a number of risk factors resulted in an increased probability of membership in a dissociative compared with a non-dissociative PTSD class. The results of LCA revealed a two-class solution with two highly symptomatic classes: a dissociative class and a non-dissociative class across both samples. Increased emotion-focused coping increased the probability of individuals being grouped into the dissociative class across both samples. Social support reduced the probability of individuals being grouped into the dissociative class but only in the victims of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) suffering from whiplash. The results are discussed in light of their clinical implications and suggest that the dissociative subtype can be identified in victims of incest and victims of MVA suffering from whiplash meeting caseness for DSM-5 PTSD.

  2. The psychobiology of PTSD: coping with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olff, Miranda; Langeland, Willie; Gersons, Berthold P R

    2005-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the few psychiatric conditions where a specific psychosocial stressor is explicitly tied to etiology. Although a majority of people experience a traumatic event in their life, most of them will not develop PTSD or other mental health problems such as depressive or anxiety disorders. Emotional and neurobiological responses to psychosocial stressors show striking individual variation. In this paper cognitive appraisal and coping factors are explored as potential sources of individual differences in the neuroendocrinological stress response, and subsequently in mental health outcome. Continued study of the psychobiology of trauma and PTSD will enhance our understanding of adaptation to psychosocial stressors and support efforts to treat associated psychological and biological sequelae.

  3. A confirmatory factor analysis of the PTSD checklist 5 in veteran and college student samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Eddinger, Jasmine; E McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan

    2017-09-01

    An important change in the conceptualization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been the shift from a three-factor model used in the DSM-IV-TR to the current four-factor model used in DSM-5. Early research initially supported the three-factor model, but most recent data suggest a four-factor model provides the best fit. Still other research has examined evidence for a five-factor model that would include depression sequelae. By way of a confirmatory factor analysis, we demonstrate the reliability of DSM-5 PTSD criteria clustering in a sample of 124 OEF/OIF/OND Veterans treated at a VAMC (49% white, 89% men) and a sample of 737 college students (48% white, 78% women). All participants were trauma-exposed, and completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5. The current study shows both samples best support a five-factor model over two four factor models considered for the DSM-5, though none provided better than moderate fit. Implications of the current findings regarding the reliability of the new DSM-5 criteria of PTSD will be discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sleep disturbance in pediatric PTSD: current findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachy, Ben; O'Hara, Ruth; Hawkins, Nate; Gershon, Anda; Primeau, Michelle M; Madej, Jessica; Carrion, Victor

    2013-05-15

    Many studies have provided strong evidence of a fundamental and complex role for sleep disturbances in adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Investigations of adult PTSD using subjective and objective measures document sleep architecture abnormalities and high prevalence of sleep disordered breathing, periodic limb movement disorder, nightmares, and insomnia. PTSD treatment methods do appear to significantly improve sleep disturbance, and also studies suggest that treatments for sleep disorders often result in improvements in PTSD symptoms. Further, the most recent evidence suggests sleep abnormalities may precede the development of PTSD. Given the importance of sleep disorders to the onset, course, and treatment of adult PTSD, examination of sleep disturbances far earlier in the life course is imperative. Here we review the literature on what we know about sleep disturbances and disorders in pediatric PTSD. Our review indicates that the extant, empirical data examining sleep disturbance and disorders in pediatric PTSD is limited. Yet, this literature suggests there are significantly higher reports of sleep disturbances and nightmares in children and adolescents exposed to trauma and/or diagnosed with PTSD than in non-trauma-exposed samples. Sleep questionnaires are predominantly employed to assess sleep disorders in pediatric PTSD, with few studies utilizing objective measures. Given the important, complex relationship being uncovered between adult PTSD and sleep, this review calls for further research of sleep in children with PTSD using more specific subjective measures and also objective measures, such as polysomnography and eventually treatment trial studies.

  5. Examining potential contraindications for prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, A. van; Harned, M.S.; Zöllner, L.; Mills, K.

    2012-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure (PE) has received the most empirical support of any treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), clinicians are often hesitant to use PE due to beliefs that it is contraindicated for many patients with PTSD. This is especially true for PTSD patients with comorbid p

  6. Taxometric Investigation of PTSD: Data from Two Nationally Representative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Green, Bradley A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2006-01-01

    Current psychiatric nosology depicts posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a discrete diagnostic category. However, only one study has examined the latent structure of PTSD, and this study suggested that PTSD may be more accurately conceptualized as an extreme reaction to traumatic life events rather than a discrete clinical syndrome. To build…

  7. Taxometric Investigation of PTSD: Data from Two Nationally Representative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Green, Bradley A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2006-01-01

    Current psychiatric nosology depicts posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a discrete diagnostic category. However, only one study has examined the latent structure of PTSD, and this study suggested that PTSD may be more accurately conceptualized as an extreme reaction to traumatic life events rather than a discrete clinical syndrome. To build…

  8. Dimensions of trauma associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness, severity and functional impairment: a study of Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momartin, S; Silove, D; Manicavasagar, V; Steel, Z

    2003-09-01

    Refugee survivors of inter-ethnic warfare vary greatly in the extent and range of their trauma experiences. Discerning which experiences are most salient to generating and perpetuating disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critical to the mounting rational strategies for targeted psychosocial interventions. In a sample of Bosnian Muslim refugees (n=126) drawn from a community centre and supplemented by a snowball sampling method, PTSD status and associated disability were measured using the clinician-administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for DSM-IV. A principal components analysis (PCA) based on a pool of trauma items yielded four coherent trauma dimensions: Human Rights Violations, Threat to Life, Traumatic Loss and Dispossession and Eviction. A cluster analysis identified three subgroupings according to extent of trauma exposure. There were no differences in PTSD risk for the group most exposed to human rights violations (internment in concentration camps, torture) compared to the general war-exposed group. Logistic regression analysis using the dimensions derived from the PCA indicated that Threat to Life alone of the four trauma factors predicted PTSD status, a finding that supports the DSM-IV definition of a trauma. Both Threat to Life and Traumatic Loss contributed to symptom severity and disability associated with PTSD. It may be that human rights violations pose a more general threat to the survivor's future psychosocial adaptation in areas of functioning that extend beyond the confines of PTSD.

  9. Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder Symptom Domains Relate Differentially to PTSD and Depression: A Study of War-Exposed Bosnian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, Meredith A; Charak, Ruby; Kaplow, Julie; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-10-01

    Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) is a newly proposed diagnosis placed in the Appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as an invitation for further research. To date, no studies have examined the dimensionality of PCBD or explored whether different PCBD criteria domains relate in similar, versus differential, ways to other psychological conditions common to war-exposed bereaved youth, including symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression. We evaluated the dimensionality of proposed PCBD B and C symptom domains, and their respective relations with measures of PTSD and depression, in 1142 bereaved Bosnian adolescents exposed to the 1992-1995 Bosnian civil war. Instruments included the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, the Depression Self-Rating Scale, and the UCLA Grief Screening Scale (a prototype measure of PCBD symptoms). We investigated potential differences in grief, PTSD, and depression scores as a function of cause of death. We then examined hypothesized differential relations between PCBD B and C symptom domain subscales and selected external correlates, specifically measures of depression and the four-factor emotional numbing model of PTSD. Results of both analyses provide preliminary evidence of a multidimensional structure for PCBD in this population, in that the PCBD Criterion C subscale score covaried more strongly with each of the four PTSD factors and with depression than did PCBD Criterion B. We conclude by discussing theoretical, methodological, clinical, and policy-related implications linked to the ongoing study of essential features of PCBD.

  10. Decreased uncinate fasciculus tract integrity in male and female patients with PTSD: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Saskia B.J.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L.; Veltman, Dick J.; Olff, Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder that has been associated with lower white matter integrity of tracts connecting the prefrontal cortex with limbic regions. However, previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings have been inconsistent, showing high variability in the exact location and direction of effects. Methods We performed probabilistic tractography of the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (both temporal and parietal projections) in male and female police officers with and without PTSD. Results We included 38 (21 men) police officers with and 39 (20 men) without PTSD in our analyses. Compared with trauma-exposed controls, patients with PTSD showed significantly higher mean diffusivity of the right uncinate fasciculus, the major white matter tract connecting the amygdala to the prefrontal cortex (p = 0.012). No other significant between-group or group × sex differences were observed. Mean diffusivity of the right uncinate fasciculus was positively associated with anxiety symptoms (r = 0.410, p = 0.013) in patients with PTSD as well as with amygdala activity (r = 0.247, p = 0.038) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activity (r = 0.283, p = 0.016) in all participants in response to happy and neutral faces. Limitations Our specific sample of trauma-exposed police officers limits the generalizability of our findings to other PTSD patient groups (e.g., civilian trauma). Conclusion Patients with PTSD showed diminished structural connectivity between the amygdala and vmPFC, which was correlated with higher anxiety symptoms and increased functional activity of these brain regions. Our findings provide additional evidence for the prevailing neurocircuitry model of PTSD, postulating that ineffective communication between the amygdala and vmPFC underlies decreased top–down control over fear responses. PMID:28452713

  11. The structure of PTSD symptoms according to DSM-5 and IDC-11 proposal: A multi-sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyniak-Cieciura, M; Staniaszek, K; Popiel, A; Pragłowska, E; Zawadzki, B

    2017-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms structure is a subject of ongoing debate since its inclusion in DSM-III classification in 1980. Different research on PTSD symptoms structure proved the better fit of four-factor and five-factor models comparing to the one proposed by DSM-IV. With the publication of DSM-5 classification, which introduced significant changes to PTSD diagnosis, the question arises about the adequacy of the proposed criteria to the real structure of disorder symptoms. Recent analyses suggest that seven-factor hybrid model is the best reflection of symptoms structure proposed to date. At the same time, some researchers and ICD-11 classification postulate a simplification of PTSD diagnosis restricting it to only three core criteria and adding additional diagnostic unit of complex-PTSD. This research aimed at checking symptoms' structure according to well-known and supported four-, five-, six- and seven-factor models based on DSM-5 symptoms and the conceptualization proposed by the ICD-11 as well as examining the relation between PTSD symptoms categories with borderline personality disorder. Four different trauma populations were examined with self-reported Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale for DSM-5 (PDS-5) measure. The results suggest that six- and seven-factor hybrid model as well as three-factor ICD-11 concept fits the data better than other models. The core PTSD symptoms were less related to borderline personality disorder than other, broader, symptoms categories only in one sample. Combination of ICD-11 simplified PTSD diagnosis with the more complex approach (e.g. basing on a seven-factor model) may be an attractive proposal for both scientists and practitioners, however does not necessarily lower its comorbidity with borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychological distress and burden among female partners of combat veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manguno-Mire, Gina; Sautter, Frederic; Lyons, Judith; Myers, Leann; Perry, Dana; Sherman, Michelle; Glynn, Shirley; Sullivan, Greer

    2007-02-01

    Psychological distress among cohabitating female partners of combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined in a cross-sectional study using a modified version of the Health Belief Model. A convenience sample of 89 cohabitating female partners of male veterans in outpatient PTSD treatment was interviewed by telephone using a structured interview. Partners endorsed high levels of psychological distress with elevations on clinical scales at or exceeding the 90th percentile. Severe levels of overall psychological distress, depression, and suicidal ideation were prevalent among partners. Multivariate analyses revealed that perceived threat, recent mental health treatment, and level of involvement with veterans predicted global partner psychological distress. Partner burden was predicted by partner self-efficacy, perceived threat, barriers to mental health treatment, and partner treatment engagement. These findings are compelling since they demonstrate that partners of veterans with combat-related PTSD experience significant levels of emotional distress that warrant clinical attention. Psychological distress and partner burden were each associated with a unique combination of predictors, suggesting that although these constructs are related, they have distinct correlates and potentially different implications within the family environment. Future research should examine these constructs separately using causal modeling analyses to identify modifiable targets for interventions to reduce psychological distress among partners of individuals with PTSD.

  13. Ecological study of sleep disruption in PTSD: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Katherine Shear, M; Nofzinger, Eric A; Buysse, Daniel J

    2006-07-01

    Laboratory-based sleep studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the presence and nature of objective sleep anomalies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This pilot study aimed at assessing sleep in adult crime victims with PTSD by using in-home polysomnography. Compared to healthy archival subjects, PTSD subjects showed longer sleep latency, reduced total sleep time, and increased duration of nocturnal awakening. Quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) measures of delta and beta activity also differed in PTSD and healthy subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that ambulatory methods can capture objective signs of sleep disruption, and corroborate subjective complaints of disrupted sleep in PTSD.

  14. Differential predictors of DSM-5 PTSD and ICD-11 complex PTSD among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail; Fani, Negar; Carter, Sierra; Cross, Dorthie; Cloitre, Marylene; Bradley, Bekh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) is proposed for inclusion in the ICD-11 as a diagnosis distinct from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reflecting deficits in affective, self-concept, and relational domains. There remains significant controversy over whether CPTSD provides useful diagnostic information beyond PTSD and other comorbid conditions, such as depression or substance use disorders. Objective: The present study examined differences in psychiatric presentation for three groups: traumatized controls, DSM-5 PTSD subjects, and ICD-11 CPTSD subjects. Method: The sample included 190 African American women recruited from an urban public hospital where rates of trauma exposure are high. PTSD was measured using Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 and CPTSD was measured using clinician administered ICD-Trauma Interview. Psychiatric diagnoses and emotion dysregulation were also assessed. In a subset of women (n = 60), emotion recognition was measured using the Penn Emotion Recognition Task. Results: There were significant differences across groups on current and lifetime major depression (p PTSD and depression symptoms and, as expected, more severe emotion dysregulation and dissociation, compared to DSM-5 PTSD and traumatized control groups. Individuals with CPTSD also had higher levels of emotion recognition to faces on a computer-based behavioural assessment, which may be related to heightened vigilance toward emotional cues from others. CPTSD women had better facial emotion recognition on a computer-based assessment, which may suggest heightened vigilance toward emotional cues. Conclusions: Our results suggest clear, clinically-relevant differences between PTSD and CPTSD, and highlight the need for further research on this topic with other traumatized populations, particularly studies that combine clinical and neurobiological data.

  15. The STRONG STAR Multidisciplinary PTSD Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    little is known about its role as a potential risk factor for PTSD (Davis and Sandman , 2012; Talge et al., 2007). Animal studies suggest that PNS programs...Baum, A., 1986. Chronic stress and posttraumatic stress disorders. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 54, 303—308. Davis, E.P., Sandman , C.A., 2012. Prenatal

  16. Cluster analyses of 20th century growth patterns in high elevation Great Basin bristlecone pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T. J.; Bruening, J. M.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a useful climate proxy because of the species' long lifespan (up to 5000 years) and the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Past studies have shown that growth of individual trees can be limited by temperature, soil moisture, or a combination of the two depending on biophysical setting at the scale of tens of meters. We extend recent research suggesting that trees vary in their growth response depending on their position on the landscape to analyze how growth patterns vary over time. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to examine the growth of 52 bristlecone pine trees near the treeline of Mount Washington, Nevada, USA. We classified growth of individual trees over the instrumental climate record into one of two possible scenarios: trees belonging to a temperature-sensitive cluster and trees belonging to a precipitation-sensitive cluster. The number of trees in the precipitation-sensitive cluster outnumbered the number of trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster, with trees in colder locations belonging to the temperature-sensitive cluster. When we separated the temporal range into two sections (1895-1949 and 1950-2002) spanning the length of the instrumental climate record, we found that most of the 52 trees remained loyal to their cluster membership (e.g., trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster in 1895-1949 were also in the temperature sensitive cluster in 1950-2002), though not without exception. Of those trees that do not remain consistent in cluster membership, the majority changed from temperature-sensitive to precipitation-sensitive as time progressed. This could signal a switch from temperature limitation to water limitation with warming climate. We speculate that topographic complexity in high mountain environments like Mount Washington might allow for climate refugia where growth response could remain constant over the Holocene.

  17. [Complex PTSD following early-childhood trauma: emotion-regulation training as addition to the PTSD guideline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, K; Dorrepaal, E; van Balkom, A J L M; Veltman, D J; Smit, J H; Hoogendoorn, A W; Draijer, N

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in individuals who have experienced repeated trauma (sexual and/or physical) in early childhood can lead to problems associated with emotion regulation, interpersonal functioning and self-image. This so-called complex PTSD is often accompanied by a comorbid personality disorder. Although ptsd is associated with structural and functional abnormalities in emotion-regulation areas in the brain, it is not known whether complex PTSD shows similar abnormalities. Experts take the view that before individuals with complex PTSD are given appropriate therapy they should receive a course of emotion-regulation therapy such as the one tested by Zlotnick e.a. (1997) in a randomised controlled trial (RCT).   To replicate Zlotnick's RCT in the Netherlands and to find out whether complex PTSD patients show specific structural and functional brain abnormalities and whether psychological recovery is linked to the 'normalisation' of these abnormalities. In a RCT with complex PTSD patients (n = 71) who had experienced trauma in early childhood, we compared normal individual treatment with treatment supported by 'Before and beyond', which consists of emotion-regulation therapy combined with cognitive group therapy. In a subsample (n= 33) we also performed an mri (repeated, n = 9) in which individuals were required to execute an emotional memory and attention task. In complex PTSD, structural abnormalities in the brain seemed to be more extensive than in PTSD and brain activity in complex PTSD seemed to be strikingly different from the brain activity seen in PTSD patients who had experienced only single trauma. The results of the RCT indicate that 'Before and beyond' is a clinically meaningful treatment (with minimal drop-out) for complex PTSD patients with a variety of personality disorders. The psychological recovery of patients who received the emotion regulation and cognitive group treatment was associated with normalisation of brain

  18. Does Reintegration Stress Contribute to Suicidal Ideation Among Returning Veterans Seeking PTSD Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Moira; Angkaw, Abigail C; Hendricks, Brittany A; Norman, Sonya B

    2016-04-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric symptoms are well-established risk factors for suicidal ideation among returning veterans, less attention has been paid to whether the stress of reintegrating into civilian society contributes to suicidal ideation. Utilizing a sample of 232 returning veterans (95% male, mean age = 33.63 years) seeking PTSD treatment, this study tested whether reintegration difficulties contribute to suicidal ideation over and above the influence of PTSD symptoms, depression symptoms, and potential substance misuse. Logistic regressions indicated that reintegration stress had a unique effect on suicidal ideation over and above PTSD and depression symptoms. Reintegration stress interacted with substance misuse to predict suicidal ideation, such that the effect of reintegration stress on suicidal ideation was much larger for those with potential substance misuse. Exploratory analyses also examined which types of reintegration difficulties were associated with suicidal ideation, and found that difficulty maintaining military friendships, difficulty getting along with relatives, difficulty feeling like you belong in civilian society, and difficulty finding meaning/purpose in life were all significantly associated with suicidal ideation, beyond the effects of psychiatric symptoms and potential substance misuse. Findings highlight the importance of addressing reintegration stress for the prevention of suicide among returning veterans. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  19. Compensation and treatment: disability benefits and outcomes of U.S. veterans receiving residential PTSD treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsher, Bradley E; Tiet, Quyen Q; Garvert, Donn W; Rosen, Craig S

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides specialized intensive posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) programs to treat trauma-related symptoms in addition to providing service-connected disability to compensate veterans for injury sustained while serving in the military. Given the percentage of veterans who are receiving treatment for PTSD, in addition to seeking compensation for PTSD, a debate has emerged about the impact of compensation on symptom recovery. This study examined the associations among status of compensation, treatment expectations, military cohort, length of stay, and outcomes for 776 veterans who were enrolled in 5 VA residential PTSD programs between the years of 2005 and 2010. Mixed model longitudinal analyses, with age, gender, and baseline symptoms nested within treatment site in the model, found that treatment expectations were modestly predictive of treatment outcomes. Veterans seeking increased compensation reported marginally lower treatment expectations (d = .008), and did not experience poorer outcomes compared to veterans not seeking increased compensation with the effect of baseline symptoms partialled out. Veterans from the era of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts reported lower treatment expectations (d = .020) and slightly higher symptoms at intake (d = .021), but had outcomes at discharge equivalent to veterans from other eras with baseline symptoms partialled out. These findings help further inform the debate concerning disability benefits and symptom changes across time. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress among Vietnam combat veterans undergoing challenge testing for PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Brian P; Bovin, Michelle J; Suvak, Michael K; Monson, Candice M; Sloan, Denise M; Fredman, Steffany J; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

    2012-08-01

    This study examined concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress during a laboratory challenge task. Data were collected during the multisite VA Cooperative Study 334 in the early 1990s examining psychophysiological arousal among combat-exposed Vietnam veterans with (n = 775) and without (n = 369) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants were presented with 6 standardized neutral scenes and 6 standardized combat scenes. Participants provided a subjective rating of distress after each slide. During the presentation, levels of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded. Using linear mixed effects modeling, both HR level and SC level exhibited significant positive associations with subjective distress ratings (pr = .33, p < .001 and pr = .19, p < .001, respectively). Individuals with PTSD demonstrated greater concordance between their distress ratings and SC level during exposure to combat slides than participants without PTSD (pr = .28, p < .001 vs. pr = .18, p < .001). Although a significant association was found between subjective distress and HR reactivity and SC reactivity, these findings were not moderated by PTSD status. The results of these analyses suggest that patients' reports of distress during exposure-based treatments might serve as approximate measures of actual physiological arousal. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. The ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers and the upper mass limit of stars: analysing age dependent stellar mass functions

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Fabian R N; de Mink, Selma E; Langer, Norbert; Stolte, Andrea; de Koter, Alex; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Hußmann, Benjamin; Liermann, Adriane; Sana, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters which can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages to 3.5$\\pm$0.7 Myr and 4.8$\\pm$1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e. the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte ...

  2. Cardiac-disease-induced PTSD (CDI-PTSD): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchinsky, Noa; Ginzburg, Karni; Fait, Keren; Foa, Edna B

    2017-07-01

    The goal of the current systematic review was to provide an overview of the findings in the field of Cardiac-Disease-Induced Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CDI-PTSD) in order to establish CDI-PTSD as a valid diagnostic entity for a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases and related medical procedures. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic electronic literature search. Of the 3202 citations identified, 150 studies meeting the selection criteria were reviewed. Our main findings were that the prevalence of CDI-PTSD ranged between 0% and 38% (averaging at 12%) and was highly dependent on the assessment tool used. The most consistent risk factors are of a psychological nature (e.g., pre-morbid distress). The consequences of CDI-PTSD range from psychosocial difficulties to lack of adherence and heightened mortality rates. Much inconsistency in the field was found with regard to patients who present with diagnoses other than acute coronary syndrome (e.g., cardiac arrest) and who undergo potentially traumatic medical procedures (e.g., defibrillator implantation). Yet the current review seems to strengthen the conceptualization of CDI-PTSD as a valid diagnostic entity, at least with regard to acute cardiac events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Forskning i musikterapi - posttraumatisk stressbelastning (PTSD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Bolette Daniels; Mumm, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Denne artikel præsenterer videnskabelige undersøgelser af musikterapi med mennesker, der har fået diagnosen PTSD. Der er forskningsmæssig evidens for at musikterapi kan reducere symptomer på posttraumatisk stress hos børn, unge og voksne. Undersøgelser af musikterapi med voksne med posttraumatisk...... musikterapi med børn og unge med indlæringsproblemer som følge af PTSD viser reduktion af hyperaktivitet, aggression og depression samt øget lydhørhed og forbedrede sociale kompetencer....... stress viser reduktion af symptomer som flashbacks, undgåelsesadfærd, stress samt dissociation, depression og angst. Musikterapi med voksne kan endvidere skabe forbedringer i forhold til søvnkvalitet og social kontakt, samt styrke oplevelsen af mening og sammenhæng i tilværelsen. Undersøgelser af...

  4. Ethnic Differences in Personality Disorder Patterns among Women Veterans Diagnosed with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet C'de Baca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Personality Disorders (PDs impair the ability to function socially and occupationally. PD prevalence rates among veterans who have also been diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD range from 45%–79%. This study examined ethnic differences in PDs assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III in 260 non-Hispanic white (64%, Hispanic (27%, and African American (9%, mostly single, women veterans in treatment for PTSD. After adjusting for covariates including number and sexual-nature of trauma, findings revealed the adjusted odds ratio of having a cluster A PD was almost three times higher for African Americans (p = 0.046 then the other two ethnic groups, which may be driven by the paranoid PD scale and potentially reflects an adaptive response to racial discrimination. In cluster designation analysis, the odds were twice as high of having a cluster B PD with childhood trauma (p = 0.046, and a cluster C PD with sexual trauma (p = 0.004, demonstrating the significance of childhood and sexual trauma on long-term chronic personality patterns in women veterans. These results highlight the importance of using instruments with demonstrated diagnostic validity for minority populations.

  5. Ethnic Differences in Personality Disorder Patterns among Women Veterans Diagnosed with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C'de Baca, Janet; Castillo, Diane T; Mackaronis, Julia E; Qualls, Clifford

    2014-03-01

    Personality Disorders (PDs) impair the ability to function socially and occupationally. PD prevalence rates among veterans who have also been diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) range from 45%-79%. This study examined ethnic differences in PDs assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III in 260 non-Hispanic white (64%), Hispanic (27%), and African American (9%), mostly single, women veterans in treatment for PTSD. After adjusting for covariates including number and sexual-nature of trauma, findings revealed the adjusted odds ratio of having a cluster A PD was almost three times higher for African Americans (p = 0.046) then the other two ethnic groups, which may be driven by the paranoid PD scale and potentially reflects an adaptive response to racial discrimination. In cluster designation analysis, the odds were twice as high of having a cluster B PD with childhood trauma (p = 0.046), and a cluster C PD with sexual trauma (p = 0.004), demonstrating the significance of childhood and sexual trauma on long-term chronic personality patterns in women veterans. These results highlight the importance of using instruments with demonstrated diagnostic validity for minority populations.

  6. Efficacy of Adjunct Sleep Interventions for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    dorsed symptoms of restless legs syndrome , periodic leg move- ment disorder, or delayed sleep phase syndrome on most nights associated with difficulty...cycle are offered. & 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.O 57 59 61UN C Introduction Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a clinical syndrome ...sleep consolidation is proportional to lesion size.43 The medial prefrontal cortex, and especially the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), influence sleep, and

  7. Evaluation of a Yoga Intervention for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-1066 TITLE: Evaluation of a Yoga Intervention for...CONTRACT NUMBER Evaluation of a Yoga Intervention for PTSD 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-1066 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Objective: This pilot study was designed to ascertain whether yoga is a feasible and

  8. Salivary Cortisol: A Psychophysiological Marker for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    focused on the effects of pain killers ( morphine ) and the development of PTSD. The results indicated that for Soldiers who received morphine ... hippocampus and prevent neurogenesis in the same regions, both of which can interfere with cognition and the future adaptation to stress (Ganzel, Morris...cortisol can damage areas of the hippocampus . The damage caused by the cortisol then causes a lack of ability to cope with stress in the future. This

  9. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Joachim Raabe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD. A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis integrates cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programmed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programming can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs.

  10. PTSD among a treatment sample of repeat DUI offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Allyson J; Najavits, Lisa M; Nelson, Sarah E; LaBrie, Richard A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common psychiatric comorbidities among driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offenders in treatment. Investigation of DUI offenders' PTSD and clinical characteristics could have important implications for prevention and treatment. This prospective study examined the demographic and clinical characteristics of repeat DUI offenders with PTSD symptoms at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Seven hundred twenty-nine DUI offenders admitted to a 2-week inpatient program participated in the study. Participants with PTSD evidenced more severe psychiatric comorbidity and reported a higher DUI recidivism rate at 1-year than those without PTSD. This study suggests a need to address PTSD among DUI offenders, as well as to further develop methodologies for accurately reporting DUI recidivism.

