WorldWideScience

Sample records for ptica spain nasa-national

  1. Artrite séptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Anderson Martinho Mocambique

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Pioartrite ou Artrite séptica é toda infecção por bactéria piogênica na cavidade articular. A artrite séptica pode ser classificada como gonocócica e não gonocócica.A artrite séptica é considerada uma emergência ortopédica.Na artrite séptica não gonocócica o micro-organismo atinge a articulação da seguinte forma; via hematogênica (maior numero de casos ou por contiguidade. A primeira por inoculação direta do agente e segunda por disseminação de infecção, como osteomielite, próxima a articulação.OBJETIVO: Discutir a importância do conhecimento acerca sintomatologia da artrite séptica com a finalidade de proporcionar ao paciente um atendimento mais rápido e eficaz. RELATO DE CASO: manejo de um paciente de 12 anos com queixa de dor em membro inferior direito de caráter limitante e febre. Há mais de sete dias. DISCUSSÂO: Em indivíduos de diferentes idadesa historia clinica de claudicação e quadro febril em geral merece uma investigação mais detalhada.

  2. Molekularni pristup identifikaciji virusa influence ptica

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Svijest o prijetnji nove pandemije influence potaknula je zanimanje za dokaz virusa influence A u sekretima različitih vrsta ptica i sisavaca. Virusi influence A uobičajeno se tipiziraju na osnovi osobina njihovih površinskih glikoproteina, hemaglutinina (HA) i neuraminidaze (NA). Svih 16 HA i devet NA podtipova izdvojeno je iz vodenih ptica koje su prirodni domaćin i rezervoar virusa influence. Perad, posebice kokoši i pure, ne smatra se uobičajenim domaćinom virusa iako se virus redovito s ...

  3. Artritis séptica esternoclavicular

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Reportamos nueve pacientes con artritis séptica esternoclavicular (ASEC), dos de los cuales fueron adictos a drogas endovenosas, pero en ningún caso a heroína. La edad promedio fue de 34.5 años. El sexo más frecuente fue el masculino. En seis pacientes se aisló el microorganismo causal, siendo el más frecuentemente aislado el Stafilococo aureus. Ocho pacientes fueron tratados y tuvieron excelente respuesta.

  4. Artritis séptica de hombro

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Hombre de 66 años de edad, con dolor en hombro derecho, malestar general y fiebre de una semana de evolución. Al exámen físico presenta edema, rubor y calor del hombro derecho. Los paraclínicos evidenciaron leucocitosis con neutrofilia. La resonancia magnética y el aislamiento de Staphylococcus aureus en sangre confirmaron la sospecha de artritis séptica de hombro. El paciente requirió manejo en unidad de cuidado intensivo, antibioticoterapia y drenaje quirúrgico.

  5. NEUROMIELITIS ÓPTICA (ENFERMEDAD DE DEVIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Omar Zamora Bastidas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 53 años, diagnosticada y tratada inicialmente para esclerosis múltiple, quien presentó varias recaídas y serias secuelas motoras, visuales y de la sensibilidad. Se llevaron a cabo estudios paraclínicos donde se informó anticuerpos antiacuaporina 4 positivos, anticuerpos antinucleares 1/80, anticardiolipinas y virus linfotrópico humano I y II negativos. Se presenta en reunión de casos clínicos del Departamento de Medicina Interna de la augusta Universidad del Cauca, se hace un replanteamiento del diagnóstico y se concluye un síndrome de Devic. El síndrome de Devic, actualmente denominado Desórdenes del Espectro de la neuromielitis óptica, es un desorden autoinmune, inflamatorio y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central, que afecta principalmente al nervio óptico bilateral, el quiasma óptico y la médula espinal. Puede coexistir, además, con manifestaciones de vasculitis tipo lupus eritematoso sistémico o síndrome de anticuerpos antifosfolípidos. Su principal diagnóstico diferencial es justamente la esclerosis múltiple.

    DEVIC’S DISEASE (OPTIC NEUROMYELITIS

    ABSTRACT

    We report the case of a woman of 53 years, initially diagnosed and treated for multiple sclerosis, who presented several relapses and serious motor, visual and sensitivity sequels. Paraclinical studies were performed, they reported antibodies acuaporine 4 positive, antinuclear antibodies 1/80, anti-cardiolipin antibodies and human T-lymphotropic virus I and II negative. It comes in clinical cases meeting developed in the Department of Internal Medicine of the august Univesity of Cauca, a rethinking of the diagnosis, which it concludes Devic’s syndrome. The Devic’s syndrome, currently known as Optic neuromyelitis Spectrum Disorders, is an autoimmune disorder, inflammatory and demyelinating central nervous system that primarily affects the bilateral optic

  6. Red de acceso óptica en una ipcity

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Perales, Albert

    2007-01-01

    El presente proyecto, “Red de acceso óptica en una IPCity”, dirigido por el Profesor Sergio Sánchez, del departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores, tiene como objetivo el estudio de una red de acceso totalmente óptica en Vilanova y la Geltrú. En el proyecto vemos el estado actual de las redes de acceso, actualmente de pares o de cable coaxial, y sus limitaciones en cuanto a ancho de banda y problemas de mantenimiento debido a interferencias y ruido en la red. Hacemos u...

  7. Plan de mantenimiento de una óptica industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Coll Rovira, David

    2013-01-01

    Se tiene como objetivo principal la elaboración de un plan de mantenimiento para una empresa dedicada a la fabricación de lentes ópticas. Para llevar a cabo dicho objetivo, deberá realizarse el estudio de la empresa, tanto a nivel maquinaria, como de trabajos realizados, de producción y de mantenimiento

  8. Nadzor influence u dvorišne peradi i ptica selica u Sloveniji

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Uzeti su uzorci krvi i obrisci nečisnica slobodnoživućih ptica selica i dvorišne peradi. Imunoenzimni test i inhibicija hemaglutinacije korišteni su kako bi se u slobodnoživućih ptica selica i dvorišne peradi utvrdila nazočnost protutijela za viruse influence ptica. Skupni uzorci briseva nečisnica korišteni su za izdvajanje virusa influence ptica. Uzorci su inokulirani u 9 do 11 dana stare kokošje embrije. Sakupljena je amnioalantoisna tekućina i pretražena na sposobnost hem-aglutinacije. Sku...

  9. Transductor basado en redes de difracción en fibra óptica

    OpenAIRE

    López Higuera, José Miguel; Quintela Incera, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Un transductor que comprende: una pletina que comprende una primera red de difracción en fibra óptica situada en su superficie superior y una segunda red de difracción en fibra óptica situada en su superficie inferior, donde dichas primera y segunda redes de difracción en fibra óptica están configuradas para traducir un cambio de curvatura en dicha pletina en un desplazamiento de la longitud de onda correspondiente a cada red de difracción en fibra óptica. El transductor comprende además una ...

  10. Optimización de recursos en redes de transporte ópticas multicapa

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ramírez, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Este proyecto aborda la optimización de recursos en redes de transporte ópticas multicapa. Se plantea un problema de liberación de interfaces ópticas en sistemas de tráfico dinámicos y se resuelven diferentes ejemplos generados aleatoriamente, mediante resolución exacta y mediante diversas adaptaciones de la meta-heurística GRASP. Tras el análisis de resultados, se elige el mejor método para ser implementado en sistemas de gestión de redes ópticas reales.. En las redes de transporte ópticas, ...

  11. Acelerômetro a fibra óptica bimodal

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Avila de Castro

    1994-01-01

    Sensores interferométricos a fibra óptica vêm sendo largamente utilizados em aplicações que demandam elevado desempenho. Este trabalho apresenta um novo sensor interferométrico a fibra bimodal com núcleo elíptico que, numa configuração particular, pode ser convenientemente utilizado como acelerômetro. Testes elásticos e dinâmicos foram realizados de forma a caracterizarem-se parâmetros importantes desse sensor, tais como: sensibilidade estática, fator de escala, deriva, faixa dinâmica e freqü...

  12. La neuritis óptica y su seguimiento con tomografía óptica de coherencia (OCT Informe de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis Cárdenas Angelone

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenObjetivo: Describir las formas de presentación de la neuritis óptica, haciendo énfasis en el síndrome postviral y la neurítis óptica postviral, entidades que van de la mano, mostrando sus asociaciones de tipo local y sistémico. Adicionalmente, se muestra el seguimiento imaginológico realizado con tomografía óptica de coherencia, lo cual permite la observación clara del episodio agudo pero más allá de su diagnóstico por medio de la observación del fondo de ojo. Metodología: Se presenta un caso de neuritis óptica en una mujer de 25 años quien consulta por visión borrosa y fotofobia; se encontró en el fondo de ojo borramiento e hiperemia marcada del disco óptico asociado a pérdida marcada de agudeza visual en el ojo izquierdo; tiene historia de un episodio viral inespecífico, por lo que se hace diagnóstico de neuritis óptica anterior, posiblemente de origen postviral. Se descarta clínicamente enfermedad desmielinizante. Conclusiones: La neuritis óptica es una patología poco frecuente que tiene implicaciones serias en cuanto a pérdida irreversible de la agudeza visual si no se realiza diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno; en este caso particular se sospechó origen viral aunque no fue confirmado. [Cárdenas PL, Parra JC, Hernández G, Gonzales C. La neuritis óptica y su seguimiento con tomografía óptica de coherencia (OCT. Informe de caso. MedUNAB 2009; 12:109-112].

  13. Queratosis plantar sifilítica. Neuritis óptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO FERNANDEZ RODRIGUEZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 45 años que acude a Urgencias por pérdida aguda de visión en el ojo izquierdo. En la exploración se aprecia pupila aferente de Marcus Gunn en el ojo afecto y enla fundoscopia borramiento del borde temporal de la papila.Ingresa en Neurología con el diagnóstico de neuritis óptica. Se confirma una amplitud disminuida de los potencialesevocados visuales en el OI. La RMN cerebral fue normal. Seadministró 1 gr de metilprednisolona iv/d/ 3días, sin mejoríaen la visión.

  14. Artritis séptica del pubis en dos deportistas

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    La artritis séptica de pubis u osteomielitis púbica es la infección que compromete la sínfisis pubiana y su articulación. Es poco frecuente, representando menos del 1% de las osteomielitis. Afecta más a menudo a atletas jóvenes y a mujeres que se someten a cirugía ginecológica o urológica. Se presenta con fiebre y dolor púbico, irradiado a genitales, que aumenta con la movilización de la cadera lo que produce claudicación de la marcha. Debe hacerse el diagnóstico diferencial con la osteítis d...

  15. Gestionar cambios desde la óptica cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Antonio Piña Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se proponen enfoques de cómo abordar los cambios organizacionales en las pequeñas y medianas empresas cubanas (PYMEs desde la óptica cultural. La experiencia y conocimientos acumulados en los servicios de consultoría a empresas cubanas y relativos a la implementación de nuevas herramientas gerenciales, -muy a tono con el desarrollo de la espiral evolutiva de la economía- , muestran la necesidad de enfatizar la óptica cultural en el ámbito de las pequeñas y medianas empresas cubanas. Se describe el contexto empresarial cubano abordado en calidad de objeto de consultorías, la relación y correspondencia de las teorías del cambio y enfoques culturales con la teoría marxista, así como la introducción de la propia técnica descriptiva cultural ya aplicada con éxito en empresas cubanas. Además, son abordados conceptos primarios imprescindibles para la comprensión del cambio organizacional, el reconocimiento de su existencia y necesidad de gerenciarlo a partir del dominio de los rasgos culturales propios que apalancan o pueden constituir barreras para el cambio. Describe el artículo y responde además en calidad de soporte académico, al curso de post grado asociado a la introducción de la consultoría gerencial .Es intención de los autores argumentar, promover y presentar al empresariado cubano las herramientas que le permitan asumir su propia capacidad de cambio en las organizaciones que dirigen, minimizando los costos materiales y emocionales que cada proceso de cambio contrae.

  16. Artritis séptica de rodilla por Pantoea agglomerans: caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Presentamos un caso clínico de artritis séptica de rodilla causado por Pantoea agglomerans, inoculado en la articulación mediante un pinchazo con cuerpo vegetal. Este bacilo gram (-) se ha asociado a la producción de artritis séptica en algunas ocasiones, pero nunca en nuestro país hasta la fecha y según nuestro conocimiento. Artritis originadas por punciones con vegetales y etiquetadas como asépticas, enmascaran en nuestra opinión verdaderos cuadros infecciosos. Como el tratamiento de cualq...

  17. Factores asociados a crisis epilépticas en pacientes con enfermedad vascular cerebral aguda.

    OpenAIRE

    Salirrosas-Alegría, Cristopher; Médico residente de Psiquiatría, Instituto Nacional de Salud Mental Honorio Delgado - Hideyo Noguchi. Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.; Pereda-Vásquez, Firdusi; Profesor Principal de Neurología Clínica y de Semiología Neurológica. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Coordinador Académico del Residentado de Neurología de la Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la asociación entre el tipo de enfermedad vascular cerebral (EVC), la extensión de la lesióncerebral, la presencia de cardiopatía isquémica y/o fibrilación auricular; y las crisis epilépticas en pacientes con EVCaguda. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de tipo casos y controles. Se estudiaron a los pacientesque presentaron crisis epilépticas luego de la EVC. Las variables fueron: crisis epilépticas, tipo de EVC, cardiopatíaisquémica, fibrilación auri...

  18. La neuritis óptica y su seguimiento con tomografía óptica de coherencia (OCT) Informe de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luis Cárdenas Angelone; Juan Camilo Parra Restrepo; German Hernández; Carolina Gonzales

    2009-01-01

    ResumenObjetivo: Describir las formas de presentación de la neuritis óptica, haciendo énfasis en el síndrome postviral y la neurítis óptica postviral, entidades que van de la mano, mostrando sus asociaciones de tipo local y sistémico. Adicionalmente, se muestra el seguimiento imaginológico realizado con tomografía óptica de coherencia, lo cual permite la observación clara del episodio agudo pero más allá de su diagnóstico por medio de la observación del fondo de ojo. Metodología: Se presenta ...

  19. Prácticas Tecnologí­a Óptica I

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Ferri, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    En este ví­deo se representa el proceso de adaptación de una lente oftálmica astigmática monofocal en una montura utilizando los equipos disponibles en el Laboratorio de Tecnologí­a Óptica del Departamento de Óptica, Farmacología y Anatomí­a de la UA.

  20. Helicobacter pylori y enfermedad péptica ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Padrón Pérez

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión dirigida a los médicos de la familia sobre la relación del Helicobacter pylori y la enfermedad péptica ulcerosa. Se incluyen datos epidemiológicos y métodos diagnósticos de la infección. El papel de Helicobacter pylori en la génesis de las recidivas ulcerosas y la significativa disminución de las recurrencias posterior a la erradicación con la terapia antimicrobiana, son aspectos abordados en el presente trabajo. La inmunización como arma de prevención y tratamiento sería un importante logro que se menciona como una futura alternativa para combatir la úlcera asociada a la infecciónA review on the connection of Helicobacter pylori with peptic ulcer disease was made for the family physicians. Epidemiological data and diagnostic methods were included. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the genesis of ulcer relapses and the significant reduction of recurrences after the erradication with antimicrobial therapy are approached in the present paper. Immunization as an instrument of prevention and treatment would be an important achievement that is mentioned as a future alternative to fight ulcer associated with the infection

  1. Artrite interfalangeana distal séptica em bovinos

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    Juliano Santos Gueretz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Afecções podais são relativamente comuns em bovinos, principalmente em rebanhos leiteiros. São de difícil e oneroso tratamento. Causam claudicação, desconforto, dor e perdas econômicas. Podem ter origem exógena, por evolução de infecções nos dígitos e anexos e por traumas penetrantes.Fatores endógenos, pós mastites e afecções do útero, também podem evoluir para podopatias. Relata-se um caso de infecção na articulação interfalangeana distal numa fêmea bovina, raça charolesa, com três anos de idade, com histórico de claudicação crônica, atendida na Clínica Escola da Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste UNICENTRO, apresentando sinais clínicos de artrite interfalangeana distal séptica. As técnicas utilizadas no estabelecimento do diagnóstico e a terapêutica abordada são descritas. O caso serve de alerta para o estabelecimento de estratégias a fim de evitar podopatias em bovinos.

  2. Neuritis óptica inflamatoria Inflammatory optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ayuso

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La neuritis óptica inflamatoria (NO es la causa más frecuente de pérdida visual aguda en adultos jóvenes. Aunque el pronóstico visual es excelente en la mayoría de los casos, muchos pacientes desarrollarán otra patología como esclerosis múltiple en la evolución posterior. La historia natural de la NO ha sido estudiada en múltiples trabajos en los últimos años; uno de los más importantes es el Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. La Resonancia Magnética tiene un papel fundamental en el diagnóstico etiológico de la NO y en la predicción del riesgo de conversión a esclerosis múltiple. Recientemente se han incorporado nuevas técnicas exploratorias como la tomografia de coherencia óptica, útil para el diagnóstico y pronóstico; se han identificado biomarcadores séricos que ayudan en el diagnóstico de otras patologías de naturaleza autoinmune que producen NO. Un mejor conocimiento de los datos clínicos y exploratorios de la NO típica permitirá un estudio diagnóstico más rápido y certero. El tratamiento de la NO con esteroides debe ser individualizado teniendo en cuenta que no modifican el pronóstico a largo plazo y en pacientes con alto riesgo de conversión a esclerosis múltiple debe plantearse terapia inmunomoduladora. Este trabajo revisa los datos existentes en la literatura referentes a las manifestaciones clínicas, el diagnóstico etiológico y diferencial y tratamiento de la NO inflamatoria.Inflammatory Optic Neuritis (ON is the most frequent cause of acute visual loss in young adults. Although the visual prognosis is excellent in the majority of cases, many patients develop pathology, such as multiple sclerosis, in its subsequent evolution. The natural history of ON has been studied in numerous works in recent years; one of the most important of which is Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Magnetic Resonance plays a fundamental role in the etiological diagnosis of ON and in predicting the risk of conversion into

  3. Artritis séptica del pubis en dos deportistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Andrews

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La artritis séptica de pubis u osteomielitis púbica es la infección que compromete la sínfisis pubiana y su articulación. Es poco frecuente, representando menos del 1% de las osteomielitis. Afecta más a menudo a atletas jóvenes y a mujeres que se someten a cirugía ginecológica o urológica. Se presenta con fiebre y dolor púbico, irradiado a genitales, que aumenta con la movilización de la cadera lo que produce claudicación de la marcha. Debe hacerse el diagnóstico diferencial con la osteítis del pubis que es una condición inflamatoria estéril. La punción guiada por imagen suele ser necesaria para el diagnóstico diferencial con la osteítis del pubis. El diagnóstico se basa en la clínica apoyada en el aislamiento microbiológico, métodos por imágenes e incremento de las proteínas de fase aguda. Los agentes etiológicos más comúnmente encontrados son Staphylococcus aureus, seguidos de bacilos gram negativos, o pueden ser polimicrobianos en posquirúrgicos. El tratamiento antibiótico se ajusta al germen aislado por cultivo, además de antiinflamatorios y reposo. El desbridamiento quirúrgico se requiere hasta en el 55% de los casos. Se recomiendan antibióticos por 6 semanas. Se presentan dos casos de osteomielitis del pubis por S. aureus, con buena respuesta al tratamiento. Ambos pacientes eran jóvenes y deportistas.

  4. Neuropatia óptica dominante associada à hipoacusia e apresentação tardia

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    Eduardo Scaldini Buscacio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A neuropatia óptica de Kjer, ou atrofia óptica dominante, é a mais frequente das neuropatias ópticas familiares. Trata-se de uma atrofia óptica de caráter autossômico dominante que se dá por uma alteração no gene OPA1, no cromossomo 3q28, com penetrância de 98% Apenas 15% dos casos possuem acuidade visual de 0,1 ou pior, apresentando ainda diferentes graus de atrofia do disco. Este relato objetiva descrever as características genéticas e clínicas da doença, bem como apresentar medidas de aconselhamento familiar. Para isso, será relatado um caso clínico de atrofia óptica dominante no qual se constata perda acentuada da acuidade visual, início de manifestações atipicamente tardias e hipoacusia bilateral.

  5. Profilaxis con drogas antiepilépticas en enfermedades neurológicas

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    Luciano A. Sposato

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El uso profiláctico de drogas antiepilépticas en enfermedades neurológicas como el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico y hemorrágico, la hemorragia subaracnoidea, el traumatismo de cráneo y los tumores cerebrales ha sido motivo de controversia durante muchos años. Estas drogas son indicadas con el fin de disminuir el daño neurológico secundario a las crisis epilépticas. Sin embargo, la escasa evidencia científica disponible para avalar esta hipótesis, las potenciales interacciones farmacológicas, los efectos adversos y algunos informes sobre neurotoxicidad generan dudas en cuanto a esta conducta terapéutica. En esta revisión, analizamos la evidencia acerca del uso profiláctico de drogas epilépticas en las enfermedades neurológicas arriba mencionadas.

  6. Septo-optic dysplasia Displasia septo-óptica

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    Karina de Ferran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD, also referred to as de Morsier syndrome, is a rare congenital condition, characterized by two of the classic triad features: midline brain abnormalities, optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH and pituitary endocrine dysfunction. We report 5 children with SOD, originally referred to be evaluated due to short stature, who also presented bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia, nystagmus and development delay. In 4 of the patients, we identified neuroimaging abnormalities of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis such as anterior pituitary hypoplasia (3/5, ectopic posterior pituitary (4/5, thin or absent stalk (3/5 and empty sella (1/5. We also encountered diverse pituitary deficiencies: growth hormone (3/5, adrenocorticotropic hormone (3/5, thyroid-stimulating hormone (2/5 and antidiuretic hormone (1/5. Only one child presented intact pituitary function and anatomy. Although rare, SOD is an important cause of congenital hypopituitarism and it should be considered in children with optic nerve hypoplasia or midline brain abnormalities for early diagnosis and treatment.A displasia septo-óptica (DSO, síndrome de Morsier é uma condição congênita rara definida por dois critérios da tríade: defeitos de linha média, hipoplasia de nervo óptico e insuficiência hipotálamo-hipofisária. Descrevemos 5 casos de DSO, encaminhados por baixa estatura, com hipoplasia dos nervos ópticos, nistagmo e atraso global do desenvolvimento. Destes, 4 possuem alteração na ressonância magnética de sela túrcica e insuficiência hipotálamo-hipofisária, tendo sido observada adeno-hipófise hipoplásica (3/5, neuro-hipófise ectópica (4/5, haste afilada/ausente (3/5 e sela vazia (1/5, além de déficit dos eixos somatotrófico (3/5, adrenocorticotrófico (3/5, tireotrófico (2/5 e do hormônio antidiurético (1/5. Apenas um paciente não apresenta alteração anatômica ou funcional do eixo hipotálamo-hipofisário. Embora rara, a DSO é causa importante de

  7. Diseño de prototipos experimentales orientados al aprendizaje de la óptica

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta un conjunto de prototipos experimentales para el aprendizaje de la óptica. Los prototipos fueron elaborados con materiales de bajo costo y de fácil adquisición, mejorados en sus diseños, validados por expertos y probados en el aula para su valoración. Con ellos se recreó una metodología sustentada en constructos y procesos que mejoró el logro de los alumnos, mostrando su pertinencia y efectividad para la enseñanza de la óptica.

  8. Evaluación paralela de sumas de puntos recionales sobre curvas elípticas

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Los sistemas criptogr´aficos basados en curvas el´ıpticas fueron propuestos por vez primera de manera independiente por Miller [68] y Koblitz [49], despu´es del trabajo de Lenstra [56] en factorizaci´on de enteros. La caracter ´ıstica principal de los criptosistemas de curvas el´ıpticas (CCE) es la menor longitud de claves en relaci´on al RSA [82] as´ı como a otros sistemas basados en el logaritmo discreto sobre campos finitos. Se pueden construir sistemas criptogr´aficos ba...

  9. Plan estratégico de un negocio de óptica

    OpenAIRE

    Galán Del Toro, María Reyes

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del TFG es elaborar un Plan Estratégico de un negocio de óptica en la ciudad de Sevilla a partir de una forma jurídica elegida previamente y a partir de unos objetivos establecidos en la Misión, Visión y valores de la Empresa. Tras realizar un análisis externo, interno y sectorial del Mercado de la Óptica, establecemos unas estrategias comerciales dentro del Plan de Marketing, mediante en primer lugar un análisis FODA en el que identificamos cuales son las Amenazas, Fortalezas,...

  10. Crisis no epilépticas en la infancia y adolescencia

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio A. Antoniuk

    2013-01-01

    La epilepsia afecta al 0.5% de la población y el 25% de los pacientes derivados a los servicios de epilepsia presentan eventos clínicos paroxísticos asociados con actividades motoras, alteraciones sensitivas, sensoriales, emocionales o afectación de la conciencia, que no son crisis epilépticas. Las crisis no epilépticas pueden ser clasificadas como psicogénicas, aquellas que no tienen causa médica y se asocian a problemas psicológicos primarios o secundarios, y aquellas de origen fisiológico....

  11. Sensores de fibra óptica codificados en frecuencia: medida de voltaje y corriente

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez León, Lluís

    2002-01-01

    RESUMEN Las ventajas de los sensores de fibra óptica resuelven muchos de los inconvenientes presentados por los dispositivos de medida tradicionales. En el caso de la medida de voltaje y corriente, resultan especialmente interesantes características como el carácter dieléctrico de la fibra óptica y su inmunidad frente a la interferencia electromagnética, ya que eliminan la necesidad de incorporar complejos sistemas de aislamiento, que muchas veces incluyen sustancias peligrosas o contamina...

  12. Varón inmunocompetente con gonartritis séptica por streptococcus grupo A.

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens Eizaguerri, M.; Seral García, Belén; Seral García, Cristina; Albareda, J.

    2013-01-01

    La artritis séptica es una urgencia médica que precisa un diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz. Las mani - festaciones clínicas y agentes causales varían según edad y estado clínico del paciente. Su localización más frecuente es la rodilla. Presentamos un caso de gonartritis séptica por Streptococcus pyogenes que se manifestó con fascitis necrotizante y fracaso multiorgánico. Se prescribieron tratamientos médicos agresivos, curas-desbridamientos de la herida y fisioterapia ha...

  13. Práctica de la mineralogía óptica

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Sánchez, Luis Norberto

    1986-01-01

    Resumen: El presente documento contiene los procedimientos más comunes de la mineralogía óptica acompañados de las tablas de mayor utilidad y por lo tanto lo único que pretende es agrupar técnicas y aclarar posibles dudas sobre el uso de la terminología. El contenido hace parte del curso regular de mineralogía óptica dictado en la Universidad Nacional y ha sido el resultado de varios años en la práctica de esta materia

  14. Profilaxis con drogas antiepilépticas en enfermedades neurológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Sposato, Luciano A; Alfredo Thomson; Patricia M. Riccio; Analía Calle; Francisco R. Klein

    2011-01-01

    El uso profiláctico de drogas antiepilépticas en enfermedades neurológicas como el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico y hemorrágico, la hemorragia subaracnoidea, el traumatismo de cráneo y los tumores cerebrales ha sido motivo de controversia durante muchos años. Estas drogas son indicadas con el fin de disminuir el daño neurológico secundario a las crisis epilépticas. Sin embargo, la escasa evidencia científica disponible para avalar esta hipótesis, las potenciales interacciones farmacológi...

  15. Crisis epilépticas en la demencia de la enfermedad de Alzheimer

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Guevara-Silva,Erik; Lira, David; Mar, Marcela; Herrera-Pérez, Eder; Núñez del Prado, Liza; Montesinos,Rosa; Custodio, Nilton

    2015-01-01

    La enfermedad de Alzheimer y la epilepsia no solo comparten la edad avanzada como un factor de riesgo, si no también compartirían mecanismos subyacentes en su etiología. Las crisis epilépticas generalmente fueron reportadas en estadios tardíos de la enfermedad de Alzheimer; sin embargo los pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer familiar con mutaciones en la PSEN1, PSEN2 y proteína precursora del amiloide tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar crisis epilépticas aún en estadios tempranos de la enfe...

  16. Atrofia óptica hereditaria. Presentación de tres casos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Díaz Guzmán

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo que incluyó a tres miembros de una familia, comenzando por una paciente, su hijo y un nieto, todos con una atrofia óptica dominante, con daños visuales variables en dependencia del progreso de la enfermedad, y por lo tanto con necesidad de ayudas ópticas o no. Se tomaron fotos del fondo de ojo de cada paciente, y se presentan como un caso de gran interés oftalmológico, seguido incluso por la consulta de genética en nuestra provincia.

  17. Espectroscopia de alta sensibilidade através do uso de cavidades ópticas

    OpenAIRE

    Marvyn William Inga Caqui

    2016-01-01

    Neste trabalho desenvolvemos uma montagem óptica para realizar espectroscopia de alta sensibilidade através de medidas do tempo de decaimento da luz em uma cavidade óptica contendo uma amostra transparente (ring-down time spectroscopy). Usando um laser contínuo de comprimento de onda único em S32nm e uma cavidade de finesse moderada (16500), optamos por explorar o uso deste sistema para análise de amostras líquidas ou sólidas, ao invés do uso tradicional em espectroscopia de gases. Para isto ...

  18. Embolia pulmonar séptica de origen cutáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Sosa Beláustegui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La embolia pulmonar séptica es una enfermedad grave y poco frecuente que se caracteriza por presentar infiltrados pulmonares bilaterales asociados a un foco infeccioso extrapulmonar. Se relaciona principalmente a endocarditis derecha, tromboflebitis pelviana, accesos vasculares y menos frecuentemente a infecciones profundas como osteomielitis, artritis séptica o piomiositis. El Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente adquirido en la comunidad (SAMR-AC es un patógeno emergente, con alta virulencia y de rápida propagación, que afecta a sujetos sin enfermedades previas relacionadas o factores de riesgo conocidos. Causa infecciones de piel y partes blandas y con menor frecuencia infecciones graves como fascitis necrotizante, artritis séptica, osteomielitis, piomiositis y neumonía necrotizante. Su epidemiología, patogenia y manifestaciones clínicas difieren de las causadas por el SAMR adquirido en el hospital. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 67 años con embolias pulmonares sépticas causadas por SAMR-AC con origen en una infección cutánea.

  19. APORTES DE LAS ILUSIONES ÓPTICAS A DIFERENTES CAMPOS DEL CONOCIMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa L. Lazzari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Una ilusión, vinculada a los sentidos, es una distorsión de la percepción. Puede ser óptica, olfativa, auditiva, gustativa o táctil. Las ilusiones ópticas llevan a percibir la realidad de manera distorsionada a través de la vista. Pueden ser de carácter fisiológico, asociadas a los efectos de una estimulación de los ojos o el cerebro; o cognitivo, en la que interviene nuestro conocimiento del mundo. No están sometidas a la voluntad, pueden variar entre las personas, y dependen, entre otros factores, de la agudeza y el campo visual, el daltonismo y el astigmatismo. Entender estos fenómenos es útil para comprender las limitaciones del sentido visual del ser humano y la posibilidad de distorsión, ya sea en lo relativo a la forma, el color, la dimensión y la perspectiva de lo observado. Muchos artistas han aprovechado las ilusiones ópticas para dar a sus obras un aspecto mágico, de profundidad, ambigüedad y contraste. En este trabajo se presentan algunos tipos de ilusiones ópticas y se muestra su aporte a diferentes ámbitos del conocimiento.

  20. Crises não-epilépticas: clínica e terapêutica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliveira, Guilherme Nogueira Mendes de; Salgado, João Vinícius; Portela, Eduardo; Pereira, Sílvio Roberto Sousa; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2008-01-01

    ...: "non-epileptic seizures", "psychogenic seizures". As crises não-epilépticas (CNE) podem ser classificadas em fisiológicas (síncope, migrânea, ataque isquêmico transitório) e em psicogênicas (voluntárias ou não...

  1. La úlcera Péptica : ¿Un trastorno gastrointestinal infeccioso o Biopsicosocial?

    OpenAIRE

    Tobón, Sergio; Sandín, Bonifacio; Vinaccia, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    La úlcera péptica (UP) es entendida en la actualidad básicamente como un trastorno gastrointestinal de tipo infeccioso, causado por la bacteria H. pylori, la cual se descubrió en el estómago de los seres humanos en el año de 1982. Esto ha llevado a

  2. Doença péptica gastroduodenal (dpgd) em Pediatria

    OpenAIRE

    Clóvis Duarte Costa

    2007-01-01

    A designação da doença péptica refere-se a distúrbios do trato gastrointestinal proximal, resultantes da ação da secreção gástrica. Sob a denominação de doença péptica estão a gastrite, úlcera gástrica (UP), duodenite e úlcera duodenal (UD). Em suma, gastrite e duodenite são processos inflamatórios crônicos da mucosa, inicialmente superficiais. Caracteriza-se como erosiva quando determina uma solução de continuidade, não ultrapassando a submucosa. A úlcera é uma lesão circunscrita que envolve...

  3. Seguimiento del Grado en Óptica y Optometría

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Caballero, María Teresa; Camps Sanchis, Vicente Jesús; Fez Saiz, Dolores de; García Llopis, Celia; Hernández Poveda, Consuelo; Nicolás Albujer, Juan Miguel; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Seguí Crespo, María del Mar; Tomás López, María; Vázquez Ferri, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    En el marco del proyecto de Redes de Investigación en Docencia Universitaria 2013-14 de la Universidad de Alicante se creó una red de trabajo formada por los profesores coordinadores de semestre del Grado en Óptica y Optometría y dos alumnos. Dado que durante el curso académico 2013-14 ha tenido lugar la implantación del último curso del Grado en Óptica y Optometría, el objetivo principal de esta red ha sido la realización de un análisis de la implantación del título así como el estudio del d...

  4. Sepsis, absceso del psoas y artritis séptica de cadera por Yersinia enterocolitica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    García-Gil, Daniel; Domínguez-Fuentes, Belén; Riquelme-Montáñez, Pedro; Calvo-Durán, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    ... de sepsis por Y. enterocolitica , piomiositis-absceso del psoas y artritis séptica de cadera en un paciente sin enfermedad predisponente reconocible. Según la revisión bibliográfica efectuada, es la primera aportación a la bibliografía médica de esta complicación infecciosa con la secuencia de acontecimientos clínicos descritos en el mism...

  5. Tratamiento quirúrgico de la ulcera péptica

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Gilede, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    El tratamiento quirúrgico de la úlcera péptica en sus dos variedades mas frecuentes, la úlcera gástrica y la duodenal, ha sido motivo de múltiples estudios y variadas técnicas, tratando de resolver este problema, uno de los más intrincados y apasionantes de la medicina moderna dada la creciente incidencia de la afectación.

  6. Crisis no epilépticas en la infancia y adolescencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Antoniuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La epilepsia afecta al 0.5% de la población y el 25% de los pacientes derivados a los servicios de epilepsia presentan eventos clínicos paroxísticos asociados con actividades motoras, alteraciones sensitivas, sensoriales, emocionales o afectación de la conciencia, que no son crisis epilépticas. Las crisis no epilépticas pueden ser clasificadas como psicogénicas, aquellas que no tienen causa médica y se asocian a problemas psicológicos primarios o secundarios, y aquellas de origen fisiológico. Estos eventos no epilépticos se manifiestan por comportamientos paroxísticos o movimientos repetitivos y que se confunden con crisis epilépticas. El diagnóstico es muy importante para evitar pruebas innecesarias y terapias iatrogénicas. En este estudio serán presentados once casos clínicos y la revisión de los principales eventos no epilépticos fisiológicos (disturbio del sueño, trastornos motores paroxísticos, fenómenos hipóxico isquémicos y psicogénicos (trastornos somatoformes, trastornos facticios y trastorno de ansiedad que se manifiestan en niños y adolescentes.

  7. Memoria sobre el papel de Liouville en la historia de las funciones elípticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Solanilla Chavarro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo recoge las principales conclusiones de una investigación sobre las contribuciones de J. Liouville a la teoría contemporánea de las funciones elípticas. Cubre la mayor parte de los resultados de una colaboración entre el grupo SUMMA del Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Universidad de Medellín y el grupo Mat del Departamento de Matemáticas y Estadística de la Universidad del Tolima. El proyecto ha sido financiado parcialmente por la Vicerrectoría de Investigaciones de la Universidad de Medellín y la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad del Tolima. Comienza con una descripción de la circunstancia histórica de Liouville, luego de la emergencia del concepto moderno de función elíptica en los trabajos de Abel y Jacobi. Después se discuten ciertos pormenores de las Leçons impartidas por el célebre matemático francés en el año de 1847. Ellos cubren el teorema que hemos llamado de Liouville-Borchardt, las proposiciones fundamentales sobre el número de ceros de las funciones meromorfas doblemente periódicas y los resultados sobre la relación entre los ceros y los polos. Al final, se esbozan importantes conclusiones sobre el legado de Liouville a la teoría de las funciones elípticas de hoy.

  8. Seguimiento del Grado en Óptica y Optometría

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Caballero, María Teresa; Camps Sanchis, Vicente Jesús; Fez Saiz, Dolores de; García Llopis, Celia; García Muñoz, Ángel; Hernández Poveda, Consuelo; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Seguí-Crespo, Mar; Vázquez Ferri, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    En el marco del proyecto de Redes de Investigación en Docencia Universitaria 2014-15 de la Universidad de Alicante se creó, como en años anteriores, una red de trabajo formada por los profesores coordinadores de semestre y el profesor responsable de la Clínica Optométrica con el fin de realizar un seguimiento del Grado en Óptica y Optometría. Siguiendo el trabajo llevado a cabo en convocatorias anteriores, esta red de seguimiento ha prestado especial atención a la coordinación de las asignatu...

  9. Nanocompósitos baseados em celulose bacteriana para aplicações ópticas

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Molíria Vieira dos [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho membranas de biocelulose ou celulose bacteriana (CB), obtidas de meios de cultura da bactéria Gluconacetobacter xylinus, foram utilizadas como matriz para preparação de novos compósitos, a saber, celulose - colóides metálicos, celulose - sílica e celuloses - composto de európio. Nanopartículas (NP) esféricas de prata, ouro e prata-ouro, foram preparadas utilizando-se citrato de sódio e/ou pectina como agentes ao mesmo tempo redutores e estabilizantes. As propriedades ópticas de...

  10. Neuropatía óptica isquémica secundaria al uso de interferon

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalho, M.; Vaz, F; Santos,C.; A Gonçalves; Feijóo, B; Ferreira, M; Melo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Introducción:La neuropatía óptica isquémica anterior (NOIA) es una disfunción visual provocada por la reducción temporal o permanente de perfusión sanguínea del segmento anterior del nervio óptico. Se manifiesta como una pérdida indolor de la visión evolucionando en horas o días, con característicos cambios altitudinales del campo visual. Oftalmoscopicamente se caracteriza por edema del disco óptico por veces con hemorragias en llama peripapilar y estrechamiento peripapilar de las arteriol...

  11. Implementación de enlace de fibra óptica usando microcontrolador

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga, Felipe; Sánchez, César; Vargas, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste en implementar un sistema de comunicación basado en fibra óptica utilizando para ello microcontrolador, para dicha comunicación hacemos uso de la transmisión serial. El desarrollo de este trabajo se fundamenta en la programación del PIC en lenguaje C haciendo uso del compilador MikroC PRO y el uso del software Proteus para la simulación respectiva. MikroC PRO es un compilador muy empleado en la actualidad puesto que dispone de un número considerable de li...

  12. Efecto cicatrizante del aceite de Copaifera officinalis (copaiba, en pacientes con úlcera péptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arroyo-Acevedo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la eficacia cicatrizante del aceite de copaiba obtenido de la corteza de Copaifera officinalis, comparado con omeprazol 20 mg, en pacientes con diagnóstico definitivo de úlcera péptica. Diseño: Estudio experimental, clínico comparativo, de fase II, aleatorio, doble ciego, grupo paralelo. Institución: Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Pacientes con diagnóstico definitivo de úlcera péptica. Intervenciones: El diagnóstico fue tanto por exploración física como complementaria, siendo la endoscopia la técnica de elección, con evaluación pre y postratamiento con aceite de copaiba, formulada en cápsulas de 80 mg y 120 mg. El ensayo clínico incluyó 60 pacientes que voluntariamente ingresaron al programa de estudio, previa firma del consentimiento informado aprobado por el Comité institucional de Ética en Investigación. Los pacientes fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres grupos, de 20 casos cada uno, según orden de llegada; los dos primeros grupos recibieron cápsulas de aceite de copaiba, en dosis de 80 y 120 mg, respectivamente; y un tercer grupo recibió omeprazol 20 mg. Los tratamientos fueron administrados en ayunas, una vez por la mañana, 30 minutos antes de la ingesta del primer alimento. Los datos fueron evaluados mediante técnicas multivariadas, considerando estadísticamente significativo p<0,05. Se tuvo en cuenta el consentimiento informado aprobado por el Comité de Bioética en Investigación del Centro Asistencial. Principales medidas de resultados: Porcentaje de cicatrización. Resultados: Se logró 65% y 75% de cicatrización de la úlcera péptica con aceite de copaiba, respectivamente, contra 100% en el grupo de omeprazol, sin efectos adversos significativos; dos presentaron náuseas y tres epigastralgia. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con úlcera péptica y con tratamiento de las c

  13. Artritis séptica en equinos. reporte de 11 casos (2000-2004)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Se presentan las principales características clínicas y paraclínicas de 11 casos de artritis séptica en equinos admitidos en la Clínica de Grandes Animales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia entre 2000 y 2004. En general, los resultados son similares a los reportados por la literatura en estudios análogos, aunque se encontró una alta presencia de animales jóvenes en este estudio. Las herramientas paraclínicas más útiles para el diagnóstico fueron el recuento celular y el valor de proteína...

  14. Integración de la fibra óptica en el hormigón

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Vega, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    La idea principal del proyecto. El proyecto consiste en introducir la fibra óptica como un elemento iluminador en una estructura de hormigón “in situ”. Analizando su viabilidad, aplicaciones y todo lo que puede aportar. Además se compara con los otros tipos de alumbrado (incandescencia, descarga y Leds).La idea surge de ver diferentes tipos de iluminación (Incandescencia, Descargas y Led) donde cada una tiene un coste, un consumo, una durabilidad, un espacio superficial, component...

  15. Orientações ao pediatra sobre o manejo das drogas psicoativas e antiepilépticas

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Gibsi P.; Bianca H. Batista; Nunes,Magda L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Revisar as indicações e o manejo clínico das drogas psicoativas e antiepilépticas na infância e adolescência. FONTES DE DADOS: Estudo baseado em revisão de literatura. Os autores organizam, de acordo com os quadros patológicos, uma rotina para o manejo dos psicofármacos e das drogas antiepilépticas na infância e na adolescência. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Indicação clínica, dosagem terapêutica e efeitos colaterais dos psicofármacos e drogas antiepilépticas são descritos. O uso de psicofárma...

  16. Artritis séptica de hombro: caso clínico en varón joven

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    La artritis séptica de hombro en adultos es poco frecuente, representando aproximadamente un 3% de todas las artritis sépticas. Con frecuencia se diagnostica tardíamente con lo que se compromete el resultado final. Se presenta el caso de un varón de 15 años de edad que acudió a urgencias hospitalarias por dolor intenso e impotencia funcional del hombro izquierdo, tumefacción y aumento de la temperatura local. Como antecedente refería haber realizado un esfuerzo físico unos días antes. Pese a ...

  17. Plan de empresa de la Unidad de Rehabilitación Visual de Óptica Unyvisión

    OpenAIRE

    Morte Palacios, María Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Óptica Unyvisión se encuentra en la avenida de navarra en Pamplona, en ella queremos iniciar la actividad de proporcionar ayudas de baja visión con el objeto de proporcionar un servicio, de que otras ópticas no disponen, mejorando así la atención visual de las personas residentes en nuestro entorno. Ahora a la vista de la demanda de un servicio de baja visión más especializado, tanto en ayudas visuales como en la rehabilitación de las personas con problemas de visión, decidimos que es nece...

  18. Empleo del método matricial en el curso de óptica: capas delgadas antirreflectantes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Betancourt,J.; Pérez Perdomo,A.; Calzadilla Amaya,O.; Hidalgo Alonso,O.

    2005-01-01

    Se expone una experiencia didáctica, en el tratamiento de las láminas delgadas dentro del curso de óptica de la Licenciatura en Física. Se busca incrementar el papel del estudiante en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje. Se retoman los conocimientos adquiridos en álgebra lineal, computación y óptica. Se utiliza el método matricial para analizar y estudiar el comportamiento de la reflectancia de la radiación luminosa al incidir sobre una lámina multicapa. Tal estructura es importante, por cuan...

  19. Redução de deriva em giroscópios a fibra óptica convencional

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Teixeira de Carvalho

    1991-01-01

    Sistemas interferométricos a fibra óptica têm sido largamente empregados como sensores de alta precisão. Este trabalho propõe técnicas que simultaneamente reduzem a deriva e eliminam o desvanecimento do sinal em giroscópio a fibra óptica convencional operando em regime monomodo. A análise teórica do funcionamento do sistema é apresentada, e os resultados experimentais indicam uma redução da deriva por um fator de 103 para uma topologia otimizada do circuito óptico, que leva em conta as caract...

  20. Tratamientos convencionales y medicina alternativa de la úlcera péptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ivis Regalado Veloz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre las enfermedades que afectan al hombre y provocan alteraciones en su vida individual y social se encuentra la úlcera péptica, muy frecuente en casi todos los países del mundo. La úlcera péptica viene asociada generalmente al consumo de antiinflamatorios no esteroidales o a la infección por Helicobacter pylori, por lo que el tratamiento farmacológico difiere entre un caso u otro. Se tienen en cuenta varios aspectos como: la posibilidad de los fármacos antiulcerosos de interaccionar con otros principios activos y alimentos, además de los efectos no deseados que se presentan; los tratamientos de triples y cuádruples terapias que constituyen una limitante para el paciente por el gran número de medicamentos a administrar; y por último, el actual incremento de la resistencia antibiótica, se hace necesario la búsqueda de otras alternativas para el control de esta enfermedad. Un nuevo camino que brinda grandes posibilidades es la medicina alternativa, es decir, los fitofármacos.

  1. Espondilodiscites sépticas: diagnóstico e tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Francisco Sérgio C. Barros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos retrospectivamente 24 pacientes com espondilodiscite séptica de diferentes etiologias (hematogênica, primária e infantil e os diferentes aspectos envolvidos em seu diagnóstico e tratamento. Constatamos que a velocidade de hemossedimentação é um bom parâmetro laboratorial para acompanhar a evolução da doença, mas deve ser sempre interpretada conjuntamente com o quadro clínico e os achados de neuroimagem. Biópsias devem ser reservadas para os casos de diagnóstico duvidoso e o tratamento clínico realizado sempre que afastadas as seguintes condições: sepse, déficit neurológico, deformidade severa, abscesso epidural e corpo estranho (discite primária. A abordagem cirúrgica deve ser planejada levando em conta o estágio da doença, sendo preferencialmente por via posterior nas fases supurativas e anterior nas demais. Baseados em nossa experiência e em revisão da literatura, propomos um algoritmo para orientar o diagnóstico e o tratamento das espondilodiscites sépticas.

  2. Septo-optic dysplasia: case report Displasia septo-óptica: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso P. Pierre Filho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The clinical triad of septo-optic dysplasia (SOD comprises the absence of the septum pellucidum, congenital optic nerve dysplasia, and multiple endocrine disorders. When any two of these factors are present, the condition is defined as an incomplete form of SOD. The authors report the case of an incomplete form of SOD in a 9-year-old boy with low vision and nystagmus present from birth. The bilateral ophthalmoscopic examination revealed small papillae with double contour images. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hypoplasia of the optic nerve bilaterally, chiasm and absence of the septum pellucidum.A tríade clínica da displasia septo-óptica (DSO compreende a ausência de septo pelúcido, displasia congênita do nervo óptico e múltiplos defeitos endócrinos. Uma forma incompleta de DSO tem sido reconhecida com dois dos três elementos. Os autores relatam um caso de displasia septo-óptica na forma incompleta em um garoto de 9 anos com baixa visão e nistagmo presentes desde o nascimento. O exame oftalmoscópico revelou papila pequena com imagem em duplo contorno bilateralmente. Ressonância magnética mostrou hipoplasia dos nervos ópticos, quiasma e ausência do septo pelúcido.

  3. Molecular Gastronomy in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Garrido, María Dolores; Vercet Tormo, Antonio; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; Fiszman Dal Santo, Susana; Martínez Monzó, Javier; Laguarda, Sergio; Palacios, Victor; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientificand technological universe in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worl...

