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Sample records for pterocarpus marsupium roxb

  1. Hypoglycaemic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanabal, S P; Kokate, C K; Ramanathan, M; Kumar, E P; Suresh, B

    2006-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of various subfractions of the alcohol extract of the bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of these extracts on lipid profile and liver function tests were also assessed to evaluate their activity in controlling diabetes related metabolic alterations. The parameters measured were plasma glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT. The results indicate the effective role of Pterocarpus marsupium on the above mentioned parameters indicating that Pterocarpus marsupium can also control the diabetes related metabolic alterations apart from controlling the glucose levels. Among the fractions tested the butanol subfraction was found to be more active in comparison with other subfractions. It can be concluded that the butanol subfraction of the alcohol extract of Pterocarpus marsupium exhibits significant antidiabetic activity and corrects the metabolic alterations in diabetic rats and this activity may resemble insulin-like properties. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. MICROPROPAGATION OF ADULT TREE OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB. USING NODAL EXPLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Shipra JAISWAL; Meena CHOUDHARY; Sarita ARYA; Tarun KANT

    2015-01-01

    Attempts were made for in vitro propagation of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., belonging to family Fabaceae, an economically important multipurpose tree. The tree is scared with noval antidiabetic properties. The tree shows poor seed germination capacity (30%) due to hard seed coat and conventional vegetative regeneration methods are a complete failure. Therefore, the propagation of this tree by tissue culture techniques is an urgent need and well justified. Nodal segments containing axillary bu...

  3. Effect of Seed Orientation and Medium Strength on In vitro Germination of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogeshwar MISHRA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed for optimization of In vitro germination of an economically important timber-yielding multipurpose tree, Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. The seeds inoculated in different orientation on different strengths of MS medium without any hormones showed varied response to the seed positions. The seeds inoculated on half strength medium in horizontal position recorded to produce a maximum germination (78.23%, shoot number (0.86 and root number (7.99. However, a maximum of shoot length of 3.67 cm was recorded in the quarter strength medium in the seeds inoculated in vertical down position, which was significantly higher than other media strength and positions. Our results indicate that the seed orientation including medium strength have tremendous effect on germination and seeds inoculated horizontally on half strength MS medium can be utilized to enhance In vitro seed germination of Pterocarpus marsupium.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, M; Kannabiran, K

    2009-09-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb was evaluated against pathogenic bacteria Stahylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia in an in vitro condition. Aqueous extracts from roots of H. indicus and barks of F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb were tested for antimicrobial activity using the zone of inhibition method and also screened for phytochemicals. The aqueous extract of P. marsupium roxb inhibited growth of bacteria with the minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.04 mg to 0.08 mg and extracts of F. bengalensis and H. indicus showed inhibition at the range of 0.04 mg to 0.1 mg against the bacteria tested. The susceptibility of bacterial pathogens was in the order of S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was synergistic with antibiotics tested. Results of the present study suggest that the aqueous extracts of H. indicus, F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb has significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria.

  5. Effect of seed mass on emergence and seedling development in Ptero-carpus marsupium Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yogeshwar Mishra; Rimi Rawat; P.K.Rana; M.K.Sonkar; Naseer Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of seed mass on emergence, seed-ling survival and growth of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., a medium to large, commercially valuable and deciduous tree species. Among the three size classes viz. small (10-12 mm), medium (13-15 mm) and large (16-17 mm), the maximum proportion of seed by number (54.12%) and dry weight (51.87%) was recorded in the medium size seed class. Seed length and seed width were greatest in the large seed class (16.50 mm, 7.33 mm) followed by medium (13.50 mm, 5.60 mm) and small (11.37 mm, 3.66 mm). Similarly, hundred seed weight (100 sw) varied from a maximum of 12.92 g in the large seed class to intermediate 10.95 g in the medium seed class and minimum of 7.02 g in the small seed class. The large seed size showed maximum emergence and shoot length over the medium and small seed class. After six months of growth, significant variations due to seed size were also observed for the growth and dry weight of P. marsupium seedlings. Seedling vigour, expressed in terms of height, collar diameter, number of leaves and dry biomass, was sig-nificantly affected by seed class. Seedlings that emerged from large seeds showed better growth and produced heavier seedlings as compared to medium and small seeds.

  6. MICROPROPAGATION OF ADULT TREE OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB. USING NODAL EXPLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra JAISWAL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attempts were made for in vitro propagation of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., belonging to family Fabaceae, an economically important multipurpose tree. The tree is scared with noval antidiabetic properties. The tree shows poor seed germination capacity (30% due to hard seed coat and conventional vegetative regeneration methods are a complete failure. Therefore, the propagation of this tree by tissue culture techniques is an urgent need and well justified. Nodal segments containing axillary bud from 10 years old tree of P. marsupium were evaluated for axillary shoot proliferation on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS basal medium fortified with BAP (6–benzylaminopurine and kinetin (Kn singly or in combinations with auxins at different concentrations. The best shoot proliferation was obtained with 13.95 µM Kn + additives (568 µM Ascorbic acid, 260 µM Citric acid, 605 µM Ammonium sulphate and 217 µM Adenine sulphate in MS medium where 64.44% of the axillary buds responded with development of (2.51±0.10 shoots. Multiplication of in vitro shoots were achieved on MS Medium supplemented with Kn (9.30 µM + NAA (0.54 µM and additives. Half strength MS medium supplemented with 4.92 µM IBA induced in vitro rooting of in vitro shoots. In vitro regenerated plantlets with well developed roots were successfully hardened in a greenhouse.

  7. Comparison of conventional and non conventional methods of extraction of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devgun, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid H

    2012-01-01

    The renewed interest in plant-derived drugs has led to an increased need for efficient extraction methods. The present investigation was an attempt to evaluate and compare the conventional methods of extraction with non conventional methods of extraction, such as ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) methods. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. has been reported to contain bioactive phytochemicals, e.g., pterostilbene (3',5'-dimethoxy-4-stilbenol). The results showed that among the conventional extraction methods, percolation gave the highest yield. The non conventional methods were optimized. The extraction yield was the highest in case of MAE. The phytochemical screening of the extracts indicated similar groups of compounds in all the extracts. The thin layer chromatography showed the presence of pterostilbene in the extracts obtained by using percolation, MAE and UAE. In these extracts the quantification of pterostilbene was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography and the method was validated. The MAE method extracted significantly higher amount of pterostilbene.

  8. The study of aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. on cytokine TNF-α in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halagappa, Kirana; Girish, H N; Srinivasan, B P

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. on elevated inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p.) in a neonatal rat model. Aqueous extract of P. marsupium at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg was given orally to desired group of animals for a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of drug treatment, parameters such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and TNF-α in serum were analyzed. Aqueous extract of P. marsupium at both doses, i.e., 100 and 200 mg/kg, decreased the fasting and postprandial blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. The 200 mg/kg had more pronounced effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. The drug also improved the body weight of diabetic animals. Cytokine TNF-α was found to be elevated in untreated diabetic rats due to chronic systemic inflammation. The aqueous extract at both doses significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the elevated TNF-α level in type 2 diabetic rats. Modulation of cytokine TNF-α by the rasayana drug P. marsupium is related with its potential anti-diabetic activity.

  9. Effect of Seed Orientation and Medium Strength on In vitro Germination of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogeshwar MISHRA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed for optimization of In vitro germination of an economically important timber-yielding multipurpose tree, Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. The seeds inoculated in different orientation on different strengths of MS medium without any hormones showed varied response to the seed positions. The seeds inoculated on half strength medium in horizontal position recorded to produce a maximum germination (78.23%, shoot number (0.86 and root number (7.99. However, a maximum of shoot length of 3.67 cm was recorded in the quarter strength medium in the seeds inoculated in vertical down position, which was significantly higher than other media strength and positions. Our results indicate that the seed orientation including medium strength have tremendous effect on germination and seeds inoculated horizontally on half strength MS medium can be utilized to enhance In vitro seed germination of Pterocarpus marsupium.

  10. Insulinotrophic and insulin-like effects of a high molecular weight aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohankumar, Suresh K; O'Shea, Tim; McFarlane, James R

    2012-05-07

    Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (PM) is an Ayurvedic traditional medicine well known for its antidiabetic potential. To fractionate the antidiabetic constituent(s) of the aqueous of extract of PM hardwood (PME). Bio-assay methods including, insulin secretion from mouse pancreas and glucose uptake by mouse skeletal muscle, were used to determine and fractionate the antidiabetic activity of PME. Results obtained from the in vitro experiments were then verified by examining the effect of PME on glucose clearance in normoglycemic, non-diabetic sheep in vivo. Exposure of mouse pancreatic and muscle tissues to PME stimulated the insulin secretion and glucose uptake, respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner. PME-mediated muscle glucose uptake was not potentiated in the presence of insulin indicating that PME acts via pathways which are utilized by insulin. Bio-assay-guided fractionation of PME yielded a high molecular weight fraction which had potent antidiabetic properties in vitro, and in in vivo. Our findings, we believe for the first time, provide novel insights for the antidiabetic constituents of PM and demonstrate that a high molecular weight constituent(s) of PM has potent insulinotrophic and insulin-like properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Therapy with methanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb and Ocimum sanctum Linn reverses dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in alloxan induced type I diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prem Kumar; Baxi, Darshee; Banerjee, Sudip; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-07-01

    Methanolic extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb (P. marsupium) and Ocimum sanctum Linn (O. sanctum) were prepared separately and then administered to both non-diabetic and alloxan induced diabetic adult female Wistar rats as a mixture of both at a dosage of 500mg/kg body weight, and its effect was checked on serum and tissue lipids together with corticosterone, estrogen and progesterone profile. Further, tissue load of metabolites (cholesterol), enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status together with lipid peroxidation levels and serum markers of hepatic and renal damage were also assessed. Results of the present study strongly support the possibility of this herbal combination in humans to meet the objective of achieving a holistic amelioration and cure of diabetes as, the herbal extract mixture of P. marsupium and O. sanctum has succeeded in not only rectifying dyslipidemia but also in restoring the endogenous antioxidant levels to the pre diabetic status. Herbal preparations are ideal candidates of choice and in this context, the present combination of P. marsupium and O. sanctum provides compelling evidence for a holistic efficacy in amelioration of associated diabetic manifestations/dysregulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Antidiabetic activity of heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. and analysis of phytoconstituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Akansha; Srivastava, Rohit; Srivastava, Swayam Prakash; Gautam, Sudeep; Tamrakar, Akhilesh Kumar; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2013-05-01

    The crude powder, ethanolic extract and aqueous, chloroform, hexane and n-butanol soluble fractions of ethanolic extract of heart wood of P. marsupium showed marked improvement on oral glucose tolerance post sucrose load in normal rats. All these fractions except aqueous fraction showed improvement on oral glucose tolerance post sucrose load on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The crude powder, ethanolic extract and hexane and n-butanol fractions showed marked decline in blood glucose level on STZ-induced diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg body weight) when given to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 10 consecutive days declined blood glucose, improved OGTT and increased their serum insulin levels. The ethanolic extract also showed marked improvement on oral glucose tolerance on high fat-low dosed STZ-induced diabetic rats and neonatally STZ treated rats. The ethanolic extract of P. marsupium also showed marked antidyslipidemic effects on high fat diet fed Syrian golden hamsters. Altered renal and hepatic function markers and serum insulin levels of high fat diet fed-low dosed STZ-treated diabetic rats were also found towards normalization when these animals were treated with ethanolic extract of P. marsupium for 28 consecutive days. The four out of five phenolic C-glycosides isolated from n-butanol fraction of ethanolic extract of P. marsupium enhanced glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) in a dose dependent manner. It may primarily be concluded that phenolic-C-glycosides present in P. marsupium heart wood are the phytoconstituents responsible for the antihyperglycemic activity and validate the claim of antidiabetic activity of heart wood of P. marsupium.

  13. Evaluation of effect of alcoholic extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium on in vitro antioxidant, anti-glycation, sorbitol accumulation and inhibition of aldose reductase activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Pankaj; Jain, Vivek; Pareek, Ashutosh; Kumari, Preeti; Singh, Randhir; Agarwal, Priyanka; Sharma, Veena

    .... Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., a medicinal plant, known for its anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic activity is a rich source of phytochemicals with antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities...

  14. Comparative evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devgan, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid Husain

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood were prepared by conventional methods (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) and non conventional methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The crude aqueous extracts were administered orally to both normal and alloxan induced male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). The experimental set up consisted of 48 male albino rats divided into 6 groups: Normal control, diabetic control (sterile normal saline, 1 ml/100 g body weight), standard (gliclazide, 25 mg/1000g of body weight), groups 4-6 (crude aqueous percolation, optimized UAE and MAE extract, 250 mg/1000g of body weight). In acute treatment, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant with the oral administration of UAE and percolation aqueous extracts to the hyperglycemic rats. In sub-acute treatment, the UAE aqueous extract led to consistent and statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose levels. There was no abnormal change in body weight of the hyperglycemic animals after 10 days of administration of plant extracts and gliclazide. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of Pterocarpus marsupium to treat diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium can be enhanced by extracting the heartwood by non conventional method of UAE.

  15. Selective COX-2 inhibition by a Pterocarpus marsupium extract characterized by pterostilbene, and its activity in healthy human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hougee, S.; Faber, J.; Sanders, A.; Jong, R.B. de; Berg, W.B. van den; Garssen, J.; Hoijer, M.A.; Smit, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, an extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. containing pterostilbene has been evaluated for its PGE2-inhibitory activity in LPS-stimulated PBMC. In addition, the COX-1/2 selective inhibitory activity of P. marsupium (PM) extract was investigated. Biological activity, as well as safety

  16. INORGANIC STATUS OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

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    Gaikwad Dattatraya Krishna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus marsupium is well known for its sugar lowering potential. In the present examination different bark samples (Apical bark, middle bark and mature inner bark of Pterocarpus marsupium were screened for inorganic status. The levels of macro-minerals Nitrogen (1.50-3.13%, Phosphorus (0.023-0.163%, Calcium (0.60-1.848%, and Magnesium (0.21-0.339%, levels of trace minerals Copper (0.68-3.2mg/100g, Zinc (1.98-3.62mg/100g, Manganese (2.0-4.94mg/100g and Iron (11.38-44.34mg/100g and heavy metals Chromium (2.08-3.94mg/100g and Nickel (0.32-1.26mg/100g were evaluated in the present study. Cadmium and Lead were found to be absent in all the bark samples analyzed.

  17. Constituents of Pterocarpus marsupium: an ayurvedic crude drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rakesh; Singh, Rajinder; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Handa, S S; Yadav, Prem P; Mishra, Pushpesh K

    2004-04-01

    Five new flavonoid C-glucosides, 6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-benzofuran-7-C-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3-(alpha-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxybenzo-2(3H)-furanone-7-C-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), 2-hydroxy-2-p-hydroxybenzyl-3(2H)-6-hydroxybenzofuranone-7-C-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), 8-(C-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (5) and 1,2-bis(2,4-dihydroxy,3-C-glucopyranosyl)-ethanedione (6) and two known compounds C-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-2,6-dihydroxyl benzene (7) and sesquiterpene (8), were isolated from an aqueous extract of the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium. The structure has been established using spectroscopic data.

  18. Pterocarpus marsupium extract reveals strong in vitro antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, M; Khole, S; Devasagayam, T Pa; Ghaskadbi, S S

    2009-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, which via several mechanism leads to an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to various secondary complications. Thus, a drug having both antidiabetic and antioxidant properties would have great therapeutic value for overcoming the oxidative load in diabetes. The present study was aimed at extensively evaluating the antioxidant properties of an anti-diabetic plant extract of stem bark of Pterocarpus marsupium using various in vitro radical scavenging assays as well as by using liver slice cultures as a model system. Our results demonstrate that the whole aqueous extract showed high antioxidant activity in all different assays used and also protected mitochondria against oxidative damage. Ethanol was used as an inducer of oxidative stress in liver slice culture and cytotoxicity was estimated by quantitating release of cytotoxicity marker enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Additionally, levels of antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were also estimated. The whole aqueous extract significantly reduced LDH release along with reduction of lipid peroxidation compared to ethanol treated slices. These results indicate that the P. marsupium extract may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant for treatment of diabetes.

  19. Upregulation of Glut-4 and PPAR gamma by an isoflavone from Pterocarpus marsupium on L6 myotubes: a possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandharajan, R; Pathmanathan, K; Shankernarayanan, N P; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Balakrishnan, Arun

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of the present study is to analyse the influence of Pterocarpus marsupium methanolic extract and isolated Pterocarpus marsupium isoflavone on a battery of cellular targets Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3 kinase. Pterocarpus marsupium is an anti-diabetic plant indigenous to South India. Sequential extraction performed with different solvents were analysed for glucose uptake activity at each step. Fraction-9 showing maximum glucose activity on glucose uptake was purified by column chromatography and the structure was elucidated as 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl oxy-4'-methoxy-5-hydroxy isoflavone using NMR and mass spectroscopy. The significant glucose uptake showed by Pterocarpus marsupium crude and pure was comparable with insulin and rosiglitazone. Elevation of Glut-4 and PPARgamma gene expression in parallel with glucose uptake supported the in vitro glucose uptake activity of Pterocarpus marsupium methanolic extract and Pterocarpus marsupium isoflavone. The inhibitory effect of cycloheximide on Pterocarpus marsupium methanolic extract and Pterocarpus marsupium isoflavone-mediated glucose uptake suggested that new protein synthesis is required for elevated Glut-4 protein expression. PI3 kinase plays an important role in glucose transport and activated by Pterocarpus marsupium methanolic extract but not the isolated pure isoflavone. Therefore, we postulate that the isoflavone from Pterocarpus marsupium may activate glucose transport by a PI3 kinase independent pathway, which require further analysis.

  20. Bijayasaline: a new C-glucosyl-alpha-hydroxydihydrochalcone from the heartwood of Bijayasal (Pterocarpus marsupium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Khem Raj; Devkota, Hari Prasad; Yahara, Shoji

    2014-06-01

    A new C-glucosyl-alpha-hydroxydihydrochalcone derivative, (aS)-3'-C-ff-glucopyranosyl-a,3,4,2'4'-pentahydroxydihydrochalcone, named as bijayasaline (1) was isolated from the heartwood of Bijayasal (Pterocarpus marsupium) and characterized on the basis of NMR and circular dichroism (CD) spectral data. Bijayasaline (1) showed potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity.

  1. Effect of aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium wood on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, H M; Ansari, S H; Ali, M; Bhat, Z A; Naved, T

    2005-06-01

    An aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium wood was screened for hypoglycemic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. During both acute and sub-acute tests, the water extract, at an oral dose of 250 mg/kg, showed statistically significant hypoglycemic activity.

  2. Selective COX-2 inhibition by a Pterocarpus marsupium extract characterized by pterostilbene, and its activity in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougee, Sander; Faber, Joyce; Sanders, Annemarie; de Jong, Romy B; van den Berg, Wim B; Garssen, Johan; Hoijer, Maarten A; Smit, H Friso

    2005-05-01

    In this study, an extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. containing pterostilbene has been evaluated for its PGE2-inhibitory activity in LPS-stimulated PBMC. In addition, the COX-1/2 selective inhibitory activity of P. marsupium (PM) extract was investigated. Biological activity, as well as safety of PM extract was evaluated in healthy human volunteers. PM extract, pterostilbene and resveratrol inhibited PGE2 production from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with IC50 values of 3.2 +/- 1.3 microg/mL, 1.0 +/- 0.6 microM and 3.2 +/- 1.4 microM, respectively. When pterostilbene content of PM extract is calculated, PGE2 production inhibition of PM extract is comparable to PGE2 production inhibition of purified pterostilbene. Furthermore, in a COX-1 whole blood assay (WBA) PM extract was not effective while in a COX-2 WBA, PM extract decreased PGE2 production indicating COX-2 specific inhibition. In healthy human volunteers, the oral use of 450 mg PM extract did not decrease PGE2 production ex vivo in a WBA. Pterostilbene levels in serum were increased, but were 5-fold lower than the observed IC50 for PGE2 inhibition in LPS-stimulated PBMC. No changes from base-line of the safety parameters were observed and no extract-related adverse events occurred during the study. In conclusion, this is the first study to describe the selective COX-2 inhibitory activity of a Pterocarpus marsupium extract. Moreover, the PGE2 inhibitory activity of PM extract was related to its pterostilbene content. In humans, 450 mg PM extract resulted in elevated pterostilbene levels in serum, which were below the active concentration observed in vitro. In addition, short-term supplementation of 450 mg PM extract is considered to be a safe dose based on the long history of use, the absence of abnormal blood cell counts and blood chemistry values and the absence of extract-related adverse events. This strongly argues for a dose-finding study of PM extract in humans to

  3. Evaluation of wound healing potential of Pterocarpus marsupium heart wood extract in normal and diabetic rats

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    Anil Kumar Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate and compare the cutaneous wound healing potential of Pterocarpus marsupium in normal and diabetic rats and make inference for the cutaneous wound healing potential by possible "mode of action" P. marsupium extract. Materials and Methods: The effect of heart wood extract of P. marsupium on wound healing has been studied in diabetic and normal animals. The effect has also been compared with standard (mupirocin ointment application. In the absence of specific animal model for cutaneous diabetic wound healing, we have used common model of wound healing (excision wound model in animals having diabetes (by administration of alloxan monohydrate 120 mg/kg i.p.. Statistics Analysis: Data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey′s post hoc tests, using the Graph Pad Software (5.0 demo version, and P value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results and Conclusion : Rats treated with 200 mg/kg/day of P. marsupium heart wood extract had high rate of wound contraction, significantly decreased epithelization period, and significant increase in dry weight, wet weight, and hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue when compared with the diabetic control and normal control groups. Wound contraction together with increased tensile strength and hydroxyproline content support the use of P. marsupium heart wood extract in the management of wound healing in normal and diabetic rats.

  4. Cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohire, N C; Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B; Yadav, A V

    2007-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of heartwood of P. marsupium. This plant species contains 5,7,2-4 tetrahydroxy isoflavone 6-6 glucoside which are potent antioxidant and are believed to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Cardiotonic effect of aqueous extract of heartwood of P. marsupium was studied by using isolated frog heart perfusion technique (IFHP). Calcium free Ringer solution was used as vehicle for administration of aqueous extract of P. marsupium as a test extract and digoxin as a standard. A significant increase in height of force of contraction (positive inotropic effect) and decrease in heart rate (negative chronotropic effect) at a very low concentration (0.25 mg/ml) was observed with test extract as compared to the same dose of a standard digoxin. The present results indicated that a significant increase in height of force of contraction with decrease in heart rate was observed as the dose of test extract increased. The test extract produced cardiac arrest at 4 mg/ml, a higher concentration, as compared to standard, digoxin (0.5 mg/ml). Compared to digoxin, a drug with narrow therapeutic window, P. marsupium showed wide therapeutic window.

  5. Nephroprotective role of alcoholic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood against experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy

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    Pankaj Gupta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium has been widely reported for its effect on diabetes clinical or preclinically. However, role in diabetic complications is yet to be revealed. Aims: To investigate the effect of alcoholic extract of the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupiumin experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Methods: The streptozotocin (STZ 55 mg/kg, i.p., once daily induced diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats. These animals were treated orally with alcoholic extract of P. marsupium (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg or glimepiride (10 mg/kg for 60 days. Body weight, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c, biochemical markers of renal function were estimated on day 30 and at the end of study (day 60. Kidney weight measurement, oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione were estimated in kidney tissues, and histopathological evaluation was carried out at the end of study period. Results: The administration of an alcoholic extract of P. marsupium showed a decrease in blood glucose, HBA1c, kidney weight, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid, urea, urine volume, urine albumin and the level of TBARS. While the increase in urine creatinine, the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were observed when compared to the diabetic control group. This effect was observed significantly at the highest dose of the plant extract. The histopathological study also confirmed that alcoholic extract prevented structural kidney damage. Conclusions: These results suggest that the alcoholic extract of P. marsupium has renoprotective effects against STZ induced diabetic nephropathy.

  6. Fluorescent pigment and phenol glucosides from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achari, Basudeb; Dutta, Pradeep K; Roy, Subodh K; Chakraborty, Prarthana; Sengupta, Jhimli; Bandyopadhyay, Durba; Maity, Joy K; Khan, Ikhlas A; Ding, Yuanqing; Ferreira, Daneel

    2012-04-27

    The fluorescence shown by extracts of the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium is attributed to salts of the new compound 1, whose structure was elaborated using detailed spectroscopic/spectrometric studies. The plant material also contains the nonfluorescent compounds 2 and 3. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by experimental and theoretically calculated electronic CD spectra, while that of 3 was deduced from ECD comparison with reported results in the α-hydroxydihydrochalcone series. © 2012 American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy

  7. Evaluation of effect of alcoholic extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium on in vitro antioxidant, anti-glycation, sorbitol accumulation and inhibition of aldose reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Jain, Vivek; Pareek, Ashutosh; Kumari, Preeti; Singh, Randhir; Agarwal, Priyanka; Sharma, Veena

    2017-07-01

    Rising popularity of phytomedicines in various diseased conditions have strengthened the significance of plant-research and evaluation of phytoextracts in clinical manifestations. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., a medicinal plant, known for its anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic activity is a rich source of phytochemicals with antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities. However, its possible role in diabetic complications is not evaluated yet. The present study explores the possible role of alcoholic extract of heartwood of P. marsupium in the treatment of long-term diabetic complications. The alcoholic extract of P. marsupium was evaluated for advanced glycation-end-products formation, erythrocyte sorbitol accumulation and rat kidney aldose reductase enzyme inhibition at the concentration of 25-400 μg/ml using in-vitro bioassays. Also the phytoextract at the concentration of 10-320 μg/ml was evaluated for its antioxidant potential by in-vitro antioxidant assays which includes, determination of total phenol content; reducing power assay; nitric oxide scavenging activity; superoxide radical scavenging activity; total antioxidant capacity; total flavonoid content; DPPH scavenging activity; and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. The alcoholic extract of P. marsupium across varying concentrations showed inhibitory effect as evident by IC50 on advanced glycation-end-products formation (55.39 μg/ml), sorbitol accumulation (151.00 μg/ml) and rat kidney aldose reductase (195.88 μg/ml). The phytoextract also exhibited high phenolic and flavonoid contents with promising antioxidant potential against the antioxidant assays evaluated. The present investigation suggests that the phytoextract showed prominent antioxidant, antiglycation property and, inhibited accumulation of sorbitol and ALR enzyme, thus promising a beneficial role in reducing/delaying diabetic complications.

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium against carbon tetrachloride induced damage in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devipriya, D; Gowri, S; Nideesh, T R

    2007-07-01

    Medicinal plants play a key role in human health care. Pterocarpus marsupium is one of the plants used in treatment of diabetes mellitus and the present study was aimed to assess hepatoprotective effect of the plant against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I was normal control group; Group II, the hepatotoxic group was given CCl(4) (2ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally); Groups III received CC1(4) + Plant extract (100 mg/kg b.w orally); Group IV received only the plant extract. Liver markers were assayed in serum and liver tissue. Levels of marker enzymes such as alanine transminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and bilirubin were increased significantly in Group II. These enzymes were significantly decreased in Group III treated with plant extracts. The present investigation suggest that the plant had a good protective effect on CCl(4) induced hepatic injury.

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND MICROBICIDAL ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

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    Udaysing Hari Patil,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bactericidal potential of methanolic extract of stem bark (Apical bark, middle bark and Mature bark of Pterocarpus marsupium was evaluated with respect to pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoneae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and Micrococcus sp. The methanolic extract of apical stem bark was effective than the middle bark and mature bark in inhibiting the growth of all bacteria. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was most sensitive among all the bacterial species studied. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides,flavonoids, flavonols, phenols and terpenoids. Saponins were absent in all the bark samples.The concentrations of these phytoconstituents was higher in the apical stem bark than the middle and mature stem bark. The percent extract yield was maximum in apical stem bark. Thus, in the pharmacological point of view, it is important to study the biochemistry of apical bark in order to isolate and screen the new pharmacological active principals which can be useful in designing of new drugs active against various infectious micro- rganisms like bacteria, fungi and viruses etc.

  10. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition by Pterocarpus marsupium and Eugenia jambolana ameliorates streptozotocin induced Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Madhunapantula, Subbarao V; Chinni, Santhivardhan; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Dubala, Anil; Muthureddy Nataraj, Satish Kumar; Basavan, Duraiswamy

    2014-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is characterized by the loss of normal functions of brain cells and neuronal death, ultimately leading to memory loss. Recent accumulating evidences have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of anti-diabetic agents, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), providing opportunities to explore and test the DPP-4 inhibitors for treating this fatal disease. Prior studies determining the efficacy of Pterocarpus marsupium (PM, Fabaceae) and Eugenia jambolana (EJ, Myrtaceae) extracts for ameliorating type 2 diabetes have demonstrated the DPP-4 inhibitory properties indicating the possibility of using of these extracts even for the treating AD. Therefore, in the present study, the neuroprotective roles of PM and EJ for ameliorating the streptozotocin (STZ) induced AD have been tested in rat model. Experimentally, PM and EJ extracts, at a dose range of 200 and 400mg/kg, were administered orally to STZ induced AD Wistar rats and cognitive evaluation tests were performed using radial arm maze and hole-board apparatus. Following 30 days of treatment with the extracts, a dose- and time-dependent attenuation of AD pathology, as evidenced by decreasing amyloid beta 42, total tau, phosphorylated tau and neuro-inflammation with an increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels was observed. Therefore, PM and EJ extracts contain cognitive enhancers as well as neuroprotective agents against STZ induced AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Potential Reproductive Effects Of Pterocarpus Marsupium Methanolic Extract On Testosterone Propionate Induced Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Female Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Aruna Lingappa; Kanjikar, Amarvani P; Londonkar, Ramesh L

    2017-09-12

    Objective To investigate potential reproductive effects of Pterocarpus marsupium methanolic extract on testosterone propionate induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) in female albino rats. Methodology PCOS was induced in female albino rats by daily injecting testosterone propionate for 15 days intraperitoneally. Animals are divided into five groups with six rats per group. Group 1: Control group received olive oil, Group 2: Testosterone propionate+natural recovery, Group 3: Testosterone propionate + a dose of clomiphene citrate (standard), Group 4 and 5: Testosterone propionate + low dose (200mg/kg) and high dose (400mg/kg) b.w respectively for 15 days. Various biochemical and histopathological investigations were assessed. Results Methanol extract of Pterocarpus marsupium was able to exert its protective effect successfully by restoring all the parameters to normal and diminishing the cysts found in ovaries. Conclusion Pterocarpus marsupium found to have potential reproductive effects in testosterone propionate induced PCOS female albino rats and could be used as an alternative therapy in treatment of PCOS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Anti-cataract activity of Pterocarpus marsupium bark and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds extract in alloxan diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, V; Yadav, S P; Biswas, N R; Grover, J K

    2004-08-01

    Long-term complications are frequently encountered in diabetes mellitus and are difficult to treat. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of three antidiabetic plants on the development of cataract in rats. An aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM, Hindi name: Vijaysar) (1 g kg(-1) day(-1)), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS, Hindi name, Tulsi) (200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and alcoholic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn seeds (FG, Hindi name, Methi) (2 g kg(-1) day(-1)) were given to alloxan (120 mg kg(-1)) diabetic rats until the development of cataract. Serum glucose and body weight were monitored at regular intervals while cataract was examined through naked eye as well as slit lamp at 75, 100 and 115 days after alloxan administration. Administration of all the three plant extracts exerted a favorable effect on body weight and blood glucose, the effects were best with PM followed by FG and OS. On the course of cataract development, PM followed by FG exerted anti-cataract effect evident from decreased opacity index while OS failed to produce any anti-cataract effect in spite of significant antihyperglycemic activity.

  13. Effect of feeding aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Jagdish Kumari; Vats, Vikrant; Yadav, Satyapal

    2002-12-01

    The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Pterocarpus marsupium (PM). In the present study, aqueous extract of PM (1 g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin-independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of PM led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 38 and 60% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body-weight was significantly increased in diabetics (p < 0.0005) vs. normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (p < 0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of PM extract. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10-fold while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls vs. controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by PM. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35,50 and 60% of the controls and PM completely corrected this alteration in PFK and only partly in HK and GK.

  14. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant properties of pterostilbene isolated from Pterocarpus marsupium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ajanta; Gupta, Neetu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Roy, Partha

    2010-06-01

    Pterostilbene, a dimethyl ester derivative of resveratrol, may act as an cytotoxic and hence as an anti-cancer agent. The present study was conducted to test the anti-cancer activity of pterostilbene purified from Pterocarpus marsupium on breast (MCF-7) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell lines. The purified pterostilbene was found to cause apoptosis in both the cell lines, which was marked by DNA fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies and membrane distortions. Apoptosis probably was due to the production of reactive oxygen species in MCF-7 and nitric oxide over production in PC3 cells. Even the drug detoxifying anti-oxidant enzymes could not nullify the effect of pterostilbene as required by the cancer cells for survival. Pterostilbene was found to inhibit the cell proliferating factors like Akt, Bcl-2 and induced the mitochondrial apoptotic signals like Bax, and the series of caspases. It also inhibited Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and alpha-methylacyl-CoA recemase (AMACR), two very well known metastasis inducers. In conclusion, pterostilbene has multiple target sites to induce apoptosis. Hence, after proper validation it can be used as a potential agent for the cure of breast and prostate cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Merin Maria; Han, Nguyen Vinh; Murugesan, A; Raj, E Arun; Prasanth, K G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Pterocarpus marsupium (PM) on acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. The rats were divided into five groups, each having six rats. PM extract 100 mg and 200 mg/kg was given orally to groups four and five, respectively, and standard drug sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg, p.o) to group three. Group two served as UC control animals, and group one control animals received vehicle for 7 days. UC was induced by administering AA (3 % v/v of 2 ml) to all the animals except group one. After 72 h, the animals were killed and the colon was dissected out for microscopic, clinical evaluation, histopathological study and biochemical estimation. PM (100 and 200 mg/kg)-treated group had significantly reduced colon inflammation and mucosal damage. The treatment also normalized the altered antioxidant enzyme levels (LPO, SOD and GSH). Histopathological studies support the effect. The protective effect of PM may be due to antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  16. Phytochemical screening and study of antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of extracts from stem wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Dipak Raj; Pant, Narayan Dutt; Saru, Dil Bahadur; Yadav, Uday Narayan; Khanal, Dharma Prasad

    2017-01-01

    The main aims of the study were to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and to study the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of extracts from stem wood of Pterocarpus marsupium. Ethanol, acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (1:1) extracts of stem wood of P. marsupium were subjected to phytochemical screening and analysis of biological activities from August 2015 to January 2016. The antioxidant assay was carried out using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging method, antimicrobial activity testing by cup diffusion method, antidiabetic test evaluation by oral glucose tolerance test in mice, anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by hind paw edema method in mice and analgesic test evaluation by a chemical writhing method in mice. The results of the study revealed that P. marsupium is a source of various phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Both the acetone and IPA extract as well as the ethanol extract of stem wood of P. marsupium exhibited a dose-dependent antioxidant activity. Acetone and IPA extract showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, while the ethanolic extract was found to possess antidiabetic activity. The antidiabetic activity of the extract was found to be time and dose-dependent. Similarly, the acetone and IPA extract was found to have anti-inflammatory activity, which was also time and dose-dependent. Furthermore, the ethanolic extract showed analgesic activity, which was dose-dependent. The ethanolic extract was found to be nontoxic. Thus, this study laid sufficient background for the further research on extracts from stem wood of P. marsupium for identification, subsequent purification and isolation of compounds having antibacterial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities.

  17. A molecular connection of Pterocarpus marsupium, Eugenia jambolana and Gymnema sylvestre with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in the treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Dubala, Anil; Chinni, Santhivardhan; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Satish Kumar, M N; Basavan, Duraiswamy

    2014-02-01

    Pterocarpus marsupium (PM) (Leguminosae), Eugenia jambolana (EJ) (Myrtaceae) and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) (Asclepiadaceae) are the most important medicinal plants in the Indian system of traditional medicine for the treatment of hyperglycemia. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are the emerging class of anti-diabetic agents. However, only few compounds are commercially available. Therefore, in the present study we tried to explore the naturally occurring PM, EJ and GS semi-standardized extracts for their potential DPP-4 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. DPP-4 inhibition was evaluated by in vitro inhibitory assay, and enzyme kinetics were calculated using one-phase exponential decay equation. Glucose load (2 g/kg) was administered to control and diabetic rats 30 min following extract administration (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) orally once, and blood samples were withdrawn at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 h to measure plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. PM and EJ inhibit DPP-4 potently with IC50 values of 273.73 ± 2.96 and 278.94 ± 6.73 µg/mL, respectively, compared to GS (773.22 ± 9.21 µg/mL). PM, EJ and GS exhibit long duration of action with enzyme inhibitory half-lives of 462.3, 317.2 and 153.8 min, respectively. Extracts significantly increase GLP-1 levels compared to negative control groups and peak GLP-1 level was observed at 2 h for PM and EJ, whereas for GS it was at 1.5 h Taken together, results suggest the extracts may have potent DPP-4 inhibitory action, and their hypoglycemic action attributed through an increase in plasma active GLP-1 levels.