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD and somatization: an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I; Zlotnick, Caron; Gomez, Judelysse; Rendón, Maria J; Swanson, Amelia

    2013-06-01

    No treatment, to date, has been developed to improve both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS), despite mounting evidence of high comorbidity between PTSD and MUPS. This study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcomes of an adapted cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD and abridged somatization in a sample of eight participants. Fifteen percent of completers did not meet PTSD criteria after treatment completion and 62.5% improved their somatic symptoms. There was a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment depression symptoms, as well as in psychological and physical functioning measures. Results indicated a small to moderate effect size (d = 0.27-0.78) in PTSD severity scores, and moderate to large effect size in depression symptoms and psychosocial and physical functioning variables (d = 0.39-1.12). Preliminary evidence of acceptability indicates that the current CBT intervention may be suitable for Latinos individuals with PTSD and MUPS.

  12. Stress Detection for PTSD via the StartleMart Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgard, C.; Yannakakis, Georgios; Karstoft, K.I.

    2013-01-01

    , we couple game design and game technology with stress detection for the automatic profiling and the personalized treatment of PTSD via game-based exposure therapy and stress inoculation training. The PTSD treatment game we designed forces the player to go through various stressful experiences while...... a stress detection mechanism profiles the severity and type of PTSD via skin conductance responses to those in-game stress elicitors. The initial study and analysis of 14 PTSD-diagnosed veteran soldiers presented in this paper reveals clear correspondence between diagnostic standard measures of PTSD...... for stress inoculation training. This points to future avenues of research toward discerning between degrees and types of PTSD using game-based diagnostic and treatment tools. I....

  13. Stress Detection for PTSD via the StartleMart Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgård, Christoffer; Yannakakis, Georgios; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2013-01-01

    Computer games have recently shown promise as a diagnostic and treatment tool for psychiatric rehabilitation. This paper examines the positive impact of affect detection and advanced game technology on the treatment of mental diagnoses such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). For that purpose......, we couple game design and game technology with stress detection for the automatic profiling and the personalized treatment of PTSD via game-based exposure therapy and stress inoculation training. The PTSD treatment game we designed forces the player to go through various stressful experiences while...... a stress detection mechanism profiles the severity and type of PTSD via skin conductance responses to those in-game stress elicitors. The initial study and analysis of 14 PTSD-diagnosed veteran soldiers presented in this paper reveals clear correspondence between diagnostic standard measures of PTSD...

  14. Evidence for a unique PTSD construct represented by PTSD's D1-D3 symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D; Biehn, Tracey L; Armour, Cherie; Klopper, Jessica J; Frueh, B Christopher; Palmieri, Patrick A

    2011-04-01

    Two models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have received the most empirical support in confirmatory factor analytic studies: King, Leskin, King, and Weathers' (1998) Emotional Numbing model of reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing and hyperarousal; and Simms, Watson, and Doebbeling's (2002) Dysphoria model of reexperiencing, avoidance, dysphoria and hyperarousal. These models only differ in placement of three PTSD symptoms: sleep problems (D1), irritability (D2), and concentration problems (D3). In the present study, we recruited 252 women victims of domestic violence and tested whether there is empirical support to separate these three PTSD symptoms into a fifth factor, while retaining the Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models' remaining four factors. Confirmatory factor analytic findings demonstrated that separating the three symptoms into a separate factor significantly enhanced model fit for the Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. These three symptoms may represent a unique latent construct. Implications are discussed.

  15. Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Smit, Johannes H; Veltman, Dick J; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Draijer, Nel

    2013-01-01

    In the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and personality disorders (PDs) are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate if personality characteristics would predict treatment compliance and effectiveness in stabilizing complex PTSD treatment. In a randomized controlled trial on a 20-week stabilizing group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for child-abuse-related complex PTSD, we included 71 patients of whom 38 were randomized to a psycho-educational and cognitive behavioral stabilizing group treatment. We compared the patients with few PD symptoms (adaptive) (N=14) with the non-adaptive patients (N=24) as revealed by a cluster analysis. We found that non-adaptive patients compared to the adaptive patients showed very low drop-out rates. Both non-adaptive patients, classified with highly different personality profiles "withdrawn" and "aggressive," were equally compliant. With regard to symptom reduction, we found no significant differences between subtypes. Post-hoc, patients with a PD showed lower drop-out rates and higher effect sizes in terms of complex PTSD severity, especially on domains that affect regulation and interpersonal problems. Contrary to our expectations, these preliminary findings indicate that this treatment is well tolerated by patients with a variety of personality pathology. Larger sample sizes are needed to study effectiveness for subgroups of complex PTSD patients.

  16. Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethy Dorrepaal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and personality disorders (PDs are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment. Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate if personality characteristics would predict treatment compliance and effectiveness in stabilizing complex PTSD treatment. Method: In a randomized controlled trial on a 20-week stabilizing group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT for child-abuse-related complex PTSD, we included 71 patients of whom 38 were randomized to a psycho-educational and cognitive behavioral stabilizing group treatment. We compared the patients with few PD symptoms (adaptive (N=14 with the non-adaptive patients (N=24 as revealed by a cluster analysis. Results: We found that non-adaptive patients compared to the adaptive patients showed very low drop-out rates. Both non-adaptive patients, classified with highly different personality profiles “withdrawn” and “aggressive,” were equally compliant. With regard to symptom reduction, we found no significant differences between subtypes. Post-hoc, patients with a PD showed lower drop-out rates and higher effect sizes in terms of complex PTSD severity, especially on domains that affect regulation and interpersonal problems. Conclusion: Contrary to our expectations, these preliminary findings indicate that this treatment is well tolerated by patients with a variety of personality pathology. Larger sample sizes are needed to study effectiveness for subgroups of complex PTSD patients.

  17. Prazosin for Treatment With PTSD And Comorbid Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    There is a high rate of comorbidity with alcohol dependence (AD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The rates of PTSD among individuals with...AD are at least twice as high as those in the general population. In addition, alcohol dependence is the most common comorbid condition in men with...sleep disturbance in combat veterans with PTSD and alcohol dependence . The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of prazosis (16mg

  18. Intensive Cognitive Therapy for PTSD: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Anke; Clark, David M.; Hackmann, Ann; Grey, Nick; Liness, Sheena; Wild, Jennifer; Manley, John; Waddington, Louise; McManus, Freda

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) of anxiety disorders is usually delivered in weekly or biweekly sessions. There is evidence that intensive CBT can be effective in phobias and obsessive compulsive disorder. Studies of intensive CBT for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are lacking. Method: A feasibility study tested the acceptability and efficacy of an intensive version of Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD) in 14 patients drawn from consecutive referrals. Patients received u...

  19. PTSD og kjønnsforskjeller- en litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Muneer, Saba

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: PTSD is a trauma related anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to one or more frightening events that threatened or caused severe physical harm. Reexperience trough flashbacks and/or nightmares are common. Persistent avoidance of the stimuli which is associated with trauma and increased physiological arousal are other important aspects of PTSD. Lifetime prevalence of PTSD is one percent. Men have a greater exposure to traumatic situations but women have higher rates ...

  20. Two genetic clusters in swine hemoplasmas revealed by analyses of the 16S rRNA and RNase P RNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusaku; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Obara, Hisato; Nagai, Kazuya; Harasawa, Ryô

    2011-12-01

    Only two hemoplasma species, Eperythrozoon parvum and Mycoplasma suis, have been recognized in pigs. Here we demonstrate the genetic variations among six hemoplasma strains detected from pigs, by analyzing the 16S rRNA and RNase P RNA (rnpB) genes, and propose a novel hemoplasma taxon that has not been described previously. Phylogenetic trees based on the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these six hemoplasmas were divided into two clusters representing M. suis and a novel taxon. We further examined the primary and secondary structures of the nucleotide sequences of the rnpB gene of the novel taxon, and found it distinct from that of M. suis. In conclusion, we unveiled a genetic cluster distinct from M. suis, suggesting a new swine hemoplasma species or E. parvum. Our findings also suggest that this novel cluster should be included in the genus Mycoplasma.

  1. Sleep disturbances in veterans with chronic war-induced PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaie, Habibolah; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul; Masoudi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder is related to a wide range of medical problems, with a majority of neurological, psychological, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, as well as sleep disorders. Although the majority of studies reveal the association between PTSD and sleep disturbances, there are few studies on the assessment of sleep disruption among veterans with PTSD. In this review, we attempt to study the sleep disorders including insomnia, nightmare, sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorders and parasomnias among veterans with chronic war-induced PTSD. It is an important area for further research among veterans with PTSD. PMID:27093088

  2. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (Glass). IX. The Dual Origin of Low-mass Cluster Galaxies as Revealed by New Structural Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Takahiro; Abramson, Louis E.; Treu, Tommaso; Vulcani, Benedetta; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Dressler, Alan; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Wang, Xin; Huang, Kuang-Han; Trenti, Michele; Bradač, Maruša; Hoag, Austin

    2017-02-01

    Using deep Hubble Frontier Fields imaging and slitless spectroscopy from the Grism Survey from Space, we study 2200 cluster and 1748 field galaxies at 0.2≤slant z≤slant 0.7 to determine the impact of environment on galaxy size and structure at stellar masses {log}{M}* /{M}ȯ > 7.8, an unprecedented limit at these redshifts. Based on simple assumptions—{r}e=f({M}* )—we find no significant differences in half-light radii (r e ) between equal-mass cluster or field systems. More complex analyses—{r}e=f({M}* ,U-V,n,z,{{Σ }})—reveal local density (Σ) to induce only a 7% ± 3% (95% confidence) reduction in r e beyond what can be accounted for by U ‑ V color, Sérsic index (n), and redshift (z) effects. Almost any size difference between galaxies in high- and low-density regions is thus attributable to their different distributions in properties other than environment. Indeed, we find a clear color–r e correlation in low-mass passive cluster galaxies ({log}{M}* /{M}ȯ star-forming galaxies. We take this as evidence that large-r e low-mass passive cluster galaxies are recently acquired systems that have been environmentally quenched without significant structural transformation (e.g., by ram pressure stripping or starvation). Conversely, ∼20% of small-r e low-mass passive cluster galaxies appear to have been in place since z≳ 3. Given the consistency of the small-r e galaxies’ stellar surface densities (and even colors) with those of systems more than ten times as massive, our findings suggest that clusters mark places where galaxy evolution is accelerated for an ancient base population spanning most masses, with late-time additions quenched by environment-specific mechanisms mainly restricted to the lowest masses.

  3. PTSD symptom severity relates to cognitive and psycho-social dysfunctioning – a study with Congolese refugees in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainamani, Herbert E.; Elbert, Thomas; Olema, David K.; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), civilians have been heavily exposed to traumatic stressors. Traumatizing experiences cumulatively heighten the risk for trauma-related disorders, and with it affect cognitive and psycho-social functioning. Objectives: We aimed at investigating the association between trauma-related disorders and cognitive and psycho-social functioning and hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity would negatively correlate with executive functioning, working memory and psycho-social functioning in everyday life. Method: In total, 323 Congolese refugees (mean age: 31.3 years) who arrived in the Ugandan Nakivale refugee settlement after January 2012 were assessed regarding their exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptom severity (posttraumatic symptom scale interview), executive functioning (Tower of London), working memory performance (Corsi block tapping task) and psycho-social dysfunctioning (Luo functioning scale). Results: Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant negative association between PTSD symptom severity and working memory (β = –0.32, p  0.05). Conclusion: Trauma survivors not only suffer from the core PTSD symptoms but also from impaired cognitive functioning. PTSD symptom severity seems furthermore to be related to impaired psycho-social functioning. Our findings suggest that trauma-related mental health problems may heighten the risk for poverty and lack of prospect and further aggravate the consequences of war and conflict.

  4. Cortisol at the Emergency Room Rape Visit as a Predictor of PTSD and Depression Symptoms Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Nugent, Nicole R.; Kotte, Amelia; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Wang, Sheila; Guille, Constance; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, typically reflected by alterations in cortisol responsivity, has been associated with exposure to traumatic events and the development of stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Methods Serum cortisol was measured at the time of a post sexual assault medical exam among a sample of 323 female victims of recent sexual assault. Analyses were conducted among 235 participants who provided data regarding history of previous assault as well as PTSD and depression symptoms during at least one of three follow-ups. Results Growth curve models suggested that prior history of assault and serum cortisol were positively associated with the intercept and negatively associated with the slope of PTSD and depression symptoms after controlling for covariates. Prior history of assault and serum cortisol also interacted to predict the intercept and slope of PTSD and depression symptoms such that women with a prior history of assault and lower ER cortisol had higher initial symptoms that decreased at a slower rate relative to women without a prior history and those with higher ER cortisol. Conclusions Prior history of assault was associated with diminished acute cortisol responsivity at the emergency room visit. Prior assault history and cortisol both independently and interactively predicted PTSD and depression symptoms at first follow-up and over the course a six-month follow-up. PMID:23806832

  5. Social support, posttraumatic cognitions, and PTSD: The influence of family, friends, and a close other in an interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Matthew J; Eddinger, Jasmine; Henschel, Aisling V; Dodson, Thomas S; Tran, Han N; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-10-01

    Research has suggested that social support can shape posttraumatic cognitions and PTSD. However, research has yet to compare the influence of separate domains of support on posttraumatic cognitions. Multiple-group path analysis was used to examine a model in a sample of 170 victims of intimate partner violence and 208 motor vehicle accident victims in which support from friends, family, and a close other were each predicted to influence posttraumatic cognitions, which were in turn predicted to influence PTSD. Analyses revealed that support from family and friends were each negatively correlated with posttraumatic cognitions, which in turn were positively associated with PTSD. Social support from a close other was not associated with posttraumatic cognitions. No significant differences in the model were found between trauma groups. Findings identify which relationships are likely to influence posttraumatic cognitions and are discussed with regard to interpersonal processes in the development and maintenance of PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative Genomic Analyses of Multiple Pseudomonas Strains Infecting Corylus avellana Trees Reveal the Occurrence of Two Genetic Clusters with Both Common and Distinctive Virulence and Fitness Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Marcelletti

    Full Text Available The European hazelnut (Corylus avellana is threatened in Europe by several pseudomonads which cause symptoms ranging from twig dieback to tree death. A comparison of the draft genomes of nine Pseudomonas strains isolated from symptomatic C. avellana trees was performed to identify common and distinctive genomic traits. The thorough assessment of genetic relationships among the strains revealed two clearly distinct clusters: P. avellanae and P. syringae. The latter including the pathovars avellanae, coryli and syringae. Between these two clusters, no recombination event was found. A genomic island of approximately 20 kb, containing the hrp/hrc type III secretion system gene cluster, was found to be present without any genomic difference in all nine pseudomonads. The type III secretion system effector repertoires were remarkably different in the two groups, with P. avellanae showing a higher number of effectors. Homologue genes of the antimetabolite mangotoxin and ice nucleation activity clusters were found solely in all P. syringae pathovar strains, whereas the siderophore yersiniabactin was only present in P. avellanae. All nine strains have genes coding for pectic enzymes and sucrose metabolism. By contrast, they do not have genes coding for indolacetic acid and anti-insect toxin. Collectively, this study reveals that genomically different Pseudomonas can converge on the same host plant by suppressing the host defence mechanisms with the use of different virulence weapons. The integration into their genomes of a horizontally acquired genomic island could play a fundamental role in their evolution, perhaps giving them the ability to exploit new ecological niches.

  7. Design and synthesis of "dumb-bell" and "triangular" inorganic-organic hybrid nanopolyoxometalate clusters and their characterisation through ESI-MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Chullikkattil P; Li, Feng-Yan; Lydon, Claire; Miras, Haralampos N; Long, De-Liang; Xu, Lin; Cronin, Leroy

    2011-06-27

    A series of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS)-based linear (bis(TRIS)) and triangular (tris(TRIS)) ligands has been synthesised and were covalently attached to the Wells-Dawson type cluster [P(2)V(3)W(15)O(62)](9-) to generate a series of nanometer-sized inorganic-organic hybrid polyoxometalate clusters. These huge hybrids, with a molecular mass similar to that of small proteins in the range of ≈10-16 kDa, were unambiguously characterised by using high-resolution ESI-MS. The ESI-MS spectra of these compounds revealed, in negative ion mode, a characteristic pattern showing distinct groups of peaks corresponding to different anionic charge states ranging from 3(-) to 8(-) for the hybrids. Each peak in these individual groups could be unambiguously assigned to the corresponding hybrid cluster anion with varying combinations of tetrabutylammonium (TBA) and other cations. This study therefore highlights the prowess of the high-resolution ESI-MS for the unambiguous characterisation of large, nanoscale, inorganic-organic hybrid clusters that have huge mass, of the order of 10-16 kDa. Also, the designed synthesis of these compounds points to the fact that we were able to achieve a great deal of structural pre-design in the synthesis of these inorganic-organic hybrid polyoxometalates (POMs) by means of a ligand design route, which is often not possible in traditional "one-pot" POM synthesis.

  8. Integrated Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders: The Mediating Role of PTSD Improvement in the Reduction of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina J. Korte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD represents one of the most common mental health disorders, particularly among veterans, and is associated with significant distress and impairment. This highly debilitating disorder is further complicated by common comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as substance use disorders (SUD. Individuals with PTSD and co-occurring SUD also commonly present with secondary symptoms, such as elevated depression. Little is known, however, about how these secondary symptoms are related to treatment outcome. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to examine (1 the effects of treatment of comorbid PTSD/SUD on depressive symptoms; and (2 whether this effect was mediated by changes in PTSD severity or changes in SUD severity. Participants were 81 U.S. military veterans (90.1% male with PTSD and SUD enrolled in a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an integrated, exposure-based treatment (Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure; n = 54 versus relapse prevention (n = 27. Results revealed significantly lower depressive symptoms at post-treatment in the COPE group, as compared to the relapse prevention group. Examination of the mechanisms associated with change in depression revealed that reduction in PTSD severity, but not substance use severity, mediated the association between the treatment group and post-treatment depression. The findings underscore the importance of treating PTSD symptoms in order to help reduce co-occurring symptoms of depression in individuals with PTSD/SUD. Clinical implications and avenues for future research are discussed.

  9. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity predict PTSD symptom increase after trauma exposure during military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Schönfeld, Sabine; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Alexander, Nina; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence on endocrine risk markers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been inconclusive. Here, we report results of the first prospective study to investigate whether long-term hair cortisol levels and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity are predictive of the development of PTSD symptomatology in response to trauma during military deployment. Male soldiers were examined before deployment to Afghanistan and at a 12-month post-deployment follow-up using dimensional measures for psychopathological symptoms. The predictive value of baseline (i) hair cortisol concentrations (HCC, N=90) and (ii) salivary cortisol stress reactivity (measured by the Trier Social Stress Test, N=80) for the development of PTSD symptomatology after being exposed to new-onset traumatic events was analyzed. Baseline cortisol activity significantly predicted PTSD symptom change from baseline to follow-up upon trauma exposure. Specifically, our results consistently revealed that lower HCC and lower cortisol stress reactivity were predictive of a greater increase in PTSD symptomatology in soldiers who had experienced new-onset traumatic events (explaining 5% and 10.3% of variance, respectively). Longitudinal analyses revealed an increase in HCC from baseline to follow-up and a trend for a negative relationship between HCC changes and the number of new-onset traumatic events. Additional pre-deployment analyses revealed that trauma history was reflected in lower HCC (at trend level) and that HCC were negatively related to stressful load. Our data indicate that attenuated cortisol secretion is a risk marker for subsequent development of PTSD symptomatology upon trauma exposure. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in other samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Heide, F Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M; Kleber, Rolf J

    2016-01-01

    Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD. The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses: (1) that complex trauma leads to complex PTSD in a minority of refugees only and (2) that trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees who seek treatment for PTSD. The first thesis is defended by comparing data on the prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees to those in other trauma-exposed populations, using studies derived from a systematic review. The second thesis is defended using conclusions of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment in refugees. Research shows that refugees are more likely to meet a regular PTSD diagnosis or no diagnosis than a complex PTSD diagnosis and that prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees is relatively low compared to that in survivors of childhood trauma. Effect sizes for trauma-focused treatment in refugees, especially narrative exposure therapy (NET) and culturally adapted cognitive-behaviour therapy (CA-CBT), have consistently been found to be high. Complex PTSD in refugees should not be assumed to be present on the basis of complex traumatic experiences but should be carefully diagnosed using a validated interview. In line with treatment guidelines for PTSD, a course of trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees seeking treatment for PTSD, including asylum seekers.

  11. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jackie June ter Heide

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD. Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD. Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses: (1 that complex trauma leads to complex PTSD in a minority of refugees only and (2 that trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees who seek treatment for PTSD. Methods: The first thesis is defended by comparing data on the prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees to those in other trauma-exposed populations, using studies derived from a systematic review. The second thesis is defended using conclusions of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment in refugees. Results: Research shows that refugees are more likely to meet a regular PTSD diagnosis or no diagnosis than a complex PTSD diagnosis and that prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees is relatively low compared to that in survivors of childhood trauma. Effect sizes for trauma-focused treatment in refugees, especially narrative exposure therapy (NET and culturally adapted cognitive-behaviour therapy (CA-CBT, have consistently been found to be high. Conclusions: Complex PTSD in refugees should not be assumed to be present on the basis of complex traumatic experiences but should be carefully diagnosed using a validated interview. In line with treatment guidelines for PTSD, a course of trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees seeking treatment for PTSD, including asylum seekers.

  12. A Longitudinal Analysis of PTSD Symptom Course: Delayed-Onset PTSD in Somalia Peacekeepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Matt J.; Bolton, Elisa E.; Litz, Brett T.

    2004-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically follows an acute to chronic course. However, some trauma victims do not report significant symptoms until a period of time has elapsed after the event. Although originally dismissed as an artifact of retrospective methodologies, recent prospective studies document apparent instances of delayed-onset…

  13. Symptom structure of PTSD: support for a hierarchical model separating core PTSD symptoms from dysphoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, A.R.; Minnen, A. van; Ebberink, F.; Zuiden, M. van; Geuze, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As of yet, no collective agreement has been reached regarding the precise factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several alternative factor-models have been proposed in the last decades. Objective: The current study examined the fit of a hierarchical adaptation of the

  14. MDMA and PTSD treatment: "PTSD: From novel pathophysiology to innovative therapeutics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Ben

    2017-05-10

    There is a range of therapies to treat Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) but treatment resistance remains high, with many sufferers experiencing the chronic condition. Engagement in trauma-focused psychotherapy is difficult for some patients with PTSD, especially those with extreme affect dysregulation associated with recall of traumatic memories. In recent years there have been a number of neuroscientific and clinical studies examining the potential role for adjunctive drug-assisted psychotherapy using 3,4,-methylenedioxmethamphetamine (MDMA) as a treatment for PTSD. re-visiting of a novel approach to trauma-focused psychotherapy with Used just two or three times, under careful medical supervision and specialised psychotherapy support MDMA appears to facilitate the recall of traumatic memories without the user feeling overwhelmed by the negative affect that usually accompanies such memories. This therapeutic approach began in the 1980s and was subsequently shelved in the midst of public health concerns surrounding the recreational use of the drug ecstasy. When pharmaceutical grade MDMA is used in a clinical setting it does not share the same risk profiles as ecstasy. Recent phase one neurophysiological studies and phase two clinical studies are showing promise as a potential new approach to managing treatment-resistant PTSD. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing relations between PTSD's dysphoria and reexperiencing factors and dimensions of rumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith A Claycomb

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD dysphoria and reexperiencing factors and underlying dimensions of rumination. 304 trauma-exposed primary care patients were administered the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire, PTSD Symptom Scale based on their worst traumatic event, and Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTSQ. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs were conducted to determine the dysphoria and reexperiencing factors' relationships with the four factors of rumination. Results revealed that both the dysphoria and reexperiencing factors related more to problem-focused thinking and anticipatory thoughts than counterfactual thinking. Additionally, the reexperiencing factor related more to anticipatory thinking than repetitive thinking. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  16. Different regional gray matter loss in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gray matter loss in the limbic structures was found in recent onset post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients. In the present study, we measured regional gray matter volume in trauma survivors to verify the hypothesis that stress may cause different regional gray matter loss in trauma survivors with and without recent onset PTSD. METHOD: High resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were obtained from coal mine flood disaster survivors with (n = 10 and without (n = 10 recent onset PTSD and 20 no trauma exposed normal controls. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM method was used to measure the regional gray matter volume in three groups, the correlations of PTSD symptom severities with the gray matter volume in trauma survivors were also analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS: Compared with normal controls, recent onset PTSD patients had smaller gray matter volume in left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and non PTSD subjects had smaller gray matter volume in the right pulvinar and left pallidum. The gray matter volume of the trauma survivors correlated negatively with CAPS scores in the right frontal lobe, left anterior and middle cingulate cortex, bilateral cuneus cortex, right middle occipital lobe, while in the recent onset PTSD, the gray matter volume correlated negatively with CAPS scores in bilateral superior medial frontal lobe and right ACC. CONCLUSION: The present study identified gray matter loss in different regions in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure. The gray matter volume of left dorsal ACC associated with the development of PTSD, while the gray matter volume of right pulvinar and left pallidum associated with the response to the severe stress. The atrophy of the frontal and limbic cortices predicts the symptom severities of the PTSD.

  17. An alternative interpretation of cellular 'selfish spermatogonial selection'-clusters in the human testis indicates the need for 3-D-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, E; Gromoll, J; Kliesch, S; Wistuba, J

    2016-03-01

    The 'selfish spermatogonial selection'- model was proposed to explain the paternal age effect (PAE) of some congenital disorders associated with point mutations in male germ cells. According to this, spermatogonia carrying pathogenic mutations gain a selection advantage over non-mutated spermatogonia which leads to an increased number of mutated spermatogonia and consequently spermatozoa over time. Recently, an immunohistochemical approach using the premeiotic marker melanoma antigen family A4 (MAGE A4) was undertaken by the Wilkie group to confirm the presence of microclones of putatively mutated spermatogonia in testes of elderly men. The objective of our study was the age-dependent assessment of testes from men with normal spermatogenesis using MAGE A4 immunohistochemistry to identify and corroborate cellular clusters indicative for 'selfish spermatogonial selection' in our cohort. We analyzed testicular tissues obtained from men with normal spermatogenesis assigned to three age groups [(1) 28.8 ± 2.7 years; (2) 48.1 ± 1 years; (3) 71.9 ± 6.8 years, n/group = 8]. We could detect very similar distribution patterns of MAGE A4-positive cells and the presence of several types of microclusters as reported previously. However, these cellular clusters, indicative for clonal expansion, were not only present in testes from elderly men but also in those from age group 1 and 2. Using graphical three-dimensional modelling, we identified that cross-section directions e.g. longitudinal sections might provoke misleading interpretation of spermatogonial clusters, in particular when the tissue processing is limited. Thus, appropriate fixation and embedding is needed for reliable analysis of testicular sections. We therefore propose a more careful interpretation of such spermatogonial clusters and recommend a 3-D analysis to unequivocally determine 'selfish spermatogonial selection'-manifestations.