  4. Ejercicios de microscopía óptica: introducción al manejo del microscopio

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Herrero, Joaquín de; Íñiguez Lobeto, Carlos; Gómez Torres, María José; Girela López, José Luis; Romero Rameta, Alejandro; Segovia Huertas, Yolanda; Martínez Ruiz, Noemi; Pérez Cañaveras, Rosa María; Romero del Hombrebueno Castaños, José Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Ejercicios de prácticas de microscopía óptica para que el alumno aprenda a manejar el microscopio de luz y observar con él preparaciones de Biología Celular, Histología, Microbiología y Patología.

  5. Radiología de la ulcera péptica

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Es la radiografía el método que ha dado mayor luz en el diagnostico de la ulcera péptica en los tiempos modernos. Si bien es cierto que la radiografía de vías digestivas se basa en la interpretación de las sombras que da la sustancia de contraste, al llenar las distintas cavidades del tubo digestivo y no de la imagen misma del órgano, que es transparente a los rayos X, sin embargo, los conocimientos modernos han llevado al clínico a escudriñar y darles valor a los menores signos que aparezcan...

  6. MODELO PARA UNA RED HIBRIDA ÓPTICA INALÁMBRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Quiroz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone un modelo de red hibrida óptica - inalámbrica mediante la tecnología free space optics (FSO para el desarrollo de una red de acceso de nueva generación, que represente una solución a los proveedores para diferenciación de servicios, ofrecimiento de ancho de banda bajo demanda y uso compartido de infraestructura con otros  proveedores de servicios. Se describe el principio de funcionamiento y las características técnicas de la tecnología FSO, se expone y analiza la arquitectura y el algoritmo de reconfiguración  propuesto.

  7. Neuropatía óptica severa y reversible por etambutol e isoniazida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Rodríguez-Marco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El etambutol e isoniacida son tuberculostáticos para la tuberculosis multirresistente cuyo efecto adverso es la neuropatía óptica, con pérdida de visión, alteración de percepción de los colores y escotomas cecocentrales. Se presenta el caso de una mujer nigeriana de 59 años con antecedentes de tuberculosis miliar que desarrolló neuropatía óptica bilateral severa secundaria aetambutol e isoniacida La presión intraocular, fondo de ojo y polo anterior eran normales. La campimetría mostraba constricción periférica de 360º y escotoma central. La resonancia magnética craneal y orbitaria fue normal. Diez meses tras suspender el tratamiento recuperó la visión con mejoría del campo visual. La toxicidad de los antituberculosos se puede asociar en raras ocasiones a la pérdida de visión. Ambos ojos se suelen afectar de forma simétrica mostrando déficits en la percepción de colores y escotomas cecocentrales. Para establecer el tratamiento de esta pérdida de visión hay que hacer diagnóstico diferencial entre infección tuberculosa y efecto adverso de los fármacos. Por ello es fundamental la exploración oftalmológica antes y durante el tratamiento.

  8. Compensación Electrónica de la Dispersión en Fibras Ópticas Usando el Conjugado de Fase Óptica Compensación Electrónica de la Dispersión en Fibras Ópticas Usando el Conjugado de Fase Óptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel López-Hernández

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this work will deal with the investigation of a novel electronic dispersion compensation technique in long-haul fiber optic communications, in which a signal is electricalpre-compensated using a differential Mach-Zender modulator, driven by nonlinear digital filters. The chromatic dispersion was effectively compensated for by using an optical phase conjugation in the transmitter, through 4000 Km of standard single mode fiber (with non onlinearity and attenuation, where the dispersion is compensated for a 10 Gb/s intensity modulated NRZ (non-return to zero signal. The dispersion compensation was confirmed by measuring bit error rate and observing detected eye diagrams.El tópico de este artículo, abordará la investigación de una técnica novedosa para la compensación electrónica de la dispersión en comunicaciones por fibra óptica a larga distancia, en la cual una señal es pre-compensada eléctricamente usando un modulador diferencial Mach-Zender, controlado por filtros digitales no lineales. La dispersión cromática fue efectivamente compensada con el uso del conjugado de fase óptica en el transmisor a través de los 4000 Km de fibra mono modo (carente de no-linealidad y atenuación en donde la dispersión es compensada para una señal de NRZ (no retorno a cero de intensidad modulada a 10 Gb/s. La compensación de la dispersión fue confirmada midiendo la razón de error de bit y observando los diagramas de ojo detectados.

  9. Spain to Join ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  10. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worldwide, and renowned international chefs and many restaurants and companies committed to the collaboration...

  11. Características de las crisis epilépticas en niños con insuficiencia renal crónica terminal.

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez Belaúnde, Alan Luis; Gasha Tamashiro, Carlos Gianpaulo; Lam Milay, Luis; Guillén Pinto, Daniel; Loza Munárriz, Reyner

    2012-01-01

    Las crisis epilépticas son complicaciones frecuentes en niños que padecen de Insuficiencia Renal Crónica Terminal (IRC-T). Objetivo: Describir la frecuencia y características de las crisis epilépticas en niños con IRC-T. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, tipo serie de casos. Se incluyeron 24 pacientes menores de 14 años de ambos sexos con IRC-T que presentaron al menos un episodio de crisis epiléptica, atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia entre enero de 1998 y marzo de ...

  12. Supported Employment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador

    1998-01-01

    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  13. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    the Nether- lands to which their Influence could extend. Spain’s imperial position - 92 - itself, however, was challenged not only by Protestantism but...comerciales que mantiene con Am6rica Latina, Africa, Mediterraneo y paises de la EFTA." 29 March, 1979. "Necesarias reformas administrativas en ayudas y

  14. Career Development in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Elvira Repetto; Moreno, Luisa Rodriguez; Romeo, Javier; Malik, Beatriz

    In Spain, the term "career development" refers to vocational or career guidance services. The 1983 Law on University Reform conferred on universities the freedom of teaching, endowing them with legal status and administrative powers. Thus, there are no regulations regarding guidance at this educational level. Guidance departments in…

  15. Test Reviewing in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  16. [Foreign immigration in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Yoldi, I

    1997-01-01

    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  17. Spain country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Ines [Iberdrola Ingenieria Y Construccion Sau, Avenida Burgos, 8, Edificio Genesis, 28036 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear in Spain: - Generation of the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants: Electricity nuclear share: 17,6% (Decrease by 8,4%); Installed Capacity in Spain is 90.026 MW, Nuclear share: 8,6%; During 2007, electricity consumption in Spain grew by 4%. - Nuclear equipments: 1 Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology, 8 Nuclear Power Plants for electricity production. - Reactor types: BWR (2 units), PWR (6 units), 1 Nuclear Components Factory, 1 Nuclear Fuel Factory. - Public acceptance: 'What is your opinion about NPP?' Study Nov 07: 1.000 persons interviewed by phone call (16 minutes). - Energy policy - Uncertain future for nuclear power: No nuclear power plants will be build in Spain in a short time, Doubts over the official permission for life extensions in operating plants (Garona). - Nuclear waste management policy: ENRESA, State-run public enterprise in charge of radioactive waste management; Low and intermediate level activity wastes: Centralized storage in El Cabril (Cordoba) managed by ENRESA; Spent fuel Proposal: Centralized temporary storage repository for 100 years (ENRESA proposed and Government has accepted); Information campaign to accept site location (Citizen against); Today: Pools that have been filled can make re-racking of its spent fuel pool or build an individual storage. - Nuclear Research: CIEMAT (Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology); Areas of Activity: Environment, Technology, Basic Research, Energy, Fusion by Magnetic Confinement, Scientific use of the Stellarator 'Heliac flexible TJ- II' device, Safety and Decommissioning, Radiation Protection. - Nuclear competences challenge in Spain: Education: Increased number of students selecting nuclear specialities in Engineering High School, 3 Masters in Nuclear Technology, CIEMAT + 2 Universities in Madrid (Science and Poly-technical), Short courses on nuclear technology. Training: The industry is preparing for the future. Training on the job Maintenance

  18. Semiologia e características clínicas das crises pseudo-epilépticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo Stella

    Full Text Available Os autores discutem as características semiológicas e clínicas de crises não-epilépticas psicogênicas e o papel de elementos de natureza inconsciente na gênese desses fenômenos. Essas crises constituem condição psicopatológica relativamente freqüente em centros de atendimento de pacientes portadores de epilepsia e em serviços de emergência psiquiátrica. O diagnóstico diferencial entre ambos os quadros nem sempre representa tarefa fácil e exige do clínico conhecimento das manifestações semiológicas tanto de crises genuinamente epilépticas, como de crises conversivas, de natureza essencialmente psicogênica.

  19. Evolução na abordagem Fármaco-terapêutica da úlcera péptica

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Sara Alexandra da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Farmacêuticas A úlcera péptica é uma patologia multifatorial caracterizada por uma ulceração da mucosa gástrica e/ou duodenal, que afeta cerca de 4 milhões de pessoas, por ano, em todo o mundo. Os principais fatores de risco são a infeção por Helicobacter pylori e o consumo continuado de AINE’s e AAS. Apenas 4% das úlceras pépticas n...

  20. Características de las crisis epilépticas en niños con insuficiencia renal crónica terminal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Luis Juárez Belaúnde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las crisis epilépticas son complicaciones frecuentes en niños que padecen de Insuficiencia Renal Crónica Terminal (IRC-T. Objetivo: Describir la frecuencia y características de las crisis epilépticas en niños con IRC-T. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, tipo serie de casos. Se incluyeron 24 pacientes menores de 14 años de ambos sexos con IRC-T que presentaron al menos un episodio de crisis epiléptica, atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia entre enero de 1998 y marzo de 2006. Resultados: La frecuencia encontrada de crisis epiléptica en esta población fue de 24/188 (12,7%; 18/24 (75% se encontraban en tratamiento dialítico crónico al momento de presentarse la primera crisis epiléptica; las glomerulopatías fueron la etiología más frecuente de la IRC-T; la mayoría de niños (41,6% presentaron crisis parciales, y el hallazgo tomográfico más frecuente fue la hemorragia intraparenquimal. Conclusiones: La frecuencia de crisis epilépticas en esta serie de niños con IRC-T es menor que la descrita en la literatura revisada. (Rev Med Hered 2008;19:1-4.

  1. Investigación sobre spatial-division multiplexing (SDM) en comunicaciones por fibra óptica

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre Campos, Borja

    2016-01-01

    Investigación sobre spatial-division multiplexing (SDM) en comunicaciones por fibra óptica In this work we analyze propagating LP modes (Linearly Polarized) in different independent spatial paths, mentioning the energetic density of the electromagnetic fields of these modes with a fixed normalized frequency and the evolution during the normalized frequency’s increment too. Thus, we have implemented an analytic and visual study through MATLAB programming language. En este trabajo analiza...

  2. La fibra óptica y el fenómeno no lineal mezcla de cuarta onda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Gómez López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Para aprovechar de mejor manera el ancho de banda que tiene la fibra óptica, los sistemas de comunicaciones ópticos han tenido que aumentar la potencia de transmisión de las señales para poder transportar a grandes distancias la información. Debido a lo anterior, comienzan a producirse ciertos fenómenos ópticos no lineales como la mezcla de cuarta onda (Four Wave Mixing, FWM, que degradan la señal de información. En este documento se realiza un estado del arte de la fibra óptica y un estudio del fenómeno no lineal FWM, que se genera cuando dos o más señales ópticas se propagan en la fibra, lo cual conlleva a una mezcla de señales que puede generar nuevos componentes de interferencia de la señal óptica transmitida. ABSTRACT To make better use of the bandwidth that has the optical fiber, optical communications systems have had to increase the transmission power of signals to transport information over long distances. Because of this, certain nonlinear optical phenomena such as four wave mixing (Four Wave Mixing, FWM, which degrade the information signal begin to occur. Herein a state of the art of optical fiber and a study of the nonlinear FWM phenomenon, which is generated when two or more optical signals propagating in the fiber takes place, which leads to a mixture of signals that can generate new components interference of the transmitted optical signal.

  3. Embolia pulmonar séptica de origen cutáneo Septic pulmonary embolism of cutaneous origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Sosa Beláustegui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La embolia pulmonar séptica es una enfermedad grave y poco frecuente que se caracteriza por presentar infiltrados pulmonares bilaterales asociados a un foco infeccioso extrapulmonar. Se relaciona principalmente a endocarditis derecha, tromboflebitis pelviana, accesos vasculares y menos frecuentemente a infecciones profundas como osteomielitis, artritis séptica o piomiositis. El Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente adquirido en la comunidad (SAMR-AC es un patógeno emergente, con alta virulencia y de rápida propagación, que afecta a sujetos sin enfermedades previas relacionadas o factores de riesgo conocidos. Causa infecciones de piel y partes blandas y con menor frecuencia infecciones graves como fascitis necrotizante, artritis séptica, osteomielitis, piomiositis y neumonía necrotizante. Su epidemiología, patogenia y manifestaciones clínicas difieren de las causadas por el SAMR adquirido en el hospital. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 67 años con embolias pulmonares sépticas causadas por SAMR-AC con origen en una infección cutánea.Septic pulmonary embolism is a serious and rare illness characterized by pulmonary infiltrates associated with an extrapulmonary infectious focus. It is mainly related to right-sided endocarditis, pelvic thrombophlebitis, vascular access and less frequently to deep infections such as osteomyelitis, septic arthritis and pyomyositis. The community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an emerging pathogen with high virulence and rapid spread involving subjects without previous related diseases or known risk factors. It causes infections of skin and soft tissue and less frequently other serious infections such as necrotizing fascitits, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, pyomyositis and necrotizing pneumonia. Epidemiologically, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations differ from those caused by MRSA acquired in the hospital. We present the case of a 67 year-old male with septic

  4. World Support Base: Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Bonifacio Echevarria) Management Mr. D. Bonifacio Guiasoia Echeverria, President; Mr. Inak1 De Subinas Guisasola, Director General; Mr. Jose Ignacio ...one major production faci I Ity in Marquina (Vizcaya), Spain with a sales office in Panama. EC IA only produces metal parts. All load, assemble...Gabilondo y Cia., S.A.) Management Mr. Jose Ignacio Lecue, Director General and Mr. Carlos Zarceno. Genera I Llama is a privately owned small

  5. [Resident foreigners in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, A M; Pascual De Sans, A

    1994-01-01

    The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain over time since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.

  6. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  7. Conductas disruptivas desde la óptica del docente: validación de una escala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Álvarez Hernández

    Full Text Available En los últimos años han aumentado significativamente las dificultades para impartir clases, debido a lo que se conoce como disrupción en el aula. Prueba de ello son las numerosas publicaciones recientes en torno al tema, así como la frecuencia con la que dicha cuestión aparece en los medios de comunicación. El objetivo principal de esta investigación consiste en validar una escala con el propósito de conocer objetivamente la opinión de los profesionales de la educación sobre las conductas disruptivas en el aula. Teniendo en cuenta literatura previa y utilizando un panel de expertos, se desarrolló una nueva escala de 15 ítems. Se aplicó a una muestra de 346 profesionales, con una media de edad de 43 años. Se llevó a cabo un análisis factorial exploratorio, un análisis de componentes principales y un análisis de correlaciones entre factores. Dichos análisis han permitido comprobar que la estructura factorial de las escalas converge con los factores previstos y reafirma su peso y nivel de confianza. Todo ello permite concluir que la escala es válida para medir la óptica del profesorado respecto a la cuestión objeto de estudio. Los datos indican un óptimo ajuste de la estructura tridimensional para los ítems de la escala.

  8. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  9. Coeficientes de diseño y trayectorias de agrietamiento de losas aisladas circulares, elípticas y triangulares

    OpenAIRE

    Gelacio Juárez-Luna; Omar Caballero-Garatachea

    2014-01-01

    Se determinan, mediante la mecánica del daño continuo, coeficientes de di- seño y trayectorias de agrietamiento en losas circulares, elípticas y triangu- lares. El comportamiento no lineal del concreto reforzado se simuló con un modelo de daño, el cual considera ablandamiento, mientras que el compor- tamiento del acero de refuerzo con un modelo de plasticidad bilineal con superficie de fluencia de Von Misses. Los modelos constitutivos y el método de los elementos finitos se validan comparando...

  10. El camuflaje (1980-2010) como forma de apropiación de otras ilusiones ópticas

    OpenAIRE

    IRACHETA, MARÍA

    2013-01-01

    NOTA 520 8 Esta tesis toma como referencia el estudio de las ilusiones ópticas para profundizar en una de ellas —el camuflaje—, dada su vigencia en la sociedad de la ocultación y la pérdida de identidad del siglo XXI. Se ha observado también que este fenómeno óptico es una de las ilusiones que más absorbe del resto, por lo cual se considera como una de las formas de apropiacionismo tan extendido en el arte actual. Las ilusiones han formado y forman parte del imaginario de la historia del ho...

  11. El camuflaje (1980-2010) como forma de apropiación de otras ilusiones ópticas

    OpenAIRE

    Iracheta, María de

    2013-01-01

    NOTA 520 8 Esta tesis toma como referencia el estudio de las ilusiones ópticas para profundizar en una de ellas —el camuflaje—, dada su vigencia en la sociedad de la ocultación y la pérdida de identidad del siglo XXI. Se ha observado también que este fenómeno óptico es una de las ilusiones que más absorbe del resto, por lo cual se considera como una de las formas de apropiacionismo tan extendido en el arte actual. Las ilusiones han formado y forman parte del imaginario de la historia del ho...

  12. Fibras ópticas: interacción dispersion-chirp en sistemas ópticos modulados directamente

    OpenAIRE

    Rio Campos, Carmina del; Rodriguez Horche, Paloma

    2013-01-01

    En los sistemas de comunicación por fibra óptica, la configuración usualmente empleada para velocidades de transmisión no superiores a 10 Gb/s es la modulación directa del láser (DML). Esta configuración presenta diversas ventajas frente a la modulación externa, como son un bajo coste, simplicidad de diseño, tamaño reducido y una elevada potencia de emisión. Sin embargo, el desplazamiento de la frecuencia nominal del láser (chirp) asociado al DML es un grave inconveniente al que deben enfr...

  13. Estudo das propriedades microestruturais e ópticas do BaMoO4 processado em hidrotermal assistido por microondas

    OpenAIRE

    Tranquilin, Ricardo Luis [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    O estudo das propriedades fotoluminescentes nos diferentes materiais tanto orgânicos e inorgânicos tem despertado muito o interesse da comunidade científica. Dentre os molibdatos, destacamos o molibdato de bário (BAMoO4) devido suas propriedades ópticas e termoelétricas que junto com suas emissões luminescentes no azul, verde e laranja o tornam um importante material. Neste trabalho, pós de molibdato de bário foram sintetizados pelo método de coprecipitação e processados a 140 ºC por diferent...

  14. Mapeo espacio-temporal de la conectividad postsináptica en neuronas jóvenes del hipocampo adulto

    OpenAIRE

    Temprana, Silvio Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Las células granulares en desarrollo en el giro dentado adulto (nCGs) atraviesan un periodo crítico de exacerbada excitabilidad y plasticidad sináptica antes de alcanzar la madurez. Se desconoce el impacto que estas nuevas unidades de procesamiento tienen en el circuito preexistente del giro dentado. En este trabajo combinamos la utilización de optogenética, electrofisiología en rodajas y quemogenética in vivo para activar nCGs de diferentes edades y analizar el reclutamiento de sus redes pos...

  15. Translocaciones crípticas de cromosomas acrocéntricos en muestras de tejido de aborto aneuploide

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Ramos; Bertha Molina; Patricia Grether; Dora Gilda Mayén; Oscar Castro; Marta Ángeles; Rebeca Rodríguez; Sara Frías

    2015-01-01

    Los heteromorfismos cromosómicos son variantes normales consideradas como sin impacto fenotípico. Algunos de los más frecuentes se encuentran en los brazos cortos de los cromosomas acrocéntricos (13, 14, 15, 21, 22). Recientemente se ha sugerido que un tipo de rearreglos cromosómicos, considerados heteromorfismos y conocidos como translocaciones crípticas de cromosomas acrocéntricos, podrían ser un factor causal de las alteraciones cromosómicas numéricas o aneuploidías que se abortan en 90% d...

  16. Sistema de adquisición de datos con aislamiento por sonda óptica hasta 20MHz basado en la tarjeta PDA14

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo Fernández, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha desarrollado un sistema de adquisición de datos basado en la tarjeta digitalizadora PDA14 y en el empleo de una sonda óptica como elemento de aislamiento capaz de transmitir señales hasta un ancho de banda de 20MHz. Para su realización se ha diseñado, implementado y caracterizado la sonda óptica mediante un enlace con fibra óptica de plástico, con un módulo emisor láser semiconductor y el circuito electrónico receptor, para el cual se han comparado varios modelos de ampl...

  17. Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilgado, José D.; Enghoff, Henrik; Tinaut, Alberto;

    2015-01-01

    Millipedes (Diplopoda), with a few notable exceptions, are poor dispersers, showing a very high degree of endemicity, not the least in mountains. The first samplings of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of the higher altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Baetic System, Southern Spain) have...... of Ceratosphys cryodeserti Gilgado, Mauriès & Enghoff n. sp. are here provided, as well as the first data on the humidity and temperature fluctuations in the MSS of this high mountain. The new species is similar to other Baetico-Riffan species, while the only previously known congener from the region, C...... led to the discovery of a high number of millipedes, each of the species present showing a different degree of establishment in this subterranean environment. An update of the knowledge on the millipedes of this region, the first data of the millipede communities in the MSS and the description...

  18. Comparação funcional entre revisão de artroplastia de joelho séptica e asséptica Functional comparison between septic and aseptic knee arthroplasty review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo Biraghi Letaif

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A artroplastia total de joelho (ATJ não é um procedimento isento de riscos. A infecção na ATJ não é a complicação mais comum, porém é uma das mais graves. A revisão em 2 tempos é a escolha nos casos de infecção profunda da prótese de joelho. Por outro lado, a soltura asséptica chega a quase metade das indicações de revisão de artroplastias primárias. A queda do nível de satisfação do paciente pode cair nas revisões. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar através dos resultados obtidos nos escores funcionais e de qualidade de vida entre cirurgia de revisão de ATJ por soltura séptica e asséptica. MÉTODO: Realizamos escores HSS e SF-36 para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado funcional entre pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revisão da ATJ entre dois grupos, um que realizou a substituição da prótese em dois tempos (séptica e outro no qual a substituição ocorreu em tempo único (asséptica. RESULTADOS: A análise dos dados obtidos mostra melhor desempenho do segundo grupo na pontuação do HSS e em 06 dos 08 domínios do SF-36. Conclusão: A revisão de ATJ em tempo único apresenta melhores resultados funcionais.INTRODUCTION: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA imposes many risks. TKA infection is not the most frequent complication, but is probably the most serious one. Two-step review is the procedure of choice in deep knee prosthesis infection. On the other hand, aseptic prosthesis detachment represents almost half of the primary arthroplasty review indications. Patient's satisfaction level might diminish after reviews. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the quality of life and final result of TKA review for septic and aseptic failures. METHODS: The patients were assessed using the HSS and SF-36 scores. The patients were divided in two groups: one group submitted to two-step review (septic and the other to one-step review (aseptic. The analysis of the data

  19. Os fundamentos da óptica geométrica de Johannes Kepler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir Roque Tossato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto apresenta a teoria kepleriana do processo de visão, exposta no quinto livro dos Paralipomena, publicado no ano de 1604. Destacam-se os seguintes aspectos: (1 o mapeamento do olho humano feito por Kepler, que teve como fundamento os trabalhos anatômicos de Felix Plater; (2 a analogia entre a câmara escura e o olho humano, entendendo-se que o último torna-se um instrumento dióptrico tal como a primeira; (3 o correto uso, segundo Kepler, da geometria para a constituição anatômico-fisiológica desenhada nos Paralipomena. A partir destes elementos, Kepler trata de dois pontos básicos para a óptica do século xvii: o primeiro determina que a imagem do objeto visto pelo olho forma-se na retina e não no cristalino; o segundo restringe o campo de estudos ópticos àquilo que pode ser tratado somente mediante os componentes ópticos, isto é, os constituintes anatômicos e fisiológicos, e as suas possibilidades de geometrização.This paper presents Kepler's theory of the process of vision, exposed in fifth book of Paralipomena, published in 1604. We pointed the following aspects: (1 the catalogue of the human eye made by Kepler, that was founded in Felix Plater's anatomical works; (2 the analogy between the obscure chamber and the human eye, with the understanding that the former is a dioptrical instrument like the last one; (3 the correct use, following Kepler, of geometry to the anatomical-physiological constitution exposed in the Paralipomena. From these elements, Kepler treats two basic points for the optic in the xvii th century: the first affirms that the image of the object seen by the eye is formed in the retina and not in the crystalline; the second restricts the realm of optical studies only to that treated through optical components, that is to say, to anatomical and physiological constituents, and their possibilities of geometrization.

  20. Evaluación organoléptica de suplementos de nutrición enteral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Granell Vidal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: La nutrición enteral (NE está indicada en pacientes que, aunque no pueden consumir suficientes cantidades de alimentos, mantienen una función del aparato digestivo suficiente para recibir, digerir y absorber nutrientes. Los Suplementos Orales Nutricionales (SON son fórmulas nutricionalmente completas o incompletas (en función de que aporten o no todos los nutrientes necesarios para servir como única fuente de nutrientes, que completan una dieta oral insuficiente. Con este estudio se pretende valorar las características organolépticas de suplementos nutricionales orales hiperproteicos, normoproteicos y enriquecidos con fibra. Material y métodos: Cata de SON, llevada a cabo en el Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición del Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia desde octubre de 2012 a febrero de 2013. Se evaluaron 137 SON en total, de los cuales 47 eran hiperproteicos, 46 normoproteicos y 44 con fibra. Resultados: De los SON evaluados, en el grupo de los hiperproteicos obtuvieron los 3 siguientes las mejores puntuaciones: Fresenius Prot Energy Drink® (21,27, sabor vainilla, Nut Avant Estándar® (20,3, sabor fresa y Resource Protein® (20,01, sabor chocolate. En el grupo de los SON normoproteicos los 3 mejor valorados fueron: Ensure Plus® (22,3, sabor plátano, Ensure Plus® (21,9, sabor melocotón y Fresubin Energy Drink® (21, sabor fresa En el grupo de los SON enriquecidos con fibra los 3 más apreciados fueron: Fresubin 2 Kcal Fibre Drink® (23,78, sabor vainilla, Ensure Plus TwoCal® (22,9, sabor plátano y Fortimel Compact® (21,5, sabor fresa. Conclusiones: El estudio puede orientar a los profesionales sanitarios sobre los SON que pueden resultar más aceptados por el paciente, de manera que los SON cumplan su objetivo y restauren o mejoren el estado nutricional, pues la intervención con SON es segura y costo-efectiva, ya que mejora tanto la funcionalidad como la calidad de vida.

  1. Dispositivo rotatorio portátil independiente de la red eléctrica para el acople de hilos de fibra óptica

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Herrero, Asier

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto trata sobre el diseño y realización de un dispositivo rotatorio de pequeño tamaño, bajo coste, consumo reducido y con un sistema para poder acoplarle uno o varios hilos de fibra óptica. Además, debe ser diseñado de manera estanca para poder ser introducido en una máquina de recubrimientos por Sputtering, evaporación térmica, etc., y para la realización de tratamientos. Estos tratamientos de recubrimientos en fibras ópticas son bastante complejos, ya que al ...

  2. Evaluación neuroquímica de la neuropatía óptica epidémica

    OpenAIRE

    González-Quevedo Monteagudo , Alina

    2004-01-01

    La aparición súbita en Cuba de una epidemia de neuropatía óptica en 1992,desencadenó una serie de investigaciones dirigidas a esclarecer las causas subyacentes. El presente trabajo investigó la participación del balance de aminoácidos sistémicos y en el sistema nervioso, la permeabilidad de la barrera hematoencefálica (BHE) y la neurotoxicidad del metanol en la fisiopatología de la neuropatía óptica epidémica (NOE). Se llevaron a cabo estudios en pacientes con NOE y en un modelo experimental ...

  3. Diseño y caracterización de sistemas optoelectrónicos de comunicaciones basados en fibra óptica

    OpenAIRE

    García Rodríguez, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de todos los componentes que forman una red óptica de transmisión de datos y de los factores que limitan su comportamiento y capacidad de trasnsmisión. El proyecto se divide en dos partes: una teórica y otra experimental. En la parte teórica se estudia la bra óptica, los dispositivos optoelectrónicos, los sistemas optoelectrónicos, los transmisores y los receptores de datos. En la parte experimental se caracterizan diversos dispositivos o...

  4. Gestión de fallos de redes ópticas wavelength-routing con demanda estática de tráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Páez Martínez, Pedro Francisco

    2013-01-01

    La tecnología óptica WDM articula un modelo de capas y requiere la convergencia de diversas áreas de conocimiento en el estudio clásico de redes además de conceptos propios e inherentes a las redes ópticas. El presente proyecto aborda el desarrollo de una extensión de la herramienta MatPlanWDM orientada a la plani cación de redes WDM wavelength-routing considerando demanda estática de trá co y proveyendo un algoritmo de protección que dinámicamente decide como encaminar ...

  5. Caracterización óptica de capas finas de carbono amorfo hidrogenado mediante elipsometría espectroscópica

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Miralles, Esther

    1991-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una doble vertiente: por una parte, se ha diseñado y construido un elipsómetro espectral (visible-UV) automático que permite la caracterización óptica de materiales en volumen, en forma de capa fina y de estructuras multicapa. Los criterios para la alineación y calibración de este elipsómetro de analizador rotativo han sido establecidos y se han elaborado los programas informáticos de control y análisis de datos. Por otra parte, se ha realizado la caracterización óptica ...

  6. Artritis séptica de cadera por Haemophilus influenzae tipo F en la infancia: a propósito de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La artritis séptica de cadera es una infección aguda, predominantemente de etiología bacteriana. A pesar de que el patógeno principal en cualquier grupo de edad es Staphylococcus aureus, existen otros microorganismos potencialmente patógenos. Describimos el caso de una paciente de 18 meses con artritis séptica de cadera por un agente causal infrecuente (Haemophilus influenzae tipo f) de buena evolución. Este caso pone de manifiesto la importancia de considerar otros agentes etiológicos menos ...

  7. Aplicaciones industriales de técnicas ópticas de campo completo para la medida de tensiones y deformaciones en elementos de máquinas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En las últimas décadas, diversas técnicas ópticas utilizadas de modo experimental han tenido una repercusión significativa en el avance de la investigación en diversas disciplinas de la ingeniería. Técnicas ópticas como Correlación Digital de Imágenes, técnicas basadas en el efecto Moiré o fotoelasticidad han sido desarrolladas, mejoradas y aplicadas en diversos ámbitos de la ciencia. El continuo desarrollo de estas técnicas ha hecho posible extender su uso a diferentes aplicaciones industria...

  8. CÁLCULO DE LAS FRECUENCIAS DE CORTE EN FIBRAS ÓPTICAS DE ÍNDICE ESCALONADO, UTILIZANDO MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Arturo Bastidas Mora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis matemático de los modos de propagación y de otros parámetros importantes de operación de las guías de onda y las fibras ópticas se puede encontrar al resolver las cuatro ecuaciones de Maxwell y satisfacer adecuadamente las condiciones de frontera en cada caso analizado de acuerdo con su geometría y los materiales con los cuales esté constituido. Sin embargo, estas soluciones resultan muy laboriosas y a veces confusas para los estudiantes que las enfrentan por primera vez. En el presente trabajo se desarrolló e implementó una aplicación utilizando la herramienta Matlab que facilita a los estudiantes y docentes, el procedimiento y los cálculos que se llevan a cabo para obtener algunos parámetros como la apertura numérica, frecuencia de corte normalizada y frecuencia de corte normal para las fibras ópticas de índice escalonado, partiendo de los índices de refracción y el radio del núcleo.

  9. NFLUENCIA DE LAS VARIABLES DE SECADO EN LA CALIDAD ORGANOLÉPTICA DE BOCADITOS SALADOS A BASE DE AMARANTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Batlle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de disminuir el endurecimiento del producto se estudió la influencia de la temperatura y tiempo de l proceso de secado en las propiedades organolépticas de bocaditos salados, nutricionalmente e quilibrados, a base de amaranto popeado, expuestos a 100 ºC - 14 minutos , hume dad 14,7% base seca y actividad acuosa 0,593 . De las curvas experimentales de secado s e seleccionaron nuevas condi ciones operativas, a humedad constante , resultando : 70 ºC - 17 minutos y 80 ºC - 16 minutos. La influencia de estas variables en el producto s e evaluó organoléptic amente por una p rue ba de diferencia con un control midiendo el descriptor dureza como parámetro de calidad, contrastándolo por método instrumental con un texturómetro. N o se evidenció diferencia significativa entre las muestras de 100ºC - 14 minutos y 80 ºC - 16 minutos, pero si para la muestra 70 ºC - 17 minutos. Se concluye que en las condiciones estudiadas las variables temperatura y tiempo influyen en las características organolépticas de lo s bocaditos.

  10. Neuropatía óptica por radiación: tratamiento combinado con corticoides y anti-VEGF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Rivero Gutiérrez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Caso Clínico: Varón 71 años diabético y fumador, tratado con braquiterapia por melanoma coroideo. A los dos años presenta una neuropatía óptica por radiación y trombosis venosa contralateral. Se trata con corticodes subtenonianos y posteriormente, se interviene de cataratas y se introduce antiangiogénico intravitreo, con buen resultado. Discusión: La neuropatía óptica por radiación  es una vasculopatía progresiva y crónica secundaria a una radiación ionizante supraumbral. Ocurre cuando la dosis total recibida excede de 50 Gy o la dosis diaria de 1,8 Gy .La trombosis venosa podría estar relaciona con los factores de riesgo existentes. Diferentes tratamientos han sido propuestos para la papilopatía por radiación.

  11. Endocardites sépticas: (contribuição etiopatogênica Septic endocardites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guilherme Lacorte

    1944-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the A. A. reviewed the more fundamental problems in the ethiopathogenic process of bacterial endocardits and report the bacte¬riological observations done by them in 20 cases of the disecase observed at the Section of Pathological Anatomy and Bacteriology of the Hospital S. Francisco de Assis in charge of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The A.A. isolated Pneumococcus from 10 out the 20 cases, Gonococcus from 2, Staphylococcus from 2, Streptococcus from 5 and Friedlaender bacil¬lus from 1 . The A.A. mainly lay stress on the necessity of the bacteriological exa¬minations being made by a specialist, owing to the difficulties sometimes met with and to the consequences of a detailed examination of the isolated germ.Expomos e analisamos, no presente trabalho, as principais idéias emitidas acerca das endocardites sépticas. De grande importância foram as de Schottmueller sôbre o caráter autônomo da endocardite lenta, assim a especificidade do seu agente etiológico. Observações posteriores trouxeram restrições à teoria desse autor e as nossas se encontram nesse número, conforme se poderá ver no capitulo anterior. Além do Streptococcus viridans muitas outras bactérias têm ocasionado casos clínicos típicos de endocardite lenta ou sub-aguda. Outro ponto para o qual se têm dirigido os pesquisadores é o que trata da mutação do Streptococcus haemohjticus em Streptococcus viridans, o pri¬meiro dado como mais freqüente nas endocardites agudas. A tendência dos modernos autores é nesse sentido e nós temos observado, não raro, mutações dessa natureza. Há mesmo autores que admitem uma só espécie de estrepto-coco não passando de acidentes ocasionados por diferentes fatores físicos, químicos e biológicos as características descritas pelos que admitem várias espécies. As hemoculturas nem sempre foram positivas nos nossos casos, o que têm acontecido a todos os autores que estudaram o assunto. Em primeiro

  12. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-01-01

    .... In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men...

  13. First China-Spain Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The first China-Spain Forum was held in Beijing from December 18 to 19, 2003. President HuJintao expressed his congratulations on the successful convening of the Forum.Opening Session of First China-Spain ForumThe theme of the first Forum was: 30 years of Sino-Spanish diplomatic ties from lack of understanding to cooperation for a common future-

  14. Septo-optic dysplasia plus: case report Displasia septo-óptica plus: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson L. Gasparetto

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD is a syndrome composed by optic nerve and septum pellucidum dysgenesis. It has been classified into two subsets according to the embryogenesis and the neuropathological findings. Basically, the difference between these two groups is the presence or not of schizencephaly. The term SOD-Plus was recently proposed to describe SOD associated with cortical dysplasia. We report a 6-month-old female patient who presented absent visual fixation since 4 months of age and delayed psychomotor development. Neurological examination demonstrated spastic left hemiparesis and ophtalmological evaluation revealed bilateral optic disc hypoplasia. The head computed tomography (CT scan showed absence of the septum pellucidum, ventricular asymmetry and schizencephaly. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed complete absence of the septum pellucidum associated to optic nerves and chiasma atrophy, schizencephaly and cortical dysplasia. The patient underwent an evoked potential examination with flash stimulation, which revealed bilateral absence of cortical evoked potential. She was referred to visual stimulation and physiotherapy. We emphasize the neuroimaging of this syndrome and stress the importance of the clinical investigation for patients with septum pellucidum dysgenesis on MRI or CT scans.A displasia septo-óptica (DSO é síndrome composta por disgenesia do nervo óptico e do septo pelúcido, que pode ser dividida em dois subgrupos de acordo com sua embriogênese e achados neuropatológicos. A diferença básica entre estes dois grupos é a presença ou não de esquizencefalia. O termo DSO-plus foi proposto recentemente para descrever DSO associada a displasia cortical. Apresentamos uma paciente de 6 meses de idade com ausência de fixação visual desde os 4 meses e atraso do desenvolvimento psicomotor. O exame neurológico demonstrou hemiparesia espástica esquerda e a avaliação oftalmológica revelou hipoplasia do disco

  15. Biogerontology research in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, Rafael

    2003-08-01

    The article describes the features of biogerontology research in Spain and outlines the research in the biology of ageing, covering a wide spectrum of areas and topics. Research in biogerontology has expanded notably in quality and quantity in the last decades with the development of internationally recognized research groups actively working in the analysis of the complex process of ageing. In the last few years research in ageing has become a priority area in the National Program of Research which has substantially increased funds specifically allocated to biogerontology and biological research on senescence. Despite these improvements, special efforts have to be made not only to consolidate the existing groups but also to facilitate the initiation and development of new research groups in Universities, Hospitals and research institutions with capacity to incorporate trained researchers in this area. It would promote the continuous incorporation of technical and scientific advances in other disciplines to the understanding the biology of ageing and the molecular basis of cellular senescence, that will benefit actual and future ageing population.

  16. Epileptic manifestations induced by midazolam in the neonatal period Manifestações epilépticas induzidas por midazolam no período neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Montenegro

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptic drugs may cause worsening of epilepsy by aggravating pre-existing seizures or by triggering new seizure types. There are several reports of adverse effects related to midazolam, but only a few authors reported epileptic manifestations. We report four newborns seen at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of our University Hospital, who developed seizures a few seconds after the administration of midazolam. It is difficult to identify the patients at risk, but it is important to be aware and recognize this situation.Drogas antiepilépticas podem piorar o controle da epilepsia por agravar crises epilépticas pre-existentes ou por desencadear novos tipos de crises. Existem vários relatos de eventos adversos relacionados ao midazolam; entretanto, poucos autores referem manifestações epilépticas. Neste estudo relatamos a ocorrência de crises epilépticas poucos segundos após a administração de midazolam, em quatro neonatos atendidos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do nosso hospital universitário. É difícil determinar quais pacientes estão em risco, mas é importante estar atento e reconhecer esta situação.

  17. Simulação computacional de tungstatos tipo Scheelita para aplicações ópticas

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Jomar Batista

    2013-01-01

    Os tungstatos tipo scheelita MWO4 vêm sendo estudados há bastante tempo devido às suas propriedades ópticas. A principal é a luminescência, tanto intrínseca quanto extrínseca (quando dopados com íons lantanídeos trivalentes, Ln3+). Outro grupo de tungstatos tipo scheelita são os duplos, ALn(WO4)2. A principal característica deste tungstatos é uma desordem estrutural, envolvendo uma distribuição aleatória dos íons A (metais alcalinos) e Ln na rede que pode influenciar a luminescência deste mat...

  18. Contribuições da epistemologia bachelardiana no estudo da história da Óptica

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Ana Carolina Staub de; Luiz O.Q. Peduzzi

    2007-01-01

    O presente artigo explora um diálogo entre a história e a filosofia da ciência. Nesta perspectiva, apresenta uma articulação entre a história da óptica e as principais características da filosofia histórica de Gaston Bachelard, dando ênfase: aos períodos de rupturas e descontinuidades presentes no constante confronto entre o modelo corpuscular e ondulatório da luz; à permanente retificação do erro - e ao novo conceito de verdade presente na construção da concepção sobre a natureza da luz -; à...

  19. Estudio teórico y experimental de amplificadores de fibra óptica dopada con erbio

    OpenAIRE

    Jarabo Lallana, Sebastián; Rebolledo Sanz, Miguel Ángel; Álvarez Abenia, José Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Se desarrolla un modelo teórico para estudiar la amplificación en fibras ópticas de sílice dopada con erbio. Las características principales de este modelo son su simplicidad, su dependencia de parámetros físicos realistas y su acuerdo aceptable con los resultados experimentales. Además, este modelo teórico proporciona soluciones analíticas que mejoran el análisis y el diseño de los amplificadores ópticos de fibra dopada con erbio, permitiendo el desarrollo de métodos de caracterización exper...

  20. Epidemiología de la Sarna Sarcóptica en fauna silvestre del Principado de Asturias.

    OpenAIRE

    Oleaga, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    El interés sobre las enfermedades emergentes ha aumentado durante los últimos años, y situaciones con múltiples hospedadores resultan cada vez más relevantes para la gestión y conservación de fauna silvestre. La sarna sarcóptica, una enfermedad parasitaria provocada por el ácaro excavador Sarcoptes scabiei, ha sido confirmada en más de 100 especies de mamíferos incluyendo al ser humano. Esta parasitosis afecta de forma endémica en la Península Ibérica al zorro, y tras su aparición en 1993 a m...

  1. Sarna sarcóptica em suínos na região da Benedita

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, N.R.; Brida, T.; Matos, A.C.; Martins, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    Poster apresentado no VI Congresso da Ordem dos Médicos Veterinários que decorreu em Lisboa de 3 a 5 de Outubro de 2009. A importância dos parasitas externos na produção animal varia de região para região, devido a diferenças no clima e nos sistemas de produção. O controlo de doenças endémicas nos animais de produção tem assumido importância devido aos grandes investimentos, principalmente nos sistemas intensivos. A sarna sarcóptica (Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis) tem sido considera...

  2. Evolución de las redes de datos: Hacia una plataforma de comunicaciones completamente óptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Puerto Leguizamón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una introducción a las redes de comunicaciones ópticas, para lo cual se describe la evolución que están experimentando dichas redes a fin de soportar las futuras demandas en el transporte de tráfico IP. Esta evolución se debe en gran parte al desarrollo de dispositivos que permiten el procesamiento de señales en el domino óptico. De la misma forma se presenta un modelo de router de conmutación de paquetes ópticos basado en el paradigma de intercambio de etiqueta con capacidad de conmutación de paquetes IP a 10 Gb/s. Por otra parte, se ha incorporado en el router la capacidad de procesar paquetes de tamaño variable y se comprueba experimentalmente sus prestaciones.

  3. Estudio teórico y experimental de amplificadores de fibra óptica dopada con erbio

    OpenAIRE

    Jarabo Lallana, Sebastián; Rebolledo Sanz, Miguel Ángel; Álvarez Abenia, José Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Se desarrolla un modelo teórico para estudiar la amplificación en fibras ópticas de sílice dopada con erbio. Las características principales de este modelo son su simplicidad, su dependencia de parámetros físicos realistas y su acuerdo aceptable con los resultados experimentales. Además, este modelo teórico proporciona soluciones analíticas que mejoran el análisis y el diseño de los amplificadores ópticos de fibra dopada con erbio, permitiendo el desarrollo de métodos de caracterización exper...

  4. Los servicios públicos desde la óptica del realismo jurídico clásico

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón Quiroga, Harol Alexander

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo busca mostrar una aproximación e interpretación de los principios constitucionales que guían en Colombia los servicios públicos desde la óptica del realismo Jurídico clásico para lo cual se divide el mismo en tres grandes capítulos. El primero de ellos, pretende establecer que se entiende por Realismo Jurídico Clásico a partir de su opción filosófica, describiendo los elementos que lo distinguen refiriéndose a su fin último que es la persona y a su causa final la justic...

  5. Bradicardia como manifestação epiléptica em epilepsia temporal: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Descrevemos um caso de arritmia cardíaca como manifestação epiléptica. A monitorização video-eletrencefalográfica de uma paciente com 34 anos de idade que apresentava episódios de perda de consciência permitiu a detecção de períodos de assistolia como principal manifestação clínica, exigindo a implantação de marca-passo. O registro eletrencefalográfico concomitante mostrou atividade rítmica a 6-7 Hz de projeção na região temporal esquerda. A ressonância magnética mostrou lesão expansiva no gi...

  6. Translocaciones crípticas de cromosomas acrocéntricos en muestras de tejido de aborto aneuploide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramos

    2015-10-01

    13 o uno 14.  Conclusiones: las translocaciones crípticas de cromosomas acrocéntricos que involucran a la región D15Z1 son una variante normal con alta frecuencia en la muestra de población mexicana; esta variante no parece estar implicada en la etiología de las aneuploidías de acrocéntricos. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que este heteromorfismo es un rearreglo de tipo translocación o una recombinación entre no homólogos y que el cromosoma receptor de la región D15Z1 varía entre etnias.

  7. Neuropatía óptica hereditaria de Leber Leber´s hereditary optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannara Elina Columbié Garbey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La neuropatía óptica hereditaria de Leber es una enfermedad de herencia materna que se caracteriza por la pérdida subaguda, indolora y bilateral, aunque por lo general no siempre al unísono de la visión central. Predomina en hombres jóvenes y es causada por mutaciones puntuales del ADN mitocondrial. Esta es una de las neuropatías ópticas hereditarias más frecuentes y altamente invalidante, cuyo diagnóstico de certeza lo constituyen los estudios moleculares. El propósito de esta revisión es alertar en cuanto a su diagnóstico y posible incremento en condiciones ambientales favorecedoras. Se realizó una búsqueda automatizada de artículos científicos relacionados con el tema, en PUBMED e Hinari, que resultó en 37 publicaciones realizadas durante los años 1988-2010. Se estudiaron y discutieron aspectos de la enfermedad tales como antecedentes históricos, factores de riesgo, epidemiología, genética, características clínicas, diagnóstico y tratamiento; además de profundizar en su estado actual en nuestro contexto. En Cuba actualmente se conoce de la existencia de varias familias que padecen la neuropatía óptica hereditaria de Leber. El alza de la incidencia probablemente se debió a las condiciones medioambientales que favorecen o son factores de riesgo de esta entidad, como ocurrió durante la pasada epidemia de neuropatía óptica en Cuba. Cada día se producen más avances en el campo de la genética, que permiten identificar un número mayor de mutaciones asociadas a esta entidad. Esto unido al conocimiento de las características clínicas de la enfermedad ha permitido identificar las familias afectadas y actuar sobre los factores de riesgo.Leber´s hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited disease characterized by subacute, painless and bilateral loss of the central vision, although not always at the same time. It predominates in young men and is caused by mitochondrial DNA spot mutations. This is one of

  8. Tratamientos convencionales y medicina alternativa de la úlcera péptica Conventional treatment and herbal medicine for peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ivis Regalado Veloz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre las enfermedades que afectan al hombre y provocan alteraciones en su vida individual y social se encuentra la úlcera péptica, muy frecuente en casi todos los países del mundo. La úlcera péptica viene asociada generalmente al consumo de antiinflamatorios no esteroidales o a la infección por Helicobacter pylori, por lo que el tratamiento farmacológico difiere entre un caso u otro. Se tienen en cuenta varios aspectos como: la posibilidad de los fármacos antiulcerosos de interaccionar con otros principios activos y alimentos, además de los efectos no deseados que se presentan; los tratamientos de triples y cuádruples terapias que constituyen una limitante para el paciente por el gran número de medicamentos a administrar; y por último, el actual incremento de la resistencia antibiótica, se hace necesario la búsqueda de otras alternativas para el control de esta enfermedad. Un nuevo camino que brinda grandes posibilidades es la medicina alternativa, es decir, los fitofármacos.Peptic ulcer is one of the diseases affecting humans and causing changes in their individual and social life. It is very common in almost every country in the world. Peptic ulcer is usually associated to the consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory or to Helicobacter pylori infection; hence, the drug treatment differs from one case to another. Various aspects such as the possibility of anti-ulcer drugs to interact with other active ingredients and foodstuffs, the adverse effects, the application of three or four therapies that bother the patient because of the the large number of drugs to be taken, and finally the current increased antibiotic resistance were taken into consideration. It is necessary to search for alternatives to control this disease. The alternative medicine, i.e. the herbal medicine offers new possibilities of treatment.