  18. Characterization of the Volatile and Nonvolatile Fractions of Heartwood Aqueous Extract from Pterocarpus marsupium and Evaluation of Its Cytotoxicity against Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Martinotti, Simona; Bolfi, Bianca; Ranzato, Elia; Manfredi, Marcello; Marengo, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    Pterocarpus marsupium is a well-known plant due to its healing properties, in particular, the use of its aqueous extract is able to reduce blood sugar levels and blood triglyceride concentrations. Although this plant has already been widely studied, a complete characterization of its aqueous extract has not been reported. The present study deals with the characterization of the aqueous extract of P. marsupium in order to obtain a full fingerprint of the volatile and nonvolatile constituents. The volatile constituents were identified by CG-MS, whereas the nonvolatile fraction was characterized by UHPLC-MS/MS using a nontarget approach. Several compounds were identified, in particular, polyphenolic species belonging to the class of proanthocyanidins. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out on four different cancer cell lines and three different non-tumoral cell lines. Preliminary results indicate a selective cytotoxicity of the aqueous extract towards the cancer cells. The potential cytotoxicity due to the presence of metals in the aqueous extract was ruled out by testing an aqueous mixture of the metals at the same concentration found in the P. marsupium extract. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the stem bark extract of Pterocarpus dalbergioides Roxb. ex Dc growing in Egypt

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    Camilia Michel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A bioactivity-guided investigation of the ethanolic extract (70% of the stem bark of Pterocarpus dalbergioides Roxb. ex DC revealed that the butanol fraction possessed potent antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt. compared to metformin (150 mg/kg b.wt. and indomethacin (20 mg/kg b.wt. respectively. Two phenolic acids viz: gentisic (1 and gallic (3 acids and isoflavone genistin (2 were isolated for the first time from the studied plant adopting a bioactivity-guided fractionation. Identification of the isolated compounds was achieved using physical, chemical and spectroscopic data.

  20. Renoprotective Effects, Protein Thiols and Liver Glycogen Content of Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Different Fractions of Heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhata, Vinutha; Nayak, B Shivananda

    2015-11-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to be a pathogenic factor in the development of diabetic complications. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of different fractions of heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium on antioxidant enzyme like protein thiols and also check the efficacy of the extract for the protection of the renal function in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The present study also investigates the levels of liver glycogen which are considered as the best biomarker for assaying the hypoglycemic activity of any drug. Diabetes was induced by administering alloxan dissolved in saline, while the normal control group was given propylene glycol. Diabetes induced animals were randomly assigned into different groups. Blood samples were collected from all the experimental and control groups. Estimation of urea, uric acid and creatinine along with protein thiols was made on day 30 only. At the end, all the animals were sacrificed to collect liver tissue to analyze glycogen content. The 30 days treatment with various extracts (75 mg/kg body wt) significantly lowered protein thiol levels, which probably represents increased utilization for neutralizing free radicals. There was no significant increase in the levels of renal parameters in the extract treated groups which revealed that the employed dose of the extract is nontoxic to the kidney. There was also a significant decrease in the glycogen content in insulin and alcohol-extract treated groups and should be encouraging for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The extract showed a promising antioxidant effect, as well as hypoglycemic activity, and should be encouraged for the treatment of diabetes.

  1. Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, J K; Vats, V; Yadav, S S

    2005-07-01

    Insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia) is now recognized as a major contributor to the development of glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. Sedentary lifestyle, consumption of energy-rich diet, obesity, longer lifespan, etc., are important reasons for this rise (J. R. Turtle, Int J Clin Prac 2000; 113: 23). Aqueous extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS) and Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn seeds (FG) have been shown to exert hypoglycaemic/antihyperglycaemic effect in experimental as well as clinical setting. As no work has been carried out so far to assess the effect of PM, OS and FG on fructose-induced hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, we undertook this study to assess whether these extracts attenuate the metabolic alteration induced by fructose-rich diet in rats. Five groups of rats (eight each) were fed chow diet, 66% fructose diet, 66% fructose diet + PM leaves extract (1 g/kg/day), 66% fructose diet + OS leaves extract (200 mg/kg/day) and 66% fructose diet + FG seeds extract (2 g/kg/day) for 30 days. Fructose feeding to normal rats for 30 days significantly increased serum glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels in comparison with control. Treatment with all the three plants extract for 30 days significantly lowered the serum glucose levels in comparison with control group. However, only PM extract substantially prevented hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, while OS and FG had no significant effect on these parameters. Results of this study, in addition to previous clinical benefits of PM seen in NIDDM subjects, are suggestive of usefulness of PM bark (Vijayasar) in insulin resistance, the associated disorder of type 2 diabetes; however, OS and FG may not be useful. Though several antidiabetic principles (-epicatechin, pterosupin, marsupin and pterostilbene) have been identified in the PM, yet future studies

  2. α-Dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC) isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium inhibits LPS induced MAPK activation and up regulates HO-1 expression in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage

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    Chakraborty, Prarthana; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Kabir, Syed N., E-mail: snkabir@iicb.res.in

    2014-05-15

    Three phenolic glycosides isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium showed significant free radical and superoxide ion scavenging activity and antioxidant potential that were comparable to, or several folds higher than those of standard antioxidants, trolox and ascorbic acid. The effective concentrations of these compounds were far below their cytotoxic levels. Compound 3, which was characterized to be α-dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC), was the most potent one. Subsequent studies demonstrated that α-DHC effectively reduced nitric oxide and cytokine production by the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. The compound effectively attenuated the expression of inflammation-mediating enzymes COX-2 and iNOS at the mRNA as well as protein levels in a concentration dependent manner. It prevented phosphorylation of all the three MAPKs (JNK, ERK, p38) and eventually blocked the activation of downstream elements contributing to inflammation. Phosphorylation of IκB-α and subsequent translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus were restricted, while the expression of stress responsive gene HO-1 was up-regulated. α-DHC targeted Keap-1 by modifying its cysteine thiols, dissociating it from Nrf-2 and facilitating nuclear entry of the latter; and this in turn induced HO-1 expression. Thus α-DHC exerts its anti-inflammatory activity in a dual manner: by down regulating MAPKs and restricting nuclear stabilization of NF-κB at one end, and by disrupting Nrf-2–Keap-1 complex on the other. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory potential together with its high therapeutic index envisages α-DHC as a prospective candidate molecule for the development of therapeutic strategy against inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • α-DHC isolated from Pterocarpus marsupium has significant antioxidant potential. • α-DHC inhibits NO, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. • α-DHC down-regulates of COX-2, iNOS expression in LPS

  3. Evaluation of effect of alcoholic extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium on in vitro antioxidant, anti-glycation, sorbitol accumulation and inhibition of aldose reductase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta

    2017-07-01

    The alcoholic extract of P. marsupium across varying concentrations showed inhibitory effect as evident by IC50 on advanced glycation-end-products formation (55.39 μg/ml, sorbitol accumulation (151.00 μg/ml and rat kidney aldose reductase (195.88 μg/ml. The phytoextract also exhibited high phenolic and flavonoid contents with promising antioxidant potential against the antioxidant assays evaluated. The present investigation suggests that the phytoextract showed prominent antioxidant, antiglycation property and, inhibited accumulation of sorbitol and ALR enzyme, thus promising a beneficial role in reducing/delaying diabetic complications.

  4. α-Dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC) isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium inhibits LPS induced MAPK activation and up regulates HO-1 expression in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Prarthana; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Kabir, Syed N

    2014-05-15

    Three phenolic glycosides isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium showed significant free radical and superoxide ion scavenging activity and antioxidant potential that were comparable to, or several folds higher than those of standard antioxidants, trolox and ascorbic acid. The effective concentrations of these compounds were far below their cytotoxic levels. Compound 3, which was characterized to be α-dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC), was the most potent one. Subsequent studies demonstrated that α-DHC effectively reduced nitric oxide and cytokine production by the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. The compound effectively attenuated the expression of inflammation-mediating enzymes COX-2 and iNOS at the mRNA as well as protein levels in a concentration dependent manner. It prevented phosphorylation of all the three MAPKs (JNK, ERK, p38) and eventually blocked the activation of downstream elements contributing to inflammation. Phosphorylation of IκB-α and subsequent translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus were restricted, while the expression of stress responsive gene HO-1 was up-regulated. α-DHC targeted Keap-1 by modifying its cysteine thiols, dissociating it from Nrf-2 and facilitating nuclear entry of the latter; and this in turn induced HO-1 expression. Thus α-DHC exerts its anti-inflammatory activity in a dual manner: by down regulating MAPKs and restricting nuclear stabilization of NF-κB at one end, and by disrupting Nrf-2-Keap-1 complex on the other. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory potential together with its high therapeutic index envisages α-DHC as a prospective candidate molecule for the development of therapeutic strategy against inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... In vitro culture response was assessed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. c. v. Omdurman) for ... successful application of plant tissue culture presupposes the establishment of ..... Kino (Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.) ...

  6. Antibacterial activity of Pterocarpus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R; Omoloso, A D

    2003-09-01

    The leaves, root and stem barks of Pterocarpus indicus were successively partitioned with petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol. All the fractions exhibited a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. The activity was more pronounced in the butanol and methanol fractions. None were active against the moulds.

  7. Chemical constituents from Pterocarpus soyauxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zushang; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Wei; Li, Shiyou

    2014-10-01

    Three new benzofurans (1-3) and one new isoflavan (4), pteroyanin G, H, I and J, together with 21 known compounds, were isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus soyauxii. Their structures were determined by the NMR and MS spectral data in comparison with literature data. Compounds (1-25) did not show cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines, A549, Panc-28, and HCT-116 (Gl50 > 50 μM).

  8. Antimicrobial terpenoids from Pterocarpus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y; De Luna, Roderick D; Hofilena, Joy G

    2005-06-01

    A mixture of loliolide 1 (> 85%) and paniculatadiol 2 (Pterocarpus indicus by silica gel chromatography, while the air-dried flowers afforded lupeol 3 and phytol esters 4. The structures of 1-4 were determined by NMR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial tests on a mixture of 1 and 2 indicated that it has moderate activity against Candida albicans and low activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger. It was found inactive against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  9. A detailed investigation of the Pterocarpus clade (Leguminosae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Bente B.; Forest, Félix; Booth, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Dalbergieae) with papilionoid flowers, and allied genera in the Pterocarpus clade were sampled for the five molecular markers ITS2, trnL-F, ndhF-rpL32, matK, and rbcL, as part of our ongoing systematic studies in the clade. For wider analyses...... of the Pterocarpus clade the remaining 14 members of this clade were also sampled for matK. Phylogenetic analyses were performed under the maximum likelihood criterion (ML) and Bayesian criteria. In the five-marker analysis of the core Pterocarpus clade (including 106 accessions) two robustly supported clades were...... resolved. The first clade includes Centrolobium, Etaballia, Inocarpus, Maraniona, Paramachaerium, Pterocarpus, Ramorinoa, and Tipuana. The second includes all species of Pterocarpus (except P. acapulcensis), Etaballia with radially symmetric flowers, and Paramachaerium. Paramachaerium is placed as sister...

  10. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Pterocarpus angolensis (kiaat) in South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James W.M. Mehl; Bernard Slippers; Jolanda Roux; Michael J. Wingfield

    2011-01-01

    There have been several recent reports of Pterocarpus angolensis (kiaat) trees dying in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, where this tree is used in traditional medicine and is a valuable source of timber for woodcarving and furniture...

  11. Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. Bloodwood Legumeminosae, Legume Family, lotoideae, Pea Subfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver

    1997-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq., called palo de pollo in Puerto Rico, bloodwood in Guyana and Panama, and by numerous other names throughout its extensive range, is an evergreen tree that reaches 40m in height

  12. Flavonoids and 3-arylcoumarin from Pterocarpus soyauxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zushang; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Wei; Li, Shiyou

    2013-04-01

    Phytochemical study on the constituents of the heartwood of Pterocarpus soyauxii led to the isolation of five new isoflavonoids and one new 3-arylcoumarin, pterosonins A-F (1-6), together with 17 known analogues, among which 8, 9, and 18 were reported as natural products for the first time. Structure elucidation was achieved by way of spectroscopic measurements as well as by comparison with literature data. Only Compound 6 showed potent cytotoxicity against human non-small cell lung cancer (A549), pancreatic cancer (Panc-28), and colon carcinoma (HCT-116) cells with GI50 values at 7.39, 25, and 19.17 µM, respectively; the other isolates showed no cytotoxicity against the above tested cell lines with GI50 values > 50 µM. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Three new sesquiterpenes from Pterocarpus santalinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tao, Run-Hong; Wu, Ji-Ming; Guo, Ya-Ping; Huang, Chao; Liang, Hong-Gang; Fan, Le-Zhi; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Sun, Ren-Kuan; Shang, Lei; Lu, Li-Na; Huang, Jian; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2017-06-05

    Three new sesquiterpenes of canusesnol K (1), canusesnol L (2) and 12, 15-dihydroxycurcumene (3), along with five known ones (4-8), were isolated from the heartwood extract of Pterocarpus santalinus. Their structures were established by extensive analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY, and HRESI-MS. The absolute configurations of the new compounds were established with Modified Mosher's method. The cytotoxic activities of all these compounds against HepG2 (human liver cancer), MCF-7 (human breast cancer), MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer), and Hela (human cervical carcinoma) cancer cell lines were evaluated. Compound 1 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity toward MDA-MB-231 cell lines.

  14. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichosanthes , a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc.

  15. Phosphorus requirements for containerized Pterocarpus indicus seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eng Hai Lok; Bernard Dell

    2015-01-01

    Pterocarpus indicus Willd is a tropical woody legume that holds promise for plantation forestry. Two glasshouse experiments were undertaken on two soil types to determine the phosphorus (P) concentration ranges in the foliage of P-stressed and healthy plants, and to define cri-tical P concentrations for the diagnosis of deficiency and toxicity. There was a narrow range in rates of P fertilizer, supplied as Ca(H2PO4)2?H20, between deficiency and toxicity compared to other tree species. The relationship between shoot yield and P concentration in the youngest fully expanded leaf enabled critical P concentrations for the diagnosis of deficiency (0.17%) and toxicity (0.41%) to be determined at 90% maximum yield from linear re-gressions fitted to the data. The foliar P concentration ranges for deficiency and toxicity were similar to other nitrogen-fixing trees. The defined P concentration ranges and the critical P concentrations for the diagnosis of P deficiency and P toxicity should be useful for monitoring the P status of nursery stock and the health of young seedlings after out-planting.

  16. Two aurone glycosides from heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Achyut Narayan; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Watal, Geeta

    2004-12-01

    Two new aurone glycosides, 6 hydroxy 5 methyl 3',4',5' trimethoxy aurone 4-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside and 6,4' dihydroxy aurone 4-O-rutinoside have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the wood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, EIMS, (1)H and (13)C NMR).

  17. Antibacterial activity of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimali, M; Jain, D C; Darokar, M P; Sharma, R P

    2001-03-01

    The antibacterial activity of different fractions of a methanol extract obtained from the dried stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb) was studied using different bacterial strains. The ethyl acetate fraction inhibited the growth of all test bacteria. The MIC of the EA fraction was found to be 6 mg/disc. Copyright -Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Wound healing potential of Pterocarpus santalinus linn: a pharmacological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2004-09-01

    The need for new therapeutics for wound healing has encouraged the drive to examine the nature and value of plant products. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine, mentions the values of medicinal plants for wound healing. One of these is Pterocarpus santalinus. This article describes a pharmacological study to evaluate its toxicity as well as wound-healing potential in animal studies. Powder made from the wood of the P. santalinus tree was used to make up an ointment in a petroleum jelly base. No toxic effects were observed in 72 hours. Studies were done on punch and burn wound models on normal and diabetic rats using the test ointment, untreated and vehicle controls, and standard therapy. Physical and biochemical measurements were made. The test ointment-treated wounds healed significantly faster. On healing, collagenesis and biochemical measurements yielded supportive data. These studies permit the conclusion that the P. santalinus ointment is safe and effective in treating acute wounds in animal models.

  19. Bioactive components from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shou-Fang; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Shu-Li; Wu, Chin-Chung; Ohkoshi, Emika; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2011-09-15

    One new phenanthrenedione, pterolinus K (1), and one new chalcone, pterolinus L (2) were isolated from the heartwood extract of Pterocarpus santalinus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed inhibitory effect on elastase release by human neutrophils in response to fMLP with an IC(50) value of 4.24 and 0.95 μM, and compound 1 also inhibited superoxide anion generation with IC(50) value of 0.99 μM. In addition, compound 1 showed selective cytotoxicity against HepG2 with IC(50) value of 10.86 μM, while compound 2 showed a moderate cytotoxicity against KB with IC(50) values of 17.18 μM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimalarial activity of Sida acuta Burm. f. (Malvaceae) and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karou, Damintoti; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Sanon, Souleymane; Simpore, Jacques; Traore, Alfred S

    2003-12-01

    Among strategies to combat malaria, the search for new antimalarial drugs appears to be a priority. Sheering for new antimalarial activities, four plants of the traditional medicine of Burkina Faso: Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were tested in vitro on fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. The screening showed that Sida acuta has a significant activity (IC50 Pterocarpus erinaceus has a moderate activity (5 microg/ml < IC50 < 50 microg/ml). Further chemical screening showed that the activity of the most active plant, Sida acuta, was related to its alkaloid contents.

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Pterocarpus santalinus L.: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulle, Saradamma; Reddyvari, Hymavathi; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu; Vaddi, Damodara Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Recently there has been increasing interest in plants and plant-derived compounds as raw food and medicinal agents. In Ayurveda, an Indian system of traditional medicine, a wide spectrum of medicinal properties of Pterocarpus santalinus is described. Many important bioactive phytocompounds have been extracted and identified from the heartwood of P. santalinus. Bioactive compounds typically occur in small amounts and have more subtle effects than nutrients. These bioactive compounds influence cellular activities that modify the risk of disease rather than prevent deficiency diseases. A wide array of biological activities and potential health benefits of P. santalinus have been reported, including antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, and protective effects on the liver, gastric mucosa, and nervous system. All these protective effects were attributed to bioactive compounds present in P. santalinus. The major bioactive compounds present in the heartwood of P. santalinus are santalin A and B, savinin, calocedrin, pterolinus K and L, and pterostilbenes. The bioactive compounds have potentially important health benefits: These compounds can act as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and inducers, inhibitors of receptor activities, and inducers and inhibitors of gene expression, among other actions. The present review aims to understand the pharmacological effects of P. santalinus on health and disease with "up-to-date" discussion.

  2. Crystallization and crystal manipulation of the Pterocarpus angolensis seed lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loris, Remy; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Buts, Lieven; Bouckaert, Julie; Beeckmans, Sonia; De Greve, Henri; Wyns, Lode

    2005-06-01

    The Man/Glc-specific legume lectin from the seeds of the African bloodwood tree (Pterocarpus angolensis) was crystallized in the presence of the disaccharide ligand Man(alpha1-3)ManMe. Small crystals initially appeared from a preliminary screen, but proved difficult to reproduce. The initial crystals were used to prepare microseeds, leading to a reproducible crystallization protocol. All attempts to obtain crystals directly of the ligand-free protein or of other carbohydrate complexes failed. However, the Man(alpha1-3)ManMe co-crystals withstand soaking with ten other carbohydrates known to bind to the lectin. Soaking for 15 min in 100 mM carbohydrate typically resulted in complete replacement of Man(alpha1-3)ManMe by the desired carbohydrate despite the involvement of lattice contacts at the binding site. Transferring the crystals for two weeks in carbohydrate-free artificial mother liquor resulted in the complete removal of the sugar from one of the two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Additional treatment of these crystals with 100 mM EDTA for two weeks resulted in removal of the structural calcium and manganese ions, which is accompanied by significant structural rearrangements of the loops that constitute the carbohydrate-binding site.

  3. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Pterocarpus angolensis (kiaat) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, James W M; Slippers, Bernard; Roux, Jolanda; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    There have been several recent reports of Pterocarpus angolensis (kiaat) trees dying in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, where this tree is used in traditional medicine and is a valuable source of timber for woodcarving and furniture. A survey of material from diseased P. angolensis trees in South Africa yielded isolates of the Botryosphaeriaceae, an important fungal family known to cause a number of tree diseases. The aim of this study was to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae and to determine their pathogenicity to P. angolensis with branch inoculations. Seven species of the Botryosphaeriaceae were identified based on a combination of morphological characteristics and sequences from the ITS and EF-1α gene regions. Four of these represent undescribed taxa for which the names Pseudofusicoccum violaceum, P. olivaceum, Diplodia alatafructa and Fusicoccum atrovirens are provided. The remaining three species collected include Lasiodiplodia theobromae, L. pseudotheobromae and L. crassispora. Inoculation trials on tree branches showed that L. pseudotheobromae and one isolate of D. alatafructa differed significantly from control inoculations. The high levels of virulence and common occurrence of L. pseudotheobromae suggest that this species could play a role in tree dieback and death.

  4. Gamma-secretase inhibitor activity of a Pterocarpus erinaceus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Salim; Marinangeli, Claudia; Stanga, Serena; Octave, Jean-Noël; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and its progressive deposition into amyloid plaques are key events in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, AD treatment is symptomatic and consists of drugs treating the cognitive decline. Identifying molecules specifically targeting Aβ production or aggregation represents a huge challenge in the development of specific AD treatments. Several molecules reported as γ-secretase inhibitors or modulators have been evaluated, but so far none of them have proven to be selective or fully efficient. We have previously investigated the potential interest of plant extracts and we reported that Pterocarpus erinaceus stem-bark extract was active on Aβ release. Our aim here was to characterize the mechanisms by which this extract reduces Aβ levels. We tested P. erinaceus extract at non-toxic concentrations on cells expressing the human amyloid precursor protein (APP695) or its amyloidogenic β-cleaved C-terminal fragment (C99), as well as on neuronal cell lines. P. erinaceus extract was found to inhibit Aβ release. We further showed that this extract inhibited γ-secretase activity in cell-free and in vitro assays, strongly suggesting that P. erinaceus extract is a natural γ-secretase inhibitor. Importantly, this extract did not inhibit γ-secretase-dependent Notch intracellular domain release. P. erinaceus extract appears as a new potent γ-secretase inhibitor selective towards APP processing. 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Characterization of Pterocarpus erinaceus kino extract and its gamma-secretase inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Salim; Stanga, Serena; Marinangeli, Claudia; Octave, Jean-Noël; Dewachter, Ilse; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal

    2015-04-02

    The aqueous decoction of Pterocarpus erinaceus has been traditionally used in Benin against memory troubles. New strategies are needed against Alzheimer׳s disease (AD), for, to date, AD treatment is symptomatic and consists in drugs treating the cognitive decline. An interesting target is the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), whose accumulation and progressive deposition into amyloid plaques are key events in AD aetiology. Identifying new and more selective γ-secretase inhibitors or modulators (none of the existing has proven so far to be selective or fully efficient) appears in this respect of particular interest. We studied the activity and mechanisms of action of Pterocarpus erinaceus kino aqueous extract, after the removal of catechic tannins (KAST). We tested KAST at non-toxic concentrations on cells expressing the human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP695), as well as on primary neurons. Pterocarpus erinaceus extract was found to inhibit Aβ release in both models. We further showed that KAST inhibited γ-secretase activity in cell-free and in vitro assays, strongly suggesting that KAST is a natural γ-secretase inhibitor. Importantly, this extract did not inhibit the cleavage of Notch, another γ-secretase substrate responsible for major detrimental side effects observed with γ-secretase inhibitors. Epicatechin was further identified in KAST by HPLC-MS. Pterocarpus erinaceus kino extract appears therefore as a new γ-secretase inhibitor selective towards APP processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dormancy break in Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate different methods for breaking dormancy in seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth., arboreal species of multiple use in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. The treatments were: control – intact seeds (T1; immersion in water until it reaches 80 °C (T2, and 100 °C (T3, concentrated sulfuric acid for five minutes (T4, 10 minutes (T5 , and 15 minutes (T6, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 (T7, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 + immersion in water for six hours (T8, and for 12 hours (T9, soaking in water for 24 hours (T10, and for 48 hours (T11. The characteristics evaluated were such: emergency, mean emergency time, shoot length, root length, number of leaves, leaf area and total dry matter. The best method for breaking dormancy of seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. is mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80.

  7. Two Anti-inflammatory Steroidal Saponins from Dracaena angustifolia Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new steroidal saponins, named drangustosides A–B (1–2, together with eight known compounds 3–10 were isolated and characterized from the MeOH extract of Dracaena angustifolia Roxb. The structures of compounds were assigned based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, including HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY. Compounds 1 and 2 showed anti-inflammatory activity by superoxide generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to fMLP/CB.

  8. IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamdar Faiyyaz B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents are effective in the treatment of infections because of their selective toxicity that is they have the ability to injure or kill an invading microorganism without harming the cells of the host. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Convolvulaceae is parasitic plant. It is used as anthelmintic, carminative, purgative, constipation, aphrodisiac, alterative in different disorder. Ethanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. were prepared by soxhlet extraction method. The qualitative and quantitative, macroscopic, microscopic, phytochemical, physicochemical, analysis of plant has been studied. Antimicrobial activity of stems of cuscuta reflexa Roxb were studied using ethanolic extract against Gram positive bacteria like Bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa as well as on some fungal strains like Penicillium citrium, Aspargillus niger using standard (Penicillin. Sterile nutrient agar plates were prepared by using Pour plate & Spread plate method. The ethanolic extracts were poured into the wells of sterile nutrient agar medium using agar cup plate method. The results were analysed by using zone of inhibitions and it was observed that Gram negative and Fungal strains showed more antimicrobial activity as compared to the Gram positive bacteria.

  9. Antidiarrheal activity of Pterocarpus erinaceus methanol leaf extract in experimentally-induced diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeja, I Maxwell; Ezeigbo, Ihechiluru I; Madubuike, Kelechi G; Udeh, Nkiru E; Ukweni, Iheanacho A; Akomas, Stella C; Ifenkwe, Daniel C

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the antidiarrheal activity of the methanol leaf extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus in vivo. The methanol leaf extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus was evaluated using different doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) orally for antidiarrheal activity using castor oil-induced diarrhea, charcoal meal transit time and castor oil-induced enteropooling in different groups of albino Wistar mice. The activity of the extract at different doses were compared to diphenoxylate (5 mg/kg) and atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg) which were used as standard reference drugs and also to the distilled water administered negative control group of mice. The extract at the doses used caused a significant (PPterocarpus erinaceus extract produced significant antidiarrheal activity and the action may attribute to inhibition of gastrointestinal movement and fluid secretion. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of Extraction Parameters for Natural Dye from Pterocarpus santalinus by using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanthraj.K.P.M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus species has been admired for centuries for its dye, beautiful color, hardness and durability. The present study deals with the extraction of natural dye from Pterocarpus wood materials. Response surface methodology was used to study the optimal conditions for the extraction of dye. Factors such as extraction temperature, extraction time, and solid to liquid ratio were identified to be significantly affecting natural dye extraction efficiency. By using three-level three-factor Box-Behnken design, the optimized conditions for dye extraction by different techniques such as Solvent, Ultrasonic and Microwave extraction method. Microwave assisted extraction method showed the highest natural dye yield percentage which is 50.0 for ethyl acetate solvent and 50.2 for methanol solvent.

  11. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CARALLUMA ADSCENDENS ROXB. STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Aditi S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of various extracts of stem of Caralluma adscendens var. fimbriata, Roxb., Family Asclepediaceae was studied against Bacillus pumilus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei. Among the various extracts petroleum ether extract is effective antimicrobial against S. aureus and E.coli while n- n-butanol extract is effective against Shigella sonnei and B. pumilus at a concentration of 5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect of various extracts was compared with standard antibiotic Gentamycin. MIC for both extracts was also determined.

  12. ANALGESIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ACUTE TOXICITY EVALUATION OF THE METHANOL EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF PTEROCARPUS SANTALINOIDES- FAMILY FABACEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Anowi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus santalinoides, family- Fabaceae was claimed to have analgesic properties. The people of Ogidi in Idemili North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria used it in the management of aches and pains. This study is therefore aimed at determining this claim of the activities of Pterocarpus santalinoides using the leaves which will serve as a criterion to recommend the ethno pharmacological use of the plant. The leaves of Pterocarpus santalinoides family Fabaceae were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with methanol for 48hrs, it was concentrated using rotary evaporator. The analgesic activity was investigated in rats using hot plate method at a temperature of 40oC. Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins and resins. Pterocarpus santalinoides extract (300 mg/kg induced analgesia in rats (p< 0.05 and this effect was comparable to that of Aspirin (100 mg/kg. Acute toxicity test also revealed that the drug is safe. The claimed benefits of Pterocarpus santalinoides in traditional medical management of aches and pains could be supported by the results of this investigation.

  13. Anti lipid peroxidation activity of Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, Sathis Kumar; Saraswathi, Narasimha Raju; Nalini, Venkata Rama Rao; Srisudharson; Bodanapu, Venkat Ram Reddy; Avasarala, Harani; Banji, David

    2011-07-01

    Attempt has been made to evaluate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract of Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. individually. In this study goat liver has been used as lipid source. This in vitro evaluation was done by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA) of tissue homogenates. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of the Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. has the ability to suppress the lipid peroxidation and it was also found that Piper trioicum Roxb. extract has more activity than Physalis minima L. extract.

  14. EVALUATION OF GASTRIC ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF TRICHOSANTHES DIOICA ROXB. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamdulay*, Z. Attaurrahaman , V. Shende and M. Lawar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Trichosanthes dioica Roxb (family: Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as “Sespadula” in English and “Parwal” in Hindi and is widely grown throughout India. The leaves of this plant have also been used in traditional system of medicine for overcoming problems like constipation, fever, skin infection, wound healing and also in gastric ulcer. In the present study Aqueous extract of leaves of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb was evaluated for its antiulcer activity against; 1 Aspirin plus pylorus ligation model and, 2 Ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer in wistar rats. Ranitidine (100 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Different groups of rats (n=6 in each group were given two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg of T.dioica extract. Phytochemical analysis of the extract was also done. Phytochemical results revealed presence of tannins, saponins, triterpenoids, flavanoids. Thus only T.dioica extract (500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.001 reduced the ulcer index in all the models used. The extract also significantly (p<0.001 increased the pH of gastric acid while at the same time reduced the volume of gastric juice, free and total acidities. Also it showed significant (p<0.05 reduction in pepsin activity. In conclusion, the present study provides preliminary data on antiulcer potential of Trichosanthes dioica leaves and supports the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of gastric ulcer.

  15. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of Curcuma caesia Roxb. rhizome extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heisanam Pushparani Devi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizomes of Curcuma caesia Roxb. (zingiberacea are traditionally used in treatment of various ailments and metabolic disorders like leukoderma, asthma, tumours, piles, bronchitis, etc. in Indian system of medicine. Considering the importance of natural products in modern phytomedicine, the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of C. caesia Roxb. rhizome extract and its fractions were evaluated. The ethanolic fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by DPPH assay (86.91% comparable to ascorbic acid (94.77% with IC50 value of 418 μg/ml for EECC followed by MECC (441.90 μg/ml > EAECC(561 μg/ml > AECC(591 μg/ml. Based on the antioxidant activity, three of the rhizome extracts were evaluated for their antimutagenic properties against indirect acting mutagen cyclophosphamide (CP using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. The antimutagenic activity of the extracts against indirect acting mutagen cyclophosphamide in the presence of mammalian metabolic activation system was found to be significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05. All the extracts showed similar antimutagenicity in dose dependent manner. The total phenolic content as well as reducing ability of the extracts was also determined.

  16. BIOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF EXTRACTS FROM PTEROCARPUS ERINACEUS POIR (FABACEAE) ROOT BARKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noufou, Ouédraogo; Anne-Emmanuelle, Hay; Claude W, Ouédraogo Jean; Richard, Sawadogo W; André, Tibiri; Marius, Lompo; Jean-Baptiste, Nikiema; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Genevieve, Dijoux-Franca; Pierre, Guissou Innocent

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. belonging to Fabacae familly is used as medicinal plant in Burkina Faso's folk medicine. Roots of P. erinaceus are used to treat ulcer, stomach ache and inflammatory diseases. The objective of the present study was to carry out phytochemical composition of methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from Pterocarpus erinaceus roots, to isolate pure compounds, and to evaluate their pharmacological activities. Chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of active components of the extracts. The structures were established by NMR analysis and comparison with data from literature. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using croton oil-induced edema of mice ear as well as the effect of extracts against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation was evaluated. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Friedelin (1), 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one (2), a-sophoradiol (3) and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from DCM extract and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) isolated from MeOH. DCM extract and friedelin, 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one, a-sophoradiol showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect against ear edema. Friedelin (1), α-sophoradiol (3) and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited lipoxygenase inhibition. MeOH extract (100 μg/mL) inhibited lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities at 45.1 ± 3% and 30.7 ± 0.5% respectively. MeOH extract, ethyl acetate fraction and butanol fraction exhibited antioxidant property with both two methods used. The results suggested that the extracts and compounds from roots of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed local anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant properties and inhibitor effect against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities.

  17. Homopterocarpin contributes to the restoration of gastric homeostasis by Pterocarpus erinaceus following indomethacin intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, M Tolulope; Akinmoladun, Afolabi C; Crown, Olamide O; Ahonsi, Katty E; Adetuyi, A O

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the restorative effect of Pterocarpus erinaceus (P. erinaceus) and homopterocarpin, an isoflavonoid isolated from it, on indomethacin-induced disruption in gastric homeostasis in rats. Adult rats were divided into five groups and fasted for 48 h before treatment. Group 1 received olive oil (vehicle), group 2 received 25 mg/kg indomethacin while groups 3-5 received cimetidine (100 mg/kg), homopterocarpin (25 mg/kg) and P. erinaceus ethanolic stem bark extract (100 mg/kg) respectively. After 1 h, all the groups except group 2 were administered 25 mg/kg of indomethacin. One hour later, the rats were sacrificed and the ulcer index and other gastroprotective indices were evaluated. Indomethacin caused significant injury to the stomach of the rats as reflected in the ulcer indices (9.0±1.4) as compared with that of control (2.0±0.0). Equally, there were significant increases in gastric acid concentration and malondialdehyde level in the stomachs of the ulcerated animals compared with the control. However mucus content, reduced gluthatione level and gastric pH were significantly reduced in the ulcerated animals compared with the control. Pretreatment with either Pterocarpus bark extract or homopterocarpin reversed the effects of indomethacin on the evaluated parameters. These results indicate that both homopterocarpin and Pterocarpus extract offered gastroprotection against indomethacin-induced ulcer by antioxidative mechanism and the modulation of gastric homeostasis. The results also suggest that homopterocarpin might be responsible for, or contribute to the antiulcerogenic property of P. erinaceus. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

    2014-06-01

    Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (δD, δ18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high δ values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, δ 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near

  19. The clinical evaluation of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. Ointment on lower extremity wounds--a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2004-12-01

    Pterocarpus santalinus is described in the Ayurveda for its wide spectrum of medicinal properties including wound healing. Previously the authors reported animal studies that demonstrated that an ointment made from the bark of this tree was effective without any toxic effects. They used the same ointment in 6 cases of lower extremity wounds. Healing was observed in all wounds. The study was not controlled, the findings are presented here as case studies. Further studies are planned to develop a wound healing ointment from a locally available and inexpensive plant.

  20. The characteristics and economic importance of Pterocarpus angolensis in D.C. Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbile, A U; Kwerepe, B C; Kelatlhilwe, M

    2007-02-15

    Pterocarpus angolensis grows throughout northern Botswana and may be found in all woodland types as well as in evergreen and deciduous forests. It is among the few indigenous trees that thrive in the deep Kalahari sands. P. angolensis produces a hard wood timber of attractive appearance. Due to its flexibility, resistance and lightweight, the communities in Botswana use the species for making door frames, window frames, canoes, canoe peddles, spear handles for use in game hunting, fishing and general construction. The community also use it as a carving and sculpting medium. Traditionally, all parts of the tree are used for medicinal purposes.

  1. Micropropagation of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. through tissue culture technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jyoti; Khan, Shagufta; Sahu, Ram Kumar; Roy, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Multiple shoots of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Sissoo) were incited from seeds through indirect somatic embryogenesis method. Seeds were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog's medium without any growth hormone. Than cotyledonary leaves were struck and used for callus induction on MS medium amplified with 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (0.5 to 4 mg mL(-1)). After 3 to 4 weeks the embryogenic callus clumps was transferred to medium supplemented with cytokinin (BAP 1 to 5 mg L(-1), kinetin 1-5.0 mg L(-1)) for embryo maturation and germination. The high-frequency shoot proliferation (82%) and maximum number of shoots per explants were recorded in MS medium containing NAA (0.5)+BAP (0.5). The findings of recent investigations have shown that, it is possible to induce indirect somatic embryogenesis in Dalbergia sissoo and plant regeneration from callus cultures derived from cotyledonary leaves as explants.

  2. Micropropagation of Sterculia urens Roxb. - an endangered tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, S D; Dave, A

    1996-05-01

    An in vitro procedure for large scale multiplication of Sterculia urens Roxb. (Gum Kadaya Tree) has been developed using cotyledonary node segments. An average of 4.0 shoots per node were obtained on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing 2.0 mgl(-1) 6-benzyl amino-purine (BAP) within 21 days of initial culture. Upon subsequent subculture 16 shoots/node could be harvested every three weeks and upto three times. Sixty per cent of the shoots were successfully rooted. Rooted plantlets were transferred to plastic pots containing soil under mist house conditions before they were finally exposed to an external environment. Fifty seven per cent of the plantlets survived in nursery sheds.