  18. The impact of different diagnostic criteria on PTSD prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja; Lasgaard, Mathias; Spindler, Helle

    2007-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria for PTSD have undergone several changes in the last two decades. This may in part explain the great variance in PTSD prevalence found in existing research. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of different diagnostic criteria and different combinatio...

  19. Childhood Maltreatment, PTSD, and Suicidal Behavior among African American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Lane, Danielle Bradshaw; Kingree, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates how childhood maltreatment and current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) predict nonfatal suicide attempts among 335 African American women. PTSD in combination with any of the maltreatments of childhood increased the risk of suicide attempts. Suggests that interventions designed to reduce suicidal behavior should focus on women…

  20. The impact of different diagnostic criteria on PTSD prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja; Lasgaard, Mathias; Spindler, Helle

    2007-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria for PTSD have undergone several changes in the last two decades. This may in part explain the great variance in PTSD prevalence found in existing research. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of different diagnostic criteria and different combinatio...

  1. Revisiting propranolol and PTSD: Memory erasure or extinction enhancement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustino, Thomas F; Fitzgerald, Paul J; Maren, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been described as the only neuropsychiatric disorder with a known cause, yet effective behavioral and pharmacotherapies remain elusive for many afflicted individuals. PTSD is characterized by heightened noradrenergic signaling, as well as a resistance to extinction learning. Research aimed at promoting more effective treatment of PTSD has focused on memory erasure (disrupting reconsolidation) and/or enhancing extinction retention through pharmacological manipulations. Propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, has received considerable attention for its therapeutic potential in PTSD, although its impact on patients is not always effective. In this review, we briefly examine the consequences of β-noradrenergic manipulations on both reconsolidation and extinction learning in rodents and in humans. We suggest that propranolol is effective as a fear-reducing agent when paired with behavioral therapy soon after trauma when psychological stress is high, possibly preventing or dampening the later development of PTSD. In individuals who have already suffered from PTSD for a significant period of time, propranolol may be less effective at disrupting reconsolidation of strong fear memories. Also, when PTSD has already developed, chronic treatment with propranolol may be more effective than acute intervention, given that individuals with PTSD tend to experience long-term, elevated noradrenergic hyperarousal.

  2. [Development and Validation of a Screening Instrument for Complex PTSD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Florence; Firus, Christian; Kramer, Rolf; Bengel, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    Chronic interpersonal traumata systematically result in psychological impairments referred to as complex post-traumatic stress disorder (cPTSD or DESNOS). This diagnosis will be newly established in the ICD-11 system. However, there is need for diagnostic instruments to assess cPTSD. The aim was to develop a screening form to identify patients at risk for cPTSD. The Screening for complex PTSD (SkPTBS) tests a) experience of potential traumatic events, b) related influential features and risk factors, and c) symptoms of cPTSD. 325 patients (mean age 51.5±8.7 years; 62.1% female) filled out the screening instrument at the beginning of their inpatient psychotherapy. The primary criterion for testing SkPTBS validity was the diagnosis of complex PTSD at the end of the inpatient treatment. The proportion of patients with cPTSD was 8.9% (n=29). SkPTBS items were selective, and the scale showed very good reliability (α=0.91). Factor analysis revealed a one-dimensional structure. SkPTBS total values predicted having cPTSD diagnosis and were correlated with global symptom severity (SCL-90-R) and depressive symptoms (BDI-II). There is evidence for high clinical utility of SkPTBS. A revised version was developed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Pathways to PTSD, part I: Children with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Glenn N; Stoddard, Frederick; Hall, Erin; Chawla, Neharika; Lopez, Carlos; Sheridan, Robert; King, Daniel; King, Lynda; Yehuda, Rachel

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a model of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a group of acutely burned children. Seventy-two children between the ages of 7 and 17 who were admitted to the hospital for an acute burn were eligible for study. Members of families who consented completed the Child PTSD Reaction Index, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, and other self-report measures of psychopathology and environmental stress both during the hospitalization and 3 months following the burn. A path analytic strategy was used to build a model of risk factors for PTSD. Two pathways to PTSD were discerned: 1) from the size of the burn and level of pain following the burn to the child's level of acute separation anxiety, and then to PTSD, and 2) from the size of the burn to the child's level of acute dissociation following the burn, and then to PTSD. Together these pathways accounted for almost 60% of the variance in PTSD symptoms and constituted a model with excellent fit indices. These findings support a model of complex etiology for childhood PTSD in which two independent pathways may be mediated by different biobehavioral systems.

  4. Psychophysiological assessment of PTSD: a potential research domain criteria construct.

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    Bauer, Margaret R; Ruef, Anna M; Pineles, Suzanne L; Japuntich, Sandra J; Macklin, Michael L; Lasko, Natasha B; Orr, Scott P

    2013-09-01

    Most research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relies on clinician-administered interview and self-report measures to establish the presence/absence and severity of the disorder. Accurate diagnosis of PTSD is made challenging by the presence of symptoms shared with other psychopathologies and the subjective nature of patients' descriptions of their symptoms. A physiological assessment capable of reliably "diagnosing" PTSD could provide adjunctive information that might mitigate these diagnostic limitations. In the present study, we examined the construct validity of a potential psychophysiological measure of PTSD, that is, psychophysiological reactivity to script-driven imagery (SDI-PR), as measured against the current diagnostic "gold-standard" for PTSD, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Convergent and predictive validity and stability were examined. Thirty-six individuals completed an SDI-PR procedure, the CAPS, and self-report measures of mental and physical health at their initial visit and approximately 6 months later. SDI-PR and the CAPS demonstrated excellent stability across measurement occasions. SDI-PR showed moderately strong convergent validity with the CAPS. After adjusting for self-reported depression, predictive validity for the CAPS, with regard to health sequelae, was reduced, whereas it remained mostly unchanged for SDI-PR. Findings support SDI-PR as a valid and stable measure of PTSD that captures a pathophysiologic process in individuals with PTSD. Results are discussed with regard to the research domain criteria framework.

  5. De Novo Assembly and Genome Analyses of the Marine-Derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis Strain LF580 Unravels Life-Style Traits and Anticancerous Scopularide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Henrissat, Bernard; Arvas, Mikko; Syed, Muhammad Fahad; Thieme, Nils; Benz, J. Philipp; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Record, Eric; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Kempken, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The marine-derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain LF580 produces scopularides A and B, which have anticancerous properties. We carried out genome sequencing using three next-generation DNA sequencing methods. De novo hybrid assembly yielded 621 scaffolds with a total size of 32.2 Mb and 16298 putative gene models. We identified a large non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (nrps1) and supporting pks2 gene in the same biosynthetic gene cluster. This cluster and the genes within the cluster are functionally active as confirmed by RNA-Seq. Characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes and major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type transporters lead to postulate S. brevicaulis originated from a soil fungus, which came into contact with the marine sponge Tethya aurantium. This marine sponge seems to provide shelter to this fungus and micro-environment suitable for its survival in the ocean. This study also builds the platform for further investigations of the role of life-style and secondary metabolites from S. brevicaulis. PMID:26505484

  6. De Novo Assembly and Genome Analyses of the Marine-Derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis Strain LF580 Unravels Life-Style Traits and Anticancerous Scopularide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Henrissat, Bernard; Arvas, Mikko; Syed, Muhammad Fahad; Thieme, Nils; Benz, J Philipp; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Record, Eric; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Kempken, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The marine-derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain LF580 produces scopularides A and B, which have anticancerous properties. We carried out genome sequencing using three next-generation DNA sequencing methods. De novo hybrid assembly yielded 621 scaffolds with a total size of 32.2 Mb and 16298 putative gene models. We identified a large non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (nrps1) and supporting pks2 gene in the same biosynthetic gene cluster. This cluster and the genes within the cluster are functionally active as confirmed by RNA-Seq. Characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes and major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type transporters lead to postulate S. brevicaulis originated from a soil fungus, which came into contact with the marine sponge Tethya aurantium. This marine sponge seems to provide shelter to this fungus and micro-environment suitable for its survival in the ocean. This study also builds the platform for further investigations of the role of life-style and secondary metabolites from S. brevicaulis.

  7. PTSD in railroad drivers under the Federal employers' liability act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Farrell, J Michael

    2006-01-01

    Railroad and subway drivers can experience psychological trauma when trains strike or nearly miss other trains, motor vehicles, or persons or become instruments of death. Derailments, collisions, and suicides on the tracks can induce feelings of helplessness, horror, guilt, and anxiety in the drivers. Although some drivers experience acute stress disorder (ASD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), their conditions are not always acknowledged within the occupational setting. The world literature suggests that PTSD has been an increasing focus of concern, giving rise to detailed intervention protocols. In the United States, the Federal Employers' Liability Act (FELA) governs the adjudication of work-related injuries among railroad employees. In practice, it is difficult for railroad drivers with PTSD to receive benefits if there was no "direct impact" linked to the employer's negligence. In this article, the authors review the literature on PTSD among railroad drivers, discuss relevant case law, and explain how the FELA militates against some employees with PTSD.

  8. ‘Feeling of despair’ as the leading cluster theme of conceptual descriptive analyses in participatory assessment: Russia Oxfam GB case study

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    Venera Zakirova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study on participatory assessment based on experience gained from an EU–Oxfam GB project entitled “Empowering Municipalities to Effectively Address Poverty” conducted in five small towns in Russia. Participatory assessment through focus group discussions (FGDs was the main approach used in the implementation of the project. A participatory assessment was performed through 25 FGDs in five remote areas in central Russia. More than 200 participants representing people living in poverty, such as single mothers, people with disabilities, families with many children, families with disabled children, and pensioners, voluntarily participated in the meetings. Most of the participants were women (75% aged between 25 and 70 years. We consider that the participants’ representation is relevant in accordance with the official poverty studies. Through identification of patterns of recurrent ideas and opinions, a qualitative method helps us understand social phenomena from the views of and on the basis of the opinions of the participants. The FGDs’ narratives underwent pattern analysis, resulting in the framing of the cluster themes and narrative conceptualization. Cluster analysis of the FGDs’ narratives led to the framing of 10 cluster themes of importance, followed by conceptual descriptions and related narratives. The conceptual description of the leading theme, feeling of despair (theme 1, was described by respondents’ expressions/narratives, such as “Nobody needs us and there is no future for us and our children in this town,” the narrative idea that crosscuts the subsequent themes. The following nine themes are of equal importance, are interlinked, and for the major part constitute the leading theme, feeling of despair (theme 1: state social and family support (theme 2; health care (theme 3; who are those living in poverty? (theme 4; housing (theme 5; living costs (theme 6; employment (theme 7; children

  9. Coping Self-Efficacy Moderates the Association Between Severity of Partner Violence and PTSD Symptoms Among Incarcerated Women.

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    DeCou, Christopher R; Lynch, Shannon M; Cole, Trevor T; Kaplan, Stephanie P

    2015-10-01

    Previous research indicates self-efficacy may function as a protective factor for survivors of partner violence (PV), including coping self-efficacy specific to domestic violence. We hypothesized that domestic violence coping self-efficacy would moderate the association between recent PV and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of incarcerated women, such that the association between PV and PTSD would be strongest at low levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy. Participants (N = 102) were incarcerated women who reported PV in the year prior to incarceration. They were aged 19-55 years (M = 33.57, SD = 9.32), identified predominantly as European American (84.3%), American Indian (15.7%), and Hispanic (14.7%), with 80.4% completing high school or more in terms of education. Participants responded to self-report measures of PV, trauma history, domestic violence coping self-efficacy, and current PTSD symptoms. In a series of sequential regression analyses, PV (β = .65, sr(2) = .06, p = .017) was significantly associated with current PTSD symptoms above and beyond past trauma history (β = .37, sr(2) = .14, p self-efficacy (Domestic Violence Coping Self-Efficacy × Partner Violence; β = -.54, sr(2) = .03, p = .044). The relationship between PV and PTSD symptoms was greatest at low and average levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy and nonsignificant at high levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy. These findings highlight the importance of assessing domestic violence coping self-efficacy in incarcerated women with recent PV, given that domestic violence coping self-efficacy appeared to be protective against symptoms of PTSD.

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of 7-Day Intensive and Standard Weekly Cognitive Therapy for PTSD and Emotion-Focused Supportive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Anke; Hackmann, Ann; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Liness, Sheena; Albert, Idit; Deale, Alicia; Stott, Richard; Clark, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are usually delivered once or twice weekly over several months. It is unclear whether they can be successfully delivered over a shorter period of time. This clinical trial had two goals, (1) to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of a 7-day intensive version of cognitive therapy for PTSD, and (2) to investigate whether cognitive therapy has specific treatment effects by comparing intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy with an equally credible alternative treatment. Method Patients with chronic PTSD (N=121) were randomly allocated to 7-day intensive or standard 3-month weekly cognitive therapy for PTSD, 3-month weekly emotion-focused supportive therapy, or a 14-week waitlist condition. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms and diagnosis as assessed by independent assessors and self-report. Secondary outcomes were disability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Measures were taken at initial assessment, 6 weeks and 14 weeks (post-treatment/wait). For groups receiving treatment, measures were also taken at 3 weeks, and follow-ups at 27 and 40 weeks after randomization. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Results At post-treatment/wait assessment, 73%, 77%, 43%, 7% of the intensive cognitive therapy, standard cognitive therapy, supportive therapy, and waitlist groups, respectively, had recovered from PTSD. All treatments were well tolerated and were superior to waitlist on all outcome measures, with the exception of no difference between supportive therapy and waitlist on quality of life. For primary outcomes, disability and general anxiety, intensive and standard cognitive therapy were superior to supportive therapy. Intensive cognitive therapy achieved faster symptom reduction and comparable overall outcomes to standard cognitive therapy. Conclusions Cognitive therapy for PTSD delivered intensively over little more than a week is as effective as cognitive therapy delivered

  11. The mediating roles of coping, sleep, and anxiety motives in cannabis use and problems among returning veterans with PTSD and MDD.

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    Metrik, Jane; Jackson, Kristina; Bassett, Shayna S; Zvolensky, Michael J; Seal, Karen; Borsari, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), the 2 most prevalent mental health disorders in the Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, are at increased risk for cannabis use and problems including cannabis use disorder (CUD). The present study examined the relationship of PTSD and MDD with cannabis use frequency, cannabis problems, and CUD as well as the role of 3 coping-oriented cannabis use motives (coping with negative affect, situational anxiety, and sleep) that might underlie this relationship. Participants were veterans (N = 301) deployed post-9/11/2001 recruited from a Veterans Health Administration facility in the Northeast United States based on self-reported lifetime cannabis use. There were strong unique associations between PTSD and MDD and cannabis use frequency, cannabis problems, and CUD. Mediation analyses revealed the 3 motives accounted, in part, for the relationship between PTSD and MDD with 3 outcomes in all cases but for PTSD with cannabis problems. When modeled concurrently, sleep motives, but not situational anxiety or coping with negative affect motives, significantly mediated the association between PTSD and MDD with use. Together with coping motives, sleep motives also fully mediated the effects of PTSD and MDD on CUD and in part the effect of MDD on cannabis problems. Findings indicate the important role of certain motives for better understanding the relation between PTSD and MDD with cannabis use and misuse. Future work is needed to explore the clinical utility in targeting specific cannabis use motives in the context of clinical care for mental health and CUD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. DSM-5 and ICD-11 as competing models of PTSD in preadolescent children exposed to a natural disaster: assessing validity and co-occurring symptomatology.

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    La Greca, Annette M; Danzi, BreAnne A; Chan, Sherilynn F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Major revisions have been made to the DSM and ICD models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is not known whether these models fit children's post-trauma responses, even though children are a vulnerable population following disasters. Objective: Using data from Hurricane Ike, we examined how well trauma-exposed children's symptoms fit the DSM-IV, DSM-5 and ICD-11 models, and whether the models varied by gender. We also evaluated whether elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety characterized children meeting PTSD criteria based on DSM-5 and ICD-11. Method: Eight-months post-disaster, children (N = 327, 7-11 years) affected by Hurricane Ike completed measures of PTSD, anxiety and depression. Algorithms approximated a PTSD diagnosis based on DSM-5 and ICD-11 models. Results: Using confirmatory factor analysis, ICD-11 had the best-fitting model, followed by DSM-IV and DSM-5. The ICD-11 model also demonstrated strong measurement invariance across gender. Analyses revealed poor overlap between DSM-5 and ICD-11, although children meeting either set of criteria reported severe PTSD symptoms. Further, children who met PTSD criteria for DSM-5, but not for ICD-11, reported significantly higher levels of depression and general anxiety than children not meeting DSM-5 criteria. Conclusions: Findings support the parsimonious ICD-11 model of PTSD for trauma-exposed children, although adequate fit also was obtained for DSM-5. Use of only one model of PTSD, be it DSM-5 or ICD-11, will likely miss children with significant post-traumatic stress. DSM-5 may identify children with high levels of comorbid symptomatology, which may require additional clinical intervention.

  13. Stress disorder and PTSD after burn injuries: a prospective study of predictors of PTSD at Sina Burn Center, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani1, Hemmat Maghsoudi2, Mohsen Soudmand-Niri3, Fatemeh Ranjbar4, Hossein Mashadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, Statistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health and Nutrition, 2Department of Surgery, 3School of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, 5National Public Health Management Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: A burn injury can be a traumatic experience with tremendous social, physical, and psychological consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and predictors of PTSD Checklist score initially and 3 months after injury in burns victims admitted to the Sina Burn Center in north-west Iran.Methods: This prospective study examined adult patients aged 16–65 years with unintentional burns. The PTSD Checklist was used to screen for PTSD.Results: Flame burns constituted 49.4% of all burns. Mean PTSD score was 23.8 ± 14.7 early in the hospitalization period and increased to 24.2 ± 14.3, 3 months after the burn injury. Twenty percent of victims 2 weeks into treatment had a positive PTSD screening test, and this figure increased to 31.5% after 3 months. The likelihood of developing a positive PTSD screening test increased significantly after 3 months (P < 0.01. Using multivariate regression analysis, factors independently predicting PTSD score were found to be age, gender, and percentage of total body surface area burned.Conclusion: PTSD was a problem in the population studied and should be managed appropriately after hospital admission due to burn injury. Male gender, younger age, and higher total body surface area burned may predict a higher PTSD score after burn injury. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, burn injury, predictors, Iran

  14. Higher FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 allele burdens are associated with PTSD and interact with trauma exposure: implications for neuropsychiatric research and treatment

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    Boscarino JA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph A Boscarino1,2, Porat M Erlich1,3, Stuart N Hoffman4, Xiaopeng Zhang51Center for Health Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 4Department of Neurology, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, USAObjective: The study aim was to assess the cumulative burden of polymorphisms located within four genetic loci previously associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among outpatients at risk for PTSD.Methods: Diagnostic interviews were completed and DNA samples collected among 412 pain patients to determine if FKBP5 (rs9470080, COMT (rs4680, CHRNA5 (rs16969968, and CRHR1 (rs110402 single nucleotide polymorphisms were cumulatively associated with increased risk for PTSD.Results: In bivariate analyses, it was found that a count of specific PTSD risk alleles located within FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genetic loci (allele range = 0–6, mean count = 2.92, standard deviation = 1.36 was associated with lifetime (t [409] = 3.430, P = 0.001 and early onset PTSD (t [409] = 4.239, P = 0.000028. In logistic regression, controlling for demographic factors, personality traits, and trauma exposures, this risk allele count remained associated with both lifetime (odds ratio = 1.49, P = 0.00158 and early onset PTSD (odds ratio = 2.36, P = 0.000093. Interaction effects were also detected, whereby individuals with higher risk allele counts and higher trauma exposures had an increased risk of lifetime PTSD (allele count × high trauma, P = 0.026 and early onset PTSD (allele count × high trauma, P = 0.016 in these logistic regressions. Those with no or few risk alleles appeared resilient to PTSD, regardless of exposure history.Conclusion: A cumulative risk allele count involving four single nucleotide polymorphisms located within the FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genes are associated with PTSD. Level of trauma exposure

  15. On the role of noradrenergic system in PTSD and related sleep disturbances. The use of terazosin in PTSD related nightmares: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salviati, M; Pallagrosi, M; Valeriani, G; Carlone, C; Todini, L; Biondi, M

    2013-01-01

    In PTSD, sleep disorders represent an important symptoms dimension which is associated with more severe PTSD and increased risk of relapse. The basic treatment for PTSD is not always associated to an improvement of sleep disturbances and nightmares. Alpha-blockers, and more specifically Prazosin, have shown a specific action on sleep disorders in PTSD. We report the clinical case of a young women with PTSD, who was suffering from severe sleep disorder and distressing nightmare. The patient was treated with Terazosin, a conger of Prazosin, and has shown symptom remission. Further studies on the use of alpha-blokers might reveal new therapeutic options in PTSD.

  16. Examining potential contraindications for prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD

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    Agnes van Minnen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although prolonged exposure (PE has received the most empirical support of any treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, clinicians are often hesitant to use PE due to beliefs that it is contraindicated for many patients with PTSD. This is especially true for PTSD patients with comorbid problems. Because PTSD has high rates of comorbidity, it is important to consider whether PE is indeed contraindicated for patients with various comorbid problems. Therefore, in this study, we examine the evidence for or against the use of PE with patients with problems that often co-occur with PTSD, including dissociation, borderline personality disorder, psychosis, suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury, substance use disorders, and major depression. It is concluded that PE can be safely and effectively used with patients with these comorbidities, and is often associated with a decrease in PTSD as well as the comorbid problem. In cases with severe comorbidity, however, it is recommended to treat PTSD with PE while providing integrated or concurrent treatment to monitor and address the comorbid problems.

  17. Cognitive therapy of trauma related guilt in patients with PTSD

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    Popiel, Agnieszka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects of guilt are frequent problems of patients suffering from PTSD, though they have been included into the diagnostic criteria for PTSD just in the present version DSM-5. Some studies indicate limitation of effectiveness of exposure therapy in PTSD patients with predominant emotions of anger or guilt. The aim of this paper is to present cognitive conceptualization of guilt in PTSD proposed by Kubany, and a treatment protocol resulting from this conceptualization. The clinical application of the protocol is illustrated with preliminary results of systematic observation of 8 patients with moderate to severe PTSD who were treated with cognitive therapy for guilt followed by a standard prolonged exposure protocol. The cognitive therapy of guilt can be a valuable supplement for treatment of PTSD. This protocol can also be an inspiration for therapists working with patients with dysfunctional guilt as a problem in other than PTSD disorders – like depression or adjustment disorders. In discussion the place of guilt in treatment according to different (PE-Foa et al.; CPT-Resick et al.; CT-Ehlers and Clark trauma focused therapy approaches is addressed, and the need for further studies is underlined.

  18. Targeting memory processes with drugs to prevent or cure PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Christopher K; Maynard, George D; Kehne, John H

    2012-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric disorder resulting from exposure to a severe traumatic stressor and an area of great unmet medical need. Advances in pharmacological treatments beyond the currently approved SSRIs are needed. Background on PTSD, as well as the neurobiology of stress responding and fear conditioning, is provided. Clinical and preclinical data for investigational agents with diverse pharmacological mechanisms are summarized. Advances in the understanding of stress biology and mechanisms of fear conditioning plasticity provide a rationale for treatment approaches that may reduce hyperarousal and dysfunctional aversive memories in PTSD. One challenge is to determine if these components are independent or reflect a common underlying neurobiological alteration. Numerous agents reviewed have potential for reducing PTSD core symptoms or targeted symptoms in chronic PTSD. Promising early data support drug approaches that seek to disrupt dysfunctional aversive memories by interfering with consolidation soon after trauma exposure, or in chronic PTSD, by blocking reconsolidation and/or enhancing extinction. Challenges remain for achieving selectivity when attempting to alter aversive memories. Targeting the underlying traumatic memory with a combination of pharmacological therapies applied with appropriate chronicity, and in combination with psychotherapy, is expected to substantially improve PTSD treatment.

  19. Anger intensification with combat-related PTSD and depression comorbidity.

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    Gonzalez, Oscar I; Novaco, Raymond W; Reger, Mark A; Gahm, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Anger is becoming more widely recognized for its involvement in the psychological adjustment problems of current war veterans. Recent research with combat veterans has found anger to be related to psychological distress, psychosocial functioning, and harm risk variables. Using behavioral health data for 2,077 treatment-seeking soldiers who had been deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, this study examined whether anger disposition was intensified for those who met screen-threshold criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Anger was assessed with a 7-item screening measure previously validated with the study population. The study tested the hypothesis that anger would be highest when "PTSD & MDD" were conjoined, compared with "PTSD only," "MDD only," and "no PTSD, no MDD." PTSD and depression were assessed with well-established screening instruments. A self-rated "wanting to harm others" variable was also incorporated. Age, gender, race, military component, military grade, and military unit social support served as covariates. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis, which was confirmed. Anger was intensified in the PTSD & MDD condition, in which it was significantly higher than in the other 3 conditions. Convergent support was obtained for "wanting to harm others" as an exploratory index. Given the high prevalence and co-occurrence of PTSD and MDD among veterans, the results have research and clinical practice relevance for systematic inclusion of anger assessment postdeployment from risk-assessment and screening standpoints. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. [Efficacy of HRV-biofeedback as additional treatment of depression and PTSD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blase, K L; van Dijke, A; Cluitmans, P J M; Vermetten, E

    2016-01-01

    Heartrate variability biofeedback (HRVB) is a non-invasive treatment in which patients are assumed to self-regulate a physiological dysregulated vagal nerve. Although the therapeutic approach of HRVB is promising in various stress-related disorders, it has only been offered on a regular basis in a few mental health treatment settings. To analyse the efficacy of HRV biofeedback as an additional psychophysiological treatment for depression and PTSD. Systematic review with search terms HRV, biofeedback, PTSD, depression, panic disorder and anxiety disorder. Our search of the literature yielded 789 studies. After critical appraisal using the GRADE method, we selected 6 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 4 relevant studies. The RCTs with control groups 'treatment as usual' and muscle relaxation training revealed significant clinical efficacy and better results than control conditions after 4 to 8 weeks training. Although this systematic review shows the popularity of HRV in literature, it does not indicate that HRVB really has been reviewed systematically. Significant outcomes of this limited number of randomised studies indicate there may be a clinical improvement when HRVB training is integrated into treatment of PTSD and depression, particularly when this integration procedure is combined with psychotherapy. More research needs to be done with larger groups and further efforts are needed to integrate HRVB into treatment of stress-related disorders in psychiatry. Future research also needs to focus on the psychophysiological mechanisms involved.