  9. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  10. Coal facies studies in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [INCAR (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080, Oviedo (Spain); Jimenez, Amalia [Geology, University of Oviedo, 33005, Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-04-23

    This work is a synthesis of the distribution of the main coal basins and sub-basins in Spain as well as the research carried out on their coal facies. The coal fields are distributed through the Paleozoic (mainly Pennsylvanian), Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic times. Peats also exist in the southeast Spain (Granada area), although these types of deposits are not included in this review. Spanish coal basins are both of a paralic and intramontane type and the coal rank is highly variable, from lignite in the case of the younger coal seams to anthracite for those of Carboniferous age.

  11. Groundwater crustaceans of Spain, 13 (Copepoda Calanoida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Two calanoid copepods were collected from groundwaters in Spain by the University of Amsterdam Expeditions in 1983—84 and 1985. Copidodiaptomus numidicus was found in southwestern Spain, in provincias Huelva and Sevilla. Mixodiaptomus laciniatus, previously known in Spain only from the Pyrenees, was

  12. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally.

  13. Nevadas en el Sudeste Bonaerense: climatología sinóptica y un caso de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Salio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo realiza una estadística de la frecuencia de las nevadas ocurridas sobre el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires durante un período de 35 años (1960-2004. Utilizando información de tiempo presente se detectaron 32 eventos de nevada, 7 de los cuales produjeron nieve en más de una estación sinóptica. A fin de comprender los patrones de circulación, se realiza una climatología sinóptica de las incursiones de aire frío que son responsables de nevadas en la región de estudio. Dichos patrones se caracterizan por anomalías extremas en las vaguadas asociadas a frentes fríos y en las cuñas posfrontales que denotan la intensidad de dichos sistemas. El campo de anomalías de altura geopotencial muestra en los casos de nieve generalizada un mínimo sobre la vaguada frontal que duplica la intensidad de la obtenida en los casos de nieve aislada. El intenso régimen ciclónico favorece la convergencia en niveles bajos y el fuerte enfriamiento, evidente en las anomalías del campo térmico en niveles medios, indicando la inestabilidad generada en la masa de aire que es conducida hacia el norte sobre la costa patagónica y el Mar Argentino. En un caso particular de nevada generalizada, asociada a una fuerte incursión de aire frío ocurrida el 10 de julio de 2004 sobre el sudeste de la costa bonaerense, se analiza la situación sinóptica utilizando el modelo "Sistema de Modelado Atmosférico Regional" (RAMS como herramienta de diagnóstico y se la relaciona con las muestras previamente encontradas, caracterizando la masa de aire polar y su evolución. La nevada se asocia a una inestabilización sostenida de la masa de aire, favorecida por calentamiento y humedecimiento en una trayectoria dominantemente marítima y por convergencia en un régimen ciclónico en niveles bajos.This paper presents a statistic of the frequency of snow-fall occurred over the southeast of Buenos Aires province over a 35 year period (1960-2004. Considering

  14. Efeito de medicamentos sobre tipos eletroclínicos de crises epilépticas na síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Speciali

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisamos os resultados terapêuticos obtidos com o uso de diferentes drogas (diazepam, nitrazepam, clonazepam, difenilhidantoina, barbitúricos - fenobarbital e primidona -, dipropilacetato de sódio e ACTH em 29 pacientes com síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut. Discutimos a ação de cada droga sobre as crises epilépticas (tônicas, tônico-clônicas, clônicas, mioclônicas ou mioclonoatônicas, atônicas e ausências atípicas durante o primeiro mês de cada esquema terapêutico. Delimitamos os campos de ação específica de cada medicação e verificamos a possibilidade de reduzir a incidência de crises epilépticas retirando ou diminuindo as dosagens das drogas administradas.

  15. Monitorización de la función sináptica normal y patológica en modelos animales

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Laza, Rocío

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo principal de esta Tesis Doctoral ha sido el estudio de la transmisión sináptica en la unión neuromuscular. El abordaje que hemos llevado a cabo ha sido triple: - BLOQUE 1: Estudio de la transmisión sináptica en tiempo real en la unión neuromuscular de un ratón transgénico para la proteína de fusión sinaptopHluorina (spH). Análisis de los parámetros cinéticos de la exo- y endocitosis y análisis especial de la liberación de neurotransmisor en esta sinapsis neuromuscular. Detección, ...

  16. Desenvolvimento de um sistema por imagem de fluorescência óptica para uso médico-odontológico

    OpenAIRE

    Mardoqueu Martins da Costa

    2010-01-01

    A técnica de fluorescência óptica tem sido aplicada em diversas áreas médicas, como no acompanhamento da degradação de drogas e na detecção de câncer, por apresentar alta sensibilidade, simplicidade e rapidez na obtenção de dados. A avaliação não-invasiva e não-destrutiva é um grande atrativo que esta técnica oferece para o diagnóstico clínico. Assim, o objetivo deste projeto consistiu no desenvolvimento de um sistema de fluorescência óptica por imagem de campo amplo e avaliação do sistema no...

  17. Efecto de los vientos Santa Ana en las propiedades bio-ópticas frente a Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de las propiedades bio-ópticas, los coeficientes de absorción por partículas, detritos y fitoplancton (ap, adT, aφ se evaluó el efecto de los vientos Santa Ana en el océano frente a Baja California ocurridos durante octubre de 1999. Los vientos medidos en la estación meteorológica frente a la Bahía de Todos Santos y los determinados a partir de información de satélite indicaron tres eventos Santa Ana, caracterizados por baja humedad relativa, alta temperatura del aire y vientos con dirección predominante del este-noreste. Los valores del coeficiente de absorción de detritos (adT fueron hasta diez veces mayores en las muestras superficiales de octubre, con relación a las de enero, abril y agosto de 1999. Los altos valores de adT se debieron al material inorgánico aero-transportado por los vientos tierra-mar ocurridos del 9 al 11 y del 17 al 20 de octubre. Los coeficientes de absorción de las particulas (ap y el fitoplancton (aφ en la zona eufótica fueron mayores en abril, como resultado de la abundancia del fitoplancton. Los valores de ap, aφ y Kd para la zona eufótica fueron ajustados a una función de potencia con la clorofila como variable independiente, con una variancia explicada de 37%, 72% y 16%, respectivamente. Cuando se excluyeron del ajuste los valores de adT medidos en la superficie durante octubre, la clorofila explicó 82% de la variabilidad en los coeficientes de absorción (ap y aφ y 87% en Kd. A partir de la ecuación que relaciona la reflectancia de la radiancia espectral ascendente (Rrs con la clorofila, se determinó que ~80% de la variabilidad en la clorofila superficial es explicada por la razón de reflectancia Rrs(443/Rrs(555 medida en la zona de estudio. Las estimaciones regionales de clorofila a partir de información bioóptica obtenida en la columna de agua no fueron afectadas fuertemente por el polvo aero-transportado durante los vientos Santa Ana ocurridos en octubre de 1999.

  18. Programa de computador para el cálculo del espesor y de las constantes ópticas de películas delgadas semiconductoras

    OpenAIRE

    G. Gordillo; Rodríguez, J.A. (José); Cardona,R.; Infante, P.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizando un sencillo modelo físico propuesto por Swanepoel en 1983 sobre la transmisión de la luz en películas delgadas se escribió un programa de computador para el cálculo del espesor y de las constantes ópticas de películas delgadas. El programa fue aplicado al análisis de la transmisión en películas delgadas de CdS.

  19. Orientações ao pediatra sobre o manejo das drogas psicoativas e antiepilépticas Use of psychoactive and antiepileptic drugs: guidelines for pediatricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibsi P. Rocha

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar as indicações e o manejo clínico das drogas psicoativas e antiepilépticas na infância e adolescência. FONTES DE DADOS: Estudo baseado em revisão de literatura. Os autores organizam, de acordo com os quadros patológicos, uma rotina para o manejo dos psicofármacos e das drogas antiepilépticas na infância e na adolescência. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Indicação clínica, dosagem terapêutica e efeitos colaterais dos psicofármacos e drogas antiepilépticas são descritos. O uso de psicofármacos na infância e adolescência está se tornando mais freqüente, com a disponibilidade de novos medicamentos e com o crescimento do conhecimento sobre diagnóstico de transtornos emocionais nessa faixa etária. CONCLUSÕES: O manejo dos psicofármacos e drogas antiepilépticas na faixa etária pediátrica requer amplo conhecimento da farmacocinética dos mesmos, assim como de seus efeitos colaterais deletérios. A escolha do fármaco adequado é determinante no sucesso terapêutico.OBJECTIVE: To review the guidelines for the use of psychoactive and antiepileptic drugs in childhood and adolescence. SOURCES OF DATA: Literature review. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The clinical indications, dosage and side effects of psychoactive and antiepileptic drugs are presented. The use of psychoactive drugs is increasing due to the release of new drugs and to the better understanding of emotional disorders in children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The use of antiepileptic and psychoactive drugs in childhood requires extensive knowledge concerning pharmacokinetics and deleterious side effects. An adequate choice of drugs is essential to ensure a successful treatment.

  20. Artritis séptica de cadera por Haemophilus influenzae tipo F en la infancia: a propósito de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ulibarrena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La artritis séptica de cadera es una infección aguda, predominantemente de etiología bacteriana. A pesar de que el patógeno principal en cualquier grupo de edad es Staphylococcus aureus, existen otros microorganismos potencialmente patógenos. Describimos el caso de una paciente de 18 meses con artritis séptica de cadera por un agente causal infrecuente (Haemophilus influenzae tipo f de buena evolución. Este caso pone de manifiesto la importancia de considerar otros agentes etiológicos menos frecuentes en las artritis sépticas infantiles, realizando artrocentesis con cultivo de líquido articular antes de iniciar el tratamiento antibiótico, siempre que sea posible. Además, como ocurrió en este caso, conviene tener en cuenta que el resultado positivo del cultivo del líquido sinovial para Haemophilus influezae obliga a tipificar la bacteria para descartar o confirmar un fracaso vacunal.

  1. La calculadora analógica de Lagrange para las integrales elípticas Lagrange's analog calculator for elliptic integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Solanilla Ch

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra que el modelo esférico de Lagrange para las integrales elípticas es interpretable como un computador analógico. Además del lema fundamental que sustenta la analogía, se presentan ejemplos de cálculo para las amplitudes de la suma y la diferencia de dos amplitudes elípticas dadas. En el computador analógico, estas operaciones se materializan por medio de construcciones con regla y compás esféricos. A lo largo de la presentación, se discuten las ventajas y desventajas del procedimiento propuesto. Al final, se esbozan algunas conclusiones sobre los métodos usados y sobre un posible método híbrido para la aproximación numérica de las amplitudes elípticas.In this paper, we show that Lagrange's spherical model for elliptic integrals can be understood as an actual analog computer. In addition to proving the fundamental lemma establishing analogy, we provide examples which show a way to compute the amplitude of the addition (and subtraction of two elliptic integrals. In our computer, these operations are performed by using a spherical compass and a spherical straightedge. We also discuss the pros and cons of our procedure. At the end, we draw some conclusions concerning the possibility of alternative hybrid numerical solutions to the elliptic amplitudes

  2. Profilaxis con drogas antiepilépticas en enfermedades neurológicas Prophylactic treatment with antiepileptic drugs in neurological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Sposato

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El uso profiláctico de drogas antiepilépticas en enfermedades neurológicas como el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico y hemorrágico, la hemorragia subaracnoidea, el traumatismo de cráneo y los tumores cerebrales ha sido motivo de controversia durante muchos años. Estas drogas son indicadas con el fin de disminuir el daño neurológico secundario a las crisis epilépticas. Sin embargo, la escasa evidencia científica disponible para avalar esta hipótesis, las potenciales interacciones farmacológicas, los efectos adversos y algunos informes sobre neurotoxicidad generan dudas en cuanto a esta conducta terapéutica. En esta revisión, analizamos la evidencia acerca del uso profiláctico de drogas epilépticas en las enfermedades neurológicas arriba mencionadas.Prophylactic use of antiepileptic drugs in neurological conditions such as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, head injury, and brain tumors has been matter of debate for many years. These drugs are used for reducing secondary neurological damage caused by epileptic seizures. However, the evidence supporting this indication is scarce. Potential drug interactions, side effects, and even neurotoxicity related to these drugs have raised concern about this therapeutic approach. In this review, we examine the evidence on the prophylactic use of antiepileptic drugs in the neurological disorders above mentioned.

  3. Neuropatía óptica hereditaria de Leber por mutación G11778A del ADN mitocondrial. Manejo de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barreda Gago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available La neuropatía óptica hereditaria de Leber es una enfermedad genética mitocondrial que típicamente produce ceguera bilateral en adultos jóvenes varones. Además de la mutación del ADN mitocondrial son necesarios otros factores genéticos y ambientales para el desarrollo de la enfermedad. En la actualidad no existe un tratamiento eficaz para la neuropatía óptica hereditaria de Leber, pero el consejo genético en portadores asintomáticos es importante. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 23 años de edad que refiere pérdida de agudeza visual central aguda unilateral que se convierte en bilateral en semanas. La exploración del fondo de ojo (tortuosidad vascular peripapilar, telangiectasias e hiperemia papilar, la angiografía con fluoresceína (con ausencia de exudación y el engrosamiento de la capa de fibras nerviosas nos hacen sospechar la enfermedad. El test genético molecular confirma la neuropatía óptica hereditaria de Leber al encontrar la mutación G11778A en homoplasmia. A pesar del tratamiento con idebenona y suplementos vitamínicos la enfermedad evoluciona a atrofia papilar bilateral. El futuro parece estar en la terapia génica, actualmente en investigación.

  4. Influencia de la medicación antiepiléptica sobre los resultados escolares de niños epilépticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Margarita Pestana Knight

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer la influencia de la medicación antiepiléptica sobre los resultados escolares se estudiaron 30 niños que padecen crisis epilépticas parciales y que asisten a escuelas primarias normales. En entrevista familiar se recogió: medicación antiepiléptica usada, dosis en sangre y resultados académicos del último curso escolar que se correlacionó con las variables estudiadas con el test de correlación múltiple. El 80 % (24 niños recibió tratamiento en monoterapia y 6 (20 % politerapia. La fenitoína correlacionó significativamente (p With the aim of knowing the influence of antiepileptic drug therapy on learning outcomes, 30 children with partial epileptic crisis that go to normal primary schools, were studied. These data were collected in family interviews: antiepileptic drug therapy used, dose in blood, and academic outcomes in the last school course correlated with the variables studied with the multiple correlation test. Twenty four children (80 % received monotherapy treatment, and six (20 % received politherapy. Phenytoin significantly correlated (p < 0.005 with M school outcomes. There is a relation of the increased drug levels in blood with the worst academic results.

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its...

  6. Environmental engineering education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roda, I; Castells, F; Flotats, X; Lema, J; Tejero, I

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing demand for engineers and technologists who show multidisciplinary expertise to deal with environmental issues. As a result of this demand, most countries are adapting their old university programs on environmental engineering education. In Spain an official environmental engineering degree does not yet exist, but the Council of Universities is working to present a proposal, based on Bologna agreement concepts. The paper summarizes not only the future perspectives of environmental engineering education in Spain, but also the evolution of the approach during the last decades, which includes the role of the private initiative, the environmental sciences degree, and the intensification in different traditional engineering degrees. Finally, the paper briefly details and compares the syllabus developed in the only four Spanish universities where environmental engineering is offered as a non-official post-graduate course lasting two years.

  7. Helical industrial chimneys in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    López Patiño, Mª Gracia

    2013-01-01

    The industrial chimney has been the symbol of the Industrial Revolution par excellence. Transcending both regionalism and traditional forms of construction, some specimens found in Spain, dating mainly from the early twentieth century, follow unique schools of construction with regard to the mastery with which the brick is handled. All this was achieved without being endorsed by famous architects; rather they were the product of master masons, skilled in their craft and relishing ...

  8. Algoritmo de roteamento com balanceamento de carga adaptado a redes ópticas elásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Barbosa Brasileiro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Com a evolução dos meios de transmissão de dados, surgem as Redes Ópticas que utilizam a tecnologia Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM, transportando o dados em slots de frequência, que podem ser agrupados para formar canais com maior capacidade de transmissão. Para estabelecer um lightpath entre dois nós da rede, é necessário escolher uma rota e um conjunto de slots, exigindo a criação de algoritmos de roteamento e alocação de espectro que melhor utilizem os recursos disponíveis na rede. O algoritmo proposto neste trabalho é uma adaptação do algoritmo de roteamento fixo LBR, permitindo escolher rotas para os pares de nós de modo a balancear a carga total da rede. O desempenho foi avaliado através de simulações, na qual o LBR é comparado ao Dijkstra e apresenta desempenho superior.

  9. Meningitis aséptica concurrente con infección del tracto urinario en recién nacidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Trabajos publicados recientemente han destacado el hallazgo de meningitis aséptica (MA en lactantes pequeños, concomitante con infección del tracto urinario (ITU. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la frecuencia de tal presentación. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo que incluyó a 626 recién nacidos con ITU, ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan Manuel Márquez» entre febrero de 1992 y diciembre de 2008, y a quienes se les realizó una punción lumbar. Se comparó la frecuencia de MA e ITU con los informes documentados en la literatura médica. RESULTADOS. La frecuencia de MA concomitante con ITU fue del 7,0 % (IC 95 %: 4,9-9,1 %. Los resultados promedio del examen citoquímico del líquido cefalorraquídeo mostraron que la pleocitosis fue el indicador más notable entre los que comúnmente se miden. La frecuencia encontrada fue similar a la de los informes internacionales. CONCLUSIONES. Es llamativa la incidencia de MA concomitante con ITU en los recién nacidos y en concordancia con lo reportado internacionalmente. La concomitancia de MA e ITU puede ser multifactorial, y es posible que se presenten factores causales en algunos pacientes, o casuales en otros casos.

  10. Conservación de Soportes con Grabaciones Digitales por Medio de la Tecnología Óptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ernesto Paz-Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación documental garantiza la perdurabilidad de las fuentes y evita la restauración. Los soportes con grabaciones digitales por medio de la tecnología óptica (TO son los más empleados para el almacenamiento de información, paradójicamente son los menos abordados en investigaciones sobre preservación documental. En el estudio se emplea la Metodología de la Biblioteca Nacional de Cuba “José Martí” (BNJM para el diagnóstico de sedes y colecciones; aplicando las variables y describiendo los aspectos negativos detectados. Se diagnostica la Colección Multimedia de la Biblioteca Provincial “Martí” de Villa Clara. Se identifica que la colección de documentos analizada se encuentra en un alto riesgo de deterioro, de igual forma se identifican factores que a corto plazo pueden provocar la pérdida de información en los soportes. La situación de los documentos favorece la propuesta de un plan de medidas preventivas en correspondencia con la situación de la colección.

  11. Estrés psicosocial y úlcera péptica duodenal: una perspectiva bio-psico-social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vinaccia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo plantea un modelo en el que se describe el proceso a través del cual el estrés psicosocial puede inducir el desarrollo de la úlcera péptica duodenal CUPO y los sistemas psicológicos, biológicos y sociales que se ponen allí en juego. Primero se analiza el papel de los sucesos vitales estresantes y del estrés percibido. Posteriormente se revisa cómo las estrategias de afrontamiento y la atribución causal del propio sujeto contribuyen a la UPO. Más tarde se analiza cómo el estrés podría permitir que la bacteria H Pylori se convierta en un agente patógeno, produciendo una actividad del ácido péptico y disminuyendo las defensas de la mucosa. Finalmente el artículo termina planteando relaciones entre UPO y nivel socio-económico.

  12. [History of microscopy in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Galiano, D

    1994-12-01

    Nowadays, many Spanish research centers have excellent electronic microscopy services. The current situation, however, should not allow us to forget that the initial steps of microscopy in Spain were very difficult. The construction of excellent optical microscopies in the late XIX century, and their almost immediate introduction in Spain, coincides with a period of thriving scientific activity in our country. Both micrography and histology saw the highlights of their development in Spain, with scientists such as Ramón y Cajal, Río Hortega, Ferrán, Simarro, among others, all of them widely known at present. This article evokes briefly the vicissitudes of Spanish microscopy, from its very beginning in 1843, when the Allgemeine Anatomie by Jacob Henle was translated into Spanish, to present. Scientific historical facts in this article are often accompanied with anecdotes, which show the human aspect of those great scientists. The persevering task carried out by researchers whose names have been recorded in the history of Spanish science and technology, have established the grounds in which our current development is based.

  13. Evaluación química y organoléptica del ensilaje de maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp. más yuca fresca (Manihot esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libardo Maza A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la composición química y características organolépticas del ensilado de maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp. más diferentes proporciones de yuca fresca (Manihot esculenta. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron 4 tratamientos (T de ensilaje de maralfalfa más diferentes proporciones de yuca fresca: 0% (Tratamiento 1, Control, 5% (Tratamiento 2, 10% (Tratamiento 3 y 15% (Tratamiento 4. Se determinaron las proporciones de fibra detergente neutro (FDN, fibra detergente ácido (FDA, lignina, fracción de materia seca (MS, extracto etéreo (EE, cenizas y proteína bruta (PB. Además, se evaluaron las características organolépticas. Para evaluar las variables nutricionales del ensilaje, se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado y los datos se analizaron a través de un análisis de varianza y la prueba de polinomios ortogonales. Para la evaluación del consumo y variables organolépticas se utilizaron 20 novillas, a las que se les ofreció 30 kg de ensilaje por cada tratamiento, analizando los resultados a través de estadística descriptiva. Resultados. Las variables nutricionales mostraron diferentes tipos de tendencias polinómicas. La MS y EE tuvieron comportamiento lineal, la lignina cuadrático y la PB, cenizas, FDN, FDA y pH comportamiento cúbico. Las características organolépticas para T3 y T4, fueron excelentes. El consumo promedio de T1, T2, T3 y T4 fue 4.66, 4.42, 4.58 y 4.74 kg, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La inclusión de raíz de yuca contribuyó favorablemente en la calidad nutricional del ensilaje de maralfalfa y sus características organolépticas.

  14. Tomografia de coerência óptica na commotio retinae: relato de caso Optical coherence tomography imaging in commotio retinae: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Morita

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste relato é correlacionar achados à tomografia de coerência óptica e prognóstico visual de pacientes com commotio retina e de gravidades diferentes. Dois pacientes do sexo masculino, de 20 e 23 anos com baixa visual unilateral após trauma ocular contuso atribuível a edema de Berlin foram avaliados pela retinografia e tomografia de coerência óptica. A acuidade visual no olho afetado era de 20/25 no primeiro paciente e conta dedos a 2 metros no segundo. O exame oftalmológico revelou uveíte traumática e, na fundoscopia, evidenciaram-se opacificação retiniana moderada no primeiro caso e grave no segundo. A tomografia de coerência óptica confirmou discreta diminuição da depressão foveal no primeiro caso e desorganização das camadas retinianas no segundo. Houve resolução anatômica e funcional completa a tomografia de coerência óptica no primeiro paciente, enquanto o segundo evoluiu com baixa visual permanente e desorganização da arquitetura retiniana. A tomografia de coerência óptica é um exame complementar útil na avaliação do trauma retiniano, ajudando a entender sua fisiopatologia e predizer prognóstico a partir da análise anatômica da região acometida.The purpose of this case report was to correlate optical coherence tomography findings and visual outcomes of patients with different degrees of commotio retinae. A 20-year-old male and a 23-year-old male that presented with decreased vision due to Berlin's edema after blunt ocular trauma were evaluated by optical coherence tomography and retinography. The visual acuity in the affected eye was 20/25 in the first patient and counting fingers in the second one. The ophthalmic examination showed traumatic uveitis and fundoscopy revealed mild retinal opacification in the first case and severe opacification in the latter. The optical coherence tomography confirmed the reduction of foveal depression on the first case and the disarrangement of all retinal

  15. Rutas de señalización celular involucradas en la plasticidad post-sináptica inducida por la activación de los canales de glutamato tipo NMDA en el hipocampo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinel Clara

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La apertura de los canales de glutamato tipo NMDA, gracias a la acción concomitante de las neuronas pre-sináptica y post-sináptica a nivel de las espinas dendríticas, induce a modificaciones de la fuerza y eficacia sinápticas en éstas, fenómeno mejor conocido como plasticidad sináptica. Las dos formas conocidas de plasticidad sinápticas son la potenciación a largo plazo (LTP y la depresión a largo plazo (LTD. Subyacen a ambos tipos de plasticidad modificaciones covalentes sobre las distintas proteínas que componen la densidad post-sináptica y, en caso de que la LTP se prolongue, una regulación activa de la transcripción y traducción de material genético. Así, la regulación activa de la fuerza y eficacia sináptica se debe al control activo sobre la tasa de inserción y remoción de los receptores de glutamato tipo AMPA, receptores encargados de la excitación rápida en el cerebro. Lo significativo de dicho evento en el hipocampo se debe a que éste está relacionado de manera estrecha con la memoria declarativa de los individuos, su memoria de reconocimiento y la memoria espacial, esta última mediada por la activación precisa y coordinada de las células de lugar que se encuentran en él.

  16. Heart rate analysis differentiates dialeptic complex partial temporal lobe seizures from auras and non-epileptic seizures A análise da freqüência cardíaca diferencia crises dialépticas parciais complexas de auras e crises não epilépticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele R. de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The distinction of non-epileptic from epileptic events is difficult even for experienced neurologists. We retrospectively evaluated 59 dialeptic events from 27 patients admitted for video EEG monitoring to check whether heart rate (HR analysis could help in differentiating dialeptic complex partial temporal lobe seizures (TLS from dialeptic simple partial TLS, and non-epileptic dialeptic events. Baseline HR was increased in the simple partial TLS in comparison to complex partial TLS and non-epileptic groups (pA distinção entre eventos não epilépticos de epilépticos é difícil mesmo para neurologistas experientes. Analisamos 59 eventos dialéticos de 27 pacientes internados para monitorização por video-EEG para checar se a análise da frequência cardíaca (FC poderia auxiliar na diferenciação de crises dialépticas parciais complexas de crises dialépticas parciais simples e eventos dialépticos não epilépticos. A freqüência cardíaca basal estava aumentada nos pacientes com crises parciais simples em comparação com o período basal dos grupos parcial complexa e não epiléptico (p<0,05. Houve aumento da freqüência cardíaca em cada crise dialéptica parcial complexa (100% dos eventos, p<0,05, mas a FC retornou aos níveis basais na fase pós-ictal. A FC ictal não foi alterada nos grupos de crises não epiléticas e nos pacientes com crises parciais simples. Nossos achados sugerem que a taquicardia ictal com mediação central é característica de crises parciais complexas dialépticas (tanto taquicardia quanto bradicardia têm sido relatados durante crises temporais parciais complexas. Tal achado poderá ser utilizado como critério para diferenciar crises dialépticas parciais complexas de crises dialépticas parciais simples e eventos dialépticos não epilépticos.

  17. La estructura videoclíptica y su inserción en el cine actual: el caso de

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voces Fernández, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En español: El videoclip es un formato híbrido que tiene la capacidad de absorber y moldear otras manifestaciones artísticas. En el presente trabajo trataremos de llegar a una definición satisfactoria del mismo para abordar sus características y posibles clasificaciones, centrando el estudio en los trasvases que se han producido a lo largo de su historia con otras disciplinas artísticas y, en particular, con el cine. En este flujo constante de estéticas estudiaremos el caso del filme The Big Lebowski, dirigido por Joel Coen en 1998, rastreando aquellos elementos compartidos y/o heredados del formato videoclip. Este filme es especialmente interesante debido al planteamiento estético que adopta así como por la utilización que los hermanos Coen hacen de la música, construyendo en numerosos casos verdaderas estructuras videoclípticas.In english: The video clip is a hybrid format that has the capacity to absorb and shape other artistic manifestations. In this paper we shall try to bring it to a satisfactory definition in order to deal with its characteristics and potential classifications, focusing the study on the transfers that has taken placethroughout history with other artistic disciplines and, in particular, with cinema. In this constant aesthetics flow we will study the case of the film The Big Lebowski, directed by Joel Coen in 1998, tracing those shared and/or inherited elements from the video clip format. This film is particularly interesting due to its aesthetic approach as well as to the use that Coen brothers make of music, creating in many cases true video clip-like structures.

  18. Cirugía videolaparoscópica en el tratamiento de la úlcera péptica gastroduodenal perforada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerza Enid Peña Pupo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, de los pacientes con úlcera péptica gastroduodenal perforada, se les aplicó el tratamiento videolaparoscópico, durante el período enero de 2007 a diciembre de 2009, en el servicio de cirugía general, del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico "Lucía Íñiguez Landín", con el objetivo de describir la evolución de estos pacientes. Se utilizaron como variables, edad, sexo, tiempo de iniciada la perforación, técnica quirúrgica, tiempo quirúrgico, índice de conversión, estadía hospitalaria, complicaciones y evolución postoperatoria. Se estudiaron 16 pacientes, el 87,5 % correspondió a los mayores de 40 años. La técnica empleada en el 100% de los pacientes fue la sutura y epiploplastia. Predominó el tiempo quirúrgico de más de 60 minutos (81,2%. Se convirtieron solo 2 pacientes (12,5% y prevaleció la celulitis del puerto de entrada, como complicación (31,2%. La mortalidad asociada a la enfermedad fue del 6,2%, existió una evolución satisfactoria en el 93,8% de los pacientes estudiados, con una estadía hospitalaria promedio de tres días.

  19. Achados tomográficos em 1000 pacientes consecutivos com antecedentes de crises epilépticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trentin Ana Paula

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos retrospectivamente as tomografias computadorizadas (TC de crânio de 1000 pacientes consecutivos, com história clínica de crises epilépticas classificadas do ponto de vista clínico em generalizadas (CG e parciais (CP. Nossos resultados mostraram a presença de CG em 70,7% dos pacientes, sendo 57,1% do sexo masculino e 42,9% do sexo feminino e, CP em 29,3%, sendo 60,0% do sexo maculino e 40,0% do sexo femninino. As faixas etárias de maior incidência foram entre 0 a 10 (31,0% e 11 a 20 (21,8% anos nos pacientes com CG e 0 a 10 (24,5%, 21 a 30 (16,7% e 31 a 40 anos (18,4% nos pacientes com CP. Os resultados tomográficos no grupo com CG foram: normais (48,8% e alterados em 51,2%, sendo esses achados definidos como calcificações/cisticercose (14,0%, neurocisticercose/cistos (9,6% hidrocefalia (4,4%, infarto (4,2%, indefinido (4,0%, tumor (2,5% entre outros (12,5,%. Nos pacientes com CP os exames tomográficos foram normais em 37,4%, alterados em 62,7%, tendo os diagnósticos de neurocisticercose/cistos (12,2%, calcificações/cisticercose (11,2%, tumor (10,5%, indefinido (8,1%, infarto (5,4%, hidrocefalia (3,7% e outros (11,6%. Salientamos a importância da TC em pacientes com epilepsia, particularmente para o diagnóstico de neurocisticercose.

  20. A forma arterítica da neuropatia óptica isquêmica anterior: estudo de 25 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available O quadro clínico, laboratorial, campimétrico e angiofluoresceinográfico de 25 pacientes (40 olhos com a forma arterítica da neuropatia óptica isquémica anterior (NOIA-A foi estudada com a finalidade de definir o perfil da doença possibilitando seu diagnóstico diferencial com a forma não arterítica (NOIA-NA e com outras doenças do nervo óptico. A NOIA-A ocorreu em pacientes entre 60 e 88 anos (média 74 anos, predominando no sexo feminino (64%. Em 15 pacientes o envolvimento foi bilateral, ocorrendo simultaneamente ou nas primeiras semanas após o acometimento inicial. Cefaléia e dor ocular foram os pródromos mais frequentes, enquanto todos os pacientes apresentavam, ao momento da perda visual, sintomas e sinais sistêmicos da arterite de células gigantes (ACG. Elevação da proteina C reativa, do fibrinogênio e da velocidade de hemossedimentação foram as alterações laboratoriais mais frequentemente encontradas. A acuidade visual, em geral, foi severamente acometida. As principais anormalidades fundoscópicas foram edema do disco óptico, usualmente pálido, com ou sem hemorrragias, e alterações retinianas. Exame do campo visual demonstrou uma variedade de defeitos, principalmente altitudinais inferiores enquanto a principal característica angiofluoresceinográfica observada foi o atraso setorial ou difuso do enchimento da coróide.

  1. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  2. The Dance of Spain: Classical Folkloric Flamenco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Clifford J.

    A text on the classical and folk dance of Spain includes a pretest, provided in both English and Spanish; text about the dance in general and the dance of Spain, both classical and folkloric; tests on the text, in both English and Spanish; more specific readings about the traditions of flamenco, castanets, and "el jaleo"; a glossary of…

  3. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  4. China-Spain Urban Transport Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The China-Spain Seminar on Urban Transport jointly sponsored by the Chinese Committee of the China-Spain Forum and the Agency of International Cooperation of the Spanish Foreign Ministry was held in Beijing from May 10 to 14, 2004. The Seminar was

  5. Light pollution in Spain. An european perspective

    CERN Document Server

    de Miguel, Alejandro Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    Spain appears in light pollution maps as a country less polluted than their neighbours in the European Union. This seems to be an illusion due to its low population density. The data indicate that Spain is one of the most contaminated countries. To reach these conclusions we compare the Spanish case to those of other European countries.

  6. Needle exchange programs in prisons in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menoyo, C; Zulaica, D; Parras, F

    2000-01-01

    On 11 July 2000, at the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, yet another country--Spain--presented evidence that needle exchange programs in prisons work. We reproduce here the text of the presentation entitled "Needle Exchange Program at the Bilbao Prison, Spain: Two Years of Experience (1997-1999)."

  7. Latin radio in Spain. Media for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Santos Diez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spain has become one of the top destinations for immigration from Latin America. This phenomenon involves the creation of new media to satisfy their needs for information and entertainment. In this paper we analyze creation and the programming grips of the FM radio stations forLatinos arising in Spain.

  8. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  9. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  10. [Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmilo, Gemma

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain does not differ from that reported in other published series. Prevalence rate is approximately 60 cases per million, peak incidence occurs in middle age, more women are affected (61%), and there is a substantial delay between occurrence of the first symptoms and diagnosis. Studies REA (Spanish Acromegaly Registry) and OASIS analyzed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of the disease in Spain. Surgery, performed in more than 80% of patients, has been (and continues to be) the main treatment for the past four decades. In the past decade, however, more patients have received somatostatin analogs (SSAs) as first-line treatment. Use of radiation therapy has significantly decreased in recent decades. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are the most commonly used drugs, administered to 85% of patients; however, only 12%-15% continue on drug treatment alone. The surgical remission rate was 38.4% in the last decade, with a significant improvement over decades. Preoperative treatment with SSAs has no influence on surgical cure rates. Second-line therapies used after surgical failure in the past decade included SSAs in 49% of patients, repeat surgery in 27%, radiotherapy in 11%, pegvisomant in 15%, and dopamine agonists in 5%. Mean cost of acromegaly treatment was 9.668€ (data estimated in 2009 and adjusted in 2010), of which 71% was due to the cost of SSAs. Patients treated with pegvisomant have a more aggressive form of the disease and higher comorbidity rates.

  11. Bradicardia como manifestação epiléptica em epilepsia temporal: relato de caso Bradycardia during temporal lobe seizure: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN L. JORGE

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso de arritmia cardíaca como manifestação epiléptica. A monitorização video-eletrencefalográfica de uma paciente com 34 anos de idade que apresentava episódios de perda de consciência permitiu a detecção de períodos de assistolia como principal manifestação clínica, exigindo a implantação de marca-passo. O registro eletrencefalográfico concomitante mostrou atividade rítmica a 6-7 Hz de projeção na região temporal esquerda. A ressonância magnética mostrou lesão expansiva no giro para-hipocampal esquerdo. Alterações do ritmo cardíaco como taquicardia sinusal são frequentes em crises epilépticas. A descrição de bradicardia e/ou assistolia é rara. As conexões das estruturas mesiais temporais com estruturas profundas como o hipotálamo devem ser responsáveis pelas manifestações vegetativas durante crises epilépticas temporais.We describe a patient who had cardiac arrhythmia as epileptic manifestation. In a 34-year-old woman who had many episodes of loss of consciousness, the simultaneous ECG and video-EEG monitoring recorded bradycardia with a short episode of asystolia (4 seconds and left temporal rhythmic teta activity on EEG. MRI showed a small mass lesion in the left parahippocampal gyrus. Alterations in cardiac rhythm have been reported in epileptic seizures and taquycardia is the most common finding associated with them; bradyarrhythmia during seizures was uncommon. Many interconnections among insular cortex, limbic system and hypothalamus, may be responsible for vegetative manifestations in temporal lobe epilepsy.

  12. Estudio y caracterización óptica de un Carcinoma Basocelular mediante simulación láser numérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Campoy Fernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Las simulaciones de Monte Carlo son una de las técnicas más utilizadas en el contexto de modelación de geometrías de sistemas heterogéneos, como puede ser la piel humana. Además uno de los principales retos modernos en biofotónica es la simulación del comportamiento óptico y la propagación de la luz en tejidos. Objetivos: Analizar la respuesta óptica de la piel, y aportar información para el diagnóstico de posibles alteraciones en la piel con la presencia de un basalioma. Material y Método: Un programa comercial, contrastado y fiable de simulación basado en técnicas de Monte Carlo, que permite estudiar el comportamiento de la piel frente a una radiación óptica; la aproximación a la trayectoria que sigue la luz en su interacción con el tejido se obtiene a partir de las propiedades ópticas conocidas a priori. Piel modelada y simulación numérica. Resultados: Los resultados expuestos son datos innovadores, hasta donde conocen los autores, sobre patrones de radiación en unidades de irradiancia como de reflectividad y transmitividad de la piel. Conclusiones: Este trabajo ofrece un método para distinguir entre piel "sana" y piel con carcinoma basocelular, lo que podría facilitar un procedimiento de identificación de lesiones cancerosas de la piel.

  13. Artritis séptica de rodilla por Streptococcus agalactiae: presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Sesma Solis, P. J.; Fernandez Garcia, L.; García de Quevedo Puerta, D.; García López, A.

    1994-01-01

    Se describe un caso de artritis séptica de rodilla en un paciente diabético de 69 años. En el momento de la presentación se hallaba sometido a curas locales de una úlcera crónica en el mismo miembro y a antibioterapia oral inespecífica por supuesta infección urinaria. En el cultivo del líquido sinovial se identificó un Streptococcus agalactiae (Estreptococo del grupo B). La infección no remitió con antibioterapia intravenosa electiva e irrigación-aspiración articular repetidas, re...

  14. Epilepsy in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures Epilepsia em pacientes com crises não epilépticas psicogênicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Luiz Marchetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of epilepsy in patients who presented psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES. The evaluation was carried out during intensive VEEG monitoring in a diagnostic center for epilepsy in a university hospital. The difficulties involved in reaching this diagnosis are discussed. Ninety-eight patients underwent intensive and prolonged video-electroencephalographic (VEEG monitoring; out of these, a total of 28 patients presented PNES during monitoring. Epilepsy was defined as present when the patient presented epileptic seizures during VEEG monitoring or when, although not presenting epileptic seizures during monitoring, the patient presented unequivocal interictal epileptiform discharges. The frequency of epilepsy in patients with PNES was 50% (14 patients. Our findings suggest that the frequency of epilepsy in patients with PNES is much higher than that of previous studies, and point out the need, at least in some cases, for prolonging the evaluation of patients with PNES who have clinical histories indicating epilepsy.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência de epilepsia em pacientes que apresentaram crises não epilépticas psicogênicas (CNEP. Isto foi realizado durante monitoração intensiva por video-EEG num centro diagnóstico de epilepsia em um hospital universitário. As dificuldades envolvidas para se chegar a este diagnóstico são discutidas. Noventa e oito pacientes foram submetidos a monitoração intensiva por video-EEG; 28 destes pacientes apresentaram CNEP durante a monitoração. Epilepsia foi considerada presente quando o paciente apresentou crises epilépticas durante a avaliação pelo video-EEG ou quando, apesar da não ocorrência de crises epilépticas durante a avaliação, descargas epilépticas interictais inequívocas estavam presentes. A frequência de epilepsia em pacientes com CNEP foi 50% (14 pacientes. Nossos achados sugerem que a frequência de epilepsia em

  15. Circuito eléctrico equivalente de una vesícula sináptica Electric Circuit Equivalent to a Synaptic Vesicle

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Xaira; Fayad Ramón

    2003-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo eléctrico de uno de los elementosprimordiales en la sinapsis nerviosa: la vesícula sináptica. Dicha vesícula se consideracomo un organelo esferoidal, despojada de neurotransmisores y se asume, además, quesu lumen, su membrana y el citoplasma neuronal se comportan como medios lineales,homogéneos e isotrópicos caracterizados por conductividades y permitividades especí-ficas. El método utilizado será la aplicación teórica de un campo eléctrico (que ...

  16. Vasculitis cerebral cisticercosa y neuropatía óptica isquémica en una paciente con amaurosis unilateral y recuperación ad integrum

    OpenAIRE

    Enríquez Coronel,Guillermo; Santos Marcial,Edgar; Cabrera Aldana,Eibar Ernesto

    2004-01-01

    La cisticercosis es una parasitósis bien conocida que puede causar una gran cantidad de síndromes. La neuropatía isquémica-óptica es una enfermedad de adultos cuyas causas principales son hipertensión arterial y la diabetes y la arteritis de células gigantes. Presentamos el caso de una estudiante de medicina de 22 años que presentó súbitamente pérdida de la visión en el ojo derecho y después completa ceguera. Los estudios demostraron múltiples cisticercos en el hemisferio derecho. Fue tratada...

  17. Método de las características complejas para ecuaciones elípticas en ángulos no convexos

    OpenAIRE

    De La Paz Méndez, José Eligio

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo está dedicado a algunos aspectos de la solución de problemas de frontera para las ecuaciones elípticas en los ángulos planos no convexos. Precisamente se trata de la justificación del método de las características complejas [2], [3], [5], [7] para ángulos no convexos. Este método encuentra aplicaciones para varios problemas de la Física Matemática tanto como para ángulos convexos y ángulos no convexos [6], [8], [9], [10], [11] [13]. En la parte principal de est...

  18. Manejo de la primera crisis epiléptica y del status en urgencias Management of first epileptic seizure and status epilepticus in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    E. Urrestarazu; Murie, M. (M.); C. Viteri

    2008-01-01

    La primera crisis epiléptica es una causa frecuente de consulta en los servicios de urgencias. El manejo en urgencias se centra en el diagnóstico del episodio y en la identificación de la causa subyacente, y sólo ocasionalmente será necesario el inicio de un tratamiento antiepiléptico. Sin embargo, cuando la crisis es prolongada se convierte en una verdadera emergencia médica, el estatus epiléptico, y requiere un tratamiento inmediato. En este trabajo se revisarán las pautas generales de mane...

  19. Caracterização de tecidos biológicos através de tomografia por coerência óptica

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Zanardi de Freitas

    2007-01-01

    Neste trabalho implementamos dois sistemas de OCT, um deles utilizando fibras ópticas e um estágio de translação linear como sistema de deslocamento e foi desenvolvido no departamento de Física da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. O outro sistema de OCT foi baseado um interferômetro de Michelson convencional, foi implementado no Centro de Lasers e Aplicações no Ipen utilizando a técnica de introdução de atraso com grade de difração e galvanômetro (fast Fourier Scanning), como sistema de var...

  20. Tomografía óptica espectral no midriática para el diagnóstico precoz del edema macular diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Medina, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    Los tomógrafos de coherencia óptica de dominio espectral son instrumentos adecuados para realizar un rastreo y monitorización del edema macular diabético, utilizados tanto en condiciones de midriasis farmacológica como sin dilatación pupilar. Por ello, podrían ser incorporados en un futuro en protocolos de teleoftalmología para el control de esta enfermedad. Los OCT de dominio espectral han presentado una menor tasa de fracaso en la detección del engrosamiento retiniano que los métodos basado...

  1. A comunicação como barreira à inclusão de alunos com deficiência visual em aulas de óptica

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    O presente artigo representa uma continuidade dos resultados apresentados em Camargo e Nardi (Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física 29, 117 (2007)). Encontra-se inserido dentro de um estudo que busca compreender as principais barreiras para a inclusão de alunos com deficiência visual no contexto do ensino de física. Focalizando aulas de óptica, analisa as dificuldades comunicacionais entre licenciandos e discentes com deficiência visual. Para tal, enfatiza as estruturas empírica e semântico-...

  2. Características físicas, químicas e organolépticas de quipá (Tacinga inamoena, Cactaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, Andréa Carla Mendonça de; Gamarra-Rojas,Guillermo; Andrade,Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Guerra,Nonete Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    A Opuntia ficus-indica tem-se destacado como principal produtora de frutos e forragens, motivo pelo qual tem sido bastante pesquisada. Além desta espécie, no semi-árido do Nordeste é encontrada a Tacinga inamoena, planta nativa, cujo fruto, embora também utilizado pelo agricultor como alternativa alimentar, não foi objeto de nenhuma pesquisa até o momento, justificando este trabalho para avaliar seu potencial nutricional e industrial, por meio das características organolépticas, químicas e fí...

  3. Caracterización de las relaciones bio-ópticas del fitoplancton frente al sistema lagunar Navachiste, Sinaloa, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Estrada, Marytza Yamile

    2014-01-01

    La absorción de la luz solar por material particulado en el océano (fitoplancton y detritus) y el coeficiente de atenuación de la luz difusa, son propiedades que determinan la variabilidad óptica en la zona eufótica del mar, y de ellas dependen la penetración de la luz en la columna de agua. El área marino-costera del Sistema Lagunar Navachiste (SLN), Sinaloa, México, tiene influencia de agua del interior del sistema, el cual está catalogado como sitio eutrofizado, así como de surgencias cost...

  4. Terapia celular en la necrosis aséptica de la cabeza del fémur en pacientes con drepanocitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Aymara Maria Baganet-Cobas

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: La necrosis aséptica de la cabeza femoral (NACF) es una causa importante de morbilidad en pacientes jóvenes con drepanocitosis. En su tratamiento ningún método es completamente satisfactorio. Investigaciones recientes sugieren que la terapia celular puede contribuir a la reparación de tejidos como el óseo resultando útiles en el proceso de osteogénesis y angiogénesis. Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad del implante de concentrado de células mononucleares autólogas de médula ...

  5. Crises não-epilépticas: clínica e terapêutica Nonepileptic seizures: clinical features and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Nogueira Mendes de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Discutir as crises ou os eventos paroxísticos que simulem crises epilépticas, enfatizando as diferenças semiológicas entre elas e as perspectivas terapêuticas. Realizamos uma revisão da literatura, selecionando artigos nas bases de dados Medline e Bireme, a partir dos unitermos: "non-epileptic seizures", "psychogenic seizures". As crises não-epilépticas (CNE podem ser classificadas em fisiológicas (síncope, migrânea, ataque isquêmico transitório e em psicogênicas (voluntárias ou não. O padrão-ouro para a diferenciação entre as crises epilépticas e as CNE é o videoeletroencefalograma, mas vários dados semiológicos podem auxiliar esse processo. O tratamento das CNE baseia-se em psicoterapia e em farmacoterapia direcionadas aos transtornos psiquiátricos comórbidos. Apesar de a alta prevalência das CNE e de sua elevada morbidade, são escassos os estudos na literatura nacional. São muitos os desafios diagnósticos e terapêuticos. Assim, o psiquiatra atentar-se à sua ocorrência, evitando iatrogenia, como o uso desnecessário de drogas antiepilépticas.To discuss paroxysmal events that mimic epileptic seizures with emphasis on their semiologic differences and therapeutic perspectives. We did a narrative review of the literature based on selected papers in Medline and Bireme after searching for the uniterms "non-epileptic seizures" and "psychogenic seizures". Nonepileptic seizures (NES can be classified in physiological (syncope, migraine, transitory ischemic attack and psychogenic (voluntary or involuntary. The gold-standard in the differentiation of epileptic and nonepileptic seizures is the video-electroencefalogram, but many semiologic features can contribute to this process. The treatment of NES is based mainly on psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy directed to comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite the high prevalence and elevated morbidity of the NES, there are just few studies on this subject in the Brazilian

  6. Terapia celular en la necrosis aséptica de la cabeza del fémur en pacientes con drepanocitosis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: La necrosis aséptica de la cabeza femoral (NACF) es una causa importante de morbilidad en pacientes jóvenes con drepanocitosis. En su tratamiento ningún método es completamente satisfactorio. Investigaciones recientes sugieren que la terapia celular puede contribuir a la reparación de tejidos como el óseo resultando útiles en el proceso de osteogénesis y angiogénesis. Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad del implante de concentrado de células mononucleares autólogas de médula ...