  3. Root nodulation in the wetland tree Pterocarpus officinalis along coastal and montane systems of Northeast of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Pérez; Tamara Heartsill Scalley

    2008-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, brackish water wetlands were dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis previous to extensive deforestation due to agriculture. Today remnant wetlands are limited to small areas that are threatened by rise in sea level. We examined the root nodules of P. officinalis in montane and coastal sites and at 0, 10, 20 cm from the surface to determine if site...

  4. Comparative antiadhesive properties of crude extract and phenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of Tribulus pterocarpus during severe hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczynska, Malgorzata; Malinowska, Joanna; Morel, Agnieszka; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Olas, Beata

    2013-06-01

    The phenolic fraction and the crude extract from Tribulus pterocarpus have different biological activity, including antiplatelet-antiadhesive properties. Since it is demonstrated that hyperhomocysteinemia may act as stimulator of blood platelet activation (platelet adhesion, aggregation, and secretion), but various antiplatelet compounds are able to reduce hyperactivation of blood platelets induced by hyperhomocysteinemia. The aim of our present experiments was to investigate in vitro one of the step in platelet activation process - platelet adhesion to collagen induced by the model of severe hyperhomocyateinemia in the presence of the phenolic fraction and the crude extract from T. pterocarpus. Severe hyperhomocysteinemia was induced by reduced form of Hcy in the concentrations 0.1mM and 1mM, or using HTL in the concentrations 0.1, 0.5 and 1 μM. Adhesion of blood platelets to collagen was determined according to Tuszynski and Murphy. We observed that the phenolic fraction and the crude extract from T. pterocarpus have the inhibitory effect on platelet adhesion during severe hyperhomocysteinemia. The action of tested phenolic and crude extract was concentration-dependent, but the phenolic fraction was stronger antiadhesive action than the crude extract. We suggest that T. pterocarpus may be good source of antiplatelet compounds during hyperhomocysteinemia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal wetlands of the Caribbean: assessment through leaf and soil analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernesto Medina; Elvira Cuevas; Ariel Lugo

    2007-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis L. is a dominant tree of freshwater coastal wetlands in the Caribbean and the Guiana regions. It is frequently associated with mangroves in areas with high rainfall and/or surface run-off. We hypothesized that P. officinalis is a freshwater swamp species that when occurring in association with mangroves occupies low-salinity soil microsites, or...

  6. GC-MS Analysis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activity of Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach and Pterocarpus angolensis (DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha N. Abubakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-polar components of two leguminoceae species Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach, and Pterocarpus angolensis (DC were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the crude n-hexane and chloroform extracts together with several chromatographic separation techniques led to the identification and characterization (using NMR of sixteen known compounds from the heartwood and stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia and Pterocarpus angolensis respectively. These constituents include, n-hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid 1, oleic acid 2, chondrillasterol 3, stigmasterol 4, 24S 5α-stigmast-7-en-3β-ol 5, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z-, methyl ester 6, trans-13-octadecanoic acid, methyl ester 7, tetradecanoic acid 8, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester 9, octadecanoic acid 10, tetratriacontane 11, 7-dehydrodiosgenin 12, lupeol 13, stigmasta-3,5-diene-7-one 14, friedelan-3-one (friedelin 15, and 1-octacosanol 16. Using agar over lay method, the preliminary antimicrobial assay for the extracts was carried out against bacterial (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aueus and a fungus/yeast (C. albicans strains. The n-hexane and chloroform extracts of A. adianthifolia showed the best activity against E. coli with minimum inhibition quantity (MIQ of 1 µg each while the remaining exhibited moderate-to-weak activity against the test microorganisms.

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of rhizobia nodulating Pterocarpus erinaceus and P. lucens in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Samba Ndao; Samba, Ramatoulaye Thiaba; Neyra, Marc; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Giraud, Eric; Willems, Anne; de Lajudie, Philippe; Dreyfus, Bernard

    2002-12-01

    A total of fifty root nodules isolates of fast-growing and slow growing rhizobia from Pterocarpus ennaceus and Pterocarpus lucens respectively native of sudanean and sahelian regions of Senegal were characterized. These isolates were compared to representative strains of known rhizobial species. Twenty-two new isolates were slow growers and twenty-eight were fast growers. A polyphasic approach was performed including comparative total protein sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE) profile analysis; 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) sequence analysis. By SDS-PAGE the slow growing isolates grouped in one major cluster containing reference strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. including strains isolated in Africa, in Brazil and in New Zealand. Most of the fast-growing rhizobia grouped in four different clusters or were separate strains related to Rhizobium and Mesorhizobium strains. The 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rDNA IGS sequences analysis showed accurately the differentiation of fast growing rhizobia among the Rhizobium and Mesorbizobium genospecies. The representative strains of slow growing rhizobia were identified as closely related to Bradyrbizobium elkanii and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, one slow growing strain (ORS199) was phylogenetically related to Bradyrbizobium sp. (Lupinus) and Blastobacter denitrificans. This position of ORS 199 was not confirmed by IGS sequence divergence. We found no clear relation between the diversity of strains, the host plants and the ecogeographical origins.

  8. Crystal structure of Pterocarpus angolensis lectin in complex with glucose, sucrose, and turanose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loris, Remy; Imberty, Anne; Beeckmans, Sonia; Van Driessche, Edilbert; Read, John S; Bouckaert, Julie; De Greve, Henri; Buts, Lieven; Wyns, Lode

    2003-05-02

    The crystal structure of the Man/Glc-specific seed lectin from Pterocarpus angolensis was determined in complex with methyl-alpha-d-glucose, sucrose, and turanose. The carbohydrate binding site contains a classic Man/Glc type specificity loop. Its metal binding loop on the other hand is of the long type, different from what is observed in other Man/Glc-specific legume lectins. Glucose binding in the primary binding site is reminiscent of the glucose complexes of concanavalin A and lentil lectin. Sucrose is found to be bound in a conformation similar as seen in the binding site of lentil lectin. A direct hydrogen bond between Ser-137(OG) to Fru(O2) in Pterocarpus angolensis lectin replaces a water-mediated interaction in the equivalent complex of lentil lectin. In the turanose complex, the binding site of the first molecule in the asymmetric unit contains the alphaGlc1-3betaFruf form of furanose while the second molecule contains the alphaGlc1-3betaFrup form in its binding site.

  9. Toleransi Tanaman Peneduh Polyalthia longifolia dan Pterocarpus indicus terhadap Ganoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Muslimah Widyastuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Urban Trees Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus to Infection of  the red root rot fungus Ganoderma sp. Urban trees on the Gadjah Mada University (UGM area play an important role in increasing environmental qualities as well as in supporting the teaching and learning processes. However, red root rot disease caused by Basidiomycete Ganoderma sp. has severely infected some existing urban trees. This experiment was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Polyalthia longifolia (glodokan and Pterocarpus indicus (angsana to the infection of Ganoderma sp. Identification of infected trees was performed in UGM area. Further steps were carried out to achieve those objectives : (1 isolation of Ganoderma spp. and testing of Koch’s postulate and (2 examination of the susceptibility of  P. longifolia and P. indicus to infection of Ganoderma sp. The susceptibility test of P. longifolia and P. indicus to Ganoderma sp. indicated that P. longifolia was more resistant to fungal pathogen infection than that of P. indicus. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that P. longifolia is a species that is more suitable than P. indicus.  P. longifolia should be planted on the areas that have been infested with inocula of Ganoderma sp..

  10. GC-MS Analysis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activity of Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach) and Pterocarpus angolensis (DC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Mustapha N; Majinda, Runner R T

    2016-01-28

    The non-polar components of two leguminoceae species Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach), and Pterocarpus angolensis (DC) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the crude n-hexane and chloroform extracts together with several chromatographic separation techniques led to the identification and characterization (using NMR) of sixteen known compounds from the heartwood and stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia and Pterocarpus angolensis respectively. These constituents include, n-hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid) 1, oleic acid 2, chondrillasterol 3, stigmasterol 4, 24S 5α-stigmast-7-en-3β-ol 5, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester 6, trans-13-octadecanoic acid, methyl ester 7, tetradecanoic acid 8, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester 9, octadecanoic acid 10, tetratriacontane 11, 7-dehydrodiosgenin 12, lupeol 13, stigmasta-3,5-diene-7-one 14, friedelan-3-one (friedelin) 15, and 1-octacosanol 16. Using agar over lay method, the preliminary antimicrobial assay for the extracts was carried out against bacterial (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aueus) and a fungus/yeast (C. albicans) strains. The n-hexane and chloroform extracts of A. adianthifolia showed the best activity against E. coli with minimum inhibition quantity (MIQ) of 1 µg each while the remaining exhibited moderate-to-weak activity against the test microorganisms.

  11. Extracts Obtained from Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Ziziphus mucronata Exhibit Antiplasmodial Activity and Inhibit Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tawanda Zininga; Chinedu P Anokwuru; Muendi T Sigidi; Milingoni P Tshisikhawe; Isaiah I D Ramaite; Afsatou N Traore; Heinrich Hoppe; Addmore Shonhai; Natasha Potgieter

    2017-01-01

    .... In addition, it is also important to identify novel antimalarial drug targets. In the current study, extracts of two plants, Pterocarpus angolensis and Ziziphus mucronata were obtained and their antimalarial functions were investigated...

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimicrobial, activity of Quercus incana Roxb.

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    Rizwana eSarwar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the indigenous utilization of Quercus incana Roxb., the present study deals with the investigation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity of Quercus incana Roxb. In vitro antioxidant activity of the plant fractions were determined by DPPH and NO scavenging method. Total phenolic contents were determined by gallic acid equivalent (GAE and antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that Quercus incana Roxb. showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. n-Butanol fraction showed maximum activity against Micrococcus leuteus with 19 mm zone of inhibition. n-Butanol fraction of Quercus incana Roxb. showed immense antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (32 mm ± 0.55 and Aspergillus flavus (28 mm ± 0.45. Similarly n-butanol fraction showed relatively good antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 55.4 ± 0.21μg/mL. The NO scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 23.21 ± 0.31 μg/mL was fairly good compared to other fractions. The current study of Quercus incana Roxb. suggests the presences of synergetic action of some biological active compounds that may be present in the leaves of medicinal plant. Further studies are needed to better characterize the important active constituents responsible for the antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity.

  13. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects

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    Prafulla Adkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100 g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32 mg and 102.85 mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8 mg Iron, and 121 and 325 mg phosphorus in 100 g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85 Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total

  14. Bronchodilator activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhujbal, S S; Deoda, R S; Mudgade, S C

    2010-03-01

    Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for infectious diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. has been used in Indian system of medicine in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cold, colic pain, etc. Stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. has been used as a decoction in traditional claims. So, our traditional claims enforced us to evaluate its bronchodilator activity. We have evaluated its bronchodilator activity in milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia, clonidine-induced mast cell degranulation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology models. The aqueous extract of stem bark in doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg showed significant activity.

  15. Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Venkata; Pujar, Basavaraj; Nimbal, S K; Shantakumar, S M; Satyanarayana, S

    2008-08-01

    Nootropic effect of alcoholic (ALE; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and aqueous (AQE; 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) extracts of P. tuberosa was evaluated by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), scopolamine-induced amnesia (SIA), diazepam-induced amnesia (DIA), clonidine-induced (NA-mediated) hypothermia (CIH), lithium-induced (5-HT mediated) head twitches (LIH) and haloperidol-induced (DA- mediated) catalepsy (HIC) models. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. A significant increase in inflexion ratio (IR) was recorded in EPM, SIA and DIA models. A significant reversal effect was observed on rectal temperature in CIH model, reduction of head twitches in LIH models. However no significant reduction in catalepsy scores in HIC models were observed with test extracts and standard piracetam. The results indicate that nootropic activity observed with ALE and AQE of tuber extracts of P. tuberosa could be through improved learning and memory either by augmenting the noradrenaline (NA) transmission or by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Further, the extracts neither facilitated nor blocked release of the dopamine (DA). Thus ALE and AQE elicited significant nootropic effect in mice and rats by interacting with cholinergic, GABAnergic, adrenergic and serotonergic systems. Phytoconstituents like flavonoids have been reported for their nootropic effect and these are present in both ALE and AQE extracts of tubers of P. tuberosa (Roxb) and these active principles may be responsible for nootropic activity.

  16. Studies on antibacterial screening of corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.

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    Bhagwan Mariba Waghmare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial screening of corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb. (A. campanulatus. Methods: Antibacterial activities of methanolic, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of corm of A. campanulatus were studied by agar diffusion technique to determine in vitro antibacterial activities. The antibacterial activity was measured with respect to the standard antibacterial drug. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration was also determined by using serial dilution method to determine and evaluate antibacterial potency of test corm extracts of A. campanulatus. Results: The results showed significant antibacterial activities against four pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration values against test bacteria were found to be remarkable range in bacteria like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at concentration 0.25 mg/ well, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 0.5 mg/well concentration, in Vibrio cholerae was 2 mg/ well, Streptococcus pyogenes at concentration of 0.5 mg/well and Proteus mirabilis was at concentration of 2 mg/well. Conclusions: The methanolic and petroleum ether extracts are capable to maximum inhibition of the tested pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Gastroprotective and antisecretory effects of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanchauski, Larissa S; Broto, Ana Paula G S; Moraes, Thiago M; Nasser, Ana Lúcia M; Said, Ataa; Hawas, Usama W; Rashed, Khaled; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A

    2010-01-01

    Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb), an Egyptian medicinal species highly important for treating numerous diseases, was investigated against experimentally induced gastric ulcer in rodents. We evaluated the gastroprotective effect of four extracts (petroleum ether, diethyl ether, chloroform, and methanol) of A. excelsa bark by using the ethanol-induced gastric lesion model. The pretreatment of animals with methanolic, petroleum ether, and chloroformic extracts (100 mg/kg, oral (p.o.)) from A. excelsa significantly reduced gastric lesion induced by ulcerogenic agent (56, 47, and 70%, respectively) when compared with animals pretreated with vehicle. However, the diethyl ether pretreatment led to the least gastric lesion damage (83%), similar to the standard antiulcer drug, cimetidine, at the same dose (100 mg/kg, p.o.). The lower effective dose of diethyl ether extract, as well as cimetidine, given by intraduodenal route, significantly increased the pH values and reduced the acid output of gastric juice. Sterols, triterpenes,and quassinoids are present in the diethyl ether extract of A. excelsa stem bark, which presented the best gastroprotective action among the studied extracts. Our study confirmed the traditional indications of A. excelsa for the treatment of gastric ulcer.

  18. Pterocarpus santalinus: an In Vitro study on its anti-Helicobacter pylori effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Shoba; Veeraraghavan, Mani; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2007-02-01

    The anti-H. pylori activity of Pterocarpus santalinus (PS), a traditional herb, has been assessed and compared with that of bismuth subcitrate, through in vitro studies employing rat gastric epithelial cell cultures and H. pylori isolates from gastric mucosal biopsy patients. The MIC of PS was found to be 20 microg/mL. H. pylori was co-cultivated with rat gastric epithelial cells in the presence/absence of PS at its MIC. A reduction in the activity of urease, a normal appearance of the epithelial cells on electron microscopic examination, a decrease in lipid peroxidation and lactate dehydrogenase suggests the possible anti-H. pylori activity of PS. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic neoflavonoids and benzofurans from Pterocarpus santalinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shou-Fang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Lee, Chia-Lin; Chen, Shu-Li; Wu, Chin-Chung; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2011-05-27

    Five new benzofurans, pterolinuses A-E (1-5), six new neoflavonoids, pterolinuses F-J (8-13), and five known compounds (6, 7, 14-16) were isolated from an extract of Pterocarpus santalinus heartwood. All new structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, and configurations were confirmed by CD spectral data and optical rotation values. The isolates were evaluated for anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. Six compounds (1, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 15) showed significant inhibition in at least one anti-inflammatory assay. Compound 2 showed the best selective effect against superoxide anion generation in human neutrophils with, an IC50 value of 0.19 μg/mL, and was 6.2-fold more potent than the positive control LY294002. Compound 14 showed the highest cytotoxicity against Ca9-22 cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 0.46 μg/mL.

  20. Pharmacological properties and related constituents of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oudraogo Noufou; Sawadogo Richard Wamtinga; Tibiri Andr; Bayet Christine; Lompo Marius; Hay A Emmanuelle; Koudou Jean; Dijoux Marie-Genevive; Guissou Innocent Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To screen methanol and dichloromethane extracts of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, in vitro antioxidant activities and phytochemical analysis. Methods:Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced-edema of mice paw and croton oil-induced edema of mice ear;analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing. Phytochemical screening of extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography. The chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of main active components as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin. The structures were established by TLC and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Results:Both methanol and dichloromethane extracts, friedelin, lupeol and epicatechin showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect using croton oil induced-ear edema. Furthermore, the action of dichloromethane extract was more important. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the methanol extract was able to reduce the carrageenan induced-hind paw edema, while at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, it showed an important analgesic effect against writhing induced by acetic acid injection of 38.8%, 68.0%and 74.3%, respectively. Antioxidative properties of methanol extract and its dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were assessed by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The methanol extract showed the stronger radical scavenging activity than dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, with an antiradical power of 5, 3.5 and 2 respectively. The main components isolated from these extracts as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin were responsible of these activities. Conclusions:The results suggest that the stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed important anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities and strong antioxidant properties, therefore, they could be used as natural potential ingredients for pharma ceutical industry.

  1. Pharmacological properties and related constituents of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noufou, Ouédraogo; Wamtinga, Sawadogo Richard; André, Tibiri; Christine, Bayet; Marius, Lompo; Emmanuelle, Hay A; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Geneviève, Dijoux; Pierre, Guissou Innocent

    2012-01-01

    To screen methanol and dichloromethane extracts of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, in vitro antioxidant activities and phytochemical analysis. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced-edema of mice paw and croton oil-induced edema of mice ear; analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing. Phytochemical screening of extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography. The chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of main active components as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin. The structures were established by TLC and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Both methanol and dichloromethane extracts, friedelin, lupeol and epicatechin showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect using croton oil induced-ear edema. Furthermore, the action of dichloromethane extract was more important. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the methanol extract was able to reduce the carrageenan induced-hind paw edema, while at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, it showed an important analgesic effect against writhing induced by acetic acid injection of 38.8%, 68.0% and 74.3%, respectively. Antioxidative properties of methanol extract and its dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were assessed by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The methanol extract showed the stronger radical scavenging activity than dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, with an antiradical power of 5, 3.5 and 2 respectively. The main components isolated from these extracts as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin were responsible of these activities. The results suggest that the stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed important anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities and strong antioxidant properties, therefore, they could be used as potential natural ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spécificité de la symbiose Rhizobium-Pterocarpus au Sénégal

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, E.H.S.N.; Ndoye, I.; Bâ, A.T.; Dreyfus, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Soixante-dix souches de #Rhizobium$ ont été isolées à partir de nodules racinaires de #Pterocarpus erinaceus$ Poir. et #Pterocarpus lucens$ Lepr. Les souches ont été caractérisées par l'étude de leur croissance, de leur résistance aux antibiotiques, de leur cinétique de nodulation, de leur spectre d'hôte et de leur effectivité. Deux groupes bien distincts de souches ont été identifiés : des Rhizobiums à croissance rapide et des Rhizobiums à croissance lente. Les tests d'inoculation ont montré...

  3. Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Contact Time Gambir Extract (Uncaria gambier Roxb) Against Bacterial Growth Enterococcus faecalis

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Rasmidar

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis (E.Faecalis) gram-positive bacteria commonly found in endodontic retreatment cases. Extract Gambir, a type of dried sap from the leaves and young stems of plants gambier (Uncaria gambier Roxb) contains catechins, which are potent antibacterial and anti fungal with minimal side effects.

  4. Antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Z A; Singh, P; Bhujbal, S S; Deoda, R S

    2011-07-01

    Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for different diseases. Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering natural products that have been used for the treatment of all human diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) is widely used in the Indian system of medicine as an antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, anticolic pain, anticancer, antidiabetic etc. The plant was also reported for its antiasthmatic, bronchodilatory, antiallegic and many more such activities. To evaluate the antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. We have studied the effect of aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. at a doses 100 μg/mL in the isolated goat tracheal chain preparation in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg/kg doses orally in passive paw anaphylaxis in rat, clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice models in vivo for its antihistaminic activity. Aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. significantly (***P<0.001) inhibits the percentage contraction at concentration of 100 μg/mL in goat tracheal chain preparation. A. excelsa Roxb. extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg oral) and dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also significantly reduced (**P<0.01) the paw volume at fourth hour and the percentage inhibition was found to be 13.98%, 28.49%, 42.47% and 46.77% respectively. The aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and chlorpheniramine maleate (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited (*P<0.05, **P< 0.01) clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice at 150 min after the administration of clonidine. The aqueous extract of stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. possess significant antihistaminic activity (H1-antagonist) and can be attributed to bronchodilating, anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic activity etc. Hence detailed study needs to be conducted to evaluate the phytoconstituent responsible for the above mentioned results

  5. Grilling enhances antidiarrheal activity of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Garima; Gupta, Shyam Sundar; Bhatia, Anil; Sidhu, O P; Rawat, A K S; Rao, Ch V

    2017-04-18

    Terminalia bellerica Roxb. fruits are rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients. Tharu and Buksa tribes of Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India use grilled fruits of Terminalia bellerica as an effective cure for diarrhea AIM OF THE STUDY: We validated the ethnobotanical claim by comparing the antidiarrheal effect of grilled fruits (GF) with dried fruits (DF). The 50% ethanolic extracts of GF and DF were successively fractionated; the antioxidant and bacterial inhibition activity were studied using DPPH free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation and broth dilution method respectively. Difference in metabolites of ethyl acetate fractions of GF and DF was analyzed using GC-MS, gallic acid content was determined through HPTLC. Further the in-vivo antidiarrheal effect of ethyl acetate fractions of DF and GF was studied on castor oil induced diarrhea model. The ethyl acetate fractions showed potential DPPH free radical scavenging (IC50 11.13µg/ml in DF and 8.56µg/ml in GF), anti-lipid peroxidation and antibacterial activity. The non-targeted metabolic profiling showed higher content of tartaric acid, valeric acid, gallic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, malonic acid, malic acid, 1,2,3 trisbenzene, uridine and 11-eicosenoic acid in GF. The HPTLC results indicated that gallic acid content was 2.8 (±0.14) and 4.92 (±0.28) mg/g while ellagic acid content was 4.7 (±0.32) and 4.45 (±0.45) mg/g dry powder in DF and GF respectively. According to in vivo antidiarrheal activity DF and GF (100mg/kg oral) inhibited diarrhea by 41.87% and 71.72% respectively. Grilling significantly altered the levels of metabolites in T. bellerica fruits which could be responsible for its increased therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effect of Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. on natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthong, Sumalee; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Immune system is the most important system ofhuman body. Thaifolk doctors have used some medicinal plants as an adaptogenic drug or immunomodulatory agent. Piper chaba Hunter, Piper sarmentosum Roxb. and Piper interruptum Opiz. are used by folk doctors to activate immune response in cancer patients. To investigate the effect on natural killer cell activity and on lymphocyte proliferation activity of water extract of P chaba Hunter P. sarmentosum Roxb. and P interruptum Opiz. MATERIAL ANDMETHOD: Plant materials were extracted by decoction method. All extracts were testedfor an immunomodulatory effect using PBMCs from twelve healthy donors by chromium release assay. Lymphocyte proliferation was also determined by 3H-thymidine uptake assay. The degree of activation was expressed as the stimulation index. The water extract of P chaba Hunter significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation at concentrations ofl ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. P sarmentosum Roxb., and P interruptum Opiz. extracts at those concentrations significantly stimulated lymphocyteproliferation. P sarmentosum Roxb. extractsignificantly increased natural killer (NK) cell activity at a concentration of 100 μg/ml but P chaba Hunter and P interruptum Opiz. extracts did not significantly stimulate natural killer cell activity. P chaba Hunter, P interruptum Opiz. andP sarmentosum Roxb. have an immunomodulatory effect especially for P sarmentosum Roxb. extract which can activate both lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity.

  7. PEMANFAATAN KULIT KAYU ANGSANA (Pterocarpus indicus SEBAGAI SUMBER ZAT WARNA ALAM PADA PEWARNAAN KAIN BATIK SUTERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Wiji Lestari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian pemanfaatan kulit kayu angsana (Pterocarpus indicus sebagai sumber zat warna alam untuk pewarnaan kain batik sutera. Ekstraksi ZWA dilakukan dengan pelarut air dengan variasi suhu ekstraksi 75 °C dan 100 °C. Pewarnaan zat warna alam kemudian diaplikasikan pada kain batik sutera pada kondisi pencelupan asam (pH 4 dan basa (pH 10. Mordan awal yang digunakan adalah tawas dan jirak. Diakhir pewarnaan alam dilakukan fiksasi dengan menggunakan tawas dan tunjung. Berdasar hasil penelitian, kulit kayu angsana terbukti dapat digunakan sebagai sumber zat warna alam untuk batik sutera. Ketuaan warna paling tinggi diperoleh pada pewarnaan batik sutera dengan menggunakan mordan jirek pada suhu ekstraksi 100 °C dalam kondisi pencelupan basa dengan fiksator tunjung. Arah warna yang dihasilkan adalah coklat tua pada suasana pencelupan asam dengan fiksasi tunjung, coklat kemerahan pada suasana  pencelupan asam fiksasi tawas, coklat kemerahan pada suasana  pencelupan basa fiksasi tawas dan coklat tanah pada suasana  pencelupan basa dengan fiksasi tunjung. Hasil uji ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian dari sampel pewarnaan menunjukkan kualitas baik yaitu pada skala 4-5 (Baik. Study on utilizationof angsana (Pterocarpus indicus as natural dye for silk batik has been conducted. The study was aimed to determine the quality of the natural dyeing of the bark of angsana by use jirak (Symplocos fasciculata Zoll. and alum as the natural mordant. Extraction of natural dye was carried out using water by varying the extraction temperature of 75 and 100 °C. The coloration was applied to silk batik at both acid (pH 4 and basic (pH 6 impregnations. The mordant employed  were alum and jirak. The last stage was fixation using alum and ferrosulfate. Based on the results, angsana was proved to be used as a source of natural dyes for silk batik. The highest color intensity was obtained by using angsana bark extract and jirak as mordant at

  8. Effect of low energy ion beam irradiation on wettability of narra (Pterocarpus indicus) wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Henry J. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)]. E-mail: hjr@nsri.upd.edu.ph; Monasterial, Jonathan Lee C. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Blantocas, Gene Q. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)

    2006-01-15

    Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) wood chips were irradiated with positive hydrogen ions H{sup +} and H{sub 2}{sup +} to make them hydrophobic. The ions were produced and extracted from a gas discharge ion source. The extracted beam current ranges from 0.01 to 0.07{mu}A for discharge currents of 1.0-4.0mA, discharge potential between 600V and 1000V. The chips, positioned at 70mm downstream from the ion source, were processed for different time periods and discharge currents. The wettability was characterized by the contact angle of the liquid droplet with respect to the wood surface. Surface modifications were assessed with by measurements of the water contact angle. Tests indicate retarded absorption characteristics for ion-irradiated samples compared to controlled samples. The longest absorptive inhibition were exhibited by samples irradiated for 30min, at discharge current of 1.0mA, 720eV ion energy and 0V extraction potential. Scanning electron micrographs reveal the difference in morphologies of treated and untreated samples. The results prove that low energy beams of hydrogen from a gas discharge ion source are suitable in transforming surfaces of wood chips to be water resistant.

  9. Aktifitas Antimikroba Ekstrak Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus terhadap Bacillus subtilis dan Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TULUS JUNANTO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has much kind of plants, which have medicinal properties and used to cure various diseases. Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus is one of tree plant that has many used, one of them as city ornamental tree. The aim of the research was to know the antimicrobial effect off crude extract angsana against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Crude extract angsana is made in maceration with methanol, chloroform, and hexane. The part of angsana is leaf, stem bark and root. Diffusion method is used to test antimicrobial activity. Effect of antimicrobial is shown by halo zone. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MMICs of methanol crude extract of leaf is 250 µg//µl, methanol crude extract of stem bark and root are 100 µg/µl and 100 µg/µll for K. pneumoniae. MICs of methanol crude extract of stem bark and root are 100 µg/µµl and 1000 µµg/µl for Bacillus subtilis. MICs of chloroform crude extract off stem bark and root are 1000 µg/µl and 500 µg/µl for KK. pneumoniae. MICs of chloroform cru de extract of stem bark and root are 550 µg/µl and 550 µg/µl for B. subtilis. MICs of hexane crude extract of stem bark is 500 µg/µl and 1000 µg/µl for K. pneumoniae and B. subtilis, respectively. Crude extract of leaf, stem bark and root of angsana could inhibit growth of B. subtilis and K. pneumoniae bacteria.

  10. Insect antifeedants, pterocarpans and pterocarpol, in heartwood of Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kruz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Masanori; Fukumoto, Hiromi; Hiratani, Masaru; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Komai, Koichiro

    2006-08-01

    The insect antifeedant activities of pterocarpans and a sesquiterpene alcohol from the dichloromethane extract of Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kruz. (Leguminosae) were evaluated against the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura F. (Noctuidae), and the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe)(Rhinotermitidae). Three pterocarpans, (-)-homopterocarpin (1), (-)-pterocarpin (2), and (-)-hydroxyhomopterocarpin (3) and the sesquiterpene alcohol, (+)-pterocarpol (5), were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the heartwood of P. macrocarpus under guidance by a biological assay. Among these natural products, the most active insect antifeedant against both S. litura and R. speratus was 1. On the other hand, sesquiterpene alcohol 5 showed less insect antifeedant activity than the other pterocarpans against both insect species. While its methylated derivative, (-)-methoxyhomopterocarpin (4), showed high biological activity, 3 showed less insect antifeedant activity in this study. Interestingly, racemic 1 did not show insect antifeedant activity against S. litura. However, all of the test pterocarpans and isoflavones showed antifeedant activity against the test termites. Additionally, since these compounds were major constituents of P. macrocarpus, these antifeedant phenolics may act as chemical defense factors in this tree. In Thailand, lumber made from this tree is used to make furniture and in building construction due to its resistance to termite attack.

  11. Effect of low energy ion beam irradiation on wettability of narra ( Pterocarpus indicus) wood chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Henry J.; Monasterial, Jonathan Lee C.; Blantocas, Gene Q.

    2006-01-01

    Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) wood chips were irradiated with positive hydrogen ions H+ and H2+ to make them hydrophobic. The ions were produced and extracted from a gas discharge ion source. The extracted beam current ranges from 0.01 to 0.07 μA for discharge currents of 1.0-4.0 mA, discharge potential between 600 V and 1000 V. The chips, positioned at 70 mm downstream from the ion source, were processed for different time periods and discharge currents. The wettability was characterized by the contact angle of the liquid droplet with respect to the wood surface. Surface modifications were assessed with by measurements of the water contact angle. Tests indicate retarded absorption characteristics for ion-irradiated samples compared to controlled samples. The longest absorptive inhibition were exhibited by samples irradiated for 30 min, at discharge current of 1.0 mA, 720 eV ion energy and 0 V extraction potential. Scanning electron micrographs reveal the difference in morphologies of treated and untreated samples. The results prove that low energy beams of hydrogen from a gas discharge ion source are suitable in transforming surfaces of wood chips to be water resistant.

  12. Structural basis for the recognition of complex-type biantennary oligosaccharides by Pterocarpus angolensis lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buts, Lieven; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Imberty, Anne; Amiot, Nicolas; Boons, Geert-Jan; Beeckmans, Sonia; Versées, Wim; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2006-06-01

    The crystal structure of Pterocarpus angolensis lectin is determined in its ligand-free state, in complex with the fucosylated biantennary complex type decasaccharide NA2F, and in complex with a series of smaller oligosaccharide constituents of NA2F. These results together with thermodynamic binding data indicate that the complete oligosaccharide binding site of the lectin consists of five subsites allowing the specific recognition of the pentasaccharide GlcNAc beta(1-2)Man alpha(1-3)[GlcNAc beta(1-2)Man alpha(1-6)]Man. The mannose on the 1-6 arm occupies the monosaccharide binding site while the GlcNAc residue on this arm occupies a subsite that is almost identical to that of concanavalin A (con A). The core mannose and the GlcNAc beta(1-2)Man moiety on the 1-3 arm on the other hand occupy a series of subsites distinct from those of con A.

  13. Acetaminophen perturbed redox homeostasis in Wistar rat liver: protective role of aqueous Pterocarpus osun leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salau, Amadu K; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the in vitro antioxidant potentials and attenuation of acetaminophen-induced redox imbalance by Pterocarpus osun Craib (Fabaceae) leaf in Wistar rat liver. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract (0.2-1.0 mg/mL) was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide, superoxide ion, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS), and ferric ion. The extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) attenuated the altered liver and serum enzymes of acetaminophen treated animals. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities as well as vitamins C and E, and glutathione levels were significantly (P<0.05) elevated by the extract. The activities of uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (59%), quinone oxidoreductase (53%), and glutathione S-transferase (73%) significantly increased. The extract of P. osun leaf extract at 1.0mg/mL scavenged the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide ion, and ABTS at 94, 98, 92, and 86%, respectively, while ferric ion was significantly reduced. There was attenuation of malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide. The results indicates that P. osun leaves attenuated acetaminophen-induced redox imbalance, possibly acting as free radical scavenger, inducer of antioxidant and drug-detoxifying enzymes, which prevented/reduced lipid peroxidation.

  14. Structural basis of oligomannose recognition by the Pterocarpus angolensis seed lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loris, Remy; Van Walle, Ivo; De Greve, Henri; Beeckmans, Sonia; Deboeck, Francine; Wyns, Lode; Bouckaert, Julie

    2004-01-30

    The crystal structure of a Man/Glc-specific lectin from the seeds of the bloodwood tree (Pterocarpus angolensis), a leguminous plant from central Africa, has been determined in complex with mannose and five manno-oligosaccharides. The lectin contains a classical mannose-specificity loop, but its metal-binding loop resembles that of lectins of unrelated specificity from Ulex europaeus and Maackia amurensis. As a consequence, the interactions with mannose in the primary binding site are conserved, but details of carbohydrate-binding outside the primary binding site differ from those seen in the equivalent carbohydrate complexes of concanavalin A. These observations explain the differences in their respective fine specificity profiles for oligomannoses. While Man(alpha1-3)Man and Man(alpha1-3)[Man(alpha1-6)]Man bind to PAL in low-energy conformations identical with that of ConA, Man(alpha1-6)Man is required to adopt a different conformation. Man(alpha1-2)Man can bind only in a single binding mode, in sharp contrast to ConA, which creates a higher affinity for this disaccharide by allowing two binding modes.

  15. Pterocarpus santalinus: a traditional herbal drug as a protectant against ibuprofen induced gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Shoba; Devi, R S; Srinivasan, P; Shyamala Devi, C S

    2005-11-01

    The ethanol extract of Pterocarpus santalinus (PS) was evaluated for gastroprotection in rats using ibuprofen as the induction model. Rats treated with PS (100-400 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in gastric lesions. PS at a dose of 200 mg/kg was found to be the minimum effective dose and hence further studies with that dose were carried out. PS treatment increased the LDH activity and decreased the lipid peroxidation levels. The extract had the ability to increase the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and GPx when compared with the untreated but induced rats. The membrane bound ATPases - H(+)K(+)ATPase, Na(+)K(+)ATPase and Ca(2+)ATPases were increased upon the induction with ulcerogen. The treated group showed a decrease in the activities of these enzymes and also had the ability to restore the sodium and potassium ion concentrations to near normal levels, which were altered by ibuprofen mediated acid stimulation. The results suggest that the antiulcer properties of PS could traced to its acid inhibiting potential, antioxidant activity and the ability to maintain functional integrity of the cell membranes.

  16. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM CURCUMA AMADA ROXB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnupriya.M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil of Curcuma amada Roxb. The GC- MS analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 12 compounds. β-myrcene (63.85% and α-asarone (30.27% were the two major components identified. The sample was subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, ABTS radical, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-Carotene bleaching assay. Results showed that the essential oil possessed a strong degree of antioxidant activity in terms of β-Carotene bleaching capacity followed by ABTS radical, ferric reducing power and a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity. This study concludes that the essential oil from Curcuma amada Roxb could serve as an important bioresource of antioxidants for using in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Comparative Foliar Epidermal Studies in Coix lacryma-jobi L. andCoix aquatica Roxb. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinku Jitendrakumar DESAI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As micromorphological knowledge was not available for Coix aquatica Roxb., the foliar epidermal studies were carried out for Coix lacryma-jobi L. and Coix aquatica Roxb. with the aim of determining the patterns of variation in their epidermal characteristics and assessing their value in species identification. Comparative foliar analysis was carried out by using light microscopy, after following routine scraping method. The characters of diagnostic importance in the identification of C. aquatica are the sparsely distributed prickle hairs with long pointed apex in the abaxial epidermis and dumbbell shaped silica cells in both the epidermises. The diagnostic characters for C. lacryma-jobi are the cross shaped silica cells and dumbbell shaped on the abaxial and adaxial epidermis respectively. The observed differences in certain micromorphological characters helps in identification of presently studied two species of Coix.