  1. PTSD and gene variants: new pathways and new thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Kelly; Ressler, Kerry J; Norrholm, Seth D; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley-Davino, Bekh

    2012-02-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder which can develop as a result of exposure to a traumatic event and is associated with significant functional impairment. Family and twin studies have found that risk for PTSD is associated with an underlying genetic vulnerability and that more than 30% of the variance associated with PTSD is related to a heritable component. Using a fear conditioning model to conceptualize the neurobiology of PTSD, three primary neuronal systems have been investigated - the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system, and neurocircuitry interconnecting the limbic system and frontal cortex. The majority of the initial investigations into main effects of candidate genes hypothesized to be associated with PTSD risk have been negative, but studies examining the interaction of genetic polymorphisms with specific environments in predicting PTSD have produced several positive results which have increased our understanding of the determinants of risk and resilience in the aftermath of trauma. Promising avenues of inquiry into the role of epigenetic modification have also been proposed to explain the enduring impact of environmental exposures which occur during key, often early, developmental periods on gene expression. Studies of PTSD endophenotypes, which are heritable biomarkers associated with a circumscribed trait within the more complex psychiatric disorder, may be more directly amenable to analysis of the underlying genetics and neural pathways and have provided promising targets for elucidating the neurobiology of PTSD. Knowledge of the genetic underpinnings and neuronal pathways involved in the etiology and maintenance of PTSD will allow for improved targeting of primary prevention amongst vulnerable individuals or populations, as well as timely, targeted treatment interventions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  2. Pilot Investigation of PTSD, Autonomic Reactivity, and Cardiovascular Health in Physically Healthy Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Ashley N.; Aupperle, Robin L.; Sisante, Jason-Flor V.; Wilson, David R.; Billinger, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and combat-related PTSD in particular, has been associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular-related death. However, less research has examined possible factors that may link PTSD to poorer cardiovascular health in combat veteran populations. The current pilot study investigated whether psychological symptomology and autonomic reactivity to emotional scripts would relate to poorer cardiovascular health in combat veterans without a current diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Male veterans (N = 24), who served in combat since Operation Iraqi Freedom, completed a semi-structured interview and self-report measures to assess psychological symptomology. Autonomic reactivity, measured using heart rate variability (HRV; low to high frequency ratio), was obtained during script-driven imagery of emotional memories. Cardiovascular health was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Correlational analyses and discriminant analysis were used to assess the relationship between psychological symptoms (PTSD, depression, anger, as measured via self-report), autonomic reactivity to emotional scripts (HRV), and FMD. Overall, veterans in the current study showed poor cardiovascular health despite their relatively young age and lack of behavioral risk factors, with 15/24 exhibiting impaired FMD (FMD < 5%). Psychological symptomology was not associated with FMD; whereas autonomic reactivity to emotional (compared to neutral) scripts was found to relate to FMD. Autonomic reactivity to negative scripts correctly classified 76.5% of veterans as having impaired versus normative FMD. Results from this pilot study highlight the importance of cardiovascular screening with combat veterans despite psychological diagnosis. Results also support the need for longitudinal research assessing the use of autonomic reactivity to emotionally valenced stimuli as a potential risk factor for poorer

  3. The relationship between forgiveness, spirituality, traumatic guilt and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people with addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Louise; Chung, Man Cheung

    2013-03-01

    Spirituality and forgiveness have been shown to be associated with psychological well-being, while guilt has been associated with poor health. Little is known, however, about the relationship between forgiveness, spirituality, guilt, posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and psychological co-morbidity among people in recovery from addiction. Eighty-one people (F = 36, M = 45) in recovery from drug and alcohol addiction were recruited from two residential units and two drop-in centres in a city in the United Kingdom. They completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS), the Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS), the Traumatic Guilt Inventory (TGI), the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-22) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-20). The control group comprised of 83 (F = 34, M = 49) individuals who confirmed that they did not have addiction and completed the PDS & GHQ-28. 54 % of the addiction group met the criteria for full PTSD and reported anxiety, somatic problems and depression. They described themselves as spiritual, had strong feelings of guilt associated with their addiction, and had difficulty in forgiving themselves. Controlling for demographics, number of events and medication management, regression analyses showed that spirituality predicted psychological co-morbidity, whilst feelings of guilt predicted PTSD symptoms and psychological co-morbidity. Unexpectedly, forgiveness did not predict outcomes. This study supports existing literature, which shows that people with drug and alcohol addiction tend to have experienced significant past trauma and PTSD symptoms. Their posttraumatic stress reactions and associated psychological difficulties can be better understood in the light of guilt and spirituality. Meanwhile, their ability to forgive themselves or others did not seem to influence health outcomes.

  4. Latent profiles of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms and the "Big Five" personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Armour, Cherie; Shea, M Tracie; Mota, Natalie; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Typologies of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms and personality traits were evaluated in regard to coping styles and treatment preferences using data from 1266 trauma-exposed military veterans of which the majority were male (n=1097; weighted 89.6%). Latent profile analyses indicated a best-fitting 5-class solution; PTSD asymptomatic and emotionally stable (C1); predominant re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms and less emotionally stable (C2); subsyndromal PTSD (C3); predominant negative alterations in mood/cognitions and combined internalizing-externalizing traits (C4); and high PTSD severity and combined internalizing-externalizing traits (C5). Compared to C5, C1 members were less likely to use self-distraction, denial, and substance use and more likely to use active coping; C2 and C4 members were less likely to use denial and more likely to use behavioral disengagement; C3 members were less likely to use denial and instrumental coping and more likely to use active coping; most classes were less likely to seek mental health treatment. Compared to C1, C2 members were more likely to use self-distraction, substance use, behavioral disengagement and less likely to use active coping; C3 members were more likely to use self-distraction, and substance use, and less likely to use positive reframing, and acceptance; and C4 members were more likely to use denial, substance use, emotional support, and behavioral disengagement, and less likely to use active coping, positive reframing, and acceptance; all classes were more likely to seek mental health treatment. Emotional stability was most distinguishing of the typologies. Other implications are discussed.

  5. Mental health and PTSD in female North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gisoo; Lee, Suk Jeong

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify mental health status, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychophysiological change in female North Korean refugees. Data were collected using questionnaires and symptom checklists that measured PTSD and the psychosomatic state of the subjects. As many as 97 subjects, who had settled in and around Seoul, South Korea, were selected by snowball sampling. Mental health and PTSD levels of the participants were above a moderate level. We conclude that health care professionals need to provide female North Korean defectors with services to improve mental health and make the sociocultural transition successfully.

  6. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION FOR PTSD IN COLOMBIAN COMBAT VETERANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA BOTERO GARCÍA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of cognitive-behavioral group interventions applied from 2002 to 2004 to 42 colombian combat veteranswith Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD are presented. The goal of the study was to stablish the effectiveness ofthe group interventions based in Prolonged Exposition and Stress Inoculation treatment processes. Differencesbetween pre-in-post symptomatology scores of PTSD were measured by Foa Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale(PDS and the Beck Depression Inventory. The statistical analysis was made by t test for paired samples, with alpha of0.05. Results show significant decrease in symptomatology and severity level after the intervention both in depressionand PTSD symptoms.

  7. The factor structures and correlates of PTSD in post-conflict Timor-Leste: an analysis of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Mohsin, Mohammed; Rees, Susan; Steel, Zachary; Tam, Natalino; Soares, Zelia; Baker, Jessica; Silove, Derrick

    2017-05-22

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most widely assessed form of mental distress in cross-cultural studies conducted amongst populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement. Nevertheless, there have been longstanding concerns about the universality of PTSD as a diagnostic category when applied across cultures. One approach to examining this question is to assess whether the same factor structure can be identified in culturally diverse populations as has been described in populations of western societies. We examine this issue based on an analysis of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) completed by a large community sample in conflict-affected Timor-Leste. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess exposure to conflict-related traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversities, symptoms of PTSD and psychological distress, and functional impairment amongst a large population sample (n = 2964, response rate: 82.4%) in post-conflict Timor-Leste. Confirmatory factor analyses of the ICD-10, ICD-11, DSM-IV, four-factor Emotional Numbing and five-factor Dysphoric-Arousal PTSD structures, found considerable support for all these models. Based on these classifications, concurrent validity was indicated by logistic regression analyses which showed that being a woman, trauma exposure, ongoing adversity, severe distress, and functional impairment were all associated with PTSD. Although symptom prevalence estimates varied widely based on different classifications, our study found a general agreement in PTSD assignments across contemporary diagnostic systems in a large conflict-affected population in Timor-Leste. Further studies are needed, however, to establish the construct and concurrent validity of PTSD in other cultures.

  8. Psychological Mechanisms of PTSD and Its Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Rebecca K; Rauch, Sheila A M; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-11-01

    Psychological mechanisms can be defined as processes or events that are responsible for specific changes in psychological outcomes. In psychotherapy research, mechanisms are the factors through which interventions produce change. In this article, we explain the importance of identifying psychological mechanisms, describe methods for identifying them, and analyze recent literature on the psychological mechanisms underlying the development and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Based on the findings of recent investigations (from 2013 to present), we focus on four putative mechanisms: emotional engagement, extinction and contextualization, distress tolerance, and negative posttraumatic cognitions. Future directions for psychological mechanism research are also outlined, including possible opportunities for capitalizing on the most promising mechanisms identified to date.

  9. Dhurrin metabolism in the developing grain of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench investigated by metabolite profiling and novel clustering analyses of time-resolved transcriptomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Janniche; Stuart, Peter; Pičmanová, Martina;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The important cereal crop Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench biosynthesize and accumulate the defensive compound dhurrin during development. Previous work has suggested multiple roles for the compound including a function as nitrogen storage/buffer. Crucial for this function is the endogenous...... turnover of dhurrin for which putative pathways have been suggested but not confirmed. Results: In this study, the biosynthesis and endogenous turnover of dhurrin in the developing sorghum grain was studied by metabolite profiling and time-resolved transcriptome analyses. Dhurrin was found to accumulate...... analyses coupled with metabolite profiling, identified gene candidates involved in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in sorghum. Conclusions: The results presented in this article reveal the existence of two endogenous dhurrin turnover pathways in sorghum, identify genes putatively involved...

  10. Gender differences in relationships among PTSD severity, drinking motives, and alcohol use in a comorbid alcohol dependence and PTSD sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Luterek, Jane A; Kaysen, Debra; Simpson, Tracy L

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions associated with a significant level of impairment. Little systematic study has focused on gender differences specific to individuals with both AD and PTSD. The current study examined gender-specific associations between PTSD symptom severity, drinking to cope (i.e., reduce negative affect), drinking for enhancement (i.e., increase positive affect), and average alcohol use in a clinical sample of men (n = 46) and women (n = 46) with comorbid AD and PTSD. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were highly associated with drinking-to-cope motives for both men and women, but with greater drinking for enhancement motives for men only. Enhancement motives were positively associated with average alcohol quantity for both men and women, but coping motives were significantly associated with average alcohol quantity for women only. These findings suggest that for individuals with comorbid AD and PTSD, interventions that focus on reducing PTSD symptoms are likely to lower coping motives for both genders, and targeting coping motives is likely to result in decreased drinking for women but not for men, whereas targeting enhancement motives is likely to lead to reduced drinking for both genders.

  11. Spontaneous Remission From PTSD Depends on the Number of Traumatic Event Types Experienced

    OpenAIRE

    Kolassa, Iris; Ertl, Verena; Eckart, Cindy; Kolassa, Stephan; Onyut, Lamaro Patience; Elbert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    As exposure to different types of traumatic stressors increases, the prevalence of PTSD increases. However, little is known about the effects of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress on the maintenance and remission from PTSD. In 2006/2007, we investigated 444 refugees from the 1994 Rwandan genocide, assessing exposure to traumatic events, current and lifetime PTSD, and PTSD symptom severity. Higher trauma exposure was associated with higher prevalence of current and lifetime PTSD, with low...

  12. An evaluation of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD criteria in a sample of adult survivors of childhood institutional abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Knefel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : The WHO recently launched the proposal for the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11 that also includes two diagnoses related to traumatic stress. In contrast to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5, ICD-11 will probably, in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, also define a new diagnosis termed “complex posttraumatic stress disorder” (CPTSD. Objective : We aimed to apply the proposed ICD-11 criteria for PTSD and CPTSD and to compare their prevalence to the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases [10th revision] PTSD prevalence. In addition, we compiled a list of symptoms for CPTSD based on subthreshold PTSD so as to include a wider group of individuals. Methods : To evaluate the appropriateness of the WHO ICD-11 proposal compared to the criteria of ICD-10, we applied the newly introduced criteria for PTSD and CPTSD deriving from the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI scales, to a sample of adult survivors (N=229 of childhood institutional abuse. We evaluated the construct validity of CPTSD using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Results : More individuals fulfilled the criteria for PTSD according to ICD-10 (52.8% than the ICD-11 proposal (17% for PTSD only; 38.4% if combined with complex PTSD. The new version of PTSD neutralized the gender effects. The prevalence of CPTSD was 21.4%, and women had a significantly higher rate of CPTSD than men (40.4 and 15.8%, respectively. Those survivors who were diagnosed with CPTSD experienced institutional abuse for a longer time. CFA showed a strong model fit. Conclusion : CPTSD is a highly relevant classification for individuals with complex trauma history, but surprisingly, effects of gender were apparent. Further research should thus address gender effects.

  13. Principal factor and hierarchical cluster analyses for the performance assessment of an urban wastewater treatment plant in the Southeast of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayo, Javier; López-Castellanos, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Process performance and operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are carried out to ensure their compliance with legislative requirements imposed by European Union. Because a high amount of variables are daily measured, a coherent and structured approach of such a system is required to understand its inherent behavior and performance efficiency. In this sense, both principal factor analysis (PFA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) are multivariate techniques that have been widely applied to extract and structure information for different purposes. In this paper, both statistical tools are applied in an urban WWTP situated in the Southeast of Spain, a zone with special characteristics related to the geochemical background composition of water and an important use of fertilizers. Four main factors were extracted in association with nutrients, the ionic component, the organic load to the WWTP, and the efficiency of the whole process. HCA allowed distinguish between influent and effluent parameters, although a deeper examination resulted in a dendrogram with groupings similar to those previously reported for PFA.

  14. Two Different Protocols for Knee Joint Motion Analyses in the Stance Phase of Gait: Correlation of the Rigid Marker Set and the Point Cluster Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fukaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. There are no reports comparing the protocols provided by rigid marker set (RMS and point cluster technique (PCT, which are similar in terms of estimating anatomical landmarks based on markers attached to a segment. The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation of the two different protocols, which are protocols for knee motion in gait, and identify whether measurement errors arose at particular periods during the stance phase. Methods. The study subjects were 10 healthy adults. All estimated anatomical landmarks were which their positions, calculated by each protocol of the PCT and RMS, were compared using Pearson’s product correlation coefficients. To examine the reliability of the angle changes of the knee joint measured by RMS and the PCT, the coefficient of multiple correlations (CMCs was used. Results. Although the estimates of the anatomical landmarks showed high correlations of >0.90 (<0.01 for the Y- and Z-coordinates, the correlations were low for the X-coordinates at all anatomical landmarks. The CMC was 0.94 for flexion/extension, 0.74 for abduction/adduction, and 0.71 for external/internal rotation. Conclusion. Flexion/extension and abduction/adduction of the knee by two different protocols had comparatively little error and good reliability after 30% of the stance phase.

  15. Intermittent explosive disorder: associations with PTSD and other Axis I disorders in a US military veteran sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Annemarie F; Hein, Christina L; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Ryabchenko, Karen; Miller, Mark W

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of intermittent explosive disorder (IED) and its associations with trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other psychiatric diagnoses in a sample of trauma-exposed veterans (n=232) with a high prevalence of PTSD. Structural associations between IED and latent dimensions of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were also modeled to examine the location of IED within this influential structure. Twenty-four percent of the sample met criteria for a lifetime IED diagnosis and those with the diagnosis were more likely to meet criteria for lifetime PTSD than those without (30.3% vs. 14.3% respectively). Furthermore, regression analyses revealed lifetime PTSD severity to be a significant predictor of IED severity after controlling for combat, trauma exposure, and age. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis revealed significant cross-loadings of IED on both the externalizing and distress dimensions of psychopathology, suggesting that the association between IED and other psychiatric disorders may reflect underlying tendencies toward impulsivity and aggression and generalized distress and negative emotionality, respectively.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of posttrauma distorted beliefs: evaluating DSM-5 PTSD expanded cognitive symptoms in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Keith S; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2014-06-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) modified the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including expanding the scope of dysfunctional, posttrauma changes in belief (symptoms D2-persistent negative beliefs and expectations about oneself or the world, and D3-persistent distorted blame of self or others for the cause or consequences of the traumatic event). D2 and D3 were investigated using a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 2,498) recruited from an online panel. The prevalence of D2 and D3 was substantially higher among those with lifetime PTSD than among trauma-exposed individuals without lifetime PTSD (D2: 74.6% vs 23.9%; D3: 80.6% vs 35.7%). In multivariate analyses, the strongest associates of D2 were interpersonal assault (OR = 2.39), witnessing interpersonal assault (OR = 1.63), gender (female, OR = 2.11), and number of reported traumatic events (OR = 1.88). The strongest correlates of D3 were interpersonal assault (OR = 3.08), witnessing interpersonal assault (OR = 1.57), gender (female, OR = 2.30), and number of reported traumatic events (OR = 1.91). The findings suggested the expanded cognitive symptoms in the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria better capture the cognitive complexity of PTSD than those of the DSM-IV.

  17. Treatment of residual insomnia after CBT for PTSD: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeViva, Jason C; Zayfert, Claudia; Pigeon, Wilfred R; Mellman, Thomas A

    2005-04-01

    Insomnia is one of the most common symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Evidence suggests that insomnia may persist for many PTSD patients after other symptoms have responded to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The present article reports the effects of administering a five-session cognitive-behavioral insomnia treatment to 5 patients who responded to CBT for PTSD yet continued to report insomnia. Insomnia treatment was associated with improvements on subjective sleep measures (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, and Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale) and self-monitored sleep efficiency and related measures in 4 of 5 cases. Results highlight issues specific to treating insomnia in trauma populations and future directions for examining treatment of insomnia associated with PTSD.

  18. [Historical perspective of PTSD and future revision in DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoshiharu

    2012-01-01

    One of prototypes of PTSD is a fright neurosis conceptualized by Kraepelin and is on the line of traditional psychogenic reaction category defined by Sommers in so far as the re-experience symptoms reflects the content of a traumatic experience. Other key components of PTSD, such as avoidance of traumatic memory and hyperarousal, overlap respectively with dissociative disorders and the somatoform autonomic dysfunction (ICD-10), which may consist, together with comorbid mood and anxiety disorders of PTSD, a spectrum of posttraumatic mental disorders. The DSM-5 draft of PTSD restricts the category in terms of the event and re-experience criterion, put an emphasis upon dissociation and enlarges numbing symptom in that it is re-categorized as a cognitive and affective alterations to be separated from avoidance symptom. This change partly reflects insight into the nature of the disorder brought by CBT-based clinical experience.

  19. Vintage treatments for PTSD: a reconsideration of tricyclic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Serotonin (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine (SNRI) reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are the first-line recommended drug treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); but despite their benefits, much residual pathology remains and no new drugs have yet emerged with a clearly demonstrated benefit for treating the disorder. A case is made that tricyclic drugs deserve a closer look, based on their ability to affect several of the main neurotransmitters that are relevant to PTSD. Their promising efficacy, which was shown 30 years ago, had not been followed up, until a recent trial of desipramine found advantages over a SSRI in PTSD with comorbid alcohol dependence. Opportunities exist for studying newer and purportedly safer tricyclic formulations, as well as further the work with older, established compounds. A reappraisal of their risk:benefit ratio seems in order, when treating PTSD.

  20. Using qualitative evidence to optimize child PTSD treatment guidelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesel, F. van; Alisic, E.; Boeije, H.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of patients’ perspectives in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly emphasized in recent years. However, qualitative evidence regarding these perspectives, is not systematically included in treatment guidelines. The possibilities of adding systematically

  1. Multimodal PTSD characterization via the StartleMart game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgard, C.; Yannakakis, G. N.; Martinez, H. P.

    2015-01-01

    at the treatment of mental diagnoses such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). For that purpose, we couple game design and game technology to create a game-based tool for exposure therapy and stress inoculation training that utilizes stress detection for the automatic profiling and potential personalization...... of PTSD treatments. The PTSD treatment game we designed forces the player to go through various stressful experiences while a stress detection mechanism profiles the severity and type of PTSD by analyzing the physiological responses to those in-game stress elicitors in two separate modalities: skin...... conductance (SC) and blood volume pulse (BVP). SC is often used to monitor stress as it is connected to the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). By including BVP into the model we introduce information about para-sympathetic activation, which offers a more complete view of the psycho...

  2. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark....... The longitudinal study on the high-tech cluster reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to decline. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on the cluster’s adaptive capabilities, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing in new resources to the cluster...

  3. A VA medical center's PTSD residential recovery program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Donald E

    2010-01-01

    With the influx of military veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) increasingly affecting all healthcare facilities, including acute care and long term, learning from the experience of VA hospitals in treating those with PTSD may prove valuable. In this article, Tripler/VA Provost Marshal Donald E. Delaney describes a program that has been in operation since 1994. He may be contacted for further in formation at (808) 433-4465 or Donald.devaney@amedd.army .mil

  4. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece

    OpenAIRE

    ter Heide, F. Jackie June; Trudy M. Mooren; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD.Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses:...

  5. Serotonin and Cortisol as Suicidogenic Factors in Patients with PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Grah, Majda; Mihanović, Mate; Svrdlin, Pero; Vuk Pisk, Sandra; Restek-Petrović, Branka

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) frequently occurs in commorbidity with different mental disorders, including suicidal behaviour. Group of biological factors, including serotonergic system, HPA axis and some genetic factors, are being studied as potential markers, able to differentiate suicidal and non-suicidal behaviour across the group of PTSD patients. This study is examining statistical relation between platelet serotonine concentration and serum cortisole concentration, within the g...

  6. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees : a debate piece

    OpenAIRE

    ter Heide, F. Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD.Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses:...

  7. Menstrual cycle effects on psychological symptoms in women with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillni, Yael I; Pineles, Suzanne L; Patton, Samantha C; Rouse, Matthew H; Sawyer, Alice T; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2015-02-01

    The menstrual cycle has been implicated as a sex-specific biological process influencing psychological symptoms across a variety of disorders. Limited research exists regarding the role of the menstrual cycle in psychological symptoms among women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study examined the severity of a broad range of psychological symptoms in both the early follicular (Days 2-6) and midluteal (6-10 days postlutenizing hormone surge) phases of the menstrual cycle in a sample of trauma-exposed women with and without PTSD (N = 49). In the sample overall, total psychological symptoms (d = 0.63), as well as depression (d = 0.81) and phobic anxiety (d = 0.81) symptoms, specifically, were increased in the early follicular compared to midluteal phase. The impact of menstrual cycle phase on phobic anxiety was modified by a significant PTSD × Menstrual Phase interaction (d = 0.63). Women with PTSD reported more severe phobic anxiety during the early follicular versus midluteal phase, whereas phobic anxiety did not differ across the menstrual cycle in women without PTSD. Thus, the menstrual cycle appears to impact fear-related symptoms in women with PTSD. The clinical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.

  8. PTSD, depression and anxiety among former abductees in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Northern Uganda has been exposed to extreme levels of traumatic stress and thousands abducted forcibly became rebel combatants. Methods Using structured interviews, the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety was assessed in 72 former abducted adults, 62 of them being former child soldiers. Results As retrospective reports of exposure to traumatic stress increased, anxiety and PTSD occurrence increased (r = .45. 49% of respondents were diagnosed with PTSD, 70% presented with symptoms of depression, and 59% with those of anxiety. In a multiple linear regression analysis four factors could best explain the development of PTSD symptoms: male respondents (sex living in an IDP-Camp (location with a kinship murdered in the war (family members killed in the war and having experienced a high number of traumatic events (number of traumatic events were more likely to develop symptoms of PTSD than others. In disagreement to a simple dose-response-effect though, we also observed a negative correlation between the time spent with the rebels and the PTSD symptom level. Conclusions Former abductees continue to suffer from severe mental ill-health. Adaptation to the living condition of rebels, however, may lower trauma-related mental suffering.

  9. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective: We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method: Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226 or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112. Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results: Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions: Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations: The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions.

  10. PTSD or not PTSD? Comparing the proposed ICD-11 and the DSM-5 PTSD criteria among young survivors of the 2011 Norway attacks and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstad, G S; Thoresen, S; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Maercker, A; Dyb, G

    2017-05-01

    The conceptualization of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the upcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 differs in many respects from the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The consequences of these differences for individuals and for estimation of prevalence rates are largely unknown. This study investigated the concordance of the two diagnostic systems in two separate samples at two separate waves. Young survivors of the 2011 Norway attacks (n = 325) and their parents (n = 451) were interviewed at 4-6 months (wave 1) and 15-18 months (wave 2) after the shooting. PTSD was assessed with the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for DSM-IV adapted for DSM-5, and a subset was used as diagnostic criteria for ICD-11. In survivors, PTSD prevalence did not differ significantly at any time point, but in parents, the DSM-5 algorithm produced significantly higher prevalence rates than the ICD-11 criteria. The overlap was fair for survivors, but amongst parents a large proportion of individuals met the criteria for only one of the diagnostic systems. No systematic differences were found between ICD-11 and DSM-5 in predictive validity. The proposed ICD-11 criteria and the DSM-5 criteria performed equally well when identifying individuals in distress. Nevertheless, the overlap between those meeting the PTSD diagnosis for both ICD-11 and DSM-5 was disturbingly low, with the ICD-11 criteria identifying fewer people than the DSM-5. This represents a major challenge in identifying individuals suffering from PTSD worldwide, possibly resulting in overtreatment or unmet needs for trauma-specific treatment, depending on the area of the world in which patients are being diagnosed.

  11. Cingulo-insular structural alterations associated with psychogenic symptoms, childhood abuse and PTSD in functional neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, David L; Matin, Nassim; Barsky, Arthur; Costumero-Ramos, Victor; Makaretz, Sara J; Young, Sigrid S; Sepulcre, Jorge; LaFrance, W Curt; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2017-06-01

    Adverse early-life events are predisposing factors for functional neurological disorder (FND) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cingulo-insular regions are implicated in the biology of both conditions and are sites of stress-mediated neuroplasticity. We hypothesised that functional neurological symptoms and the magnitude of childhood abuse would be associated with overlapping anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular volumetric reductions, and that FND and PTSD symptoms would map onto distinct cingulo-insular areas. This within-group voxel-based morphometry study probes volumetric associations with self-report measures of functional neurological symptoms, adverse life events and PTSD symptoms in 23 mixed-gender FND patients. Separate secondary analyses were also performed in the subset of 18 women with FND to account for gender-specific effects. Across the entire cohort, there were no statistically significant volumetric associations with self-report measures of functional neurological symptom severity or childhood abuse. In women with FND, however, parallel inverse associations were observed between left anterior insular volume and functional neurological symptoms as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 and the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms Conversion Disorder subscale. Similar inverse relationships were also appreciated between childhood abuse burden and left anterior insular volume. Across all subjects, PTSD symptom severity was inversely associated with dorsal ACC volume, and the magnitude of lifetime adverse events was inversely associated with left hippocampal volume. This study reveals distinct cingulo-insular alterations for FND and PTSD symptoms and may advance our understanding of FND. Potential biological convergence between stress-related neuroplasticity, functional neurological symptoms and reduced insular volume was identified. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017

  12. Prazosin for military combat-related PTSD nightmares: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Brian W; Meyer, Eric G; Schillerstrom, Jason E

    2014-01-01

    Military combat is a common trauma experience associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma-related nightmares are a hallmark symptom of PTSD. They can be resistant to label-pharmacological PTSD treatment, and they are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to review and evaluate prazosin therapy for combat-related PTSD nightmares. Consistent with available literature for all-causes PTSD nightmares, prazosin is an effective off-label option for combat-related PTSD nightmares. Future trials may further instruct use in specific combat-exposure profiles.