  7. Cálculo de constantes ópticas de películas delgadas de Cu3BiS3 a través del método de Wolfe

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Se calculó la obtención de las constantes ópticas usando el método de Wolfe. Dichas contantes: coeficiente de absorción (α), índice de refracción (n) y espesor de una película delgada (d ), son de importancia en el proceso de caracterización óptica del material. Se realizó una comparación del método del Wolfe con el método empleado por R. Swanepoel. Se desarrolló un modelo de programación no lineal con restricciones, de manera que fue posible estimar las constantes ópticas de películas delgad...

  8. Coordinación docente del cuarto curso del Grado de Óptica y Optometría y el Máster en Optometría Clínica y Visión

    OpenAIRE

    García Llopis, Celia; Cacho Martínez, Pilar; Cabezos Juan, Inmaculada; Domenech, Begoña; Martínez-Verdú, Francisco M.; Mas, David; David P. Piñero; Seguí-Crespo, Mar; Viqueira Pérez, Valentín

    2013-01-01

    El Máster en Optometría Clínica y Visión comenzó a impartirse en la Universidad de Alicante en el curso 2010-2011. Durante estos tres años los alumnos que han accedido a él, han sido, en su mayoría, Diplomados en Óptica y Optometría. Actualmente se está impartiendo el Grado de Óptica y Optometría, por lo que a partir del curso 2013-2014 los alumnos que accedan al Máster serán mayoritariamente graduados. Teniendo en cuenta que en el Grado de Óptica y Optometría se han añadido asignaturas (resp...

  9. Extensão do método de monitoração da espessura óptica para uma classe de fluidos não-newtonianos

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Lovato Gomes Jardim

    2007-01-01

    O monitoramento das constantes ópticas, índice de refração e espessura óptica, durante a confecção de filmes finos, é essencial para desenvolvimento de suas aplicações em diversas áreas. No monitoramento da variação de espessura, métodos capacitivos são tradicionalmente usados, com acurácia de + 2μm, durante o processo de recobrimento por imersão (dip coating). Neste mesmo processo, nosso objetivo é estender o método de monitoração óptica, anteriormente consolidado com fluidos Newtonianos, pa...

  10. Sensores de fibra óptica para la detección de compuestos orgánicos volátiles basados en materiales silíceos porosos.Efectos de las propiedades texturales y superficiales

    OpenAIRE

    Vaquero Rivero, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo fin de carrera aborda el desarrollo de sensores de fibra óptica para la detección de compuestos orgánicos volátiles. El objetivo general es preparar sensores de fibra óptica que empleen como elemento sensor xerogeles silíceos con diferente textura porosa y polaridad. Se compara la respuesta de los elementos sensores frente a diclorometano, acetona, metanol y ciclohexano. Los xerogeles se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopía infrarroja y adsorción de N...

  11. Técnicas asépticas en el cuidado enfermero a pacientes hospitalizados que requieren administración de fármacos y aspiración de secreciones del tracto respiratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana-Carmona, Miriam; Facultad de Enfermería. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.; Changa-Murga, Rosa; Facultad de Enfermería. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima; Sullcapuma-Guillen, Braulio; Facultad de Enfermería. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima; Chávez-Cachay, Esther; Facultad de Enfermería. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.

    2014-01-01

    Las técnicas asépticas son muy importantes para reducir la posibilidad que los microorganismos entren al organismodurante la administración de fármacos y la aspiración de secreciones, a su vez, disminuyen el riesgo que los pacientes se infecten durante su estancia hospitalaria. Objetivo: determinar el cumplimiento de las técnicas asépticas en los procedimientos de administración de fármacos y aspiración de secreciones del tracto respiratorio por parte de los enfermeros durante el cuidado de p...

  12. Influencia de las aberraciones en visión binocular mediante el uso de sistemas de óptica adaptativa= Influence of aberrations on binocular vision by means of adaptive optics instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Christina

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis ha sido obtener una mejor comprensión de la influencia que tienen las aberraciones en la visión binocular mediante el uso de le tecnología de óptica adaptativa. Para este fin, se diseñó y construyó un simulador visual binocular de óptica adaptativa capaz de controlar de manera precisa la función pupila compleja en ambos ojos simultáneamente. El sistema se basa en el uso de moduladores espaciales de cristal líquido, lo que permite una alta resolución en planos conjuga...

  13. Aspectos da tomografia de coerência óptica na oftalmia simpática: relato de caso Optical coherence tomography aspects of sympathetic ophthalmia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antônio Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A oftalmia simpática é uma panuveíte granulomatosa que se inicia após trauma ocular. O prognóstico é reservado e depende do diagnóstico e tratamento precoces. Os autores descrevem um caso de paciente portador de oftalmia simpática no qual foi realizada tomografia de coerência óptica e instituído tratamento precoce, e sugerem que a tomografia de coerência óptica possa corroborar como exame subsidiário no estudo das características da retina de pacientes portadores dessa doença, especialmente em casos de apresentação rara, com descolamento seroso da retina, como manifestação oftalmológica isolada.The sympathetic ophthalmia is a granulomatous panuveitis that starts after ocular trauma. The prognosis is poor and depends of both early diagnosis and treatment. The authors describe one case of a patient with sympathetic ophthalmia using optical coherence tomography who was submitted to early treatment, and it suggests that the optical coherence tomography can corroborate as a ancillary method in the study of retina characteristics in sympathetic ophthalmia disease specially in cases of rare presentation, with serous retinal detachment as an isolated ophthalmological manifestation.

  14. ANÁLISE DAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS E ORGANOLÉPTICAS DE SABONTES LIQUÍDOS INTÍMOS FEMININOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelma Sousa Felix

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo – Os sabonetes íntimos líquidos femininos são produtos destinados à higienização da região intima e segundo a ANVISA são classificados como produtos de risco potencial, pois eles podem facilmente desequilibrar a flora vaginal e ocasionar vulvovaginites. Neste estudo, foram analisadas as características físico-químicas, organolépticas e testes de centrifugação, de seis amostras de sabonetes líquidos íntimos femininos de abrangência nacional e comercialização local. De forma geral, constatou-se que apenas duas das amostras analisadas não apresentaram resultado satisfatório, as demais amostras apresentaram características físico-químicas (pH, índice de espuma e organolépticas (cor, odor e consistência, adequadas a comercialização, atendendo aos parâmetros fisiológicos e apresentando aceitação pelo mercado consumidor (BEZERRA et al., 2016.

  15. PROPIEDADES ÓPTICAS Y PERMEABILIDAD DE VAPOR DE AGUA EN PELÍCULAS PRODUCIDAS A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO FABIÁN JOAQUI D

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudiaron las propiedades ópticas y la permeabilidad de vapor de agua (PVA de películas biodegradables hechas a partir de dos variedades de almidón termoplástico de yuca nativo e hidrolizado, ácido poliláctico y policaprolactona. Las películas se obtuvieron por medio de un proceso de extrusión yse le evaluaron propiedades durante 1, 8, 60 y 120 días. La PVA durante los 120 días estuvo entre 2,18 x 10-11 y 9,12x 10-11 g/Pa*s*m. Por otra parte la mayoría de películas conservaron sus aspectos de color presentando valores de L entre 83,92 y 87,89 y los parámetro a* y b* estuvieron cercanos a 0, dando como resultado películas con una ligera tendencia al color amarillo. Con respecto al brillo los valores oscilaron entre 16,06 y 21,98 GU durante el envejecimiento. Este estudio encontró que el envejecimiento influye significativamente en las propiedades ópticas y la PVA

  16. Potencialidades da análise de fluxo de materiais no processo produtivo de fibras ópticas poliméricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Torres de Miranda Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O crescente uso de fibras ópticas em telecomunicação demanda também inúmeras pesquisas relacionadas aos processos produtivos deste meio de comunicação. Neste contexto, o presente artigo apresenta os sistemas atuais de produção de fibras ópticas poliméricas e uma análise comparativa das principais pesquisas voltadas para a melhoria da qualidade ou para a redução dos custos de produção. A metodologia Análise do Fluxo de Materiais (MFA é aplicada, resultando em modelos conceituais qualitativos que permitem uma caracterização dos processos atuais e fácil adaptação para incorporar as modificações e novas tecnologias. Adicionalmente, é feita uma comparação dos fatores ambientais das pesquisas abordadas neste artigo. Como conclusão, fica ressaltada a importância de estudos de campo para a construção de MFA com dados quantitativos, permitindo explorar todo o potencial da metodologia.

  17. Actualización clínica de las manifestaciones perictales e interictales epilépticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Anselmo Ramos Valverde

    2015-06-01

    ógicos. - Estado ictal: Puede iniciarse primariamente con una alteración de la conciencia o ir precedido por síntomas de trastornos focales casi siempre del lóbulo temporal (crisis uncinadas. Se caracterizan por movimientos de búsqueda de la cabeza, los ojos y otras partes del cuerpo, crepitación de los labios, movimientos masticatorios o deglutorios, salivación abundante, desorientado parcialmente alopsíquica, pueden vagar sin finalidad, suelen decir frases inteligibles, aparecer automatismos complejos, tienden a realizar actos sofisticados de conducta aparentemente intencionada que duran horas o días. Pueden ejecutarse discursos, conciertos de pianos y fugas epilépticas que duran horas o días, a veces se producen accidentes o crímenes. - Estado postictal: Sigue a una o varias crisis (que pueden ocurrir durante el sueño. El paciente despierta confundido, desorientado, refunfuñando cosas incoherentes revolviendo sus ropas, aparecen crisis de excitación que duran minutos, agitación extrema, ideación paranoide, alucinaciones, ilusiones, que conllevan a la agresividad, atacan a los demás, vagan errantes y se comportan de forma peligrosa para él y para los demás, presentan notable alteración de la conciencia, sin deterioro motor o lingüístico, existe amnesia total para el periodo, remite total y bruscamente. - Estados interictales: Maniacos: se presentan durante horas o semanas, son clínicamente indistinguibles de un episodio hipertímico. Disfóricos: son frecuentes, súbitos, propician la violencia, pueden precipitarse por el consumo de alcohol. Depresivos: tendencia súbita a la depresión de variada intensidad, con marcada impulsividad que posibilita intento suicida con alto riesgo de consumar el suicidio. Estados psicóticos breves (psicosis de tellenbach: son polimorfos, fugases, poseen riqueza delirante y alucinatoria visual y auditiva. Mixtos: combina hipertimia, disforia, depresión, alucinaciones y delirios. Trastorno de la personalidad: lo caracteriza

  18. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N.; Lechon, Y.; Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Rua, C. de la; Saez, R.; Varela, M.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  19. Diderma cristatosporum, a nivicolous myxomycete from Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, A.; Moreno, G.; Illana, C.

    2002-01-01

    A new species of nivicolous myxomycetes, Diderma cristatosporum is described from Spain and compared with the type of D. subdictyospermum. LM and SEM photographs of the microscopical characters are provided.

  20. Experience and visions of the Uruguayan exile in Spain Realidades y visiones del exilio uruguayo en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique CORAZA DE LOS SANTOS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on a particular type of migration motivated by political exile; specifically the exile sufferance by an important portion of the Uruguayan population in the mid­1970s to Spain. Two distinct but complementary perspectives are developed: a bibliographical study and a study of the presence of exiles in different geographical and representational spaces. This involves an in-depth study of the testimonies of exiles (both those that remained and those that returned, and an analysis of the documentation of different archives and political and trade union organizations.El presente artículo se centra en un tipo de migración, la emigración forzada por motivaciones políticas o exilio; concretamente el exilio sufrido por una importante porción de la población uruguaya a mediados de la década de 1970 en un espacio concreto: España. Esta lectura se realiza desde dos ópticas diferentes pero complementarias, una es desde la bibliografía y la otra desde la presencia de los exiliados en diferentes espacios geográficos y de representación. Para ello se utilizan informaciones provenientes de una profundización en los testimonios de los exiliados –hoy residentes o retornados– y el análisis de la documentación de diferentes archivos particulares y distintas organizaciones políticas y sindicales.

  1. Artritis séptica del pubis en dos deportistas Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis in two athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Andrews

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La artritis séptica de pubis u osteomielitis púbica es la infección que compromete la sínfisis pubiana y su articulación. Es poco frecuente, representando menos del 1% de las osteomielitis. Afecta más a menudo a atletas jóvenes y a mujeres que se someten a cirugía ginecológica o urológica. Se presenta con fiebre y dolor púbico, irradiado a genitales, que aumenta con la movilización de la cadera lo que produce claudicación de la marcha. Debe hacerse el diagnóstico diferencial con la osteítis del pubis que es una condición inflamatoria estéril. La punción guiada por imagen suele ser necesaria para el diagnóstico diferencial con la osteítis del pubis. El diagnóstico se basa en la clínica apoyada en el aislamiento microbiológico, métodos por imágenes e incremento de las proteínas de fase aguda. Los agentes etiológicos más comúnmente encontrados son Staphylococcus aureus, seguidos de bacilos gram negativos, o pueden ser polimicrobianos en posquirúrgicos. El tratamiento antibiótico se ajusta al germen aislado por cultivo, además de antiinflamatorios y reposo. El desbridamiento quirúrgico se requiere hasta en el 55% de los casos. Se recomiendan antibióticos por 6 semanas. Se presentan dos casos de osteomielitis del pubis por S. aureus, con buena respuesta al tratamiento. Ambos pacientes eran jóvenes y deportistas.Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis, so called osteomyelitis pubis is the infection which involves pubic symphysis and its joint. It is a rare condition, representing less than one percent of all cases of osteomyelitis. It affects most frequently young athletes and women undergoing gynecologic or urologic surgery. It presents itself with fever and pubic pain which irradiates to the genitals and increases when hip is mobilized, and this fact produces gait claudication. Differential diagnosis should be made with pubic osteitis, which is a sterile inflammatory condition. Diagnosis is based on clinic

  2. A POPULARIZAÇÃO NA CIÊNCIA: A ÓPTICA DE NEWTON NO SÉCULO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniek Silva Venceslau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As atuais aulas de ciências, geralmente, não apresentam discussões referentes à aspectos da natureza da ciência, por exemplo, como uma teoria se desenvolve com o tempo e a influência de fatores não-racionais na sua construção. Tais aspectos são relevantes na hora do aluno desenvolver uma visão mais adequada na sua compreensão de como uma teoria ou modelo é construído. Além disso, as abordagens mais tradicionais, também, já não garantem a aprendizagem de teorias físicas. Com a inserção de discussões, que envolvam a História e a Filosofia da Ciência (HFC, os alunos poderão vivenciar o desenvolvimentos de teorias físicas e, também, realizar estudos sobre a natureza da ciência, colocando em evidência aspectos não abordados nas práticas mais tradiconais. Este estudo é baseado em uma pesquisa bibliográfica, que contempla a história da óptica, e, em especial, a controvérsia existente em relação a natureza da luz com destaque a influência newtoniana para a aceitação da teoria corpuscular no século XVIII. Neste trabalho problematizaremos uma visão ingênua do desenvolvimento histórico da ciência, onde, geralmente, ela é vista de forma contínua e fatores não-racionais são excluídos da construção de teorias físicas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: história e filosofia da ciência, popularização na ciência, Isaac Newton. THE POPULARIZATION IN SCIENCE: THE NEWTON APPROACH IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ABSTRACT The current science classes generally do not have discussions concerning aspects of the nature of science, for example, as a theory developed over time, the influence of non-rational factors in its construction. These aspects are relevant at the time of the student developing a more appropriate method in their understanding of how a theory or model is built. In addition to more traditional approaches, too, no longer guaranteeing the physical theories of learning. With the insertion of discussions, involving

  3. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  4. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author).

  5. Model of septic arthritis by intravenous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in Wistar rats Modelo de artrite séptica por inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamarion dos Santos Batista

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental model of septic arthritis by monobacterial inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus 10.9 in Wistar rats dorsal penis vein is describred.Descrição de um modelo experimental de artrite séptica por inoculação monobacteriana de Staphylococcus aureus na veia dorsal do pênis de ratos Wistar.

  6. Spain and Cuba: A very Special Relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Roy

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of political changes than include the rise and fall of the Franco regime, the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, and the restoration of democracy in Spain, historical links have had and still have an influence on the continuation of a very specialrelationship between Spain and Cuba since the Spanish Civil War.Spain not only did not brake its diplomatic relation Cuba, but during the harshest periods of international isolation and ideological confrontation Madrid still became the primary economic partner of Havana in the capitalist world. Under the PSOE leadership, Spain's role in the pre-transition in Cuba, via aid and cooperation programs,impressive trade figures, and investment, has produced polemical debates with the opposition including threats of termination of aid in the event of a PP victory in the coming elections of March 1996.Spain's foreign policy toward Latin America has experienced an evolution from a policy of substitution and legitimation, to one of pressure. In the case of Cuba, justification for increased trade, aid, and political agreements seems to based on a more traditionalhistorical obligation, plus the added feature of doing fast business. However, the absence of clear accomplishments in the political arena have created a climate of frustration in Spanish diplomatic circles, which has resulted in leaks to the press and resignations.This added to the frequent verbal confrontations and discussions on the U.S. economic embargo, has converted the Cuban topic from a foreign issue to an "internal matter" of Spain. Finally, in spite of the active pressure that Spanish government has applied in Brussels during the second semester of 1995 as president of the European Union,the project of an agreement with Cuba received a delay when political liberalization did not meet European expectations.Only when the final stage of true political and economic transition takes place in Cuba, will the proper evaluation of Spain's role in

  7. Diseño de topologías lógicas sobre redes ópticas WDM sin convertidores de longitud de onda

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Jiménez, Óscar

    2005-01-01

    El diseño de una topología lógica consiste en definir enlaces lógicos entre los nodos de una red física y asignar las longitudes de onda disponibles, las rutas físicas y el volumen de tráfico de cada canal. DTL es un algoritmo que implementa la formulación propuesta en los trabajos de Sivarajan y Ramaswamy [1] para el Diseño de Topologías Lógicas sobre redes ópticas WDM, sin convertidores de longitud de onda. La formulación propuesta afronta el diseño como un problema de optimizac...

  8. Contributos para o estudo da folha de ouro de retábulos Barrocos por microscopia óptica e electrónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bidarra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aquí desarrollado pretende ofrecer una nueva perspectiva para el estudio de los retablos Barrocos portugueses, incidiendo en la caracterización elemental del oro utilizado para el dorado y en la identificación de elementos característicos de su composición. En este sentido fueron analizados los retablos mayores de las iglesias de San Bento da Vitória, Santa Clara y San Francisco, localizados en la ciudad de Oporto. Los análisis cualitativos y semi cuantitativos fueron efectuados por microscopía óptica (OM y microscopía electrónica de barrido con difracción de rayos X (SEM-EDS. El análisis de los resultados permitió identificar una aleación de oro/plata/cobre y la presencia de oro de gran pureza, entre 22 y 23 quilates.

  9. Metrología por fibra óptica para la detección de pequeños desplazamientos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Enrique Duarte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una metodología para la medida de deflexiones en el rango de las micras en membranas termoneumáticas de silicio. El método se basa en la interferometría por fibra óptica con el cual se estudió el comportamiento estático de una membrana de silicio de 10 mm de grosor, 5 mm de lado y 300 mm de bulk, la cual se pegó sobre un porta muestras de vidrio. Por medida estática se entiende la medida de la deflexión de las membranas considerando únicamente la respuesta de éstas a la fuente de radiación infrarroja que las estimula.

  10. Les proteïnes de fase aguda indiquen la gravetat de la sarna sarcòptica en la cabra salvatge

    OpenAIRE

    Ráez Bravo, Arián

    2016-01-01

    Les proteïnes de fase aguda (PFA) són proteïnes del sèrum la concentració de les quals pot variar a causa de malalties o estrès. Un estudi ha analitzat la concentració de PFA en cabres salvatges sanes i afectades per la sarna sarcòptica. Els resultats mostren que les cabres infestades tenen un major nivell d'algunes PFA, que és més elevat en els animals amb lesions cutànies més grans. Aquests resultats són diferents dels obtinguts en espècies semblants, fet que indica la necessitat de més est...

  11. Doença cerebrovascular na infância: I. Manifestações epilépticas Cerebrovascular disease in children: I. Epileptic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AUGUSTA MONTENEGRO

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available As crises epilépticas podem constituir complicação de doença cerebrovascular (DCV, e a sua prevalência, apresentação clínica, fatores de risco e evolução em crianças tem sido estudadas por poucos autores. Neste estudo, 39 crianças com diagnóstico de DCV foram avaliadas quanto à ocorrência de manifestações epilépticas. Vinte e quatro (61,5% apresentaram crises durante algum momento da doença (22 na fase aguda e 2 na tardia; 13 (54,2% apresentaram crises generalizadas, 7 (29,2% parciais, e 4 (16,6% secundariamente generalizadas. A prevalência de manifestação epiléptica em lactentes foi significativamente maior (p=0,0362 do que nas outras faixas etárias. A localização cortical da DCV mostrou determinar de modo estatisticamente significante (p=0,0101 a ocorrência de crises. Não houve relação significativa entre o tipo de insulto vascular (isquêmico ou hemorrágico e a ocorrência de crises. Quatorze pacientes evoluíram sem crise após a fase aguda; os 2 pacientes previamente epilépticos tiveram suas crises controladas com droga anti-epiléptica (DAE; 3 evoluíram com epilepsia (1 controlado com DAE e 2 de difícil controle; 3 continuaram em acompanhamento ambulatorial e não houve tempo hábil para definir se o quadro evoluirá para epilepsia e em 2 ocorreu óbito na fase aguda.Seizures may occur as a complication of cerebrovascular disease (CVD and its prevalence, clinical presentation, risk factors and evolution have been reported by few authors. We evaluated 39 children with CVD and analysed the association with seizures. Seizures occurred in 24 (61.5% patients and were classified as partial (29.2%, generalized (54.2% and secondarily generalized (16.6%. Infants had a significantly higher prevalence of seizures (p=0.0362 than children at other ages. Cortical localization was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of seizures (p=0.0101. There were no differences between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes

  12. Guía de preparación de soluciones antisépticas y desinfección del instrumental, en el Hospital Regional Docente Ambato

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo general de la investigación se enfocó en la elaboración de una guía de preparación de soluciones antisépticas y desinfección del instrumental, para el personal de enfermería en el Centro Quirúrgico del Hospital Regional Docente Ambato, el Capítulo I, se ejecutó bajo los fundamentos de una investigación de tipo bibliográfica, que través de la conceptualización y análisis de las principales categorías fundamentales relacionadas a los métodos de la desinfección y esterilización, las ...

  13. Sistema de detección de fugas en tiempo real en presas de materiales sueltos mediante sensores distribuidos en fibra óptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Muñoz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende analizar el uso de fibra óptica como sensor de temperatura distribuido para la detección de posibles fugas en presas de materiales sueltos. El uso de esta técnica permite complementar los sistemas de auscultación  normalmente utilizados mejorando la monitorización de las zonas críticas de la infraestructura. Este tipo de sistema de monitorización en tiempo real ha sido implementado en dos casos reales, (presa de Soto-Terroba y recrecimiento de la presa de Yesa. Finalmente este trabajo quiere proporcionar una visión práctica sobre esta nueva técnica implementada y en particular sobre los criterios de selección de materiales y las precauciones necesarias a la hora del despliegue del elemento sensor.

  14. FIBRA MICRO-ESTRUCTURADA PARA LA COMPENSACIÓN DE LA DISPERSIÓN CROMÁTICA EN SISTEMAS DE COMUNICACIONES ÓPTICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR H. ARISTIZABAL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza una fibra óptica micro-estructurada que presenta un pico de dispersión anómala aproximadamente de -5800 ps/(nm-km alrededor 1.547 um, haciéndola ideal para propósitos de compensación en la tercera ventana de los sistemas ópticos de comunicaciones. Esta fibra especial consiste en un medio homogéneo de Sílice de alta pureza con huecos de aire de diámetros diferentes, dispuestos en siete anillos hexagonales que se mantienen a lo largo de la estructura. Para el análisis se utilizó el método de los elementos finitosdebido a que exhibe una estructura compleja donde el tratamiento analítico no es posible.

  15. Epilepsia de difícil control en Pediatría: Nuevas drogas antiepilépticas Intractable epilepsy in pediatrics: New antiepileptic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Valdivia Álvarez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión actualizada de la epilepsia resistente a drogas en los niños. Se precisaron los factores clínicos y electroencefalográficos de refractariedad. Se revisaron por orden cronológico los fármacos antiepilépticos de uso habitual y se describieron las características farmacológicas, mecanismos de acción, indicaciones y reacciones adversas fundamentales de las nuevas drogas antiepilépticas, que aparecieron en el mercado a partir de 1995 y que recientemente se comienzan a utilizar en nuestro país. Son estas, entre otras, la vigabatrina, gabapentina, topiramato y lamotrigina. Se concluyó que por sus características y experiencias internacionales, éstas representan una opción terapéutica de mucha utilidad en los niños con epilepsia refractaria.

  16. Monitorização vídeo-EEG prolongada em crises não epilépticas: semiologia clínica

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi mostrar a contribuição da monitorização vídeo-EEG prolongada (MVEP) no diagnóstico de crises não epilépticas (CNE) e estimar sua prevalência em um centro terciário de atendimento à Epilepsia (EP). Foram observados 47 pacientes com diagnóstico de CNE com crises espontâneas ou provocadas. Foram instituídos protocolos direcionados à história clínica e à semiologia das crises. A análise estatística baseou-se no teste de Fisher e na análise de cluster. Os resultados evi...

  17. Demodulação de sinal de giroscópio a fibra óptica utilizando técnica de cruzamento de zero.

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Durante Pereira Alves

    1997-01-01

    Este trabalho estuda uma nova técnica para demodulação de sinal de giroscópio a fibra óptica (GFO), baseada nas características da dependência temporal do sinal de saída em relação à velocidade angular. Esta técnica permite transformar o problema de se detectar a diferença de fase de Sagnac, que é proporcional à velocidade de rotação a que é submetido o giroscópio, na medida de diferença de intervalos de tempos determinados pelos pontos de cruzamento de zero do sinal. Um método de demodulação...

  18. Uses of plasma in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L

    2007-12-01

    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present.

  19. Caracterización óptica y estructural de nanopartículas de Allium sativum L. impregnadas en lomo de bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Johana Figueroa-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se determinaron las características ópticas y estructurales de nanopartículas de polvo de ajo (Allium sativum L., obtenidas por reducción y selección de tamaño, para comparación con muestras de polvo de ajo comercial. El tamaño de partícula se determinó empleando microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM y las caracterizaciones óptica y estructural se realizaron, respectivamente, por espectroscopia infrarroja transformada de Fourier (FTIR y difracción de rayos X (DRX. Para determinar el efecto de las nanopartículas de polvo de ajo cuando fueron aplicadas sobre trozos de lomo (Longissimus dorsi de bovino se utilizó la técnica de fluorescencia. Los tamaños de las partículas del polvo sometido a reducción y selección de tamaño presentaron valores entre 50 y 100 nm y las de polvo de ajo normal entre 400 y 500 nm. En los espectros de FTIR se observaron los principales grupos funcionales y los difractogramas de rayos X permitieron concluir que se trata de materiales amorfos. Por su tamaño más reducido, las nanopartículas migran más rápido al interior del músculo del bovino que las micropartículas, lo que permite una mejor absorción y aprovechamiento de sus componentes y se constituye en un resultado innovador en el campo de la ciencia de los alimentos.

  20. EL USO DEL MODELLUS EN CLASE COMO INSTRUMENTO DE MOTIVACIÓN PARA EL ESTUDIO DE ÓPTICA GEOMÉTRICA — UM ESTUDIO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Freitas Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una encuesta llevada a cabo en el Colegio Pedro II - Centro Regional en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. El proyecto desarrollado utiliza la educación gratuita Modellus como la enseñanza de instrumentos de mediación para promover el aprendizaje significativo de los contenidos estudiados en disciplinas física y matemáticas, utilizando los conceptos de la óptica geométrica (incluyendo espejos planos y esféricos durante las clases experimentales para la construcción de nuevas referencias epistemológicas a "aprender a aprender". El Modellus es intuitiva y fácil de usar interfaz, permitiendo numerosas óptica geométrica de condiciones experimentales se pueden simular, lo que las clases más rápidos y dinámicos que si se utilizan los métodos de enseñanza tradicionales. Los enfoques metodológicos utilizados permitieron el análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo, un proceso que utiliza la escucha activa para adaptar el contenido y el ritmo de las lecciones a las necesidades de los estudiantes. Como resultado del proyecto, nos dimos cuenta de un aumento de la motivación de los docentes, que enseña en la escuela secundaria, y él encontramos el software de una manera más dinámica y eficaz para enseñar a los fenómenos físicos con múltiples experimentos generados entorno virtual. Utilizando esta tecnología, los estudiantes observaron fenómenos físicos que anteriormente sólo se ven en las ilustraciones de los libros ilustrados.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.19629

  1. Tomografia de coerência óptica em osteoma de coróide: relato de caso Optical coherence tomography in choroidal osteoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Junqueira Nóbrega

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de osteoma de coróide diagnosticado em paciente do sexo masculino aos 62 anos de idade. A lesão bem delimitada e pouco elevada no pólo posterior do olho direito acompanhada de vascularização interna e neovascularização de coróide em sua borda temporal superior e inferior levaram à suspeita do tumor. O diagnóstico de certeza foi obtido com ecografia A e B e tomografia computadorizada. A tomografia de coerência óptica mostrou alta refletividade em toda a espessura do osteoma bem como elevação do complexo EPR-cório-capilar na região da membrana neovascular subretiniana. Embora os achados tomográficos descritos na literatura e os observados neste caso sejam variados, a tomografia de coerência óptica pode colaborar no diagnóstico de osteoma de coróide.The authors present a case of choroidal osteoma diagnosed in a 62-year-old male patient. A well-defined and slightly elevated lesion located in the posterior pole of the right eye associated with internal vasculature and choroidal neovascularization at its superior and inferior temporal edge were suspicious of the tumor. Confirmation of diagnosis was obtained with A and B ecography and computed tomography. Optical coherence tomography showed high reflectivity through its thickness as well as elevation of the RPE-choriocapillaris complex at the choroidal neovascularization site. Although the literature and the present case show several different tomographical findings, optical coherence tomography can help establishing the diagnosis of choroidal osteoma.

  2. Heterogeneidade genética em atrofia óptica autossômica dominante Genetic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant optic atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Ferraz Sallum

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: A atrofia óptica autossômica dominante, tipo Kjer ou juvenil, é neuropatia óptica hereditária que causa perda de acuidade visual, anormalidades da visão de cores e defeitos do campo visual, caracterizada por palidez do disco óptico. O gene desta doença foi mapeado por análise de ligação genética em um intervalo de 1,4 cM no cromossomo 3q28-29 entre os marcadores microssatélites D3S3669 e D3S3562. Embora a maioria das famílias estudadas tenha mostrado ligação para a região cromossômica 3q28-29, uma família foi mapeada no cromossomo 18q12.2-12.3. Este trabalho analisa a ligação da atrofia óptica em três famílias com marcadores polimórficos para os cromossomos 3q28-29 e 18q12.2-12.3. Métodos: Cinqüenta e sete indivíduos de três famílias foram submetidos a exame oftalmológico e coleta de sangue. O DNA foi extraído e amplificado em reações de polimerase em cadeia (PCR com marcadores polimórficos para os cromossomos 3q28-29 e 18q12.2-12.3. Os fragmentos de PCR foram mensurados em seqüenciador automático (373 DNA sequencer. Estes números foram utilizados como alelos para análise de haplótipos. Os "lod scores" foram calculados pelo programa MLINK. Resultados: Na primeira família houve suspeita da atrofia óptica mapear para o cromossomo 3q28-29, mas sem significância estatística no valor do "lod score". Na segunda família a atrofia óptica apresentou ligação para este locus. Os eventos de recombinação nesta família localizaram o gene num intervalo de 2 cM entre os marcadores D3S3669 e D3S2305. O "lod score" máximo obtido foi de 3,56 no theta de 0,00 com o marcador D3S3669. A terceira família não apresentou ligação nos cromossomos 3q28-29 e 18q12.2-12.3. Conclusão: O fato da terceira família não mapear para nenhum dos dois loci já descritos é indicativo de que existe heterogeneidade genética na atrofia óptica autossômica dominante e levanta a possibilidade de existir um terceiro

  3. China-Spain Economic and Trade Forum Held in Madrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On June 29, Chi na-Spain Eco nomic and Trade Forum, sponsored jointly by CCPIT, Federation of Spanish Entrepreneur Orga nizations and Spanish Trade and Investment Agency, was held in Madrid, capital of Spain.

  4. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  5. University Teacher’s Evaluation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tejedor Tejedor

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to make a brief overview about the performance evaluation for university teachers in democratic Spain. It contents: a considerations about teaching evaluation, in order to delimit the authors’ position in this matter, due to the fact that this position obviously conditions any revision; b a brief summary of the history of university teachers evaluation in Spain during the last years, since the Spanish Constitution of 1978 approval; c a typology of the evaluation plans, in order to define a map of the planning lines for evaluations applied in Spain; d the technical guidelines for teachers´ evaluation and presentation of the current model, exampled by its application in the university of Salamanca; and e as a conclusion, some considerations about the consequences of evaluation and its entailment with the professionalization of university teachers.

  6. Surrounding the Void: Samuel Beckett and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Francisco Fernández Sánchez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of the relationship between Samuel Beckett and Spain poses some striking questions which are relevant in understanding the cultural inclinations of one of the most important dramatists of the 20th century. Beckett consciously abstained from having direct contact with Spanish culture and never visited Spain, despite showing an interest in the politics of the country at different periods of his life. As a result of this state of affairs a no-go area emerges which calls for a reconceptualization of Beckett’s ideas on travel, politics and even his own country. This article tries to approach the matter of Beckett and Spain from different angles, in an attempt to achieve a full panoramic view. The opinions of one of Beckett’s Spanish friends, Manolo Fandos, are recorded here for the first time.

  7. Características bio-ópticas y morfometría de una laguna de zona templada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Bohn, Vanesa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between field sensors and sate - llite images in the bio-optical characterization of Lake Chasicó (Argentina during the February-April 2010 period. The morphometric parameters of the body of water were obtained from in situ measurements and satellite data processing. The sensors that were used allowed spectral signatures to be acquired and then surface water characteristics were detected: turbidity, chlorophyll-a and depth variations. Results obtained from the morphometric analysis included that the lake surpassed the 50 km2 extension and showed a sub-rectangular elongated shape. The chlorophyll-a spatial distribution in the lake was modeled from the satellite image processing, in situ chlorophyll-a data and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI calculation. 53.2 % of its area showed a chlorophyll-a range between 5 and 10 g/l. Therefore, the body of water was characterized as a mesotrophic lake, during the studied period.El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la correlación entre sensores de campo e imágenes satelitales en la caracterización bio-óptica de la laguna Chasicó (Argentina en el período febrero-abril de 2010. Los parámetros morfométricos del cuerpo de agua se obtuvieron a partir de mediciones in situ y datos satelitales. Los sensores empleados permitieron la adquisición de firmas espectrales en las que se detectaron algunas características del agua superficial: turbidez, clorofila «a» y variaciones de profundidad. Como resultado del análisis morfométrico, se obtuvo que la laguna superó los 50 km2 de extensión y presentó una forma subrectangular elongada. A partir del procesamiento de imágenes satelitales, datos de clorofila «a» y el cálculo del Índice de Vegetación de Diferencia Normalizada (en inglés, NDVI, se modeló la distribución espacial del pigmento en la laguna. El 53,2% de su área presentó entre 5 y 10 μg/l de clorofila «a», por

  8. [Incidence study of listeriosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Fernando Parrilla; Rafart, Josep Vaqué

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive retrospective study of cases of listeriosis occurring in Spain from 2001 to 2007 to determine the burden and trend of this disease in our setting. Several sources of information were used. Epidemiological information was collected from 1.242 cases of listeriosis, representing a mean incidence rate of 0,56 cases per 100.000 inhabitants per year, which was extrapolated as an overall estimate for Spain. The annual incidence showed a statistically significant increasing trend (p listeriosis in the Mandatory Notification System would allow determination of the distribution and characteristics of this infection in humans, as well as promotion of effective prevention and control.

  9. 75 FR 23303 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be...

  10. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening... allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary... vegetables regulations to allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the...

  11. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling... from China and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  12. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... allow the importation into the United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will... of fresh apricots from continental Spain into the United States subject to a systems approach...

  13. Analyze Culture Difference between China and Spain from Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单梦宸

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the world, the communication between china and spain become more and more frequently. and the building style between china and spain is very diferent. in this essay, we mainly learn the diferent culture of china and spain from its builing style.

  14. Trauma care systems in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V

    2003-09-01

    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training

  15. Feasibility of a Vietnamese café in Spain : Case: Café Hanoi, Barcelona, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tra My

    2016-01-01

    This study covers the feasibility of a business idea – a Vietnamese café in the city of Barcelona, Spain. The study is the preliminary of a business plan. Therefore, it aims to discover the environment surrounding the café in Barcelona, Spain. The study employs descriptive approach, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The data collection includes both primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected through focus group, interviews and questionnaire. The secondary dat...

  16. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  17. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano;

    2012-01-01

    a high occurrence. The research was conducted between May and September, which happens to be the most lightning-fire prone period in Spain, for a three year interval starting in 2002 up to 2004. A time-invariant model for lightning-caused fire occurrence was developed for each region at a spatial...

  18. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  19. Small hydro policy and potential in Spain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Spain has 662 small hydro installations, as registered in the “Speciaf Regimen” of 31 December 1999, with 1,271,573 kW of instaffed power producing the equivalent of the electricity consumed by 1.1 million families, avoiding emissions of 2.6 million tonnes of CO2 per year and substituting 250,000 toe.

  20. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  1. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through

  2. Chinese migration in Spain. General characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Sáiz López

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Chinese presence in Spain is analyzed from a chronological perspective along with the ongoing changes in geographic location and economic activity. The growth in numbers of this community has obliged its members to look for new locations, distancing themselves from their ethnic strongholds, with the aim of bringingtheir migratory plans to fruition.

  3. Health, Financial Incentives and Retirement in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Erdogan-Ciftci (Esen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Lopez-Nicolas (Angel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe estimate the impact of health and financial incentives on the retirement transitions of older workers in Spain. Individual measures of pension wealth, peak and accrual values are constructed using labor market histories and health shocks are derived as changes in a composite health st

  4. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  5. Melioidosis in traveler from Africa to Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosini, María I; Quereda, Carmen; Gil, Horacio; Anda, Pedro; Núñez-Murga, María; Cantón, Rafael; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-10-01

    The worldwide epidemiology of melioidosis is changing. We describe a case of acute melioidosis in Spain in a patient who had traveled to Africa. A novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei was identified in this patient. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of melioidosis in travelers returning from melioidosis-nonendemic regions.

  6. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  7. The 1918 "Spanish flu" in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilla, Antoni; Trilla, Guillem; Daer, Carolyn

    2008-09-01

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic was the most devastating epidemic in modern history. Here, we review epidemiological and historical data about the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic in Spain. On 22 May 1918, the epidemic was a headline in Madrid's ABC newspaper. The infectious disease most likely reached Spain from France, perhaps as the result of the heavy railroad traffic of Spanish and Portuguese migrant workers to and from France. The total numbers of persons who died of influenza in Spain were officially estimated to be 147,114 in 1918, 21,235 in 1919, and 17,825 in 1920. However, it is likely that >260,000 Spaniards died of influenza; 75% of these persons died during the second period of the epidemic, and 45% died during October 1918 alone. The Spanish population growth index was negative for 1918 (net loss, 83,121 persons). Although a great deal of evidence indicates that the 1918 A(H1N1) influenza virus unlikely originated in and spread from Spain, the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic will always be known as the Spanish flu.

  8. The 1918 "Spanish Flu" in Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antoni Trilla; Guillem Trilla; Carolyn Daer

    2008-01-01

    ... of the heavy railroad traffic of Spanish and Portuguese migrant workers to and from France. The total numbers of persons who died of influenza in Spain were officially estimated to be 147,114 in 1918, 21,235 in 1919, and 17,825 in 1920...

  9. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  10. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  11. Desarrollo de un Sistema de Comunicaciones Ópticas Clásicas en Espacio Libre con Aplicación en Comunicaciones Cuánticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Arvizu Mondragón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente los enlaces ópticos en espacio libre tienen diversas aplicaciones (algunas comerciales y otras en desarrollo tales como: a enlaces horizontales de comunicaciones dentro de la misma capa de la atmósfera terrestre (denominados enlaces FSO por sus siglas en inglés “free space optics” permanentes o temporales (para situaciones de emergencia de corta distancia para comunicación entre edificios (Fsona, 2014 , y comunicación de alta velocidad en redes personales de área local óptica inalámbrica (Wang, K., et al, 2011, b enlaces verticales (denominados generalmente sistemas LASERCOM para comunicación entre aviones y satélites, entre satélites en diferentes órbitas (Chan, V., 2003, de satélites a estaciones terrenas y viceversa (operando en diversas capas de la atmósfera terrestre o en el espacio profundo (Hemmati, H., 2006, c conexión óptica inalámbrica de alta velocidad entre tarjetas de circuito impreso (por ejemplo para distribución de señales de reloj dentro de un satélite y/o para interconectar ductos y microprocesadores sin interferencia electromagnética (Savage, N., 2002. El desarrollo de enlaces ópticos para comunicación de tierra hacia y desde el espacio ha sido y es de gran interés para diversas agencias espaciales alrededor del mundo (JAXA, 2009, en particular, el sistema satelital europeo SILEX es un ejemplo de su aplicación (ESA, 2014; además, la NASA puso en funcionamiento en septiembre de 2013 la misión “Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration”, cuyo objetivo principal es demostrar la confiabilidad de la comunicación óptica entre una estación situada en órbita lunar y estaciones terrenas en nuestro planeta (NASA,2014. Generalmente los enlaces arriba mencionados son “clásicos” (operando con un relativamente alto número de fotones por período de observación, pero, recientemente ha crecido el interés en desarrollar sistemas de comunicaciones “cuánticos” (con bajo número de

  12. Diseño y simulación de sistemas ópticos para despliegue transparente de servicios móviles en redes ópticas metropolitanas y de acceso hasta el hogar

    OpenAIRE

    Barranquero Pérez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo estudiamos una serie de tecnologías que permiten aprovechar al máximo la capacidad de transmisión de la fibra óptica, así como permitir la introducción de nuevos usuarios a estas redes. Estos usuarios son las antenas de telefonía móvil. Gracias a la alta velocidad y las bajas pérdidas de la fibra óptica, pueden plantear separar geográficamente su parte de procesado de la señal de la parte de radio. Este tipo de comunicación está definido en la tecnología lightRadio y el est...

  13. Propuesta didáctica para la enseñanza de la óptica geométrica usando conceptos de geometría elemental en estudiantes de grado noveno

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una propuesta didáctica para la enseñanza de la óptica geométrica a partir de la interpretación, representación y descripción de las imágenes obtenidas por reflexión y refracción de la luz, según el modelo de la óptica geométrica, profundizando en el análisis de los conceptos y aplicaciones de la geometría elemental. La propuesta se realizó con 30 estudiantes de grado noveno de básica secundaria del Gimnasio Mixto Manuel del Socorro Rodríguez (GMMSR), ubicado en la l...

  14. Estudo da síndrome de tração macular vítreo-retiniana idiopática por meio da tomografia de coerência óptica: relato de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Primiano Júnior,Hélio Paulo; Nakashima,Aloísio Fumio; Maia Júnior,Otacílio de Oliveira; Bonanomi,Maria Teresa Brizzi; NAKASHIMA, Yoshitaka

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Avaliar alterações estruturais observadas na síndrome de tração macular vítreo-retiniana idiopática (STMI) pela tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT), antes e depois da vitrectomia; identificar situações em que a tomografia de coerência óptica fornece informações adicionais da morfologia e patogênese desta doença. MÉTODOS: Imagens tomográficas (OCT Stratus) comparativas da estrutura vítreo-retiniana foram realizadas em quatro pacientes, em estágios variados da síndrome de tração mac...

  15. LA DENSIDAD ÓPTICA APLICADA AL ESTUDIO LECTINHISTOQUÍMICO DE RADICALES GLUCÍDICOS NÉFRICOS EN RATAS DIABÉTICAS TIPO 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V Frontini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza, mediante densidad óptica (DO, residuos glucídicos en glomérulos y túbulos contorneados proximales, superficiales y yuxtamedulares, de dos líneas de ratas diabéticas: eSS y eSMT al año de edad. 10 ratas macho eSS, 12, eSMT y 10, Wistar (controles fueron estudiadas con distintas lectinas (PNA, RCA, Con-A, DBA, SBA, WGA y UEA-I. La densidad óptica (DO fue determinada mediante el Programa Image-pro Plus versión 1.1, estableciéndose rangos para la evaluación de la reacción cromogénica (> 200 = 0 (negativa; entre 150 y 200 = 1-2 (débil o moderada positividad, y < 150 = 3 (fuerte positividad. Los principales resultados diferenciales fueron registrados: (a en los glomérulos superficiales: WGA: eSMT (DO=3 versus eSS y Wistar (DO = 1-2, y UEA-I y Con-A: Wistar (DO= 3 versus líneas diabéticas (DO =1-2; (b en los glomérulos yuxtamedulares: WGA: Wistar y eSMT (DO = 3 versus eSS (DO= 1-2, UEA-I: líneas diabéticas (DO= 3 versus Wistar (DO=1-2, y Con-A: Wistar (DO =3 versus líneas diabéticas (DO = 1-2, y (c en las células de los túbulos proximales yuxtamedulares: WGA y Con-A: líneas diabéticas (DO=1-2 versus Wistar (DO= 3, y UEA-I: eSS (DO=3 versus eSMT y Wistar (DO=1-2. Las diferencias entre ratas diabéticas y controles podrían atribuirse a su dismetabolismo, y las de las líneas diabéticas entre sí, a sus distintos orígenes. Asimismo, podrían señalar alteraciones en la filtración y en procesos tubulares intracelulares, coincidiendo con trabajos previos acerca de una nefropatía en evolución a esta edad en eSS y eSMT.

  16. Crise epiléptica única: análise dos fatores de risco para recorrência First seizure: analysis of risk factors for recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA ELISA SCOTONI

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos crianças acompanhadas em nosso Ambulatório de Epilepsia Infantil que apresentaram primeira crise epiléptica não provocada no período de setembro/1989 a julho/1996. O tempo médio decorrido entre a crise e a inclusão no estudo foi 16 dias. As variáveis: idade, sexo, tipo e etiologia da crise epiléptica, estado de sono, antecedente de convulsão febril (CF, antecedente de crise não provocada nos familiares próximos (AF, eletrencefalograma (EEG e tomografia computadorizada (TC foram avaliadas como fatores de risco para recorrência. Encontramos dois grupos de pacientes, quanto a etiologia das crises: -(a crises idiopáticas (G-CI e (b crises sintomáticas remotas (G-CSR. Este último grupo tinha apenas dois pacientes e foram excluídos. Prosseguimos a análise com os pacientes do G-CI (n=86. Foi observada recorrência em 29 crianças (33%, durante seguimento médio de 2,4 anos. Através de método estatístico, que utilizou o modelo de riscos proporcionados para análise uni e multivariada, observamos que os pacientes com EEG alterado e aqueles com AF positivo tiveram maior risco de recidiva (p We studied chidren who presented with a first seizure and came to the outpatient clinic for childhood from September/1989 to July/1996. The following risk factors were assessed: age, sex, type and etiology of the seizure, sleep state at time of seizure, family history of seizures, electroencephalogram (EEG and computerized tomography (CT. Our purpose was to assess the risk factors in univariable and multivariable analisys. We found two groups of patients according to the etiology: (a idiopathic cases (IC and (b syntomatic cases (SC. This last group had only two patients and was excluded from the analisys. We studied only the IC group with 86 patients. Seizure recurrence was observed 29 children (33%, during 2.4 years. Only patients with abnormal EEG and family history for unprovoked seizures had a higher risk of recurrence (p <0

  17. Haptic memory and forgetting: a systematic review Memória háptica e esquecimento: uma revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Nunes Gadelha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Memory is a multiple system composed of encoding, storage and retrieval of information subsystems. The memory tactile, haptic memory submodality is connected to haptic perception; it concerns the active manipulation of objects. This study is a systematic review related to forgetting occurred in haptic memory. Articles was sought in electronic databases PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, using the keywords "haptic memory", "touch memory", "tactile memory", "tactual memory" separately, and then combined with the word "forgetting". These words were identified in 1655 publications. But lastly, six articles published between 2002 and 2012 were selected by a set of inclusion criteria. Largely referred to studies that used behavioral methods recognition procedures, and using real objects. However, the types of memory test used and the number of objects and the time interval between sessions of study and test had great variation.A memória é um sistema múltiplo constituído por subsistemas de codificação, armazenamento e recuperação de informações. A memória tátil relaciona submodalidades da memória e percepção háptica e se trata da manipulação ativa dos objetos. Este estudo trata-se de uma revisão sistemática sobre o esquecimento ocorrido na memória háptica. Buscou-se nas bases de dados eletrônicas PsycINFO, PubMed, e Web of Science, utilizando as palavras-chave "haptic memory", "touch memory", "tactile memory", "tactual memory" de forma separada, e posteriormente combinadas com a palavra "forgetting". Essas palavras foram identificadas em 1.655 publicações, das quais foram selecionados por um conjunto de critérios de inclusão, seis artigos publicados entre 2002 e 2012. Grande parte dos estudos remeteu-se a métodos comportamentais sobre o reconhecimento de objetos reais. Contudo, os tipos de teste de memória utilizados, bem como o número de objetos e o intervalo de tempo entre as sessões de teste tiveram grande variação.