  18. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. with Arthrobacter echigonensis MN1405 enhances heavy metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, FengYu; Tang, KeLi; Cai, ChunTing; Xu, XuPing

    2016-10-02

    The growth and metal-extraction efficiency of plants when exposed to toxic metals can be enhanced by inoculating with certain bacteria, but the mechanisms of this process remain unclear. We report results from glasshouse experiments on the effect of Arthrobacter echigonensis MN1405 in promoting Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. growth when exposed to 100 mg/L Mn solution. Mn removal efficiency in solution was significantly enhanced by bacterial inoculation; Mn was accumulated in the root of P. acinosa Roxb. plant. The bacteria oxidized the Mn on root surface, which formed a Mn plaque to serve as a barrier or a containment to prevent metal toxicity. In this process, pH condition was an important factor on the effects of microbial-assisted heavy metal phytoremediation. Our finding suggests that A. echigonensis MN1405 assisted P. acinosa to achieve high remediation efficiency of Mn removal and accumulation in Mn contamination area.

  19. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOINFORMATICS APPROACH FOR THE EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF THE HERB, EXACUM BICOLOR ROXB.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeeshna M. V.; Paulsamy, S.

    2011-01-01

    Exacum bicolor Roxb. (Gentianaceae) is a phytochemically unexplored traditional medicinal herb, generally distributed in the grasslands of northern Kerala during July-October. The present study through GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of six phytochemical compounds of medicinal importance (two compounds of polyphenolic group viz. 7'-Chloro-3'-(2, 4 dichlorophenyl)-3',4'-dihydrospiro(1, 3- dioxolane- and a’-D- Galactopyranoside, methyl 2,6- bis-0-(trimethylsilyl ) -, cyclic butylboronate, ...

  20. THE EFFECT OF FUMIGATION TREATMENT TOWARDS AGAVE CANTALA ROXB FIBRE STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    MUSA BONDARIS PALUNGAN; RUDY SOENOKO; YUDY SURYA IRAWAN; ANINDITO PURNOWIDODO

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal the morphology, physical properties and strength of the king pineapple leaf fibre (Agave Cantala Roxb) after fumigation treatment. The king pineapple leaf fibres (KPLF) before and after the fumigation treatment are then separated into groups. The fumigation treatment on KPLF is given in different durations, and the smoke comes from burning coconut shells. Before and after fumigation, the surface morphology, chemical content, and functional group cha...

  1. Pengukuran Kapasitas Antioksidan Dalam Rimpang Temulawak (Curcuma Xanthorrhiza Roxb.) Secara Spektrofotometri Sinar Tampak

    OpenAIRE

    Maggie

    2015-01-01

    One of Indonesia’s top natural product, Java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb), is very strategic to be developed, considering the benefits demonstrated by one of its active compound which is polyphenols. The presence of the phenolic group leads to strong antioxidant activity in biological systems, therefore could prevent diseases associated with reduction-oxidation reaction. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity in Java turmeric dosage form in the market and...

  2. A new combination in Orophea (Annonaceae for Uvaria nitida Roxb. ex G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Turner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of Uvaria nitida Roxb. ex G.Don. (Annonaceae has not been considered for 180 years. The plant is only known from material grown in the Calcutta Botanic Garden in India following introduction from, reportedly, the Moluccas. Examination of a specimen from the Brussels Herbarium, designated here as lectotype, indicates that the species is a member of Orophea subgenus Sphaerocarpon, similar to Orophea gabra Merr. A new combination in Orophea is made. 

  3. The identification of major component of temu kunci (Kaemferia pandurata Roxb.) essential oils on different altitude

    OpenAIRE

    RETNA BANDRIATI ARNIPUTRI; AMALIA TETRANI SAKYA; MUJI RAHAYU

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study was to know the major component of essential oils of Temu Kunci (Kaemferia pandurata Roxb.) on a different altitude. This research was carried out by method of Stahl destilation at BPTO and GCMS Cromatography at FMIPA UGM for both of from Kerjo (350 m asl) and Jumapolo (450 m asl). The difference of altitude of temu kunci’s lives on, the same of major component of essential oil but the content among them was different.

  4. Pterocarpus santalinus (Red Sanders an Endemic, Endangered Tree of India: Current Status, Improvement and the Future

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    AN Arunkumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus santalinus (Family – Fabaceae popularly known as Red Sanders is an endemic species confined to Southern parts of Eastern Ghats of India specially in Andhra Pradesh. Heartwood of Red Sanders has high demand in domestic as well as international market and the wavy grained wood is valued.  Along with its extensive use in furniture, the red dye obtained from the wood is used as colouring agent for textile, medicine and food. The heartwood can accumulate various elements and rare earth elements like strontium cadmium, zinc, copper and uranium. The wood has different uses in traditional and folklore medicines and is used for the treatment of diabetes, prickly heat, skin diseases and for various other ailments. A number of studies have been carried out to anatomically and phenotypicaly screen wavy grain at seedling stage. Morphological variability and genetic diversity studies reveal that Red Sanders harbours enormous variability. Though, macro and micro propagation protocol have been developed, further refinement is required for mass propagation. Andhra Pradesh Forest Department has also initiated different activities under tree improvement programme. Considering the wood demand, restricted distribution, slow regeneration, illegal harvest, trade and habitat destruction, the species has been categorized as endangered by International Union for Conservation of Nature and has been listed in Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and is also classified as a “reserved tree” under the Andhra Pradesh Preservation of Private Forest Rules, 1978. To revive the past glory of this valuable species, Government agencies, farmers, entrepreneurs and policy makers have to join hands for its protection, sustainable utilization and conservation.

  5. Stability, subunit interactions and carbohydrate-binding of the seed lectin from Pterocarpus angolensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echemendia-Blanco, Dannele; Van Driessche, Edilbert; Ncube, Ignatious; Read, John S; Beeckmans, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    From 1 kg of defatted Pterocarpus angolensis (mukwa tree) seed meal, 21.6 grams of an alpha,D-mannose/glucose-specific lectin can be purified on mannose-Sepharose. Relative affinities for several (oligo)saccharides and glycoproteins were studied by haemagglutination-inhibition. Gel filtration shows that the lectin exists as a dimer above pH 5 and as a monomer below pH 3.5. This is confirmed by studies on the release of lectin subunits that were adsorbed from solution to lectin monomers immobilized onto Eupergit-c. From the gel filtration patterns it is calculated that a residue with pK(a) of about 4.4 is involved in dimer dissociation. Titration of glutamic acids (E60, E209) is postulated to be involved. CD spectroscopy shows that the secondary structure of the lectin is unchanged between pH 1 and 12.5, and that the tertiary structure remains unchanged between pH 5 and 12. In the acid pH region, reversible spectral changes occur that may be due to the titration of one or more amino acids with a pK(a) value of 3.9-4.2, probably aspartic acid. These residues are implicated in sugar-binding but not in dimerization of the lectin. Only at pH 12.5, irreversible denaturation occurs. Mukwa lectin displays full carbohydrate-binding capacity between pH 4 and 12, as is concluded from ELLA (Enzyme Linked Lectin Assay) using ovalbumin and fetuin, and from binding of the same glycoproteins to immobilized lectin monomers. The lectin is rapidly and fully reversibly demetallized at pH 2.5 with 5 mM EDTA. The demetallized lectin is completely devoid of sugar-binding activity. Mukwa lectin is a very thermostable molecule (at least till 85 degrees C). However, addition of non-ionic detergents substantially lowers its thermostability.

  6. Modulatory role of Pterocarpus santalinus against alcohol-induced liver oxidative/nitrosative damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulle, Saradamma; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Maturu, Paramahamsa; N Ch, Varadacharyulu

    2016-10-01

    Pterocarpus santalinus, a traditional medicinal plant has shown protective mechanisms against various complications. The aim of the present study is to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of P. santalinus heartwood methanolic extract (PSE) against alcohol-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress leading to hepatotoxicity. In-vitro studies revealed that PSE possess strong DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. For in vivo studies male albino Wistar rats were treated with 20% alcohol (5g/kg b.wt/day) and PSE (250mg/kg b.wt/day) for 60days. Results showed that alcohol administration significantly altered plasma lipid profile with marked increase in the levels of plasma transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT). Moreover, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide (NOx) levels in plasma and liver were increased with increased iNOS protein expression in liver was noticed in alcohol administered rats and these levels were significantly brought back close to normal level by PSE administration except iNOS protein expression. Alcohol administration also decreased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver, which were significantly enhanced by administration of PSE. The active compounds pterostilbene, lignan and lupeols present in PSE might have shown protection against alcohol-induced hepatic damage by possibly reducing the rate of lipid peroxidation, NOx levels and increasing the antioxidant defence mechanism in alcohol administered rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the alcohol-induced liver damage model emphasize beneficial action of PSE as a hepatoprotective agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation improve flooding tolerance in Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougnies, L; Renciot, S; Muller, F; Plenchette, C; Prin, Y; de Faria, S M; Bouvet, J M; Sylla, S Nd; Dreyfus, B; Bâ, A M

    2007-05-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) seedlings inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices, and the strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. (UAG 11A) were grown under stem-flooded or nonflooded conditions for 13 weeks after 4 weeks of nonflooded pretreatment under greenhouse conditions. Flooding of P. officinalis seedlings induced several morphological and physiological adaptive mechanisms, including formation of hypertrophied lenticels and aerenchyma tissue and production of adventitious roots on submerged portions of the stem. Flooding also resulted in an increase in collar diameter and leaf, stem, root, and total dry weights, regardless of inoculation. Under flooding, arbuscular mycorrhizas were well developed on root systems and adventitious roots compared with inoculated root systems under nonflooding condition. Arbuscular mycorrhizas made noteworthy contributions to the flood tolerance of P. officinalis seedlings by improving plant growth and P acquisition in leaves. We report in this study the novel occurrence of nodules connected vascularly to the stem and nodule and arbuscular mycorrhizas on adventitious roots of P. officinalis seedlings. Root nodules appeared more efficient fixing N(2) than stem nodules were. Beneficial effect of nodulation in terms of total dry weight and N acquisition in leaves was particularly noted in seedlings growing under flooding conditions. There was no additive effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas and nodulation on plant growth and nutrition in either flooding treatment. The results suggest that the development of adventitious roots, aerenchyma tissue, and hypertrophied lenticels may play a major role in flooded tolerance of P. officinalis symbiosis by increasing oxygen diffusion to the submerged part of the stem and root zone, and therefore contribute to plant growth and nutrition.

  8. Kandungan Pb Pada Daun Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus dan Rumput Gajah Mini (Axonopus.SpDi Jalan Protokol Kota Tangerang

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    Siti Nihayatul Inayah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui akumulasi Pb pada daun Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus dan rumput Gajah Mini (Axonopus.Sp yang terletak dibeberapa jalan protokol Kota Tangerang. Lokasi pengambilan sampel dilakukan di Sembilan lokasi utama Kota Tangerang dan satu di lokasi permukiman. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan pada bulan Maret dan April 2009. Sampel dianalisa menggunakan Spektroskopi Serapan Atom (SSA melalui metode destruksi basah. Hasil yang didapat dari penelitian ini adalah kandungan Pb pada daun Angsana (2.04 – 7.30 μg/g pada bulan Maret 2009 ; 1.12 – 7.61 μg/g pada bulan April 2009 dan rumput Gajah Mini (2.12 – 12.38 μg/g pada bulan Maret 2009 ; 5.89 – 10.32 μg/g pada bulan April 2009. Secara umum dapat disimpulkan bahwa Pterocarpus indicus dan Axonopus.Sp mampu mengakumulasi Pb pada kisaran 1.12-12.38 μg/g. Kandungan Pb pada daun Angsana dan rumput Gajah Mini hasil penelitian tidak mencapai 1000 ppm (μg/g. Hal ini berarti kandungan Pb pada daun Angsana dan rumput Gajah Mini di Kota Tangerang belum melampaui ambang batas toksisitasnya terhadap tanaman.

  9. Chemical profile studies on the secondary metabolites of medicinally important plant Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC using HPTLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priya Alphonso; Aparna Saraf

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the chemical fingerprint of various secondary metabolites of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC, a medicinally important plant. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening for various secondary metabolites was carried out. HPTLC profiles of various individual secondary metabolites were done and profiles were developed for authentication. Result: The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of 8 Glycosides, 10 Flavonoids, 6 Essential Oils, 5 Anthraquinones, 9 bitter principles, 7 Coumarins and 8 Terpenoids. Conclusions: The development of such fingerprint for the fruits of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC is useful in differentiating the species from the adulterant and also act as biomarker for this plant in the Pharmaceutical industry.

  10. KARAKTERISASI TIGA JENIS EKSTRAK GAMBIR ((Uncaria gambir Roxb DARI SUMATERA BARAT

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    Ani Isnawati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb is “a local spesific” plant which is one of the main commodities from West Sumateraprovince. Nevertheless, Gambir plant has not been widely used by Indonesian people as herbal medicine. Most of the Gambir extract containingcatechine and katechu tannat acid which are flavonoidderivates withantioxidant activity. The result revealed that chocolate which contains flavonoid from catechine and epikatekin could inhibite oxidation of LDL cholesterol by 75%. The using of Gambir extract as herbal medicine has to meet the characteristics of Herbal Pharmakope. Samplesof this research hadtaken from 3 types of Gambir extract from West Sumaterawith Quality requirements were based on Herbal Pharmakope and extract requirements guidelines established by BPOM. Examinationwere included non-specific parameter such as water content, total ash, total acid insoluble ash, and extract microscopic examination. In the other side, specific parameterwere included assay of extract level, identification ofcatechinsandcatechinlevels. The result showed thatthe qualityes ofnon-specific parameter for water content of all Gambir extracts were meet requerement based on Herbal Farmakope (< 14%, whereas total ash and total acid insoluble ashparametersof all Gambir didn’t meet requerement based on Herbal Farmakope (total ash < 0,5 % and total acid insoluble ash< 0,1 %.Loss on drying of Gambir extract 1, 2, and 3 are 18.31%, 18.30%, and 16.77%. Specific parameters that are indicated by content of catechin extract quality of quality no. 1, 2, and 3 are 86.71%, 81.93%, and 57.04%. All of extract Gambir quality don’t meet based on Herbal Farmakope (>90%. The first type of Gambir extract is the best extract compared with extracts from others types based on examination of the spesific and non - spesific characteristics Keywords : Gambir extract, Uncaria gambir Roxb Characteristic, content of Uncaria gambir Roxb catechin Abstrak Gambir (Uncaria

  11. Rapid identification of Pterocarpus santalinus and Dalbergia louvelii by FTIR and 2D correlation IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang-Da; Xu, Chang-Hua; Li, Ming-Yu; Huang, An-Min; Sun, Su-Qin

    2014-07-01

    Since Pterocarpus santalinus and Dalbergia louvelii, which are of precious Rosewood, are very similar in their appearance and anatomy characteristics, cheaper Hongmu D. louvelii is often illegally used to impersonate valuable P. santalinus, especially in Chinese furniture manufacture. In order to develop a rapid and effective method for easy confused wood furniture differentiation, we applied tri-step identification method, i.e., conventional infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative infrared (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2DCOS-IR) spectroscopy to investigate P. santalinus and D. louvelii furniture. According to FT-IR and SD-IR spectra, it has been found two unconditional stable difference at 848 cm-1 and 700 cm-1 and relative stable differences at 1735 cm-1, 1623 cm-1, 1614 cm-1, 1602 cm-1, 1509 cm-1, 1456 cm-1, 1200 cm-1, 1158 cm-1, 1055 cm-1, 1034 cm-1 and 895 cm-1 between D. louvelii and P. santalinus IR spectra. The stable discrepancy indicates that the category of extractives is different between the two species. Besides, the relative stable differences imply that the content of holocellulose in P. santalinus is more than that of D. louvelii, whereas the quantity of extractives in D. louvelii is higher. Furthermore, evident differences have been observed in their 2DCOS-IR spectra of 1550-1415 cm-1 and 1325-1030 cm-1. P. santalinus has two strong auto-peaks at 1459 cm-1 and 1467 cm-1, three mid-strong auto-peaks at 1518 cm-1, 1089 cm-1 and 1100 cm-1 and five weak auto-peaks at 1432 cm-1, 1437 cm-1, 1046 cm-1, 1056 cm-1 and 1307 cm-1 while D. louvelii has four strong auto-peaks at 1465 cm-1, 1523 cm-1, 1084 cm-1 and 1100 cm-1, four mid-strong auto-peaks at 1430 cm-1, 1499 cm-1, 1505 cm-1 and 1056 cm-1 and two auto-peaks at 1540 cm-1 and 1284 cm-1. This study has proved that FT-IR integrated with 2DCOS-IR could be applicable for precious wood furniture authentication in a direct, rapid and holistic manner.

  12. Oxygen Isotope Analysis in Tree-Rings of Pterocarpus angolensis in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeran, K.; Therrell, M. D.; Lefticariu, L.

    2012-12-01

    Our study was designed to identify the relationships between climate parameters, such as precipitation, and δ18O values of tree ring α-cellulose extracted from exactly dated tree rings of Pterocarpus angolensis trees growing in the arid to semiarid Mzola region of western Zimbabwe. This species is known to be sensitive to variation in rainfall. In this region, the wet season occurs during the austral summer from mid November to early April followed by a dry winter season from around June through October. Overall, the total annual rainfall exhibits a high degree of spatial and temporal variation with a mean of less than 600 mm per year. We applied the Modified Brendel technique to isolate α-cellulose from raw wood samples extracted from two P. angolensis trees and measured the δ18O values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. We developed a 30-year (1955-1984) δ18O chronology and correlated it with tree-ring width, meteoric water δ18O values, monthly and seasonal precipitation totals, and mean monthly temperature. The δ18O values of meteoric water for this region were obtained from the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) and correlated with the δ18O values of tree ring α-cellulose. We identified a positive correlation (p=.03) between the δ18O in tree ring α-cellulose and the δ18O values of meteoric water. The δ18O values are significantly negatively correlated (p=0.01) with precipitation during November through February. This trend is consistent with depleted δ18O values measured in summer precipitation during periods of high rainfall, most likely the result of the isotopic amount effect reported in tropical regions. We also investigated the possibility of an isotopic temperature effect for δ18O in rainfall, which also may be reflected in the δ18O values in tree ring α-cellulose. The strongest correlations with temperature (positive values) were found in the previous December, June and July, with p-values ranging from

  13. A CLINICAL STUDY OF COMBRETUM EXTENSUM ROXB. W.S.R TO ITS KRIMIGHNA EFFECT

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    Nisha Raj

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Folklore medicine is an integral part of Ayurveda. The drug Combretum extensum Roxb which is known as ‘Kojambe soppu’ in Kannada is used in folklore practice as Krimighna. Clinical trials were done in two groups of 20 patients each. The patients were treated with Standard drug Albendazole and trial drug in Group 1 and Group 2 respectively. Duration of treatment was 5 days. Patients were assessed before and after the treatment and effects of treatment were assessed statistically. Trial drug was found statistically significant with respect to passing of worms in the stool along with Karshya.

  14. In Vitro Goat Fermentation of PUFA-Diet Supplemented with Yeast and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyowati, E.; A. Sudarman; K.G. Wiryawan; T. Toharmat

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the ruminal performances of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-diet (containing PUFA with 80% concentrate and 20% King grass) supplemented with yeast and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. Experimental design was completely randomized block design of 4 x 4 with ruminal liquor derived from 4 slaughtered goats and 4 treatments (PD0-no supplement, PDY- 0.5% yeast, PDC-2% curcuma, and PDM- 0.5% yeast + 2% curcuma). Variables measured were pH, N-NH3, total and...

  15. Study on Antibacterial Activity of the Bark of Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Nilutpal Sharma; Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Gogoi, Barnali

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb. is an important and endemic medicinal plant of Assam which has been used by various ethnic communities of Northeast India to treat various disorders like dysentery, dyspepsia, and biliousness. The plant is considered to be containing much medicinal value and is also eaten raw or made into pickles by the local people. Our present study has been focused on the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of the bark of Garcinia lanceifolia which may lead us to a scientific evidence of the use of this plant in cases of dysentery and diarrhoea. PMID:27437444

  16. The identification of major component of temu kunci (Kaemferia pandurata Roxb. essential oils on different altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RETNA BANDRIATI ARNIPUTRI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study was to know the major component of essential oils of Temu Kunci (Kaemferia pandurata Roxb. on a different altitude. This research was carried out by method of Stahl destilation at BPTO and GCMS Cromatography at FMIPA UGM for both of from Kerjo (350 m asl and Jumapolo (450 m asl. The difference of altitude of temu kunci’s lives on, the same of major component of essential oil but the content among them was different.

  17. AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK RIMPANG TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. PADA RADIAL ARM MAZE DAN PASIVE AVOIDANCE TEST TIKUS MODEL DEMENSIA

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    Didik Yuni Prasetya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. is a plant containing curcumin. Curcumin has been shown to reduce oxidative damage and memory deficits associated with aging. The aim of the research was to know the effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. rhizome ethanol extract to memory function on Wistar rats induced by trimethyltin. The research design was post test only controlled group with 42 rats divided into 6 groups, Each group consist of 7 rats. Group I (healthy controls were given a solution of 0.5% CMC-Na orally. Group II (negative control were given a solution of 0.5% CMC-Na orally. Group III, IV, and V were given Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. extract each 120 mg/kgBW, 240 mg/kgBW, and 480 mg/kgBW orally. Group VI (positive control were given piracetam 500 mg/kgBW intraperitoneally. All groups were given trimethyltin intraperitoneally except group I. Data indicating memory function were obtained from radial maze test and passive avoidance test. Radial maze test data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by LSD test, while the passive avoidance test data were analyzed with the Kruskal Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney test. In conclusion, ethanol extract of temulawak rhizome (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. at doses of 120 mg/kgBW, 240 mg/kgBW and 480 mg/kgBW can prevent memory function decline on Wistar rats induced by trimethyltin.

  18. Inhibitory effect of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract on IgE/Ag-induced mast cell and atopic dermatitis-like mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hae-Sim; Kim, Wan-Joong; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-05-01

    Pterocarpus indicus Willd has been widely used as a traditional medicine to treat edema, cancer, and hyperlipidemia, but its antiallergic properties and underlying mechanisms have not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiallergic activity of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract (PIW) using activated mast cells and an atopic dermatitis (AD)-like mouse model. PIW decreased IgE/Ag-induced mast cell degranulation and the phosphorylation of Syk and downstream signaling molecules such as PLC-γ, Akt, Erk 1/2, JNK compared to stimulated mast cells. In DNCB-induced AD-like mice, PIW reduced IgE level in serum, as well as AD-associated scratching behavior and skin severity score. These results indicate that PIW inhibits the allergic response by reducing mast cell activation and may have clinical potential as an antiallergic agent for disorders such as AD.

  19. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF DRIED LEAF EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA, PTEROCARPUS SOYAUXII, AND VERNONIA AMYGDALINA ON CLINICAL ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE, STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima NGUMAH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of cold and hot ethanol extracts of air-dried leaves of Carica papaya, Pterocarpus soyauxii, and Vernonia amygdalina on clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were investigated. The cup-plate agar method was used to determine bacterial susceptibility. All the plant extracts screened were potent on the entire clinical isolates tested. However, there was no significant difference in the inhibition zone diameters of the plant extracts screened (on all the test isolates. There was also no significant difference in the inhibition zone diameters between the cold and hot ethanol extracts of each plant. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthroquinone, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and glycosides in all leaf samples. The results obtained here reveal the antibacterial potentials of the leaf extracts of Carica papaya, Pterocarpus soyauxii, and Vernonia amygdalina, and suggests their possible exploitation for the development of novel herbal-based antimicrobials.

  20. Gambaran Cemaran dan Kadar Metil Galat pada Tiga Mutu Ekstrak Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb.

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    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb is a plant that has many benefits to health such as antioxidants, antihiperlipidemia and antibacterial. Gambir extract derived from the leaves and twigs of Uncaria gambir Roxb through the process of removing the sap by being boiled, squeezed / compressed, liquid is deposited, molded and dried. During the plant grows, then harvest, process, stored and distributed, it is might contaminated with microbes or chemicals. Based on the requirement issued by BPOM No. 12, 2014 about Traditional Medicine Quality Requirements, it requires us to test the extract that we will use. To determine the contaminant of all three gambir extracts, we tested against yeast fungi figures, total plate count, aflatoxin and heavy metals. Besides that, we also determine content of active compound of methyl gallate which has benefits as an antioxidant with a densitometer. the result shows, there were contaminants that exceeded the requirements. Contaminants that exceeds the requirement are number of fungi yeasts (7,5.10-6 and aflatoxin G2 (47,38.106 ppb in gambier extract quality 3. The highest content of active compound of methyl gallate was obtained from extracts of gambir quality 3 (2.30% followed by gambir quality 2 (0.44% and gambir quality1 (0.14%

  1. Phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activity of Paracalyx scariosa (Roxb Ali

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    RAMOJI ALLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracalyx scariosa (Roxb. Ali. also called as Paracalyx scariosus and cylista scariosa is a woody twiners belongs to the family Fabaceae is one of the important medicinal plant distributed in Central Provinces, West and South India, and Upper Burma. It is woody twiners with tomentose branches and stems finely downy. Leaves are 3-foliate with rhachis prolonged 6-13mm. between the insertion of the leaflets and stipels of the terminal one. The objective of this study is to explore the phytochemistry and the antioxidant potential of various extracts of Paracalyx scariosa (Roxb. Ali which is considered traditionally as an important medicinal plant. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done to find out the presence of various bioactive compounds and TLC was performed to identify the no of flavonoids present. In vitro antioxidant analysis of methanol, acetone, benzene extracts and ethyl acetate , aqueous fractions of methanol extract was carried out by DPPH assay and Nitric oxide assay. It is observed from the phytochemical study, carbohydrates, proteins, saponins, triterpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids are present in all the three extracts and Ethyl acetate fraction, benzene extract were separated in to 5 spots identified by bluish black colour confirming the presence of 5 types of flavonoids and the Acetone extract was not separated. Besides the extracts and fractions also possess strong antioxidant activity

  2. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of an aqueous stem bark extract of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamadeu, M C; Dzeufiet, P D D; Nana, P; Kouambou Nouga, C C; Ngueguim Tsofack, F; Allard, J; Blaes, N; Siagat, R; Zapfack, L; Girolami, J P; Tack, I; Kamtchouing, P; Dimo, T

    2011-01-27

    Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) is used in Cameroonian traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia to treat hypertension, diabetes, gastrointestinal parasitizes and cutaneous diseases. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the safety of an aqueous stem bark extract of Pterocarpus soyauxii by determining toxicity after acute and sub-chronic oral administration in male and female rodents. The acute toxicity test was conducted in mice. An aqueous extract of barks was administrated by gavage in single doses of 2.5-12.5 g/kg. General behaviour and mortality were examined for up to 7 days. The sub-chronic toxicity test was performed in rats. The plant extract was administered by daily gavage of 150-600 mg/kg for 42 days. Body weight, food and water intakes were followed weekly. Haematological, biochemical and organ parameters were determined at the end of the 42-day administration. In the acute study in mice, oral administration of the aqueous extract of Pterocarpus soyauxii caused dose-dependent general behaviour adverse effects and mortality. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the extract was 5.0 g/kg. The lowest-observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) was 7.5 mg/kg. Mortality increased with the dose, LD(50) was>10.75 g/kg for the mouse. In the sub-chronic study in rats, daily oral administration of the aqueous extract of Pterocarpus soyauxii did not result in death or significant changes in haematological or biochemical parameters, excepted increased hepatic catalase activity (PPterocarpus soyauxii Taub had very low toxicity in oral acute high dose administration and no toxicity in oral sub-chronic low dose administration and indicate that the plant could be considered safe for oral medication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of polyphenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of Tribulus pterocarpus on biological properties of blood platelets in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Morel, Agnieszka; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The antiplatelet and antioxidative activity of polyphenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of Tribulus pterocarpus in blood platelets stimulated by thrombin was studied. Thrombin as a strong physiological agonist induces the enzymatic peroxidation of endogenous arachidonic acid, the formation of different reactive oxygen species, including superoxide anion radicals ([Formula: see text](·)) and the platelet aggregation. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess if the polyphenolic fraction from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus may change the biological properties of blood platelets activated by thrombin. We used cytochrome c reduction method to test the ability of this fraction to change [Formula: see text](·) generation in platelets. Arachidonic acid metabolism was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and by the production of 8-epi-prostaglandin (8-EPI) F(2). Moreover, we determined the effects of the fraction on blood platelet aggregation induced by thrombin. We observed that the polyphenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus reduced [Formula: see text](·), 8-EPI and TBARS production in these cells. The ability of the fraction to decrease the [Formula: see text](·) generation in blood platelets supports the importance of free radicals in platelet functions, including aggregation process. This study may suggest that the tested plant fraction might be a good candidate for protecting blood platelets against changes of their biological functions, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of different cardiovascular disorders.

  4. Standardized production of Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. by plant tissue culture Produção padronizada de Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. por cultura de tecidos vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Victório

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exigencies as ethic plant raw material are part of the needs of modern phytotherapy. Micropropagation offers opportunities to obtain mass propagation of superior genotypes in short time. This study aimed to develop a protocol of direct and indirect organogenesis of Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. Nodal segments from plantlets obtained by in vitro germination were subcultured in modified Murashige and Skoog medium added with different plant growth regulators: IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, GA3 (3-giberelic acid and KIN (kinetin. The highest proliferation rate was obtained using the combinations: IBA, KIN + GA3 (3.5 mg L-1 and IBA + KIN (2.4 mg L-1. Rooting was intensified after 40 days, reaching 100% for all media with indole-3-butyric acid. Addition of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D provided the best results for production of friable calli. Acclimatization was 100% effective for plantlets cultured in control medium, with decrease in survival rate in grown plantlets from media added with growth regulators.Exigências como matérias-primas vegetais fidedignas fazem parte das necessidades da fitoterapia moderna. A propagação in vitro permite a obtenção em massa de genótipos superiores, em curto espaço de tempo. Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo de organogênese direta e indireta de Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. Segmentos nodais de plântulas obtidas por germinação in vitro foram introduzidos em meio Murashige e Skoog adicionado de diferentes reguladores de crescimento vegetal: AIA (ácido indol-3-acético, AIB (ácido indol-3-butírico, AG3 (ácido giberélico-3 e CIN (cinetina. A maior taxa de proliferação foi obtida utilizando as combinações: AIB, CIN + AG3 (3,5 mg L-1 e AIB + CIN (2,4 mg L-1. A rizogênese foi intensificada após 40 dias de cultivo, atingindo 100% para todos os meios contendo AIB. A adição de ácido 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético (2,4D proporcionou os melhores resultados para

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of Amomum subulatum Roxb against ethanol-induced liver damage

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    Parmar Mihir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Amomum subulatum Roxb (Zingiberaceae seeds was studied against 20 % ethanol (3.76 g/kg/days, p.o for 18 days induced liver damage in rats. Ethanol produced significant changes in various liver parameters such as functional (thiopentone-induced sleeping time and physical (increased liver weight and volume. It also increased the biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamate pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and decreased total protein along with changes in histological parameters (damage to hepatocytes. Treatment with methanolic extract of A. subulatum (100 and 300 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 18 days and silymarin significantly prevented the functional, physical, biochemical and histological changes induced by ethanol, indicating the recovery of hepatic cells. These results demonstrate that methanolic extract of A. subulatum seeds possessed the hepatoprotective activity.

  6. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  7. E,E-α-Farnesene rich essential oil of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Wilde flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2016-01-01

    Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Wilde (Fabaceae) commonly known as 'Ashoka' is a highly valued medicinal plant categorised 'vulnerable' by International Union for Conservation of Nature. The hydro-distilled essential oil from the flowers of S. asoca was investigated using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-eight compounds representing 95.8% of the total oil were identified. The major constituents of the essential oil were E,E-α-farnesene (41.2%), hexadecanoic acid (15.3%), methyl salicylate (9.5%) and Z-lanceol (6.6%). The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbon-type constituents.

  8. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

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    Acharyya Suman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to investigate the preliminary phytochemical studies and anthelmintic activities on the bark of Acacia suma (Roxb. Family- Fabaceae against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (5-25 mg/ml of each extract along with the reference samples (Piperazine citrate, Albendazole were subjected for anthelmintic activity study. The qualitative test revealed that the petroleum ether extracts contained only terpenoids but chloroform and hydroalcoholic (Methanol 70% v/v extracts exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins but amino acids and steroids were absent. All the extracts showed anthelmintic activity when compared with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract was comparable with reference drugs.

  9. Evaluation of Trapa bispinosa Roxb. starch as pharmaceutical binder in solid dosage form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akhilesh V Singh; Anudwipa Singh; Lila K Nath; Nihar R Pani

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate binding efficiency of Trapa bispinosa Roxb. starch (TBS) in diclofenac sodium tablets. Methods: Diclofenac sodium tablets were prepared using wet granulation method. The starch paste in different concentrations (5%-15% w/w) was evaluated for optimized binder concentration. Preformulation study of the drug with TBS and different excipients were also analyzed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isothermal stress testing (IST). Results: Preformulation study of the drug, water chestnut starch and different excipients showed no interaction or, drug degradation in FTIR and IST, respectively. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and dissolution studies, and all the parameters were found within the official specifications. Conclusions: The results reveal that this starch has potential to be used as binder at industrial scale in pharmaceutical solid dosage form development.

  10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of leaf extract of Kydia calycina Roxb.

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    Baburao Bhukya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of leaves of Kydia calycina Roxb. was screened for the analgesic (using hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and anti-inflammatory (using rat paw edema test activity at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. A significant (p < 0.0005 analgesic effect was observed with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg in both tests. The maximum anti-inflammatory response was produced at 3 hour with extract doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. These results suggest that the methanol extract of K. calycina has exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, which were comparable with standard drugs.

  11. Genetic divergence for growth and wood parameters in different clones of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumar A; Bhatt A; Ravichandran S; Pande PK; Dobhal S

    2012-01-01

    The wood analysis for different parameters was carried out in a clonal seed orchard of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.established during 1997 at Hoshiarpur,Punjab,India.Twelve clones with higher index value were subjected to Euclidean Cluster Analysis based on wood and growth parameters to group into seven clusters.Cluster Ⅰ and Ⅱ contained four and three clones,respectively,and remaining clusters had just one clone each.Clone originated from Barielly,Uttar Pradesh of cluster Ⅶ was found to be the most divergent clone.Cluster Ⅱ with three clones maintained greater inter-cluster distance with other clusters.The divergence analysis has confirmed that the clones planted in the clonal seed orchard are sufficiently divergent and seed harvested from the orchard would maintain high diversity.

  12. STUDIES ON DIURETIC AND LAXATIVE ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

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    Mondal Sumanta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The diuretic and laxative activity of aqueous extract of Acacia suma (Roxb. barks (Family: Fabaceae were studied in Wistar albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg, p.o. and agar-agar (300 mg/kg, p.o. were used as reference standards respectively for activity comparison. The aqueous extract (400 mg/kg has shown significant increase in the volume of urine, urinary concentration of Na+, K+ and Cl- ions. However 200mg/kg dose failed to do so. On the other hand the extract was found to produce significant laxative activity in dose dependant manner. Presence of different phytoconstituents in aqueous extract of Acacia suma may be responsible for the specific activities.

  13. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) by flavonoids isolated from Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb) (Simaroubaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Said, Ataa; Tundis, Rosa; Rashed, Khaled; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Hufner, Antje; Menichini, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    In our screening program for antihypertensive properties of plants, the leaves of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb), a plant used in Egyptian traditional medicine, were analysed. Chromatographic separation of A. excelsa MeOH extract yielded six flavonoids for the first time from this species, namely apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-arabinopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-beta-galactopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-alpha-arabinopyranoside and luteolin-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside. The in vitro hypotensive activities of the MeOH extract and the isolated compounds were elucidated. All the flavonoids tested exhibited ACE inhibitory activity, in particular the most active compound was kaempferol-3-O-beta-galactopyranoside with an IC(50) value of 260 microm.

  14. Pharmaceutical scope of a phytochemically unexplored medicinal plant, Sarcochlamys pulcherrima (Roxb. Gaud.: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afjal Hussain Mazumder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcochlamys pulcherrima (Roxb. Gaud. is widely used as traditional medicine and food by different tribes and communities of Assam in India and in neighboring countries. Recent studies conducted in our laboratory showed the broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of its crude extract and different solvent fractions and detected the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, saponin, and acidic compounds. This review gives a bird′s eye view of the traditional uses of S. pulcherrima as food and medicine based on the information gathered by personal interaction with the people of different places of Assam as well as the investigations made on its ethno-botanical claims, biological activities, and other aspects by various workers since years till date and highlight the prospects of future research.

  15. Antidiabetic activity of Adina cordifolia (Roxb) leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prashant Chaudhary; Bharat Goel; Ashoke Kumar Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) leaves (HAEACL) in alloxan induced diabetic rats at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. Methods:Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, s.c.) was used as the standard which produced a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. The blood glucose levels of experimental animals were determined at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after treatment with the plant extract by using glu-oxidase peroxidise reactive strips and glucometer. Results: Treatment with HAEACL at 500 mg/kg dose decreased the blood glucose level significantly. However, the lower doses (250 mg/kg) of HAEACL produced a little decrease in blood glucose level. It showed that there was a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose level in the alloxan induced diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Conclusions: The present study shows that HAEACL possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  16. Aphrodisiac activity of Butea frondosa Koen. ex Roxb. extract in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S; Sridhar, Y; Sam, S Kishore Gnana; Saravanan, M; Leonard, J Thomas; Anbalagan, N; Sridhar, S K

    2004-02-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac activity of Butea frondonsa Koen. ex Roxb (Papillionaceae) bark extract was investigated. The extract (400 mg/kg body wt./day) was administered orally by gavage for 28 days. Mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), mounting frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI) were the parameters observed before and during the sexual behavior study at day 0, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28. The extract reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI (p < 0.05). The extract also increased significantly MF, IF and EF (p < 0.05). These effects were observed in sexually active and inactive male rats.