  13. EMDR beyond PTSD: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Valiente-Gómez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is a psychotherapeutic approach that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD through several randomized controlled trials (RCT. Solid evidence shows that traumatic events can contribute to the onset of severe mental disorders and can worsen their prognosis. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the most important findings from RCT conducted in the treatment of comorbid traumatic events in psychosis, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and chronic back pain.Methods: Using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, we conducted a systematic literature search of RCT studies published up to December 2016 that used EMDR therapy in the mentioned psychiatric conditions.Results: RCT are still scarce in these comorbid conditions but the available evidence suggests that EMDR therapy improves trauma-associated symptoms and has a minor effect on the primary disorders by reaching partial symptomatic improvement.Conclusions: EMDR therapy could be a useful psychotherapy to treat trauma-associated symptoms in patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Preliminary evidence also suggests that EMDR therapy might be useful to improve psychotic or affective symptoms and could be an add-on treatment in chronic pain conditions.

  14. Cognitive-behavioral therapy versus other PTSD psychotherapies as treatment for women victims of war-related violence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, N Inès; Hatem, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although war-trauma victims are at a higher risk of developing PTSD, there is no consensus on the effective treatments for this condition among civilians who experienced war/conflict-related trauma. This paper assessed the effectiveness of the various forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) at lowering PTSD and depression severity. All published and unpublished randomized controlled trials studying the effectiveness of CBT at reducing PTSD and/or depression severity in the population of interest were searched. Out of 738 trials identified, 33 analysed a form of CBTs effectiveness, and ten were included in the paper. The subgroup analysis shows that cognitive processing therapy (CPT), culturally adapted CPT, and narrative exposure therapy (NET) contribute to the reduction of PTSD and depression severity in the population of interest. The effect size was also significant at a level of 0.01 with the exception of the effect of NET on depression score. The test of subgroup differences was also significant, suggesting CPT is more effective than NET in our population of interest. CPT as well as its culturallyadapted form and NET seem effective in helping war/conflict traumatised civilians cope with their PTSD symptoms. However, more studies are required if one wishes to recommend one of these therapies above the other.

  15. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine D. Flory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD on diagnoses of PTSD and MDD in a sample of 225 adults with DSM-IV Axis II disorders. Results. Results showed that the rate of PTSD in the presence of both childhood abuse and MDD family history was almost six-fold (OR=5.89,  P=.001 higher relative to the absence of both factors. In contrast, the rate of MDD in the presence of both factors was associated with a nearly three-fold risk relative to the reference group (OR=2.75,  P=.01. Conclusions. The results from this observational study contribute to a growing understanding of predisposing factors for the development of PTSD and suggest that joint effects of family history of MDD and childhood abuse on PTSD are greater than either factor alone.

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy versus Other PTSD Psychotherapies as Treatment for Women Victims of War-Related Violence: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Inès Dossa

    2012-01-01

    All published and unpublished randomized controlled trials studying the effectiveness of CBT at reducing PTSD and/or depression severity in the population of interest were searched. Out of 738 trials identified, 33 analysed a form of CBTs effectiveness, and ten were included in the paper. The subgroup analysis shows that cognitive processing therapy (CPT, culturally adapted CPT, and narrative exposure therapy (NET contribute to the reduction of PTSD and depression severity in the population of interest. The effect size was also significant at a level of 0.01 with the exception of the effect of NET on depression score. The test of subgroup differences was also significant, suggesting CPT is more effective than NET in our population of interest. CPT as well as its culturallyadapted form and NET seem effective in helping war/conflict traumatised civilians cope with their PTSD symptoms. However, more studies are required if one wishes to recommend one of these therapies above the other.

  17. The synchronous neural interactions test as a functional neuromarker for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a robust classification method based on the bootstrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A. P.; Tan, H.-R. M.; Lewis, S. M.; Leuthold, A. C.; Winskowski, A. M.; Lynch, J. K.; Engdahl, B.

    2010-02-01

    Traumatic experiences can produce post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which is a debilitating condition and for which no biomarker currently exists (Institute of Medicine (US) 2006 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis and Assessment (Washington, DC: National Academies)). Here we show that the synchronous neural interactions (SNI) test which assesses the functional interactions among neural populations derived from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings (Georgopoulos A P et al 2007 J. Neural Eng. 4 349-55) can successfully differentiate PTSD patients from healthy control subjects. Externally cross-validated, bootstrap-based analyses yielded >90% overall accuracy of classification. In addition, all but one of 18 patients who were not receiving medications for their disease were correctly classified. Altogether, these findings document robust differences in brain function between the PTSD and control groups that can be used for differential diagnosis and which possess the potential for assessing and monitoring disease progression and effects of therapy.

  18. Heart rate variability (HRV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gabriel; Dao, Tam K; Farmer, Lorie; Sutherland, Roy John; Gevirtz, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to combat experiences is associated with increased risk of developing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Prolonged exposure therapy and cognitive processing therapy have garnered a significant amount of empirical support for PTSD treatment; however, they are not universally effective with some patients continuing to struggle with residual PTSD symptoms. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the autonomic nervous system functioning and reflects an individual's ability to adaptively cope with stress. A pilot study was undertaken to determine if veterans with PTSD (as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and the PTSD Checklist) would show significantly different HRV prior to an intervention at baseline compared to controls; specifically, to determine whether the HRV among veterans with PTSD is more depressed than that among veterans without PTSD. The study also aimed at assessing the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of providing HRV biofeedback as a treatment for PTSD. The findings suggest that implementing an HRV biofeedback as a treatment for PTSD is effective, feasible, and acceptable for veterans. Veterans with combat-related PTSD displayed significantly depressed HRV as compared to subjects without PTSD. When the veterans with PTSD were randomly assigned to receive either HRV biofeedback plus treatment as usual (TAU) or just TAU, the results indicated that HRV biofeedback significantly increased the HRV while reducing symptoms of PTSD. However, the TAU had no significant effect on either HRV or symptom reduction. A larger randomized control trial to validate these findings appears warranted.

  19. Child abuse and neglect in complex dissociative disorder, abuse-related chronic PTSD, and mixed psychiatric samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Only a select number of studies have examined different forms of child maltreatment in complex dissociative disorders (DDs) in comparison to other groups. Few of these have used child abuse-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) and mixed psychiatric (MP) patients with maltreatment as comparison groups. This study examined child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in DD (n = 39), C-PTSD (n = 13), and MP (n = 21) samples, all with abuse and neglect histories. The predictive capacity of these different forms of maltreatment across the 3 groups was assessed for pathological dissociation, shame, guilt, relationship esteem, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. All forms of maltreatment differentiated the DD from the MP group, and sexual abuse differentiated the DD sample from the C-PTSD group. Childhood sexual abuse was the only predictor of pathological dissociation. Emotional abuse predicted shame, guilt, relationship anxiety, and fear of relationships. Emotional neglect predicted relationship anxiety and relationship depression. Physical neglect was associated with less relationship anxiety. Different forms of abuse and neglect are associated with different symptom clusters in psychiatric patients with maltreatment histories.

  20. Depression, not PTSD, is associated with attentional biases for emotional visual cues in early traumatized individuals with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Elisabeth Wittekind

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using variants of the emotional Stroop task (EST, a large number of studies demonstrated attentional biases in individuals with PTSD across different types of trauma. However, the specificity and robustness of the emotional Stroop effect in PTSD were questioned recently. In particular, the paradigm cannot disentangle underlying cognitive mechanisms. Transgenerational studies provide evidence that consequences of trauma are not limited to the traumatized people, but extend to close relatives, especially the children. To further investigate attentional biases in PTSD and to shed light on the underlying cognitive mechanism(s, a spatial-cueing paradigm with pictures of different emotional valence (neutral, anxiety, depression, trauma was administered to individuals displaced as children during World War II with (n = 22 and without PTSD (n = 26 as well as to nontraumatized controls (n = 22. To assess whether parental PTSD is associated with biased information processing in children, each one adult offspring was also included in the study. PTSD was not associated with attentional biases for trauma-related stimuli. There was no evidence for a transgenerational transmission of biased information processing. However, when samples were regrouped based on current depression, a reduced inhibition of return (IOR effect emerged for depression-related cues. IOR refers to the phenomenon that with longer intervals between cue and target the validity effect is reversed: uncued locations are associated with shorter and cued locations with longer RTs. The results diverge from EST studies and demonstrate that findings on attentional biases yield equivocal results across different paradigms. Attentional biases for trauma-related material may only appear for verbal but not for visual stimuli in an elderly population with childhood trauma with PTSD. Future studies should more closely investigate whether findings from younger trauma populations also manifest in older

  1. Personality heterogeneity in PTSD: distinct temperament and interpersonal typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Wright, Aidan G C; Sanislow, Charles A; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Markowitz, John C; Skodol, Andrew E; Zanarini, Mary C; Morey, Leslie C

    2014-03-01

    Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD.

  2. Sleep Disturbances, TBI and PTSD: Implications for Treatment and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Karina Stavitsky; Kark, Sarah M.; Gehrman, Philip; Bogdanova, Yelena

    2015-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and sleep problems significantly affect recovery and functional status in military personnel and Veterans returning from combat. Despite recent attention, sleep is understudied in the Veteran population. Few treatments and rehabilitation protocols target sleep, although poor sleep remains at clinical levels and continues to adversely impact functioning even after the resolution of PTSD or mild TBI symptoms. Recent developments in non-pharmacologic sleep treatments have proven efficacious as stand-alone interventions and have potential to improve treatment outcomes by augmenting traditional behavioral and cognitive therapies. This review discusses the extensive scope of work in the area of sleep as it relates to TBI and PTSD, including pathophysiology and neurobiology of sleep; existing and emerging treatment options; as well as methodological issues in sleep measurements for TBI and PTSD. Understanding sleep problems and their role in the development and maintenance of PTSD and TBI symptoms may lead to improvement in overall treatment outcomes while offering a non-stigmatizing entry in mental health services and make current treatments more comprehensive by helping to address a broader spectrum of difficulties. PMID:26164549

  3. Sleep disturbances, TBI and PTSD: Implications for treatment and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Karina Stavitsky; Kark, Sarah M; Gehrman, Philip; Bogdanova, Yelena

    2015-08-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and sleep problems significantly affect recovery and functional status in military personnel and Veterans returning from combat. Despite recent attention, sleep is understudied in the Veteran population. Few treatments and rehabilitation protocols target sleep, although poor sleep remains at clinical levels and continues to adversely impact functioning even after the resolution of PTSD or mild TBI symptoms. Recent developments in non-pharmacologic sleep treatments have proven efficacious as stand-alone interventions and have potential to improve treatment outcomes by augmenting traditional behavioral and cognitive therapies. This review discusses the extensive scope of work in the area of sleep as it relates to TBI and PTSD, including pathophysiology and neurobiology of sleep; existing and emerging treatment options; as well as methodological issues in sleep measurements for TBI and PTSD. Understanding sleep problems and their role in the development and maintenance of PTSD and TBI symptoms may lead to improvement in overall treatment outcomes while offering a non-stigmatizing entry in mental health services and make current treatments more comprehensive by helping to address a broader spectrum of difficulties.

  4. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    -2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing......Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963...

  5. The impact of dissociation and depression on the efficacy of prolonged exposure treatment for PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Minnen, A. van; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of dissociative phenomena and depression on the efficacy of prolonged exposure treatment in 71 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Diagnoses, comorbidity, pretreatment depressive symptoms, PTSD symptom severity, and dissociative phenomena (trait dis

  6. Prevalence of PTSD in Survivors of Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack: A Meta-Analytic Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edmondson, Donald; Richardson, Safiya; Fausett, Jennifer K; Falzon, Louise; Howard, Virginia J; Kronish, Ian M

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in survivors of acute life-threatening illness, but little is known about the burden of PTSD in survivors of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA...

  7. London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP): Exploring Negative and Null Effects of a Cluster-Randomised School-Intervention to Reduce School Exclusion—Findings from Protocol-Based Subgroup Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Cope, Aiden; Sutherland, Alex; Pilbeam, Liv; Murray, Aja Louise; Eisner, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents subgroup analyses from the London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP). LEIP was a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an intervention called Engage in Education-London (EiE-L) which aimed to reduce school exclusions in those at greatest risk of exclusion. Pupils in the control schools attended an hour-long employability seminar. Minimisation was used to randomly assign schools to treatment and control following baseline data collection. The study involved 36 schools (17 in treatment—373 pupils; 19 in control—369 pupils) with >28% free school meal eligibility across London and utilised on pupil self-reports, teacher reports as well as official records to assess the effectiveness of EiE-L. Due to multiple data sources, sample sizes varied according to analysis. Analyses of pre-specified subgroups revealed null and negative effects on school exclusion following the intervention. Our findings suggest that the design and implementation of EiE-L may have contributed to the negative outcomes for pupils in the treatment schools when compared to those in the control schools. These findings call into question the effectiveness of bolt-on short-term interventions with pupils, particularly those at the highest risk of school exclusion and when they are faced with multiple problems. This is especially pertinent given the possibility of negative outcomes. Trial Registration: Controlled Trials: ISRCTN23244695 PMID:27045953

  8. EMDR therapy for PTSD after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analytic evidence for specific treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maddalena eBoccia; Laura ePiccardi; Pierluigi eCordellieri; Cecilia eGuariglia; Anna Maria eGiannini

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the r...

  9. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects r...

  10. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluat...

  11. Social relationship satisfaction and PTSD: which is the chicken and which is the egg?

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Sara A.; Gilad, Moran; Ankri, Yael; Roziner, Ilan; Shalev, Arieh Y

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired social relationships are linked with higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the association’s underlying dynamics are unknown. PTSD may impair social relationships, and, vice versa, poorer relationship quality may interfere with the recovery from PTSD.Objective: This work longitudinally evaluates the simultaneous progression of PTSD symptoms and social relationship satisfaction (SRS) in a large cohort of recent trauma survivors. It also explores the ef...

  12. Identifying Risk Factors for PTSD in Women Seeking Medical Help after Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Tiihonen Möller; Torbjörn Bäckström; Hans Peter Söndergaard; Lotti Helström

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods: Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at S...

  13. Commentary: deconstructing critiques on the internationalization of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Joop T V M

    2005-09-01

    When PTSD entered the DSM, advocacy for the diagnosis was a critical part of advocacy for Vietnam veterans. Over the next two decades, the range of contexts in which this clinical concept was applied increased dramatically. In a recent article in Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, Breslau (2004) describes PTSD as a "prominent cultural model" to account for suffering as well as the synergy between human rights or political advocacy and traumatic stress advocacy. In this article I question the sequence of steps that Breslau took to critique the internationalization of the PTSD construct. I also question Breslau's critique on our work in Nepal. Finally, I will formulate some future challenges for psychiatry and anthropology to bridge their universalistic and relativistic points of view.

  14. Common paths to ASD severity and PTSD severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Wittmann, Lutz

    Numerous studies have identified risk factors for acute and long term posttraumatic symptoms following traumatic exposure. However, little is known about possible common pathways to the development of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research suggests...... that a common pathway to ASD and PTSD may lie in peritraumatic responses and cognitions. Using structural equation modeling we examined the role of three peritraumatic factors (tonic immobility, panic and dissociation) and three cognitive factors (anxiety sensitivity, negative cognitions about the world......, and negative cognitions about self ) on the development of ASD and PTSD severity in a national study of Danish bank robbery victims (N = 450). Peritraumatic panic, anxiety sensitivity, and negative cognitions about self were found to be significant common risk factors, whereas peritraumatic dissociation...

  15. Rhythms dysregulation: A new perspective for understanding PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Jacques; Rauchs, Géraldine; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère

    2017-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex syndrome that may occur after exposure to one or more traumatic events. It associates physiological, emotional, and cognitive changes Brain and hormonal modifications contribute to some impairments in learning, memory, and emotion regulation. Some of these biological dysfunctions may be analyzed in terms of rhythms dysregulation that would be expressed through endocrine rhythmicity, sleep organization, and temporal synchrony in brain activity. In the first part of this article, we report studies on endocrine rhythmicity revealing that some rhythms abnormalities are frequently observed, although not constantly, for both cortisol and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. The most typical changes are a flattening of the diurnal secretion of cortisol and the hyperactivation of the SNS. These results may explain why cognitive functioning, in particular consolidation of emotional memories, attention, learning, vigilance and arousal, is altered in patients with PTSD. The second part of this article focuses on sleep disturbances, one of the core features of PTSD. Abnormal REM sleep reported in various studies may have a pathophysiological role in PTSD and may exacerbate some symptoms such as emotional regulation and memory. In addition, sleep disorders, such as paradoxical insomnia, increase the risk of developing PTSD. We also discuss the potential impact of sleep disturbances on cognition. Finally, temporal synchrony of brain activity and functional connectivity, explored using electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging, are addressed. Several studies reported abnormalities in alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands that may affect both attentional and memory processes. Other studies confirmed abnormalities in connectivity and recent fMRI data suggest that this could limit top-down control and may be associated with flashback intrusive memories. These data illustrate that a better knowledge of

  16. Relationships among Adult Attachment, Social Support, and PTSD Symptoms in Trauma-Exposed College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneau, Genevieve Mary Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Although many people are exposed to trauma, substantially fewer develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given this, studies have examined risk and protective factors for developing PTSD. This literature has established that there is a robust negative correlation between social support and PTSD. Attachment insecurity may be an informative…

  17. Heterogeneity in the Latent Structure of PTSD Symptoms among Canadian Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naifeh, James A.; Richardson, J. Don; Del Ben, Kevin S.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2010-01-01

    The current study used factor mixture modeling to identify heterogeneity (i.e., latent classes) in 2 well-supported models of posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) factor structure. Data were analyzed from a clinical sample of 405 Canadian veterans evaluated for PTSD. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Each PTSD factor model was best…

  18. Validation of two screening instruments for PTSD in Dutch substance use disorder inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, T.; Haan, H.A. de; Velden, H.J.W. van der; Meer, M. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in substance use disorder (SUD) populations. Because resources for extensive and thorough diagnostic assessment are often limited, reliable screening instruments for PTSD are needed. The aim of the current study was to test two short PTSD meas

  19. Critical analysis of the current treatment guidelines for complex ptsd in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; Resick, P.A.; Zoelner, L.A.; van Minnen, A.; Lee, C.W.; Monson, C.M.; Foa, E.B.; Wheeler, K.; ten Broeke, E.; Feeny, N.; Rauch, S.A.M.; Chard, K.M.; Mueser, K.T.; Sloan, D.M.; van der Gaag, M.; Rothbaum, B.O.; Neuner, F.; de Roos, C.; Hehenkamp, L.M.J.; Rosner, R.; Bicanic, I.A.E.

    2016-01-01

    According to current treatment guidelines for Complex PTSD (cPTSD), psychotherapy for adults with cPTSD should start with a “stabilization phase.” This phase, focusing on teaching self-regulation strategies, was designed to ensure that an individual would be better able to tolerate trauma-focused

  20. CRITICAL ANALYSIS of the CURRENT TREATMENT GUIDELINES for COMPLEX PTSD in ADULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jongh, Ad; Resick, Patricia A.; Zoellner, Lori A.; Van Minnen, Agnes; Lee, Christopher W.; Monson, Candice M.; Foa, Edna B.; Wheeler, Kathleen; Broeke, Erik Ten; Feeny, Norah; Rauch, Sheila A M; Chard, Kathleen M.; Mueser, Kim T.; Sloan, Denise M.; Van Der Gaag, Mark; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Neuner, Frank; De Roos, Carlijn; Hehenkamp, Lieve M J; Rosner, Rita; Bicanic, Iva A E

    2016-01-01

    According to current treatment guidelines for Complex PTSD (cPTSD), psychotherapy for adults with cPTSD should start with a "stabilization phase." This phase, focusing on teaching self-regulation strategies, was designed to ensure that an individual would be better able to tolerate trauma-focused

  1. Differences in Cortisol Response to Trauma Activation in Individuals with and without Comorbid PTSD and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dekel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although depression symptoms are often experienced by individuals who develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD following trauma exposure, little is know about the biological correlates associated with PTSD and depression co-morbidity vs. those associated with PTSD symptoms alone.Methods: Here we examined salivary cortisol responses to trauma activation in a sample of 60 survivors of the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001. Participants recalled the escape from the attacks 7 months post 9/11. Salivary cortisol levels were measured before and after their recollection of the trauma. PTSD, depression, and somatic symptoms were also assessed. From the behavioral assessment scales, the participants were grouped into three conditions: those with comorbid PTSD and depressive symptoms, PTSD alone symptoms, or no-pathology.Results: Baseline and cortisol response levels differed between the comorbid, PTSD alone, and no-pathology groups. Individuals endorsing co-morbid symptoms had higher PTSD and somatic symptom severity and their cortisol response decreased following their trauma reminder while a trend of an elevated response to the trauma was found in the PTSD alone group. Our findings show distinct psychological and biological correlates related to the endorsement of PTSD with and without depression comorbidity.Conclusions: The findings suggest that comorbidity symptoms manifestation entails a separate trauma induced condition from PTSD. Future research on biological correlates of comorbid PTSD and depression is warranted.

  2. Common paths to ASD severity and PTSD severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Wittmann, Lutz;

    , and negative cognitions about self ) on the development of ASD and PTSD severity in a national study of Danish bank robbery victims (N = 450). Peritraumatic panic, anxiety sensitivity, and negative cognitions about self were found to be significant common risk factors, whereas peritraumatic dissociation...... was only a significant risk factor of ASD severity. Together with two control factors these factors explained 73 % of the variance in ASD severity and 52 % of the variance in PTSD severity. Future research should focus on replicating these results across different trauma populations as they point...

  3. Etude de la magnétosphère terrestre par l'analyse multipoint des données de la mission CLUSTER. Contributions à la caractérisation des frontières et de la magnétosphère interne

    OpenAIRE

    Darrouzet, Fabien

    2006-01-01

    CLUSTER is the first space mission dedicated to the three-dimensional study of the terrestrial magnetosphere. Its polar orbit and four spacecraft tetrahedron formation allow it to make in situ measurements in various regions of the magnetosphere, in particular in the plasmasphere. This PhD thesis brings together several studies on plasma structures encountered by the CLUSTER spacecraft along their orbit, during the time period 2001-2004. The physical quantity analysed here is mainly the elect...

  4. Project VALOR: design and methods of a longitudinal registry of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat-exposed veterans in the Afghanistan and Iraqi military theaters of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Raymond C; Marx, Brian P; Maserejian, Nancy N; Holowka, Darren W; Gates, Margaret A; Sleeper, Lynn A; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Kang, Han K; Keane, Terence M

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the natural history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Project VALOR (Veterans' After-discharge Longitudinal Registry) was designed as a longitudinal patient registry assessing the course of combat-related PTSD among 1600 male and female Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Aims of the study include investigating patterns and predictors of progression or remission of PTSD and treatment utilization. The study design was based on recommendations from the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research for longitudinal disease registries and used a pre-specified theoretical model to select the measurement domains for data collection and interpretation of forthcoming results. The registry will include 1200 male and female Veterans with a recent diagnosis of PTSD in the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) electronic medical record and a comparison group of 400 Veterans without a medical record-based PTSD diagnosis, to also allow for case-control analyses. Data are collected from administrative databases, electronic medical records, a self-administered questionnaire, and a semi-structured diagnostic telephone interview. Project VALOR is a unique and timely registry study that will evaluate the clinical course of PTSD, psychosocial correlates, and health outcomes in a carefully selected cohort of returning OEF/OIF Veterans.

  5. A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis Reveal BDNF Val66Met Is a Possible Risk Factor for PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Bruenig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a debilitating condition that develops in some people after exposure to a traumatic event. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and is thought to be involved in learning and memory processes. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in the BDNF gene, rs6265 (Val66Met, has been hypothesised to be associated with PTSD. Association studies examining the Val66Met polymorphism and PTSD have been inconclusive, likely due to the variability in type of trauma exposure analysed. Vietnam veterans (n=257 screened for PTSD and controlled for trauma exposure were genotyped for BDNF Val66Met. The association was not significant so we incorporated our data into a meta-analysis to obtain greater statistical power. A comprehensive search of more than 1237 articles revealed eight additional studies suitable for meta-analysis (n=3625. A random-effects meta-analysis observed a potential protective factor of the Val/Val genotype. After removing two studies with violation of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, findings for the Val/Val genotype reached significance. Subgroup analyses confirmed a trend for this finding. Limitations of some studies that inform this meta-analysis include poorly screened controls and a lack of examination of population stratification. Effectively designed studies should inform this line of research in the future.

  6. Children's enduring PTSD symptoms are related to their family's adaptability and cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmes, Philippe; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe; Daubisse, Laetitia; Brunet, Alain; Arbus, Christophe; Klein, Rémy; Cailhol, Lionel; Allenou, Charlotte; Hazane, Franck; Grandjean, Hélène; Schmitt, Laurent

    2009-08-01

    This study compared, 18-24 months after an industrial disaster, in two groups of children (those with clinically relevant PTSD symptoms versus those with low PTSD symptoms), the child's perception of family cohesion and adaptability, the child's experience of the explosion, and parental characteristics. Enmeshed family cohesion or rigid family adaptability were more frequently found in children with low PTSD symptoms. PTSD symptoms in the mother, living in a family of 3 or more children, and being female were significantly associated with PTSD symptoms in the children. The assessment of traumatized children should include assessment of family's adaptability and cohesion.

  7. PTSD or not PTSD? Comparing the proposed ICD-11 and the DSM-5 PTSD criteria among young survivors of the 2011 Norway attacks and their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Hafstad, G S; Thoresen, S.; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Maercker, Andreas; Dyb, G

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The conceptualization of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the upcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 differs in many respects from the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The consequences of these differences for individuals and for estimation of prevalence rates are largely unknown. This study investigated the concordance of the two diagnostic systems in two separate samples at two...

  8. Telerehabilitation for Veterans with Combat Related TBI/PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    signed by a proxy. Veterans and/or care givers must also possess basic computer literacy such as being able to access a web page and making entrees in...with Combat Related TBI/PTSD RTO-MP-HFM-205 15 - 7 or intervention ( diabetes , CHF, dementia etc), our cohort exhibits a very diverse population in

  9. Contextual Behavior Therapies in the Treatment of PTSD: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Landers, Sara J.; Kanter, Jonathan W.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical evidence supports cognitive-behavioral interventions for the treatment Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), with exposure therapy typically being the most frequently utilized. While the success of exposure treatments is well established there are factors which may hinder their use in "real-world" settings (e.g., poor treatment…

  10. Randomized, Controlled Trial of CBT Training for PTSD Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Training’; ‘ Cognitive - Behavioral Therapy ’; ‘Behavioral Task Assignment’; ‘Chain Analysis’. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF... cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions have been shown to be effective in alleviating symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and...target groups: VA clinicians, community practitioners, and cognitive behavioral therapy experts. The surveys collected both qualitative and quantitative

  11. Biomarkers of Risk for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    NPY ). None of these genes predicted PTSD diagnoses in this sample. Next, because there was variability in the degree of combat exposure as...Lappalainen J. A sequencing -based survey of functional APAF1 alleles in a large sample of individuals with affective illness and population controls. Am J

  12. Treatment of a Case Example with PTSD and Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipherd, Jillian C.

    2006-01-01

    This commentary reviews the case of GH, a survivor of a road traffic collision, who has chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The case formulation, assessment strategy, and treatment plan are informed by the relevant experimental literature and empirically supported treatments using a cognitive behavioral perspective. Given this…

  13. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees : a debate piece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heide, F Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M; Kleber, Rolf J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused

  14. Psychosocial and Moral Development of PTSD-Diagnosed Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John G.; Baker, Stanley B.