  18. Análise epidemiológica e emprego do teste rápido da urease em pacientes com úlcera péptica perfurada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Júnior Casali

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil epidemiológico de pacientes com úlcera péptica gastroduodenal perfurada e verificar se a presença do H. pylori nas secreções peritoneais e intraluminais desses pacientes pode ser avaliada pelo teste rápido da urease. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo prospectivo, transversal, descritivo, com dados de pacientes atendidos em um hospital de abrangência regional, em portadores de úlcera péptica perfurada. Coletou-se, no transoperatório, amostras de líquido peritoneal (na proximidade da perfuração e da secreção intraluminal, sendo encaminhadas para cultura e teste rápido de urease. RESULTADOS: Quatorze pacientes foram analisados. A média etária foi 41,06 anos, todos homens, brancos (71,4%, tabagistas (57,2%, IMC < 30 (85,7%, com história prévia de dispepsia (78,6%. Sorologia para H. pylori foi positiva em 84,6% dos casos. O teste rápido da urease foi positivo em 78,6% das amostras do tubo digestivo e em 42,8% das amostras da cavidade peritoneal; 41,6% foram positivos em ambos os locais, 50% somente na cavidade digestiva e 8,4% exclusivamente na cavidade peritoneal. Dos 11 pacientes com sorologia positiva para H. pylori 100% apresentaram positividade em pelo menos um dos sítios pesquisados. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que a incidência foi menor que a esperada. Há associação significativa entre a infecção pelo H. pylori e a ocorrência de perfuração. A presença deste patógeno pode ser avaliada tanto pela sorologia quanto pela realização do teste rápido da urease do fluido coletado na cavidade peritoneal e na luz gástrica/duodenal.

  19. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with metabolic syndrome Neuropatia óptica isquêmica anterior associada a síndrome metabólica

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    Natalija Kosanovic-Jakovic

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome denotes a common cluster of naturally connected risk factors including obesity, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, proinflammatory state and prothrombotic state. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is an acute ischaemic disorder of the optic nerve head and may lead to severe visual loss. METHODS: We considered three patients with moderate degree of diabetic retinopathy and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. They were submitted to endocrinological examination and the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was established. RESULTS: Cardiological examination revealed that blood pressure control was not optimal. The signs of left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction were confirmed by echocardiography. They are possible markers of preclinical cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSION: We observed that a variety of well-known risk factors in metabolic syndrome may be involved in serious eye and cardiological complications. The early diagnosis and treatment of these patients can not only improve visual function but also prevent cardiovascular complications.OBJETIVO: A síndrome metabólica indica um grupo comum dos seguintes achados clinicos: obesidade, hipertensão arterial, variações nos níveis de glicemia, dislipidemia, estado proinflamatório e o estado protrombótico. Neuropatia óptica isquêmica anterior é um distúrbio agudo isquêmico da cabeça do nervo óptico que pode levar à perda de visão. MÉTODOS: Consideramos três pacientes com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa moderada e neuropatia óptica isquêmica anterior. Os pacientes foram examinados por endocrinologistas e o diagnóstico de síndrome metabólica foi confirmado. RESULTADOS: O exame cardiológico revelou que o controle da pressão sangüínea não era adequado e tal anormalidade foi corrigida. A ecocardiografia confirmou os indícios de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda e disfunção diastólica. Estes são os

  20. Recurrent neuromyelitis optica with diffuse central nervous system involvement: case report Neuromielite óptica recorrente com envolvimento difuso do sistema nervoso central: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan B. Domingues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Several demyelinating disorders can affect children. The differential diagnosis between these diseases is usually an arduous task. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed for some of these disorders, however most of them have not yet been clinically and prospectively validated. Here we present a case of a ten year-old boy with recurrent bilateral optic neuritis and spinal cord involvement. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid data have fulfilled diagnostic criteria for Devic's neuromyelitis optica (NMO. The differential diagnosis with multiple sclerosis (MS has become troublesome since not only optic nerves and spinal cord were involved. In one of the relapses a left hemiparesis with facial involvement was registered. Magnetic resonance imaging was also compatible with MS. This case illustrates that CNS demyelinating disorders can fulfill diagnostic criteria for more than one demyelinating disease, making the clinical judgment an important tool in the management of these patients.Diversas doenças desmielinizantes podem ocorrer em crianças, sendo muitas vezes o diagnóstico diferencial entre elas difícil. Critérios diagnósticos têm sido propostos para algumas destas entidades, entretanto nenhum deles pode ser considerado definitivo. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o caso de um paciente de 10 anos de idade, com quadro recorrente de neurite óptica bilateral e mielopatia. Os dados clínicos e liquóricos preencheram critérios para o diagnóstico de neuromielite óptica de Devic. O diagnóstico diferencial foi especialmente difícil em relação à esclerose múltipla, pois não apenas os nervos ópticos e medula foram acometidos, visto que em um dos surtos registrou-se hemiparesia, com acometimento facial. A ressonância magnética foi também compatível com esclerose múltipla. Este caso ilustra que pacientes com doenças desmielinizantes do SNC podem preencher critérios diagnósticos para mais de uma delas, o que torna o julgamento cl

  1. 146. Papel del oxigenador de membrana extracorpórea en la miocardiopatía séptica: ¿Está indicado en esta patología?

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    J.A. Sarralde

    2012-04-01

    Conclusión: La experiencia en la utilización de ECMO en la sepsis es limitada, y se ha considerado una contraindicación. En el contexto de miocardiopatía séptica, nuestros resultados apoyan el uso de la asistencia hasta la normalización de la función sistólica y recuperación del daño orgánico.

  2. Graphene samples preparation and some possible uses in developing optical communication devices/Preparación de muestras de grafeno y algunos posibles usos en el desarrollo de dispositivos en comunicaciones ópticas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan Diego Zapata-Caro; Ana María Cárdenas-Soto; Rodrigo Henao-Henao; Eunezio Antonio Thoroh de Souza

    2015-01-01

    ... spectroscopy, flakes and exfoliation method Resumen El grafeno es un material bidimensional que ha atraído la atención de toda la comunidad científica alrededor del mundo; este interés es motivado por sus propiedades ópticas y electrónicas. Existen diferentes métodos para obtener grafeno, sin embargo el proceso más simple para su obtención es exfoliación m...

  3. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades-Lopez, A. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia (Spain); Martinez-Arias, R.; Diaz-Hidalgo, M. [Faculty of Psychology, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  4. [Foreign immigration in Spain (1985-1994)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalvez Perez, V

    1996-01-01

    "During the decade 1985-94, Spain [has had]...some growing and unexpected flows of foreign immigrations. The tradition of emigration of Spanish people, some grave difficulties of [the] employment market in the country, irregular entrance of workers from developing countries, the fear of a very rapid growth of these immigrants, the instability and marginality of their work, and the agreement of Spain in the European Union have led the government to develop an active migratory policy, first against the illegal flows and, more recently, in direction of the integration of immigrants in Spanish society.... The article analyzes main features from some different groups of foreign workers, and in particular Africans: spatial repartition, demographic profile, migratory strategies and trajectories, uneasy insertion in the national employment market, and draws lastly the main features of the Spanish migratory policy." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  5. Studies of archaeoastronomy in Spain: a review

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    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of Arqueoastronomy have a long tradition in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in Spain. This research is mainly done by astronomers. The recognition of this studies is still lacking in archaeology. This paper reviews current research projects in Spain and the main problems raised by Archaeoastronomy.

    Los estudios de Arqueoastronomía tienen una larga trayectoria en algunos países europeos y, en menor medida, en España. Mayoritariamente se llevan a cabo desde el campo de los astrónomos y todavía no han alcanzado un definitivo reconocimiento en el ámbito arqueológico. En este trabajo se revisan las líneas de trabajo existentes en España, con la inevitable referencia al marco europeo, y se analizan los principales problemas que tiene planteados esta disciplina académica.

  6. [Arrival of the psychoanalysis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Granjel, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The first real news about the Psychoanalysis in Spain was spread by Ortega y Gasset in 1911 and the neuropsychiatrists Valle Aldabalde and especially Fernández Sanz also spread that information in the medical world in 1914. It was introduced in the University field by Novoa Santos. The castilian edition of the works written by Freud aroused great interest, more cultural than professional, among the psychiatrists in Madrid, who were at that time very much influenced by Cajal and the German Psychiatry; Fernández Sanz made an understanding review about those works while Fernández Villaverde was not interested in them and made an ideological negation. In Barcelona, the Psychoanalysis, was supported by Emilio Mira. The first Freudian Psychoanalyst, called Angel Garma, left Spain because of the war and he was the beginner of a strong psychoanalytic School in Buenos Aires. The influence of the Psychoanalysis was obvious in different cultural fields.

  7. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  8. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area.

  9. Optical Properties of Ldpe Films with different Additives Mixtures Propiedades ópticas de peliculas Ldep con diferentes mezclas de aditivos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Delgado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper were processed dierent linear low density polyethylene (LDPEformulations, mixed it with ve kind of dierent additives whose objectivewas analyzing the additives eects in the optical properties of LDPE lms ongreenhouse cover structure in protected cultivation for tropical environments.The results of ultra violet and visible region showed that the light transmissionfrom the reference lm was higher than additives lms mixtures in thevisible region, eect of some elements and synergistic action from additivescontributing to decrease the light transmission in the ultra violet and visibleregion.En el presente artículo se procesaron diferentes formulaciones de polietileno lineal de baja densidad (PEBD mezclado con 5 tipos de aditivos diferentes, cuyo objetivo es analizar el efecto de los aditivos en las propiedades ópticas de películas de PEBD de protección de cultivo dirigida fundamentalmente para construcciones de invernaderos adecuados para el desempeño en medios tropicales. Los resultados de la transmisión de la región ultra violeta y visible muestran que la transmisión de luz de las películas de referencia es mayor en la zona visible que en las películas fabricadas con mezclas de aditivos, debido al efecto difusivo de algunos elementos y a la acción sinérgica de los aditivos disminuyendo la transmisión de luz en la zona ultra violeta y visible.

  10. MODELAMIENTO TÉRMICO Y VIBRATORIO DE UNA CÁPSULA PARA SENSORES DE FIBRA ÓPTICA ADAPTABLES A MEDICIONES EN SISTEMAS ELECTRICOS DE POTENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO AGUIAR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un modelamiento térmico y vibratorio que permite diseñar cápsulas con alta conductividad térmica y aislamiento mecánico para sensores de temperatura basados en redes de Bragg en fibra óptica, con miras a su aplicación en sistemas eléctricos de potencia (SEP. Una de las variables de mayor relevancia en la operación de los componentes de un SEP es la temperatura, ya que su monitoreo en tiempo real permite predecir el estado del sistema y generar acciones de mantenimiento predictivo que garanticen la calidad y continuidad en el servicio. El modelado de la capsula dieléctrica se dividió en dos partes fundamentales: i un análisis mecánico mediante el método de elementos finitos para establecer la respuesta de la capsula ante vibraciones del orden de las reportadas en la literatura para generadores y transformadores de potencia; ii un análsis térmico, a través de un modelo analítico que permite establecer la velocidad de respuesta del sensor ante variaciones de temperatura. Los resultados encontrados muestran un gran potencial en el material que se propone para la fabricación de la capsula, el cual no se ha reportado en este tipo de aplicaciones.

  11. An approach to the differential diagnosis of the epileptic crisis. Una aproximación al diagnóstico diferencial de las crisis epilépticas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erélido Hernández Valero

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many kinds of epileptic crisis, for they are the most frequent cerebral crisis, but there are other events known as not epileptic paroxysmal events that may lead to confusion and that, sometimes, are very hard to distinguish from the first ones; to do it one should first detail at the clinic, and the best diagnostic means is the video-electroencephalogram. The frequency rate of these events and also of epilepsy, the approach by several medical specialties, and the complexity of the diagnostic means and the anti-epileptic treatment give this topic a great practical significance suggesting its opportune consultation. Existen múltiples tipos de crisis epilépticas, ya que son las crisis cerebrales más frecuentes, pero hay otros eventos conocidos como eventos paroxísticos no epilépticos que pueden dar lugar a confusiones y que, en ocasiones, son muy difíciles de diferenciar de las primeras; para hacerlo hay que detallar bien en la clínica y el medio diagnóstico más útil es el video-electroencefalograma. La frecuencia de estos eventos y también de la epilepsia, el abordaje por varias especialidades médicas, y la complejidad de los medios diagnósticos y el tratamiento antiepiléptico hacen que este tema tenga gran importancia práctica y que se recomiende su conocimiento oportuno.

  12. DETERMINACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES ESTRUCTURALES, ELECTRÓNICAS Y ÓPTICAS DEL ÓXIDO DE ESTRONCIO MEDIANTE LA TEORÍA DE DENSIDAD FUNCIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de primeros principios de las propiedades estructurales, electrónicas y ópticas del SrO en la fase cristalina Fm-3m por medio de la teoría de densidad funcional ( DFT, utilizando el método de ondas planas aumentadas y linealizadas de potencial completo (FP-LAPW junto con la aproximación de gradiente generalizado (GGA para la energía de intercambio y correlación. Los parámetros estructurales optimizados se encuentran en gran acuerdo con los datos experimentales, constante de red a=9,826 Bohr, energía de cohesión E0 =-0,764 Ry, modulo de volumen B = 83 GPa y su derivada con la presión B’ = 4,71. Los cálculos de estructura electrónica revelan una brecha indirecta de 3,392 eV entre las direcciones y X en la zona de Brillouin, finalmente se obtuvo la absorción, constante dieléctrica e índice de refracción en función de la energía, por medio de la aproximación de fase aleatoria.

  13. Sistema de adquisición y transmisión de datos, por fibra óptica, para un generador de neutrones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vergara Limon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Se presenta el desarrollo construcción   y aplicación de un sistema virtual de adquisición de datos basado en el uso de microcontroladores, fibra óptica y PC; que restablece la comunicación entre los módulos básicos que componen un Generador de Neutrones. Se muestra como queda modernizada la interfaz original del generador, al automatizarse la adquisición de datos sobre sus parámetros de explotación.  Se introduce el uso de la PC en el Generador de Neutrones y se establece el antecedente para extender la automatización a otros subsistemas de la instalación.  

  14. Diagnóstico e tratamento de epilepsia e crises pseudoepilépticas psicogênicas associadas: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetti Renato Luiz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 26 anos em que é evidenciada a importância médica do diagnóstico diferencial entre epilepsia e crises pseudo-epilépticas psicogênicas (CPEP e do seu tratamento. A paciente, uma professora desempregada, com crises desde os 13 anos, foi encaminhada ao PROJEPSI para diagnóstico e tratamento de CPEP. Seu diagnóstico inicial foi de epilepsia parcial sintomática por lesão tumoral cística em região occipto-temporal esquerda, associada a CPEP. Submetida a craniotomia occipital com ressecção de processo expansivo em região de istmo do cíngulo, evoluiu com persistência das CPEP. Submetida a tratamento psicológico integrado envolvendo técnicas de condicionamento operante, manejo de ansiedade, sugestão e orientação familiar, houve remissão completa das CPEP após 4 meses de tratamento. O caso apresentado demonstra a necessidade de múltiplos procedimentos diagnósticos e terapêuticos e a participação de equipe multidisciplinar especializada.

  15. Procesamiento de imágenes ópticas de frutos café en cereza por medio de filtros acusto-ópticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Mosquera M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados experimentales del análisis espectral de imágenes ópticas de muestras de frutos de café en cereza. El procesamiento espectral se realizó en el espectro visible de radiación electromagnética a través de un filtro acusto-óptico (FAO fabricado con un cristal de dióxido de Telurio (TeO2. La velocidad con la cual se obtienen las imágenes procesadas es superior a la de los métodos basados únicamente en técnicas DIP (Digital Imaging Processing, considerándose como un análisis en verdadero tiempo real. En particular, se muestra que este tipo de dispositivos representa una excelente alternativa en el procesamiento de imágenes para aplicaciones industriales de selección de granos de café según su estado de maduración y en conjunto con un menor procesamiento DIP

  16. Atualização no diagnóstico e tratamento das crises epilépticas febris Update on diagnosis and treatment of febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Mendonça de Siqueira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As crises epilépticas febris são uma entidade benigna da infância e a maioria das crianças que a apresenta terá apenas um episódio na vida. Apesar disso, as crises geram grande apreensão nos familiares e há grande discussão na literatura sobre quando estes pacientes devem ser tratados e qual a melhor opção terapêutica. Esta revisão traz uma síntese dos dados e recomendações atuais para diagnóstico e tratamento dos pacientes que apresentem crises febris.Febrile seizures are a benign condition of childhood and most children will have only one episode in their lifetime. Nevertheless, a crisis generates major concern in the family and there is much discussion in literature about when to treat as well as which is the best therapeutic approach. This review summarizes data and current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of patients with febrile seizures.

  17. Neuromyelitis optica: brain abnormalities in a Brazilian cohort Neuromielite óptica: alterações encefálicas em pacientes brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Bernardi Bichuetti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is a demyelinating disease consisting of relapsing-remitting optic neuritis and myelitis with a more severe course than Multiple Sclerosis. Recently, it has been shown that almost 50% of patients with NMO can have brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI abnormalities. We report on six Brazilian patients with NMO, fulfilling the 1999 Wingerchuck criteria for this disease, with abnormal brain MRI and discuss their clinical and radiological features.Neuromielite óptica (NMO é doença desmielinizante, remitente-recorrente, com acometimento predominante dos nervos ópticos e medula espinal e uma evolução mais grave comparada à esclerose múltipla. Estudos recentes demonstraram que até 50% dos pacientes com NMO podem apresentar lesões encefálicas à ressonância magnética (RM. Relatamos seis pacientes brasileiros com NMO, que satisfazem os critérios diagnósticos de Wingerchuck (1999 para NMO, com alterações encefálicas em RM de encéfalo e discutimos seus dados clínicos e de imagem.

  18. Validación de la escala de pensamiento mágico: profecías apocalípticas y afectividad negativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moral de la Rubia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo validar la Escala de Pensamiento Mágico creada en México (epm-24 considerando como criterios convergentes la creencia en las profecías apocalípticas de 2012, ansiedad-rasgo (stai-t, estrés (pss-14 y depresión (bdi-ii. Se usó una muestra por cuotas de sexo de 424 participantes. La estructura de dos factores correlacionados tiene un ajuste adecuado, aunque se requiere eliminar el ítem 3, que mejora la consistencia interna (¿ = 0.85. La distribución de epm-23 fue asimétrica positiva. El promedio fue significativamente menor en no creyentes en las profecías y personas sin religión. Se obtuvo correlación inversa con la edad y escolaridad y directa con ansiedad-rasgo, estrés y depresión. Se concluye que la escala epm-23 es consistente y muestra evidencias de validez.

  19. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  20. Andalusia, Spain: An Assessment of Coastal Scenery

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, AT; Micallef, A.; Anfuso, G; Gallego-Fernández, Juan B.

    2012-01-01

    The 1101 km length of the Andalusian coast (Spain) was assessed for coastal scenery at 45 specific locations. Selected areas covered resort (3), urban (19), village (8), rural (10) and remote (5) bathing areas. Scenery was analyzed for physical and human parameters via 26 selected parameters. These parameters were obtained by interviews of 4500 people on European beaches. Each parameter was assessed via a one-to-five-point attribute scale, which essentially ranged from presence...

  1. ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY IN PROTECTED BUILDINGS IN SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The world population growth and the consequent increase in energy demand in recent years are making sustainability to become a key element in order to ensure the future of the society. In Spain, buildings account for 24% of total energy consumption, and within the buildings stock there is a group called "protected buildings" with low efficiency and therefore a large room for improvement, although constrained by different limitations and special requirements due to their condition. Through a s...

  2. HTLV-1 infection and disease in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendoza, Carmen; Caballero, Estrella; Aguilera, Antonio; Requena, Silvia; de Lejarazu, Raúl Ortiz; Pirón, María; González, Rocío; Jiménez, Ana; Roc, Lourdes; Treviño, Ana; Benito, Rafael; Fernández-Alonso, Miriam; Aguinaga, Aitziber; Rodríguez, Carmen; García-Costa, Juan; Blanco, Lidia; Ramos, José M; Calderón, Enrique; Eirós, José M; Sauleda, Silvia; Barreiro, Pablo; Soriano, Vicente

    2017-05-01

    : Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a neglected disease despite roughly 15 million people are chronically infected worldwide. Lifelong less than 10% of carriers develop life-threatening diseases, mostly a subacute myelopathy known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) and a lymphoproliferative disorder named adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). HTLV-1 is efficiently transmitted perinatally (breastfeeding), sexually (more from male to female) and parenterally (transfusions, injection drug use and transplants). To date there is neither prophylactic vaccine nor effective antiviral therapy.A total of 327 cases of HTLV-1 infection had been reported at the HTLV-1 Spanish registry until December 2016, of whom 34 had been diagnosed with TSP and 25 with ATL. Overall 62% were Latin American immigrants and 13% were persons of African origin. The incidence of HTLV-1 in Spain has remained stable for nearly a decade with 20-25 new cases yearly. Of the 21 newly diagnosed HTLV-1 cases during year 2016, one was a native Spaniard pregnant woman, and four presented with symptomatic disease, including three with ATL and one with TSP.Underdiagnosis of HTLV-1 in Spain must be high (iceberg model), which may account for the disproportionate high rate of symptomatic cases (almost 20%) and the late recognition of preventable HTLV-1 transmissions in special populations, such as newborns and transplant recipients. Our current estimate is of 10,000 persons living with HTLV-1 infection in Spain. Given the large flux of immigrants and visitors from HTLV-1 endemic regions to Spain, the expansion of HTLV-1 screening policies is warranted. At this time, it seems worth recommending HTLV testing to all donor/recipient organ transplants and pregnant women regardless place of birth. Although current leukoreduction procedures largely prevent HTLV-1 transmission by blood transfusions, HTLV testing of all first-time donors should be cost-effective contributing to unveil asymptomatic unaware

  3. Interregional Migration in Spain: A Semiparametric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maza Fernández, Adolfo Jesús; Villaverde Castro, José

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the determinants of internal migration in Spain between 1995 and 2002. After a brief descriptive study, we present an analytical model of internal migration flows. Subsequently, we estimate this model by applying semiparametric techniques. The general conclusion that we come to is that net migration rates are influenced mainly by income and climatic condition differentials between the regions of origin and destination; in addition, unemployment and housin...

  4. Area Handbook Series: Spain: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Se LANDS \\0 0 A’tlan tic ...... CHAROLAIS, ... 1M 4" "ic e UnonFRANCE :!: OTOA with Spain NAVARRE PAL S Castile, ranAragonese Burgundian Autra...monopolis- tic operations- of which the most important was the petroleum dis- tribution company, Compafifa Arrendataria del Monopolio de Petr6leos (CAMPSA...8217 Organizations (Con- federaci6n Espafiola de Organizaciones Empresariales-CEOE) negotiated a pact called the Inter-Confederation Framework Agree- ment (Acuerdo

  5. [Medicine and enlightenment in New Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, A

    1998-01-01

    Fundamental ideas of the cultural movement of Enlightenment were drawn up and encouraged in England by John Locke and introduced into continental Europe by Voltaire. The essence of this movement was defined by I. Kant in 1784. These new ideas were projected into the field of medicine initially with the systematization of anatomical studies by Winslow, Vicq d' Azyr and Sénac in France, by S. Th. Sömmerring and von Haller in Germany, and by Paolo Mascagni and other anatomists in Italy. This movement settled in Spain toward the middle of the XVIII century, due to Father Feijóo and his pupils such as Piquer and Casal. In New Spain, which maintained cultural and scientific relationship with the Old World, the leaders of the movement were José Antonio Alzate in the field of biology and José Ignacio Bartolache in that of medicine. These were the founders of the first scientific journals: the "Diario Literario" (Literary Journal) by Alzate (1768) and the "Mercurio Volante" (Flying Mercury) by Bartolache (1772). Latter this physician had to face the great epidemic outbreak of smallpox in 1779. Due to that, he attributed great importance to the psychological aspect of the problem and supported the variolization proceeding introduced into Mexico by Doctor Henri Morel. Moreover, two scientific expeditions, which reached New Spain at the end of the XVIII century, allowed to systematize the study of the American vegetables and to acknowledge the usefulness of botany and chemistry as auxiliary sciences of medicine.

  6. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

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    Aragonés Nuria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activity group and specific pollutant, and to plot maps depicting emissions of carcinogenic substances. Methods All information on industrial pollution discharge in 2001 was drawn from EPER-Spain public records provided by the European Commission server. We described the distribution of the number of industries and amounts discharged for each pollutant, as well as emission by pollutant group and the industrial activities associated with each pollutant. Maps of Spain were drawn up, with UTM coordinates being used to plot pollutant foci, and circles with an area proportional to the emission to depict pollution emission values. Results The EPER-Spain contained information on 1,437 industrial installations. The industrial plants that discharge pollutant substances into air and water above the pollutant-specific EPER threshold were mainly situated in the Autonomous Regions of Aragon, Andalusia and Catalonia and in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia respectively. Pollution released in 2001 into air approached 158 million Mt. Emissions into water were over 8 million Mt. Conclusion A few single industrial plants are responsible for the highest percentage of emissions, thus rendering monitoring of their possible health impact on the surrounding population that much simpler. Among European countries Spain is the leading polluter in almost one third of all EPER-registered pollutant substances released into the air and ranks among the top three leading polluters in two

  7. [Moroccan migration to Spain. Data, opinions, and predictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, J

    1995-01-01

    "In this article, the author analyzes the migration flows between Spain and [Morocco] within the most general context of relations between European Union (EU) and the Maghrebian countries. Since the beginning of the eighties the migration flows toward and from Spain changed [dramatically], so... Spanish society has shifted toward an inmigration country. [The author analyzes] where such inmigrants come from and their motivations to choose Spain [as a] destination. The results of a survey financed partly by the EU...[for] institutions related directly with the migration problem from [Morocco] to Spain are the base of the information included in this article." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  8. Recent Investments by NASA's National Force Measurement Technology Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Force Measurement Technology Capability (NFMTC) is a nationwide partnership established in 2008 and sponsored by NASA's Aeronautics Evaluation and Test Capabilities (AETC) project to maintain and further develop force measurement capabilities. The NFMTC focuses on force measurement in wind tunnels and provides operational support in addition to conducting balance research. Based on force measurement capability challenges, strategic investments into research tasks are designed to meet the experimental requirements of current and future aerospace research programs and projects. This paper highlights recent and force measurement investments into several areas including recapitalizing the strain-gage balance inventory, developing balance best practices, improving calibration and facility capabilities, and researching potential technologies to advance balance capabilities.

  9. Avances en el estudio fractográfico de fibras cerámicas de circonaerbia mediante microscopía óptica confocal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Cepero, J. M.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM is a microscopic technique based on an optical construction which allows the microscope to discard the light coming from unfocused zones of the sample. Whereas LSCM is extensively used in Natural Sciences (Biology, Medicine..., its use in Materials Science is almost unexplored and, in particular, there are essentially no fractographical studies using LSCM. However, its characteristics (gathering of 3D information, better than micron resolution and simple sample preparation make LSCM an ideal tool in a wide selection of fractographical problems, owing to the fast adquisition of valuable information and to the excellent sinergy with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In the present work, the authors study an interesting system (ZrO2-5% mol Er2O3 fibers, submitted to tensile strength in hightemperature conditions in detail with LSCM. In addition to showcasing the usefulness of LSCM in fractographical studies and revealing the characteristic texture of the fracture surface in such fibers, said texture is found to closely resemble the nanometric precipitate structure which is unique to this material.

    La microscopía óptica confocal (LSCM, Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy es una técnica microscópica basada en una construcción óptica que permite eliminar la luz procedente de zonas no enfocadas de la muestra. Mientras que es de amplio uso en Ciencias de la Vida, la aplicación de LSCM a la Ciencia de Materiales no ha sido apenas explorada, siendo prácticamente inexistentes los estudios fractográficos que se apoyen en LSCM. A pesar de ello, sus características (obtención de información tridimensional, resolución por debajo de la micra y sencilla preparación de muestras la convierten en una herramienta idónea para una multitud de problemas fractográficos, debido a la obtención rápida de valiosa información y a su buena coordinación con la microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM. En este

  10. Error diagnóstico en la neuropatía óptica epidémica Diagnostic error in epidemic optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaralis Santiesteban Freixas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La forma óptica de la epidemia de neuropatía, aparecida en el decenio pasado en Cuba, ha sido motivo de discusión por el posible hiperdiagnóstico, de los más de 22 000 casos notificados. El propósito principal de este trabajo es profundizar en la caracterización de esta enfermedad y dar a conocer la congruencia que debe de existir entre la agudeza visual y la visión de colores en las neuropatías de este tipo; además, estimar sobre la base de este elemento la posible cifra de errores diagnósticos de dos grupos de pacientes con neuropatía optica epidérmica y en un tercer grupo de pacientes que no mejoraron con tratamiento, donde se reunieron 78 casos remitidos porque no mejoraban con tratamiento vitamínico. Los resultados demostraron congruencia entre el estado de afectación de la agudeza visual y la visión de colores en más del 90 % de los 960 casos de los grupos 1 y 2, con diagnóstico de neuropatía óptica epidémica comprobados por expertos, a diferencia de los casos del tercer grupo, en los que se detectó que el 96,1 % tuvieron de inicio falsos diagnósticos de esta enfermedad p The optic form of the neuropathy epidemic that appeared in the last decade in Cuba has been discussed due to the possible hyperdiagnosis of the more than 22 000 notified cases. The main objective of this paper was to go deep into the characterization of this disease, to make known the congruency that should exist between the visual acuity and the vision of colors in the neuropathies of this type, and to estimate, on the basis of this element, the possible figure of diagnostic errors in 2 groups of patients with EON and of a third group of patients that did not improve with the treatment. In this group, there were 78 cases that were referred because they did not respond to vitamin therapy. The results showed congruency between the state of affection of visual acuity and the vision of colors in more than 90 % of the 960 cases from groups 1 and 2 with

  11. Social Inclusion and Multicultural Perspectives in Spain: Three Case Studies in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufiaurre, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Immigration is the challenge that faces European countries in the immediate future. Spain, a former exporter of migrants, has recently become a host country, which must be taken into account if we wish to promote a multicultural, integrative school system. The aim in this article is to reach some conclusions about the integration of immigrants,…

  12. Producción y calidad sanitaria de la lechuga fertilizada con efluente de fosa séptica biodigestora Produção e qualidade sanitária de alface adubada com efluente de fossa séptica biodigestora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miréia Aparecida Bezerra Pereira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la producción y los aspectos sanitarios de la lechuga fertilizada con aguas residuales de efluente humano derivada de fosa séptica biodigestora en Assentamento Rural Vale Verde, Gurupi, Estado de Tocantins, Brasil. Fueron realizadas evaluaciones morfofisiológicas y microbiológicas en plantas y microbiológicas en muestras de agua del suelo, de la lechuga y del efluente de la fosa séptica biodigestora. Por el número de hojas, altura de planta y peso fresco se observó que las plantas que recibieron la dosis de 60 L de efluente tuvieron valores más altos que los demás. Hubo un aumento del área foliar de las plantas con el aumento de la dosis de efluente. Las plantas que recibieron 60 L de efluentes fueron las que produjeron más clorofila total, y las que recibieron 20 L presentaran valores cerca de éstos. El rendimiento de la producción fue significativamente mayor en las plantas que recibieron 20, 40 y 60 L de efluente, y menor para los demás (0 y 80 L. En este estudio, no hubo contaminación por coliformes fecales a 45 º C en las muestras 1, 3, 4, 5 y 7. De las plantas de las parcelas fertilizadas con efluente del tanque séptico, sólo una muestra presentó contaminación, sin embargo, el valor se ha considerado como adecuado por estar dentro de los límites de 95% de la prueba. Se trata de una alternativa sostenible que contribuye a maximizar los recursos disponibles dentro de la agricultura familiar, sin comprometer el nivel de calidad sanitaria de consumo humano de la lechuga en las condiciones estudiadas y con incremento de la productividad.

    Avaliou-se a produção e os aspectos sanitários de alface adubada com efluente humano de fossa séptica biodigestora no Assentamento Rural Vale Verde, Gurupi-TO. Foram realizadas avaliações morfofisiológicas e análises microbiológicas de amostras de água do solo, alface e do efluente de fossa séptica biodigestora. Para número de

  13. Prevalencia de alteraciones en la interfase vitreoretiniana detectadas mediante tomografía de coherencia óptica de dominio espectral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Julie; Stalmans, Peter

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: El objetivo principal del presente estudio consistió en determinar la prevalencia de los cambios en la interfase vitreomacular (IVM) mediante tomografía de coherencia óptica (OCT) en la población general. En segundo lugar, se describieron otros cambios de la OCT. Métodos: Las anomalías en la IVM se diagnosticaron mediante OCT y se distribuyeron de acuerdo con la clasificación del grupo International Vitreomacular Traction Study (estudio internacional de tracción vitreomacular, IVTS, por sus siglas en inglés) y se dividieron en 3 grados según John et al. [Retina 2014;34:442-446]. Resultados: La prevalencia calculada de anomalías vitreomaculares en la población belga de ≥50 años fue del 1,17% [intervalo de confianza (IC 0,38-3,62)] en el caso de tracción vitreomacular (TVM) focal de grado 1; del 0,39% (IC 0,05-2,76) en el caso de TVM focal de grado 2; del 8,17% (IC 5,33-12,53) en el caso de adhesión vitreomacular focal; y del 17,9% (IC 13,41-23,9) en el caso de adhesión vitreomacular difusa. Conclusiones: Se presentó la prevalencia de anomalías vitreomaculares en un estudio de cohortes belga. Estos resultados concuerdan en gran medida con los datos presentados previamente sobre la prevalencia de la TVM. Un conocimiento correcto sobre la epidemiología de las alteraciones en la IVM y un diagnóstico temprano permitirán una intervención satisfactoria. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Caracterización físico-química y organoléptica de miel de Melipona beecheii obtenida en sistemas agroforestales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydi Fonte

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de determinar las características organolépticas y físico-químicas de la miel producida por Melipona beecheii. Para la extracción y el envasado de la miel se utilizaron jeringuillas estériles y frascos secos esterilizados, debidamente etiquetados. Después, se detectó en la muestra la presencia de granos de polen pertenecientes a Gliricidia sepium, y se realizó un análisis sensorial y físico-químico basado en los siguientes indicadores: aspecto, color, olor, sabor, textura, humedad (g/100 g, acidez libre (meq/100 g, pH y sólidos solubles (g/100 g = %. Además, se realizaron determinaciones cromatográficas de los azúcares presentes. Los valores de pH estuvieron alrededor de 3,6; la acidez libre fue de 35,0 meq/100 g, y la humedad, de 24 %. Por su parte, el análisis sensorial estuvo acorde con las especificaciones de calidad recomendadas en la norma de calidad cubana, ya que la miel no presentó ningún sabor, aroma o color desagradables. Se concluye que la miel de M. beecheii presentó una excelente calidad, al no sufrir ningún proceso de degradación aparente; por ello se puede considerar como una miel fresca, lo que constituye un requisito clave para cualquier alimento destinado al consumo humano.

  15. Influencia del riego sobre la composición y características organolépticas del aceite de oliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, J.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acidic composition, organoleptic characteristics and other quality parameters of virgin olive oils were evaluated in dry-farming and irrigated olive orchards. The acidic composition was affected by irrigation. The content in monoinsaturated and polunsaturated fatty acid was higher in the oils of the dry-farming olive orchard, while the relative content in saturated fatty acids was higher in the irrigated one. The insaturated/ saturated and oleic/linoleic relations distinguish the irrigated and non irrigated olive trees. The K225 values, the poliphenolic contents and the bitter taste were also correlated. The oils from non irrigated olive trees showed the higher bitter taste. Those three parameters discriminated the oils from irrigated and non irrigated trees. The bitter taste diminished when increasing the amount of water supplied with the irrigation.

    Se estudia la composición relativa en ácidos grasos, características organolépticas y parámetros de calidad de los aceites producidos en olivares de secano o regados con diferentes dosis de agua. La composición acídica fue alterada por el riego. El contenido en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados y poliinsaturados fue mayor en los aceites de secano, mientras que el contenido relativo en ácidos grasos saturados fue mayor en regadío. Las relaciones insaturados/saturados y oleico/linoleico diferencian los aceites de riego y de secano. Existió una relación entre los valores de K225, el contenido en polifenoles y el grado de amargor, siendo los aceites de secano mucho más amargos que los de riego, discriminando estos tres parámetros los aceites de riego y los de secano. El grado de amargor disminuyó al aumentar la cantidad de agua aportada con el riego.

  16. Síndrome da meningite asséptica por enterovírus e Leptospira sp em crianças de Salvador, Bahia

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    Silva Hagamenon R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a freqüência de enterovírus (EV, leptospiras e arbovírus como agentes causais da síndrome da meningite asséptica (SMA, em períodos não-epidêmicos, e comparar os pacientes com e sem diagnóstico etiológico determinado, foram selecionados 112 pacientes de idade entre 3 meses e 15 anos, com suspeita clínica de SMA, referenciados para Hospital Couto Maia, especializado em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias (Salvador, Bahia, Em 44,6% (n=50 a etiologia foi determinada: enterovírus em 37,7% (n=42 dos casos, pelo teste de PCR Amplicor, por cultura do líquor e/ou de fezes; a Leptospira sp. em 7,1% (n=8, pelo método da micro-aglutinação, e nenhum caso de arbovírus foi detectado (inibição da hemaglutinação passiva. Entre os 14 enterovírus dos 22 isolados, foram identificados seis diferentes sorotipos, sendo o Echovirus-4 predominante (27,2%; 6/22 entre outros (Coxsackie B2, B3, B6 e B9; EV 71. Conclui-se que, os enterovírus foram os agentes mais freqüentes, e que a leptospirose deve ser lembrada no diagnóstico diferencial da SMA. Uma vez que as características clínicas e liquóricas dos pacientes dos grupos com e sem determinação do agente etiológico foram semelhantes, pode-se supor que o diagnóstico presuntivo de SMA é de provável etiologia viral ou pela leptospira.

  17. EVALUACIÓN DE PROPIEDADES MECÁNICAS, ÓPTICAS Y DE BARRERA ENPELÍCULAS ACTIVAS DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ FELIPE CORTÉS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Películas obtenidas a partir de almidón de yuca de la variedad CM 7138 -7, nativo y modificado por hidroxipropilación, fueron sometidas a evaluaciones mecánicas, ópticas y de barrera, durante periodos de tiempo de 0, 30, 60, 90 y 120 días determinando el efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento sobre la modificación química realizada. Las películas fueron obtenidas por extrusión soplado por medio de un extrusor de tornillo simple. El material se obtuvo en tres etapas: la primera etapa fue la producción de Almidón Termoplástico (TPS con 75% de almidón, 24,5% de glicerol y 0,5% de capsaicina; en la segunda etapa, se realizó la Mezcla Binaria (MB con 68,63% de Ácido Poliláctico (PLA, 29,41% de Policaprolactona (PCL, 1,96% de anhídrido maleico y 1% de colorante y, por último se realizó la extrusión soplado de la mezcla ternaria, compuesta por 75% de TPS y 25% MB. Los cambios de algunas propiedades con respecto al tiempo, fueron más evidentes en las películas a base de almidón nativo presentando una diferencia significativa, debido al proceso de retrogradación y posiblemente a que no se formó una fase homogénea en el material y por lo tanto los componentes se distribuyeron en fases distintas y separadas.

  18. Actualización en el tratamiento de la neuropatía óptica inflamatoria desmielinizante Updating on the treatment of the demyelinating inflammatory optical neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaimara Hernández Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de proporcionar una actualización de las drogas que se emplean para retrasar la aparición de esclerosis múltiple en el manejo de la neuropatía óptica inflamatoria desmielinizante. El artículo presenta el origen y la justificación de la terapia esteroidea en este grupo de enfermedad, así como los mecanismos de acción y beneficios de tratamientos más modernos como los inmunomoduladores e inmunosupresores. El trabajo también introduce muchas de las drogas con efectos neuroprotectores que se encuentran en fases experimentales, cuyo uso prevendría la neurodegeneración que se produce a nivel de las células ganglionares retinianas en esta enfermedad neurológica. Las opciones terapéuticas actuales ofrecen variantes de tratamiento adicionales a pacientes con mayores probabilidades de desarrollo de esclerosis múltiple y retrasan la aparición de un segundo brote, así como las secuelas invalidantes que esta suele originar.A bibliographic review was conducted to provide an updating of drugs used to retard the appearance of multiple sclerosis in the management of the demyelinating inflammatory optical neuropathy. Present paper shows the origin and the justification of the steroid therapy in this disease, as well as the mechanisms of action and benefits of more recent treatments, e.g. the ongoing immunomodulations and immunosuppressive ones and also to introduce many drugs in experimental phase having neuroprotection effects whose use will prevent the neurodegenerative effect produced at level of the retinal ganglion cells in this neurologic disease. The current therapeutical options offer variants of additional treatment to those patients with greater possibilities to development multiple sclerosis and retarding the appearance of a second outbreak, as well as its disabling sequelae.

  19. Mapeo congnitivo y exploración háptica para comprender la disposición del espacio de videntes e invidentes.

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    Luis Sanabria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La forma como videntes e invidentes representan el espacio genera una fuente de conocimiento que nos permite estudiar nuevas alternativas para orientar procesos de aprendizaje en la movilidad y orientación de personas que carecen de visión. Este documento caracteriza el proceso de razonamiento espacial a partir del conocimiento del mapeo cognitivo y plantea una serie de antecedentes de investigación que nos llevan a comprender la representación espacial de las personas. El mapeo cognitivo, como un proceso de razonamiento espacial, nos indica cómo se movilizan los videntes e invidentes y qué información se requiere en la movilidad, lo mismo que la manera como está distribuida dicha información en el ambiente. En los invidentes estas tareas requieren del estudio de procesos de exploración háptica que utilizan órganos sensoriales paralelos –visión alternativa– para identificar la representación del ambiente. Experiencias en la formación de modelos mentales espaciales como las referidas en este escrito, señalan que la construcción de mapas cognitivos, tanto de videntes como invidentes, es una estrategia poderosa que suministra información espacial para la movilidad. Este factor interviene en el mejoramiento de las habilidades de orientación y búsqueda del camino, lo cual influye en la orientación, independencia y calidad de vida de las personas invidentes (Jacobson, 1998.

  20. A personal view of nutrition in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Salvador

    2014-04-01

    This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain.

  1. A personal view of nutrition in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Zamora

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain, following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS, in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1 The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2 The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the synthesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3 The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4 In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain.

  2. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  3. Curación de heridas sépticas con miel de abejas Use of honey to cure of septic wounds

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    Iván lavandera Rodríguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Variadas investigaciones reconocen a la miel ventajas sobre fármacos de origen químico. Este trabajo persiguió como objetivo fundamental determinar la acción de la miel en el tratamiento de heridas sépticas. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y comparativo sobre los efectos cicatrizantes de la miel, con un universo de 200 pacientes con heridas sépticas, que fueron atendidos en el Hospital «Freyre Andrade» y la Clínica Central «Cira García» entre los años 2000 y 2010. Se dividió aleatoriamente a los pacientes en dos grupos de 100 pacientes cada uno: un grupo control, a cuyos integrantes se les hizo una cura local diaria con solución salina al 0,9 %, antisépticos y antibióticos locales; y un grupo de estudio, curado también localmente con solución salina al 0,9 % pero con posterior aplicación de miel de abejas, en una capa que ocupó la herida en toda su profundidad y superficie. RESULTADOS. La mayoría de los cultivos realizados el primer día antes de curar la herida en el grupo control (98 continuaron siendo positivos (82 en el segundo cultivo (cuarto día, mientras que en el grupo de estudio solo fueron positivos 35 de los 95 cultivos realizados. En este grupo la fetidez y el tejido desvitalizado desaparecieron en las primeras 24 h de tratamiento, mientras que en el grupo control la situación se prolongó hasta el quinto y sexto días de tratamiento. El tejido de granulación útil apareció al segundo día en el grupo de estudio y en el octavo en el grupo control. En este último se documentaron 19 complicaciones asociadas al método de curación; no ocurrió así en el grupo de estudio, donde no hubo complicaciones ni reacciones adversas a la miel. CONCLUSIONES. La miel se puede utilizar para curar cualquier herida séptica, independientemente de su localización. Tiene fuertes propiedades desodorizantes, de limpieza y favorece la cicatrización de las heridas. En este estudio no

  4. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Spain

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    Jarosław Poteraj

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Spain. The introduction is followed by such a topic paragraphs as: the general information about the country, the historical development of its pension system, the present situation and challenges, and foreseen changes. There, the authors goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Spanishs pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Spanish approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of existing in the Spanish reality the special old age pension system for domestic servants.

  5. Databases on disability and employment in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Rodríguez Álvarez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the different databases that allow us to obtain information about disability and employment in Spain. In general, each of them uses different variables to measure disability, giving rise to different rates of prevalence. From their different definitions, the strengths and weaknesses of each of them are shown to study the involvement of people with disabilities in the labour market. Furthermore, it is also suggested to use the Working Lives Longitudinal Sample as a source of information, since it allows examining various aspects of the employment of people with disabilities, especially those related to working conditions and career paths.

  6. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  7. Oestrid myiasis in European mouflon from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, V; Pérez, J M; Moreno, P A; Granados, J E; Ruiz-Martinez, I; Soriguer, R C; de Simon, M A

    1999-01-01

    From February 1992 to March 1997, 245 European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) from Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Natural Park (southern Spain) were surveyed for oestrid larvae in order to estimate prevalence and mean intensity of parasitism by Oestrus ovis. Over 46 percent of the animals surveyed were infected, with a mean intensity of 9.6 larvae/host parasitized. No significant differences in prevalence rates between host sexes were observed, but older mouflons were infected with more larvae than younger ones.

  8. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sixth Meeting of China-Spain Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The sixth meeting of the China- Spain Forum (CSF) was held in the World Trade Center in Barcelona from July 5 to 6, 2011. Uyunqimg, Vice Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and Chairperson of the CSF Chinese Committee, headed the Chinese delegation; Trinidad Jimenez, Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation; Miguel Sebastian Gascon, Spanish Minister of Industry, Trade and Tourism; and Pedro Solbes, Chairman of the CSF Spanish Committee, were among the 350 participants.

  10. Interregional migration and thresholds: evidence in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, Jesús; Larramona, Gemma; Olmos, Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of labor market conditions in the origin and the destination on interregional migration in Spain, over the period 1988-2010. A basic theoretical framework is developed and the implications of the model suggest that the effect of labor market conditions on migration can vary, depending on a certain threshold. In a second step, the implications of the model are tested with Spanish data, using a new approach based on the presence of thresholds. We...

  11. Alcohol consumption among University students in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Producción Científica Alcohol consumption in 1984 among 2921 students of nine Faculties in the University of Valladolid (Spain) is reported. Alcoholic drinks were frequently consumed, especially by males and during weekends. Per capita consumption was 9.85 l of absolute alcohol/year for males and 4.971 for females. Beer, wine and gin were the favourite drinks. Alcohol consumption was similar in the different faculties and age groups but was to some extent related to age and place of reside...