  17. ANTICARIES AND α-AMYLASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF JASMINUM ARBORESCENS ROXB. (OLEACEAE LEAVES EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagath K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine anti caries and α-amylase inhibitory activity of leaf extract of Jasminum arborescens Roxb. (Oleaceae. Anti caries activity was determined by Agar well diffusion assay against seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans (Sm-01 to Sm-07 recovered from dental caries subjects. Enzyme inhibitory activity was tested against α-amylase by spectrophometric method using starch as substrate. The extract exhibited dose dependent inhibition against cariogenic isolates. Among seven isolates, isolate Sm-04 and Sm-06 were inhibited to higher and least extent respectively. The extract was found to cause inhibition of α-amylase activity in a dose dependent manner and its IC50 value was found to be 17.45 mg/ml. The inhibitory activity could be attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites. The plant may be a potential source for development of agents which are active against dental caries pathogens and for diabetes mellitus.

  18. Pharmaceutical scope of a phytochemically unexplored medicinal plant, Sarcochlamys pulcherrima (Roxb.) Gaud.: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Afjal Hussain; Das, Jayshree; Gogoi, Hemanta Kumar; Paul, Satya Bhusan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcochlamys pulcherrima (Roxb.) Gaud. is widely used as traditional medicine and food by different tribes and communities of Assam in India and in neighboring countries. Recent studies conducted in our laboratory showed the broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of its crude extract and different solvent fractions and detected the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, saponin, and acidic compounds. This review gives a bird's eye view of the traditional uses of S. pulcherrima as food and medicine based on the information gathered by personal interaction with the people of different places of Assam as well as the investigations made on its ethno-botanical claims, biological activities, and other aspects by various workers since years till date and highlight the prospects of future research. PMID:26009697

  19. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of fruit extracts of Calamus tenuis Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaki Uddin Ahmed; Seheli Sejuti Bithi; Md Minhazur Rahman Khan; Md Mofazzol Hossain; Suriya Sharmin; Satyajit Roy Rony

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the fruits of Calamus tenuis Roxb. Methods:The preliminary phytochemical group tests were done, which revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid and steroid. The dried fruit was extracted in soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant potential of each extract was evaluated using total phenol content, total flavonoid content, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and total antioxidant capacity determinations. Results:The extracts were found to possess moderate to high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid contents. In cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assay the extracts showed moderate reducing power which increases with concentration. Scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical was found to rise with concentration with lowest IC50 value for methanol extract, which was confirmed by total antioxidant activity test that shows highest (95 mg/g of extract) in ascorbic acid equivalent for methanol extract. In Brine shrimp lethality bioassay the methanol and petroleum ether extracts were found to be toxic to Brine shrimp nauplii, with LC50 of 25.53 µg/mL and 28.07 µg/mL respectively while the LC50 of the reference vincristine sulphate was 1.32 µg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract was found to be moderately cytotoxic showing LC50 of 47.79 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the fruits of Calamus tenuis Roxb possess antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. Moreover, phytochemical screening reveals the presence of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid and steroid, which may be responsible for the observed bioactivities.

  20. Effect of paper mill effluent on germination of green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) and growth behaviour of it's seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Luna; Mohanty, B K

    2005-06-01

    Effect of paper mill effluents on Phaseolus aureus Roxb was studied. The effluent significantly inhibited germination of root and shoot length. The bio-chemical injury does not appear spontaneously but with the increase in effluent treatment there is reduction in observed biochemical parameters (chlorophyll, protein, amino acid, nuclic acids and carbohydrate) which are negatively correlated. The shoots of the seedlings were found to be resistant; whereas roots of the seedlings were susceptible to paper mill effluent treatment.

  1. Activity of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) rhizome ethanol extract against MRSA, MRCNS, MSSA, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukandar, Elin Yulinah; Sunderam, Nethiyakalyani; Fidrianny, Irda

    2014-01-01

    Temu kunci (Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.)) has a number of benefits and one of these is antibacterial. The rhizome is said to have antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactocillus sp. and Candida albicans. The aim of the study is to test the antibacterial activity of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) rhizome ethanol extract on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was assayed by the microdilution method using Mueller Hinton Broth with sterilized 96 round-bottomed microwells to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as to determine the time-kill activity. The MIC of the extract was 16 ppm for both Bacillus subtilis and MRSA; 8 ppm for both MSSA and Salmonella typhi and 4 ppm for MRCNS. Ethanol extract of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria and was the most potent against MRCNS, with MIC 4 ppm. The killing profile test of the extract displayed bactericidal activity at 8-16 ppm against MRSA, MSSA, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi and bacteriostatic activity at 4 ppm towards MRCNS.

  2. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOID AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS OF LUFFA ECHINATA ROXB. FRUITS AND NYCTANTHUS ARBOR-TRISTIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Modi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain a systematic record of the relative antioxidant activity of flavonoid and phenolic contents of Luffa echinata Roxb fruit and Nyctanthus arbor-tristis leaves extracts.Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were determined by using gallic acid  and quercetin as standard, antioxidant properties were evaluated by the methods, namely the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC Assay and DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay.Results: Total phenolic content were found 76.34±0.44 and 45.53±0.65 mg/g, while flavonoid contents were found 65.98±0.83 and 34.92±0.76 mg/g in Luffa echinata Roxb and Nyctanthus arbor-tristis respectively. In the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, TEAC value were found 0.34 mmole/g and 0.28 mmole/g, while in Oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, ORAC value was found 253.7m moles TE #/ g and 221.6 m moles TE #/ g, where as DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay showed IC50 value 188±0.87 and 176±0.68 for Luffa echinata Roxb and Nyctanthus arbor-tristis extracts. Conclusion: The present studies suggest that both the plants have moderate to potent antioxidant activity.

  3. Efficient control of air pollution through plants, a cost-effective alternative: studies on Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, C S; Bamniya, B R; Kapoor, K

    2013-09-01

    Plants can be used as both passive biomonitors and biomitigators in urban and industrial environments to indicate the environmental quality and to ameliorate pollution level in a locality. Many studies reveal that plants are negatively affected by the ambient levels of air pollutants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of air pollution on comparative basis with reference to changes in photosynthetic pigments, plant height, leaves, as well as, biochemical parameters of plants of different sites around Udaipur city receiving varying levels of pollution load. The investigated tree species Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Family: Fabaceae) exhibited a reduction in various physiological and biochemical growth parameters that correspond with air pollution levels at different sites. The tree species growing in polluted and control areas were compared with respect to foliar dust load, leaf area, and chlorophyll and total carbohydrate and total protein concentration in the leaves. Our studies suggest that D. sissoo Roxb. can successfully be grown in an area for monitoring air pollution, where it is mild and droughts are common. It will prove as an ideal tree species to control pollution effectively beside acting as a shade tree and being a source of food for birds and animals. By plantation of D. sissoo Roxb., mitigative measure at the polluted sites to control generation of particulate matter and the air quality required can be ensured. Our results also confirm that industrial and vehicular air pollution level in Udaipur city is shifting beyond limits.

  4. EFEK EKSTRAK ETANOL RIMPANG TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb TERHADAP MEMORI SPASIAL TIKUS MODEL DEMENSIA YANG DIINDUKSI TRIMETHYLTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuroh Aspamufita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb is one of the plants containing curcumin. Curcumin has anti-amyloidogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity that can prevent dementia. The aim of the research was to know the effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb rhizome ethanol extract (CREE to spatial memory on dementia model rat induced by trimethyltin (TMT. This research use 30 rats, divided into 6 groups, each group consisted of 5 rats. All groupswere given trimethyltin intraperitoneal lyexcep tgroup I.Group I (healthy controls and group II (TMT /illness control were given a solution of 1% CMC-Na orally. Group III (drug control were given citicoline 200 mg/kgBW orally. Group IV, V, and VI were given CREE orally dose 50 mg/kgBW, 100 mg/kgBW, and 150 mg/kgBW respectively. Data of spatial memory were obtained by Morris water maze test consisted of acquisition trial, and a probe trial. Data from the test then statistically analyzed by one-way repeated measure ANOVA. Morris water maze test showed that there were significant differences (p0,05 between CREE dose100 mg/kgBW group anddrug control group.Based on the research results can be concluded that ethanol extract Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb rhizome at dose of 100 mg/kgBW can improve spatial memory on dementia model rat induced by trimethyltin.

  5. Effects of Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Air Temperature on CO2 Uptake of Pterocarpus macrocarpus in the Open Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sureeporn Kerdkankaew; Jesada Luangjame; Pojanie Khummongkol

    2005-01-01

    Since trees and plants can absorb CO2, forests are widely regarded as a carbon sink that may control the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. The CO2 uptake rate of plants is affected by the plant species and environmental conditions such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature, water and nutrient contents. PAR is the most immediate environmental control on photosynthesis while air temperature affects both photorespiration and dark respiration. In the natural condition, PAR and temperature play an important role in net CO2 uptake. The effects of PAR and air temperature on the CO2 uptake of Pterocarpus macrocarpus grown in a natural habitat were studied in the present work. Due to many uncontrollable factors, a simple rectangular hyperbola could not represent the measured data. The data were divided into groups of 2℃ intervals; CO2 uptake in each group may then be related to PAR by a rectangular hyperbola function. Using the obtained functions, the effect of PAR was removed from the original data. The PAR-independent CO2 uptake was then related to air temperature. Finally, the effects of PAR (I) and air temperature (Ta) on the CO2 uptake rate (A) were combined as:A= [(-0.0575 Ta2+ 2.6691 Ta-23.264)I/(-4.8794Ta2+227.13Ta-2456.9)+I](-0.00766Ta2+0.40666Ta-3.99924)

  6. Turning Waste into Value: Nanosized Natural Plant Materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir with Promising Antimicrobial Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sharoon; Tittikpina, Nassifatou Koko; Al-Marby, Adel; Alkhayer, Reem; Denezhkin, Polina; Witek, Karolina; Gbogbo, Koffi Apeti; Batawila, Komlan; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A; Kirsch, Gilbert; Chaimbault, Patrick; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Keck, Cornelia M; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Jacob, Claus

    2016-04-19

    Numerous plants are known to exhibit considerable biological activities in the fields of medicine and agriculture, yet access to their active ingredients is often complicated, cumbersome and expensive. As a consequence, many plants harbouring potential drugs or green phyto-protectants go largely unnoticed, especially in poorer countries which, at the same time, are in desperate need of antimicrobial agents. As in the case of plants such as the Jericho tomato, Solanum incanum, and the common African tree Pterocarpus erinaceus, nanosizing of original plant materials may provide an interesting alternative to extensive extraction and isolation procedures. Indeed, it is straightforward to obtain considerable amounts of such common, often weed-like plants, and to mill the dried material to more or less uniform particles of microscopic and nanoscopic size. These particles exhibit activity against Steinernema feltiae or Escherichia coli, which is comparable to the ones seen for processed extracts of the same, respective plants. As S. feltiae is used as a model nematode indicative of possible phyto-protective uses in the agricultural arena, these findings also showcase the potential of nanosizing of crude "waste" plant materials for specific practical applications, especially-but not exclusively-in developing countries lacking a more sophisticated industrial infrastructure.

  7. Turning Waste into Value: Nanosized Natural Plant Materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir with Promising Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharoon Griffin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous plants are known to exhibit considerable biological activities in the fields of medicine and agriculture, yet access to their active ingredients is often complicated, cumbersome and expensive. As a consequence, many plants harbouring potential drugs or green phyto-protectants go largely unnoticed, especially in poorer countries which, at the same time, are in desperate need of antimicrobial agents. As in the case of plants such as the Jericho tomato, Solanum incanum, and the common African tree Pterocarpus erinaceus, nanosizing of original plant materials may provide an interesting alternative to extensive extraction and isolation procedures. Indeed, it is straightforward to obtain considerable amounts of such common, often weed-like plants, and to mill the dried material to more or less uniform particles of microscopic and nanoscopic size. These particles exhibit activity against Steinernema feltiae or Escherichia coli, which is comparable to the ones seen for processed extracts of the same, respective plants. As S. feltiae is used as a model nematode indicative of possible phyto-protective uses in the agricultural arena, these findings also showcase the potential of nanosizing of crude “waste” plant materials for specific practical applications, especially—but not exclusively—in developing countries lacking a more sophisticated industrial infrastructure.

  8. Larvicidal efficacy of seed oils of Pterocarpus santalinoides and tropical Manihot species against Aedes aegypti and effects on aquatic fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, M A; Popoola, S A; Agbaje, W B; Adewale, B; Adeoye, M D; Jimoh, W A

    2009-10-01

    Botanical larvicides have featured prominently as alternative to synthetic chemical insecticides which are less degradable and toxic to non-target organisms. The larvicidal potentials of the seed oils of Pterocarpus santalinoides and Tropical Manihot species (TMS 30572) were investigated in the laboratory against larvae of Aedes aegypti. The seed oil of each plant was extracted using n-hexane and was graded into different concentrations; 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm. The toxicity of each of the concentrations was evaluated against 3rd instar larvae of A. aegypti and tadpoles (Buffo spp) as non target aquatic fauna. Both oils were toxic to the larvae though at higher concentrations (120 ppm and 150 ppm) after 24 hours of exposure. The oil of P. santalinoides was more toxic to the larvae (LC50 104.0 ppm and LC90 184.5 ppm) than oil of TMS (LC50 113.5 and LC90 201.2) but the difference in the lethal doses was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, mortality was not recorded at any of the graded concentrations in both oils against tadpoles. The results therefore suggest that the seed oils of both plants could be incorporated as botanical insecticides against mosquito vectors with high safety to non-target organisms.

  9. Genetic diversity and gene flow in a Caribbean tree Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq.: a study based on chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, F; Voccia, M; Bâ, A; Bouvet, J-M

    2009-03-01

    We analysed the molecular diversity of Pterocarpus officinalis, a tree species distributed in Caribbean islands, South and Central America to quantify the genetic variation within island, to assess the pattern of differentiation and infer levels of gene flow; with the overall goal of defining a strategy of conservation. Two hundred two individuals of 9 populations were analysed using three chloroplast and six nuclear microsatellite markers. The observed heterozygosity varied markedly among the populations for nuclear (H(Onuc )= 0.20-0.50) and chloroplast microsatellites (H (cp )= 0.22-0.68). The continental population from French Guyana showed a higher value of H(Onuc) than island populations, and the differences were significant in some cases. The fixation index F (IS) ranged from -0.043 to 0.368; a significant heterozygote deficit was detected in 7 populations. The heterozygosity excess method suggested that two populations in Guadeloupe have undergone a recent bottleneck. Global and pairwise F (ST) were high for both nuclear (F(STnuc )= 0.29) and chloroplast microsatellites (F(STcp )= 0.58). The neighbour-joining tree based on both markers, presented a differentiation pattern that can be explained by the seed dispersal by flotation and marine stream. The comparison of Bayesian approach and the method based on allelic frequency demonstrate a very limited number of migrants between populations.

  10. The Design of Decorticator for Sapium sebiferum Roxb.Seed%乌桕籽剥壳机械设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志斌; 张风; 王凯; 李晖; 杨柳; 徐向阳

    2011-01-01

    The sapium sebiferum Roxb.is a rare oil crop,the seeds can be extracted simultaneously two oil-sapium fat and kernel oil.Sapium sebiferum Roxb.seeds remain black kernel after dewaxing operating,which process is very important for raw material of kernel oil.The decorticator of Sapium sebiferum Roxb.seed is made up of hopper,feeding regulator,rollers of adjuster,motor,drive mechanism,blower and twin-roll.Through analyzing the twin-roll working area,decortication process and the particle size of Sapium sebiferum Roxb.seed,the width of twin-roll will be regulated.Sapium sebiferum Roxb.seed fell into workspace of decortication by gravity.After rolling and decorticating with rollers,blower will separate of seed kernel from seed.The authors put forward production capacity and technical parameter of the decorticator,which can supply the industry needs and after processing requirements.%乌桕是1种难得油料作物,可同时提取两种油脂—皮油和梓油。乌桕籽通过脱蜡后剩下黑色籽粒,通过剥壳,将仁、壳分离,桕仁是制取梓油的重要原料。乌桕剥壳机主要由机架、料斗、进料量调节器、辊调节机构、电动机、传动机构、风机及双辊等组成。通过对乌桕籽进入双辊工作区的条件,脱壳过程的分析,根据乌桕籽的粒度实现双辊间距的可调节,乌桕籽依靠重力进入剥壳工作区域,对辊进行碾搓剥壳后,利用风机风选将壳、仁分离。笔者提出的乌桕籽剥壳机的生产能力和技术参数,可以满足生产实际及后续加工的要求。

  11. The infestation by an exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae of Angsana trees (Pterocarpus indicus Willd. in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bumrungsri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. was collected from infested Pterocarpus indicus Willd. trees in Prince of Songkla University. Larvae and eggs were found in simple galleries with a single branch. Either a single male or a male and a female were found in each gallery. Half of these infested trees were previously attacked by long-horned beetles probably Aristobia horridula (Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, while some of them appeared to be healthy. Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.:Fr. was isolated from frass, sapwood samples and insect larvae, and might be a cause of death of P.indicus.

  12. Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb Sebagai Pewarna Alam Kain Batik Sutera, Katun, dan Rayon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Sofyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gambier (Uncaria gambir Roxb. is one of main commodities in West Sumatra Province where most of the products are exported in raw gambier form. Many benefits that can be derived from gambier, but there is no diversify of this product. The research was aimed to use gambier as natural dyes in batik fabric and to see the quality of the batik that had been dyed. The study was conducted by varying the type of fabric (silk, cotton, and rayon and the type of mordant or color fixer namely lime (CaO, alum (Al2(SO43, and ferous salt (FeSO4. The fabrics which had been dyed were tested color direction, color fastness of washing, light, rubbing, moreover acid and alkaline perspiration. The results showed that the color direction was brownish with different color darkness depending on the type of mordant used. The results of testing on color fastness were good to excellent averagely. In term of the type of fabric, from the three types of fabric used, silk gave the best result in terms of color fastness of washing and perspiration of acid and alkaline with average test results was good to excellent (scale 4-5. The use of different types of mordant had not given significant effect on testing of color fastness to light and rubbing. ABSTRAKGambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb. merupakan salah satu komoditi unggulan Provinsi Sumatera Barat dimana hampir sebagian besar produknya diekspor dalam bentuk gambir mentah. Sangat banyak manfaat yang dapat diperoleh dari gambir, namun belum ada hilirisasi produk ini di dalam negeri. Tujuan penelitian adalah menggunakan gambir sebagai pewarna alam pada kain batik dan melihat kualitas kain batik yang telah diwarnai. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memvariasikan jenis kain (sutera, katun, dan rayon dan jenis mordan atau pembangkit warna yaitu kapur (CaO, tawas (Al2(SO43, dan tunjung (FeSO4. Kain yang telah diwarnai dilakukan pengujian arah/beda warna, ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian, sinar, gosokan, dan keringat asam dan basa

  13. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantoro, Markus; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin, Sujito, Hidayat, Arif

    2016-03-01

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C6-C3-C6 carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  14. Aktivitas Enzim Peroksidase dan Kadar Klorofil pada Daun Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus sebagai Peneduh Jalan yang terpapar Timbal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjar Astuti Ferdhiani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of emissions in the air that’s harmful to human  health is lead ( Pb . The negative effects caused  by lead  and then required solutions for reducing the metal, its called phytoremediation. The Plant which acts as an agent of phytoremediation is Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.. Research to find out the lead content in Angsana’s leaf at four locations, knowing the influence of exposure to lead against the activity of an enzyme peroxydases and chlorophyll content in the Angsana’s leaf. The location for collection of samples conducted in four  location at Purwokerto (1 H.R Bunyamin, (2 Ovis Isdiman, (3 Gerilya, and (4 Dr. Soeharso. A method of the sample used purposive sampling.  Sample were analysed  using wet digestion method, then were analysed using Atomic Absorbance Spectrofotometer (AAS. The activity of peroxydases and levels of chlorophyll were analysed using spectrophotometer Uv Vis. Result showed that the lead content in Angsana’s leaf  is  0,1 – 0, 25 mg/L, the activity of peroxidases is  600- 1250 unit/g  and  chlorophyll content  is 9,0- 21,0 mg/L. The conclusion was no relations about chlorophyll content with levels of  lead content and the relations about activity of enzymes peroxydases and lead content is low . Content of  lead on Angsana’s leaf of  research has been done do not reach 1000 mg/L.

  15. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diantoro, Markus, E-mail: markus.diantoro.fmipa@um.ac.id; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin,; Sujito,; Hidayat, Arif [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang 5 Malang 65145 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C{sub 6}-C{sub 3}-C{sub 6} carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Topical Formulations of Pterocarpus Santalinus Powder in Rat Model of Chronic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhande, Priti Pravin; Gupta, Amit O; Jain, Sourav; Dawane, Jayshree Shriram

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of arthritis is quite high and there is a need for the search of natural products to halt the progression of disease or provide symptomatic relief without significant adverse effects. This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of topical Pterocarpus santalinus in an animal model of chronic inflammation. Albino rats of either sex were divided into five groups of six rats each (Group I - Control, Group II -Gel base, Group III -P. santalinus paste, Group IV -P. santalinus gel, Group V- Diclofenac gel). Chronic inflammation was induced on day 0 by injecting 0.1 ml Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in sub-plantar tissue of left hind paw of the rats. Topical treatment was started from day 12 till day 28. Body weight and paw volume (Plethysmometer) were assessed on day 0, 12 and 28. Pain assessment was done using Randall and Selitto paw withdrawal method. Data was analysed using GraphPad Prism version 5. Unpaired students t-test and ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used for comparison among groups. Only topical P.santalinus gel significantly reduced the body weight (p=0.02) due to reduction in inflammatory oedema of the left limb. P. santalinus gel also showed significant reduction (p=0.03) in paw volume of rats compared to the other groups. There was significant reduction in pain threshold (gm/sec) due to chronic inflammation, with all the study drugs (p<0.05) but with P. santalinus gel, this reduction was less (p<0.001). Gel showed significant anti-inflammatory and mild analgesic activity on topical application in rat model of chronic inflammation.

  17. Stability studies of antiandrogenic compounds in Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphrom, Nungruthai; Srivilai, Jukkarin; Pumthong, Ganniga; Khorana, Nantaka; Waranuch, Neti; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2014-09-01

    Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extract is a 5α-reductase antagonist that can be used to treat hair loss. We aimed to study the stability of antiandrogenic constituents, germacrone and other sesquiterpene components in the extract. Germacrone and the extract were analyzed as solid forms or solublized with polyethylene glycol-40 (PEG-40) or methanol using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. The effects of pH, temperature and light on their stability were studied. Degradation of antiandrogenic compounds in C. aeruginosa was highly sensitive to temperature especially pure anhydrous germacrone, which was completely lost within 3 days at 45°C. Curiously, degradation was slower than as a dried extract. Paradoxically, when solubilized with PEG-40, it was largely intact even after 90 days at 45°C. The MS spectrum of a major degradation product suggested that it was elemenone probably produced by Cope rearrangement. Two other putative degradation products were germacrone-1,10-epoxide and germacrone-4,5-epoxide suggesting that oxidation of double bonds was an important mechanism. Germacrone stability was unaffected by pH (2.0-9.0) but only as dried extract it was slightly degraded by light. Antiandrogenic constituents of C. aeruginosa were instable at high temperature and in solid form. Thus, the extract would be optimately stored as a solution or otherwise as solid form at low temperature. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Investigation on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Randia spinosa (Thunb. Poir. and Dillenia pentagyna Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irulandi Kokkaiah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of Randia spinosa (Thunb. Poir. and Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. leaf extracts against human pathogens such as Gram positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Staphyllococcus aureus, Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a fungus Candida albicans. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the two plants against the human pathogens was investigated by agar well diffusion method, and qualitative phytochemical screening was conducted for the presence of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, catechins, coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Results: The qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of diverse range of compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. The plants exhibited broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against all the tested bacterial and fungal pathogens. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed in methanol extracts when compared with acetone and ethyl acetate extracts. The present study demonstrated that the selected plants had promising effect on the bacterial and fungal pathogens. Conclusions: The phytochemicals in the plants may be potentially responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of these medicinal plants.

  19. Genotype × environmental interactions for analyzing adaptability and stability in different clones of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Kumar; A.Bhatt; S.Ravichandran; V.Kumar; S.Dobhal

    2012-01-01

    In total 36 superior clones of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.,screened from 300 selections conducted in natural and growing range of India and Nepal,were multiplied using single nodal cuttings and established to evaluate genotype×environmental interactions for adaptability and stability at the age of 30 months in three geographical locations in the state of Punjab,India.Clone 124 had maximum adaptability and stability (bi =1.04) to perform exceedingly well over the locations.Clones 36 and 1 were stable with mean regression coefficient of 0.84 and 1.22,respectively.Nonetheless,clone 41 performed exceedingly well for all the characters to attain maximum population mean,and the performance varied substantially across the locations.Therefore,clone 41 was eonsidered as productive but non-adaptive clone.Though some of the clones were sensitive to sites,14 clones for height,16 for collar diameter,12 for DBH and 7 for volume were relatively un-sensitive with higher regression coefficient.Nonetheless,clone 124 was the most stable with average bi value of 1.04 and productive,which could play an important role in future breeding and commercial deployment of stable and productive planting stock of Dalbergia sissoo.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN POTENSI EKSTRAK DAUN PANDAN (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb SEBAGAI AGEN ANTIBAKTERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mardiyaningsih

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pandanus amayllifolius Roxb which commonly used as a flavoring and food coloring was potentially have antibacterial activity. It should be an effort to develop a safe natural preservatives to reduce cases of food poisoning (foodborne disease which mainly caused by bacterial pathogens. This study aims to determine the antibacterial potency of the water extract, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and a mixture of ethanol-ethyl acetate (1:1 v/v extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli based on the value of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and MBC (Minimum Batericidal Activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method by making the extract concentration of 25 and 50 %, as well as the loading dose tested was 2.5 mg and 5 mg/disc. MIC and MBC was evaluated by solid dilution method. The results showed that the ethanol extract and water extract don’t have antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, whereas the ethyl acetate extract and a mixture of ethanol-ethyl acetate (1:1 v/v have an antibacterial activity. Ethyl acetate extract showed the highest inhibitory potency. The MIC and MBC was 186 Pharmaҫiana, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2014: 185-192 obtained at a level of 1.1% w/v and 6.7% w/v against Staphylococcus aureus, and 0.5% w/v and 4.5% w/v against Escherichia coli.

  1. Identification and antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Luffa acutangula Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi Mustarichie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of Luffa acutangula Roxb. (angled luffa has been assayed against some pathogenic bacterial. Fruit powder of angled luffa was macerated with methanol, and the methanol extract extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by well diffusion method. Extract with the highest antibacterial activity was identified regarding their class of compounds using phytochemical screening and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC method. The antibacterial activity of the extract was compared with that of the ampicillin used. The methanol extract inhibited the growth of the P. aeruginosa, E. Coli, B. Subtilis and S.aureus, but did not inhibit the growth of the E. Aerogenes, S. dysentriae and S. thypi. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, E. Coli, B. Subtilis and S. aureus, followed by chloroform, buthanol, and hexane extract, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract possed phenolic, condensed tannin, flavonoids, saponins and terpenoids. Based on the MIC and the equivalent value of ethyl acetate extract compared with that ampicillin used, the antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract was lower than with that of the ampicillin used.

  2. THE EFFECT OF FUMIGATION TREATMENT TOWARDS AGAVE CANTALA ROXB FIBRE STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSA BONDARIS PALUNGAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to reveal the morphology, physical properties and strength of the king pineapple leaf fibre (Agave Cantala Roxb after fumigation treatment. The king pineapple leaf fibres (KPLF before and after the fumigation treatment are then separated into groups. The fumigation treatment on KPLF is given in different durations, and the smoke comes from burning coconut shells. Before and after fumigation, the surface morphology, chemical content, and functional group character of KPLF were observed by SEM, XRD, and FTIR, respectively. While the physical characteristics were identified by measuring fibre density, moisture content and fibre strength were tested by a single fibre tensile strength test. The results show that chemical contents of KPLF were cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, accounting for as much as 55.8%, 21.27%, and 7.66%, respectively. After fumigation, the KPLF surface morphology becomes rough and grooved, the fibre density increased, and the single fibre tensile strength increased notably at the base of the king pineapple leaf. With the tensile strength increase and a rough and grooved KPLF surface morphology due to fumigation, fumigated KPLF would have the potential to be used as a strengthened composite.

  3. Cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb extract against isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ansarullah; Karn, Sanjay S; Shah, Jigar D; Patel, Dipak K; Salunke, Sunita P; Padate, Geeta S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigates cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb (SR) extract on heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and membrane bound ATPases against isoproterenol (IP) induced myocardial necrosis (MN) in rats. Rats treated with IP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) recorded significant (p<0.05) increment in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activity levels of Ca(+2) ATPase whereas there was significant (p<0.05) decrease in plasma HDL, cardiac endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Mg(+2) ATPase. Pre-treatment with SR extract (400 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 30 consecutive days followed by IP injections on days 29th and 30th, showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, cardiac lipid peroxidation, Ca(+2) ATPase and significant increase in plasma HDL, cardiac endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Mg(+2) ATPase compared to IP treated group. Hence, this study is the first scientific report on cardioprotective effect of SR against IP induced MN in rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb leaf extract ameliorates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2010-10-28

    Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) known as "Mahabala" in Ayurveda and marketed as "Shahadeyi" is used in ethnomedicine to treat ailments such as dysuria and urinary disorders. To evaluate nephroprotective potential of SR against gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats with GM (100 mg/kg bodyweight (i.p.) for 8 days) and were treated with SR extract (200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight (p.o.) for 8 days) or 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (vehicle). Plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with lipid peroxidation were evaluated in various experimental groups. GM treatment induced significant elevation (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea, creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant decrement (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR treatment to GM treated rats (GM+SR) recorded significant decrement (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant increment (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR leaf extract ameliorates GM induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction and thus validates its ethnomedicinal use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimasi Formula Mikroenkapsulasi Ekstrak Rimpang Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. dengan Penyalut Berbasis Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Nugraheni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. is a native plant of Indonesia which has been proved  as anti-inflamation, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, hepatoprotective and antihyperlipidemic agent. The bitter taste with pungent aroma of java turmeric, improper storage that decreasing essential oil and curcuminoid level can be prevented  by coating java turmeric as microcapsule. Recently, many microcapsule formulation is made based on organic solvent which have high risk on toxicity and also flammable. The study aimed to produce  microcapsule using water based coating material from mixture of tapioca starch and carboxymethylceIlulose (CMC. There are 3 formulas of coating material that were used in this study, with proportion (w/v of tapioca starch and CMC in formula I (3% : 1 %, formula II  (2% : 2 %, and formula III (1% : 3%. The results showed that microcapsule with coating material made from formula III was the best, regarding to the measurements of physical parameter (recovery, water content, absorption efficiency, flow rate and particle size and chemical parameter (curcumin content compared to formula I and II. The higher CMC concentration on coating material compotition, the better microcapsule will be produced.

  6. A modified Murashige and Skoog media for efficient multipleshoot induction in G. arborea Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shilpa S. Madke; Konglanth J. Cherian; Rupesh S. Badere

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of various micropropagation factors of Gmelina arborea Roxb. through multiple shoot induction. Factors like the source and age of explants, plant growth regulators (PGRs), media composition, and carbon source affected multiple shoot-ing in the present study. Among all the explants used, only shoot tips derived from one, two, and three week old seedlings could form multiple shoots. Besides, the formation of multiple shoots depended on the con-centration and combination of PGRs. Among all the PGRs, BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) alone gave the highest regeneration efficiency. Simi-larly, IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid) was the most efficient PGR in inducing root formation in the microshoots. Media composition and carbon source also affected the regeneration efficiency. MS (Murashige and Skoog medium) proved to be the best media for regeneration followed by B5, SH (Schenk and Hilderbrandt medium) and WPM (Woody plant medium) in that order. Similarly, among sugars, only sucrose and glucose sup-ported induction of microshoots. Based on this study we recommend the use of glucose in place of sucrose in MS medium for maximum regenera-tion efficiency.

  7. Bone sparing effect of a novel phytoestrogen diarylheptanoid from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in ovariectomized rats.

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    Duangrat Tantikanlayaporn

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens have been implicated in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recently, an active phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa Roxb, diarylheptanoid (DPHD, (3R-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, was found to strongly promote human osteoblast function in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated the protective effect of DPHD on ovariectomy-induced bone loss (OVX in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats with 17β-estradiol (E2, 10 µg/kg Bw as a positive control. Treatment of OVX animals with DPHD at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg Bw for 12 weeks markedly increased bone mineral density (BMD of tibial metaphysis as measured by peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT. Histomorphometric analysis of bone structure indicated that DPHD treatment retarded the ovariectomy-induced deterioration of bone microstructure. Ovariectomy resulted in a marked decrease in trabecular bone volume, number and thickness and these changes were inhibited by DPHD treatment, similar to that seen with E2. Moreover, DPHD decreased markers of bone turnover, including osteocalcin and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity. These results suggest that DPHD has a bone sparing effect in ovariectomy-induced trabecular bone loss and prevents deterioration of bone microarchitecture by suppressing the rate of bone turnover. Therefore, DPHD appears to be a promising candidate for preserving bone mass and structure in the estrogen deficient women with a potential role in reducing postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  8. MOLECULAR TOOL FOR SEX IDENTIFICATION (FEMALE IN MOMORDICA DIOICA ROXB WITH REFERENCE TO MEDICINAL VALUES

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    Baratakke R.C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. is an important vegetable with high food value and sex specific versatile medicinal value. Momordica dioica, a perennial, rhizomatous, distinctly dioecious climber belongs to family cucurbitaceae. As there are no distinguished morphological markers to identify sex, an easy, rapid and reliable molecular method for female plant identification at pre-flowering stage in Momordica dioica is reported in this paper. Molecular tool like Random amplification of polymorphic DNA was used to identify female plants before pre-flowering stage. A total of 50 random decamer primers were used for screening of specific Random amplification of polymorphic DNA markers in male and female populations. Only one primer OPA-15 amplified genomic DNA in different patterns in male and female genotypes. This sex specific band OPA-15900 was identified only in female lines but not in male lines. This marker may be efficiently used as effective, convenient and reliable molecular markers for female identification in Momordica dioica at pre-flowering stages so that it can be cultivated and utilized for its medicinal purpose.

  9. Estrogenic activity of diarylheptanoids from Curcuma comosa Roxb. Requires metabolic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Chuncharunee, Aporn; Ponglikitmongkol, Mathurose; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2009-02-11

    Curcuma comosa Roxb. has traditionally been used as a dietary supplement for health promotion in peri- and postmenopausal women in Thailand. We investigated the estrogenic activity of 7 naturally occurring diarylheptanoids from the extracts of C. comosa both in vitro and in vivo. A yeast recombinant system containing human estrogen receptor alpha, coactivator TIF2 and a beta-galactosidase reporter gene was used to determine estrogenic activity of diarylheptanoids metabolically activated with rat liver S9-fraction prior to the assay. The most potent compound was (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, with a relative potency of 4% compared to 17beta-estradiol. The metabolic activation of diarylheptanoids markedly enhanced their efficiency. The chemical structure required for estrogenic activity of diarylheptanoids was the presence of a keto group at C3 and absence of hydroxyl moiety in ring B. Only diarylheptanoids showing full estrogenic efficiency in vitro were able to elicit uterotrophic activity of in immature ovariectomized rat. This is the first evidence for in vivo estrogenic activity of diarylheptanoids from C. comosa. This novel class of natural phytoestrogens has the potential to be developed for use as dietary supplement in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.

  10. Physico-chemical and structural characterization of mucilage isolated from seeds of Diospyros melonoxylon Roxb.

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    Sudarshan Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucilage was isolated from the seeds of Diospyros melonoxylonRoxb., a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. Various physico-chemical methods like particle analysis, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry analysis, molecular weight by gel permeation chromatography, rheometry, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1D(1H and 13C (NMR have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle analyses suggest that mucilage had particle size in nanometer. SEM analysis suggested that the mucilage had irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum observed was 78 °C and 74 °C by DSC and DTA respectively. The Thermogravimetry analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability with two stage decomposition. The molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 8760, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The XRD pattern of the mucilage indicated a complete amorphous nature. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed specific contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm-1 (-OH, 1632 cm-1 (-COO-, 1414 cm-1 (-COO- and 1219 cm-1 (-CH3CO. Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR indicated the presence of sugars.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Morinda tinctoria Roxb. Leaf Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K Deepti; PUmadevi; GVijayalakshmi; BVinod polarao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present work is to evaluate the presence of Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of different extracts of leaves of Morinda tinctoria Roxb. Methods: The serial exhaustive extraction was done with a series of solvents: Hexane, Chloroform, Ethylacetate and Methanol with increasing polarity using soxhlet apparatus. The Phytochemical analysis was done by using the standard procedures. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by Agar well diffusion method against nine human pathogens. Results: The results revealed that the leaf extracts contain a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites: Alkaloids, Phytosterols, Flavonoids, Phenols and Triterpenes in major proportion. Methanol extract was shown to be more effective against all the organisms followed by Ethylacetate, Chloroform and Hexane extracts. Proteus vulgaris (24mm) was found to be most sensitive organism followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (21mm) and Enterococcus feacelis (21mm). Conclusions: The present study concludes that the different extracts of M. tinctoria leaves contain a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites and also exhibit antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. It can also be concluded that Morinda tinctoria plant can be exploited to discover the bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals.