    2007-01-01

    Two related studies were conducted in order to investigate whether psychosocial and moral development appeared to have been disrupted and arrested in veterans diagnosed as having posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study 1 was devoted to developing a measure of late adolescence, early adulthood, and adulthood stages of psychosocial…

  15. Identification of Risk Factors for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Miller, Wolf, Martin , Kaloupek, & Keane, 2008). Furthermore, PTSD hyperarousal symptoms have been linked to greater aggressive tendencies among male...dimensional conceptualization of posttraumatic stress reactions on the basis of taxometric procedures (e.g. Forbes, Haslam, Williams, & Creamer , 2005) and...New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research. Forbes, D., Haslam, N., Williams, B. J., & Creamer , M. (2005). Testing the latent

  16. Trauma exposure and PTSD among older adolescents in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M; Keller, Thomas E; Gowen, L Kris; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    Youth in foster care represent a highly traumatized population. However, trauma research on this population has focused primarily on maltreatment rather than the full spectrum of trauma experiences identified within the DSM-IV. The current study aims to fill this gap by reporting the prevalence of exposure to specific types of traumatic events for a large sample of youth with foster care experience. The study also reports the likelihood of lifetime PTSD diagnoses associated with each specific type of trauma. Data are from a longitudinal panel study of 732 adolescents aged 17 and 18 who were in foster care. Lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD diagnosis were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Statistical comparisons were made using logistic regressions. The majority of respondents had experienced at least one trauma in their lifetime. While overall trauma prevalence did not differ by gender, males were more likely to experience interpersonal violence and environmental trauma, while females were more likely to experience sexual trauma. Caucasian participants reported higher rates of trauma exposure than African-American participants did. The types of trauma associated with the highest probability of a lifetime PTSD diagnosis were rape, being tortured or a victim of terrorists, and molestation. Youth in foster care are a highly traumatized population and meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD at higher rates than general youth populations. The ongoing impact of trauma may be particularly problematic for these young people given their abrupt transition to independence.

  17. The Role and Importance of the D in PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Hell: Post-Traumatic Stress, Vietnam, and the Civil War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Dumit, J. (2006). “Illnesses You Have to Fight to...Discrimination American Style: Institutional Racism and Sexism . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Finley, E. P. (2011). Fields of Combat: Understanding PTSD

  18. Alienation Appraisals Distinguish Adults Diagnosed With DID From PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DePrince, Anne P.; Huntjens, Rafaële J.C.; Dorahy, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and

  19. Depression and PTSD in Pashtun Women in Kandahar, Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Man Shin, DSc

    2009-06-01

    Conclusions: The high prevalence of depression and PTSD indicate the continuing need for mental health intervention. While education has been found to be a protective factor for mental health in previous studies, the relationship between education and mental health appear to be more complex among Afghan women. Quality of life variables could be further investigated and incorporated into mental health interventions for Afghan women.

  20. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees : a debate piece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heide, F Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M; Kleber, Rolf J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatme

  2. Augmenting CPT to Improve Sleep Impairment in PTSD: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galovski, Tara E.; Mott, Juliette; Blain, Leah M.; Elwood, Lisa; Gloth, Chelsea; Fletcher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite the success of empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), sleep impairment frequently remains refractory following treatment for PTSD. This single-site, randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of sleep-directed hypnosis as a complement to an empirically supported psychotherapy for PTSD (cognitive processing therapy; CPT). Method Participants completed either 3 weeks of hypnosis (n = 52) or a symptom monitoring control condition (n = 56) before beginning standard CPT. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate differential patterns of change to determine whether hypnosis resulted in improvements in sleep, PTSD, and depression. An intervening variable approach was then used to determine whether improvements in sleep achieved during hypnosis augmented change in PTSD and depression during CPT. Results After the initial phase of treatment (hypnosis or symptom monitoring), the hypnosis condition showed significantly greater improvement than the control condition in sleep and depression, but not PTSD. After CPT, both conditions demonstrated significant improvement in sleep and PTSD; however, the hypnosis condition demonstrated greater improvement in depressive symptoms. As sleep improved, there were corresponding improvements in PTSD and depression, with a stronger relationship between sleep and PTSD. Conclusion Hypnosis was effective in improving sleep impairment, but those improvements did not augment gains in PTSD recovery during the trauma-focused intervention. Public Health Significance: This study suggests that hypnosis may be a viable treatment option in a stepped-care approach for treating sleep impairment in individuals suffering from PTSD. PMID:26689303

  3. Psychometric properties of the IES-R in traumatized substance dependent individuals with and without PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Carla J; Coffey, Scott F; Baschnagel, Joseph S; Drobes, David J; Saladin, Michael E

    2008-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among treatment-seeking substance abusers. Despite the high prevalence of these co-occurring conditions, few PTSD screening tools have been evaluated for their utility in identifying PTSD in substance use disorder (SUD) populations. The present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) in a sample of 124 substance dependent individuals. All participants had a history of a DSM-IV Criterion A traumatic event, and 71 individuals met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Participants with comorbid PTSD reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD compared to substance dependent individuals without PTSD. Acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity of the IES-R were established among a substance dependent sample. Examination of diagnostic effectiveness suggested a cutoff value of 22 as optimal for a substance using population, resulting in adequate classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.

  4. When combat prevents PTSD symptoms—results from a survey with former child soldiers in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weierstall Roland

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human beings from time immemorial have eradicated neighbouring tribes, languages, religions, and cultures. In war and crisis, the cumulative exposure to traumatic stress constitutes a predictor of the development of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, homicide has evolved as a profitable strategy in man, leading to greater reproductive success. Thus, an evolutionary advantage of perpetrating violence would be eliminated if the exposure to aggressive acts would traumatize the perpetrator. We argue that perpetrating violence could actually ‘immunize’ a person against adverse effects of traumatic stressors, significantly reducing the risk of developing PTSD. Methods We surveyed 42 former child soldiers in Northern Uganda that have all been abducted by the Lord Resistance Army (LRA as well as 41 non-abducted controls. Results Linear regression analyses revealed a dose–response effect between the exposure to traumatic events and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS sum score. However, the vulnerability to develop trauma related symptoms was reduced in those with higher scores on the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS. This effect was more pronounced in the formerly abducted group. Conclusions We conclude that attraction to aggression when being exposed to the victim’s struggling can lead to a substantial risk-reduction for developing PTSD.

  5. When combat prevents PTSD symptoms--results from a survey with former child soldiers in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierstall, Roland; Schalinski, Inga; Crombach, Anselm; Hecker, Tobias; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-05-14

    Human beings from time immemorial have eradicated neighbouring tribes, languages, religions, and cultures. In war and crisis, the cumulative exposure to traumatic stress constitutes a predictor of the development of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, homicide has evolved as a profitable strategy in man, leading to greater reproductive success. Thus, an evolutionary advantage of perpetrating violence would be eliminated if the exposure to aggressive acts would traumatize the perpetrator. We argue that perpetrating violence could actually 'immunize' a person against adverse effects of traumatic stressors, significantly reducing the risk of developing PTSD. We surveyed 42 former child soldiers in Northern Uganda that have all been abducted by the Lord Resistance Army (LRA) as well as 41 non-abducted controls. Linear regression analyses revealed a dose-response effect between the exposure to traumatic events and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) sum score. However, the vulnerability to develop trauma related symptoms was reduced in those with higher scores on the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS). This effect was more pronounced in the formerly abducted group. We conclude that attraction to aggression when being exposed to the victim's struggling can lead to a substantial risk-reduction for developing PTSD.

  6. Association between theta power in 6-month old infants at rest and maternal PTSD severity: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan, Pilar M; Poremba, Carly; Flynn, Lucinda R; Savich, Renate; Annett, Robert D; Stephen, Julia

    2016-09-06

    Compared to infants born to mothers without PTSD, infants born to mothers with active PTSD develop poorer behavioral reactivity and emotional regulation. However, the association between perinatal maternal PTSD and infant neural activation remains largely unknown. This pilot study (N=14) examined the association between perinatal PTSD severity and infant frontal neural activity, as measured by MEG theta power during rest. Results indicated that resting left anterior temporal/frontal theta power was correlated with perinatal PTSD severity (p=0.004). These findings suggest delayed cortical maturation in infants whose mothers had higher perinatal PTSD severity and generate questions regarding perinatal PTSD severity and infant neurophysiological consequences.

  7. Victimisation and PTSD in a Greenlandic youth sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel H. Karsberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite a growing number of studies and reports indicating a very high and increasing prevalence of trauma exposure in Greenlandic adolescents, the knowledge on this subject is still very limited. The purpose of the present study was twofold: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and to examine the relationship between PTEs, estimated PTSD, and sociodemographic variables. Methods. In a Greenlandic sample from 4 different schools in 2 different minor towns in Northern Greenland, 269 students, aged 12–18 (M=15.4; SD=1.84 were assessed for their level of exposure to 20 PTEs along with the psychological impact of these events. Results. Of the Greenlandic students, 86% had been directly exposed to at least 1 PTE and 74.3% had been indirectly exposed to at least 1 PTE. The mean number of directly experienced PTEs was 2.8 and the mean number of indirectly experienced PTEs was 3.9. The most frequent direct events recorded were death of someone close, near drowning, threat of assault/beating, humiliation or persecution by others and attempted suicide. The estimated lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 17.1%, whereas another 14.2% reached a subclinical level of PTSD (missing the full diagnosis by 1 symptom. Education level of the father, and being exposed to multiple direct and indirect PTEs were significantly associated with an increase in PTSD symptoms. Conclusion. The findings indicate substantial mental health problems in Greenlandic adolescents and that these are associated with various types of PTEs. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Greenlandic adolescents are more exposed to certain specific PTEs than adolescents in similar studies from other nations. The present study revealed that Greenlandic girls are particularly vulnerable towards experiencing PTEs. Indeed, in general, girls reported more experiences of direct and indirect PTEs. Furthermore, girls

  8. Early PTSD symptom trajectories: persistence, recovery, and response to treatment: results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac R Galatzer-Levy

    understanding the disorder and preventing its occurrence. Studies of the pathogenesis of PTSD may benefit from using clustered symptom trajectories as their dependent variables.

  9. Early PTSD Symptom Trajectories: Persistence, Recovery, and Response to Treatment: Results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Ankri, Yael; Freedman, Sara; Israeli-Shalev, Yossi; Roitman, Pablo; Gilad, Moran; Shalev, Arieh Y.

    2013-01-01

    and preventing its occurrence. Studies of the pathogenesis of PTSD may benefit from using clustered symptom trajectories as their dependent variables. PMID:23990895

  10. Differential effectiveness of tianeptine, clonidine and amitriptyline in blocking traumatic memory expression, anxiety and hypertension in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2013-07-01

    Individuals exposed to life-threatening trauma are at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a debilitating condition that involves persistent anxiety, intrusive memories and several physiological disturbances. Current pharmacotherapies for PTSD manage only a subset of these symptoms and typically have adverse side effects which limit their overall effectiveness. We evaluated the effectiveness of three different pharmacological agents to ameliorate a broad range of PTSD-like symptoms in our established predator-based animal model of PTSD. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1-h cat exposures on two occasions that were separated by 10 days, in conjunction with chronic social instability. Beginning 24 h after the first cat exposure, rats received daily injections of amitriptyline, clonidine, tianeptine or vehicle. Three weeks after the second cat exposure, all rats underwent a battery of behavioral and physiological tests. The vehicle-treated, psychosocially stressed rats demonstrated a robust fear memory for the two cat exposures, as well as increased anxiety expressed on the elevated plus maze, an exaggerated startle response, elevated heart rate and blood pressure, reduced growth rate and increased adrenal gland weight, relative to the vehicle-treated, non-stressed (control) rats. Neither amitriptyline nor clonidine was effective at blocking the entire cluster of stress-induced sequelae, and each agent produced adverse side effects in control subjects. Only the antidepressant tianeptine completely blocked the effects of psychosocial stress on all of the physiological and behavioral measures that were examined. These findings illustrate the differential effectiveness of these three treatments to block components of PTSD-like symptoms in rats, and in particular, reveal the profile of tianeptine as the most effective of all three agents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Internet-delivered cognitive therapy for PTSD: a development pilot series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wild

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomised controlled trials have established that face-to-face cognitive therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (CT-PTSD based on Ehlers and Clark's cognitive model of PTSD is highly effective and feasible with low rates of dropout. Access to evidence-based psychological treatments for PTSD is insufficient. Several studies have shown that therapist-assisted treatment delivery over the Internet is a promising way of improving access to cognitive behavioural therapy interventions. Objective: To develop an Internet version of CT-PTSD that significantly reduces therapist contact time without compromising treatment integrity or retention rates. Methods: We describe the development of an Internet version of CT-PTSD. It implements all the key procedures of face-to-face CT-PTSD, including techniques that focus on the trauma memory, such as memory updating, stimulus discrimination and revisiting the trauma site, as well as restructuring individually relevant appraisals relating to overgeneralisation of danger, guilt, shame or anger, behavioural experiments and planning activities to reclaim quality of life. A cohort of 10 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for PTSD worked through the programme, with remote guidance from a therapist, and they were assessed at pre- and post-treatment on PTSD outcome, mood, work and social adjustment and process measures. Results: No patients dropped out. Therapists facilitated the treatment with 192 min of contact time per patient, plus 57 min for reviewing the patient's progress and messages. Internet-delivered CT-PTSD was associated with very large improvements on all outcome and process measures, with 80% of patients achieving clinically significant change and remission from PTSD. Conclusions: Internet-delivered cognitive therapy for PTSD (iCT-PTSD appears to be an acceptable and efficacious treatment. Therapist time was reduced to less than 25% of time in face-to-face CT-PTSD. Randomised controlled trials

  12. Kvalitative analyser ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolsen, Merete Watt

    bogen forklarer de fundamentale trin i forskningsprocessen og applikerer dem på udvalgte kvalitative analyser: indholdsanalyse, Grounded Theory, argumentationsanalyse og diskursanalyse......bogen forklarer de fundamentale trin i forskningsprocessen og applikerer dem på udvalgte kvalitative analyser: indholdsanalyse, Grounded Theory, argumentationsanalyse og diskursanalyse...

  13. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... A cluster headache begins as a severe, sudden headache. The headache commonly strikes 2 to 3 hours after you fall ...

  14. Cluster Forests

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Donghui; Jordan, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by Random Forests (RF) in the context of classification, we propose a new clustering ensemble method---Cluster Forests (CF). Geometrically, CF randomly probes a high-dimensional data cloud to obtain "good local clusterings" and then aggregates via spectral clustering to obtain cluster assignments for the whole dataset. The search for good local clusterings is guided by a cluster quality measure $\\kappa$. CF progressively improves each local clustering in a fashion that resembles the tree growth in RF. Empirical studies on several real-world datasets under two different performance metrics show that CF compares favorably to its competitors. Theoretical analysis shows that the $\\kappa$ criterion is shown to grow each local clustering in a desirable way---it is "noise-resistant." A closed-form expression is obtained for the mis-clustering rate of spectral clustering under a perturbation model, which yields new insights into some aspects of spectral clustering.

  15. The clinical picture of late-onset PTSD: a 20-year longitudinal study of Israeli war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Danny; Solomon, Zahava; Keinan, Giora; Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2013-08-15

    Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been under medico-legal debate for years. Previous studies examining the prevalence and clinical characteristics of delayed-onset PTSD have yielded inconclusive findings. This study prospectively examines the prevalence and clinical picture of late-onset PTSD among Israeli war veterans. It also evaluates whether or not late-onset PTSD erupts after a completely non-symptomatic period. 675 Israeli veterans from the 1982 Lebanon War, with and without antecedent combat stress reaction (CSR), have been assessed 1, 2 and 20 years post-war. They were divided into 4 groups, according to the duration of delay in PTSD onset. Participants completed self-report questionnaires tapping psychopathology, combat exposure and socio-demographics. 16.5% of the veterans suffered from late-onset PTSD. A longer delay in PTSD onset was associated with less severe psychopathology. Also, CSR was associated with a shorter delay in PTSD onset. Finally, the vast majority of veterans already suffered from PTSD symptoms prior to late PTSD onset. Our results offer further validation for the existence of delayed-onset PTSD. Delayed-onset PTSD appears to be a unique sub-type of PTSD, with an attenuated clinical picture. In addition, delayed-onset PTSD may be the result of an incubation process, wherein symptoms already exist prior to PTSD onset.

  16. Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gieles, M.

    1993-01-01

    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of stars and star clusters. These complexes share similar properties with giant molecular clouds, from which they are formed. Many (70%) of the young clusters will not survive the fist 10 Myr, due to t...

  17. CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedovic Mario

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score. The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at http://Clusteranalysis.org. The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView. Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the

  18. 新疆春小麦品种品质性状主成分及聚类分析%Principal Components and Cluster Analyses of Xinjiang Spring Wheat Quality Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高欢欢; 李卫华; 穆培源; 桑伟; 冶婷; 王亮

    2013-01-01

    [目的]选择不同筋力新疆自育和引进的春小麦品种,分析其磨粉品质、蛋白质品质性状和淀粉品质性状等指标,为育种家进一步开展品种选育和品质改良提供参考依据.[方法]选择30个春小麦品种,分析23个品种性状指标,采用主成分分析.把23个品质性状归于8个主成分,分别是淀粉糊化特性、粉质参数、蛋白质含量、降落数值、直链淀粉含量、面筋指数、峰值时间和Zeleny沉淀值,以品质因子进行聚类分析.[结果]经主成分分析,8个主成分其分别决定总变异量的44.00%、14.49%、8.52%、8.25%、5.46%、4.07%、3.30%和2.74%.把30个春小麦品种聚成4类:第一类小麦品种的面粉L*、面团形成时间、稳定时间和评价值等粉质参数上表现突出,面筋指数和淀粉糊化特性表现较好,而籽粒蛋白含量、湿面筋含量和面粉吸水率偏低.第二类小麦品种中的淀粉糊化特性好,湿面筋含量、籽粒蛋白质、面粉b*含量高,但面筋指数含量低.第三类小麦品种在面粉L*、面团稳定时间和评价值表现差.第四类小麦品种的灰分含量、面粉吸水率偏高,而形成时间较短,淀粉糊化特性表现较差.[结论]通过对新疆自育和引进的30个春小麦品种的23个品质性状的主成分和聚类分类分析,筛选出了影响春小麦品质的8个主成分,对这8个品质指标的选择有利于小麦品质育种和改良效率的提高.%[ Objective ] Gluten spring wheat of 30 different self - fertile or introduced varieties in Xinjiang were chosen to conduct principal component and cluster analyses of 23 indexes such as their flour quality, protein quality traits and starch quality traits. [Method] By the principal component analysis, the 23 quality characters belong to 8 principal components; starch gelatinization characteristics, silty parameters, protein content, falling number, amylose content, gluten index, peak time and Zeleny

  19. Role and treatment of early maladaptive schemas in Vietnam Veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockram, David M; Drummond, Peter D; Lee, Christopher W

    2010-01-01

    The role of early maladaptive schemas in understanding and treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was investigated. The first study examined the role of perceived adverse parenting and early maladaptive schemas in the development of PTSD in Australian and New Zealand Vietnam war veterans (n = 220). Veterans diagnosed with PTSD scored higher on the Young Schema Questionnaire (L3) and had higher scores on the Measure of Parental Style than veterans not diagnosed with PTSD. The results suggest that early maladaptive schemas have an important role in the development or maintenance of PTSD in Vietnam veterans. The second study measured at baseline, termination and 3 months the early maladaptive schemas, PTSD, anxiety and depression of war veterans (n = 54) participating in a PTSD group treatment programme that included schema-focused therapy. Scores on the PTSD Checklist, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and 17 schemas decreased significantly after treatment. Change scores for the schema treatment were compared with change scores of war veterans (n = 127) who had completed a manualized cognitive-behavioural therapy programme without schema-focused therapy. Pre-treatment measures were similar in both groups. Nevertheless, PTSD and anxiety improved more significantly for the schema-focused therapy group. Together, these findings support the feasibility of schema-focused therapy to assist veterans with PTSD.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of PTSD Coach, a smartphone app for post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eric; Greene, Carolyn; Hoffman, Julia; Nguyen, Tam; Wald, Laura; Schmidt, Janet; Ramsey, Kelly M; Ruzek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    PTSD Coach is a mobile application (app) designed to help individuals who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms better understand and self-manage their symptoms. It has wide-scale use (over 130,000 downloads in 78 countries) and very favorable reviews but has yet to be evaluated. Therefore, this study examines user satisfaction, perceived helpfulness, and usage patterns of PTSD Coach in a sample of 45 veterans receiving PTSD treatment. After using PTSD Coach for several days, participants completed a survey of satisfaction and perceived helpfulness and focus groups exploring app use and benefit from use. Data indicate that participants were very satisfied with PTSD Coach and perceived it as being moderately to very helpful with their PTSD symptoms. Analysis of focus group data resulted in several categories of app use: to manage acute distress and PTSD symptoms, at scheduled times, and to help with sleep. These findings offer preliminary support for the acceptability and perceived helpfulness of PTSD Coach and suggest that it has potential to be an effective self-management tool for PTSD. Although promising, future research is required to validate this, given study limitations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Oxytocin is associated with PTSD's anxious arousal symptoms in Chinese male earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chengqi; Wang, Li; Wang, Richu; Qing, Yulan; Zhang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex and severe mental disorder triggered by exposure to an extraordinarily traumatic event. Human and animal studies have implied the functional role of the oxytocin system in the development of PTSD (Cochran, Fallon, Hill, & Frazier, 2013; Koch et al., 2014; Olff, 2012). Specification of the role of the oxytocin system in the emergence and progression of PTSD symptomatology would provide evidence to inform both theory and clinical practice. This study examined the association between oxytocin serum levels and PTSD symptoms. A total of 106 Chinese male adults who suffered from the deadly 2008 Wenchuan earthquake participated in this study. PTSD symptoms were measured with PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), and serum oxytocin level was determined with ELISA oxytocin kits. The mean score on the PCL-5 was 19.30 (SD=14.50, range: 1-65) in this sample. The mean oxytocin level was 101.59 pg/ml (SD=55.89, range: 31.50-286.71). The results indicated that although the oxytocin was not associated with total PTSD symptoms, it was associated with PTSD's anxious arousal symptoms. These findings support that the oxytocin may play an important functional role in the development of PTSD and contribute to the extant knowledge on the genetic basis of the PTSD symptoms.

  2. Oxytocin is associated with PTSD's anxious arousal symptoms in Chinese male earthquake survivors

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    Chengqi Cao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a complex and severe mental disorder triggered by exposure to an extraordinarily traumatic event. Human and animal studies have implied the functional role of the oxytocin system in the development of PTSD (Cochran, Fallon, Hill, & Frazier, 2013; Koch et al., 2014; Olff, 2012. Specification of the role of the oxytocin system in the emergence and progression of PTSD symptomatology would provide evidence to inform both theory and clinical practice. Methods: This study examined the association between oxytocin serum levels and PTSD symptoms. A total of 106 Chinese male adults who suffered from the deadly 2008 Wenchuan earthquake participated in this study. PTSD symptoms were measured with PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5, and serum oxytocin level was determined with ELISA oxytocin kits. Results: The mean score on the PCL-5 was 19.30 (SD=14.50, range: 1–65 in this sample. The mean oxytocin level was 101.59 pg/ml (SD=55.89, range: 31.50–286.71. The results indicated that although the oxytocin was not associated with total PTSD symptoms, it was associated with PTSD's anxious arousal symptoms. Conclusion: These findings support that the oxytocin may play an important functional role in the development of PTSD and contribute to the extant knowledge on the genetic basis of the PTSD symptoms.

  3. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

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    Anna Tiihonen Möller

    Full Text Available Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD.Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months.Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults.Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  4. Relationship of PTSD Symptoms With Combat Exposure, Stress, and Inflammation in American Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groer, Maureen W; Kane, Bradley; Williams, S Nicole; Duffy, Allyson

    2015-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is of great concern in veterans. PTSD usually occurs after a person is exposed to death, threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Active duty soldiers deployed to war zones are at risk for PTSD. Psychoneuroimmunological theory predicts that PTSD, depression, and stress can lead to low-grade, chronic inflammation. We asked whether there were relationships between PTSD symptoms and chronic stress, depression and inflammation in active duty U.S. soldiers. We enrolled 52 active duty enlisted and reservist soldiers in a cross-sectional study while they participated in a week of military training in fall 2011. They completed a demographic questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the Combat Exposure Scale, and the PTSD symptom Checklist-Military version (PCL-M). Blood samples were taken for analysis of cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP). Hair samples shaved from the forearm were measured for cortisol. Of the soldiers, 11 had PCL-M scores in the moderate to severe range. Regression analysis demonstrated that depression and war zone deployment were strong predictors of PTSD symptoms. CRP and hair cortisol were correlated with each other and with depression and PTSD symptoms. These results suggest relationships among war zone deployment, depression, and PTSD. Chronic stress associated with depression, PTSD, and war zone experiences may be related to inflammation in active duty soldiers.

  5. Preliminary Study of Acute Changes in Emotion Processing in Trauma Survivors with PTSD Symptoms.

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    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests traumatic experience can rapidly alter brain activation associated with emotion processing. However, little is known about acute changes in emotion neurocircuits that underlie PTSD symptom development. To examine acute alterations in emotion circuit activation and structure that may be linked to PTSD symptoms, thirty-eight subjects performed a task of appraisal of emotional faces as their brains were functionally and structurally studied with MRI at both two weeks and three months after motor vehicle collision (MVC. As determined by symptoms reported in the PTSD Checklist at three months, sixteen survivors developed probable PTSD, whereas the remaining 22 did not meet criteria for PTSD diagnosis (non-PTSD. The probable PTSD group had greater activation than the non-PTSD group in dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC and vmPFC while appraising fearful faces within two weeks after MVC and in left insular cortex (IC three months after MVC. dmPFC activation at two weeks significantly positively correlated with PTSD symptom severity at two weeks (R = 0.462, P = 0.006 and three months (R = 0.418, p = 0.012. Changes over time in dmPFC activation and in PTSD symptom severity were also significantly positively correlated in the probable PTSD group (R = 0.641, P = 0.018. A significant time by group interaction was found for volume changes in left superior frontal gyrus (SFG, F = 6.048, p = 0.019 that partially overlapped dmPFC active region. Between two weeks and three months, left SFG volume decreased in probable PTSD survivors. These findings identify alterations in frontal cortical activity and structure during the early post-trauma period that appear to be associated with development of PTSD symptoms.

  6. Genetic Markers for PTSD Risk and Resilience Among Survivors of the World Trade Center Attacks

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    Casey Sarapas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported the differential expression of 17 probe sets in survivors of the 9/11 attacks with current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD compared to similarly exposed survivors with no lifetime PTSD. The current study presents an expanded analysis of these subjects, including genotype at FKBP5, a modulator of glucocorticoid receptor (GR sensitivity. It includes data from additional subjects who developed PTSD following 9/11 but then recovered, distinguishing expression profiles associated with risk for developing PTSD, resilience, and symptom recovery. 40 Caucasians (20 with and 20 without PTSD, matched for exposure, age, and gender were selected from a population-representative sample of persons exposed to the 9/11 attacks from which longitudinal data had been collected in four previous waves. Whole blood gene expression and cortisol levels were obtained and genome-wide gene expression was analyzed. 25 probe sets were differentially expressed in PTSD. Identified genes were generally involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, signal transduction, or in brain and immune cell function. STAT5B, a direct inhibitor of GR, and nuclear factor I/A, both showed reduced expression in PTSD. Comparison of lifetime versus current PTSD identified overlapping genes with altered expression suggesting enduring markers, while some markers present only in current PTSD may reflect state measures. As a follow-up, direct comparisons of expression in current PTSD, lifetime-only PTSD, and control groups identified FKBP5 and MHC Class II as state markers, and also identified several trait markers. An analysis of indirect effects revealed that homozygosity for any of 4 PTSD risk-related polymorphisms at FKBP5 predicted FKBP5 expression, which mediated indirect effects of genotype on plasma cortisol and PTSD severity.