  12. Digital radiographic evaluation of optical density of porcelains used for fabrication of inlay/onlay prosthesis Avaliação da densidade óptica de porcelanas usadas para confecção de próteses inlay/onlay por meio de radiografia digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar de Melo Castilho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to compare the mean value of optical density of four porcelains commonly used for fabrication of inlay/onlay prostheses using direct digital radiograph. The sample consisted of 20 2-mm thick porcelain specimens (measured by digital pachymeter: Empress (Ivoclair, Simbios (Degussa, Vita Omega 900 and Vitadur Alpha (Vita Zahnfabrik. The values of optical density of the specimens were expressed in millimeters aluminum equivalent (mm eq Al. The samples were X-rayed using two charge coupled devices (CCD - RVG (Trophy - Visualix (Gendex and a phosphor plate system - Digora (Soredex. The optical density reading was performed with Image Tool 1.28 in a total of 110 measurements. Statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in all materials studied (p Objetivo desse trabalho é comparar valores médios de densidade óptica de quatro porcelanas comumente utilizadas para confecção de inlay/onlay por meio da densidade óptica usando radiografia digital. A amostra constou de 20 corpos de prova com espessura de 2mm (mensurados em paquímetro digital das porcelanas: Empress (Ivoclair, Simbios (Degussa, Vita Omega 900 e Vitadur Alpha (Vita Zahnfabrik. Os valores de densidade óptica das amostras foram expressos em milímetros equivalente em alumínio (mm eq Al. Os espécimes foram radiografados, utilizando dois sistemas de dispositivo de carga acoplada (CCD - RVG (Trophy - Visualix (Gendex e um sistema de placa de fósforo - Digora (Soredex. A leitura da densidade óptica foi realizada no programa Image Tool 1.28 totalizando 110 medições. As leituras de densidade ópticas foram feitas no programa Image Tool 1.28 totalizando 110 mensurações. A análise estatística demonstrou que houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre a densidade óptica das porcelanas estudadas independentemente do sistema de radiografia empregado (p < 0,05. A porcelana Omega 900 obteve 1,8988mmeq

  13. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  14. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  15. China-Spain Investment & Trade Seminar Held in Barcelona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On April 24,the China-Spain Investment & Trade Seminar was jointly held in Barcelona,Spain.As the first event of the Chinese Products Promotion Week (Europe),the seminar aims to help the Chinese export enterprises and local governments learn about relevant laws and regulations and product quality standards of the EU.

  16. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  17. Muridae (Rodentia) from the lower Turolian of Crevillente (Alicante, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín Suárez, E.; Freudenthal, M.

    1993-01-01

    The fauna of Muridae (Rodentia) from the Lower Turolian of Crevillente (Alicante, SE Spain) contains species attributed to the genera Huerzelerimys, Parapodemus, and Occitanomys. The material described allows a detailed biostratigraphy of Upper Miocene deposits of SE Spain. En este trabajo se estudi

  18. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  19. Consistency of ocular coherence tomography fast macular thickness mapping in diabetic diffuse macular edema Consistência da tomografia de coerência óptica no edema macular difuso diabético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Petersen Saraiva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate optical coherence tomography consistency on foveal thickness, foveal volume, and macular volume measurements in patients with and without diffuse diabetic macular edema. INTRODUCTION: Optical coherence tomography represents an objective technique that provides cross-sectional tomographs of retinal structure in vivo. However, it is expected that poor fixation ability, as seen in diabetic macular edema, could alter its results. Several authors have discussed the reproducibility of optical coherence tomography, but only a few have addressed the topic with respect to diabetic maculopathy. METHODS: The study recruited diabetic patients without clinically evident retinopathy (control group and with diffuse macular edema (case group. Only one eye of each patient was evaluated. Five consecutive fast macular scans were taken using Ocular Coherence Tomography 3; the 6 mm macular map was chosen. The consistency in measurements of foveal thickness, foveal volume, and total macular volume for both groups was evaluated using the Pearson's coefficient of variation. The T-test for independent samples was used in order to compare measurements of both groups. RESULTS: Each group consisted of 20 patients. All measurements had a coefficient of variation less than 10%. The most consistent parameter for both groups was the total macular volume. DISCUSSION: Consistency in measurement is a mainstay of any test. A test is unreliable if its measurements can not be correctly repeated. We found a good index of consistency, even considering patients with an unstable gaze. CONCLUSIONS: Optical coherence tomography is a consistent method for diabetic subjects with diffuse macular edema.OBJETIVOS: Investigar a consistência das medidas de espessura foveal, volume foveal e volume macular total feitas pela tomografia de coerência óptica em pacientes com e sem edema macular difuso diabético. INTRODUÇÃO: A tomografia de coerência óptica é uma t

  20. The state of psychiatry in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Julio; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Bobes-Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Parellada, Mara; Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bousoño, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2012-08-01

    The 1986 General Health Act and the so-called 'psychiatric reform' were key issues in the development of the mental healthcare system (MHCS) in Spain. The World Health Organization Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health in 2005 gave it a revitalizing impetus and resulted in the first National Health System (NHS) Mental Health Strategy in 2006. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Spanish journals, reference lists, national databases, and European and Spanish official documents to describe the current state of the MHCS in Spain. The main results were: (1) existence of great variability among the autonomous communities with respect to mental health resources and provision of care; (2) lack of national epidemiological information on mental disorders with the exception of substance use disorders and suicide, which comprise powerful longitudinal national data, (3) training in psychiatry is well established, although there is no specialism of child and adolescent psychiatry, and (4) a dramatic increase in scientific productivity in the last decade among research groups, in part due to the creation of the Spanish Mental Health Network, the Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM). Quantifiable and reliable indicators are needed to provide efficient monitoring and analysis of epidemiological events and subsequently to understand the status of the Spanish MHCS.

  1. History of Pedagogy of death in Spain

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    Pablo RODRÍGUEZ HERRERO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogy of death is defined as a field of research, training and educational innovation emerging. It is based on their possible educational inclusion and its importance to formation. In just over ten years, the work of a small group of authors has pointed Spain as one of the few countries where development of the field has been intense, consistent and with a growing demand. The works invite to envision a more open Pedagogy, deeper and guided by a teleology that takes into account the essential characteristics of human beings and their own evolution. In this article, a theoretical review of work made by leading Spanish authors is done, discussing some of their contributions and implications. The article is divided into three parts: introduction, studies and proposals for Pedagogy of death in Spain, and conclusions. The proposals are discussed in terms of whether they are focused on the educational value of death for evolution as a perennial field in human beings, normalization of death in education, palliative intervention or analysis of learning experiences and teacher training. The conclusions reflect on some challenges that can contribute to future developments in Pedagogy of death. Among them, the international exchange of experiences and development of joint scientific research that support the curricular inclusion of death as a formative element.

  2. [Present status of psychosurgery in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcia, J A; Bertolín-Guillén, J M; Barcia-González, J; Campos, J; Hernández, M E

    2007-08-01

    In order to know the present activity of psychosurgery in Spain, and the opinion of neurosurgeons relative to it, a survey was designed and applied to all active neurosurgeons in our country. We obtained data from at least one neurosurgeon from the 74 neurosurgical centers in Spain (response rate= 100%). Only 6 neurosurgeons performed psychosurgical interventions. In total, 121 psychosurgeries were performed between 1999 and 2003, 75.7% of them in private centers. The most frequent indication is obsessive-compulsive disorder and the most frequent technique is anterior capsulotomy, although techniques and indications differ among the practising neurosurgeons. Those not performing them cite lack of patient referral (54.4%) or unexperience (36.8%) as the causes. A suspected lack of efficacy or the possible adverse effects are seldom expressed. The possibility of using deep brain stimulation for psychiatric indications, as well as the experience of some neurosurgeons and the favorable opinion of the rest, might increase the number of operations in our country.

  3. CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY IN SPAIN: PRESENT AND FUTURE

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    José Luis González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of legal psychology, as it is understood in Spain, we can distinguish between the applications of psychology in the different steps of the judicial process: in police stations during criminal investigations, in court when the perpetrators have already been identified and arrested, and in prisons where they are eventually sent after being convicted. This paper argues that when psychology assists the criminal investigation in the first step of the judicial process - the police activities-, we are talking about criminal psychology, at two levels: the operational level (mostly pertaining to criminal psychology and the strategic level (shared with other areas of expertise. After describing its peculiarities and specific areas, in analogy with the support provided by other forensic sciences, we explain that in Spain this specialty is carried out professionally from within our own police forces, with a profile that is very different from the more traditional police psychology, and in close collaboration with the academic environment with regard to the scientific development of techniques and procedures.

  4. [Quitting the tobacco habit in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A; Hernández, I; Alvarez-Dardet, C

    1991-06-29

    The tendencies in the cessation from smoking and their determinants provide useful information to developed preventive policies and to predict the evolution of diseases associated with cigarette consumption. Spain is one of the European countries with more prevalent smoking habits in the general population, and thus the study of factors determining cessation from smoking is particularly relevant. The socioeconomic, demographic and health-related variables associated with the cessation from smoking were evaluated using the data bank from the National Health Survey carried out by the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo in 1987, which includes interviews to 29,647 individuals above 16 years of age. The data were analyzed by the calculation of the quit ratio standardized for age. The quit ratio is influenced by age and sex; it is higher among women and it increases with age. The results are questionable regarding the relation with educational level, family income and occupation. The smokers of less than 10 or more than 25 cigarettes/day are those with a higher quit ratio. The quit ratio is also higher in individuals with health problems, a higher rate of use of health services and in those without usual alcohol consumption. The profile of the individuals who quit smoking in Spain has specific features when compared with other countries, particularly regarding the higher quit rate among women and the lack of a linear correlation with indicators of socioeconomic level.

  5. Classificação de crises epilépticas de crianças com base na descrição clínica dos pais ou responsáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato Angélica Amorim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar com que frequência a descrição das manifestações epilépticas observadas pelos pais ou responsáveis por crianças com epilepsia permitem a classificação clínica das crises epilépticas(CE. Foram selecionadas 112 crianças com CE recorrentes e espontâneas. O estudo foi dividido em duas partes. Na Parte I avaliamos a idade na primeira crise, modo de início, semiologia pré-ictal, ictal e pós-ictal. Na Parte II a classificação das CE: a segundo padrão motor convulsivo, em convulsivas / não convulsivas; e b segundo o esquema da Liga Internacional Contra Epilepsia ( ILAE, 1981. Os resultados significantes foram a descrição de auras epilépticas em 42,9%, sinais localizatórios em 36,6% e a descrição semiológica motora em 95,5%, neurovegetativa em 56,3%, psíquica em 32,1% e sensitivo-sensorial em 4,5%. Foram classificadas pela semiologia motora as CE convulsiva em 83% e não convulsiva em 17% . No esquema da ILAE obteve-se na amostra geral 12,5% de CE não classificadas, pela dicotomia foram classificadas as CE parciais em 59,9% e as generalizadas em 27,2 % . Um alto índice de aproveitamento das informações foi obtido com 87,5% de CE classificadas.Este resultado nos permite concluir ser possível classificar clinicamente e com segurança as crises epilépticas com base na descrição dos pais e ou responsáveis, utilizando-se protocolo padronizado.

  6. Desarrollo de nuevas fases sensoras ópticas para el control de oxígeno molecular con aplicaciones biotecnológicas, industriales y clínicas

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Suárez del Toro, Marta

    2013-01-01

    La presente Memoria presenta los resultados obtenidos durante la realización de la Tesis Doctoral titulada "Desarrollo de nuevas fases sensoras ópticas para el control de oxígeno molecular con aplicaciones biotecnológicas, industriales y clínicas". La Memoria se ha dividido en dos secciones principales: introducción y parte experimental. La introducción recoge, en primer lugar, una visión general de la importancia de la determinación de oxígeno en diferentes campos de la Ciencia, así como las...

  7. Colagenopatía y meningitis aséptica recurrente en una paciente de 88 años Colagenopathy and recurrent aseptic meningitis in an 88 year old patient

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez, Fernando J.; Yuqueri BeguelIn; Natalia Schutz; Luis M. Mayorga

    2004-01-01

    La meningitis aséptica recurrente (MAR) en ancianos es rara y generalmente es secundaria a drogas. Su asociación a colagenopatías en ancianos ha sido raramente informada. El Síndrome de Sjögren (SS) en ocasiones afecta el sistema nervioso central, pero la MAR asociada a SS es rara en este grupo etario. Se presenta una paciente de 88 años, autoválida, con antecedentes de xerostomía, xeroftalmos, Raynaud, disfagia y agrandamiento parotídeo recurrente autolimitado. En el año 2001 cursó una menin...

  8. Caracterización de la motivación por la asignatura de matemática en los estudiantes de la carrera de Optometría y Óptica

    OpenAIRE

    Esperanza Mercedes Díaz Rodríguez; Yadira de las Mercedes Rivero Hernánde; Enrique Tauler Villafruela; Vivian Vicet Isaac; Alina Velázquez Amador

    2015-01-01

    La necesidad de motivar a los estudiantes por el aprendizaje en las diferentes asignaturas constituye un eslabón fundamental en el proceso docente educativo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo para caracterizar la motivación por la asignatura de Matemática en los estudiantes de la carrera de Optometría y Óptica. Para ello se realizó un diagnóstico a 20 estudiantes del tercer año de la referida carrera, en la Filial de Ciencias Médicas “Mario Muñoz Monroy”, perteneciente a la Universidad de Cie...

  9. Resumen de tesis. Influencia de la composición fenólica y polisacarídica en las características organolépticas de los vinos tintos

    OpenAIRE

    Quijada Morín, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    [ES]El objetivo general de esta tesis doctoral ha sido estudiar la influencia de la composición fenólica y polisacarídica en las características organolépticas de los vinos tintos, especialmente en su color y astringencia, y el efecto que podría ejercer el grado de madurez de la uva. Los resultados obtenidos han sido divididos en tres bloques. En el primero de ellos se estudió la extractabilidad de los polifenoles de hollejos de uvas con distintos estados de madurez tecnológica y contenid...

  10. Determinación de la probabilidad de error en sistemas de comunicación digital por fibras ópticas: estudio comparativo de métodos “cuasi-exactos”

    OpenAIRE

    Casadevall Palacio, Fernando José; Junyent Giralt, Gabriel; Olmos Bonafé, Juan José; Agustí Comes, Ramon

    1983-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de diversos métodos para calcular la probabilidad de error en un sistema de comunicación digital por fibra óptica. Los procedimientos utilizados permiten determinar el valor de la probabilidad de error a partir de los momentos de la variable aleatoria que caracteriza al ruido y a la interferencia entre símbolos presentes en el sistema. Ya que el número de momentos utilizado determina la precisión del cálculo a dichos métodos se les denomina c...

  11. Sarna sarcóptica ovina: aspectos clínicos, métodos de diagnóstico y prevalencia en la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Cadenas, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    134 p. Esta tesis doctoral, que incluye tres publicaciones científicas, tenía como objetivos el desarrollo y validación de técnicas de diagnóstico de la sarna sarcóptica ovina, la estimación de la prevalencia de infección en la población ovina del oeste de la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León y la caracterización de las respuestas clínica e inmune humoral tras infecciones experimentales

  12. Espectroscopía óptica del xenón múltiplemente ionizado por descargas pulsadas: análisis espectral en XeVI y XeVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiento Mercado, Rafael

    1999-01-01

    Continuando con la línea de trabajo del Grupo de Espectroscopia Atómica del CIOp, la presente Tesis se enmarcó en la investigación de estructuras atómicas de gases nobles mediana y altamente ionizados utilizando las técnicas propias de la espectroscopia óptica de emisión y en la que se presenta un nuevo aporte que permitirá interpretar mejor estos sistemas. El presente trabajo, motivado por mejorar y ampliar el conocimiento existente, está relacionado con el estudio espectral en xen...

  13. Tonic spasms are a common clinical manifestation in patients with neuromyelitis optica Espasmos tônicos são manifestações clínicas frequentes em pacientes com neuromielite óptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Abaroa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tonic spasms have been most commonly associated with multiple sclerosis. To date, few reports of series of patients with neuromyelitis optica and tonic spasms have been published. Methods: We analyzed the characteristics and frequency of tonic spasms in 19 subjects with neuromyelitis optica. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire for tonic spasms, by both retrospectively reviewing medical records and performing clinical assessment. Results: All patients except one developed this symptom. The main triggering factors were sudden movements and emotional factors. Spasms were commonly associated to sensory disturbances and worsened during the acute phases of the disease. Carbamazepine was most commonly used to treat the symptom and patients showed good response to the drug. Conclusions: Tonic spasms are a common clinical manifestation in patients with neuromyelitis optica.Espasmos tônicos têm sido mais frequentemente associados com esclerose múltipla. Foram publicados até agora poucos relatos de série de pacientes com neuromielite óptica e espasmos tônicos. Métodos: Foram analisadas as características e a frequência de espasmos tônicos em 19 indivíduos com neuromielite óptica. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário semiestruturado para espasmos tônicos, mediante a avaliação retrospectiva dos prontuários e a análise dos dados clínicos Resultados: Todos os pacientes com neuromielite óptica exceto um apresentaram espasmos tônicos. Os principais fatores desencadeantes foram movimentos bruscos e fatores emocionais. Espasmos foram frequentemente associados a perturbações sensoriais e se agravaram durante a fase aguda da doença. A carbamazepina foi utilizada frequentemente para tratar os sintomas, com boa resposta. Conclusões: Os espasmos tônicos são manifestações clínicas frequentes em pacientes com neuromielite óptica.

  14. La contribución de la universidad de Colima al desarrollo de la tecnología óptica en México: el Cenedic y el Cepromed.

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Feria Basurto; María del Rosario Ruiz Franco

    2001-01-01

    El Centro Nacional Editor de Discos Compactos (CENEDIC) y el Centro Universitario de Producción de Medios Didácticos (CEPROMED) de la Universidad de Colima han contribuido desde su creación, 1983 y 1997, respectivamente, al desarrollo en la utilización y difusión de la tecnología óptica para el almacenamiento de información. En este trabajo se analiza el desarrollo de sus actividades desde sus inicios; sus aportaciones tecnológicas; la diversidad temática de su catálog...

  15. Fabricación y Caracterización de dispositivos basados en Silicio Poroso sobre c-Si. Aplicaciones eléctricas, Ópticas y Térmicas.

    OpenAIRE

    Fonthal Rico, Faruk

    2006-01-01

    Debido a las propiedades eléctricas y ópticas del Silicio Poroso (PS), este es un material ampliamente utilizado para el desarrollo de los dispositivos electrónicos. Por su compatibilidad con la tecnología de fabricación del Silicio, el Silicio Poroso es estudiado hoy en día en diferentes aplicaciones como: elementos activos en circuitos integrados, estructuras electro luminiscentes, dispositivos fotodetectores, dispositivos térmicos y muchas más.El trabajo que se ha desarrollado como tesis d...

  16. Efecto de la aplicación de 1-Metilciclopropeno sobre algunas propiedades físico-químicas y organolépticas del fruto de la granadilla

    OpenAIRE

    Perengüez Cuarán Ángela María; Dussán Sarria Saúl; Serna Cock Liliana

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP), un agente antagonista a la acción del etileno -el 1-metilciclopropeno es utilizado para prolongar la vida útil del fruto de granadilla común-, almacenado a 27 ± 2 °C y 76 ± 2% de HR. Se evaluaron propiedades físicas como pérdidas de peso y cambios de dureza de la corteza; propiedades químicas como pH, acidez titulable y sólidos solubles; y propiedades organolépticas como cambios de color. Se aplicaron tres concentra...

  17. Determinación de las constantes ópticas de películas delgadas de óxido de estaño y de plata para su utilización en recubrimientos multicapa de baja emisividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Palma, R. J.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the values of the optical constants (n, refractive index and k, extinction coefficient in the visible range of both silver (Ag and tin oxide (SnO2 films is a necessary condition to predict the behaviour of a SnO2/Ag/SnO2 multilayer for low emissivity coatings, improving the visual comfort. For this purpose, thin films of Ag and SnO2 with a thickness similar to that of multilayer coatings (90 Å and 380 Å respectively were used in order to avoid the thickness dependence of the optical constants. A simulation computational program based on the matrix method was employed to estimate the values of the optical constants of these films in the visible range. It has been also determined the dependence on the wavelength of the absorption coefficient (α, as well as the value of the energy gap, and the nature of the optical transitions.

    La determinación de los valores de las constantes ópticas (n, índice de refracción y k, coeficiente de extinción en el espectro visible de películas tanto de plata (Ag como de óxido de estaño (SnO2, es una condición necesaria para predecir el comportamiento de un recubrimiento multicapa de baja emisividad con la estructura SnO2/Ag/SnO2 en relación al confort visual. Para este propósito, se han caracterizado láminas delgadas de Ag y de SnO2 con un espesor similar al que tienen en los recubrimientos multicapa (90 Å y 380 Å respectivamente, evitando así la dependencia con el espesor de las constantes ópticas. Se ha utilizado un programa informático de simulación basado en el método matricial para determinar los valores de las constantes ópticas de dichas películas en el espectro visible. Ha sido determinada asimismo la dependencia del coeficiente de absorción (α con la longitud de onda, así como el valor del ancho de banda prohibida del óxido de estaño, y la naturaleza de la transición óptica.

  18. TOMOGRAFÍA DE COHERENCIA ÓPTICA Y ANGIOGRAFÍA CORONARIA COMO COMPLEMENTO EN DECISIONES TERAPÉUTICAS / Optical coherence tomography and coronary angiography as complement in therapeutic decisions

    OpenAIRE

    José R. Nodarse Valdivia; Francisco L. Moreno−Martínez; Manuel Gómez Recio; Rosa Lázaro García; Iguer F. Aladro Miranda; Rosendo S. Ibargollín Hernández; Luis F. Vega Fleites; María del C. Calzado Manso

    2012-01-01

    ResumenLa tomografía de coherencia óptica es una técnica de diagnóstico intracoronario con una alta resolución, su advenimiento ha permitido llevar a cabo un mejor diagnóstico para el tratamiento de las afecciones vasculares. El desarrollo de nuevos sistemas de esta tomografía, que evitan la oclusión de la arteria, favorece que esta técnica tenga mayor utilidad y se convierta en práctica habitual en los laboratorios de hemodinámica, para la caracterización de la placa aterosclerótica coronari...

  19. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  20. Spain's on fire!: Economic Crisis, Public opinion and Public policies towards immigration in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Charry, Paula Vargas

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish economy has been dramatically hit by the financial crisis which led the country into one of the biggest economic recessions in its history. To what extent has this event influenced the public opinion and perception towards immigration in Spain? In addition, what are the main shifts implemented in the public policies on immigration by the Spanish government?In this study, I intend to analyze the evolution of the public opinion towards immigration from 2000 to 2010 and the effects o...

  1. Circuito eléctrico equivalente de una vesícula sináptica Electric Circuit Equivalent to a Synaptic Vesicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés Xaira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo eléctrico de uno de los elementosprimordiales en la sinapsis nerviosa: la vesícula sináptica. Dicha vesícula se consideracomo un organelo esferoidal, despojada de neurotransmisores y se asume, además, quesu lumen, su membrana y el citoplasma neuronal se comportan como medios lineales,homogéneos e isotrópicos caracterizados por conductividades y permitividades especí-ficas. El método utilizado será la aplicación teórica de un campo eléctrico (que varía enel tiempo a bajas frecuencias sobre esta vesícula, lo que induce a través de su membra-na una diferencia de potencial cuya caracterización se obtiene a partir de las ecuacionesde Maxwell sometidas a condiciones de contorno adecuadas, en la denominada aproxi-mación cuasi-estacionaria. A su vez, mediante aplicación de la Transformada de Laplacea las expresiones resultantes se obtiene la FUNCIÓN DE TRANSFERENCIA, que condu-ce a sintetizar un circuito RLC equivalente de la vesícula en estudio. El modelo predicevalores de capacitancia para vesículas esféricas individuales que, al ser contrastados conlos que presenta la literatura existente derivada de procesos experimentales previos,alienta la perseverancia en este enfoque teórico germinal.In the present work an electrical model of the synaptic vesicle is developed. The vesicleis considered as a spheroidal organelle without neurotransmitters in its inner space. Inaddition, its lumen, its membrane and the neuronal cytoplasm behave like linear,homogenous and isotropic media characterized by specific conductivities and permi-tivities. The theoretical approach considers the application of an electric field (varying intime at low frequencies on this vesicle. A transmembrane potential difference is inducedand its characterization is obtained from Maxwell's equations subject to appropriateboundary conditions, in the so-called quasi-stationary approach. By applying theLaplace Transform to

  2. Aberrações ópticas de alta ordem em pacientes com distonias faciais tratados com toxina botulínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariann Midori Yabiku

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as aberrações ópticas de alta ordem em pacientes com distonias faciais tratados com toxina botulínica tipo A. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de espasmo hemifacial ou blefaroespasmo essencial em atividade foram submetidos ao exame biomicroscópico e à análise de frente de ondas através do aberrômetro Alcon LADARvision®, sob midríase medicamentosa. A seguir, foram tratados com injeções de toxina botulínica tipo A. Após um mês, a análise de frente de ondas foi repetida da mesma forma e pelo mesmo oftalmologista. As aberrações de alta ordem foram comparadas antes e após o tratamento. O teste T pareado foi utilizado para comparar os valores numéricos antes e após o tratamento. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo um total de 11 pacientes, 6 com blefaroespasmo essencial (54,5% e 5 com espasmo hemifacial (45,5%. Nos pacientes com espasmo hemifacial foram analisados apenas o lado acometido, totalizando 17 olhos com espasmo. A idade variou de 50 a 72 anos, com média de 65,9 ± 8,2 anos. Oito pacientes eram do sexo feminino (72,7%, sendo a relação masculino/feminino de 1:2,6. A média do "root mean square" (RMS das aberrações de alta ordem foi 0,68 antes e 0,63 após um mês do tratamento (p=0,01. A média da aberração esférica foi de 0,23 e 0,17 antes e após o tratamento respectivamente (p=0,01. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes nos demais tipos de aberrações de alta ordem após o tratamento (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com toxina botulínica A pode diminuir as aberrações esféricas em pacientes com distonias faciais.

  3. Ensino de astronomia e óptica: é possível fazê-lo de forma contextualizada no nível médio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, A. A.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Discutimos nossa participação em um curso de treinamento para professores de diversas disciplinas do ensino médio. Nossa preocupação básica foi desenvolver instrumentos educacionais adequados para levar à sala de aula, nesse nível de ensino, de forma contextualizada, questionamentos freqüentes dos alunos sobre astronomia e sua relação com tecnologia e sociedade. Encaminhamos questões como: a evolução da astronomia, suas relações com outros ramos do conhecimento humano e conseqüentes aplicações; avanços na tecnologia dos instrumentos ópticos versus a importância da observação do céu a olho nu; a relação entre olho humano, luneta e telescópio; e desenvolvimento da tecnologia espacial e sua influência em nosso cotidiano. Objetivamos com isto fazer um resgate histórico e pedagógico das aplicações e observações do céu no cenário escolar, destacando a relação entre eventos astronômicos, olho humano, instrumentos mediadores e suas contextualizações históricas e sociais. Produtos desta abordagem foram o desenvolvimento e a adaptação de práticas e materiais instrucionais diversos (e.g., "espelhos" de isopor e "raios luminosos" de bolinhas de gude; montagens envolvendo velas, lasers, lentes e espelhos; desmonte e análise de peças de um telescópio; etc.). Além disto, como outro resultado deste trabalho, elaboramos textos sobre história da astronomia e da óptica para atividades em classe. Com estas ações visamos facilitar a concretização de conceitos físicos envolvidos, exemplificar um ensino contextualizado e interdisciplinar motivado por temas astronômicos e favorecer que práticas e discussões feitas com os treinandos possam ser transpostas para a sala de aula. A reação dos professores às práticas propostas foi bastante positiva. Todos esses aspectos são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  4. Análisis fractográfico de fibras de circona y de zafiro mediante microscopía óptica confocal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Cepero, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Fractography is a very useful tool to learn about the mechanisms controlling the fracture process. In this work, the fractographical uses of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM are shown. LSCM is a widely used technique in Biology and similar disciplines, but its use in Materials Science is not yet as explored. However, it is an ideal technique for fractographical studies, since by using it the three-dimensional profile of the fracture surface can be obtained. From this profile, it is possible to extract information, like the roughness of the fracture surface, which would be very difficult to obtain from other studies. In this paper, LSCM is applied to the study of the fracture surface in ceramic fibers submitted to tensile stress, making the interest of the technique evident due to features such as easy sample preparation, gathering of real 3D information, and good SEM-LSCM synergy.

    La fractografía en materiales resulta de gran utilidad para la caracterización de los mecanismos que dominan la rotura. En el presente artículo se investigan las aplicaciones fractográficas de la microscopía óptica confocal o LSCM (Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. Dicha técnica es de amplio uso en Biología y disciplinas afines, pero su empleo en Ciencia de Materiales está poco explorado. Sin embargo, resulta ideal para el estudio fractográfico, ya que permite obtener reconstrucciones del perfil tridimensional de la superficie de fractura. De este perfil tridimensional puede extraerse información —la rugosidad de la superficie, por ejemplo— muy difícil de obtener a partir de otro tipo de estudios. En este trabajo se aplica LSCM a la caracterización de superficies de fractura en fibras cerámicas sometidas a tracción y se pone de manifiesto el interés de la técnica, debido a características tales como la preparación sencilla de muestras, la obtención de información tridimensional real y la buena coordinación SEM-LSCM.

  5. Manejando por Santiago: Explorando el uso de automóviles por parte de habitantes de bajos ingresos desde una óptica de movilidad sustentable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN URETA ICAZA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, los regímenes actuales de movilidad urbana cotidiana y sus efectos sociales y medioambientales han sido materia de debate y preocupación pública. En el presente artículo pretendemos explorar el tema a través de un caso de estudio específico: el análisis de los motivos y percepciones detrás de la adquisición y el uso de automóviles por parte de habitantes de bajos ingresos de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile. En primer lugar veremos cómo puede ser entendido el automóvil y el tipo de movilidad urbana que genera desde una óptica de teoría social y urbana. En segundo lugar, presentaremos algunas tendencias generales de uso de automóviles en Santiago. Luego se analizarán en detalle los principales argumentos detrás de la adquisición, uso y valoración del automóvil por parte de un grupo de usuarios de bajos ingresos de la ciudad. Finalmente entregaremos, a partir de los análisis presentados, algunas ideas que pueden contribuir al diseño de políticas públicas que incentiven formas de movilidad urbana sustentables en la ciudad.In recent years, existingforms of daily urban mobility and their social and environmental impacts have become issues of debate and public concern. In this article we explore this issue through a specific case study: the analysis of the motives and perceptions that lie behind the acquisition and use of cars by low income residents in Santiago de Chile. Firstly we analyze how the car and the type of urban mobility that is generated are understood in terms of social and urban theory. Secondly, we present some general tendencies of car use in Santiago. Next we look in detail at the principal arguments behind acquisition, use and valuing of the vehicle by a group of low income users in the city. Finally, we offer, based on the analysis, some ideas that can contribute to the design of public policies that incentivize forms of sustainable urban mobility in the city.

  6. Síndrome neuroléptica maligna de paciente em uso de olanzapina Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in patient using olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Lins de Medeiros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome neuroléptica maligna (SNM é uma reação idiossincrásica rara, extremamente grave e potencialmente fatal ao uso de antipsicóticos, tanto típicos quanto atípicos, bem como drogas de ação dopaminérgica. O diagnóstico fundamenta-se em critérios clínicos e laboratoriais e exclusão de outras condições médicas gerais ou psiquiátricas que melhor expliquem os sintomas. Segundo o DSM-IV, os principais critérios são rigidez muscular grave e temperatura elevada, associadas ao uso de medicação antipsicótica. Foi relatado um caso de paciente com 30 anos manifestando história de transtorno afetivo bipolar, que apresentou sinais e sintomas consistentes com SNM, após três semanas de tratamento com olanzapina. Esse relato visa a discutir o risco da SNM ao uso de antipsicóticos atípicos, bem como a importância de diagnóstico precoce e intervenção imediata.Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is an idiosyncratic, serious and potentially fatal disorder observed in patients who receive treatment with neuroleptics, typical and atypical, as well as medications with dopaminergic effects. The diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory criteria and the exclusion of other general medical or psychiatric conditions that could best explain the symptoms. The main criteria according to DSM-IV are severe rigidity and fever associated with the use of antipsychotic medication. We present a case of a 30-year-old female with history of bipolar affective disorder that developed signs and symptoms consistent with NMS after three weeks of treatment with Olanzapine. This case aims to address the risk of NMS associated atypical antipsychotic, as well as the importance of an early diagnosis and immediate intervention.

  7. Neuromielitis óptica con alta expresión de acuaporina-4 y anticuerpos anti-acuaporina-4 positivos en suero

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    Alejandra Báez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de anticuerpos IgG en suero, con blanco en los canales de acuaporina-4, es específica de la neuromielitis óptica (NMO. El 60% de los pacientes con NMO presentan lesiones cerebrales en la resonancia magnética (RM; en un 8% (mayoría niños estas lesiones se consideraron "atípicas". Presentamos dos pacientes con NMO y lesiones en el SNC de alta expresión de acuaporina-4. Caso 1: varón de 50 años, que comenzó con pérdida de visión en ojo derecho (OD. Recibió tratamiento empírico con metilprednisolona 1 g/d x 3 días. Al mes presentó dolor generalizado y hemiparesia derecha; nuevamente recibió metilprednisolona 1 g/d x 5 días e IgG IV 400 mg/kg/d × 5 días. Recuperó la deambulación persistiendo el dolor y fenómenos paroxísticos en los 4 miembros. Potenciales evocados visuales: P100, ojo izquierdo (OI 123 mseg. OD sin respuesta. La RM de cerebro (FLAIR mostró hiperintensidad en nervio óptico derecho, hipotálamo y comisura blanca anterior. RM cervical: lesión medular extensa (5 cuerpos vertebrales. Caso 2: mujer de 53 años, con disminución de la agudeza visual en ambos ojos y parestesias en miembros inferiores que remitieron espontáneamente. Evolucionó al mes con cuadriparesia e incontinencia esfinteriana. Recibió metilprednisolona 1 g/d x 5 días, sin mejoría. Potenciales evocados visuales: P100 OI 124 mseg. OD 128 mseg. RM cerebro: (FLAIR hiperintensidad hipotalámica y periacueductal. RM cervical: lesión medular extensa (7 cuerpos vertebrales. Anticuerpos anti-acuaporina-4 positivos en ambos pacientes (inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Las lesiones consideradas "atípicas", como aquí, en sitios con alta densidad de proteínas canales de agua AQP4 deberán considerarse para el diagnóstico diferencial.

  8. Tromboflebite séptica da veia porta secundária à apendicite Septic thrombophlebitis of the portal vein as a complication of appendicitis

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    Olival Cirilo Lucena da Fonseca-Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A tromboflebite séptica da veia porta ou pileflebite é evento raro e associado com alta mortalidade e seu diagnóstico requer a demonstração de trombo portal. RELATO DO CASO: Mulher de 19 anos com história de dor abdominal há 40 dias com piora há 10 foi admitida no hospital. Referia dor de forte intensidade em hipocôndrio direito, vômitos, febre, e calafrios. No exame físico de entrada tinha sinais e sintomas de sepse abdominal. Submetida à laparotomia exploradora foi encontrado abscesso hepático e apêndice ileiocecal rôto e bloqueado. Realizada apendicectomia e drenagem de abscesso, que evoluiu com necessidade de re-laparotomia no 6º dia e drenagem de novos abscessos hepáticos. Após longa internação, recebeu alta e no seguimento de 6 meses estava bem. CONCLUSÃO: A pileflebite é complicação rara, porém grave, devendo ser rapidamente diagnosticada e o seu manejo multidisciplinar instituído prontamente.BACKGROUND:Portal vein septic thrombophlebitis or pylephlebitis is a rare event associated with high mortality rates and its' diagnosis requires portal thrombosis demonstration. CASE REPORT: Nineteen year-old female was admitted to the hospital with a history of abdominal pain for the last 40 days, worsening for the last 10. The patient complained of intense and strong pain in the right hypochondrium, vomit, fever and cold chills. During physical examination the patient showed signs and symptoms of abdominal sepsis. She was then submitted to exploratory laparotomy, during which a hepatic abscess and blocked and ruptured ileocecal appendix was found. Appendicectomy and drainage of the abcess was performed, having the necessity of a second laparotomy in the sixth day and further drainage of new formatted hepatic abscesses. After a long period of admission, the patient was discharged and was well following the next six months. CONCLUSION: Pylephlebitis is a rare and severe complication, which has the urgency of

  9. Ciencia de superficies e ingeniería de películas de diamante: de las propiedades morfológicas a las ópticas

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    Miguel Apátiga

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Para efectuar la caracterización morfológica y óptica en películas de diamante se utilizó la microscopía de barrido electrónico (MBE y espectroscopias de transformada de Fourier infrarroja (TFI y Raman. Para esto se depositaron diversas películas de diamante usando la flama de un soplete de oxígeno-acetileno a una temperatura del substrato de 800°C y en atmósfera abierta. Las micrografías MBE muestran que la morfología y espesor de las películas varían según las condiciones empleadas en su obtención. También hay información detallada acerca de la estructura en la superficie del diamante obtenida por espectroscopia infrarroja. De esta manera, se analiza la naturaleza de las especies químicamente absorbidas durante el proceso de crecimiento como resultado de la reacción química: C2H2 + O2 Æ 2CO + H2, llevada a cabo en los primeros instantes de la deposición. Además, se estudió la calidad de las películas mediante espectroscopia Raman, una de las técnicas más sensibles y poderosas, ya que permite distinguir las diferentes fases del carbón. Con esta técnica se obtuvo una banda en 1332 cm-1 que es característica de la estructura sp3 del diamante, la ausencia de señales alrededor de 1560 cm-1 es característico de las películas de diamante de buena calidad. Se presenta también una breve discusión del papel que juegan las especies químicamente absorbidas en los primeros instantes en que se produce la deposición del diamante y durante su proceso de crecimiento

  10. Impacto de la Adopción del SNC en la Óptica del Preparador de la Información Financiera

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    Catarina Filipa Reis Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo estudiar el impacto del Sistema de Normalización Contable (SNC – nueva normativa contable portuguesa – en el modelo de información financiera, en la profesión de Técnico Oficial de Cuentas (TOC y en las empresas, en la perspectiva del preparador de la información financiera. Se inicia con una revisión de la literatura de los estudios más significativos sobre los impactos e implicaciones causados por la transición de normativa contable en un proceso de armonización y acerca de la percepción de los preparadores de la información sobre la mudanza de referencial contable. Para tal efecto utilizamos una metodología cualitativa, basada en el análisis documental sobre la materia en estudio y de diplomas de contabilidad. En el sentido de desarrollar nuestro estudio empírico, sometimos una investigación por cuestionario a los preparadores de la información financiera, de modo a obtener sus opiniones acerca de los impactos de la adopción del nuevo modelo contable en las vertientes enunciadas. En la óptica del preparador, existe una gran confianza en la nueva normativa, dado que esta responde a las actuales necesidades de relato financiero, tiene en cuenta las características y la realidad de las empresas portuguesas, permite la posibilidad de comparación a varios niveles, es más ventajoso al nivel de los costes de preparación de la información, más exigente y moderno, mejora la calidad de la divulgación de la información e implica beneficios para la reputación de la profesión de TOC. No obstante, existe el riesgo de dificultad de comprensibilidad por parte de los usuarios de la información, dificultad de que los gestores perciban las consecuencias del SNC en sus demostraciones financieras (DF y de que la evolución en el modelo de relato no sea acompañada por alteraciones de gestión del negocio.

  11. Terapia celular en la necrosis aséptica de la cabeza del fémur en pacientes con drepanocitosis

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    Aymara Maria Baganet-Cobas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La necrosis aséptica de la cabeza femoral (NACF es una causa importante de morbilidad en pacientes jóvenes con drepanocitosis. En su tratamiento ningún método es completamente satisfactorio. Investigaciones recientes sugieren que la terapia celular puede contribuir a la reparación de tejidos como el óseo resultando útiles en el proceso de osteogénesis y angiogénesis. Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad del implante de concentrado de células mononucleares autólogas de médula ósea (CMN-MO en el tratamiento de la NACF en pacientes con drepanocitosis. Método: se incluyeron 18 pacientes, con una edad promedio de 32,8 años (rango entre 21 y 46 años, con un seguimiento mínimo de dos años. A todos se les realizó descompresión de la cabeza femoral por perforación e implante de CMN-MO. A estas células se les cuantificó por citometría de flujo expresión de moléculas CD34, CD45, CD117, HLADR, CD29 y CD14. Resultados: el promedio de viabilidad del concentrado implantado fue del 97%. Fenotípicamente las CMN-MO mostraron un patrón de expresión asociado a poblaciones de células madre adherentes del estroma medular CD34-/CD45-/DR-/CD29+/CD14-/CD117-. Los mejores resultados clínicos y radiográficos se observaron en pacientes en estadios iniciales (I o II de la enfermedad. En 12 caderas (72,9 % tratadas, los pacientes no refirieron ningún dolor a los dos años posteriores al tratamiento. Se obtuvieron buenos resultados radiológicos en siete pacientes (41,2 %. Tres pacientes (17,6 % requirieron el remplazo total de cadera. Conclusiones:el implante de CMN-MO para los primeros estadios de la NACF, es un tratamiento útil en los pacientes con drepanocitosis. El método empleado es relativamente simple y poco costoso.

  12. Modification in body weight associated with antiepileptic drugs Alteração de peso corpóreo associado às drogas antiepilépticas

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    Camilla N. De Gaspari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptic drugs (AED may cause body weight changes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dietary habits and body weight associated with AED in epileptic patients. METHOD: Sixty-six patients were subjected to two interviews, and had their weight and body mass index calculated and compared at both times, interval between six to eight months. RESULTS: It was observed that 59.1% showed weight gain. The patients who had no weight gain had a greater proportion of individuals who engaged in some form of physical activity. However, of the 45 patients who maintained their initial dietary and medication pattern, 75.6% recorded a weight gain. Weight gain was seen in 66.7% of patients on carbamazepine (n=18, 60% on valproate (n=5, 50% on carbamazepine+clobazam treatment (n=14, and 58.3% of patients on other(s polytherapy (n=12. CONCLUSION: The patient should be alerted to possible weight gain, and should be advised about dieting and participating in regular physical activity.Drogas antiepilépticas (DAE podem causar alteração do peso corpóreo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o hábito alimentar e do peso corpóreo associado às DAE em pacientes epilépticos. MÉTODO: Sessenta e seis pacientes foram submetidos a duas entrevistas, e tiveram peso e índice de massa corpórea (IMC calculados e comparados nos dois momentos, com intervalo de 6 a 8 meses. RESULTADOS: Apresentaram aumento de peso 59,1% dos pacientes. Porém, os pacientes que não tiveram ganho de peso apresentaram maior proporção de indivíduos desenvolvendo alguma atividade física. Enquanto que dentre os 45 que mantiveram o padrão alimentar e medicação inicial 75,6% registraram ganho de peso. Observou-se ganho de peso em 66,7% dos pacientes com carbamazepina (n=18; 60% com valproato (n=5; 50% com carbamazepina e clobazam (n=14; 58,3% dos pacientes com politerapia (n=12. CONCLUSÃO: Deve-se alertar o paciente sobre o ganho de peso, orientar quanto à dieta alimentar e, principalmente, incentivar atividade f

  13. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Spain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of Granada jointly organised a course called "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" in Granada, Spain, from 28 October to 9 November, 2012.   The course attracted over 200 applicants, of whom 139 were selected to attend. The students were of 25 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, China, Guatemala and India. The intensive programme comprised 38 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the students was very positive, praising the expertise of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. CERN's Director-General, Rolf Heuer, gave a public lecture at the Parque de las Ciencias entitled "The Large Hadron Collider: Unveiling the Universe". In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity to visit the well...

  14. The problems of asbestosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, F

    1979-04-01

    About 50 cases of asbestosis have been descirbed in Spain from 1948 through 1974. Since 1975 the Instituto Territorial de Barcelona, Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, has initiated a survey of all the industries with an asbestosis risk in the Barcelona area. Nearly 300 cases of asbestosis have been detected to date. Given the poor hygienic conditions of most of the industries, with an asbestosis risk, and the considerably large number of exposed people, it can easily be predicted that a rapid increase of the incidence of the disease in the years to come will occur. Most of the observed cases in Barcelona were from two fibrocement industries. Of a total of 1003 workers examined, 247 (about 25%) had asbestosis.

  15. Food-related life style in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    a lot of energy into shopping and cooking, both of which are highly planned. These food consumers go after high quality natural product keep a watchful eye on prices. 9. The enthusiastic food consumers, followed by the rational food consumers, care most about ecology, animal welfare and genetic......Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European...... food consumers, however, they are also very conservative, both in their choice and use of food. 3. Spanish food consumers can be divided into five segments, which differ both in the way they use food and in the importance it has for their attainment of central life values. The segments can only...

  16. Saint Benedict of Palermo in Spain

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    Bernard VINCENT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the devotions to the black Saints, the one of which Benedict of Palermo was the object in Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries was the most remarkable. Born near Palermo to African slaves, this lay brother of a Sicilian franciscan convent, died in the odor of sanctity in 1589. His immediate popularity, encouraged both by the Church and by the Hispanic monarchy, was considerable within the communities of slaves and free blacks. Benedict was beatified in 1743, event which was followed by numerous celebrations and his eventual canonization in 1807. The fervour which surrounded him fade gradually because of the competition represented by the devotion to other black saints and by the very visible decline of slavery. However, thanks to the efforts of the franciscan order, the worship of Saint Benoît of Palermo continued until our days, particularly in Galicia.

  17. Biogerontology in Spain: the most significant studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, Consuelo; Gil, Pedro; Viña, Jose

    2011-02-01

    Here we give an overview of the past and ongoing research in the biology of ageing in Spain. Some of the main topics being investigated are those related to oxidative stress and aging. One of the main findings is the implication of mitochondria in the age-associated oxidative stress. Nutritional modulation of aging is another topic which has been dealt with, and one of the main findings is that methionine restriction has a role in longevity extension. Regarding to hormones and aging, is important to highlight the role of estrogens in protecting females against oxidative stress, and the health-associated effects of melatonin. Finally, molecular biologists have found new age-associated genes by showing changes in longevity of genetically manipulated mice.

  18. Spain: from the decree to the proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Diego

    1987-06-01

    This is one in a series of four country reports published together in the Hastings Center Report. Gracia, a bioethicist, compares health care policy before and after Franco's dictatorship. Under Franco, compulsory health insurance was enacted, and modern hospitals were built at the expense of primary services. Patient care was governed by the principle of beneficence "in its extreme and paternalistic sense." Medicine in the democratic post-Franco period has reflected changes in Spanish society as political freedom has led to an increased moral pluralism and the formation of public policy through debate and compromise. Gracia identifies three bioethical issues where changes in attitudes and policies have been the greatest: resource allocation, abortion, and organ transplantation. He concludes his report by briefly describing the role bioethics plays in public policy formation in Spain today.

  19. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano;

    2012-01-01

    Lightning-caused fire occurrence has been modelled for two different Spanish regions, Madrid andAragon, based on meteorological, terrain, and vegetation variables. The model was built on two very contrasting regions, one presenting low number of lightning-caused fires whereas the other presented...... a high occurrence. The research was conducted between May and September, which happens to be the most lightning-fire prone period in Spain, for a three year interval starting in 2002 up to 2004. A time-invariant model for lightning-caused fire occurrence was developed for each region at a spatial...... resolution of 3 km ×3 km. The probabilistic models were based on the logistic regression, aiming to explain the probability of having at least a lightning-fire during the three year period. Results showed that the number of thunderstorms during the three-year period was the most significantvariable...

  20. The social rights of immigrants in Spain

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    Marco Aparicio-Wilhelmi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available That Spain insufficiently protects the social rights of immigrants to its territory is clearly set out in this review of Spanish legal sources (the Spanish Constitution, international law, European community law, and internal immigration law. Judicial incapacity manifests itself in the face of the consolidation of a social model of development that has configured the foreign worker essentially as a piece of the productive machinery in the frame of a highly “competitive economy”. The legal systems of receiving countries, in general, clearly choose a “labouralization” approach to migratory politics: only in exceptional cases are non-employed foreigners admitted to residence. In these countries the migratory option is subordinated to the needs of the labour market.

  1. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

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    Domínguez G.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.

  2. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

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    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  3. [Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  4. [Intensive care services resources in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M C; León, C; Cuñat, J; del Nogal, F

    2013-10-01

    To identify the resources related to the care of critically ill patients in Spain, which are available in the units dependent of the Services of Intensive Care Medicine (ICM) or other services/specialties, analyzing their distribution according to characteristics of the hospitals and by autonomous communities. Prospective observational study. Spanish hospitals. Heads of the Services of ICM. Number of units and beds for critically ill patients and functional dependence. The total number of registries obtained with at least one Service of ICM was 237, with a total of 100,198 hospital beds. Level iii (43.5%) and level ii (35%) hospitals predominated. A total of 73% were public hospitals and 55.3% were non-university centers. The total number of beds for adult critically ill patients, was 4,738 (10.3/100,000 inhabitants). The services of ICM registered had available 258 intensive are units (ICUs), with 3,363 beds, mainly polyvalent ICUs (81%) and 43 intermediate care units. The number of patients attended in the Services of ICM in 2008 was 174,904, with a percentage of occupation of 79.5% A total of 228 units attending critically ill patients, which are dependent of other services with 2,233 beds, 772 for pediatric patients or neonates, were registered. When these last specialized units are excluded, there was a marked predominance of postsurgical units followed by coronary and cardiac units. Seventy one per cent of beds available in the Critical Care Units in Spain are characterized by attending severe adult patients, are dependent of the services of ICM, and most of them are polyvalent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Number and viability of parasite influence seizure frequency in children with neurocysticercosis Número e viabilidade do parasita influenciam a frequência de crises epilépticas em crianças com neurocisticercose

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    Lisiane S. Ferreira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between CT findings - number and the viability phase of the parasites - and the seizure frequency in children with neurocysticercosis before and short-term after antiepileptic drug (AED introduction. We only found a significant interaction between stage of parasitic infection and number of lesions on seizure frequency after AED treatment. Patients with more than five lesions on active or transitional stages had higher seizure frequency predicting a worse short-term prognosis.No presente estudo, investigou-se a relação entre os achados tomográficos - número e estágio de viabilidade dos parasitas - e a frequência de crises epilépticas em crianças com neurocisticercose antes e logo após a introdução do tratamento com drogas antiepilépticas. Encontramos que a interação entre o estágio do parasita e o número de lesões influenciam significativamente a frequência de crises somente após o tratamento. Pacientes com mais do que cinco lesões em fase ativa ou transicional tiveram maior frequência de crises predizendo um pior prognóstico.