  12. In Vitro Goat Fermentation of PUFA-Diet Supplemented with Yeast and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb

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    E. Sulistyowati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the ruminal performances of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-diet (containing PUFA with 80% concentrate and 20% King grass supplemented with yeast and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. Experimental design was completely randomized block design of 4 x 4 with ruminal liquor derived from 4 slaughtered goats and 4 treatments (PD0-no supplement, PDY- 0.5% yeast, PDC-2% curcuma, and PDM- 0.5% yeast + 2% curcuma. Variables measured were pH, N-NH3, total and partial VFA (volatile fatty acid, protozoa population, and CH4 (methane. Results showed that the lowest (P<0.05 organic (59.63% and dry matter (58.00% digestibilities were found in PDM. In in vitro, this diet was also showing quantitatively low in N-NH3 (8.73 mM and protozoa population (7.90±4.09 103 cfu/mL. On the other hand, it showed numerically high in VFA production (45.27 mM and pH (6.74, yet low in CH4 (13.43% v/v. Based on these data, PDM was considered the most potential diet to improve nutrient metabolism in rumen of goat, in vitro.

  13. Growth and mitochondrial respiration of mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) germinated at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Gerth, W. A.; Scheld, H. W.; Strain, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) seedlings were grown hypobarically to assess the effects of low pressure (21-24 kilopascals) on growth and mitochondrial respiration. Control seedlings grown at ambient pressure (101 kilopascals) were provided amounts of O2 equivalent to those provided experimental seedlings at reduced pressure to factor out responses to O2 concentration and to total pressure. Respiration was assayed using washed mitochondria, and was found to respond only to O2 concentration. Regardless of total pressure, seedlings grown at 2 millimoles O2 per liter had higher state 3 respiration rates and decreased percentages of alternative respiration compared to ambient (8.4 millimoles O2 per liter) controls. In contrast, seedling growth responded to total pressure but not to O2 concentration. Seedlings were significantly larger when grown under low pressure. While low O2 (2 millimoles O2 per liter) diminished growth at ambient pressure, growth at low pressure in the same oxygen concentration was enhanced. Respiratory development and growth of mungbean seedlings under low pressure is unimpaired whether oxygen or air is used as the chamber gas, and further, low pressure can improve growth under conditions of poor aeration.

  14. Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Contact Time Gambir Extract (Uncaria gambier Roxb Against Bacterial Growth Enterococcus faecalis

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    Hafsah Katu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis (E.Faecalis gram-positive bacteria commonly found in endodontic retreatment cases. Extract Gambir, a type of dried sap from the leaves and young stems of plants gambier (Uncaria gambier Roxb contains catechins, which are potent antibacterial and anti fungal with minimal side effects. This study aimed to determine the inhibitory concentrations and minimal contact time Gambir extract on the growth of the bacteria E. faecalis. Research applied a design with lab experiments, conducted on May 30-June 16, 2011 at the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy-Phytochemicals Faculty of Pharmacy and Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin. Materials and methods; 600 gr Gambir which has been crushed, extracted with reflux and rotary method. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration is determined with 5 ml of 5.25% NaOCl as a positive control and sterile distilled water negative control. Antibacterial activity is determined based on the time zone diameter hambat.Analisis contact and SPSS version 16.0 for windows with One-way ANOVA test and LSD on (p <0.05. Results indicated that Statistical analysis showed a 1% concentration and contact time of 24 hours, effectively inhibits the growth of bacteria E.faecalis. in conclusion, Gambir extract effectively inhibits the growth of bacteria E. faecalis.

  15. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant.

  16. Effects of Funnelliformis mosseae inoculation on alleviating atrazine damage in Canna indica L. var. flava Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Yang, Jixian; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Ting; Qi, Shanshan

    2017-01-02

    Atrazine residue in the environment continually damages plants and therefore requires immediate attention and effective development of methods for its decontamination. The effects of Funnelliformis mosseae inoculation on growth and physiology in atrazine-treated Canna indica L. var. flava Roxb. were investigated. At atrazine concentrations up to 15 mg L(-1), the growth of C. indica plants were negatively affected. Inoculation with F. mosseae alleviated the atrazine inhibition of plant growth and biomass. Furthermore, the chlorophyll content and root function increased under F. mosseae inoculation, and the oxidative stress of malondialdehyde, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities induced by atrazine were also alleviated by F. mosseae inoculation. The removal rate of atrazine by untreated C. indica was significant, with removal rates of 20.5-55.3% by the end of a 14-day experiment; however, F. mosseae inoculation increased the removal rate to 35.6-75.1%. In conclusion, F. mosseae inoculation can alleviate the damage induced by atrazine in C. indica. Accordingly, C. indica inoculated with F. mosseae has excellent potential to be used in phytoremediation in habitats polluted by high atrazine concentrations.

  17. Effects of extracts from Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd. DC. on iron bioavailability in rats

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    Chih-Chung Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd. DC. is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. This study investigates the effects of G. bicolor extracts with different polarities of 80 mg/kg body weight (BW G. bicolor alcohol extract, 80 mg/kg BW G. bicolor water extract, and 80 mg/kg BW G. bicolor ether extract on Fe bioavailability using the hemoglobin repletion efficiency assay. Wistar rats were assigned to five groups: a group receiving an iron-deficient (ID diet; a group receiving an ID diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (20 mg Fe/kg BW; and three groups receiving ID diets supplemented with ferrous sulfate and one of G. bicolor alcohol extract, G. bicolor water extract, or G. bicolor water extract. The results indicated that the levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, liver ferritin, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, relative biological value, and hepcidin all were significantly higher than those of the ID diet group. Besides, the iron transporter divalent metal transporter-1 was significantly reduced, but iron release protein expression of ferroportin was significantly increased. It was concluded that G. bicolor extracts may promote iron bioavailability and regulate the expressions of divalent metal transporter-1 and ferroportin.

  18. A mini review on chemistry and biology of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. Planch (Ulmaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Karunesh Kumar; Jyoti Gupta; Navita Bishnoi; Sunil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. (Indian Elm) is a very useful and popular traditional medicinal plant in India. During the last three decades, apart from the chemistry of plant compounds, considerable progress regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of Indian Elm has been achieved. Ethno-medically, the leaves and stem bark of this plant have been used by tribes as antiviral, antioxidant, antimicrobial, abortifacient preparations and in the management of cancer. Recent studies on plant show that it has potential to fight against tumor and obesity as well. Phytochemical investigation shows the presence of chemical constituents such as terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins and flavanoids. The isolated principles such as β-amyrin, β-sitosterol, holoptelin-A, holoptelin-B, hederagenin, hexacosanol, β-D-glucose, friedelin, epifriedelin, 2-amino naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthalenedione, are considered as responsible for various activities. This review highlights the traditional uses, reported biological/pharmacological activities, isolated compounds and therapeutic applications of Holoptelea integrifolia which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses.

  19. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Sreejith; N Kannappan; A Santhiagu; Ajith P Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential and anthelmintic activities of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb leaves. Methods: The dried powdered leaves of Flacourtia sepiaria were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by a soxhlet extractor and preliminary phytochemical screening was performed using standard protocols. All the extract was evaluated for their potential antioxidant activities using test such as DPPH, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities, ferrous chelating ability and total phenolic and flavanoid content. Anthelmintic activity of extract was screened in adult Indian earthworm model. Results: Preliminary screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tannins and terpenoids in all extracts. The phenolic and flavanoid content was highest in methanolic extract and lowest in petroleum ether extract. The paralytic (9.46±0.212) and death time (31.43±0.148) of methanolic extract was found to be significant (P Conclusions:The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents.

  20. An investigation of cellular distribution of manganese in hyperaccumlator plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. using SRXRF analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiang-hua; SHI Ji-yan; CHEN Ying-xu; XUE Sheng-guo; WU Bei; HUANG Yu-ying

    2006-01-01

    Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (P. acinosa) is a recently discovered manganese hyperaccumulator plant from southern China. It is a good candidate for phytoremediation of manganese(Mn) polluted soil for its high biomass and fast growth. Knowledge of the tissue localization and identification of heavy metals can provide essential information on metal toxicity and bioaccumulation mechanisms. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SRXRF) microprobe was used in this study to investigate the cellular distributions of Mn and other elements in root, stem, leaf, petiole and midrib ofP. acinosa. The highest Mn content was found in the vascular tissues of root, stem, petiole and midrib. Cortex in root played a key role in Mn absorption and Mn was limited in the vascular bundle during the process of transportation in stem. Moreover, Mn content in leaf epidermis was higher than that in mesophyll, which suggested that the sequestration of Mn in leaf epidermis might be one of the detoxification mechanisms of P.acinosa. The significance of other elemental (such as P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu) distribution patterns and the correlation with Mn were also discussed.

  1. Screening of Careya arborea Roxb for their anticonvulsant properties in experimental animals

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    Gulab S Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bark of Careya arborea Roxb are traditionally used in the ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Aims : The aim of the present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of C. arborea Linn. bark against experimental induced seizures. Settings and Design: Convulsion was induced by maximal electroshock seizures (MES, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ and PTZ-induced kindling model. Materials and Methods: Petroleum ether (PE, chloroform (CH, methanol (ME and aqueous (AQ extract of C. arborea bark at 150 and 300 mg/kg b.w. were administered in all models. Statistical Analysis: Mean values and standard error mean was determined for all models and data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnett′s test. Results and Conclusion: The ME and AQ extract of C. arborea bark at 300 mg/kg b.w. p.o. showed the most significant ( P < 0.01 anticonvulsant effect by decreasing the duration of hind limb extension (extensor phase, clonus and also the duration of stupor phase, as compared with control in MES and PTZ and the extracts also inhibited seizure score in PTZ-induced kindling model.

  2. δ18O and δ13C Analysis in Tree Rings of Pterocarpus angolensis Growing in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeran, K.; Schoof, J. T.; Lefticariu, L.; Therrell, M.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental weather records in southern Africa are largely limited to the last 100 years and documentary weather-related data are rare prior to the 1800s, hindering our understanding of the natural and/or anthropogenic factors that influence climate variability over this region. Measuring stable isotopes ratios (commonly 13C/12C and 18O/16O) in tree rings can provide a good proxy for extending climate data beyond the instrumental record. The objective of this study is to characterize historical variations in the climatology underlying extreme climatic events in Zimbabwe using instrumental climate records (precipitation and temperature) and a multi-proxy approach (ring width, δ18O, and δ13C) for dendroclimatic proxy reconstructions. A 90-year (1900-1990) δ18O and δ13C tree ring record using four Pterocarpus angolensis samples is being developed and compared to tree ring width, monthly, seasonal, and annual precipitation totals, meteoric water δ18O values, and mean monthly and seasonal temperature. Preliminary results indicate significant correlations between the average δ18O record and the previous year December precipitation totals (r=0.41, p<0.0001), current year January precipitation totals (r=0.45, p<0.0001), and combined total precipitation for the previous year November and December and current year January (r=0.57, p<0.0001). Furthermore, we find that the δ18O values are strongly influenced by maximum temperature during the previous year December (r=0.39, p=0.0001) and current year January (r=0.40, p=0.0001), and average maximum temperature during the months of the previous year December and current year January and February (r=0.47, p<0.001). We thus present one of the first studies to integrate a multi-proxy approach to investigate historical climate variability in southern Africa using ring widths, and tree ring δ18O and δ13C values of trees growing in Zimbabwe.

  3. Anti-androgenic effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. against letrozole induced polycystic ovary using rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamata Jadhav; Sasikumar Menon; Sunita Shailajan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-androgenic properties of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (S. racemosa) in the treatment of hyperandrogenemia associated polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a letrozole induced PCOS rat model. Methods: The testosterone levels were used to evaluate the anti-androgenic effect of S. racemosa in letrozole induced PCOS rats for 21 d. The low (250 mg/kg), mid (500 mg/kg) and high dose (1000 mg/kg) of S. racemosa was given to the PCOS induced rats for 15 d post letrozole induction to determine the effective dose of S. racemosa in the treatment of hyperandrogenemia associated PCOS. The hormones such as estrogen and progesterone were also assayed along with testosterone to determine the fluctuations in sex steroid levels in PCOS rats induced by letrozole. Results: S. racemosa treatment significantly decreased testosterone levels which were found to be elevated in PCOS rats induced by letrozole. S. racemosa significantly restored other blood biochemical parameters such as estrogen, progesterone and cholesterol levels. It also restored the histology of ovarian tissue. The ovarian weights and uterine weights were also significantly recovered after the S. racemosa treatment. Conclusions: The mid dose (500 mg/kg) and high dose (1000 mg/kg) of S. racemosa were found to be effective in the treatment of hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. This effect of S. racemosa was found to be comparable with clomiphene citrate. Clomiphene citrate which was being used as the major medicine in the treatment of PCOS could now be replaced with S. racemosa in the management of PCOS.

  4. Improvements of insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats by a novel phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasannarong Mujalin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcuma comosa Roxb. (C. comosa is an indigenous medicinal herb that has been used in Thailand as a dietary supplement to relieve postmenopausal symptoms. Recently, a novel phytoestrogen, (3R-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E-4,6-heptadien-3-ol or compound 049, has been isolated and no study thus far has investigated the role of C. comosa in preventing metabolic alterations occurring in estrogen-deprived state. The present study investigated the long-term effects (12 weeks of C. comosa hexane extract and compound 049 on insulin resistance in prolonged estrogen-deprived rats. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX and treated with C. comosa hexane extract (125 mg, 250 mg, or 500 mg/kg body weight (BW and compound 049 (50 mg/kg BW intraperitoneally three times per week for 12 weeks. Body weight, food intake, visceral fat weight, uterine weight, serum lipid profile, glucose tolerance, insulin action on skeletal muscle glucose transport activity, and GLUT-4 protein expression were determined. Results Prolonged ovariectomy resulted in dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transport, as compared to SHAM. Treatment with C. comosa hexane extract and compound 049, three times per week for 12 weeks, markedly reduced serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, improved insulin sensitivity and partially restored uterine weights in ovariectomized rats. In addition, compound 049 or high doses of C. comosa hexane extract enhanced insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and increased muscle GLUT-4 protein levels. Conclusions Treatment with C. comosa and its diarylheptanoid derivative improved glucose and lipid metabolism in estrogen-deprived rats, supporting the traditional use of this natural phytoestrogen as a strategy for relieving insulin resistance and its related metabolic defects in postmenopausal women.

  5. Anticancer, antioxidant potential and profiling of polyphenolic compounds of Wrightia tinctoria Roxb. (R.Br. bark

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    Nishat Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wrightia tinctoria Roxb. (R.Br. is an Ayurvedic remedy, ethnomedically used in the treatment of various ailments. The present work was carried out to evaluate the anticancer and antioxidant activity as well as total phenolic and phytochemical contents of W. tinctoria bark methanolic extract (WTBM by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-diode array detector. Antiproliferative activity of WTBM was evaluated against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, colony formation, and Hoechst staining. In addition, the antioxidant potential was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and 2,2- azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Total phenolic content was assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results demonstrated that WTBM exhibited significant antiproliferative effect against MDA-MB-231 (IC 50 = 88.9 ± 1.27 μg/ml and MCF-7 (IC 50 = 45.71 ± 7.74 μg/ml cancer cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. WTBM significantly suppresses colony formation and induces apoptosis in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells as evident by morphological assessment, clonogenic assay, and Hoechst staining. The total phenolic content of WTBM was found to be 30.3 gallic acid equivalent mg/g dry weight of bark extract while IC 50 value for DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity was 72.2 ± 2.8 μg/ml and 45.16 ± 1.95 μg/ml, respectively. HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin in WTBM. These findings demonstrated that WTBM significantly inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells and induced apoptosis, suggesting the potential chemopreventive activity of W. tinctoria bark.

  6. Variability in seed traits and genetic divergence in a clonal seed orchard of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ombir singh; Altaf Hussain Soft

    2012-01-01

    The variations in seed and pod traits,genetic superiority and genetic divergence were evaluated for a Clonal Seed Orchard (CSO) of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.at Bithmera,India consisting of 20 clones from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh,Uttarakhand,Haryana and Rajasthan).The seeds and pods of various clones in the orchard exhibited significant variability in size,weight and other characters.Significant positive correlations were observed between seed length and seed width (p<0.05),seed length and seed thickness (p<0.01),seed length and seed weight (p<0.0l),seed thickness and seed weight (p<0.01),seed length and germination value (p<0.05).The genetic parameters for seed and pod traits also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard.Heritability values were found to be over 50 vpereent for most of the seed and pod traits.Seed weight,seed length and seed thickness showed high heritability values coupled with maximum genetic gain for these characters.Ward's minimum variance dendrogram of clones of D.sissoo showed three distinct clusters; cluster 1 was the largest with 12 better clones whereas cluster 2 and 3 consisting of seven moderate clones and one poor clone,respectively.Mean cluster values showed sufficient variation among the clusters for seed weight,germination value and seed length.The possible hybridization between best clones of cluster 1 to the disease resistant clone of cluster 2 (resistant against deadly Gandoderma lucidum root rot disease of D.sissoo) is also suggested for further breeding programmes of the species.The deployment of clone 194 (better performed and disease resistant) is also recommended in future plantation programmes of D.sissoo in northern India.

  7. In vitro Regeneration of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. and the Potential for Genetic Transformation

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    Hafiz Mamoon REHMAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC. (Sissoo is a native forest tree species in Pakistan. Many ecological and economical uses are associated with this premier timber species, but dieback disease is of major concern. The objective of this study was to develop a protocol for in vitro regeneration of Sissoo that could serve as target material for genetic transformation, in order to improve this species. Callus formation and plantlet regeneration was achieved by culturing cotyledons, immature seeds, and mature embryos on a modified Murashige and Skoog (1962 (MS medium supplemented with plant growth regulators. Callus induction medium containing 2.71 ?M 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 0.93 ?M kinetin produced better callus on all explants tested compared to other treatments, such as 8.88 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine (BA and 2.69 ?M ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, or 2.71 ?M 2, 4-D and 2.69 ?M NAA. Shoot regeneration was best on MS medium containing 1.4 ?M NAA and 8.88 ?M BA compared to other treatments, such as 1.4 ?M NAA and 9.9 ?M kinetin, or 2.86 ?M indole-3-acetic acid and 8.88 ?M BA. Murashige and Skoog medium containing 1.4 NAA ?M and 8.88 ?M BA was better in general for regeneration regardless of callus induction medium and the type of explant used. Rooting was best on half-strength MS medium with 7.35 ?M indole-3-butyric acid. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized for plantation in the field. Preliminary genetic transformation potential of D. sissoo was evaluated by particle bombardment of callus explants with a pUbiGus vector. The bombarded tissue showed transient Gus activity 1week after bombardment. Transformation of this woody tree is possible provided excellent regeneration protocols. The best combination for regeneration explained in this study is one of such protocols.

  8. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

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    O. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity studies on the stems and roots of Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb.

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    Yan, Wen-xia; Zhang, Jian-hua; Zhang, Yi; Meng, Da-li; Yan, Dan

    2015-08-02

    Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Its stems and roots have been used for the treatment of rheumatism and fever while the leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent to relieve pain. In order to support its traditional Chinese medicinal uses, five animal models were designed and the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the 70% EtOH-H2O extracts of J. lanceolarium (EJL) were investigated. Meanwhile, biochemical parameters such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in blood serum of rats exposed to acute (carrageenan) inflammation model were evaluated. At doses of 400 mg/kg, EJL exhibited higher anti-inflammation effect than that of indomethacin and better analgesic activity than that of aspirin (P<0.001). Furthermore, eleven isolated compounds including six lignanoids (1, 2, 6, 7, 8, and 11) and five iridoids (3, 4, 5, 9, and 10) were isolated from the active extracts and showed significant anti-inflammatory activities with the IC50 values of 1.76-5.22 mg/mL, respectively, when testing their inhibitory effects on phospholipase A2 in vitro. The results demonstrated that the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be attributed to inhibit the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids, production on both COX-2 and 5-LOX, and then finally inhibit the release of prostaglandins (PGs), which suggested that EJL had a non-selective inhibitory effect on the release or actions of these mediators, and might be a dual LOX-COX inhibitor for the treatment of inflammation from the natural resource. The studies on the animals and the inflammatory mediators, along with the bioactive compounds presumed that the existences of iridoids and lignanoids could be response for their bioactivities of the whole plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Litter Fall and Its Decomposition in Sapium sebiferum Roxb.: An Invasive Tree Species in Western Himalaya

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    Vikrant Jaryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that high litter fall and its rapid decomposition are key traits of invasive species, litter fall and its decay in Sapium sebiferum Roxb. were studied in Palampur. For this, litter traps of dimension 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 were placed in under-canopy and canopy gap of the species. Litter fall was monitored monthly and segregated into different components. For litter decay studies, litter bags of dimension 25 × 20 cm2 with a mesh size 2 mm were used and the same were analyzed on a fortnightly basis. Litter fall in both under-canopy and canopy gap was highest in November (1.16 Mg ha−1 y−1 in under-canopy and 0.38 Mg ha−1 y−1 in canopy gap and lowest during March. Litter production in under-canopy and canopy gap was 4.04 Mg ha−1 y−1 and 1.87 Mg ha−1 y−1, respectively. These values are comparable to sal forest (1.7 t C ha−1 y−1, chir pine-mixed forest (2.1 t C ha−1 y−1, and mixed oak-conifer forest (2.8 t C ha−1 y−1 of the Western Himalaya. The decay rate, 0.46% day−1 in under-canopy and 0.48% day−1 in canopy gap, was also fast. Owing to this the species may be able to modify the habitats to its advantage, as has been reported elsewhere.

  11. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Careya arborea Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash Chandra Gupta; Nisha Sharma; Ch V Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study detailed pharmacognostic profile of leaves and stem of Careya arborea (C. arborea) Roxb. (Lecthyidaceae), an important medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine.Methods:Leaf and stem samples of C. arborea were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, broadly obovate in shape, acuminate apex with crenate, dentate margin, petioles (0.1-1.8 cm) long. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of median large size vascular bundle covered with fibrous bundle sheath, arrangement of xylem in cup shape and presence of cortical vascular bundle, patches of sclerenchyma, phloem fibers in groups and brown pigment containing cells in stem are some of the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study. Powder microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem with pitted vessels and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. The investigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, swelling index, extractive values and ash values were also determined and results showed that total ash of the stem bark was about two times higher than leaf and water soluble extractive value of leaf and stem bark was two times higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.

  12. Bambusa tulda Roxb. in Manipur State, India: Exploring the Local Values and Commercial Implications

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    Kumar Potsangbam SINGH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical moist climate in Manipur supports rich and luxuriant growth of Bambusa tulda Roxb. locally known as Saneibi, which is endemic to northeastern region and West Bengal of India. It represents one of the most costly species of bamboo in Manipur, its price ranging from Rs. 70-150/-per mature bamboo culm. The meitei Manipuris have a rich traditional knowledge for utilization of this particular bamboo species. In fact, it has got multipurpose use covering several aspects from religious to industrial. Because of its strength and durability it is of great demand on the market. Its young shoots (ushoi and the fermented young shoots (soibum represent a significant vegetable for local people. Ushoi costs Rs.10-50/- per piece while soibum cost Rs. 30-50/- per kg. Local medicine man use this for healing properties. It forms a good raw material for various handicraft works, house building, paper industries, fencing, and several other useful equipments for day to day life. This bamboo species could yield more than 15 very commonly used and highly marketable articles with prices ranging from Rs.10/-to Rs 300/-per piece. Therefore, the development of small scale industries with highly skilled handicraftsmen can be profitable. Plantation of this bamboo species on farmland, borders of home garden, foothills, riversides, sides of ponds will prove to be a good business as well as a proper help in the conservation and sustainable management of this endemic species. Traditional mode of propagation is done successfully through off-set planting method. This paper presents a detailed study on this particular bamboo species regarding taxonomy, status of distribution, density, regeneration capacity, traditional uses, methods of processing and its commercial implications highlighting the eco-friendly nature of bamboo plantation and bamboo products.

  13. Uji Mutagenik Ames untuk Melengkapi Data Keamanan Ekstrak Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb.

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    Novi Sulistyaningrum

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main compound of Uncaria gambir Roxb. (gambir, catechin and it’s derivates have been believed to be potential as antiviral. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and epicatechin are catechin derivates which are found to be potential as antiviral against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. However, gambir extract also contains quercetin that has possibility to be mutagenic. Therefore, a preliminary study towards safety of those compounds within gambir extract, mutagenicity assay using Ames Method has been performed.Sample (gambir extract was obtained from West Sumatera, Indonesia. The extract was characterized according to Farmakope Herbal Indonesia and WHO methods. Mutagenicity test by Ames method utilized a colorimetric microplate in 6 various concentration (125 mg/mL; 62.5 mg/mL; 31.25 mg/mL; 15.625 mg/mL; 7.81 mg/mL dan 3.91 mg/mL against mutant bacteria Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA with and without the addition of S-9 enzyme. Extract of gambir in this study contains 86.60% of catechin, 12.92% moisture content, 22.49% water-soluble extract content, 80.63% ethanol-soluble extract content, 0.81% total ash, 0.32% acid insoluble ash content and 10.38% in dryness level. From the mutagenicity test and calculation, fold increase (over baseline of the sample in 6 various concentration with and without adding S-9 enzyme are lower than 2. Gambir extract from West Sumatra with catechin contains 86.6% hasn’t showed mutagenic effect due to the fold increase (over baseline of mutagenicity test lower than 2.

  14. Anticancer, antioxidant potential and profiling of polyphenolic compounds of Wrightia tinctoria Roxb. (R.Br.) bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nishat; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Ansari, Jamal Akhtar; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Abdul Rahman; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2016-01-01

    Wrightia tinctoria Roxb. (R.Br.) is an Ayurvedic remedy, ethnomedically used in the treatment of various ailments. The present work was carried out to evaluate the anticancer and antioxidant activity as well as total phenolic and phytochemical contents of W. tinctoria bark methanolic extract (WTBM) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector. Antiproliferative activity of WTBM was evaluated against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, colony formation, and Hoechst staining. In addition, the antioxidant potential was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and 2,2- azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation decolorization assay. Total phenolic content was assessed by Folin–Ciocalteu method. The results demonstrated that WTBM exhibited significant antiproliferative effect against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 = 88.9 ± 1.27 μg/ml) and MCF-7 (IC50 = 45.71 ± 7.74 μg/ml) cancer cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. WTBM significantly suppresses colony formation and induces apoptosis in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells as evident by morphological assessment, clonogenic assay, and Hoechst staining. The total phenolic content of WTBM was found to be 30.3 gallic acid equivalent mg/g dry weight of bark extract while IC50 value for DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity was 72.2 ± 2.8 μg/ml and 45.16 ± 1.95 μg/ml, respectively. HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin in WTBM. These findings demonstrated that WTBM significantly inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells and induced apoptosis, suggesting the potential chemopreventive activity of W. tinctoria bark. PMID:27833897

  15. Luteinizing hormone reduction by the male potency herb, Butea superba Roxb.

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    S. Malaivijitnond

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine if Butea superba Roxb., a traditional Thai male potency herb, has androgenic activity in 60-day-old male Wistar rats, we measured its effects on the pituitary-testicular axis and sex organs. Intact and orchidectomized adult male rats were subdivided into five groups (10 rats/group: distilled water, Butea superba (BS-10, BS-50, BS-250, and testosterone propionate (TP. They received 0, 10, 50, and 250 mg·kg body weight-1·day-1 BS in distilled water by gavage and 6 mg·kg body weight-1·day-1 TP sc, respectively, during the 30-day treatment period. Blood was collected every 15 days and luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and testosterone were measured. Changes of weight and histological appearance of sex organs were determined at the end of the 30-day treatment and 15-day post-treatment periods. TP treatment reduced serum FSH and LH levels and significantly increased the weight of the seminal vesicles and epididymis, in accordance with histopathological changes, in both intact and orchidectomized rats. No changes in serum testosterone, LH, and FSH levels were observed in any of the intact rats treated with BS, but a significant increase in seminal vesicle weight was observed only in the BS-250 group. Although a significant reduction in serum LH was detected in the BS-50 and BS-250 groups of orchidectomized rats, no significant change in weight or histology of sex organs was observed. Thus, we conclude that B. superba needs endogenous testosterone to work synergistically to stimulate the accessory sex organ of intact animals and can potentially exhibit an LH reduction effect in orchidectomized animals.

  16. 壮药假蒟药材质量标准研究%Study on Quality Standard for Zhuang Medicine of Piper Sarmentosum Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂贞才; 颜萍花; 唐玉荣; 甘日呈

    2014-01-01

    Objective Study on the Quality Standard of Piper sarmentosum Roxb.Methods Identification of Piper sarmentosum-Roxb.by four classic identification methods,and content of moisture,total ash,acid -insoluble ash and water extract were deter-mined according to the approaches listed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia published in 2010,the content ofα-asarone and fingerprint of Piper sarmentosum Roxb.were establish by HPLC.Results Determined the identification,content determination and fingerprint meth-ods for Piper sarmentosum Roxb..Conclusion The methods provide experimental basis for the quality standard of Piper sarmentosum Roxb.%目的:对假蒟药材质量标准进行研究。方法:通过四大经典鉴别法对假进行鉴别;按2010年版《中国药典》附录方法对假蒟的水分、总灰分、酸不溶性灰分、浸出物进行测定;采用HPLC对假中α-细辛脑进行含量测定和指纹图谱研究。结果:确定假蒟药材鉴别方法、检查限量,建立含量测定和指纹图谱方法。结论:建立的方法可为假蒟药材质量标准的制定提供实验基础。

  17. The Use of Phylogeny to Interpret Cross-Cultural Patterns in Plant Use and Guide Medicinal Plant Discovery: An Example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Klitgaard, Bente B.; Forest, Félix; Francis, Louise; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M.; Hawkins, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships. Conclusions/Significance This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we predict that this

  18. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Haris Saslis-Lagoudakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae. We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we

  19. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Klitgaard, Bente B; Forest, Félix; Francis, Louise; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Hawkins, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce. In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships. This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we predict that this field, after further refinement of the techniques, will expand into

  20. Isolation, Characterization and Quantification of Isoflavone in Momordica dioica Roxb. Ex Wild (Cucurbitaceae Fruits

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    M S Kale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Momordica dioica Roxb. Ex Wild (Cucurbitaceae is known for anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-diabetic activities. Some other species of genus Momordica along with this are also known for their anti-ovulatory, abortificient and anti-implantation activities which may be correlated to presence of isoflavone which acts like phytoestrogens in these plants. In this study, isoflavone daidzein was isolated from the fruits of M. dioica by soxhlet extraction followed by column chromatography. The isolated compound was identified by UV visible spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, Mass spectrum, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR, TLC and chemical test. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method has been developed for quantification of daidzein by using C-18 column (250 x 4.6, 5-μm with an isocratic mobile phase, methanol and water containing 0.1% ortho-phosphoric acid  (60:40 v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The wavelength of maximum absorption (λmax selected for quantification of daidzein was 255 nm. Calibration plot for daidzein was found to be linear with correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.9997 and regression equation (y = 60805x – 77107. The amount of daidzein present in M. dioica fruits was found to be 0.03% w/w. The developed method has been validated for accuracy, precision and specificity and successfully applied for quantification of isolated compound in M. dioica. Thus, daidzein could be used as phytochemical markers for the quality control of this plant as well as other species of genus Momordica. Industrial relevance: Daidzein is naturally occurring isoflavone found mainly in soybean and has been credited with performing several health promoting functions. Soybeans are rich source of isoflavone. Momordica dioica plant is found throughout the India. Fruits are used as vegetables. These fruits are cheap and easily available in India. Hence these fruits can be utilized as good source of

  1. Antifertility activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb): an ethnomedicines used by tribals of Nilgiris region in Tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, V; Suresh, B; Sathishkumar, M N; Elango, K; Srinivasan, R

    2007-05-30

    The practice of traditional medicine for the control of fertility in Nilgris is based on the use of plant medicine for many years. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb (Simaroubaceae) (HEA) has been studied in rats to explore its antifertility activity. A strong antiimplantation (72%) and abortifacient activity (56%) was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.). The extract shows further more, significant (P<0.05) increase in uterine weight in immature ovariectomised rats. Simultaneous administration of extract with ethinyl estradiol cause significant antiestrogenic activity. All these observations suggest that hydroalcoholic extract of Ailanthus excelsa has antifertility effect.

  2. Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Fraxinus chinensis Roxb.%白蜡树的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬梅; 胡立宏; 叶文才; 赵守训

    2003-01-01

    目的:从白蜡树(Fraxinus chinensis Roxb. )树皮中提取分离抗癌活性成分.方法:运用各种层析手段和波谱方法分离并鉴定了5个木脂素化合物.结果:它们的结构分别鉴定为(+)-pinoresinol(I),(+)-acetoxypinoresinol(II),(+)-pinoresinol-β-D-glucopyranoside(II),(+)-syringaresinol-4,4′-O-bis-β-D-glucopyranoside(IV)和(+)-cycloolivil(V).结论:以上化合物均为从白蜡树中首次分得,其中化合物II具有VEGFR-1酪氨酸激酶抑制活性,提示该化合物可能有抗癌活性.

  3. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.

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    Sinchan Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism.

  4. A fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat and its bearing on palaeoclimatic interpretation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anumeha Shukla; J S Guleria; R C Mehrotra

    2012-02-01

    A new fossil fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat. It resembles best the extant species Shorea macroptera Dyer, which is a prominent member of the tropical evergreen forests of the Malayan Peninsula. The present finding, along with the other megafossil records described from the same area, indicates a typical tropical vegetation with a warm and humid climate at the time of deposition in contrast to the present day xeric vegetation in the area. As the family Dipterocarpaceae no longer exists in western India, it is essential to discuss the time of its extinction and possible causes, which may include drastic changes in the climate of the region. The present finding also supports the theory of a Malaysian origin for the family in contrast to the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin.

  5. Effect of leaf harvesting on reproduction and natural populations of Indian Wild Banana Ensete superbum (Roxb. Cheesman (Zingiberales: Musaceae

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    Mahendra R. Bhise

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensete superbum (Roxb. Cheesman an important taxon in India is threatened in Maharashtra. It is sporadically distributed on high altitude slopes and rocky cliffs in the Western Ghats. It is an important medicinal and economic plant utilized by people living in rural areas, while the leaves are also utilized in urban areas. The leaves are harvested for commercial purposes. The effect of leaf harvest on natural population with respect to regeneration of new plantlets was evaluated. The results revealed that, non-scientific leaf harvesting resulted in significantly reduced flowering and fruiting, less number of new plantlets in the population, and population degradation. Therefore, leaf harvesting should be practiced in a controlled manner to maintain the population health of this highly potential species. 

  6. Comparative DFT Study of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. and Cucumis sativus Linn.

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    Subarayan Bothi Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective active phytochemical constituents from the ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. and Cucumis sativus Linn. were identified by GC-MS analysis. The density functional theory (DFT of these molecules was calculated by density functional B3LYP methods using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p basis set. The optimized geometries of phytochemical constituents were evaluated. Physicochemical properties such as HOMO, LUMO, ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, electrochemical potential, hardness, softness, electrophilicity, total energy, and dipole moment have also been recorded. These are very important parameters to understand the chemical reactivity and biological activity of the phytochemical constituents. Glycodeoxycholic acid and 2-(2-methylcyclohexylidene-hydrazinecarboxamide were found to be effective drugs selected on the basis of their HOMO and LUMO energy gap and softness. The effective properties of these compounds may be due to the presence of amino, carbonyl, and alcohol as a functional group.

  7. Effects of Nitrogen Source and Bacterial Elicitor on Isoflavone Accumulation in Root Cultures of Albizzia kalkora (Roxb.) Prain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    So-Young Park; Wi-Young Lee; Youngki Park; Jin-Kwon Ahn

    2006-01-01

    Changes in cellular isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) contents were monitored in root cultures of Albizzia kalkora (Roxb.) Prain after feeding different ratios of NH4+/NO3- and treatment with a biotic elicitor (three strains of Rhizobium sp.). The NH4+/NO3- ratio appears to be positively correlated with daidzein content in the roots and shows a negative correlation with genistein. Among the three different strains of Rhizobium used, the strain ATCC 15834 caused a 35% increase in daidzein production by infection. In the case of genistein, maximum production (94%) was obtained when cultures were treated on Day 6 by the strains ATCC 15834 and KCTC 1541. The biosynthetic pathway of the two isoflavones apparently reacts differently to the same culture conditions and the same strains of Rhizobium. Therefore, the present data suggest that the production of daidzein and genistein could be modulated by changing the NH4+/NO3- ratio and the application of Rhizobium.

  8. Tooth enamel surface micro-hardness with dual species Streptococcus biofilm after exposure to Java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isjwara, F. R. G.; Hasanah, S. N.; Utami, Sri; Suniarti, D. F.