  7. Efficacy of structured approach therapy in reducing PTSD in returning veterans: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Frederic J; Glynn, Shirley M; Cretu, Julia Becker; Senturk, Damla; Vaught, Amanda S

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. military deployed in support to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) show high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and relationship, partner, and parenting distress. Given the pervasive effect of combat-related PTSD on returning veterans and its effect on their loved ones, the investigators have developed a couples-based treatment, structured approach therapy (SAT), to reduce PTSD while simultaneously decreasing relationship and partner distress. This study presents treatment outcome data measuring PTSD and relationship outcomes from a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing SAT, a manualized 12-session novel couples-based PTSD treatment, to a manualized 12-session couples-based educational intervention (PTSD Family Education [PFE]). Data were collected from 57 returning veterans meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition, text revision; DSM-IV-TR) criteria for PTSD and their cohabiting partners; data collection was scheduled for pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Findings from an intent-to-treat analysis revealed that veterans receiving SAT showed significantly greater reductions in self-rated (PTSD Checklist; p < .0006) and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)-rated PTSD (p < .0001) through the 3-month follow-up compared with veterans receiving PFE; 15 of 29 (52%) veterans receiving SAT and 2 of 28 (7%) receiving PFE no longer met DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD. Furthermore, SAT was associated with significant improvements in veteran relationship adjustment, attachment avoidance, and state anxiety. Partners showed significant reductions in attachment anxiety. This couples-based treatment for combat-related PTSD appears to have a strong therapeutic effect on combat-related PTSD in recently returned veterans.

  8. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

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    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  9. [Assessment of complex PTSD - internal and external validity of a diagnostic interview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroske-Leiner, Katja; Hofmann, Arne; Sack, Martin

    2008-05-01

    The diagnostic construct of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) describes the consequences of early onset and long-term persisting psychological traumatizations. The interview for complex PTSD (I-kPTBS) - is the German adaptation of the structured interview for disorders of extreme stress (SIDES). The present study reports first data regarding the internal validity of the I-kPTBS as well as on the external validity of the diagnosis of complex PTSD. The I-kPTBS was applied in 72 consecutive patients of a specialized outpatient clinic. 31 patients fulfilled the criteria of the diagnosis complex PTSD. 25 suffered from a PTSD but did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria of complex PTSD. Both groups where compared regarding their symptoms, resources and reports of childhood events. Internal consistence of the I-kPTBS regarding the sample was good to excellent (alpha = 0.88). As expected, patients with the diagnosis of complex PTSD showed more severe dissociative, depressive and general anxiety symptoms than patients with PTSD alone. Patients fulfilling the criteria of complex PTSD reported a lower age at their first traumatic event, more multiple traumatizations and more often a dissociative disorder as comorbid diagnosis. Patients with complex PTSD show a higher traumaload in childhood and a lower level of compensatory resources. The interview for complex PTSD (I-kPTBS) describes a consistent diagnostic construct. The results demonstrate that the diagnosis of complex PTSD selects a specific group of patients with early childhood trauma and high symptom level. Specific criteria can differentiate this patient group well from patients that suffer from PTSD alone.

  10. Parenting with PTSD: A Review of Research on the Influence of PTSD on Parent-Child Functioning in Military and Veteran Families

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    Suzannah K. Creech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is strongly associated with exposure to war related trauma in military and veteran populations. In growing recognition that PTSD may influence and be influenced by social support and family systems, research has begun to explore the effects that war related trauma and the ensuing PTSD may have on varied aspects of close relationship and family functioning. Far less research, however, has examined the influence of war-related PTSD on parent-child functioning in this population. This paper provides a timely review of emergent literature to examine the impacts that PTSD may have on parenting behaviors and children’s outcomes with a focus on studies of military and veterans of international conflicts since post-9/11. The review sheds light on the pathways through which PTSD may impact parent-child relationships, and proposes the cognitive-behavioral interpersonal theory of PTSD as a theoretical formulation and extends this to parenting/children. The review identifies the strengths and limitations in the extant research and proposes directions for future research and methodological practice to better capture the complex interplay of PTSD and parenting in military and veteran families.

  11. Factor structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed adolescents: Examining stability across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Cao, Xing; Cao, Chengqi; Fang, Ruojiao; Yang, Haibo; Elhai, Jon D

    2017-07-23

    This study investigated the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms using two-wave longitudinal data collected from a sample of adolescents exposed to an explosion accident. Two waves of surveys were conducted approximately 3 and 8 months after the accident, respectively. A total of 836 students completed the baseline survey, and 762 students completed the follow-up survey. The results of confirmatory factor analyses(CFA) indicated that a seven-factor hybrid model composed of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal and dysphoric arousal factors yielded significantly better data fit at both waves than the other models including the DSM-5 four-factor model, the six-factor anhedonia and externalizing behaviors models. Furthermore, the results of CFA invariance tests supported the longitudinal invariance of the model. Implications and limitations in terms of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5 (PC-PTSD-5): Development and Evaluation Within a Veteran Primary Care Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Annabel; Bovin, Michelle J; Smolenski, Derek J; Marx, Brian P; Kimerling, Rachel; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A; Kaloupek, Danny G; Schnurr, Paula P; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Leyva, Yani E; Tiet, Quyen Q

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased health care utilization, medical morbidity, and tobacco and alcohol use. Consequently, screening for PTSD has become increasingly common in primary care clinics, especially in Veteran healthcare settings where trauma exposure among patients is common. The objective of this study was to revise the Primary Care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) to reflect the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for PTSD (PC-PTSD-5) and to examine both the diagnostic accuracy and the patient acceptability of the revised measure. We compared the PC-PTSD-5 results with those from a brief psychiatric interview for PTSD. Participants also rated screening preferences and acceptability of the PC-PTSD-5. A convenience sample of 398 Veterans participated in the study (response rate = 41 %). Most of the participants were male, in their 60s, and the majority identified as non-Hispanic White. The PC-PTSD-5 was used as the screening measure, a modified version of the PTSD module of the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to diagnose DSM-5 PTSD, and five brief survey items were used to assess acceptability and preferences. The PC-PTSD-5 demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.941; 95 % C.I.: 0.912- 0.969). Whereas a cut score of 3 maximized sensitivity (κ[1]) = 0.93; SE = .041; 95 % C.I.: 0.849-1.00), a cut score of 4 maximized efficiency (κ[0.5] = 0.63; SE = 0.052; 95 % C.I.: 0.527-0.731), and a cut score of 5 maximized specificity (κ[0] = 0.70; SE = 0.077; 95 % C.I.: 0.550-0.853). Patients found the screen acceptable and indicated a preference for administration by their primary care providers as opposed to by other providers or via self-report. The PC-PTSD-5 demonstrated strong preliminary results for diagnostic accuracy, and was broadly acceptable to patients.

  13. Review of exposure therapy: A gold standard for PTSD treatment

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    Sheila A. M. Rauch, PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure (PE is an effective first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, regardless of the type of trauma, for Veterans and military personnel. Extensive research and clinical practice guidelines from various organizations support this conclusion. PE is effective in reducing PTSD symptoms and has also demonstrated efficacy in reducing comorbid issues such as anger, guilt, negative health perceptions, and depression. PE has demonstrated efficacy in diagnostically complex populations and survivors of single- and multiple-incident traumas. The PE protocol includes four main therapeutic components (i.e., psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, imaginal exposure, and emotional processing. In light of PE’s efficacy, the Veterans Health Administration designed and supported a PE training program for mental health professionals that has trained over 1,300 providers. Research examining the mechanisms involved in PE and working to improve its acceptability, efficacy, and efficiency is underway with promising results.

  14. Implementing an Assessment Clinic in a Residential PTSD Program

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    Joan McDowell

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Creating useful treatment plans can help improve services to consumers of mental health services. As more evidence-based practices are implemented, deciding what treatment, at what time, for whom becomes an important factor in facilitating positive outcomes. Readiness for trauma-focused treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD such as Cognitive Processing Therapy or Prolonged Exposure Therapy may influence whether an individual can successfully complete either protocol. In addition, components of adjunctive therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy or Dialectical Behavior Therapy may be useful in moving a particular patient toward readiness and successful completion of treatment. Psychological assessment adds valuable data to inform these types of treatment decisions. This paper describes the implementation of a psychological assessment clinic in a residential PTSD treatment setting. Barriers to implementation, use of the data, and Veterans’ reactions to the feedback provided to them are included.

  15. Predictors of PTSD symptoms in caregivers of pediatric burn survivors

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    Lucía Del Carmen Quezada Berumen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Facing a severe injury in the children is one of the most devastating experiences that parents may face. The aim of this study was to explore the role of resilience showed by fathers and mothers of children with burns, the TBSA burned, age at the time of the burn and time since the burn in PTSD symptoms in caregivers. It was a cross-sectional study where fathers, mothers and guardians of 51 burn patients were evaluated. Results showed that the higher strength and confidence in caregivers, less severity in PTSD symptoms. The post-burn reactions of parents and guardians can affect the responses and welfare of their children. Therefore, a better understanding of factors related to the adaptation in caregivers, better attention by health services.

  16. Male combat veterans' narratives of PTSD, masculinity, and health.

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    Caddick, Nick; Smith, Brett; Phoenix, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    This article uniquely examines the ways a group of male combat veterans talk about masculinity and how, following post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), they performed masculinities in the context of a surfing group, and what effects this had upon their health and wellbeing. Participant observations and life history interviews were conducted with a group of combat veterans who belonged to a surfing charity for veterans experiencing PTSD. Data were rigorously explored via narrative analysis. Our findings revealed the ways in which veterans enacted masculinities in accordance with the values that were cultivated during military service. These masculine performances in the surfing group had important effects both on and for the veterans' wellbeing. Significantly, the study highlights how masculine performances can be seen alternately as a danger and as a resource for health and wellbeing in relation to PTSD. The article advances knowledge on combat veterans and mental health with critical implications for the promotion of male veterans' mental health. These include the original suggestion that health-promoting masculine performances might be recognised and supported in PTSD treatment settings. Rather than automatically viewing masculinity as problematic, this article moves the field forward by highlighting how hegemonic masculinities can be reconstructed in positive ways which might improve veterans' health and wellbeing. A video abstract of this article can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaYzaOP1kAY. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Regional Center of Excellence for PTSD: Phoebe Putney Memorial Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    under regulatory review, with initial patient enrollment predicted for Fall 2011. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Telepsychiatry...The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) delivered via telepsychiatry can be as effective for the...of Veteran Affairs, Department of Defense, 2004). Studies have shown that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is effective in the treatment of PTSD

  18. Understanding resilience: New approaches for preventing and treating PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Sarah R; Charney, Dennis S; Feder, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    All individuals experience stressful life events, and up to 84% of the general population will experience at least one potentially traumatic event. In some cases, acute or chronic stressors lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other psychopathology; however, the majority of people are resilient to such effects. Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. A wealth of research has begun to identify the genetic, epigenetic, neural, and environmental underpinnings of resilience, and has indicated that resilience is mediated by adaptive changes encompassing several environmental factors, neural circuits, numerous neurotransmitters, and molecular pathways. The first part of this review focuses on recent findings regarding the genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors as well as neural circuits and molecular pathways that underlie the development of resilience. Emerging and exciting areas of research and novel methodological approaches, including genome-wide gene expression studies, immune, endocannabinoid, oxytocin, and glutamatergic systems, are explored to help delineate innovative mechanisms that may contribute to resilience. The second part reviews several interventions and preventative approaches designed to enhance resilience in both developmental and adult populations. Specifically, the review will delineate approaches aimed to bolster resilience in individuals with PTSD. Furthermore, we discuss novel pharmacologic approaches, including the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ketamine and neuropeptide Y (NPY), as exciting new prospects for not only the treatment of PTSD but as new targets to enhance resilience. Our growing understanding of resilience and interventions will hopefully lead to the development of new strategies for not just treating PTSD but also screening and early identification of at-risk youth and adults. Taken together, efforts aimed at

  19. Adaptive Disclosure: A Combat-Specific PTSD Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    based interventions for treating PTSD, however, were not developed for military trauma and thus may be suboptimal for this population. This study...in conducting pre- and post-treatment psychosocial assessments that will be used to determine treatment efficacy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Active-duty...behavioral therapy strategies packaged and sequenced to target the three high base-rate combat and operational traumas , namely, life-threat trauma

  20. Online PTSD Diagnosis and Treatment Training for Primary Care Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    care capacity,9 there are also other well-described patient-level barriers to mental health care such as stigma , cultural attitudes, negative...including hypothesized underlying mechanisms, their knowledge and understanding of these psychotherapies were not maintained after 30 days. Having...a trusted PCP explain in plain language the rationale for evidence-based trauma-focused psychotherapies to a patient suffering from PTSD can be

  1. Enhancing Battlemind: Preventing PTSD by Coping with Intrusive Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    condition [t = -2.15, p = .03; t = -1.93, p = .05, respectively]. D AS S- An xi et y Ra ng e 0- 21 Results Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale ( DASS ...and interference) caused by the intrusions. The EIS has demonstrated good internal consistency and excellent test-retest reliability, as well as...PTSD. (32) General Psychological Symptoms. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales- 21 ( DASS - 21 ) (33) is a 21 -item measure that distinguishes between

  2. Development & Validation of a PTSD-Related Impairment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    funded randomized controlled study will be on the effectiveness of mind-body skills like meditation , biofeedback, guided imagery on PTSD, sleep...Education: This scale assesses the extent to which the individual can focus in the classroom and complete homework assignments in an effective and...December 2009. The data collections will be done in on-post facilities such as theaters, gymnasiums, classrooms , and at assigned training locations

  3. PTSD and traumatic brain injury: folklore and fact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nigel S

    2008-01-01

    A number of controversies and debates have arisen over the years surrounding the dual diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Many of these have centred around the around the degree of protection provided by TBI against developing the disorder. The following is brief review of the literature in this area to help resolve some of these issues and to address a number of specific challenges which arise when working with this patient group.

  4. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of PTSD and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    fixation to the eyes and mouth of the stimulus. Variation in the degree to which this distracted the participants may have caused the variation among...associated with anxiety disorders, and these include hyperthyroidism , Cushing’s disease and mitral value prolapse [4,5]. Thus, anxiety disorders are...associated text) has caused much excitement and controversy about the use of propranolol to prevent PTSD [196-198]. Thus far, initial trials have

  5. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

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    Sandor M. Molnar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  6. The PTSD supremacy: Criterion F in three Voyager cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughwin, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The aim is to consider whether the courts and experts in their application of Criterion F for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have applied it consistently in civil claims brought years after the event. Three cases for compensation relating to the Voyager disaster are considered. It appears, from the cases considered in this paper, that while courts consider that Criterion F is crucial in making a diagnosis of PTSD, there are some inconsistencies in terms of understanding and applying this criterion, both by the courts and experts. This may be because of a lack of guidance in psychiatric texts as to how to apply Criterion F. Criterion F is, after the satisfaction of Criterion A(1), arguably the most important of the criteria for PTSD for, while the symptoms referred to in Criteria B-D have been shown to be fairly easy to simulate, it is arguably harder to do this with Criterion F, particularly in cases that arise a long time after the event. It is important therefore that psychiatrists assessing persons so long after an event adhere rigorously to Criterion F, because it is based on facts open to objective corroboration, while criteria B, C and D tend to rely on subjective experiences which are the most sensitive to distortion. Thus, it is to be hoped that if DSM-V is to maintain a criterion of clinically significant distress or impairment in the majority of the disorders described therein, it will provide some assistance as to how this criteria should be applied.

  7. Differences in PTSD Symptomatology Among Latinos with Childhood and Adult Trauma: The Moderating Effect of Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGangi, Julia A.; Goddard, Andrea J.; Miller, Steven A.; Leon, Gabriela; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of PTSD has been shown to be dependent on a variety of factors, including ethnicity, whether the trauma was experienced as a child or adult, and acculturation. Using 104 Latinos who had completed treatment for substance abuse disorder(s), this study compared PTSD symptomatology for individuals reporting their worst traumatic event (WTE) in childhood versus adulthood. The moderating effect of acculturation was also examined. Although many studies have reported on the pernicious effects of childhood trauma, very few have provided direct comparisons of child and adult trauma in terms of PTSD symptoms. Results indicated that those reporting their WTE in childhood had greater PTSD symptomatology than those reporting in adulthood. Acculturation moderated the relationship between timing of the trauma and PTSD symptoms. Specifically, those who reported their WTE in childhood and had the lower levels of acculturation reported the higher number of PTSD symptoms. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27227166

  8. PTSD symptom structure among West African war trauma survivors living in African refugee camps: a factor-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Gregory A; Chang, Zoua

    2012-04-01

    We examined the factor structure of measured posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of West African civilian refugees who had fled the civil war in Sierra Leone between 2001 and 2006. Given that such war-affected populations are common but understudied in trauma research, our objective was to examine the similarities and differences in this factor structure compared to prevailing models of PTSD symptom structure. As part of treatment services provided in refugee camps, refugees (2,140 women, 1,662 men, 1 unknown) from Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea completed the 17 symptoms portion of the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to investigate whether there was a factor structure unique to this population, and made comparisons with the numbing, dysphoria, and aroused intrusion models. Results from the confirmatory analyses showed that the dysphoria model best fit the data (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .062); however, exploratory analyses revealed that 3 items loaded differently than theoretically expected. Psychological distress cross-loaded on reexperiencing and avoidance factors and physiological reactivity loaded on the avoidance factor instead of the reexperiencing factor. The sleep difficulties item was not well explained, generally; the highest loading (λ = .22) was on the dysphoria factor. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  10. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Children of Conflict Region of Kashmir (India): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Raheel; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs due to traumatic events. The last two decades have seen various traumatic events in Kashmiri population, which has led to psychological impact on all population, especially children. PTSD is one of the psychiatric disorders occurring after witnessing of traumatic events. A review of literature regarding PTSD in children of Kashmir (India) has been done to assess the prevalence, causes, neurobiology, risk factors and psychiatric co morbidity associated with it.

  11. CLINICAL EXPERIENCES IN TREATING PTSD PATIENTS BY COMBINIG INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP PSYCHOTERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Bilić, Vedran; Nemčić-Moro, Iva; Karšić, Vana; Grgić, Vesna; Stojanović-Špehar, Stanislava; Marčinko, Darko

    2010-01-01

    PTSD is a complex psychobiological disorder that couses disfunctionality in many areas. In treating PTSD different models have been applied, however, no general consensus on the method of treatment has yet been achieved. At the Clinic for Psychol.ogical Medicine we have developed the model of combined treatment for PTSD patients that involves outpatient individual psychoterapy, psychopharmacotherapy and group psyhoterapeutic techniques introduced within repeated day-hospital treatments. In th...

  12. Förebyggande metoder och behandlingar för Posttraumatiskt stressyndrom (PTSD): : Systematisk litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the impact of debriefing, brief eclectic psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and EMDR therapy for PTSD and other stress-like reactions in emergency personnel. Background: In 1980, PTSD got a name and a place in the modern psychiatric diagnosis. Interest in the treatment and prevention of PTSD has increased over the past 20 years. Responders (ambulance, police and firefighters) are professionals who often meet human pain and suffering and are ...

  13. Prazosin for Treatment of Patients With PTSD and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    There is a high rate of comorbidity with alcohol dependence (AD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The rates of PTSD among individuals with...AD are at least twice as high as those in the general population. In addition, alcohol dependence is the most common comorbid condition in men with...sleep disturbance in combat veterans with PTSD, and alcohol dependence . Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of

  14. POSTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD) FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: A TRANSDISCIPLINARY INTEGRATIVE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljević, Miro; Brajković, Lovorka; Jakšić, Nenad; Lončar, Mladen; Aukst-Margetić, Branka; Lasić, Davor

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychotraumatization continues to be a pervasive aspect of life in the 21st century all over the world so we should better understand psychological trauma and PTSD for the sake of prevention and healing. Method: We have made an overview of available literature on PTSD to identify explanatory models, hypotheses and theories. Results: In this paper we describe our transdisciplinary multiperspective integrative model of PTSD based on the seven perspective explanatory appr...

  15. Firearm Ownership Among Military Veterans with PTSD: A Profile of Demographic and Psychosocial Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; Cohen, Nicole L.; Holleran, Lori; Alvarez, Jennifer A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a condition that disproportionately affects military veterans, is associated with heightened rates of aggression and suicide. Although experience with firearms is common among this population, virtually nothing is known regarding who is more likely to own a firearm and whether firearm ownership is differentially associated with psychological and behavioral risk factors among veterans with PTSD. Of 465 veterans (79% male) entering PTSD treatment, 28% owned...

  16. Resilient But Addicted: The Impact of Resilience on the Relationship between Smoking Withdrawal and PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Asnaani, Anu; Alpert, Elizabeth; McLean, Carmen P.; Foa, Edna B.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine use is common among people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Resilience, which is reflected in one's ability to cope with stress, has been shown to be associated with lower cigarette smoking and posttraumatic stress symptoms, but relationships among these three variables have not been examined. This study investigates the relationships of resilience and nicotine withdrawal with each other and in relation to PTSD symptoms. Participants were 118 cigarette smokers with PTSD see...

  17. Worry, Worry Attacks, and PTSD among Cambodian Refugees: A Path Analysis Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Hinton, Devon E.; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Among traumatized Cambodian refugees, this article investigates worry (e.g., the types of current life concerns) and how worry worsens posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To explore how worry worsens PTSD, we examine a path model of worry to see whether certain key variables (e.g., worry-induced somatic arousal and worry-induced trauma recall) mediate the relationship between worry and PTSD. Survey data were collected from March 2010 until May 2010 in a convenience sample of 201 adult Cambo...

  18. Future directions for interventions targeting PTSD in HIV-infected adults

    OpenAIRE

    Applebaum, Allison J.; Bedoya, C. Andres; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Wilkinson, Jesse L.; Safren, Steven A.; O’Cleirigh, Conall

    2014-01-01

    Although studies consistently report high rates of comorbid Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and HIV infection, development and testing of PTSD treatment interventions in HIV-infected adults is limited. As such, the purpose of this review was twofold. First, this review augments the 3 existing reviews of research for PTSD in HIV-infected adults conducted within the past 10 years. We found 2 empirically supported cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based interventions for the treatment of ...

  19. Self-study assisted cognitive therapy for PTSD: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research has demonstrated that Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD), a version of traumafocused cognitive-behavioural therapy developed by Ehlers and Clark’s group (2000), is effective and feasible when offered in weekly and intensive daily formats. It is unknown whether patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could engage in and benefit from self-study assisted cognitive therapy, which would reduce therapist contact time. Objectives: This case report aims to ill...

  20. The Relationship between PTSD and Chronic Pain: Mediating Role of Coping Strategies and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Lovejoy, Travis I.; Lu, Mary; Turk, Dennis C.; Lewis, Lynsey; Dobscha, Steven K

    2013-01-01

    People with chronic pain and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report more severe pain and poorer quality of life than those with chronic pain alone. This study evaluated the extent to which associations between PTSD and chronic pain interference and severity are mediated by pain-related coping strategies and depressive symptoms. Veterans with chronic pain were divided into two groups, those with (n=65) and those without (n=136) concurrent PTSD. All participants completed measures...

  1. Spouses/Family Members of Service Members at Risk for PTSD or Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    installations, colleagues with connections to units, press releases, interviews with news outlets, guest blogs on popular social media sites, contacts at...are experiencing symptoms of PTSD or severe depression . The study is multi-method, with an initial qualitative phase (Phase 1), and a follow-up...for PTSD and/or suicidality. Social support is one of the strongest buffers against PTSD (Brewin, Andrews, & Valentine, 2000; Ozer, Best, Lipsey

  2. Consequences of PTSD for the work and family quality of life of female and male U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Dawne; Smith, Brian N; Fox, Annie B; Amoroso, Timothy; Taverna, Emily; Schnurr, Paula P

    2017-03-01

    Although it is well established that combat-related PTSD can lead to reduced quality of life, less is known about the relative effect of PTSD on different aspects of former service members' post-military readjustment. Moreover, research on female veterans' reintegration experiences is limited. This study aimed to document the work and family quality of life of post-9/11 male and female veterans and evaluate the gender-specific impact of PTSD on veterans' work and family outcomes. A national sample of 524 post-9/11 veterans completed mailed surveys as part of a longitudinal study. Descriptive and regression-based analyses were gender-stratified and weighted to enhance representativeness to the larger population. With a few notable exceptions, the majority of post-9/11 U.S. veterans reported high work and family quality of life. PTSD was not associated with either employment or relationship status; however, it did predict poorer work and family functioning and satisfaction for both men and women, with the most consistent negative effects on intimate relationships. Several gender differences were found, primarily with respect to work experiences. Although most post-9/11 veterans appear to be doing well in both their work and family lives, results support the need for interventions that can mitigate the negative effect of PTSD and other associated mental health conditions on several aspects of work and family quality of life. Findings contribute to research suggesting both similarities and differences in the post-military readjustment of male and female post-9/11 veterans and underscore the need for additional consideration of the unique work-related challenges women experience following military service.

  3. Exposure to the tsunami disaster, PTSD symptoms and increased substance use – an Internet based survey of male and female residents of Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisson Jonathan I

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After the tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean basin an Internet based self-screening test was made available in order to facilitate contact with mental health services. Although primarily designed for surviving Swiss tourists as well as relatives and acquaintances of the victims, the screening instrument was open to anyone who felt psychologically affected by this disaster. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences between self-declared increased substance use in the aftermath of the tsunami disaster, trauma exposure and current PTSD symptoms. Methods One section of the screening covered addiction related behavior. We analyzed the relationship between increased substance use, the level of PTSD symptoms and trauma exposure using multivariable logistic regression with substance use as the dependent variable. Included in the study were only subjects who reported being residents of Switzerland and the analyses were stratified by gender in order to control for possible socio-cultural or gender differences in the use of psychotropic substances. Results In women PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure enlarged the odds of increased alcohol, pharmaceuticals and cannabis use significantly. In men the relationship was more specific: PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure only enlarged the odds of increased pharmaceutical consumption significantly. Increases in alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use were only significantly associated with the degree of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion The tsunami was associated with increased substance use. This study not only replicates earlier findings but also suggests for a gender specificity of post-traumatic substance use increase.