  6. Técnica de refixação escleral via pars plana de háptica luxada para o vítreo em paciente com transplante de córnea

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    Grazielle Fialho de Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste relato de caso é descrever uma nova técnica de refixação escleral, unilateral, de uma háptica cuja sutura escleral prévia rompeu-se, levando ao deslocamento da lente intraocular para o vítreo. Trata-se de um olho submetido anteriormente a dois transplantes de córnea, em que se buscou minimizar a manipulação intraocular e o trauma cirúrgico. Esta técnica consiste em realizar o procedimento em olho fechado, utilizando a mesma lente de fixação, sem a necessidade de externalizar as hápticas ou do uso de instrumentos cirúrgicos especiais. A perda de células endoteliais após o procedimento foi similar à observada após a facoemulsificação em pacientes com ceratoplastia penetrante. A técnica mostrou-se simples, segura, e, portanto, reprodutível, além de ser menos invasiva do que os métodos já descritos, permitindo a reabilitação visual precoce do paciente.

  7. Effect of lateralized epileptic discharges on the thought flow Efeito de descargas epilépticas lateralizadas no fluxo do pensamento

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    Paulo Bueno de Mendonça

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Pauses in verbal expression of thought flow in patients with partial epilepsy was studied in order to achieve a best comprehension of brain interhemispheric influences. METHOD: We studied thirty nine patients with partial epileptic seizures and twenty four volunteers (control group. Free association of ideas was used as a method to stablish the thought flow, starting with a stimulus word (subject name that must be followed by spontaneous and consecutive word-phrase. Patients were instructed to say any thought that came to their minds without any kind of censoring. Subject responses were recorded through a PC keyboard and time intervals (pauses between each word-phrase were processed by a software developed for this purpose. RESULTS: Time intervals reduction among associations in right lesional group were compared to left lesional, right non-lesional and control groups. An increase of associative time intervals was observed in the right non-lesional group compared to left non-lesional group. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest a possible inhibitory inter-hemispheric function of the right hemisphere modulating verbal expression of the thought flow. Considering the hypothesis of the inter-hemispheric inhibition by the right hemisphere on left hemisphere, we admit that in epileptic patients with right hemispheric lesion there is an attenuation of the inter-hemispheric inhibition and an increase in thought flow, whereas in patients without a lesion but a paroxysmal epileptic activity in right temporal lobe there is an exacerbation of this inhibitory function and consequent reduction in the thought flow.OBJETIVO: Foram estudadas as pausas na expressão verbal do pensamento em pacientes com epilepsia parcial a fim de estabelecer uma melhor compreensão das influências interhemisféricas cerebrais. MÉTODO: foram estudados 39 pacientes com crises epilépticas parciais e 24 voluntários (grupo controle. A associação livre de idéias foi usada como m

  8. Trifurcula pallidella (Duponchel), new for Spain (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Trifurcula (Trifurcula) pallidella (Duponchel, 1843) is recorded for the first time from Spain, Andalusia. Previous records were misidentifications. Male genitalia are illustrated and a revised distribution map is provided. A few records of Trifurcula (Levarchama) species from the Annotated catalogu

  9. [Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions.

  10. Pennsylvanian bryozoans from the Cantabrian Mountains (northwestern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, A.; Winkler Prins, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    Bryozoans from six Pennsylvanian localities in the Cantabrian Mountains (northwestern Spain) are described. The faunas include 54 species, of which two are new, Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) peculiaris sp. nov. and Bashkirella minor sp. nov. Bryozoans are represented mainly by fenestrates (27

  11. The Other Women: Students of Literature in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigvert, Lidia

    2000-01-01

    Provides an account of engaging women in Spain who come from uneducated backgrounds in literacy circles through which Freirean radicalization approaches are being effectively pursued. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  12. Madrid Symposium Promotes China-Spain Local Government Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>With the concerted efforts of the CPAFFC and the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces (SFMP), the China-Spain Local Government Cooperation Symposium was held in Madrid on March 24, 2010.

  13. The Other Women: Students of Literature in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigvert, Lidia

    2000-01-01

    Provides an account of engaging women in Spain who come from uneducated backgrounds in literacy circles through which Freirean radicalization approaches are being effectively pursued. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  14. Alcohol advertising in written mass media in Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montes-Santiago, J; Alvarez Muñiz, M L; Baz Lomba, A

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol advertising is a powerful factor of incitation to consumption. We analyzed the alcohol advertising, especially that youth-focused, in written mass media in Spain during the period 2002-2006...

  15. Raptor ecotoxicology in Spain: a review on persistent environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Antonio J; Calvo, José F; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; Martínez, José E

    2008-09-01

    Initial studies on the pressure from environmental contaminants on raptor populations in Spain date back to the 1980s, and they have been carried out from a range of viewpoints using a range of sentinel raptor species. However, there is no national monitoring scheme, and therefore the research carried out has been sporadic both spatially and temporally. The exposure to metals has not varied over time, except in the case of lead, whose concentration in eggs and tissues has diminished. In general, the concentrations of metals detected in raptor samples from Spain are generally low and not sufficient to produce toxic effects. Excepting DDT and DDE, most organochlorine-based pesticides in raptors from Spain have diminished over the last 2 decades. The concentrations of DDE found in the eggs of various species could in part explain problems in the reproductive success of raptors in Spain.

  16. [Antibacterial activity of some lichens from southern Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, J G; Saenz, M T; Garcia, M D

    1989-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of some lichens from south Spain has been studied. High activity against Gram+ bacteria has been observed, although Parmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri and Usnea sp. are also active against Gram- bacteria.

  17. Fifth Meeting of China-Spain Forum Held in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The Fifth Meeting of China-Spain Forum (CSF) was held in Chengdu, Sichuan Province from April 28 to 29. Leading delegates of the Chinese side including Yang Rudai, former vice chairman of the National Committee of the

  18. Geothermal Resources in Spain; Recurssos geothermicos en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de la Noceda Marquez, C.

    2009-07-01

    A general view on the geothermal resources is presented and the basic concepts of geothermal fields and their classification, the different possibilities of geothermal energy utilization as well as a general panoramic of geothermal energy in Spain. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. The XIV International Geological Congress of 1926 in Spain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FranciscoJ.Ayala-Carcedo; AntonioPerejón; LuisJordá

    2005-01-01

    The XIV IGC was held in Spain in 1926, marking a recovery trend in the Congress after the First Worm War in terms of the number of participants and the number of represented countries. It was Spain that benefited most from the XIV IGC and probably never again there has geology received so much public and official attention.This paper is one of a series of articles on the history of the International Congress.

  20. EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IN RURAL AREAS OF EUROPE AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeli Santamaría Luna

    2015-12-01

    In this short article will present data and sources, but above all be evident that the low presence of rural factor in education and that the rural / urban divide still exists. Referencians Europe cited Spain and the start of the indicators of quality of life and early school leaving is estimated in Spain, rural or not, 2020 in relation to the proposed European Territorial Agenda 2020 target of 15%. Besides conclusions and proposals to be referred.

  1. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  2. Fourth Meeting of China-Spain Forum Held in Madrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Chairman Hu Qili and Executive Chairman Chen Haosu of the Chinese Committee of the China-Spain Forum(CSF) led a Chinese delegation to attend the Fourth Meeting of the CSF in Madrid from November 27 to 28,2007.The meeting with the theme of "Harmony,Development and Gaining Win-Win Results" was jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC,the CSF Chinese Committee,the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Spain China Council Foundation.

  3. Population-based multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain: rationale and study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Castaño-Vinyals

    2015-07-01

    Discussion: This study, conducted within the Spanish Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP, is a unique initiative to evaluate etiological factors for common cancers and will promote cancer research and prevention in Spain.

  4. Sudden hearing loss: National survey in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo, Elizabeth; Hernández-García, Estefanía; Herrera, Mayte; García Berrocal, José Ramón; García Arumí, Ana; Durio, Enrique; Plaza, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to identify the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in the different ENT Departments of Spain with respect to sudden deafness. We wanted to establish a basis to help to create a new nation-wide consensus, unifying treatment, diagnostic and follow-up criteria for this disease. We carried out an anonymous Internet survey, addressing Spanish ENT doctors nation-wide (n=2,029), gathering in 33 questions different aspects about diagnostic criteria, additional tests, treatment procedures and prognostic factors in sudden deafness, according to the different protocols and experience of the participants in the survey. A total of 293 Spanish ENT doctors (14%) took part anonymously. In relation to diagnostic criteria, is the most noteworthy was the requisite of a confirmed neurosensorial loss (91.1%) followed by "initiated in less than three days" (75%) and 3 consecutive frequencies affected (76.4%). More than half of the participants requested an MRI of the IAC/CPA (68.7%) and 88.2% used gadolinium in this test. The prognostic factor most frequently considered was delay in commencement of treatment onset (84.8%). As far as treatment of primary cases, most of the responders agreed on the use of corticosteroids (99.7%). Oral administration was the most widely used (66%), followed by intravenous (29.6%) and intratympanic (1.4%) administration. Ninety-two percent had not had any major complications with systemic steroids. Intratympanic treatments were used by 70% of responders for rescue in failure. In Spain there is currently a significant disparity of concepts regarding the diagnosis of sudden deafness, and more agreement as to using steroids as their treatment. This highlights the need to implement measures to promote a better approach, which would be homogeneous and consensual, to this condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  5. Escherichia coli enteroagregativa como agente provocador de diarreia persistente: modelo experimental utilizando microscopia óptica de luz Escherichia coli enteroagregativa como agente provocador de diarrea persistente: modelo experimental utilizando microscopia óptica de luz Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a cause of persistent diarrhea: an experimental model using light microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacy Alves B. de Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar interações de amostras de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa com tecido intestinal humano, a fim de documentar potenciais alterações em diferentes regiões do trato digestivo. MÉTODOS: Amostras de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa isoladas das fezes de crianças com diarreia persistente e a amostra protótipo 042, isolada de uma criança com diarreia em Lima, no Peru (controle positivo, foram analisadas por microscopia óptica de luz após semeadura em cultura de orgão in vitro de fragmentos de mucosa ileal e colônica. Foram analisadas as interações entre as diferentes cepas de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa e as mucosas ileal e colônica. RESULTADOS: A análise por microscopia óptica de luz indicou associação destes micro-organismos com o epitélio, provocando alterações. As cepas estudadas aderiram a ambas as regiões avaliadas (intestino delgado distal e grosso e causaram alterações, especialmente naquelas áreas onde interagiram diretamente com o epitélio. No íleo, algumas regiões mostraram internalização secundária. CONCLUSÕES: Esses agentes podem causar diarreia persistente por meio de alterações no intestino delgado, no qual ocorrem as funções digestivo-absortivas. As lesões inflamatórias descritas na mucosa colônica poderiam explicar a colite mostrada em algumas crianças infectadas por Escherichia coli enteroagregativa.OBJETIVO: Evaluar interacciones de muestras de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa (EAEC con tejido intestinal humano, a fin de documentar potenciales alteraciones en distintas regiones del tracto digestivo (intestino delgado distal e intestino grueso y definir, con eso, su rol en la persistencia del proceso diarreico. MÉTODOS: Muestras de EAEC aislada de las heces de niños con diarrea persistente y la muestra prototipo 042, aislada de un niño con diarrea en Lima, Perú (control positivo fueron analizadas por microscopía óptica de luz (ML después de siembra en cultura

  6. Avaliação do tratamento da artrite séptica do quadril Treatment evaluation of septic arthritis of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastácio Kotzias Neto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Revisão dos resultados do tratamento de 46 crianças, 47 quadris, com artrite séptica do quadril e a investigação da relação entre os fatores prognósticos e os resultados clínicos obtidos. Métodos: Foram classificados, do ponto de vista clínico e radiográfico, de acordo com as classificações de Hunka e a de Choi, e distribuídos em grupos para estudo estatístico. O grupo 1 foi formado por pacientes classificados como tipo IA, e o grupo 2 pelos pacientes tipos IB ao IVB. A doença acometeu 30 meninos, sendo o lado direito comprometido em 26 crianças e uma delas com acometimento bilateral. A média de idade na apresentação foi de 50 meses, sendo maior no grupo 1 (p = 0,023. A cultura do líquido sinovial foi positiva em 23 pacientes e, dentre elas, em 18 cresceram Staphylococcus aureus. O tempo de sintomas até o tratamento cirúrgico teve média de 3,5 dias, sendo a espera no grupo 1 menor (p = 0,03. Resultados: Quarenta e seis pacientes, 47 quadris, que compareceram ao Ambulatório da Ortopedia do HIJG, e responderam ao protocolo, submetidos a exame físico e radiografias da bacia, além da revisão de dados do prontuário. O resultado do tratamento foi satisfatório na grande maioria dos casos. Conclusão: Pacientes jovens, que, na apresentação, não claudicavam, com cultura do líquido sinovial positiva para Staphylococcus aureus e demora na instituição do tratamento cirúrgico constituíram fatores de pior prognóstico nos resultados.Objective: Presenting a retrospective review of the results of treatment of children with septic arthritis of the hip and the investigation of the relationship between prognostic factors and the clinical results obtained. Methods: The patients evaluated (46 comprising 47 hips, who attended Orthopedics HIJG´s ambulatory clinic, answered a questionnaire, underwent physical examinations and radiographs of the pelvis, as well as the review of data from medical records. The patients

  7. Devic’s neuromyelitis optica: a critical review Neuromielite óptica de Devic: revisão crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Devic's neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating and necrotizing disease characterized by predominant involvement of the optic nerves and spinal cord. In Asian countries relapsing NMO has been known as opticospinal multiple sclerosis. It has long been debated if NMO is a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS or a distinct disease. Recent studies have shown that NMO has more frequently a relapsing course, and results from attack to aquaporin-4 which is the dominant water channel in the central nervous system, located in foot processes of the astrocytes. Distinctive pathological features of NMO include perivascular deposition of IgG and complement in the perivascular space, granulocyte and eosinophil infiltrates and hyalinization of the vascular walls. These features distinguish NMO from other demyelinating diseases such as MS and acute demyelinating encephalomyelopathy. An IgG-antibody that binds to aquaporin-4, named NMO-IgG has high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have revealed that more frequently there is a long spinal cord lesion that extends through three or more vertebral segments in length. Brain MRI lesions atypical for MS are found in the majority of cases. Treatment in the acute phase includes intravenous steroids and plasma exchange therapy. Immunosupressive agents are recommended for prophylaxis of relapses.Neuromielite óptica ou doença de Devic (NMO é uma doença inflamatória com desmielinização e necrose envolvendo preferencialmente os nervos ópticos e a medula espinal. Desde sua descrição inicial tem havido controvérsia se a NMO é uma variante da esclerose múltipla (EM ou se é uma entidade independente. Na Ásia a doença é conhecida como esclerose múltipla óptico-espinal. Recentes avanços tem demonstrado que na maioria dos casos a NMO é recorrente e resulta de alterações inflamatórias por ataque à aquaporina-4, uma proteína localizada nos p

  8. Teleoperación de un vehículo remoto en un medio de acceso inalámbrico mediante el uso de una interfaz háptica Remote vehicle teleoperation through a haptic interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arys Carrasquilla Batista

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La teleoperación permite que el ser humano pueda llevar a cabo ciertas tareas en lugares muy lejanos, de difícil acceso o de condiciones hostiles para la presencia de un operador. Con este proyecto se logró teleoperar un vehículo remoto por medio del protocolo de comunicación Bluetooth, para lo cual se adaptó una interfaz háptica (Novint Falcon. Desde la interfaz, el operador puede enviar la consigna de movimiento y, además, obtener sensaciones conforme a la información de los sensores incluidos al sistema. Como vehículo remoto se utilizó un Lego Mindstorms con capacidad de comunicación Bluetooth, al cual se incorporó un sensor de contacto y otro de ultrasonido con el fin de percibir en la interfaz háptica la retroalimentación de fuerzas. A una computadora estándar se le dio capacidad de comunicación Bluetooth por medio de un adaptador USB, desde la cual se ejecuta un programa creado en C++ para controlar las acciones de la interfaz háptica, enviar los comandos de movimiento al vehículo y recibir la información de los sensores, la cual reproduce sensaciones al operador.Teleoperation allows human beings to carry out certain tasks in places far away, inaccessible or with hostile conditions for the presence of an operator. In this project a remote vehicle is teleoperated using a bluetooth wireless connection, to accomplish this an haptic interface (Novint Falcon was used. The operator can give movement instructions to the vehicle and obtain sensations, according to the information received from the sensors connected to the system. The remote vehicle was a Lego Mindstorms with bluetooth communication capabilities, a touch sensor and ultrasonic sensor were included in order to perceive reflection of forces through the haptic interface. A USB adapter for bluetooth communication was added to a standard computer; a program in C++ is executed over this computer to control the haptic interface, send movement commands to the vehicle and

  9. Modelo test-bed de simulación y evaluación de criptografía de curva elíptica en redes IPv6 de próxima generación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Enrique Vera Parra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, las redes móviles e inalámbricas de nueva generación, tales como las redes de área personal IPv6 de baja potencia (6LoWPAN, redes de sensores inalámbricos sobre IPv6 y redes móviles IPv6 jerárquicas se encuentran bajo rigurosa investigación y desarrollo, pues representan el paso por seguir en la evolución de las redes Machine-to-Machine (M2M, al tiempo que apoyan el acceso de banda ancha de la próxima generación de tecnologías y sistemas inteligentes sobre Internet futuro. Estas redes de nueva generación imponen restricciones en cuanto al poder de procesamiento, ancho de banda y recursos de energía, lo que re¬presenta una gran limitante en la implementación de mecanismos de seguridad. En este sentido, en lo últimos años han surgido diversas propuestas para la administración de claves, procedimientos de firma digital y cifrado de datos basados en curvas elípticas e híper-elípticas, que logran niveles de seguridad equivalentes a los algoritmos convencionales basados en algoritmos Diffie-Hellman y Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA, pero que reducen la longitud de clave y, por ende, los recursos computacionales y de red asociados. Este artículo examina los algoritmos basados en criptografía de curvas elípticas (ECC y su aplicación a redes móviles e inalámbricas de nueva generación habilitadas para IPv6. Así mismo, describe un modelo de simulación para la evaluación de ECC, donde se comparan los recursos computacionales necesarios y las limitaciones en mecanismos ligeros de seguridad.

  10. TOMOGRAFÍA DE COHERENCIA ÓPTICA Y ANGIOGRAFÍA CORONARIA COMO COMPLEMENTO EN DECISIONES TERAPÉUTICAS / Optical coherence tomography and coronary angiography as complement in therapeutic decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Nodarse Valdivia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa tomografía de coherencia óptica es una técnica de diagnóstico intracoronario con una alta resolución, su advenimiento ha permitido llevar a cabo un mejor diagnóstico para el tratamiento de las afecciones vasculares. El desarrollo de nuevos sistemas de esta tomografía, que evitan la oclusión de la arteria, favorece que esta técnica tenga mayor utilidad y se convierta en práctica habitual en los laboratorios de hemodinámica, para la caracterización de la placa aterosclerótica coronaria y la evaluación del stent implantado. Se presenta un paciente que en el curso de un síndrome coronario agudo con elevación del segmento ST, fue tratado con trombolíticos y no se lograron signos de reperfusión. La coronariografía realizada no demostró estenosis significativa en relación con la topografía del infarto, por lo que se realizó tomografía de coherencia óptica y se diagnosticó una imagen compatible con proliferación neointimal y presencia de trombo dentro del stent previamente implantado en la arteria circunfleja, que se correspondía con los cambios del electrocardiograma. Se decidió aplicar tratamiento percutáneo con implantación de stent fármaco-activo. La tomografía de coherencia óptica permitió diagnosticar y tratar una imagen angiográfica dudosa. / AbstractOptical coherence tomography is an intracoronary diagnostic technique of high resolution, and its arrival has allowed a better diagnosis for the treatment of vascular diseases. The development of new systems for this tomography, which prevent artery occlusion, allows this technique to have greater utility and become standard practice in the hemodynamic laboratories for the characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque and for evaluating the inserted stent. The case of a patient that during an acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation was treated with thrombolytics and no signs of reperfusion were achieved is presented. Coronary angiography

  11. Fish viral infections in northwest of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, A; Lupiani, B; Dopazo, C P; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L

    1990-06-01

    During a three years survey, a total of 149 samples from 20 farms of rainbow trout, salmon and turbot were examined for the presence of virus with the purpose to study the viral infections affecting cultured fish and their incidence in the fishfarms of Northwestern Spain. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was the only viral agent isolated from salmonid fish. Fry and fingerlings of trout showed the highest infection rate (24%). This virus was not detected in broodstock or embryonated eggs, although it was isolated from ovaric and seminal fluids and from juvenile carriers. From 24 samples of salmon analyzed, IPNV was only detected in one sample of juveniles. Examination of turbot led the isolation of a new virus belonging to the reoviridae family, which affected to the ongrowing population. All of the IPNV tested belonged to serotype Sp regardless of the origin of the trout stocks. During the monitorization of imported embryonated eggs, no virus was detected from any of the samples. However, in some case, IPNV was isolated when testing the fry obtained in our laboratory from those samples of imported eggs. Our findings indicate that: i) the analysis of fingerlings increase the probability to detect viral infections allowing us an optimal control of importations, and ii) most of the viral infections of fish take place in the own fish farms. The detection of mixed viral and bacterial infections emphasize the importance of carrying out an integral microbiological analysis to determine the causal agent(s) of fish mortalities.

  12. Linguistic analysis of suicide notes in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Fernández-Cabana

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Text analysis software like "Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count" (LIWC has been used for the analysis of suicide notes and suicidal texts in English. This is the first analysis of suicide notes using this method in Spanish and, as far as we know, its first application to suicide notes in Europe. To compare the sociodemographic and forensic characteristics of a consecutive sample of suicide victims studying the differences between those who left suicidal note and those who did not. To study a sample of suicidal notes from Spain using LIWC, comparing it's linguistic features by gender, age and environment. Methods: 144 consecutive suicide cases were analyzed. 23 suicide notes obtained from this sample were processed using LIWC, the results were compared by gender, age and environment of the author. Results: People who left suicide notes were younger than non- writers; more frequently single, divorced or widowed and emotional troubles were reported as frequent triggers. Suicide notes written by women were significantly longer, had more emotional content, tentative expressions, denials, pronouns in first person plural and verbs in past and future tenses. Urban cases showed higher emotional expression and word complexity whereas rural cases showed a higher use of social words. Conclusions: Our study shows some differences between people who left suicide note and those who didn't and confirms the LIWC ability to detect differences in suicidal speech by gender and by the rural/ urban background of its authors.

  13. The environmental radiation monitoring system in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Salas Collantes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of environmental radiation monitoring established in Spain is composed of several networks with different objectives, a monitoring network in the vicinity of the facilities and several national networks financed and managed by public agencies. The operators of the facilities are responsible for the conduct of its Environmental Radiological Surveillance Program as directed by the CSN. Moreover, the Directorate General of Civil Defense and Emergencies has a Radioactivity Warning Network (RAR consisting of over 900 automatic stations measuring dose rate distributed nationwide. The Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Network (Revira, managed by the CSN, is a nationwide network, consists of a Network of Sampling Stations (REM and a Network of Automatic Stations for continuous monitoring (REA. The autonomous communities of Valencia, Catalonia, Extremadura and the Basque Country have their own automated networks similar to that of the CSN. Revira provides information on the radioactivity in the air, soil, water (drinking, inland and sea and of food. The sampling and analysis programs are tailored to radiological recommendations laid down in the European Union Commission. The REM has the collaboration of laboratories in universities and the Centre for Energy, Environmental and Technological Research (CIEMAT for execution. The monitoring of inland and coastal waters is undertaken by the Centre for Studies and Experimentation of Public Works, Ministry of Public Works (CEDEX.

  14. Notes on xenophytes detected in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyke, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available These notes include six species, among them three grasses: Axonopus compressus, Dactyloctenium aegyptium and Megathyrsus maximus, the crucifer Lepidium densiflorum, a dwarf annual composite Soliva sessilis, and the climbing Aristolochia sempervirens (Aristolochiaceae, all present in or around Barcelona, Catalonia (northeastern Spain. All are recent additions to the increasing alien flora of theregion. Some have been recorded previously from the Iberian Peninsula but are new to Catalonia; others appear to be new records for the peninsula.Estas notas incluyen seis especies, entre ellas tres gramíneas: Axonopus compressus, Dactyloctenium aegyptium y Megathyrsus maximus, la crucífera Lepidium densiflorum, la pequeña compuesta anual Soliva sessilis y la trepadora Aristolochia sempervirens (Aristolochiaceae, todas ellas presentes en o alrededor de la ciudad de Barcelona, Cataluña (nordeste de España. Forman parte de la creciente flora alóctona de la región. Algunas han sido citadas con anterioridad en la península, pero son novedades para Cataluña, mientras que otras parecen constituir nuevas citas para la Península Ibérica.

  15. Suicide, unemployment, and economic recession in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-García, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar A; Burón, Patricia; Sánchez-Lasheras, Fernando; Jiménez-Treviño, Luis; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Al-Halabí, Susana; Corcoran, Paul; García-Portilla, M Paz; Bobes, Julio

    The aim of the present work is to determine the association between unemployment and suicide, and to investigate whether this association is affected by changes in the economic cycle or other variables such as age and sex. A time-trend analysis was conducted to study changes in the number of suicides between 1999 and 2013 in Spain. Pearson's correlation coefficients and regression models were used to find the association between unemployment and suicide. A significant positive association was found between unemployment and suicide in the pre-crisis period in men. In that period (1999-2007), each 1% annual increase in unemployment was associated with a 6.90% increase in the annual variation of suicide in the total population, and with a 9.04% increase in the annual variation of suicide in working age men. The correlation between unemployment and suicide is significant in periods of economic stability, but has weakened during the recent financial crisis. Unemployment and suicide have a complex relationship modulated by age, sex and economic cycle. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Charles II of Spain, the bewitched].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda L, Jaime

    2008-02-01

    The death of King Charles II, the Bewitched, ended two centuries of sovereignity of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain. Since his birth in 1661, he presented a peculiar set of physical, psychiatric and behavioral signs, such as respiratory and diarrheal diseases, recurrent seizures and deep developmental delay. It was not until his adulthood when his infertility became evident, being incapable of conceiving a heir, even though he married twice. Such a constellation of ominous signs motivated a curious investigation, which concluded that the king was hexed at the age of 14 years in order to take away his throne, his health and his capacity to procreate. Based on contemporary medical knowledge, it is possible that Charles IIhad a rare autosomal recessive inherited genopathy asa consequence of the frequent inbreeding among his ancestors. On the other hand, its is also possible that Charles II presented Klinefelter Syndrome, the most frequent sex chromosome disorder in humans and the most common cause of hypogonadism and infertility in males. The hypothesis that Charles II was bewitched reflects a deep belief in supernatural phenomena among the Castilian society at the beginning of the 18th century, an idea transmitted across generations, currently present in many societies worldwide.

  17. Self-Employed Foreign Workers In Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Trinidad Luisa García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a full study of the legal system applicable to selfemployed foreigners wishing to carry out an economic activity in Spain. The focus varies according to the country of origin of the individual, whether it lies within the European Economic Community, whether it is a country with which the European Union has co-operation and association agreements or finally, whether it is under the general regime. The utilitarian perspective which considers immigration as necessary manual labour has justified more efficient legal mechanisms to facilitate the employment of immigrant manual workers. These mechanisms do not apply to self-employed workers. The lack of interest of legislators in this type of worker is highlighted by the suppression of motivation and refusal of the mandatory visa. The detailed analysis of the anticipated administrative requirements emphasises that within the labour legislation for immigrants there is a marked difference between those who work for an employer and those who are self-employed and there is no correspondence or comparison with the more far reaching policies of the labour doctrine with regard to the rights and guarantees of both categories of workers.

  18. Dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Casas, C; Teixidó, A

    2004-04-25

    To assess the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain, a total-diet study was carried out. Concentrations of HCB were determined in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia between June and August 2000. A total of 11 food groups were included in the study. HCB levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. HCB intake was estimated for five population groups: children (aged 4 to 9 years), adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), male and female adults (aged 20 to 65 years), and seniors (aged >65 years). In general, HCB residues in foods were rather low excepting dairy products with a mean concentration of 0.869 ng/g wet weight. Total dietary intakes of HCB (microgram per kilogram body weight/day) were the following: children (0.0064), adolescents (0.0031), female adults (0.0025), male adults (0.0024) and seniors (0.0019). All these values are considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is 0.17 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for non-cancer effects and 0.16 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for neoplastic effects in humans.

  19. [The origins of occupational therapy in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Heredia-Torres, M; Brea-Rivero, M; Martínez-Piédrola, R M

    Occupational therapy is a young discipline in many aspects, but since ancient times an important number of reports have appeared in the health sciences literature and in the early days of neurology and psychiatry that can shed light on the origins and the fundamental principles that underlie this profession today. We have gathered examples that show how the philosophy and the clinical practice of the procedures used in occupational therapy stem from the process of humanising medical care. After analysing the information currently available to us on the history of the influence of humanism on the development of medicine in Spain, the authors believe they have found enough evidence to identify the precursors of occupational therapy at that point in history. Our study examines facts that appear to situate the earliest evidence of occupational therapy at the origins of Spanish neurology and psychiatry in the 15th century, and which were later to have such a powerful influence on the birth of certain aspects of Pinel's moral treatment. If we accept 'moral treatment' as being one of the main forerunners of occupational therapy, and if we take into account that the humanitarian way patients were dealt with in Spanish neurological and psychiatric institutions and hospitals in the 15th century had a notable influence on the principles that regulated that 'moral treatment', then it is reasonable to state that the earliest evidence of occupational therapy is to be found in the development of humanisation within Spanish medical care.

  20. [25 years of laparoscopic surgery in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sanz, Carlos; Tenías-Burillo, Jose María; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Balague-Ponz, Carmen; Díaz-Luis, Hermógenes; Enriquez-Valens, Pablo; Manuel-Palazuelos, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Cortijo, Sagrario; Olsina-Kissler, Jorge; Socas-Macias, María; Toledano-Trincado, Miguel; Vidal-Pérez, Oscar; Noguera-Aguilar, Juan Francisco; Salvador-Sanchís, José Luis; Feliu-Pala, Xavier; Targarona-Soler, Eduard M

    2014-04-01

    The introduction of laparoscopic surgery (LS) can be considered the most important advancement in our specialty in the past 25 years. Despite its advantages, implementation and consolidation has not been homogenous, especially for advanced techniques. The aim of this study was to analyse the level of development and use of laparoscopic surgery in Spain at the present time and its evolution in recent years. During the second half of 2012 a survey was developed to evaluate different aspects of the implementation and development of LS in our country. The survey was performed using an electronic questionnaire. The global response rate was 16% and 103 heads of Department answered the survey. A total of 92% worked in the public system. A total of 99% perform basic laparoscopic surgery and 85,2% advanced LS. Most of the responders (79%) consider that the instruments they have available for LS are adequate and 71% consider that LS is in the right stage of development in their environment. Basic laparoscopic surgery has developed in our country to be considered the standard performed by most surgeons, and forms part of the basic surgical training of residents. With regards to advanced LS, although it is frequently used, there are still remaining areas of deficit, and therefore, opportunities for improvement. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. [Psychiatry periodicals in Spain up to 1931].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolín Guillén, J M

    1992-01-01

    The development of psychiatry, as it happens with other medical specialties, has been linked to that of the journals dedicated to it. They are a good exponent of its state of growing or consolidation. The first psychiatric journal in Spain appeared in 1865 and 27 years later the next one was founded. None of the three journals which existed in the 19th century continued at the beginning of the 20th century. During the first three decades of this century, nine specialized journals were founded, among which the "Revista Frenopática Española" in the first place, and the "Archivos de Neurobiología" afterwards, were the most outstanding in our country and the "Revista Frenopática Española" was that of the greatest international projection. Although the importance of a constellation of prestigious journals which were not dedicated to psychiatry was decisive for the development of this discipline in our country, the professionals organized themselves in the monographic journals about this subject, linked to mental hospitals.

  2. The Technological Consolidation of UNED in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Garcia Aretio

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the technologies that have been utilized to advance distance teaching and learning by the National Distance Education University (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia – UNED of Spain. Following a description of UNED's historical development and organizational structure, UNED's experience with various educational media is discussed. Printed teaching materials, in the form of didactic units, were one of the first methods to be utilized when UNED began its operations in 1972. In turn, the role of radio and audio recordings, television and video recordings, telephone, videoconferencing, computer systems and computer-mediated communications are also described. UNED's pioneering projects, including the virtual classroom, virtual campus, and a program for the physically handicapped, are also detailed. Recent experiments include providing access to radio and television programs on the Internet and adoption of WebCT. On the horizon for UNED are portals for cellular phones using WAP technology and gearing up for multiple applications in accordance with Universal Mobile Telecommunications Technology (UMTS.

  3. Physical and mechanical appraisal of two carbonatic stones widely used in the architectural heritage of eastern Andalusia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urosevic, Maja

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed characterization of two calcareous stones from Andalusia (Southern Spain, namely Escúzar calcarenite and Olivillo travertine. Both materials can replace two stones extensively used in the architectural heritage of Andalusia, i.e. La Escribana calcarenite and Alfacar travertine. To establish the suitability of the replacement of ancient materials, detailed examination was performed. X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, optical and scanning electron microscopy, hydric tests, mercury intrusion porosimetry, gas adsorption, ultrasounds and colorimetry were applied. The Escúzar calcarenite has large pore cavities and higher open porosity than La Escribana calcarenite. From a chromatic point of view both calcarenites are rather similar. The Olivillo travertine is a massive well cemented and heterogeneously colored rock. The ultrasounds velocities for this material are very homogeneous and elevated, indicating excellent mechanical properties. However the hydric and chromatic differences between both travertines point to reduced adequacy of Olivillo travertine as substitutive material for Alfacar.

    Se han caracterizado dos rocas carbonáticas de Andalucía Oriental; la calcarenita de Escúzar de Granada y el travertino Olivillo de Alhama de Almería. Ambas podrían reemplazar a dos materiales del patrimonio arquitectónico de Andalucía, la calcarenita La Escribana y el travertino Alfacar ambos de Granada. Los materiales mencionados se estudiaron mediante difracción y fluorescencia de rayos X, microscopías óptica y electrónica de barrido, ensayos hídricos, porosimetría de mercurio, adsorción de gases, pulsos ultrasónicos y parámetros cromáticos. La calcarenita Escúzar presenta grandes poros y una porosidad abierta y área superficial superior a la calcarenita La Escribana; el cromatismo de ambas es similar. El travertino Olivillo es una roca masiva poco porosa

  4. Avaliação da densidade óptica da superfície oclusal através de radiografias digitalizadas e sua relação com a presença de lesões de cárie em molares decíduos = Occlusal surface optical density measurement in digitized radiographs and the presence of caries in deciduous molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutra, Giovana Martins Cezar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o desempenho de dois sistemas de medição de densidade óptica numa amostra composta por segundos molares decíduos, assim como relacionar a presença de lesão de cárie dentinária na superfície oclusal de segundos molares decíduos com os valores de densidade óptica desta superfície, utilizando dois programas de computador. Para isso foi realizada a medição da densidade óptica de 28 radiografias padronizadas de segundos molares decíduos em dois programas de computador diferentes. Os resultados obtidos com o programa Digora® for Windows 2. 1 foram comparados com os obtidos no programa Image Tool for Windows 3. 0. Ainda, os valores de densidade óptica encontrados foram relacionados aos diagnósticos obtidos com o exame dos dentes no estereomicroscópio. Os programas Digora e Image Tool apresentaram valores de densidade óptica semelhantes, sem diferença estatisticamente significativa. Ainda, a densidade óptica observada nos dentes que não apresentavam lesões de cárie dentinárias na superfície oclusal foi diferente daquela cujos dentes possuiam lesão em dentina (p = 0,035. Entretanto, com os resultados obtidos neste estudo não foi possível estabelecer intervalos de densidade óptica correspondentes a superfícies oclusais com presença ou ausência de lesões de cárie em dentina

  5. Estrategia didáctica para el desarrollo de habilidades en la resolución de problemas matemáticos, carrera de Optometría y Óptica

    OpenAIRE

    Yadira de las Mercedes Rivero Hernández; Esperanza Mercedes Díaz Rodríguez; Enrique Tauler Villafruela; Dayana de la Caridad Rivero Hernández; Pedro Roberto Valdés Tamayo

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una propuesta de estrategia didáctica para favorecer el proceso de enseñanza- aprendizaje de la Matemática, específicamente en el campo de la resolución de problemas matemáticos relacionados con la profesión de Optometría y Óptica. Se realizó un estudio diagnóstico a 20 estudiantes del primer año de la referida carrera en la Filial de Ciencias Médicas “Mario Muñoz Monroy”, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Las Tunas, en el período de septiembre de 2010 a enero de 2011....

  6. Evaluación por competencias de las prácticas de Optometría II en el Grado de óptica y Optometría

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa María Hernández Andrés; Andrés Gené Sampedro; Francisco Sañudo Buitrago; Inmaculada Bueno Gimeno

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo presentamos una experiencia de innovación educativa centrada en la evaluación por competencias en una asignatura práctica del Grado en óptica y Optometría en la Universitat de València. En primer lugar centramos la asignatura en el contexto de la titulación y explicamos sus características particulares. A continuación se explica la dinámica de una sesión de prácticas. Seguidamente planteamos la metodología docente basada en las competencias y la evaluación diseñada a...

  7. Contribuições da epistemologia bachelardiana no estudo da história da Óptica Contributions from bachelardian epistemology in the study of the history of Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Staub de Melo; Luiz O.Q. Peduzzi

    2007-01-01

    O presente artigo explora um diálogo entre a história e a filosofia da ciência. Nesta perspectiva, apresenta uma articulação entre a história da óptica e as principais características da filosofia histórica de Gaston Bachelard, dando ênfase: aos períodos de rupturas e descontinuidades presentes no constante confronto entre o modelo corpuscular e ondulatório da luz; à permanente retificação do erro - e ao novo conceito de verdade presente na construção da concepção sobre a natureza da luz -; à...

  8. Método de Landweber sem derivadas para identificação de parâmetros em equações diferenciais parciais elípticas

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Maicon Marques

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (Mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Físicas e Matemáticas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Matemática e Computação Científica. Neste trabalho tratamos problemas de identificação de parâmetros em equações diferenciais parciais elípticas no caso em que conhecemos a sua respectiva solução. Este problema inverso \\'e tipicamente mal posto no sentido de Hadamard (a solução não depende continuamente dos dados). Nesse sentido, alguma técnica de regulari...

  9. Estudo da deformação em elementos de máquinas agrícolas utilizando técnicas ópticas : Study of deformation in agricultural machinery elements using optical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Kelen Cristiane Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: A aplicação de métodos ópticos em projetos de elementos de máquinas e de estruturas, tanto quanto em sistemas biológicos, tem recebido destaque na literatura cientifica há algum tempo. Técnicas ópticas têm dado suporte às análises experimentais em situações de carregamento estático bem como dinâmico ou ambos, exibindo características de método não destrutivo e de alta aplicabilidade. O método óptico de moiré tem sido utilizado em perfilometria para determinar a perfilometria de objeto...

  10. Comparison and validation of gridded precipitation datasets for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco; Míguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two gridded precipitation datasets are compared and validated in Spain: the recently developed SAFRAN dataset and the Spain02 dataset. These are validated using rain gauges and they are also compared to the low resolution ERA-Interim reanalysis. The SAFRAN precipitation dataset has been recently produced, using the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, which is extensively used in France (Durand et al. 1993, 1999; Quintana-Seguí et al. 2008; Vidal et al., 2010) and which has recently been applied to Spain (Quintana-Seguí et al., 2015). SAFRAN uses an optimal interpolation (OI) algorithm and uses all available rain gauges from the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET). The product has a spatial resolution of 5 km and it spans from September 1979 to August 2014. This dataset has been produced mainly to be used in large scale hydrological applications. Spain02 (Herrera et al. 2012, 2015) is another high quality precipitation dataset for Spain based on a dense network of quality-controlled stations and it has different versions at different resolutions. In this study we used the version with a resolution of 0.11°. The product spans from 1971 to 2010. Spain02 is well tested and widely used, mainly, but not exclusively, for RCM model validation and statistical downscliang. ERA-Interim is a well known global reanalysis with a spatial resolution of ˜79 km. It has been included in the comparison because it is a widely used product for continental and global scale studies and also in smaller scale studies in data poor countries. Thus, its comparison with higher resolution products of a data rich country, such as Spain, allows us to quantify the errors made when using such datasets for national scale studies, in line with some of the objectives of the EU-FP7 eartH2Observe project. The comparison shows that SAFRAN and Spain02 perform similarly, even though their underlying principles are different. Both products are largely

  11. Medición de microdeformaciones en losas viales usando sensores de redes de Braggen fibras ópticas Microdeformation measurement of concrete roadway slabs using fiber Bragg gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Vélez Hoyos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un método no invasivo para la medición de microdeformaciones en estructuras de concreto usando sensores de redes de Bragg en fibras ópticas adheridos a su superficie. Se realizan mediciones en losas viales de concreto bajo una carga estática de 10 kN, encontrándose una relación aproximada de 2 : 1 entre la deformación registrada por los sensores y los valores arrojados por una simulación computacional con el método de elementos finitos. Se propone el uso de estos sensores para el monitoreo estructural de losas en una malla vial con sensores distribuidos y multiplexados por longitud de onda. Este es el primer reporte en Colombia de medición de deformación de losas viales usando sensores de fibra óptica.This work shows a non–invasive method for micro–deformation measurements of concrete structures using Bragg grating sensors in optical fibers adhered to the surface. Measurements on roadway slabs under a 10 kN static load are made, finding an approximated ratio of 2 : 1 between the deformation registered by the sensors and the values from a computational simulation with the finite element method. We propose the use of these sensors for slab structural monitoring in a road network employing distributed and wavelength multiplexed sensors. This is a first report in Colombia of roadway slabs microdeformation measurement using fiber optic sensors.

  12. Estudo de fatores clínicos preditivos para crises epilépticas após acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico Preditive clinical factors for epileptic seizures after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Maiumi Fukujima

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos aspectos clínicos de 35 pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico que evoluíram com crises epilépticas (Grupo 1, comparando-os a 35 pacientes com AVCI sem crises epilépticas (Grupo 2. A comparação das idades entre os grupos não mostrou diferença significante. O sexo masculino e a raça branca predominaram em ambos os grupos. Diabetes melito, hipertensão arterial, ataque isquêmico transitório, acidente vascular cerebral pregresso, enxaqueca, doença de Chagas, embolia cerebral cardiogênica e uso de anticoncepcional oral não diferiram significantemente entre os grupos. Tabagismo e etilismo foram significantemente mais freqüentes no Grupo 1 (pPreditive clinical factors for epileptic seizures after ischemic stroke. Clinical features of 35 patients with ischemic stroke who developed epilepsy (Group 1 were compared with those of 35 patients with ischemic stroke without epilepsy (Group 2. The age of the patients did not differ between the groups. There were more men than women and more white than other races in both groups. Diabetes melitus, hypertension, transient ischemic attack, previous stroke, migraine, Chagas disease, cerebral embolism of cardiac origin and use of oral contraceptive did not differ between the groups. Smokers and alcohol users were more frequent in Group 1 (p<0,05. Most patients of Group 1 presented with hemiparesis; none presented cerebellar or brainstem involvement. Perhaps strokes in smokers have some different aspects, that let them more epileptogenic than in non smokers.

  13. Wind power development in Spain, the model of Navarra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel Ichaso, A. de [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra S.A. (EHN), Pamplona (Spain)

    2000-08-01

    Wind power implementation in Spain has undergone spectacular growth in recent years. From 834 Megawatts installed at the end of 1998, the figure of 1,500 MW was reached at the end of 1999 and forecasts expect well over 2,500 MW by the end of the year 2000. A favourable legislative framework and tariff structure have brought about this rate of development, which is mainly based on the implementation of large wind farms on high altitude sites in Spain. The region of Navarra (northern Spain) has played a special role in this development, and EHN, a company born in this region, has carried out major projects that have given it 30% of the Spanish wind power sector. The challenges for the sector in Spain over the next few years are: (1) Make its development compatible with the supply guarantees required by the national electricity supply operator, (2) ensure that the implementation of wind farms is done with respect for the environment, (3) harmonise the wind power development of the different Autonomous Communities of Spain, and (4) reduce the investment costs in order to obtain enough profitability with falling energy prices in the coming years. (orig.)

  14. Gambling in Spain: update on experience, research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Menchón, Jose Manuel

    2014-10-01

    To describe the current situation of gambling in Spain, sketching its history and discussing the regulations and legislation currently in force within the framework of the European Union (EU), and to review the epidemiology of gambling in Spain, the self-help groups and professional treatments available, and their potential effectiveness. A systematic computerized search was performed in three databases (EMBASE, PubMed and PsychINFO, including articles and chapters) and the reference lists from previous reviews to obtain some of the most relevant studies published up to now on the topic of pathologic gambling in Spain. Similar to other EU countries, Spain has a high prevalence of pathologic gambling, focused on specific culturally bounded types of gambling. Expenditure in online gaming has risen significantly in the last few years, prompting the Spanish government to draft new legislation to regulate gaming. The gaming industry is expected to be one of the fastest growing sectors in Spain in the coming years owing to the rise of new technologies and the development of online gaming. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  16. [Interactive mortality atlas in Andalusia, Spain (AIMA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Riola, Ricardo; Mayoral-Cortés, José María; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Toro-Cárdenas, Silvia; Fernández-Ajuria, Alberto; Méndez-Martínez, Camila

    2008-01-01

    Until now, mortality atlases have been static. Most of them describe the geographical distribution of mortality using count data aggregated over time and standardized mortality rates. However, this methodology has several limitations. Count data aggregated over time produce a bias in the estimation of death rates. Moreover, this practice difficult the study of temporal changes in geographical distribution of mortality. On the other hand, using standardized mortality hamper to check differences in mortality among groups. The Interactive Mortality Atlas in Andalusia (AIMA) is an alternative to conventional static atlases. It is a dynamic Geographical Information System that allows visualizing in web-site more than 12.000 maps and 338.00 graphics related to the spatio-temporal distribution of the main death causes in Andalusia by age and sex groups from 1981. The objective of this paper is to describe the methods used for AIMA development, to show technical specifications and to present their interactivity. The system is available from the link products in www.demap.es. AIMA is the first interactive GIS that have been developed in Spain with these characteristics. Spatio-temporal Hierarchical Bayesian Models were used for statistical data analysis. The results were integrated into web-site using a PHP environment and a dynamic cartography in Flash. Thematic maps in AIMA demonstrate that the geographical distribution of mortality is dynamic, with differences among year, age and sex groups. The information nowadays provided by AIMA and the future updating will contribute to reflect on the past, the present and the future of population health in Andalusia.

  17. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. [Current situation of health surveys in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, María Luisa; Suárez, Mónica; Pérez, Óscar

    2013-01-01

    To describe the evolution of health interview surveys in Spain (as of 01/01/2012), whether national or regional, its main characteristics and methodology, and in the case of general health surveys (GHIS), its contents. An adapted version of Eurostat quality control template European Health Interview Survey Technical and Methodological Report was filled in by those responsible for GHIS in each region (autonomous communities) and at the national level. The first part (11 questions) gathers general information about health surveys, both GHIS and surveys targeted to specific populations or health problems (SHIS). The second part (109 questions) asks about methodological characteristics of most recent GHIS. 1) regional or supra-regional scope; 2) for the second part, GHIS currently active series. Quality control was performed using double data entry and validated by informants.100 HIS were identified. 16 were GHIS and 84 SHIS. 32 (38%) of the latter were national and 52 (62%) regional. Nutrition 21 (25%), drug use 10 (12%), opinion polls 7 (9%) and dental health 7 (9%) were the most frequent topics in SHIS. Highest GHIS density was reached after year 2000, with several surveys on field at a time (mode=3). 11 GHIS (2 national, 9 regional) met inclusion criteria for the second part. All complied with general quality benchmarks. Few differences were observed in content.GHIS show more similarities than differences in objectives, methods and content. Rationalization and harmonization are needed. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, quality of life and mental health instruments are not yet consensual. Valid and comparable data are required on health status and its determinants to inform health policy.