    2017-08-01

    Streptococcus biofilm on tooth surfaces can decrease mouth environment pH, thus causing enamel demineralization that can lead to dental caries. Java Turmeric extract has excellent antibacterial effects and can maintain S. mutans biofilm pH at neutral levels for 4 hours. To analyze the effect of Java Turmeric extract on tooth enamel micro-hardness, the Java Turmeric extract was added on enamel tooth samples with Streptococcus dual species biofilm (S. sanguinis and S. mutans). The micro-hardness of enamel was measured by Knoop Hardness Tester. Results showed that Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. could not maintain tooth enamel surface micro-hardness. It is concluded that Java Turmeric extract ethanol could not inhibit the hardness of enamel with Streptococcus dual species biofilm.

  9. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth and Antioxidant Activity in Gmelina arborea Roxb. under Salt Stress Condition

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    Mayura Prakash DUDHANE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gmelina arborea Roxb. is medicinally and economically important tree species were selected for study. An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus Glomus fasciculatum on salt stress tolerance of tree species Gmelina arborea. Mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were treated with 100 mM and 200 mM concentration of NaCl. G. fasciculatum treated plant showed increase in fresh and dry weight, greater percentage of mycorrhizal colonization, higher accumulation of proline and chlorophyll content with increasing levels of salinity. G. fasciculatum colonization significantly increased tolerance of salinity, acid phosphatases, and Proline content and also antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase at all levels of salinity treatments of Gmelina plants in comparison with non-mycorrhizal salinity treated plants. These results demonstrate that AM fungus (G. fasciculatum is very effective in strengthening the tolerance of Gmelina arborea grown in arid and semi arid areas.

  10. Thin layer chromatography fingerprint, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of rhizomes, stems, and leaves of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, A.; Batubara, I.; Khumaida, N.

    2017-05-01

    Fingerprints of 5 temu hitam (Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.) accessions (Malang, Cirebon, Kuningan 1, Bogor, and Liwa) were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and compared to fingerprints of turmeric (Curcuma longa L), temu putih (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe), and temu lawak (Curcuma zanthorriza Roxb.). Maceration method with ethanol as the solvent was used for extraction. The eluent used for fingerprint by TLC was chloroform:dichloromethane (9:1v/v). Five accessions of temu hitam show similar fingerprint patterns, but different in band thickness. Temu hitam rhizomes have bands of curcuminoid (Rf 0.22, 0.10, 0.03), and characteristic bands of Rf 0.42, 0.27, and 0.77, which can be distinguished from turmeric and temu lawak and Rf 0.13, which is different from temu putih. Leaves and stems of temu hitam can be distinguished from temu putih, turmeric, and temu lawak at Rf 0.60. Rhizomes of all plants reveal strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals than its corresponding stems and leaves. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities were determined by microdilution and TLC-bioautography. Antibacterial activity of rhizomes of Cirebon and Kuningan 1 accessions are higher than that of other accessions (MIC = 250 μg/mL MBC = 500 μg/mL, but lower as compared to that of temu lawak (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL, MBC = 250 μg/mL) and tetracycline (MIC = MBC = 15.63 μg/mL). Rhizome of Liwa accession exhibits the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 124.88 μg/mL) amongst all accessions, but lower than that of temu lawak (IC50 = 18.45 μg/mL), turmeric (IC50 = 18.82 μg/mL), and temu putih (IC50 = 94.35 μg/mL).

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of niosomes entrapped with Plai oil (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. by therapeutic ultrasound in a rat model

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    Leelarungrayub J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jirakrit Leelarungrayub,1 Jiradej Manorsoi,2,3 Aranya Manorsoi2,3 1Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, 2Manose Health and Beauty Research Center, Mueng, 3Division of Cosmetic Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, North Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Plai oil–encapsulated niosomes (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. on inflamed subcutaneous Wistar rat skin by therapeutic ultrasound. Methods: Pure oil from Plai rhizomes was extracted by steam distillation, and antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Bioactive compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Niosome particles containing Plai oil were prepared by chloroform film method with sonication before testing for anti-inflammatory activity on locally inflamed subcutaneous rat skin after inducement from lipopolysaccharide with ultrasound once a day for 3 days. Skin temperatures and blood flow were evaluated. Results: Plai oil presented antioxidant activity that inhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals. Four active compounds found in the essential oil were sabinene, γ-terpinene, terpinene-4-ol, and (E-1-(3,4-dimethyoxy phenyl butadiene. Application of ultrasound (0.2 W/cm2, 20%, 3 min with gel containing Plai oil–encapsulated niosomes decreased skin temperature and blood flow to the lowest level compared to the application of neurofen drug or gel-based control. Conclusion: Plai oil, which consists of four main bioactive compounds and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, can be applied against local subcutaneous inflammation when used with therapeutic ultrasound via entrapped niosomes. Keywords: antioxidant, anti-inflammation, Plai oil, niosomes, therapeutic ultrasound, Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.

  12. Effects of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on reduction of microbial load and antioxidant properties of Chum-Hed-Thet (Cassia alata (L.) Roxb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakhongsil, P.; Pewlong, W.; Sajjabut, S.; Chookaew, S.

    2017-06-01

    Considering the growing demands of herbal medicines, Cassia alata (L.) Roxb. has been reported to have various phytochemical activities. It has also been called in Thai as Chum-Hed-Thet. In this study, C. alata (L.) Roxb. powder were exposed to gamma and electron beam irradiation at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. At the dose of 10 kGy, both of gamma and electron beam irradiation were sufficient in reducing microbial load of irradiated samples as specified in Thai pharmacopoeia (2005). These include the total aerobic microbial count of S. aureus (per 1g) and E.coli (per 1g) were absence. In terms of the bioactive molecules, the total phenolic content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential of unirradiated and irradiated samples were 19.32-22.44 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, 5.20-7.82 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g and 69.46-82.06 μmol FeSO4/g, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated samples (p>0.05). Therefore, both of radiation by gamma ray or electron beam at 10 kGy was sufficient in elimination of microbial flora and did not significantly affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of C. alata (L.) Roxb.

  13. PENGARUH PROSES PENGERINGAN RIMPANG TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorriza ROXB TERHADAP KANDUNGAN DAN KOMPOSISI KURKUMINOID

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    Bambang Cahyono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF DRYING PROCESSES ON CURCUMINOID CONTENT AND COMPOSITION OF TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorriza ROXB RHIZOMES. Curcuminoid a yellow coloring agent of turmeric is known to have many benefits in food and medicinal industries. This compound can be isolated by simple extraction from fresh rhizome or symplicia. The research of comparing qualitative and quantitative of curcuminoid in different drying process has not yet been published. Drying methods used in this research were done in an oven at 60°C and under 30-watt electrical lamp at ±30°C. Each method was carried out in time variation of 1, 3, and 5 days. Extraction of curcuminoid was done using ethanol 95% followed by fat reduction process using petroleum ether. Curcuminoid analysis was done by TLC, UV-Visible spectrophotometer and HPLC. The result showed that the water content of all samples was approximately 4.06%-7.76%. TLC analysis identified the presence of two dominant components in the curcuminoid with the Rf values of 0.37 and 0.15. The UV-Visible spectra indicated that simplicia would give more result in curcuminoid than fresh rhizome. There were 4 substances detected in HPLC analysis, they were curcumin 61-67%, demetoxycurcumin 22-26%, bisdemetoxycurcumin 1-3%, and curcuminoid derivative 10-11%. In addition, drying on oven resulted brighter and crispier simplicia than drying under lamp.  Kurkuminoid yang merupakan zat utama yang berwarna kuning dalam temulawak telah diketahui memiliki banyak manfaat di bidang kesehatan dan makanan. Bahan ini dapat diisolasi dari bahan segar atau simplisia kering melalui ekstraksi. Riset yang mencoba membandingkan kualitas dan kuantitas kurkuminoid akibat perlakuan panas pada saat pembuatan simplisia hingga sekarang belum pernah dilakukan. Penelitian dimulai dengan pengeringan temulawak segar setelah dirajang pada oven suhu 60°C dan pada pengeringan lampu listrik 30 watt pada suhu ± 30°C. Masing-masing metode dilakukan variasi lama pengeringan

  14. Chemical profiling of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. rhizome using different techniques of solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanimah; Simoh; Alizah; Zainal

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the possible phytochemical constituents of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.(C. aeruginosa) rhizome using two different techniques of direct solvent extraction. Methods: Two different techniques of direct solvent extractions, i.e. methyl tert-butyl ether(MTBE) extraction and two-phase methanol/chloroform(M/C) system, were used in this study. The analysis of the phytochemical constituents in MTBE and M/C extracts was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The mass spectra of the compounds was matched with the NIST 08 mass spectral library. Results: The present study revealed that the extraction using two-phase M/C have resulted in higher metabolite coverage compared to the extraction with MTBE. Direct solvent extraction using MTBE revealed the presence of 27 compounds; whereas, M/C allowed the extraction of 18 and 36 compounds in polar(methanol) and nonpolar(chloroform) fractions respectively. The major compounds detected in the MTBE extract that based on the peak area percentage were methenolone(16.64%), cycloisolongifolene, 8,9-dehydro-9-formyl-(15.93%), labd-13-en-15-oic acid,8,12-epoxy-12-hydroxy-γ-lactone(10.77%), propiolic acid, 3-(1-hydroxy)-2 isopropyl-1,5-methylcyclohexyl)(7.84%), 4-oxo-β-isodamascol(5.17%), velleral(3.11%) and Z-α-farnesene(2.00%). The most prevailing major compounds identified in the polar fraction of the M/C extraction were α-D glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6 tetrakis-O-(TMS)(trimethylsilyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-(38.08%), d-glucose, 2,3,4,5,6-pentakis-O-(TMS)-, O-methyloxime(14.61%), D-fructose, 1,3,4,5,6-pentakis-O-(TMS)-, O-methyloxime(5.28%), isocitric acid(TMS)(3.06%), oxalic acid, bis(TMS) ester(2.96%), hexadecanoic acid, TMS ester(2.16%), citric acid, ethyl ester, tri-TMS(1.91%) and butanedioic acid, [(TMS) oxy]-, bis(TMS) ester(1.14%); whereas in the nonpolar extract, among the major compounds detected were cycloisolongifolene, 8, 9-dehydro-9-formyl(15

  15. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous and Dichloromethane/Methanol Stem Bark Extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamadeu, Marie Claire; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Blaes, Nelly; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Théophile

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub in normal and diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and normal adult Wistar rats were orally administered with aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH plant extracts of P. soyauxii at various doses (38-300 mg/kg) in a single administration. In addition, STZ-induced diabetic rats received prolonged daily administration for 14 days. Glibenclamide (GB) (10 mg/kg) was used as reference treatment. In acute test, fasting blood glucose was followed for 5 h. In subacute test, body weight, food and water intakes, and blood glucose were followed weekly and serum biochemical parameters evaluated after 14 days treatment. Acute administration of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts moderately decreased fasting blood glucose compared to GB, significantly in normal rats (P Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub have potent (compared to Glibenclamide) antidiabetic effects in STZ-diabetic rats, with specific kinetics and dose-responses.Moderate hypoglycemia effects upon acute P. soyauxii administration.Potent anti-hyperglycemic effects of sub-acute P. soyauxii administration in STZ-diabetic rats.Potent anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sub-acute P. soyauxii administration in STZ-diabetic rats.Improved hepatic and renal serum parameters after sub-acute P. soyauxii administration in STZ-diabetic rats.P. soyauxii extracts may be useful for oral treatment of diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Abbreviations Used: CH2Cl2/CH3OH: Dichloromethane/Methanol; STZ: Streptozotocin; GB: Glibenclamide; AE: Aqueous extract; OE: Organic extract; FeCl3: Iron (III) chloride; NaCl: Sodium chloride; K3Fe(CN)6: Potassium ferricyanide; ALT: Alanine aminotransferase; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; H: Hour; BW: Body weight, W1 and W2: Weeks 1 and 2; CHOD: Cholesterol oxidase; GPO: Glycerol-3 Phosphate oxidase; PAP: Phenol + Aminophenazone.

  16. Methanolic Extract of Curcuma caesia Roxb. prevents the toxicity caused by Cyclophosphamide to bone marrow cells, liver and kidney of mice

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    Heisanam Pushparani Devi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With an ever increasing cause of cancer, it has been recommended to treat with conventional drugs, however because of the side effects caused by the conventional drugs, the research on medicinal plants has been intensified due to their less adverse and toxic effects. Objectives: The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of the medicinal plant Curcuma caesia Roxb. against free radicals ABTS + and O2 - . Also it was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of C.caesia Roxb. against the chemotherapeutic drug Cyclophosphamide and its side effects in liver and kidney. Methods: The rhizomes of the plant was extracted with methanol through soxhlet and its antioxidant activity was tested against ABTS + and O2 - . For antigenotoxic studies, animals were divided into eight groups and micronucleus assay was employed and for biochemical analysis serum sample was collected from the blood and SGOT, SGPT analysis was performed. Also the biochemical analysis was performed from both the liver and kidney. Results: The methanolic extract of Curcuma caesia Roxb. was found to scavenge the free radicals ABTS + and O2 - . the micronuclei formation was found to be increased in the positive control group as compared to the negative control group significantly (P<0.002 however increase in the number of micronuclei was found to be decrease with the pretreatment of the extract at different concentrations significantly as compared to the negative control groups (P<0.01, P<0.005,P<0.001. The increased level of serum SGPT and SGOT as well as peroxidation level in both liver and kidney due to treatment of cyclophosphamide was also found to be decreased with the pretreatment of the extract significantly as compared to the positive control groups. There was decreased in the level of endogenous antioxidant such as GSH and GR in the positive control group however decreased level of GSH and GR was found to be increased with the

  17. Extracts Obtained from Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Ziziphus mucronata Exhibit Antiplasmodial Activity and Inhibit Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70 Function

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    Tawanda Zininga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites are increasingly becoming resistant to currently used antimalarial therapies, therefore there is an urgent need to expand the arsenal of alternative antimalarial drugs. In addition, it is also important to identify novel antimalarial drug targets. In the current study, extracts of two plants, Pterocarpus angolensis and Ziziphus mucronata were obtained and their antimalarial functions were investigated. Furthermore, we explored the capability of the extracts to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 function. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 are molecular chaperones whose function is to facilitate protein folding. Plasmodium falciparum the main agent of malaria, expresses two cytosol-localized Hsp70s: PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z. The PfHsp70-z has been reported to be essential for parasite survival, while inhibition of PfHsp70-1 function leads to parasite death. Hence both PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z are potential antimalarial drug targets. Extracts of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited the basal ATPase and chaperone functions of the two parasite Hsp70s. Furthermore, fractions of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited P. falciparum 3D7 parasite growth in vitro. The extracts obtained in the current study exhibited antiplasmodial activity as they killed P. falciparum parasites maintained in vitro. In addition, the findings further suggest that some of the compounds in P. angolensis and Z. mucronata may target parasite Hsp70 function.

  18. Endangered West African Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus (Schwarz, 1934 (Primates: Hominidae in Senegal prefer Pterocarpus erinaceus, a threatened tree species, to build their nests: implications for their conservation

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    P.I. Ndiaye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The West African Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes verus is Endangered (A4cd ver 3.1 in Senegal (Humle et al. 2008, mainly due to habitat fragmentation and destruction. We gathered qualitative and quantitative data on the tree species preferences of the West African Chimpanzee for nest building in order to gain insight into habitat dependence. Between March 1998 and Febrary 2000 we identified tree species in which a sample of 1790 chimpanzee nests had been built, and ranked species in preference order. We compared this sample to the relative abundance of tree species in the chimpanzee habitat to determine whether particular species were chosen for nesting. We observed that about a quarter (25.42% of nests were built in Pterocarpus erinaceus, which is considerably greater than would be expected from the abundance of this species in the habitat (6.35%, indicating a strong preference by chimpanzees. We examined the physical traits of the most-used tree species and concluded that height and wood hardness may be key choice features. P. erinaceus is threatened in Senegal due to extensive cutting, which may endanger chimpanzees living outside the boundaries of protected areas. In the current anthropogenic setting our results provide conservation managers with information on how to protect a key aspect of the chimpanzee natural environment.

  19. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous and Dichloromethane/Methanol Stem Bark Extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamadeu, Marie Claire; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Blaes, Nelly; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Théophile

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The aim is to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and normal adult Wistar rats were orally administered with aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH plant extracts of P. soyauxii at various doses (38–300 mg/kg) in a single administration. In addition, STZ-induced diabetic rats received prolonged daily administration for 14 days. Glibenclamide (GB) (10 mg/kg) was used as reference treatment. In acute test, fasting blood glucose was followed for 5 h. In subacute test, body weight, food and water intakes, and blood glucose were followed weekly and serum biochemical parameters evaluated after 14 days treatment. Results: Acute administration of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts moderately decreased fasting blood glucose compared to GB, significantly in normal rats (P Sodium chloride; K3Fe(CN)6: Potassium ferricyanide; ALT: Alanine aminotransferase; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; H: Hour; BW: Body weight, W1 and W2: Weeks 1 and 2; CHOD: Cholesterol oxidase; GPO: Glycerol-3 Phosphate oxidase; PAP: Phenol + Aminophenazone

  20. Effect of Pterocarpus santalinus bark, on blood glucose, serum lipids, plasma insulin and hepatic carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondeti, Vinay Kumar; Badri, Kameswara Rao; Maddirala, Dilip Rajasekhar; Thur, Sampath Kumar Mekala; Fatima, Shaik Sameena; Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Rao, Chippada Appa

    2010-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of bark of Pterocarpus santalinus, an ethnomedicinal plant, on blood glucose, plasma insulin, serum lipids and the activities of hepatic glucose metabolizing enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated (acute/short-term and long-term) with ethyl acetate:methanol fractions of ethanolic extract of the bark of P. santalinus. Fasting blood glucose, HbA(1C), plasma insulin and protein were estimated before and after the treatment, along with hepatic glycogen, and activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Further anti-hyperlipidemic activity was studied by measuring the levels of serum lipids and lipoproteins. Phytochemical analysis of active fraction showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and phenols. Biological testing of the active fraction demonstrated a significant antidiabetic activity by reducing the elevated blood glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin, improving hyperlipidemia and restoring the insulin levels in treated experimental induced diabetic rats. Further elucidation of mechanism of action showed improvement in the hepatic carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes after the treatment. Our present investigation suggests that active fraction of ethanolic extract of bark of P. santalinus decreases streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia by increasing glycolysis and decreasing gluconeogenesis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extracts Obtained from Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Ziziphus mucronata Exhibit Antiplasmodial Activity and Inhibit Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zininga, Tawanda; Anokwuru, Chinedu P; Sigidi, Muendi T; Tshisikhawe, Milingoni P; Ramaite, Isaiah I D; Traoré, Afsatou N; Hoppe, Heinrich; Shonhai, Addmore; Potgieter, Natasha

    2017-07-28

    Malaria parasites are increasingly becoming resistant to currently used antimalarial therapies, therefore there is an urgent need to expand the arsenal of alternative antimalarial drugs. In addition, it is also important to identify novel antimalarial drug targets. In the current study, extracts of two plants, Pterocarpus angolensis and Ziziphus mucronata were obtained and their antimalarial functions were investigated. Furthermore, we explored the capability of the extracts to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) function. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) are molecular chaperones whose function is to facilitate protein folding. Plasmodium falciparum the main agent of malaria, expresses two cytosol-localized Hsp70s: PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z. The PfHsp70-z has been reported to be essential for parasite survival, while inhibition of PfHsp70-1 function leads to parasite death. Hence both PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z are potential antimalarial drug targets. Extracts of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited the basal ATPase and chaperone functions of the two parasite Hsp70s. Furthermore, fractions of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited P. falciparum 3D7 parasite growth in vitro. The extracts obtained in the current study exhibited antiplasmodial activity as they killed P. falciparum parasites maintained in vitro. In addition, the findings further suggest that some of the compounds in P. angolensis and Z. mucronata may target parasite Hsp70 function.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings

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    Alexandre Geoffroy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq. is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+ of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta. However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta, notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Sanguin, Hervé; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta. However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta, notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network.

  4. 广枣的化学成分%Chemical constituents from Choerospondias axillaris(Roxb.)Burtt et Hill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申旭霁; 格日力; 王金辉

    2009-01-01

    目的:对未经炮制的广枣(Choerospondias axillaris(Roxb.)Burtt et Hill)干燥成熟果实的体积分数为70%乙醇提取物进行化学成分研究.方法:利用多种色谱方法进行成分分离,根据物理化学性质和渡谱学手段对化合物进行结构鉴定.结果:分离得到8个化合物,分别鉴定为3.3'-二甲氧基鞣花酸(3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid,1)、鞣花酸(ellagic acid,2)、槲皮素(quercetin,3)、丁香醛(syringaldehyde,4)、香草酸(vanillic acid,5)、柠檬酸(citric acid,6)、原儿荼酸(protocatechuic acid,7)、没食子酸(gallic acid,8).结论:化舍物4、5为首次从南酸枣属植物中分离得到.

  5. Anticancer potential and mechanism of action of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) supercritical CO₂ extract in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Lollett, Ivonne V; Escalon, Enrique; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is among the less-investigated species of Curcuma for anticancer properties. We have investigated the anticancer potential and the mechanism of action of a supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) in the U-87MG human glioblastoma cell line. CA demonstrated higher cytotoxicity than temozolomide, etoposide, curcumin, and turmeric force with IC50, IC75, and IC90 values of 4.92 μg/mL, 12.87 μg/mL, and 21.30 μg/mL, respectively. Inhibitory concentration values of CA for normal embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell line (mHypoE-N1) is significantly higher than glioblastoma cell line, indicating the specificity of CA against brain tumor cells. CompuSyn analysis indicates that CA acts synergistically with temozolomide and etoposide for the cytotoxicity with combination index values of <1. CA treatment also induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and downregulates genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation, telomerase activity, oncogenesis, and drug resistance in glioblastoma cells. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Modifications of chemical functional groups of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb and its effect towards biosorption of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd. Zamri; Ismail, Siti Salwa

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of non-living biomass as an alternative biosorbent for heavy metal removal has gain a tremendous consideration through the years. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb or pandan leaves, which is widely used as food additives in the South East Asia region, has been selected for its viability in the said effort due to the presence of chemical functional groups on its cellular network that enables the sorption to occur. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms participated during the heavy metal removal process, the biosorbent undergone a series of modification techniques to alter the chemical functional groups present on its constituent. From the outcome of the chemically-modified biosorbent being subjected to the contact with metal cations, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups present on the biosorbent are believed to be responsible for the metal uptake to occur through complexation mechanism. Modifying amine groups causes 14% reduction of Cu(II) uptake, whereas removing protein element increases the uptake to 26% as compared to the unmodified biosorbent. Also, scanning electron micrographs further suggested that the adsorption mechanism could perform in parallel, as attributed to the evidence of porous structure throughout the biosorbent fibrous nature.

  7. Variations in pollinator density and impacts on large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. crop yield in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash S. Gaira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb., a perennial cash crop, cultivated under an agroforestry system in the eastern Himalaya of India, is well recognized as a pollination-dependent crop. Observations on pollinator abundance in Mamlay watershed of Sikkim Himalaya were collected during the blooming season to evaluate the pollinator abundance across sites and time frames, and impact of pollinator abundance on crop yield from 2010 to 2012. The results revealed that the bumblebees and honeybees are most frequent visitors of large cardamom flowers. The abundance of honeybees, however, varied between sites for the years 2010–2012, while that of bumblebees varied for the years 2011 and 2012. The abundance of honeybees resulted in a variation within time frames for 2010 and 2011, while that of bumblebees varied for 2010 and 2012 (p<0.01. The density of pollinators correlated positively with the number of flowers of the target crop. The impact of pollinator abundance revealed that the increasing bumblebee visitation resulted in a higher yield of the crop (i.e. 17–41 g/plant and the increasing abundance of all bees (21–41 g/plant was significant (p<0.03. Therefore, the study concluded that the large cardamom yield is sensitive to pollinator abundance and there is a need for adopting the best pollinator conservation and management practices toward sustaining the yield of large cardamom.

  8. Pollination ecology and reproductive biology of Canarium strictum Roxb. from evergreen forests of Central Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C N Prasanna; Somashekar, R K; Nagaraja, B C; Shivaprasad, D

    2015-09-01

    Pollination and reproductive biology of a dioecious tree Canarium strictum Roxb. (Burseraceae) was extensively studied within the Agumbe forest range of Western Ghats, Karnataka to identify primary pollen vectors and to enumerate interrelationship with the pollinators. The study also investigated phenology, floral biology, pollen production, pollen viability, stigma receptivity and nectar production. Trees produced functionally unisexual flowers with white petals, organized densely on inflorescences. Staminate flowers produced high percentage of viable pollen and relatively abundant nectar (15.75 μl) as a reward to the pollinators, while pistillate flowers produced only nectar (12 μl). Successful fruit set with wind pollination was facilitated by synchronization of flowering male and female trees, long term receptivity of stigma in female flowers and extended lifespan of flowers. The highest mean percent of fruit set with hand cross-pollination (μ = 91.06) suggests the influence of local male tree density, as well as, frequency and abundance of pollinator community on fruit set by open pollination.

  9. Micropropagation of a Thai medicinal plant for women's health, Curcuma comosa Roxb., via shoot and microrhizome inductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-apirukkul, Sureerat; Jenjittikul, Thaya; Saralamp, Promchit; Prathanturarug, Sompop

    2012-04-01

    We studied the effects of explant types, plant growth regulators, and sucrose concentrations on shoot and microrhizome inductions of Curcuma comosa Roxb., an important Thai medicinal plant for women's health. Explant types significantly affected shoot induction of the plant. The maximum shoot multiplication rate of 11.82 ± 1.03 shoots/responding explant was obtained when culturing terminal bud explants on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 18.16 μM thidiazuron for 8 weeks. Subsequently, they were transferred to a semi-solid MS medium without plant growth regulators for 4 weeks. The regenerated shoots produced roots spontaneously. Rooted plantlets were successfully transferred to the soil. Microrhizome induction was significantly influenced by sucrose concentrations, but not by 6-benzyladenine (BA). Liquid MS medium with a combination of 17.76 μM BA and 50 g L(-1) sucrose was optimal for microrhizome induction of C. comosa. After 12 weeks of culture, the microrhizome induction rate was 3.36 ± 0.44 microrhizomes/responding explant. Starch accumulation in microrhizomes increased with higher sugar concentration and with longer duration of culture. The microrhizomes were allowed to germinate under greenhouse conditions and further developed into normal plants. The protocols established will be used for the production of uniform plantlets suitable for field plantation for the herbal industry.

  10. Assessment of haemolytic, cytotoxic and free radical scavenging activities of an underutilized fruit, Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. (Roxb.) Muell. Arg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Dey, Priyankar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kr; Sarker, Dilip De; Sen, Arnab

    2016-02-01

    Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. (Roxb.) Muell. Arg. is an underutilized juicy fruit bearing plant found in sub-Himalayan area, South China, Indo-Burma region, etc. The fruit is considered to be nutritive, and in this study, we evaluated its antioxidant, haemolytic and cytotoxic properties. The juice was examined for the quenching activity of hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, total antioxidant activity (TAA), erythrocyte membrane stabilizing activity (EMSA) along with quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents and also tested for its potential activity as iron chelator, inhibitor of lipid peroxidation and total reducing power. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were also performed to correlate antioxidant capacities with the phenolic and flavonoid content. Haemolytic activity on murine erythrocyte and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cytotoxic test was performed on murine splenocytes, thymocytes, hepatocytes and peritoneal exudates macrophage to examine the cytotoxic effect of its juice. The result exhibited its potent free radical scavenging activity. In case of TAA, DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), EMSA and lipid peroxidation, the fruit juice was found to have significant (P cytotoxic test confirms that the juice does not contain any cytotoxic effect and the fruit is safe for consumption. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra analysis exhibited high possibility of presence of flavonoid compounds in the juice.

  11. Histopathology of liver and kidney on broiler chicken exposed to heat stress and fed extract of Jaloh (Salix tetrasperma Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugito

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the effects of jaloh extract (Salix tetrasperma Roxb on broiler chicken exposed to heat stress in constant temperature of 33 ± 1oC for 4 hours per day for 10 days. Fifteen chickens aged 20 days old (strain Cobb were divided randomly into 5 groups. The first group was external control (tCP of the chickens received neither heat stress nor jaloh extract. The second group was internal control (CP representing chickens given heat stress without jaloh extract. The third, fourth, and fifth groups consisted of chickens given heat stress and 10 mg/kg BB of hexane (CP+Hek, ethyl acetate (CP+EtOAc, and ethanol (CP+EtOH fractions, respectively. Heat stress and jaloh extract were given every day. Extract of jaloh were given 1 hour before temperature in the cage was raised. On 10th day of the experiment, 3 chickens were killed and necropted. Liver and kidney tissues from each treatment were analyzed for histological condition. The results indicated that heat stress can induce injury degeneration, necrosis, and infiltration of inflammation cells of liver and kidney. It is concluded that the hexane fraction of jaloh extract could protect the detrimental effects on heat stress.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of niosomes entrapped with Plai oil (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) by therapeutic ultrasound in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Manorsoi, Jiradej; Manorsoi, Aranya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Plai oil-encapsulated niosomes (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) on inflamed subcutaneous Wistar rat skin by therapeutic ultrasound. Pure oil from Plai rhizomes was extracted by steam distillation, and antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Bioactive compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Niosome particles containing Plai oil were prepared by chloroform film method with sonication before testing for anti-inflammatory activity on locally inflamed subcutaneous rat skin after inducement from lipopolysaccharide with ultrasound once a day for 3 days. Skin temperatures and blood flow were evaluated. Plai oil presented antioxidant activity that inhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals. Four active compounds found in the essential oil were sabinene, γ-terpinene, terpinene-4-ol, and (E)-1-(3,4-dimethyoxy phenyl) butadiene. Application of ultrasound (0.2 W/cm(2), 20%, 3 min) with gel containing Plai oil-encapsulated niosomes decreased skin temperature and blood flow to the lowest level compared to the application of neurofen drug or gel-based control. Plai oil, which consists of four main bioactive compounds and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, can be applied against local subcutaneous inflammation when used with therapeutic ultrasound via entrapped niosomes.

  13. Investigation on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening ofRandia spinosa (Thunb.) Poir. and Dillenia pentagyna Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irulandi Kokkaiah; Geetha Sethupandian; Mehalingam Palanichamy

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity ofRandia spinosa (Thunb.) Poir. andDillenia pentagyna Roxb. leaf extracts against human pathogens such as Gram positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilis andStaphyllococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae andPseudomonas aeruginosa), and a fungusCandida albicans. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the two plants against the human pathogens was investigated by agar well diffusion method, and qualitative phytochemical screening was conducted for the presence of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, catechins, coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Results: The qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of diverse range of compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. The plants exhibited broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against all the tested bacterial and fungal pathogens. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed in methanol extracts when compared with acetone and ethyl acetate extracts. The present study demonstrated that the selected plants had promising effect on the bacterial and fungal pathogens. Conclusions: The phytochemicals in the plants may be potentially responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of these medicinal plants.

  14. Influence of additional coupling agent on the mechanical properties of polyester-agave cantala roxb based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Raharjo, Wijang W.; Wibowo, A.; Harjana, Mazlan, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanical and morphological properties of the unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs)-agave cantala roxb based composite are investigated in this paper. The cantala fiber woven in 3D angle interlock was utilized as the composite reinforcement. Surface grafting of the cantala fiber through chemical treatment was performed by introducing silane coupling agent to improving the compatibility with the polymer matrix. The fabrication of the composite specimens was conducted using vacuum bagging technique. The effect of additional coupling agent to the morphological appearance of surface fracture was observed using scanning electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the influence of additional silane to the mechanical properties was examined using tensile, bending and impact test. The photograph of surface fracture on the treated specimens showed the residual matrix left on the fibers in which the phenomenon was not found in the untreated specimens. Based on mechanical tests, the treated specimens were successfully increased their mechanical properties by 55%, 9.67%, and 92.4% for tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact strength, respectively, at 1.5% silane coupling agent.

  15. Modifications of chemical functional groups of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb and its effect towards biosorption of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Mohd Zamri, E-mail: zamriab@petronas.com.my; Ismail, Siti Salwa [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The utilization of non-living biomass as an alternative biosorbent for heavy metal removal has gain a tremendous consideration through the years. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb or pandan leaves, which is widely used as food additives in the South East Asia region, has been selected for its viability in the said effort due to the presence of chemical functional groups on its cellular network that enables the sorption to occur. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms participated during the heavy metal removal process, the biosorbent undergone a series of modification techniques to alter the chemical functional groups present on its constituent. From the outcome of the chemically-modified biosorbent being subjected to the contact with metal cations, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups present on the biosorbent are believed to be responsible for the metal uptake to occur through complexation mechanism. Modifying amine groups causes 14% reduction of Cu(II) uptake, whereas removing protein element increases the uptake to 26% as compared to the unmodified biosorbent. Also, scanning electron micrographs further suggested that the adsorption mechanism could perform in parallel, as attributed to the evidence of porous structure throughout the biosorbent fibrous nature.

  16. In vitro activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from the rhizome of Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) against Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. on Candida albicans biofilms at adherent, intermediate, and mature phase of growth. C. albicans biofilms were formed in flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates. The biofilms of C. albicans at different phases of development were exposed to xanthorrhizol at different concentrations (0.5 µg/mL-256 µg/mL) for 24 h. The metabolic activity of cells within the biofilms was quantified using the XTT reduction assay. Sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) were determined at 50% and 80% reduction in the biofilm OD₄₉₀ compared to the control wells. The SMIC₅₀ and SMIC₈₀ of xanthorrhizol against 18 C. albicans biofilms were 4--16 µg/mL and 8--32 µg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the activity of xanthorrhizol in reducing C. albicans biofilms OD₄₉₀ was dependent on the concentration and the phase of growth of biofilm. Xanthorrhizol at concentration of 8 µg/mL completely reduced in biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at adherent phase, whereas 32 µg/mL of xanthorrhizol reduced 87.95% and 67.48 % of biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at intermediate and mature phases, respectively. Xanthorrhizol displayed potent activity against C. albicans biofilms in vitro and therefore might have potential therapeutic implication for biofilm-associated candidal infections.

  17. Dietary kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) flesh inhibits triacylglycerol absorption and lowers the risk for development of fatty liver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masao; Ueda, Takatoshi; Nagata, Kazuko; Shiratake, Sawako; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Kawakami, Mitsuo; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi; Shirouchi, Bungo; Imaizumi, Katsumi

    2011-10-01

    Kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) is a cucurbitaceous vegetable native to India and Bangladesh. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.), a species related to kakrol, has been shown to have pharmacological properties including antidiabetic and antisteatotic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary kakrol on lipid metabolism in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN-76 formula diets containing 3% freeze-dried powders of whole kakrol or bitter gourd for two weeks. Results showed significantly lowered liver cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats fed on both diets. Fecal lipid excretion increased in rats fed the kakrol diet, and lymphatic transport of triacylglycerol and phospholipids decreased in rats fed the kakrol diet after permanent lymph cannulation. Furthermore, n-butanol extract from kakrol caused a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. These results indicate that the mechanisms of action on lipid metabolism in kakrol and bitter gourd are different and that dietary kakrol reduces liver lipids by inhibiting lipid absorption.

  18. THE EXTRACT OF PANDAN LEAF (Pandanus amaryllifous Roxb AS CORROSION INHIBITORS OF SS-304 IN H2SO4 SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kayadoe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the efficiency of inhibition and corrosion rate of SS-304 in H2SO4 solution using the extract of pandan leaf (Pandanus amaryllifous Roxb by gravimetric method. The extract of pandan leaf was obtained by maceration extraction using ethanol. Based on phytochemical test, it is found that there are several compounds of secondary metabolites of flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinonoid, and tannins in the exract of pandan leaf. In the corrosion inhibition test, it was performed various concentration toward the extract of pandan leaf and temperature to determine its effect on corrosion inhibition efficiency of SS-304 in H2SO4 1 M solution for 3 hours. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency significantly increases with the increasing of inhibitor concentration, which means the reduction in the corrosion rate. The optimum inhibition efficiency was obtained at inhibitor concentration of 0.8%, which was 89.06% with a corrosion rate of 5.15 mm/year. Conversely, the increasing of temperatures caused the reduction of inhibition efficiency, which means the increasing of corrosion rate. The lowest efficiency was obtained at a temperature of 50 °C, which was 11.56% with corrosion rate of 74.33% mm/year

  19. 羊奶果果糕加工工艺的研究%The study on the processing technique of elaeagnus conferta roxb fruite paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔硕

    2012-01-01

    以羊奶果为试材,通过复合胶、糖配比、料液比三个因素的L9 (33)正交试验,确定羊奶果糕的最佳工艺配方:复合胶为2%瓜尔豆胶加1%卡拉胶,糖配比为30%蔗糖加30%麦芽糖浆,料液比为1∶1.5,制作的果糕产品为番茄红色,酸甜适宜,口感细腻,组织柔软,富有弹性,具有羊奶果特有的色香味,产品综合评分最高.%Processing technology and key points of preserved fruit made by elaeagnus conferta roxb were introduced in the article. Elaeagnus conferta roxb was main raw material, meanwhile orthogonal test L, ( 33 ) was carried with three factors, compound gums, sugar ratio and liquid ratio. The optimum formula was gained in this experiment. It was that compound gums were composed of 2% guar gum and 1% carrageenan, sugar ratio consisted of 30% sucrose and 30% maltose syrup, and the liquid ratio was 1 : 15. Foremost, high quality product with elaeagnus conferta roxb unique flavor can be get at the basic, which have a sweet and sour moderate, delicate taste, feel soft and elastic, and it has the highest comprehensive score.