  4. In search of the trauma memory: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sartory

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients' attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being

  5. Automated measurement of hippocampal subfields in PTSD: Evidence for smaller dentate gyrus volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jasmeet P; Hayes, Scott; Miller, Danielle R; Lafleche, Ginette; Logue, Mark W; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2017-09-09

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been consistently observed as a biomarker of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, less is known about individual volumes of the subfields composing the hippocampus such as the dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis (CA) fields 1-4 in PTSD. The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that volume of the dentate gyrus, a region putatively involved in distinctive encoding of similar events, is smaller in individuals with PTSD versus trauma-exposed controls. Ninety-seven recent war veterans underwent structural imaging on a 3T scanner and were assessed for PTSD using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The hippocampal subfield automated segmentation program available through FreeSurfer was used to segment the CA4/dentate gyrus, CA1, CA2/3, presubiculum, and subiculum of the hippocampus. Results showed that CA4/dentate gyrus subfield volume was significantly smaller in veterans with PTSD and scaled inversely with PTSD symptom severity. These results support the view that dentate gyrus abnormalities are associated with symptoms of PTSD, although additional evidence is necessary to determine whether these abnormalities underlie fear generalization and other memory alterations in PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Pupil Response to Threat in Trauma-Exposed Individuals With or Without PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascardi, Michele; Armstrong, Davine; Chung, Leeyup; Paré, Denis

    2015-08-01

    An infrequently studied and potentially promising physiological marker for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is pupil response. This study tested the hypothesis that pupil responses to threat would be significantly larger in trauma-exposed individuals with PTSD compared to those without PTSD. Eye-tracking technology was used to evaluate pupil response to threatening and neutral images. Recruited for participation were 40 trauma-exposed individuals; 40.0% (n = 16) met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Individuals with PTSD showed significantly more pupil dilation to threat-relevant stimuli compared to the neutral elements (Cohen's d = 0.76), and to trauma-exposed controls (Cohen's d = 0.75). Pupil dilation significantly accounted for 12% of variability in PTSD after time elapsed since most recent trauma, cumulative violence exposure, and trait anxiety were statistically adjusted. The final logistic regression model was associated with 85% of variability in PTSD status and correctly classified 93.8% of individuals with PTSD and 95.8% of those without. Pupil reactivity showed promise as a physiological marker for PTSD.

  7. Relationships between a Dissociative Subtype of PTSD and Clinical Characteristics in Patients with Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, Michaela; Driessen, Martin; Lüdecke, Christel; Ohlmeier, Martin; Chodzinski, Claudia; Weirich, Steffen; Schläfke, Detlef; Wedekind, Dirk; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula; Renner, Walter; Schäfer, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    The increasing support for a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD-D) has led to its inclusion in DSM-5. We examined relationships between PTSD-D and relevant variables in patients with substance use disorders (SUD). The sample comprised N = 459 patients with SUD. The International Diagnostic Checklist and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale were used to diagnose PTSD. In addition, participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The course of SUD was assessed by means of the European Addiction Severity Index. One-fourth of participants fulfilled a diagnosis of PTSD (25.3%). Patients with PTSD-D (N = 32, 27.6% of all patients with PTSD) reported significantly more current depressive symptoms, more current suicidal thoughts, more lifetime anxiety/tension, and more suicide attempts. The PTSD-D group also showed a significantly higher need for treatment due to drug problems, higher current use of opiates/analgesics, and a higher number of lifetime drug overdoses. In a regression model, symptoms of depression in the last month and lifetime suicide attempts significantly predicted PTSD-D. These findings suggest that PTSD-D is related to additional psychopathology and to a more severe course of substance-related problems in patients with SUD, indicating that this group also has additional treatment needs.

  8. PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative symptoms in a highly traumatized sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail; Cross, Dorthie; Fani, Negar; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to multiple traumas has been shown to result in many negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dissociation, which involves disruptions in memory, identity, and perceptions, may be a component of PTSD, particularly among individuals who have experienced childhood trauma. Emotion regulation difficulties are also strongly associated with childhood trauma and emotion dysregulation may be a particularly important factor to consider in the development and maintenance of dissociative symptoms. The goal of the present study was to determine whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and dissociation in a sample of 154 (80% female, 97% African-American) adults recruited from a public, urban hospital. PTSD was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, emotion dysregulation was measured using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and dissociation was measured using the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory. A linear regression analysis showed that both PTSD and emotion dysregulation were statistically significant predictors of dissociation even after controlling for trauma exposure. Alexithymia and an inability to use emotion regulation strategies in particular were predictive of dissociation above and beyond other predictor variables. Using bootstrapping techniques, we found that overall emotion dyregulation partially mediated the effect of PTSD symptoms on dissociative symptoms. Our results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be important in understanding the relation between PTSD and dissociative symptoms. Treatment approaches may consider a focus on training in emotional understanding and the development of adaptive regulation strategies as a way to address dissociative symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:25573648

  9. The New York PTSD Risk Score for Assessment of Psychological Trauma: Male and Female Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Hoffman, Stuart N.; Sartorius, Jennifer; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    We previously developed a new posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening instrument – the New York PTSD Risk Score (NYPRS). Since research suggests different PTSD risk factors and outcomes for men and women, in the current study we assessed the suitability of male and female versions of this screening instrument among 3,298 adults exposed to traumatic events. Using diagnostic test methods, including receiver operating curve (ROC) and bootstrap techniques, we examined different prediction domains, including core PTSD symptoms, trauma exposures, sleep disturbances, depression symptoms, and other measures to assess PTSD prediction models for men and women. While the original NYPRS worked well in predicting PTSD, significant interaction was detected by gender, suggesting that separate models are warranted for men and women. Model comparisons suggested that while the overall results appeared robust, prediction results differed by gender. For example, for women, core PTSD symptoms contributed more to the prediction score than for men. For men, depression symptoms, sleep disturbance, and trauma exposure contributed more to the prediction score. Men also had higher cut-off scores for PTSD compared to women. There were other gender-specific differences as well. The NYPRS is a screener that appears to be effective in predicting PTSD status among at-risk populations. However, consistent with other medical research, this instrument appears to require male and female versions to be the most effective. PMID:22648009

  10. Self-study assisted cognitive therapy for PTSD: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wild

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has demonstrated that Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD, a version of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy developed by Ehlers and Clark's group (2000, is effective and feasible when offered in weekly and intensive daily formats. It is unknown whether patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD could engage in and benefit from self-study assisted cognitive therapy, which would reduce therapist contact time. Objectives: This case report aims to illustrate this possibility. Design: A patient with PTSD and comorbid major depression, who developed these problems following a road traffic accident, was treated in six sessions of cognitive therapy with six self-study modules completed in-between sessions. The patient made a complete recovery on measures of PTSD, anxiety, and depression as assessed by self-report and independent assessment. Conclusion: Self-study assisted cognitive CT-PTSD reduced the therapist contact time to half of that normally required in standard CT-PTSD. This highlights the potential feasibility and therapeutic benefits of self-study modules in the brief treatment of PTSD. Further research is required to systematically evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of brief self-study assisted CT-PTSD.

  11. Gene × environment vulnerability factors for PTSD: the HPA-axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2012-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severely debilitating psychiatric condition. Although a lifetime trauma incidence of 40-90% has been reported in the general population, the overall lifetime prevalence for PTSD ranges between 7-12%, suggesting individual-specific differences towards the susceptibility to PTSD. While studies investigating main genetic effects associated with PTSD have yielded inconsistent findings, there is growing evidence supporting the role of gene-environment (G × E) interactions in PTSD. The hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the main systems activated after exposure to a trauma and perturbations in this system are one of the more consistent neurobiological abnormalities observed in PTSD. Genes regulating the HPA-axis are therefore interesting candidates for G × E studies in PTSD. This article will review the concept and initial results of G × E interactions with polymorphisms in these genes for PTSD. In addition, the use of alternate phenotypes and more complex interaction models such as G × G × E or G × E × E will be explored. Finally, putative molecular mechanisms for these interactions will be presented. The research presented in this article indicates that a combined analysis of environmental, genetic, endophenotype and epigenetic data will be necessary to better understand pathomechanisms in PTSD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Meta-analyses of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro-Mateu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of all published genetic association studies of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms performed in PTSD cases. METHODS DATA SOURCES: Potential studies were identified through PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science databases (Web of Knowledge, WoK, PsychINFO, PsychArticles and HuGeNet (Human Genome Epidemiology Network up until December 2011. STUDY SELECTION: Published observational studies reporting genotype or allele frequencies of this genetic factor in PTSD cases and in non-PTSD controls were all considered eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers selected studies for possible inclusion and extracted data independently following a standardized protocol. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A biallelic and a triallelic meta-analysis, including the total S and S' frequencies, the dominant (S+/LL and S'+/L'L' and the recessive model (SS/L+ and S'S'/L'+, was performed with a random-effect model to calculate the pooled OR and its corresponding 95% CI. Forest plots and Cochran's Q-Statistic and I(2 index were calculated to check for heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were carried out to analyze potential moderators. Publication bias and quality of reporting were also analyzed. RESULTS: 13 studies met our inclusion criteria, providing a total sample of 1874 patients with PTSD and 7785 controls in the biallelic meta-analyses and 627 and 3524, respectively, in the triallelic. None of the meta-analyses showed evidence of an association between 5-HTTLPR and PTSD but several characteristics (exposure to the same principal stressor for PTSD cases and controls, adjustment for potential confounding variables, blind assessment, study design, type of PTSD, ethnic distribution and Total Quality Score influenced the results in subgroup analyses and meta-regression. There was no evidence of potential publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence does not support a direct effect of 5-HTTLPR

  13. Neuropsychological effects of self-reported deployment-related mild TBI and current PTSD in OIF/OEF veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandera-Ochsner, Anne L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Edmundson, Maryanne; Graue, Lili O; Roach, Abbey; High, Walter M

    2013-01-01

    Current combat veterans are exposed to many incidents that may result in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While there is literature on the neuropsychological consequences of PTSD only (PTSD-o) and mTBI alone (mTBI-o), less has been done to explore their combined (mTBI+PTSD) effect. The goal of this study was to determine whether Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) veterans with mTBI+PTSD have poorer cognitive and psychological outcomes than veterans with PTSD-o, mTBI-o, or combat exposure-only. The final sample included 20 OIF/OEF veterans with histories of self-reported deployment mTBI (mTBI-o), 19 with current PTSD (PTSD-o), 21 with PTSD and self-reported mTBI (mTBI+PTSD), and 21 combat controls (CC) (no PTSD and no reported mTBI). Groups were formed using structured interviews for mTBI and PTSD. All participants underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing, including neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning tests. Results of cognitive tests revealed significant differences in performance in the mTBI+PTSD and PTSD-o groups relative to mTBI-o and CC. Consistent with previous PTSD literature, significant differences were found on executive (switching) tasks, verbal fluency, and verbal memory. Effect sizes tended to be large in both groups with PTSD. Thus, PTSD seems to be an important variable affecting neuropsychological profiles in the post-deployment time period. Consistent with literature on civilian mTBI, the current study did not find evidence that combat-related mTBI in and of itself contributes to objective cognitive impairment in the late stage of injury.

  14. SAFE for PTSD: noncontact psychophysiological measure based on high-resolution thermal imaging to aid in PTSD diagnosis and assessment of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familoni, Babajide O.; Ma, Lein; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Morgan, C. Andrew, III; Rasmusson, Ann; O'Kane, Barbara L.

    2012-06-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) sometimes develops following exposure to very stressful or traumatic events such as motor vehicle accidents, rape, and war. It is arguably the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Previous studies have demonstrated that PTSD sufferers exhibit autonomic hyper-responsiveness to both neutral and trauma-related stimuli. In this study, we propose using high resolution thermal imaging of sweat-pores to obtain a noncontact, remote, and quantifiable measure of the sympathetic autonomic nervous reactivity to guide diagnosis, assess response to treatment, and tease out important cues to suicidality as a PTSD comorbidity.

  15. Social relationship satisfaction and PTSD: which is the chicken and which is the egg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Freedman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired social relationships are linked with higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, but the association's underlying dynamics are unknown. PTSD may impair social relationships, and, vice versa, poorer relationship quality may interfere with the recovery from PTSD. Objective: This work longitudinally evaluates the simultaneous progression of PTSD symptoms and social relationship satisfaction (SRS in a large cohort of recent trauma survivors. It also explores the effect of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT on the association between the two. Method: Consecutive emergency department trauma admissions with qualifying PTSD symptoms (n=501 were assessed 3 weeks and 5 months after trauma admission. The World Health Organization Quality of Life evaluated SRS and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale evaluated PTSD symptom severity. Ninety-eight survivors received CBT between measurement sessions. We used Structural Equation Modeling to evaluate cross-lagged effects between the SRS and PTSD symptoms. Results: The cross-lagged effect of SRS on PTSD was statistically significant (β=−0.12, p=0.01 among survivors who did not receive treatment whilst the effect of PTDS on SRS was nil (β=−0.02, p=0.67. Both relationships were non-significant among survivors who received CBT. Discussion: SRS and PTSD are highly associated, and this study shows that changes in SRS in the early aftermath of traumatic events contribute to changes in PTSD, rather than vice versa. SRS impacts natural recovery, but not effective treatment. This study suggests that being satisfied with one's relationships might be considered as an important factor in natural recovery from trauma, as well as in intervention.

  16. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  17. Developing the PTSD Checklist-I/F for the DSM-IV (PCL-I/F: Assessing PTSD Symptom Frequency and Intensity in a Pilot Study of Male Veterans with Combat-Related PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Holliday

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The widely used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist (PCL has established reliability and validity, but it does not differentiate posttraumatic symptom frequency from intensity as elements of posttraumatic symptom severity. Thus, the PCL in its existing form may not provide a comprehensive appraisal of posttraumatic symptomatology. Because of this, we modified the PCL to create the PCL-I/F that measures both frequency and intensity of PTSD symptoms via brief self-report. To establish validity and internal consistency of the PCL-I/F, we conducted a pilot study comparing PCL-I/F scores to structured diagnostic interview for PTSD (the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS] in a male combat veteran sample of 92 participants. Statistically significant correlations between the PCL-I/F and the CAPS were found, suggesting initial validation of the PCL-I/F to screen and assess frequency and intensity of combat-related PTSD symptoms. Implications are discussed for screening and assessment of PTSD related to combat and non-combat trauma.

  18. Prevalence of PTSD in Survivors of Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack: A Meta-Analytic Review: e66435

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donald Edmondson; Safiya Richardson; Jennifer K Fausett; Louise Falzon; Virginia J Howard; Ian M Kronish

    2013-01-01

      Background and Purpose Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in survivors of acute life-threatening illness, but little is known about the burden of PTSD in survivors of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA...

  19. Influences of Maternal and Paternal PTSD on Epigenetic Regulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene in Holocaust Survivor Offspring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yehuda, Rachel; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Lehrner, Amy; Desarnaud, Frank; Bader, Heather N; Makotkine, Iouri; Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Meaney, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Important differences in the expression and effect of maternal and paternal PTSD were found when examining parental PTSD in the offspring of Holocaust survivors and methylation of the glucocorticoid...

  20. Structure analyses of Cu nanoclusters in the soft magnetic Fe85.2Si1B9P4Cu0.8 alloy by XAFS and fcc cluster model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, M.; Nishijima, M.; Konno, K.; Ofuchi, H.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A.

    2016-05-01

    Size of the clusters and structure details of fcc Cu clusters in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy of Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 (NANOMET) are investigated. A linear combination fitting of XAFS data indicates that about 30% of Cu atoms are partitioned in the fcc clusters and the rest in the amorphous matrix. EXAFS of the fcc Cu nanocluster embedded in amorphous matrix is calculated on the basis of a simple fcc structure model using FEFF9. Surface effect of the nanoclusters is considered by counting a fraction of the nearest neighbour atoms in amorphous matrix. Good agreement with the experimental result is obtained for the fcc nanocluster with 9 coordination shells which consists of total 177 atoms within 1.5 nm in a diameter.

  1. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  2. Analyses on the Development Status of Communication Industry Cluster in Xitm Hi- Tech Industrial Development Zone%西安高新区通信产业集群发展现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛小玲; 曾昭宁

    2012-01-01

    从三个方面对高新区通信产业集群发展现状进行了深入分析:结合产业集群发展阶段理论,分析该集群的发展阶段;采用定性的分析方法,整体分析其发展概况;采用区位商分析方法,定量分析其集群区位优势程度。最后针对高新区通信产业集群发展中存在缺乏统一领导、产业链发展不均衡等问题,提出了成立通信产业领导小组、针对产业链薄弱环节重点招商引资等相关对策建议。%In this paper, the status of communication industry cluster in Xi'an high- tech industry development zone is deeply analyzed from the following three aspects. Firstly, based on the theory of developing stages of industry cluster, the analysis focuses on the developing stages of this cluster. Secondly, the general state of cluster development is analyzed entirely by the use of qualitative analysis method. Thirdly, the degree of its cluster is discussed quantitatively by means of location quotient analysis method. Finally, according to some problems like the lack of unified leadership and the unbalance of industry chain development in the development of communication industry cluster in Xi'an high -tech industrial development zone, some relevant countermeasures and advice are put forward,which include establishing the leadership group of communication in- dustry, and putting emphasis on the invitation and attraction of outside investment based on the weak links of industrial chains.

  3. Impact of childhood traumatic events, trauma-related guilt, and avoidant coping strategies on PTSD symptoms in female survivors of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Amy E; Gibson, Laura E; Holohan, Dana R

    2005-06-01

    This investigation utilized path analyses to examine the direct and indirect effects of experiences of potentially traumatic events in childhood, trauma-related guilt, and the use of avoidant coping strategies on level of PTSD symptomatology among a sample of female survivors of domestic violence. The results of this investigation indicated that individuals with more extensive histories of potentially traumatic events in childhood were more likely to report the experience of trauma-related guilt after exposure to domestic violence victimization in adulthood. Further, the path model indicated that experiencing trauma-related guilt was associated with greater use of avoidant coping strategies. Trauma-related guilt was related to increased PTSD symptomatology both directly and indirectly through the use of avoidant coping strategies. These findings highlight the importance of attending to guilt-based affective and cognitive reactions, maladaptive coping strategies, and the association between these constructs when treating survivors of relationship violence with multiple exposures to potentially traumatic events.

  4. Coping strategies and internal resources of dispositional optimism and mastery as predictors of traumatic exposure and of PTSD symptoms: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Sharon; Weinberg, Michael

    2015-07-01

    This prospective study aimed at examining the role of trait internal resources and coping strategies in predicting traumatic exposure and levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after such exposure. In total, 870 Israeli students participated in the study, of whom 182 (20%) reported a lifetime history of traumatic exposure at baseline (t1), and a total of 231 (27%) respondents reported traumatic exposure during follow-up (t2, t3). After controlling the effect of lifetime history of traumatic exposure either by using it as a covariate in a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) or as a predictor in regression analyses, the results indicate that individuals high on trait avoidance coping style and low on mastery are at a higher risk for traumatic exposure, while those high on trait problem-focused coping style, mastery and dispositional optimism are at a lower risk for PTSD symptoms after such exposure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Breathing Biofeedback as an Adjunct to Exposure in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Hastens the Reduction of PTSD Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosaura Polak, A.; Witteveen, Anke B.; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of PTSD symptoms. Patients (n = 8) with chronic PTSD were randomized to regular TF-CBT or TF-CBT with complementary breathing biofeedback to exposure. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and a...

  6. Evidence-based treatment for adult women with child abuse-related Complex PTSD: a quantitative review

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Draijer, Nel; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Effective first-line treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well established, but their generalizability to child abuse (CA)-related Complex PTSD is largely unknown.Method: A quantitative review of the literature was performed, identifying seven studies, with treatments specifically targeting CA-related PTSD or Complex PTSD, which were meta-analyzed, including variables such as effect size, drop-out, recovery, and improvement rates.Results: Only six studies with...

  7. POSTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD) BETWEEN FALLACY AND FACTS: WHAT WE KNOW AND WHAT WE DON'T KNOW?

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljević, Miro; Brajković, Lovorka; Lončar, Mladen; Čima, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Background: PTSD been recognized as a major problem in public health and has attracted an ever-growing scientific, epistemological and clinical interest. On the other side, PTSD is one of the most controversial diagnosis in psychiatry as well as in medicine in general. Method: We have made an overview of available literature on PTSD to identify what is our real knowledge about PTSD with all dilemmas, controversies and challenges. Results: We have various options as to how to ev...

  8. PTSD in ICD-10 and proposed ICD-11 in elderly with childhood trauma: prevalence, factor structure, and symptom profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Glück, Tobias M.; Knefel, Matthias; Tran, Ulrich S.; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Background: The proposal for ICD-11 postulates major changes for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis, which needs investigation in different samples.Aims: To investigate differences of PTSD prevalence and diagnostic agreement between ICD-10 and ICD-11, factor structure of proposed ICD-11 PTSD, and diagnostic value of PTSD symptom severity classes.Method: Confirmatory factor analysis and latent profile analysis were used on data of elderly survivors of childhood trauma (>60 years...

  9. Using Propranolol to Block Memory Reconsolidation in Female Veterans with PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    traumatic memory recall was psychophysiologically assessed by measuring Service Members’ facial corrugator electromyography (EMG), skin conductance, and...increased heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, and facial corrugator muscle tension as Service Members are presented with stimuli associated with...understanding of sex-related differences in PTSD and associated physiological expressions of fear are incomplete. Despite a 2:1 prevalence of PTSD in

  10. Study adaptation, design, and methods of a web-based PTSD intervention for women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Litz, Brett; Millard, Steven P; Hamilton, Alison B; Sadler, Anne; Simpson, Tracy

    2017-02-01

    Women Veterans are a rapidly growing population with high risk of exposure to potentially traumatizing events and PTSD diagnoses. Despite the dissemination of evidence-based treatments for PTSD in the VA, most women Veteran VA users underutilize these treatments. Web-based PTSD treatment has the potential to reach and engage women Veterans with PTSD who do not receive treatment in VA settings. Our objective is to modify and evaluate Delivery of Self Training and Education for Stressful Situations (DESTRESSS), a web-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for PTSD, to target PTSD symptoms among women Veterans. The specific aims are to: (1) obtain feedback about DESTRESS, particularly on its relevance and sensitivity to women, using semi-structured interviews with expert clinicians and women Veterans with PTSD, and make modifications based on this feedback; (2) conduct a pilot study to finalize study procedures and make further refinements to the intervention; and (3) conduct a randomized clinical trial (RCT) evaluating a revised, telephone-assisted DESTRESS compared to telephone monitoring only. We describe the results from the first two aims, and the study design and procedures for the ongoing RCT. This line of research has the potential to result in a gender-sensitive, empirically-based, online treatment option for women Veterans with PTSD.

  11. Emotion Regulatory Brain Function and SSRI Treatment in PTSD: Neural Correlates and Predictors of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Rabinak, Christine A; Kennedy, Amy E; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Liberzon, Israel; Stein, Murray B; Phan, K Luan

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-a chronic, debilitating condition, broadly characterized by emotion dysregulation-is prevalent among US military personnel who have returned from Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a first-line treatment for PTSD, but treatment mechanisms are unknown and patient response varies. SSRIs may exert their effects by remediating emotion regulatory brain activity and individual differences in patient response might be explained, in part, by pre-treatment differences in neural systems supporting the downregulation of negative affect. Thirty-four OEF/OIF veterans, 17 with PTSD and 17 without PTSD underwent 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging scans 12 weeks apart. At each scan, they performed an emotion regulation task; in the interim, veterans with PTSD were treated with the SSRI, paroxetine. SSRI treatment increased activation in both the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) during emotion regulation, although only change in the SMA over time occurred in veterans with PTSD and not those without PTSD. Less activation of the right ventrolateral PFC/inferior frontal gyrus during pre-treatment emotion regulation was associated with greater reduction in PTSD symptoms with SSRI treatment, irrespective of pre-treatment severity. Patients with the least recruitment of prefrontal emotion regulatory brain regions may benefit most from treatment with SSRIs, which appear to augment activity in these regions.

  12. The validity of the DSM-IV PTSD criteria in children and adolescents: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Oberink, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: DSM-V is on its way and doubts have been raised regarding the validity of pediatric PTSD. It is the goal of the current review to critically review the empirical literature on PTSD in youth. Method: A search of PsycINFO, PubMed and reference lists was conducted. Empirical information cons

  13. What happened to harmonization of the PTSD diagnosis? The divergence of ICD11 and DSM5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, J I

    2013-09-01

    The development of ICD11 and DSM5 was seen as an opportunity to harmonize the two major classification systems for mental disorders. The proposed ICD11 and DSM5 diagnostic criteria for PTSD are markedly different. The implications of this remain to be seen, but have the potential to cause confusion to PTSD sufferers, clinicians, researchers and others impacted on by the condition.

  14. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for PTSD Symptoms after a Road Accident: An Uncontrolled Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. Gayle; Palyo, Sarah A.; Winer, Eliot H.; Schwagler, Brad E.; Ang, Eu Jin

    2007-01-01

    This report examined whether Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) could be used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the aftermath of a serious motor vehicle accident. Six individuals reporting either full or severe subsyndromal PTSD completed 10 sessions of VRET, which was conducted using software designed to…

  15. Neural correlates of inhibition and contextual cue processing related to treatment response in PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Sanne J H; Geuze, Elbert; Kennis, Mitzy; Rademaker, Arthur R; Vink, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Thirty to fifty percent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients do not respond to treatment. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying treatment response could contribute to improve response rates. PTSD is often associated with decreased inhibition of fear responses in a safe environme

  16. Behavioral Activation for Comorbid PTSD and Major Depression: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation details the assessment and use of Behavioral Activation (BA) therapy to treat a 37-year-old male police officer/military veteran suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). This case study is an attempt to expand empirical knowledge regarding BA, comorbid PTSD and MDD, and…

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD in Children and Adolescents: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick; Yule, William; Perrin, Sean; Tranah, Troy; Dagleish, Tim; Clark, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of individual trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and young people. Method: Following a 4-week symptom-monitoring baseline period, 24 children and young people (8-18 years old) who met full "DSM-IV" PTSD diagnostic criteria after…

  18. A Memory-Based Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evaluating Basic Assumptions Underlying the PTSD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C.; Berntsen, Dorthe; Bohni, Malene Klindt

    2008-01-01

    In the mnemonic model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the current memory of a negative event, not the event itself, determines symptoms. The model is an alternative to the current event-based etiology of PTSD represented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association,…

  19. The role of behavioral inhibition and parenting for an unfavorable emotional trauma response and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, E; Wittchen, H-U; Lieb, R; Höfler, M; Beesdo-Baum, K

    2015-04-01

    The role of behavioral inhibition (BI) and parenting for an unfavorable emotional trauma response (DSM-IV criterion A2) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development is unclear. A community sample of adolescents and young adults (aged 14-24) was followed up over 10 years (N=2378). Traumatic events, criterion A2, and PTSD (according to DSM-IV-TR) were assessed using the M-CIDI. BI and parenting were assessed using the Retrospective Self-Report of Inhibition and the Questionnaire of Recalled Parenting Rearing Behavior. Multiple logistic regressions adjusted for sex, age, and number of traumata were used to examine associations of BI as well as maternal and paternal overprotection, rejection, and reduced emotional warmth with (i) criterion A2 in those with trauma (N=1794) and (ii) subsequent PTSD in those with criterion A2 (N=1160). Behavioral inhibition (BI; odds ratio, OR=1.32) and paternal overprotection (OR=1.27) predicted criterion A2 in those with trauma, while only BI (OR=1.53) predicted subsequent PTSD. BI and paternal emotional warmth interacted on subsequent PTSD (OR=1.32), that is, BI only predicted PTSD in those with low paternal emotional warmth. Our findings suggest that BI and adverse parenting increase the risk of an unfavorable emotional trauma response and subsequent PTSD. Paternal emotional warmth buffers the association between BI and PTSD development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prazosin for Treatment of Patients with PTSD and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    as high as those in the general population. In addition, alcohol dependence is the most ommon comorbid condition in men with PTSD. Despite this...participants with a current iagnosis of AD and PTSD will be enrolled in a 13-week trial. They will be assigned, in a double-blind fashion , to either