  19. 10 MW wind farm in Tarifa, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A.; Prats, J.; Casanova, M. (ECOTECNIA, S.C.C.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    1992-09-01

    The use of wind energy in Spain has taken an important step forward in 1992. The installation of the Tarifa 10 MW wind farm was begun in March this year and will finish in November: 50 ECOTECNIA 20/150 wind turbines and 16 MADE AE-20 will be installed. The most notable aspects of the project are the following: double Spanish technology; highly complex orography; very deficient level of existing civil and electrical infrastructure; substantial corrective measures on the environmental impact, due to the special location of the project in the zone of influence of the Strait of Gibraltar; the participation of two electrical companies; the financing strucure; and the guarantees offered by the manufacturers. Of all these aspects, the one which merits special attention is the set of characeristics of the site. The wind farm is situated on a very abrupt ridge with an average height of 500 m above sea level, at a distance of approximately 2500 m from the sea. The temperature difference between summer and winter is substantial, and produces significant effects on the wind characteristics at the top of the ridge. The site is at a considerable distance from the existing electrical grid, and the access track was totally unusable: this added a substantial cost to the project which, together with the difficulty of predicting the wind-energy potential, demanded a great effort from the manufacturers in terms of both the price of the plant and the operating guarantees. The estimated electrical production is 25,000 MWh/year, with a coefficient of 1,206 kWh/m2. (au).

  20. VOC methods and levels in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomboi, M.T. [Area de Contaminacion Atmosferica, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Ozone precursors began to be studied in the eighties in Spain, in order to know their levels and composition in areas, which had high concentrations of other atmospheric polluting agents. At the end of the eighties, VOC were incorporated into the air quality networks in urban areas in order to anticipate at the derived amendments of the entrance into force on the Directive 92/72/CEE of 1992 on air pollution by ozone. At the same time, field campaigns for VOC toxics were started in specific industrial areas and the zones with high traffic. More recently, the air quality networks have been orientated to non-urban areas, to cover the knowledge of VOC in semi-urban and rural areas. On the other hand, the role of the biogenic emissions and the role that their chemical and photochemical products play in atmospheric chemistry was becoming important in the nineties. Therefore some research projects, e.g. 'Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area (BEMA)', were developed in order to understand the vegetation emissions in the Mediterranean area in relation to anthropogenic compounds and to get information on their participation in tropospheric ozone formation. VOC have been sampled at European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) sites since 1999, based on recommendations from the EMEP Workshop on Measurements of Hydrocarbons/VOC in Lindau 1989. Collection of light hydrocarbons started in 1999, whereas measurements of carbonyls have just started in 2003. In this work, the most important sampling and analysis techniques to determine ozone precursors and to control VOC are shown, as well as the main results obtained in projects, networks and measurement campaigns performed with these methods.

  1. Spain to Launch China Program,Aiming at Developing Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Duoduo

    2005-01-01

    @@ China has become the fifth supplier of Spain and has achieved great development in the Spanish market. But China's investment in Spain is not in a high level, which does not assort with her status of world's great economic country.

  2. [Plan for the Elimination of Measles and Rubella in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limia Sánchez, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    The current Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella is made of the Plan for the elimination of measles in Spain, set up in 2001, and the Surveillance protocol of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the phase of elimination, established in 2007. The monitoring of the elimination of both diseases conducted from the European Region of World Health Organization (WHO) has been reinforced since 2010. An annual report with information on the situation of measles and rubella in The Member Estates is being requested since 2013. The Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality nominated a National Committee for Verification of Measles and Rubella Elimination in 2013, for the review and delivery of the requested information. The strategies and activities currently recommended from the WHO European Region, the verification process in Spain, and the steps to follow for the updating of the Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella in Spain are mentioned in this article.

  3. Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: penicillin patents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain.

  4. Jasmine and Lagarto: Pearse Hutchinson’s Poetry of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Woods

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In his life as a poet Pearse Hutchinson, now in his 84th year, has engaged with the poetry and the cultures of many countries in Europe; at the heart of this work is his poetry of Spain. From his first visit there in 1950 to today Hutchinson has been inspired by the landscapes, people and languages of Spain, translating from Catalan, Castilian and Galician and writing memorable poems based on his own experiences and the history and politics of a country which he loves. His work brought an awareness of Spanish culture, life and literature to a wide audience in Ireland. Hutchinson is recording a prose memoir based on his life and travels in Spain and Portugal.

  5. Spain out of Spain. Spanish Patriotism in the Argentinian emigration: an approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela García Sebastiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish migrants in Argentina prompted, from specific areas of civil society and the public sphere, corporate identity for political purposes. It was a residual patriotism and condemned from the outset. It was activated in specific circumstances and in relation to the local policies projected towards the collective migratory, the Spanish politics, and recognition of shared sociopolitical and cultural genealogies. From the perspective of cultural history of the policy, and based on primary and secondary sources, this article discusses about built imaginaries, social mobilization generated and results between 1885 and 1920. During that time, from distance, migrants also built ideas about Spain and drawn up national myths in the cultural version of liberalism that eventually led to a conservative nationalist, catholic and –at times– fascist.

  6. Information Policies in Spain: Towards the New "Information Society"

    OpenAIRE

    Caridad Sebastián, Mercedes; Méndez, Eva; Rodríguez-Mateos, David

    2000-01-01

    The concept of a society based on information and knowledge is becoming the norm in every country, including Spain. The need to have well-designed information policies that allow us to come to terms with the new upsurge of media, technology and services that has taken place in our society is discussed first. Information policies required by these changes in society have been implemented in Spain and are described in relation to the new challenges of the “Society of Knowledge.” Simila...

  7. Approaches to Open Data for Science in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wulff-Barreiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As observational data has attained new legal status, allowing their integration into open Internet systems, and experimental data continues to be assembled in common and free platforms, state of the art, easy to access data repositories have been designed in Spain. These repositories have removed many obstacles to re-utilization of GIS and other data. European legislation has also made advances in opening biodiversity data, including a European space in the Latin-American grid infrastructure. Open access biomedical repositories attract commercial attention while astronomical, meteorological, and oncological institutions promote data quality and access. This paper describes recent approaches to open access data for science in Spain.

  8. Mistakes in the fiscal policy in Spain before the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the mistakes made in the management of the fiscal policy in Spain before the crisis. The authors argue that the low size of the public expenditures, the adoption of a procyclical expansionary fiscal policy the years before the crisis, and the lack of a correct coordination between the Spanish fiscal policy and the ECB’s monetary policy, are key elements to understand the depth and length of the economic crisis and the current high fiscal imbalances in Spain.

  9. What's Going On? An Overview of Adult Education Policies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Villegas, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I attempt to present the state of adult education in Spain. Adult education in Spain is not unlike that of other countries in Europe in that it focuses on the policies and practices of lifelong learning rather than on the perspectives of people and communities. However, Spain has two specific characteristics that are distinctive…

  10. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  11. [Latin Americans in Spain (1981-1994). Estimation of a recent migratory phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazon Ferrando, S

    1996-04-01

    The author analyzes characteristics of Latin American migration to Spain during the period 1981-1994. Aspects considered include causes of the increase of Latin American migration to Spain; policies limiting migration to Spain; spatial distribution and sex of immigrants; labor force activity; and country of origin.

  12. Freedom of Expression and 'Right to Be Forgotten' Cases in the Netherlands after Google Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kulk; F. Zuiderveen Borgesius

    2015-01-01

    Since the Google Spain judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union, Europeans have, under certain conditions, the right to have search results for their name delisted. This paper examines how the Google Spain judgment has been applied in the Netherlands. Since the Google Spain judgment, D

  13. From sender to host: context, size and characteristics of Latin American immigration to Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael MUÑOZ DE BUSTILLO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the immigration phenomenon in Spain. First, we analyse the evolution of migration flows in Spain over the last years. Secondly, we examine the main demographic and socio-economic characteristics of Latin Americans living in Spain, pointing out the differences among Latin Americans and Spaniards and other foreign population.

  14. From sender to host: context, size and characteristics of Latin American immigration to Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz de Bustillo, Rafael; José Ignacio ANTÓN

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the immigration phenomenon in Spain. First, we analyse the evolution of migration flows in Spain over the last years. Secondly, we examine the main demographic and socio-economic characteristics of Latin Americans living in Spain, pointing out the differences among Latin Americans and Spaniards and other foreign population.

  15. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya

    2009-04-01

    The region of Extremadura covers more than four million hectares in the South West of Spain, with dehesas occupying almost 1.5 million hectares of its surface. This agro-silvo-pastoral land use system constitutes the most recommendable model for extensive exploitation in Mediterranean areas in which the semiarid climate and the poor, shallow soils are constraints on any other type of agricultural use. It is characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. The pastures are the basis for animal breeding in the dehesas being these ecosystems of great economic, social as well as environmental value in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. These facts justify the investigation on pasture improvement and the study on spatial and temporal variations of pasture production in the whole region. Pasture production is quite variable, highly determined by soil and climate conditions. Rainfall variability produces large seasonal and annual variations, with the highest production in spring, low production in autumn and very scarce in winter. During summer, while pastures are wilting, hard seeds stay latent in the soil and gradually germinate in consecutive months. But variability of pasture production in such a heterogeneous ecosystem does not only depend on edaphic and climate conditions, but also on other factors, such as grazing management, improvement measures, fertilization, exploitation infrastructures, stocking rates, etc. The present study, carried out in the framework of the "Montado/Dehesa" INTERREG project, aimed to sample pasture production in Extremadura, in order to provide a large amount of real data for determining the influence of the different factors involved, which will constitute the basis for the developement of a production model. The latter will be integrated into a tool helping to decide on the best practice of dehesa management. Pastures were

  16. Avaliação da densidade óptica da superfície oclusal através de radiografias digitalizadas e sua relação com a presença de lesões de cárie em molares decíduos = Occlusal surface optical density measurement in digitized radiographs and the presence of caries in deciduous molars

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Giovana Martins Cezar

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o desempenho de dois sistemas de medição de densidade óptica numa amostra composta por segundos molares decíduos, assim como relacionar a presença de lesão de cárie dentinária na superfície oclusal de segundos molares decíduos com os valores de densidade óptica desta superfície, utilizando dois programas de computador. Para isso foi realizada a medição da densidade óptica de 28 radiografias padronizadas de segundos molares decíduos em dois programas de com...

  17. Úlcera péptica gastroduodenal e infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori na criança e adolescente Gastroduodenal peptic ulcer and Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo F. S. Bittencourt

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar aspectos relevantes relativos à úlcera péptica gastroduodenal e à infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori na criança e adolescente. FONTES DOS DADOS : Livros técnicos e bases de dados MEDLINE e LILACS de 1966 a 2006. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS : A úlcera péptica na criança e adolescente pode ser primária, associada à infecção pelo H. pylori, ou secundária, na qual os mecanismos etiopatogênicos dependem da doença de base. A infecção é adquirida predominantemente na infância, com taxas de prevalência que variam de 56,8 a 83,1% nas crianças que vivem nas regiões mais pobres do Brasil e de aproximadamente 10% nas crianças abaixo de 10 anos de idade nos países desenvolvidos. A infecção pode ser diagnosticada por métodos invasivos, que investigam a presença da bactéria, ou de DNA, RNA ou produtos bacterianos em fragmentos de biópsia da mucosa gástrica obtida à endoscopia; também pode ser diagnosticada através de métodos não-invasivos, que compreendem a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-H. pylori em amostras de soro, urina ou saliva, a pesquisa de antígenos da bactéria nas fezes e o teste respiratório com uréia marcada com carbono-13. O método de escolha para o diagnóstico da úlcera péptica é a endoscopia digestiva alta, com a vantagem adicional de, durante o procedimento, permitir a obtenção de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica para o diagnóstico da infecção e estudo histopatológico. CONCLUSÕES: A infecção por H. pylori é a principal causa de úlcera péptica na infância. A erradicação da bactéria com antimicrobiano é acompanhada de cura da doença, sendo, portanto, indicada em todas as crianças H. pylori-positivas com úlcera péptica em atividade, recorrente, cicatrizada ou complicada.OBJECTIVE: To show important aspects of gastroduodenal peptic ulcer and of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents. SOURCES: Technical textbooks and MEDLINE and LILACS databases including

  18. Presence of Bartonella species in wild carnivores of northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R A; Barral, Marta

    2012-02-01

    The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles).

  19. Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; R.A. Juste; Barral, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles).

  20. Integrating Art Education Models: Contemporary Controversies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belver, Manuel; Ulln, Ana; Acaso, Mara

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a basic controversy for art education in Spain is analysed, and its antecedents in thought and social and artistic practices are reviewed. The controversy refers to the question whether school art education should be oriented towards the fine arts or towards the manual arts. Consequently, which should be the cultural model of…

  1. Regionalism, Cultural Diversity and the State in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecours, Andre

    2001-01-01

    Uses historical institutionalism to explain Spain's contemporary regional-cultural identities. Shows how these identities were molded by various historical forms of the Spanish state. Discusses four such forms in light of their impact on the country's identity landscape. (Author/VWL)

  2. NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN WILD CARNIVORES FROM SPAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (I...

  3. Underground Physics in Spain; La Fisica subterranea en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puimedon Santolaria, J.

    2005-07-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low background environment necessary to the search for extremely rare phenomena like neutrino oscillations, double deta decay or dark matter. There are only four underground infrastructures available in the Europe Union, one of them is in Spain: the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. (Author)

  4. The Creative Class and the Creative Economy in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Juan Miguel; Bergua, José Angel; Pac, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an application in Spain of Florida's model (2002/2010, 2005) about creativity, economy and growth. Creativity is an indicator that measures and combines technology, talent, and tolerance. Each of these is composed of three subindices. The most important conclusion from the data reported here is that creativity in particular,…

  5. Pennsylvanian bryozoans from the Cantabrian Mountains (northwestern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, A.; Winkler Prins, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    Bryozoans from six Pennsylvanian localities in the Cantabrian Mountains (northwestern Spain) are described. The faunas include 54 species, of which two are new, Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) peculiaris sp. nov. and Bashkirella minor sp. nov. Bryozoans are represented mainly by fenestrates (27 species)

  6. Analysis of University Postgraduate Nursing Education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Masllorens, Joan Maria; Guix-Comellas, Eva Maria; Cabrera-Jaime, Sandra; Galimany-Masclans, Jordi; Roldán-Merino, Juan; Lluch-Canut, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    The nursing education program framework in Spain has recently been adapted and modified. This study aimed to analyze university postgraduate master'slevel nursing education during the past 21 years in Spain in terms of educational supply and demand. A retrospective, longitudinal, descriptive, and observational design was used. The educational offerings at 15 university nursing schools in Spain were examined. The target population was 7,871 registered and licensed nurses who had completed postgraduate education. Among the 211 programs offered, public universities' educational offerings focused on two areas-public health and emergency care-whereas most courses in private universities were in surgery. Regarding demand, 1,235 nurses were enrolled. The most frequently requested educational areas were surgery, emergency and urgent care, and public health. Although the postgraduate nursing education situation has changed, supply and demand for this type of education in Spain are well balanced at both public and private universities. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(11):615-622.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  8. Acculturation Stress and Bullying among Immigrant Youths in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.; Nieri, Tanya A.; Villar, Paula; Luengo, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Few bullying studies focus on immigrant youths or acculturation stress as a risk factor for bullying and being bullied. Employing a sample of 1,157 foreign-born secondary students in Spain, we found that acculturation stress was widely experienced, although the average level of stress was moderate. Five percent of the sample reported being…

  9. 78 FR 79573 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... political and administrative divisions in Spain), auditing companies, integrated pest management... integrated pest management, rather than systems approaches for the growth and certification of crops for... movement of pests between lots exceedingly rare. There is a slightly larger risk that articles destined...

  10. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools.…

  11. 78 FR 79568 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ..., and validate field notebooks maintained by growers and inspection reports from field technicians or... Flexibility Act, both in the proposed rule and in the section below. Part of this analysis concluded that it... is high. The analysis also concluded that the projected volume of avocado imports from Spain, a few...

  12. Young Pedestrians' Gendering of Mathematics: Australia and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah; Gómez-Chacón, Inés Ma

    2012-01-01

    People aged 20-39 were stopped in the streets of Victoria (Australia) and Madrid (Spain) to gauge their views on the gendering of mathematics. The findings suggested that for respondents from both countries, if stereotyped beliefs are held they were more strongly associated with the traditional male stereotype, that is, that males are considered…

  13. Great Writers of Spain I (Nineteenth Century): 7506.26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The main goal of this course of study is for the student to understand, recognize, and interpret the many changes which occurred in the poetry and prose of Spain at the advent of Romanticism. The student also studies the movements that followed Romanticism: Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism. Performance objectives, suggested materials, learning…

  14. The Development of Learning to Learn in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Amparo; Martin, Elena

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we describe how the concept of "learning to learn" has developed in Spain, and give you an overview of relevant Spanish projects. First, we sketch out how this approach has developed in Spanish educational laws. We then give examples of research projects, assessment instruments and instructional programmes pertinent to…

  15. Espagne: Les langues en peril (Spain: Languages in Peril).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Manuel I.; Herreras, Jose C.

    1991-01-01

    Lowering of academic standards and distraction with the 1992 Olympics and advent of the European Community are causing concern about the future of education in general and French second language education in particular in Spain. Intensification of language instruction is recommended. (MSE)

  16. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  17. The 'Tortonian salinity crisis' of the eastern Betics (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, Miguel; Agustí, Jorge; Raffi, I.; Taberner, C.; Zachariasse, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The late Miocene depositional history of the Lorca and Fortuna basins, both occupying an internal position in the eastern Betics of Spain, is marked by a regressive sequence from open marine marls, via diatomites and evaporites, to continental sediments. Based on facies similarities, these

  18. Great Writers of Spain I (Nineteenth Century): 7506.26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The main goal of this course of study is for the student to understand, recognize, and interpret the many changes which occurred in the poetry and prose of Spain at the advent of Romanticism. The student also studies the movements that followed Romanticism: Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism. Performance objectives, suggested materials, learning…

  19. Acculturation Stress and Bullying among Immigrant Youths in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.; Nieri, Tanya A.; Villar, Paula; Luengo, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Few bullying studies focus on immigrant youths or acculturation stress as a risk factor for bullying and being bullied. Employing a sample of 1,157 foreign-born secondary students in Spain, we found that acculturation stress was widely experienced, although the average level of stress was moderate. Five percent of the sample reported being…

  20. Municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Enrique

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Methods Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. Results During the study period (1989–1998, 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain, the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west. Eivissa (Balearic Islands and El Hierro (Canary Islands also registered increased risks. Conclusion Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale.

  1. From Dictatorship to Democracy: History of Education in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñao, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In a book published in 1995 providing an overview on the state of the art in European educational historiography in Europe, Marie-Madeleine Compère referring to post-Franco Spain, emphasised the "dynamism" and "the capacity to mobilise" that had arisen among Spanish researchers by "any collective initiative." Moving…

  2. Education and Social Change in Spain: From Crisis to Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-González, Pablo; Rivas-Flores, J.Ignacio; Leite-Méndez, Analía E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses a particular socio-educational experience in a marginalised neighbourhood in Malaga, Spain. This initiative came about as an institutional proposal to combat neoliberal austerity policies and is known as the "Casa de la Buena Vida". It aims to generate new educational practices based on solidarity, dignity and…

  3. First Report of Babesia microti-Caused Babesiosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, Marta; Gonzalez, Luis M; Lobo, Cheryl A; de la Calle, Fernando; Bautista, Jose M; Azcárate, Isabel G; Puente, Sabino; Montero, Estrella

    2016-10-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis now found in several areas of the world. Using PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, we have diagnosed the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti in Spain. Diagnosis was delayed because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms that occurred in an immunocompetent patient.

  4. A Late Pliocene rodent fauna from Alozaina (Malaga, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, J.P.; Michaux, J.; Delannoy, J.J.; Guendon, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper 11 species of rodents are described, that have been found in the fossiliferous karst fissure of Alozaina (Malaga, Spain). Three species of Stephanomys (Murinae) are present in this fauna: S. thaleri, S. minor, and the new species S. prietaensis. The latter exhibits a lesser degree of e

  5. Relationships between surface solar radiation and wheat yield in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Barrera, Sara; Rodriguez-Puebla, Concepción

    2017-04-01

    Here we examine the role of solar radiation to describe wheat-yield variability in Spain. We used Partial Least Square regression to capture the modes of surface solar radiation that drive wheat-yield variability. We will show that surface solar radiation introduces the effects of teleconnection patterns on wheat yield and also it is associated with drought and diurnal temperature range. We highlight the importance of surface solar radiation to obtain models for wheat-yield projections because it could reduce uncertainty with respect to the projections based on temperatures and precipitation variables. In addition, the significance of the model based on surface solar radiation is greater than the previous one based on drought and diurnal temperature range (Hernandez-Barrera et al., 2016). According to our results, the increase of solar radiation over Spain for 21st century could force a wheat-yield decrease (Hernandez-Barrera et al., 2017). Hernandez-Barrera S., Rodríguez-Puebla C. and Challinor A.J. 2016 Effects of diurnal temperature range and drought on wheat yield in Spain. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. DOI: 10.1007/s00704-016-1779-9 Hernandez-Barrera S., Rodríguez-Puebla C. 2017 Wheat yield in Spain and associated solar radiation patterns. International Journal of Climatology. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4975

  6. Why Do Higher Education Students Drop Out? Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassibille, Gerard; Gomez, Lucia Navarro

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to advance our understanding of the drop-out behavior of students in higher education. Our results are based on longitudinal data for 7000 students who embarked on short and long programs from one university in Spain and who were observed over an eight-year period ending in 2004. The statistical analysis is carried out in a…

  7. Current research in Spain on walnut for wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neus Alet& #224; Neus NO-VALUE

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Mediterranean Trees at the Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA) in Spain initiated a research program in 1993 to examine the variability among walnut species for wood production and to establish orchards with improved selections. The main objective of the programme is to obtain superior Persian walnut (Juglans regia...

  8. Biomass power: Exploring the diffusion challenges in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomass resources for power generation offers numerous benefits of interest for political decision-makers: fuel security, rural and industrial development, ecological benefits. In Spain, policy instruments have been used since 1980 to stimulate biomass power generation. However, the

  9. Bibliometric Overview of Library and Information Science Research in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, V.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews 17 years of research in library and information science in Spain by analyzing 354 journal articles from two periodicals according to productivity variables, thematic content, and authorship patterns. Results indicate a concentration in the areas of information retrieval, description of services, and studies of scientific communication.…

  10. Faith in School: Immigrant Families' Attitudes towards Education in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terren, Eduardo; Carrasco, Concha

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on a preliminary exploration of the in-depth interviews and focus groups that are part of a more extensive research project on the education of children of immigrants in Spain. In the process of migration, families undergo profound transformations that are often complicated by extended periods of separation--not only from…

  11. Political-Military Trends in Italy, Greece, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    years, a product of EU policy, and to some extent, political convenience. The Basque country and Catalonia are the leading cases, supported by a...the "War of 1898", as they call the Spanish-American War, and Amer- ica’s rise to global power is linked in Spanish intellectual history with Spain’s

  12. Sensors and Technologies in Spain: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue was to provide a comprehensive view on the state-of-the-art sensor technology in Spain. Different problems cause the appearance and development of new sensor technologies and vice versa, the emergence of new sensors facilitates the solution of existing real problems. [...

  13. Spain gives science and technology a ministry of its own

    CERN Multimedia

    Bosch, X

    2000-01-01

    Spain's re-elected prime minister announced the creation of a new Ministry of Science and Technology. It will be responsible for policy on basic and applied research, IT and telecommunications. It will also incorporate the country's Higher Council of Research (1/2 page).

  14. Languages, Minorities and Education in Spain: The Case of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ferran

    2000-01-01

    Examines Catalan's remarkable revival in Catalonia (Spain) in the past 20 years. Discusses the 1978 referendum designating "autonomous communities," their languages having co-official status with Spanish; increases in Catalan usage in many sectors and among the young; Catalan usage in education; and challenges related to bilingual…

  15. On a new species of Mycena from Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robich, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    Mycena calceata Robich, collected at L’Estartit in Spain in November 1993, during the Mycological Days of the European Confederation of Mediterranean Mycology, is described as new to science. It belongs to section Insignis, characterized by the radiating hairs at the base of the stipe, large spores

  16. On a new species of Mycena from Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robich, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    Mycena calceata Robich, collected at L’Estartit in Spain in November 1993, during the Mycological Days of the European Confederation of Mediterranean Mycology, is described as new to science. It belongs to section Insignis, characterized by the radiating hairs at the base of the stipe, large spores

  17. Participant report for Tekniker (Spain) Hole Plate No. 137

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renate Erica

    International pour l’Etude Scientifique des Techniques de Production Mécanique (CIRP). In the project, 15 research laboratories have been involved from 9 countries: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA. A total of 24 CMMs were used to measure an optomechanical hole...

  18. Participant report for UNIMETRIK (Spain) Hole Plate No. 136

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renate Erica

    International pour l’Etude Scientifique des Techniques de Production Mécanique (CIRP). In the project, 15 research laboratories have been involved from 9 countries: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA. A total of 24 CMMs were used to measure an optomechanical hole...

  19. Education and Social Change in Spain: From Crisis to Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-González, Pablo; Rivas-Flores, J.Ignacio; Leite-Méndez, Analía E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses a particular socio-educational experience in a marginalised neighbourhood in Malaga, Spain. This initiative came about as an institutional proposal to combat neoliberal austerity policies and is known as the "Casa de la Buena Vida". It aims to generate new educational practices based on solidarity, dignity and…

  20. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  1. Mother's educational level and single motherhood: Comparing Spain and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garriga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the second half of the 20th century there was a positive relationship between single parenthood and the mother's educational level in Spain and Italy. Objective: However, several important transformations contemplated by Goode (1993 and McLanahan (2004 suggest that this relationship may have been inverted in Spain but perhaps not in Italy. The purpose of our study is to test this hypothesis. Methods: We use EU_SILC data from waves 2005 and 2011 and logistic regressions. Results: We found the relationship between the mother's educational level and being a single mother is negative in Spain, while it is not significant in Italy. However, we found that for Italian mothers aged 40 and younger and mothers from northwest Italy, this relationship is also negative. By contrast, for older mothers and mothers from the islands or southern Italy, this association is positive. Meanwhile, for mothers from the central and northeast regions, the relationship between educational level and single motherhood is not significant. Conclusions: These results show how Spain and some parts of Italian society are moving towards family models similar to those in the Northern European countries. As Sara McLanahan (2004 noted for the United States, this social transformation in Southern Europe cannot be considered without recognizing the potential negative consequence for future generations. The single-mother households dealing with the economic crisis that started in 2008 have lower socioeconomic backgrounds than the single mothers who suffered through previous crises, and therefore the consequences of this crisis for children in single-parent families might be even more negative, especially in Spain.

  2. Crisis, suicide and labour productivity losses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Currais, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Suicide became the first cause of death between the ages of 15 and 44 in Spain in the year 2013. Moreover, the suicide rate in Spain went up by more than 9 % with respect to the previous year. This increase could be related to the serious economic recession that Spain has been experiencing in recent years. In this sense, there is a lack of evidence to help assess to what extent these suicides have a social cost in terms of losses in human capital. Firstly, this article examines the relationship between the variables related to the economic cycle and the suicide rates in the 17 Spanish regions. Secondly, an estimate is made of the losses in labour productivity owing to these suicides. In this article, panel data models are used to consider different variables related to the economic cycle. Demographic variables and the suicide rates for regions across Spain from 2002 to 2013 also come into play. The present and future production costs owing to premature death from suicide are calculated using a human capital model. These costs are valued from the gross salary that an individual no longer receives in the future at the very moment he or she leaves the labour market. The results provide a strong indication that a decrease in economic growth and an increase in unemployment negatively affect suicide rates. Due to suicide, 38,038 potential years of working life were lost in 2013. This has an estimated cost of over 565 million euros. The economic crisis endured by Spain in recent years has played a role in the higher suicide rates one can observe from the data in official statistics. From a social perspective, suicide is a public health problem with far-reaching consequences.

  3. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  4. Pediatric and neonatal transport in Spain, Portugal and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, S; Escobar, M; Cabrerizo, M; Gómez, M; González, R; López-Herce Cid, J

    2017-04-01

    To study the organization of inter-hospital transport of pediatric and neonatal patients in Spain, Portugal and Latin America. An observational study was performed. An on-line survey was sent by email including questions about characteristics of national, regional and local health transport systems, vehicles, material, and composition of the transport team and their training. Hospital pediatric healthcare professionals treating children in Spain, Portugal and Latin America RESULTS: A total of 117 surveys from 15 countries were analyzed. Of them, 55 (47%) come from 15 regions of Spain and the rest from Portugal and 13 Latin American countries. The inter-hospital transport of pediatric patients is unified only in the Spanish regions of Baleares and Cataluña and in Portugal. Chile has a mixed unified transport system for pediatric and adult patients. Only 51.4% of responders have an educational program for the transport personnel, and only in 36.4% of them the educational program is specific for pediatric patients. In Spain and Portugal the transport is executed mostly by public entities, while in Latin America public and private systems coexist. Specific pediatric equipment is more frequent in the transport teams in the Iberian Peninsula than in Latin American teams. The specific pediatric transport training is less frequent for teams in Latin America than on Spain and Portugal. There is a great variation in the organization of children transport in each country and region. Most of countries and cities do not have unified and specific teams of pediatric transport, with pediatric qualified personnel and specific material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Crises epilépticas no período neonatal: análise descritiva de uma população hospitalar Neonatal epileptic seizures: descriptive analysis in a hospital population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a incidência e a letalidade de crises epilépticas neonatais e as condições associadas à sua presença. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo observacional de base hospitalar com crianças nascidas de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2004 acompanhadas por quatro semanas após o parto. Analisaram-se os dados referentes aos períodos pré-natal, intraparto e neonatal. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 6.600 nascidos vivos de 6.483 partos, encontrando-se 61 casos incidentes de crises epilépticas neonatais (0,9%. A primeira crise ocorreu até 12 horas após o parto em 45,3% dos neonatos. Das mães analisadas, 32,8% apresentaram síndromes hipertensivas. Entre os 61 pacientes, 91,8% eram conceptos únicos e 4,9% eram primeiro e segundo gemelares. O peso foi menor que 2500g em 50,8% e a restri��ão do crescimento intrauterino ocorreu em 25,9% das gestações analisadas. Obervaram-se: hipoglicemia neonatal (56,5%, icterícia neonatal (52,1% e asfixia perinatal (70,7%. Desenvolveram sepse bacteriana 32 crianças e 17 apresentaram síndrome de aspiração meconial ao nascer. O desequilíbrio ácido-básico ocorreu em 68,1% ao longo de 28 dias pós-parto. A letalidade foi de 47,4%, sendo mais frequente no sexo masculino (65,6% e em filhos de mães afro-descendentes (67,2%. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de crises epilépticas no período neonatal identificada neste estudo foi três a quatro vezes superior à incidência relatada em hospitais de países desenvolvidos, embora as características dos casos fossem semelhantes. A letalidade foi de 47,4% e a asfixia grave foi a condição patológica intraparto mais frequente.OBJECTIVE:To investigate their incidence and lethality of neonatal epileptic seizures and their associated conditions. METHODS: A retrospective observational hospital-based study was carried out in infants born between January 1995 and December 2004. The infants were followed up for four weeks after birth. Data on the

  6. An unusual chiasmal visual defect in a patient with neuromyelitis optica: case report Comprometimento quiasmático incomum em um paciente com neuromielite óptica: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martins da Silva Costa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the unusual visual field finding due to a chiasmal neuritis in a 33-year-old female with the diagnosis of optic neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome. METHODS: We report a case of a 33 years old female with limb paraesthesias, weakness in the legs, bowel and bladder dysfunction that was referred to the "Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo" in October 1995. Six years and four months later she had an acute visual involvement. Ophthalmologic examination, laboratory studies, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a 24-2 threshold visual field in the Humphrey field analyzer were performed. RESULTS: The MRI scan showed enlargement and cavitation on the spinal cord and chiasmal involvement (thickening of the chiasm with contrast enhancement and no demyelinating lesions in the brain, brainstem, or cerebellum. The central 24-degree threshold field examination showed an inferior visual field defect bitemporally, disclosing a chiasmal involvement. CONCLUSION: Chiasmal involvement may occur in neuromyelitis optica, probably due to a plaque within the chiasm. The authors call attention to the importance of visual field examination with particular regard to quantifying the visual impairment and follow-up of these patients.OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso de uma mulher de 33 anos de idade, com o diagnóstico de neuromielite óptica (síndrome de Devic acometendo o quiasma óptico que apresentou um escotoma incomum no exame de campo visual. MÉTODOS: Uma paciente do sexo feminino, portadora de parestesias nos membros inferiores, fraqueza nas pernas, disfunção da defecação e disfunção urinária, foi encaminhada para o Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo em outubro do ano de 1995. Seis anos e quatro meses mais tarde ela sofreu acometimento visual agudo. Foram realizados exame oftalmológico completo, exame de líquor, resson

  7. On a Lecture Trip to Spain: The Scientific Relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presas i Puig, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926) and the German academic policy that fostered it. The study of the international relations of German science during the 1920s has been carried out using as a basis the archives of scientific institutions. Personal…

  8. On a Lecture Trip to Spain: The Scientific Relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presas i Puig, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926) and the German academic policy that fostered it. The study of the international relations of German science during the 1920s has been carried out using as a basis the archives of scientific institutions. Personal…

  9. Validación de la técnica aséptica de elaboración de nutrición parenteral en un servicio de farmacia según el capítulo 797 de la USP

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: En el proceso de elaboración de nutrición parenteral se debe garantizar que el personal de enfermería utiliza una técnica aséptica adecuada. En el capítulo 797 de la United States Pharmacopeia se clasifican los niveles de riesgo de las preparaciones estériles y se definen los requerimientos que se deben cumplir en la elaboración. Objetivo: Describir el desarrollo de un procedimiento de validación de la técnica aséptica utilizada por el personal de enfermería que elabora nutricio...

  10. Identificación de las estructuras corticales implicadas en la generación de la actividad epiléptica crítica e intercrítica en pacientes con epilepsia fármacorresistente: un estudio de resonancia magnética funcional con EEG simultáneo.

    OpenAIRE

    Donaire Pedraza, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    [spa]A pesar del extenso conocimiento de la epilepsia de que disponemos hoy día, todavía permanece como materia de estudio la localización exacta de los generadores corticales de la actividad epiléptica crítica e intercrítica; así como, de las vías y estructuras cerebrales implicadas en la propagación de las crisis epilépticas. Estos conceptos resultan de vital importancia para poder profundizar en la fisiopatología de la epilepsia, y son esenciales a la hora de la planificación de la cirugía...

  11. Estudo da síndrome de tração macular vítreo-retiniana idiopática por meio da tomografia de coerência óptica: relato de casos A study of idiophatic vitreomacular traction syndrome with optical coherence tomography images: cases report

    OpenAIRE

    Hélio Paulo Primiano Júnior; Aloísio Fumio Nakashima; Otacílio de Oliveira Maia Júnior; Maria Teresa Brizzi Bonanomi; Yoshitaka Nakashima

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Avaliar alterações estruturais observadas na síndrome de tração macular vítreo-retiniana idiopática (STMI) pela tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT), antes e depois da vitrectomia; identificar situações em que a tomografia de coerência óptica fornece informações adicionais da morfologia e patogênese desta doença. MÉTODOS: Imagens tomográficas (OCT Stratus) comparativas da estrutura vítreo-retiniana foram realizadas em quatro pacientes, em estágios variados da síndrome de tração mac...

  12. ESTUDO DAS PROPRIEDADES DIELÃTRICAS E ÃPTICAS NA MATRIZ CERÃMICA CaBi4Ti4O15 COM ADIÃÃO DE V2O5/Er2O3/Yb2O3

    OpenAIRE

    MÃcio Costa Campos Filho

    2015-01-01

    Uma forte demanda por materiais mais compactados, de baixo custo e de fÃcil fabricaÃÃo sÃo necessÃrios para diversas aplicaÃÃes tecnolÃgicas, neste sentido diversos materiais cerÃmicos sÃo candidatos por suas propriedades dielÃtricas e Ãpticas. Neste presente trabalho, foram investigadas as propriedades estruturais, dielÃtricas e Ãpticas da fase ortorrÃmbica da matriz cerÃmica ferroelÃtrica CaBi4Ti4O15, uma pseudo-perosviskita de estrutura de camada de bismuto (BLSFs) do grupo espacial A21am ...

  13. Efeito dos sólidos dissolvidos da madeira na branqueabilidade e nas propriedades físico-mecânicas e ópticas de polpa kraft branqueada de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Longue Júnior

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985089Muitos estudos demonstram que o rendimento da polpação kraft pode ser melhorado pela readsorção de xilanas à polpa durante o cozimento, e o licor negro kraft contém fração significativa das xilanas da madeira, sendo uma importante fonte dessas macromoléculas. Porém, o efeito dessa técnica nas propriedades físico-mecânicas e ópticas de polpa branqueada de eucalipto, ainda não está bem esclarecido. Neste estudo foram produzidas polpas de eucalipto provenientes de cozimento kraft convencional, com diferentes adições de licor negro (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 % v/v. Os cozimentos foram conduzidos até número kappa 17-18 e as polpas resultantes foram deslignificadas com oxigênio em condições fixas. O branqueamento foi realizado utilizando uma sequência DHT(EPDP até alvura final 92 % ISO. Em seguida as polpas foram refinadas num moinho PFI a diferentes níveis de revoluções (0, 500, 1.500, 3.000 e 6.000 e realizados testes de resistência ao rasgo, ao arrebentamento e à passagem de ar, alongamento, opacidade, densidade, volume específico aparente, capilaridade Klemm e índice de retenção de água (WRV. A eficiência e o ganho de alvura da pré-deslignificação com oxigênio foram ligeiramente prejudicados pela adição de licor negro ao cozimento kraft. A adição de 50 % de licor negro aos cozimentos resultou em polpas de pior branqueabilidade, sendo a demanda de cloro ativo aumentada em 5,3 kg/t celulose seca para obtenção de alvura 92 % ISO. As propriedades físico-mecânicas e ópticas das polpas kraft branqueadas não foram influenciadas, significativamente, pelo uso de licor negro no cozimento.

  14. Características físicas, químicas e organolépticas de quipá (Tacinga inamoena, Cactaceae Physical chemical and chemicalcharacteristics of 'quipá' (Tacinga inamoena, Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Carla Mendonça de Souza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A Opuntia ficus-indica tem-se destacado como principal produtora de frutos e forragens, motivo pelo qual tem sido bastante pesquisada. Além desta espécie, no semi-árido do Nordeste é encontrada a Tacinga inamoena, planta nativa, cujo fruto, embora também utilizado pelo agricultor como alternativa alimentar, não foi objeto de nenhuma pesquisa até o momento, justificando este trabalho para avaliar seu potencial nutricional e industrial, por meio das características organolépticas, químicas e físicas, conteúdo nutricional e composição mineral. O quipá apresenta características organolépticas similares às de frutos de mesmo gênero, com rendimento da porção comestível, polpa e pericarpo carnoso de 62,87% do peso total do fruto. No que diz respeito à composição química, a polpa difere significativamente do pericarpo carnoso, com superioridade deste último, que apresenta maior teor de minerais, destacando-se dentre estes o cálcio, o magnésio e o potássio que apresentaram valores de 587,04mg, 257,02mg e 318,01mg, respectivamente. Os resultados evidenciam que o quipá é adequado para consumo in natura e apresenta potencial para aproveitamento industrial.Provided that the Opuntia fícus-indica is the main producer of fruit and forages, it has been the object of extensive research. Besides, another species Tacinga inamoena, native plant, which its fruit has been used as an alternative food source can also be found in the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil. However, this native plant had not been the object of any research yet. The aim of this work is to evaluate its industrial and nutritional potential through the organoleptic, physical, chemical characteristics, nutritional content and mineral composition. The Quípa shows organoleptic characteristics similar to other fruit of the same gender. Its edible portion, pulp and fleshy pericarp, corresponds to 62, 8% of the total fruit weight. As regard to chemical composition

  15. SURTO DE SARNA CORIÓPTICA EM CAPRINOS NA CIDADE DE GRAVATÁ, REGIÃO AGRESTE DO ESTADO DE PERNAMBUCO OUTBREAK OF CHORIOPTIC MANGE IN GOATS IN THE CITY OF GRAVATÁ IN PERNAMBUCO´S AGRESTE REGION

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    Maria Isabel de Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A sarna corióptica é de rara ocorrência em caprinos, no entanto trata-se de uma enfermidade cutânea importante, resultando em perdas econômicas decorrentes do retardo no desenvolvimento dos animais, da perda de peso e do prejuízo à indústria de couro. Desse modo, o objetivo do presente artigo é relatar a ocorrência de um surto de sarna corióptica em um rebanho caprino criado no município de Gravatá (Lat. 08° 12’ 04’’ S e Long. 35° 33’ 53’’ O, região Agreste do estado de Pernambuco. Os animais apresentavam extensas áreas de alopecia, eritema, crostas e espessamento da pele na região das axilas, peito, ventre e as faces caudal e craniomedial dos membros posteriores, além de intenso prurido. Foi realizado raspado cutâneo e identificado o ácaro Chorioptes bovis spp.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Caprinos, Chorioptes spp, sarna.

    Chorioptic mange is of rare occurrence in goats, although it is an important skin disease resulting in economic loss due to the delay in the development of the animals, weight loss and economic losses to the leather industry. Thus, the aim of the present article was to report the occurrence of an outbreak of chorioptic mange in a goat flock reared in the city of Gravatá, (Lat. 08° 12’ 04’’ S and Long. 35° 33’ 53’’ W in Pernambuco´s Agreste region. The animals showed wide alopecia areas, erythema, crusts and skin thickness in the following areas: armpits, sternum, ventral abdomen, caudal and cranium-medial facets of the hind legs and severe scratching. Chorioptes bovis spp was identified in skin scrapings.

    KEY WORDS: Chorioptes spp, goats, mange.

  16. Immune system markers of neuroinflammation in patients with clinical diagnose of neuromyelitis optica Marcadores imunológicos em pacientes com diagnóstico de neuromielite óptica

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    Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by the association of a serious myelitis and unilateral or bilateral optic neuritis. The present study aimed to analyze the immunological parameters of NMO patients with diagnosis established based on Wingerchuck et al. (1999 criteria. Production of IgG and IgA antibodies to antigens of MBP, PLP 95-116, MOG 92-106, and the cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interferon-γ (INF-γ were assessed by Elisa assay. The cohort was formed by 28 NMO patients and a matched healthy control group. NMO patients had significant high levels of IgG to MOG (pA neuromielite óptica (NMO é doença inflamatória do sistema nervoso central, caracterizada por mielite aguda ou subaguda grave e neurite óptica unilateral ou bilateral. Este estudo objetiva analisar parâmetros imunológicos de pacientes com critérios de Wingerchuck et al. (1999 para NMO. O método de ELISA avaliou a produção de IgG e IgA para antígenos da proteína básica da mielina (MBP, o proteolipídeo (PLP 95-116, a glicoproteina associada ao oligodendrócito (MOG 92-106 e as citocinas interleucina-4 (IL-4 e interferon-gama (INF-γ. Foram incluνdos 28 pacientes com NMO pareados com controles saudáveis. Pacientes com NMO apresentaram níveis significativamente elevados de imunoglobulinas reativas dos isotipos IgG para MOG (p<0,0001, PLP (p=0,0002 e MBP (p<0,0001 e IgA somente para MBP (p<0,0001. Os níveis de INF-γ (p=0,61 foram semelhantes aos controles. A produção elevada de IL-4 (p=0,0084 indica papel importante na ativação de células regulatórias Th2 e linfócitos B produtores de IgA e da ativação da imunidade humoral.

  17. Validación de la técnica aséptica de elaboración de nutrición parenteral en un servicio de farmacia según el capítulo 797 de la USP

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    Rosa M.ª Romero Jiménez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el proceso de elaboración de nutrición parenteral se debe garantizar que el personal de enfermería utiliza una técnica aséptica adecuada. En el capítulo 797 de la United States Pharmacopeia se clasifican los niveles de riesgo de las preparaciones estériles y se definen los requerimientos que se deben cumplir en la elaboración. Objetivo: Describir el desarrollo de un procedimiento de validación de la técnica aséptica utilizada por el personal de enfermería que elabora nutriciones parenterales en el área de elaboración del Servicio de Farmacia según las recomendaciones del capítulo 797 de la United States Pharmacopeia. Métodos: Se revisó el capítulo 797 de la United States Pharmacopeia y se clasificaron las nutriciones parenterales como preparaciones de riesgo medio de contaminación microbiológica. Resultados: Se adaptaron las recomendaciones de la United States Pharmacopeia para mezclas de riesgo medio y se estableció un procedimiento de validación de la técnica aséptica para la elaboración de las nutriciones parenterales. Discusión: El procedimiento de validación de la técnica aséptica permite validar la calidad del manejo aséptico del personal de enfermería. El procedimiento se ha incorporado a la práctica habitual, realizándose de forma mensual por el personal de enfermería del área de nutrición.

  18. [Health Campaigns Against Malaria in Spain through the Specialized Journalism in Spain (1929-1954)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón Cano, Natalia; Mosquera Gordillo, Miguel Armando; Ballester Añón, Rosa

    2016-06-07

    Malaria was one of the most important public health problems of the Colonial Medicine and, for this reason, the subject was reflected in the Spanish medical journalism. The aim of the paper was to reconstruct the Spanish contributions to international health during the first half of the twentieth century. The primary sources of information on malaria were the medical journals Medicina de los Países Cálidos and Medicina Colonial, between 1929 and 1954. The documents were classified according to the sections of the magazine and its contents were studied, framing them in the history of international public health. In primary sources were found 466 documents. Malaria was one of the major diseases of the Spanish Protectorate in Morocco and Spanish Guinea, favoured by the occupation of the Spanish army. Antimalaria campaigns included strategies such as the use of Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, preventive education and massive quininización. Malariology in the specialized journalism, experienced a growing boom. The most outstanding authors in magazines analyzed were Gustavo Pittaluga, Sadí de Buen, Eliseo de Buen and Juan Gil-Collado. The Spanish specialized journalism provides the importance e interaction in antimalaria campaigns in Spain and Spanish African colonies of scientific, professional, political and military factors. The colonial situation was negative and marked differences between metropolis and colonies in terms of the effort, efficiency and the different temporal sequence of the measures undertaken.

  19. A new era for Nuclear Medicine neuroimaging in Spain: Where do we start from in Spain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, M A; Camacho, V; Garrastachu, P; García-Solís, D; Gómez-Río, M; Rubí, S; Setoain, X; Arbizu, J

    To determine the status of neuroimaging studies of Nuclear Medicine in Spain during 2013 and first quarter of 2014, in order to define the activities of the neuroimaging group of the Spanish Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SEMNIM). A questionnaire of 14 questions was designed, divided into 3 parts: characteristics of the departments (equipment and professionals involved); type of scans and clinical indications; and evaluation methods. The questionnaire was sent to 166 Nuclear Medicine departments. A total of 54 departments distributed among all regions completed the questionnaire. Most departments performed between 300 and 800 neuroimaging examinations per year, representing more than 25 scans per month. The average pieces of equipment were three; half of the departments had a PET/CT scanner and SPECT/CT equipment. Scans performed more frequently were brain SPECT with (123)I-FP-CIT, followed by brain perfusion SPECT and PET with (18)F-FDG. The most frequent clinical indications were cognitive impairment followed by movement disorders. For evaluation of the images most sites used only visual assessment, and for the quantitative assessment the most used was quantification by region of interest. These results reflect the clinical activity of 2013 and first quarter of 2014. The main indications of the studies were cognitive impairment and movement disorders. Variability in the evaluation of the studies is among the challenges that will be faced in the coming years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. APLICACIÓN DE LA LÓGICA DIFUSA COMPENSATORIA EN LA SELECCIÓN DE OFERTAS DE ARMADURAS ÓPTICAS

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    Rafael A. Espín Andrade

    2010-11-01

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    Para tomar las decisiones correctas en las compras es necesaria la evaluación de los proveedores, para lo cual no está establecido un método actualmente en la UEB Comercializadora de Artículos Ópticos, provocando que existan altos niveles de artículos rechazados por incumplimiento de especificaciones de calidad.  El objetivo es diseñar un modelo para evaluar la calidad de las armaduras ópticas contribuyendo a la mejor selección de las ofertas de los proveedores, convirtiéndose en un método para evaluarlos. A partir