  20. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and platelet aggregation inhibitory activity of a novel molecule isolated and characterized from mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; K Rehna; L Jaganmohan Rao; S M Aradhya

    2010-06-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome is used in the manufacture of pickles and other food preparations due to its unique raw mango flavour. The chloroform extract of mango ginger rhizome was subjected to antibacterial activity-guided purification by repeated silica gel column chromatography to obtain a pure compound. The structure of the isolated compound was deduced by analysing UV, IR, LC-MS and 2D-HMQCT NMR spectral data, and named it as amadaldehyde, a novel compound. It exhibited a wide range of antibacterial activity with potential bactericidal activity against several bacteria. The purified compound also exhibited antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and platelet aggregation inhibitory activities.

  1. Asepsis Sowing and Rapid Propagation of Dendrobium pendulum Roxb.%肿节石解的无菌播种和快速繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍丽丽; 潘会堂; 张启翔

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 植物名称肿节石解(Dendrobium pendulum Roxb.). 2 材料类别成熟种子. 3 培养条件以N6和MS为基本培养基.种子萌发培养基:(1)N6;(2)MS;(3)1/2MS;(4)VW(VacinWent培养基);(5)MS+椰乳100 mg·L~(-1)(单位下同).

  2. Utilización del azul bromofenol para la determinación de la albura y el duramen en Gmelina arborea (Roxb)

    OpenAIRE

    Zeledón, Danny; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica

    2012-01-01

    Algunas especies forestales como el laurel (Cordia alliodora) presentan una clara diferencia acentuada de color entre la albura y el duramen, en algunas otras esta diferencia no es clara. Para estudios de crecimiento y propiedades dela madera de una determinada especie, el conocer la proporción de albura y duramen es de mucha utilidad; es por ello que se desarrolló un método práctico y sencillo, denominado colorimétrico, para demarcar dichos tejidos enmelina (Gmelina arborea (Roxb)), cuya dif...

  3. Profiles of steroidal saponins from the aerial parts of Tribulus pentandrus, T. megistopterus subsp. pterocarpus and T. parvispinus by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Arafa I; Janda, Bogdan; Mahalel, Usama A; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    Tribulus is a well-known pharmaceutical herb that has been used for a long time in the traditional Chinese and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. It has been found that the genus Tribulus is rich in biologically active furostane-, cholestane- and spirostane-type steroidal saponins. To develop a rapid, sensitive and accurate method based on liquid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) to identify different saponins in three species of the genus Tribulus, and to quantify the compounds that are already known. After extraction from the species studied, the extracts were subjected to HPLC analyses with an XTerra® MS C(18) -column and a binary mobile phase consisting of 0.05% formic acid in water and acetonitrile, and with an ESI-MS detection in the negative ion mode. Data were acquired and processed using the Xcalibur 1.3 software. The results exhibited that the profiles of native steroidal glycosides of both T. pentandrus and T. megistopterus subsp. pterocarpus were very similar to each other, but that of T. parvispinus was remarkably different. The fragmentation patterns provided evidence that the saponins possess spirostane-, cholestane- and furostane-type aglycones. Quantitative analyses suggested that these species are a rich source of steroidal saponins. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of the key compounds without preparative isolation of the components from the crude extract of Tribulus species. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Genetic diversity patterns and functional traits of Bradyrhizobium strains associated with Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. in Caribbean islands and Amazonian forest (French Guiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Christine; Muller, Félix; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Dreyfus, Bernard; Béna, Gilles; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou M

    2014-08-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. is a legume tree native to the Caribbean islands and South America growing as a dominant species in swamp forests. To analyze (i) the genetic diversity and (ii) the symbiotic properties of its associated nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, root nodules were collected from P. officinalis distributed in 16 forest sites of the Caribbean islands and French Guiana. The sequencing of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer region (ITS) showed that all bacteria belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Bacteria isolated from insular zones showed very close sequence homologies with Bradyrhizobium genospecies V belonging to the Bradyrhizobium japonicum super-clade. By contrast, bacteria isolated from continental region displayed a larger genetic diversity and belonged to B. elkanii super-clade. Two strains from Puerto Rico and one from French Guiana were not related to any known sequence and could be defined as a new genospecies. Inoculation experiments did not show any host specificity of the Bradyrhizobium strains tested in terms of infectivity. However, homologous Bradyrhizobium sp. strain-P. officinalis provenance associations were more efficient in terms of nodule production, N acquisition, and growth than heterologous ones. The dominant status of P. officinalis in the islands may explain the lower bacterial diversity compared to that found in the continent where P. officinalis is associated with other leguminous tree species. The specificity in efficiency found between Bradyrhizobium strains and host tree provenances could be due to a coevolution process between both partners and needs to be taken in consideration in the framework of rehabilitation plantation programs.

  5. Effect of homopterocarpin, an isoflavonoid from Pterocarpus erinaceus, on indices of liver injury and oxidative stress in acetaminophen-provoked hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, Afolabi C; Olaleye, M Tolulope; Komolafe, Kayode; Adetuyi, Abayomi O; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A

    2015-11-01

    Novel hepatoprotectives are needed to address the increasing cases of liver problems worldwide. Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir (Fabaceae) ethanol stem bark extract (PE) and its constituent flavonoid, homopterocarpin (HP), were investigated for their protective property in acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress and liver damage. Adult male albino rats were divided into nine groups. Seven groups were pretreated with PE (50-, 100-, and 150 mg/kg), HP (25-, 50-, and 75 mg/kg) or silymarin (25 mg/kg), respectively, once daily for 5 consecutive days and then administered acetaminophen (2 g/kg) on the 5th day. The control and acetaminophen-intoxicated groups received normal saline throughout the experimental period, with the latter group additionally receiving 2 g/kg acetaminophen on the 5th day. Administrations were performed po. In the acetaminophen-intoxicated group, there were significant increases (p<0.05) in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (31.72±3.3 vs. 22.1±1.2 U/I), aspartate aminotransferase (185.1±10.1 vs. 103.83±13.3 U/I), bilirubin level and hepatic malondialdehyde (2.32±0.3 vs. 1.42±0.1 units/mg protein), accompanied with significant decreases (p<0.05) in hepatic reduced glutathione level (0.10±0.01 vs. 0.23±0.03 units/mg protein) and glutathione peroxidase activity (2.51±0.2 vs. 3.25±0.2 μmol H2O2 consumed/min/mg protein) compared with the control. PE and HP ameliorated most of the observed biochemical alterations with HP appearing to show more potency. The results suggest that the flavonoid, homopterocarpin contributes to the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potentials of P. erinaceus extract.

  6. Composition en vitamines et en minéraux des graines de Pterocarpus santalinoides L'Hér. ex De. (Papilionoideae, une plante alimentaire et médicinale de l'Afrique de l'Ouest

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    Ayéna, AC.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins and Minerals Composition in Pterocarpus santalinoides L'Hér. ex De (Papilionoideae Seeds: a Food and Medicinal Plant of West Africa. Studies were undertaken in order to contribute to the reduction of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals through the use of natural resources.Vitamins and micronutrients compositions of raw or cooked seeds of P. santalinoides L'Hér. ex De. (Papilionoideae, morphotypes 1 and 2 were determined by standardized methods AFNOR and AOAC. In the dry matter, the pro vitamin A content levels ranged from 7 to 100 µg/g and those of vitamin C from 40.103to 155.103 µg/g. The mean levels of total ash, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, calcium, iron and chloride in the dry materials were respectively 3.54%; 0.12%; 0.68% ; 0.26% ; 0.06% ; 0.07% ; 0.05% ; 0.42%. Cooking caused vitamin reductions. Raw and cooked seeds can contribute to improve pro vitamin A and vitamin C intake. The results of this study show the relevance of valorizing of Pterocarpus santalinoide.

  7. Inhibition of AKT signaling by supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Portalatin, Gilda; Quirin, Karl-W; Escalon, Enrique; Khatib, Ziad; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a less-investigated herb for anticancer properties than other related Curcuma species. AKT (a serine/threonine protein kinase B, originally identified as an oncogene in the transforming retrovirus AKT8) plays a central role in the development and promotion of cancer. In this investigation, we have analyzed the effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) on the genetic pathways associated with AKT signaling in human glioblastoma cells. The inhibitory effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada) on AKT signaling was investigated in U-87MG glioblastoma cells. CA was highly cytotoxic to glioblastoma cell line (IC50=4.92±0.81 µg/mL) compared to mHypoE-N1 normal mouse hypothalamus cell line (IC50=40.57±0.06 µg/mL). CA inhibits AKT (protein Kinase B) and adenosine monophophate -activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) phosphorylation significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The cell migration which is necessary for invasion and metastasis was also inhibited by CA treatment, with about 43% reduction at 20 µg/mL concentration. Analysis of mRNA and protein expression of genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation and angiogenesis showed that CA modulates expression of genes associated with apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, BNIP3, caspase-3, mutant p53 and p21), cell proliferation (Ki67) and angiogenesis vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Additionally, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and AMPKα genes interacting with the AKT signaling pathway were also downregulated by CA treatment. These results indicate the molecular targets and mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of CA in human glioblastoma cells.

  8. Activity of panduratin A isolated from Kaempferia pandurata Roxb. against multi-species oral biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti; Rukayadi, Yaya; Lee, Kwan-Hyoung; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2009-03-01

    The formation of dental biofilm caused by oral bacteria on tooth surfaces is the primary step leading to oral diseases. This study was performed to investigate the preventive and reducing effects of panduratin A, isolated from Kaempferia pandurata Roxb., against multi-species oral biofilms consisting of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of panduratin A was determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution assay. Prevention of biofilm formation was performed on 96-well microtiter plates by coating panduratin A in mucin at 0.5-40 microg/ml, followed by biofilm formation at 37 degrees C for 24 h. The reducing effect on the preformed biofilm was tested by forming the biofilm at 37 degrees C for 24 h, followed by treatment with panduratin A at 0.2-10 microg/ml for up to 60 min. Panduratin A showed a MIC of 1 microg/ml for multi-species strains. Panduratin A at 2 x MIC for 8 h exhibited bactericidal activity against multi-species planktonic cells for 8 h. At 8 x MIC, panduratin A was able to prevent biofilm formation by > 50%. Biofilm mass was reduced by > 50% after exposure to panduratin A at 10 microg/ml for 15 min. Panduratin A showed a dose-dependent effect in preventing and reducing the biofilm. These results suggest that panduratin A is applicable as a natural anti-biofilm agent to eliminate oral bacterial colonization during early dental plaque formation.

  9. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF Ailanthus excelsa ROXB IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION POST MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: STUDY IN CHRONIC ISCHEMIC RAT MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Thia study evaluates the effects of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb methanolic extract (AER-ME) in rats induced with Myocardial Infarction (MI) followed by transplantation of MSCs. Rats were induced with MI by ligation technique of left coronary artery. The sham-operated the control and AER-ME treated group of rats received transplantation of PKH-26 and marked MSCs followed by normal saline and AER-ME treatment (200mg/kg/day of AER-ME extract) respectively for 30 days. Parameters such as cardiac function, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and differentiation of MSCs (angiogenesis) were evaluated. Histological studies of infracted myocardium reveled anti-inflammatory activity of AER-ME treatment. Oxidative stress parameters revealed decrease in levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) activity significantly indicating antioxidant activity of the extract. There was a reduction in cell death rate of treated rats due to the decrease in apoptotic index with prolongation of MI when compared to both control and sham-operated groups. The expression of Fas protein was parallel to apoptotic index. The vascular density increased significantly in extract treated group. The treatment showed improved cardiac activity with decreased left ventricular end diastolic (LVEDP) and arterial pressure while the left ventricular end systolic pressure (LVEP) and dp/dtmax increased significantly when compared to both control and sham-operated groups respectively showing the protective effect of the extract as necessitated by the transplantation of MSCs. The study marked the protective outcomes of AER-ME treatment for MSCs in microenvironment of infracted myocardium by improving their viability and increasing differentiation into cardiomyocytes.

  10. ETHNOBOTANICAL USES OF LANTANA TRIFOLIA L. AND SIDA CUNEIFOLIA ROXB. IN MUKUNGWE AND WABINYONYI SUB-COUNTIES OF CENTRAL UGANDA

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    Rebecca Nalubega

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This was an ethnobotanical study that was carried out to establish the traditional uses of Lantana trifolia L. and Sida cuneifolia Roxb. plants in selected parts of Central Uganda. Methods: The ethnobotanical study was done in August and September, 2012 in Mukungwe and Wabinyonyi sub-counties in Masaka and Nakasongola Districts respectively located in Central Uganda. Study sites and respondents were purposefully selected and information was obtained through semi-structured interview guides, key informant interview guides as well as observations. Eighty respondents were considered for semi-structured interviews and 15 for key informant interviews. Results: Seven ethnobotanical uses for Lantana trifolia were cited by respondents and majority (46.25% of them used it as a herbal remedy. As a herbal remedy, Lantana trifolia managed 13 human disease conditions and mainly used in the management of cough and common colds by 22.5% of the respondents. Four ethnobotanical uses were cited for Sida cuneifolia and majority of the respondents (62.5% used it as a herbal remedy as well as sweeping brooms. As a herbal remedy, Sida cuneifolia was reported to be useful in management of 12 disease conditions, fractures and sprains (bone setting being mentioned by the majority of the of respondents (36.25 %. Conclusion: In conclusion, Lantana trifolia and Sida cuneifolia were culturally important ethnomedicines. Scientific validation of traditional claims as well as conservation of these plants should be encouraged in order to preserve and promote their use. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 155-164

  11. Kinetics of Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase Using Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats.: A Potential Antidepressant Herbal Ingredient with Antioxidant Activity.

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    Gacche, R N; Shaikh, R U; Chapole, S M; Jadhav, A D; Jadhav, S G

    2011-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and effect of Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. (Poaceae) leaves on the activity of monoamine oxidase and kinetics of enzyme inhibition. Ethanol extract of C. martinii and rat brain mitochondrial monoamine oxidase preparation ware used to study the kinetics of enzyme inhibition using double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot. The DPPH was used as a source of free radical to evaluate antioxidant potential. It is observed that, the ethanolic extract of C. martinii inhibits the monoamine oxidase activity with competitive mode of inhibition. The V(max) (0.01 mM/min) remained constant while, K(m) varied from 21.00 ± 1.1, 43.33 ± 1.5 and 83.33 ± 1.4 mM for 100-500 μg/ml concentration of C. martinii. The K(i) values were calculated to be 90.00 ± 0.87, 75.00 ± 0.69, 68.18 ± 0.68 μg for 100-500 μg/ml concentration of C. martini. It also shows a significant DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine) radical scavenging (IC(50) = 0.34 ± 0.05 mg/ml) and reducing activity (IC(50) = 0.70 ± 0.22 mg/ml). The C. martini can be considered as a possible source of MAO inhibitor used in the treatment of depression and other neurological disorders.

  12. An Efficient Protocol for Preparation of Gallic Acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb by Combination of Macroporous Resin and Preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Denglang; Chen, Tao; Chen, Chen; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Yongling; Li, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    In this article, macroporous resin column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography were applied for preparation of gallic acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. In the first step, six kinds of resins were investigated by adsorption and desorption tests and AB-8 macroporous resin was selected for the enrichment of gallic acid. As a result, 20 g of gallic acid at a purity of 71% could be separated from 100 g of crude extract in which the content of gallic acid was 16.7% and the recovery of gallic acid reached 85.0%. In the second step, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was selected to purify gallic acid. As a result, 640 mg of gallic acid at a purity of 99.1% was obtained from 1 g of sample in 35 min. The results demonstrated that macroporous resin coupled with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was suitable for preparation of gallic acid from T. bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

  13. Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. essential oil slows hair-growth and lightens skin in axillae; a randomised, double blinded trial.

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    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Jaisabai, Jiraporn; Luangtoomma, Nantakarn; Waranuch, Neti; Khorana, Nantaka; Wisuitiprot, Wudtichai; Scholfield, C Norman; Champachaisri, Katechan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2017-02-15

    Androgenic hair-growth contributes to secondary gender characteristics but can be troublesome in women. Inhibiting axillary hair-growth via 5-α-reductases using the Thai medicinal plant, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. is an attractive treatment strategy. C. aeruginosa essential oil (CA-oil) formulated as a lotion is an efficacious and safe inhibitor of axillary hair growth. This trial was a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 10 weeks, intervention in 60 women (18-23 years) and 2 weeks washout with axillary hair length was the primary end-point. Bioactive-enriched essential oil of C. aeruginosa was formulated with a base lotion. All participants were pre-challenged with lotions by 4-h patch irritation tests to exclude skin reactions. Participants were randomly allocated to use either 1 or 5%w/w CA-oil lotion on one axilla and base-lotion (placebo) to the other for 10 weeks followed by placebo in both axillae for 2 weeks. Every week, the axillae were photographed to measure hair lengths, shaved, and roll-on applicators containing appropriate lotion replaced. Also, skin melanin by spectrophotometry and hair density were measured. From weeks 5-11 of trial, 1 and 5%w/w CA-oil retarded growth by 13 ± 1.5% and 16 ± 0.9% respectively, while placebo was ineffective. CA-oil had no influence on hair density. Both concentrations of CA-oil rapidly and equally effectively brightened skin within 3 weeks which persisted 2 weeks after treatment ceased while placebo darkened the skin. Adherence appeared good as judged by consistency of lotion consumption and between axillae. Participants were satisfied with the treatment and reported reduced hairiness, freedom from any discomforts, but product odour attracted some negative comment. No adverse reactions ascribed to CA-oil were detected or reported. This study points to a safe and efficacious dual action on retarding hair-growth and skin lightening by CA-oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  14. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

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    Wibool Ridtitid

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P<0.05, 18.6% (P<0.01 and 24.7% (P<0.01, respectively, compared to the reference drug aspirin 200 mg/kg p.o. with an inhibition of 33.3% (P<0.01. Only the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant inhibition ofcarrageenan-induced rat paw edema beginning at 2 h of 11.8% (P<0.01 and at 3, 4 and 5 h of 24.7% (P< 0.01, 14.1% (P<0.01 and 11.9% (P<0.01, respectively, whereas the reference drug aspirin 200 mg/kg p.o. exhibited a significant inhibition of edema beginning at 1 h of 15.6% (P<0.05 and at 2, 3, 4 and 5 h of 31.8% (P<0.01, 33.3% (P<0.01, 30.4% (P<0.01 and 30.2% (P<0.01, respectively. The methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. did not decrease brewerís yeast-induced pyrexia in rats, whereas aspirin at the dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant antipyretic activity by reducing fever in this animal model. In acute toxicity test, the methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum leaves at the dose of 5g/kg did not produce any abnormal symptoms or mortality in rats.

  15. Dormancy Breaking and Storage Behavior of Garcinia cowa Roxb. (Guttiferae) Seeds: Implications for Ecological Function and Germplasm Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LIU; Yu-Ping QIU; Ling ZHANG; Jin CHEN

    2005-01-01

    The dormancy breaking and storage behavior of Garcinia cowa Roxb. seeds were investigated.The seeds of G. cowa had 8-11 months dormancy in their natural habitat. Seeds were matured and dispersed at the end of the rainy season (mid-late August to late September) and were scatter-hoarded by rodents as food for winter after the seeds had fallen to the ground. Seedlings often emerged in the forest during the rainy season (May to August) the following year. Intact seeds of G. cowa failed to germinate after being sown at 30 ℃ for 120 d and the mean germination time (MGT) of seeds cultured in a shade (50% sunlight)nursery was 252 d. The most effective method of breaking dormancy was to remove the seed coat totally,which reduced the MGT to 13 d at 30 ℃. Germination was also promoted by partial removal of the seed coat (excising the hilum and exposing the radicle) and chemical scarification (immersion in 1% H2O2 for 1 d).Unscarified seeds take up water rapidly in the first 96 h, but water was absorbed by the outside seed coat,without penetrating through it. The moisture content (MC) of G. cowa seeds was high (50% in fresh weight)at shedding. The seeds could tolerate desiccation to some extent, until the MC reached approximately 40%;below that, the viability decreases rapidly and all seeds died at approximately 17% of MC. Seed viability decreased rapidly when seeds were chilled at 4 ℃; germination was 2% after storage for 1 week. Even stored at 10 ℃, seeds began to be damaged after 4 weeks. Seed storage for 1 yr revealed that in both dry (relative humidity (35 ± 5)%) and moist (wet sand) storage conditions, seed viability declined, but germination percentages for seeds stored under moist conditions are better than for seed stored under dry conditions.Because of their low tolerance to desiccation, marked chilling sensitivity and relatively short lifespan, G.cowa seeds should be classified into the tropical recalcitrant category. The ecological implications of dormant

  16. Indirect organogenesis from various explants of Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott & Endl. – A threatened tree species from Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

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    A.R. Lavanya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hildegardia species are an important resource for fiber industry. This investigation was conducted to develop a plant regeneration protocol for Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott & Endl. via indirect organogenesis Callus was obtained from leaf, internode and petiole explants, among these explants internode explant gave best result on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The highest percentage (100% of regeneration was obtained with benzyladenine (BA (2.0 mg/l + indole-3-acetic acid (IAA (0.1 mg/l + glutamine (25 mg/l + thidiazuron (TDZ (0.5 mg/l from internode explants. Shootlets were highly rooted on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. In vitro rooted seedlings were successfully acclimatized. This in vitro regeneration system will facilitate further development of reliable procedures for this genus.

  17. Germacrane sesquiterpenes isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. inhibit UVB-induced upregulation of MMP-1, -2, and -3 expression in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hae; Mohamed, Mohamed Antar Aziz; Jung, Ye-Jin; Shrestha, Sabina; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Chang-Ho; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Jiyoung; Baek, Nam-In

    2015-10-01

    Four sesquiterpenes were isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.: furanodiene (1), germacrone (2), furanodienone (3), and 13-hydroxygermacrone (4). Importantly, this was the first time compounds 1 and 4 were isolated from this plant. The chemical structures of these compounds were determined using 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and electron ionization mass spectrometry analyses. Among the isolated compounds, compounds 2 and 4 inhibited UVB-induced upregulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3 in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Moreover, this upregulation occurred in a dose-dependent manner over the range of 1-10 μM for each compound.

  18. Changes in Herbaceous Species Composition in the Absence of Disturbance in a Cenchrus biflorus Roxb. Invaded Area in Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana

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    Shimane W. Makhabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A-nine year study was carried out to investigate changes in herbaceous species composition in an area invaded by Cenchrus biflorus Roxb, an exotic invader grass species. The study ensued termination of livestock and human activities in the area when residents of the area were relocated to another area. Vegetation characteristics from the disturbed sites (previous occupied areas and undisturbed sites (previously unoccupied areas were determined. The results show that C. biflorus has high tolerance to disturbance. It comprised the larger proportion of grasses in disturbed sites at the inception of the study. However, it decreased in abundance with time in disturbed areas and was absent in the undisturbed areas, suggesting that its ability to invade undisturbed sites is limited. Perennial species successfully reestablished on the third year after termination of disturbance. The study reveals that C. biflorus invasion in the Kalahari ecosystem can be controlled by termination of disturbances.

  19. In vitro evidence for the protective role of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb extract against LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjisinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate protective role of S. rhomboidea. Roxb (SR) leaf extract against in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) induced macrophage apoptosis. Copper and cell-mediated LDL oxidation, Ox-LDL-induced peroxyl radical generation, mitochondrial activity, and apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) were assessed in presence of SR extract. Results clearly indicated that SR was capable of reducing LDL oxidation and formation of intermediary oxidation products. Also, SR successfully attenuated peroxyl radical formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, nuclear condensation, and apoptosis in Ox-LDL-exposed HMDMs. This scientific report is the first detailed investigation that establishes anti-atherosclerotic potential of SR extract.

  20. Urinary stone formation: Efficacy of seed extract of Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman on growth inhibition of calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, K. J.; George, K. V.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of aqueous seed extract of Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman on in vitro crystallization and growth patterns of calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O, CHPD) crystals was studied using single diffusion gel growth technique. Reduction in growth of CHPD crystals was noticed with increasing concentrations of seed extract. The morphology of CHPD or brushite crystals was studied by microscopy. The structural changes of the treated crystals were assessed by SEM, FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DTA analysis. It is expected that this multidisciplinary approach for in vitro crystallization and characterization of CHPD crystals will provide a better explanation to develop novel strategies for prevention of urinary stones.

  1. Microwave-assisted extraction of Lupeol from Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. growing on different hosts and its quantitation by high-performance thin layer chromatography

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    Sunita Shailajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE of phytochemicals has grown as a promising technique in recent years. MAE method was developed for extraction of Lupeol from Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. growing on different hosts. An open vessel modified microwave system has been used for extraction of Lupeol. Various critical parameters such as use of solvent, solvent volume, power and time of irradiation were optimized. Methanol was selected as an extraction solvent based on its high dielectric constant value and maximum solubility of Lupeol. The solvent volume, microwave power and irradiation time were optimized to 10 mL, 160 Watts and 3 min respectively. The developed method is a good alternative to time consuming conventional extraction techniques.

  2. PERBANDINGAN AKTIVITAS REPELAN ANTARA KRIM MINYAK ATSIRI JAHE (Zingiber offinale, Roxb DENGAN KRIM MINYAK ATSIRI SERE (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C Stapf TERHADAP NYAMUK Aedes aegypti BETINA

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    Azis Ikhsanudin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The one efforts to prevent dengue fever is to prevent mosquito bites by using mosquito repellent preparations. The nature of the toxicity of synthetic repellent be the reason for the research came from the plant. Sere and ginger into one of mosquito repellent plant because it contains of natural essential oils are many. The aim of this study was to determine the comparative ability repelan effects of essential oils cream sere (Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roxb. The essential oil of sere (Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roxb, obtained by isolation of leaves and rhizome by steam distillation of water which is then tested physical properties including test of adhesion, test of spreadability and test of mosquito repellent activities. The test of mosquito repellent activities using 20 birds Aedes aegypti mosquito female per cage with the using hand of women as volunteers as much as 4 people. In this study were divided into sixth formulas of test. The sixth of cream formula with variations in the concentration of essential oils sere and ginger wherein the formula I, II and III contain essential oils sere as much as 20% v/w; 30% v/ w and 40% v/w, whereas for formula IV; V; and VI contain the essential oil of ginger as much as 6.25% v/w; 12.5% v/w and 25% v/w. Data of physical properties test were analyzed statistically using SPSS. The results showed the cream with the concentration of essential oils sere 40% v/w (FIII have better outcomes than others formulas cream, where than of adhesion test is 0.46 ± 0.04 seconds; of the spreadibility test is 56.32 ± 14.78 cm2 and repellent effect of 3014.2 ± 20.16 seconds.

  3. Quorum quenching activity in cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria isolated from Pterocarpus santalinus Linn., and its effect on quorum sensing regulated biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P S; Ravishankar Rai, V

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing mechanism allows the microorganisms to resist the antibiotic treatment by forming biofilms. Quorum quenching is one of the mechanisms to control the development of drug resistance in microbes. Endophyte bacteria are beneficial to plant growth as they support the immune system against the pathogen attack. The endophytic bacteria present in Pterocarpus santalinus were screened for the presence of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) degrading bacteria using biosensor strains and further confirmed by quantifying the violacein production. Cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus firmus PT18 and Enterobacter asburiae PT39 exhibited potent AHL degrading ability by inhibiting about 80% violacein production in biosensor strain. Furthermore, when the cell-free lysate was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAO1-JP2 biofilm it resulted in significant (p<0.01) inhibition of biofilm formation. The biofilm inhibition was confirmed by visualization of biofilm slides under fluorescence microscopy, which showed decrease in total biomass formation in treated slides. Isolation and amplification of the gene (aiiA) indicated that the presence of AHL lactonase in cell-free lysate and sequence alignment indicated that AiiA contains a "HXHXDH" zinc-binding motif that is being conserved in several groups of metallohydrolases. Therefore, the study shows the potential of AHLs degradation by AHL lactonase present in cell-free lysate of isolated endophytic bacteria and inhibition of quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Organic Amendments to Enhance Growth of Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Müll. Arg. in Iron Ore Mine Wastelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Cassie R; Rodrigues, Bernard F

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Mull. Arg. is a disturbance tolerant plant species with potential in mine wasteland reclamation. Our study aims at studying the phyto-extraction potential of M. peltata and determining plant-soil interaction factors effecting plant growth in iron ore mine spoils. Plants were grown in pure mine spoil and spoil amended with Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and Vermicompost (VC) along with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Rhizophagus irregularis. Pure and amended mine spoils were evaluated for nutrient status. Plant growth parameters and foliar nutrient contents were determined at the end of one year. FYM amendment in spoil significantly increased plant biomass compared to pure mine spoil and VC amended spoil. Foliar Fe accumulation was recorded highest (594.67 μg/g) in pure spoil with no mortality but considerably affecting plant growth, thus proving to exhibit phyto-extraction potential. FYM and VC amendments reduced AM colonization (30.4% and 37% resp.) and plants showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency (-30.35 and -39.83 resp.). Soil pH and P levels and, foliar Fe accumulation are major factors determining plant growth in spoil. FYM amendment was found to be superior to VC as a spoil amendment for hastening plant growth and establishment in iron ore mine spoil.

  5. ISSR Marker Based Population Genetic Study of Melocanna baccifera (Roxb. Kurz: A Commercially Important Bamboo of Manipur, North-East India

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    Heikrujam Nilkanta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Melocanna baccifera (Roxb. Kurz is an economically important bamboo of North-East India experiencing population depletion in its natural habitats. Genetic variation studies were conducted in 7 populations sampled from 5 districts of Manipur using ISSR molecular markers. The investigation was carried out as a primary step towards developing effective conservation strategies for the protection of bamboo germplasm. ISSR marker analysis showed significant level of genetic variation within the populations as revealed by moderately high average values of Nei’s genetic diversity (H 0.1639, Shannon’s diversity index (I 0.2563, percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB 59.18, total genetic variation (Ht 0.1961, and genetic diversity within population (Hs 0.1639. The study also divulged a high genetic variation at species level with Shannon’s diversity index (I, Nei’s genetic diversity (H, and percentage of polymorphic band (PPB% recorded at 0.3218, 0.1939, and 88.37, respectively. Genetic differentiation among the populations (Gst was merely 19.42% leaving 80.58% of genetic variation exhibited within the populations. The low genetic diversity between populations was consistent with AMOVA. The low genetic differentiation among populations coupled with existence of significantly high genetic diversity at species level indicated the urgent necessity of preserving and protecting all the existing natural bamboo populations in the region.

  6. ISSR Marker Based Population Genetic Study of Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz: A Commercially Important Bamboo of Manipur, North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilkanta, Heikrujam; Amom, Thoungamba; Tikendra, Leimapokpam; Rahaman, Hamidur; Nongdam, Potshangbam

    2017-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz is an economically important bamboo of North-East India experiencing population depletion in its natural habitats. Genetic variation studies were conducted in 7 populations sampled from 5 districts of Manipur using ISSR molecular markers. The investigation was carried out as a primary step towards developing effective conservation strategies for the protection of bamboo germplasm. ISSR marker analysis showed significant level of genetic variation within the populations as revealed by moderately high average values of Nei's genetic diversity (H 0.1639), Shannon's diversity index (I 0.2563), percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB 59.18), total genetic variation (Ht 0.1961), and genetic diversity within population (Hs 0.1639). The study also divulged a high genetic variation at species level with Shannon's diversity index (I), Nei's genetic diversity (H), and percentage of polymorphic band (PPB%) recorded at 0.3218, 0.1939, and 88.37, respectively. Genetic differentiation among the populations (Gst) was merely 19.42% leaving 80.58% of genetic variation exhibited within the populations. The low genetic diversity between populations was consistent with AMOVA. The low genetic differentiation among populations coupled with existence of significantly high genetic diversity at species level indicated the urgent necessity of preserving and protecting all the existing natural bamboo populations in the region.

  7. Chemical constituents from the Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb%清香藤化学成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张予川; 楼丽丽; 孟大利; 李宁; 李铣

    2010-01-01

    目的 对中药清香藤(Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb.)的化学成分进行分离与鉴定.方法 采用反复硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20、重结晶等方法进行分离纯化,通过理化常数测定和光谱分析鉴定其化学结构.结果 从清香藤提取物的乙酸乙酯层中分离得到了8个化合物,即腺嘌呤核苷(adenosine,1)、咖啡酸(caffeic acid,2)、反式对香豆酸(E-p-coumatic acid,3)、白桦脂酸(betulinic acid,4)、松脂素((+)-pinoresinol,5)、Erythro-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-{4-[(E)-3-hydroxy-1-propenyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy}-1,3-propanediol(6)、threo-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-{4-[(E)-3-hydroxy-1-propenyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy}-1,3-propancdiol(7)、jasminlan A(8).结论 化合物1、2、5、6、7为首次从清香藤植物中分离得到.

  8. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb extract alleviates pathophysiological changes in experimental in vivo and in vitro models of high fat diet/fatty acid induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Dandekar, Deven S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate protective role of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) extract against high fat diet/fatty acid induced pathophysiological alterations in experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Effect of SR extract on plasma levels of markers of hepatic damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress, status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological changes in liver tissue were evaluated in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Also, the effect of SR supplementation on lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated in oleic acid treated HepG2 cells. Supplementation of NASH mice with SR extract prevented high fat diet induced elevation in plasma marker enzymes of liver damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress and compromised enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. Further, addition of SR extract to in vitro HepG2 cells minimized oleic acid induced lipid accumulation, higher lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and reduced cell viability. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SR extract has the potential of preventing high fat/fatty acid induced NASH mainly due to its hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Domestication, Conservation, and Livelihoods: A Case Study of Piper peepuloides Roxb.—An Important Nontimber Forest Product in South Meghalaya, Northeast India

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    H. Tynsong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild pepper (Piper peepuloides Roxb., family: Piperaceae is an evergreen climber which grows wild in tropical evergreen forests and subtropical evergreen forests of northeast India. This plant grows luxuriantly in the areas with high rainfall at lower elevations ranging from 100 to 800 m above mean sea level. In Meghalaya, to meet the market demand, farmers have domesticated it in arecanut agroforests and betel leaf agroforests. We found that the mean density of wild pepper in arecanut agroforest is 585 stem/ha and only 85 stem/ha in natural forest. In India, wild pepper is used in a variety of Ayurvedic medicines. Local people of Meghalaya uses powdered dry seeds mixed with honey and egg yolk for the treatment of severe cough. The study reveals that the average gross annual production of wild pepper is 7 quintals/ha, and final market price fetches Rs. 336,000/ha, out of which 42% of the money goes to the grower, 16% to local trader, 23% to dealer, 17% to retailer, 1.2% to wages of labourers, and 0.6% to transport.

  10. THE DIFFERENCE OF MACHINING PROPERTIES OF TIMO (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. And KABESAK WOOD (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. FROM EAST NUSA TENGGARA

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    Heny Rianawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Machining properties is one of the parameters to determine the quality of the wood. Tests on machining properties of wood are important to know the easiness level of workmanship as raw materials of furniture industry, construction wood and other wood products. This research was aimed at determining the difference of machining properties between timo wood (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. and kabesak wood (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. from the village of Reknamo, Kupang district, East Nusa Tenggara. Testing procedures were based on ASTM D1666 including: planning, shaping, sanding, drilling and turning. The observation of qualities of the machining were done visually by calculating the percentage of defects that arise on the surface of the samples after the machining process, then the qualities were classified into five quality classes. The results showed that the machining properties of timo wood and kabesak wood were very good and belonging to the quality of class I. The significant difference between the machining properties of both the timbers is in the sanding properties, where the average free defect of sanding timo wood is 85% while kabesak wood is 84.5%. Both timo and kabesak wood are suitable as raw material, for the variety of furniture and molding products.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-based Nanomaterials from Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq Wood Bark: an Organic Waste Material from Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology to produce nanomaterials from renewable bio-based materials, like wood bark, has great potential to benefit the wood processing industry. To support this issue, we investigated the production of bio-based nanomaterials using conventional balls milling. Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba(Roxb. Miq wood bark (JWB, an organic waste material from a community forest was subjected to conventional balls milling for 96 h and was converted into bio-based nanomaterial. The morphology and particle size, chemical components, functional groups and crystallinity of the bio-based nanomaterial were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, scanning electron microscopy extended with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The particle-sizes obtained for the JWB bio-based nanomaterial were between 43 nm to 469 nm and the functional groups were detected as cellulose. The chemical components found were carbon, oxygen, chloride, potassium and calcium, except for the sample produced from sieve type T14, which did not contain chloride. The crystalline structure was calcium oxalate hydrate (C2CaO4.H2O with crystalline sizes 21 nm and 15 nm, produced from sieve types T14 and T200 respectively.

  12. Optimization of reflux conditions for total flavonoid and total phenolic extraction and enhanced antioxidant capacity in Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%-80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40-70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20-40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan.

  13. Optimization of Reflux Conditions for Total Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Extraction and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity in Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF, total phenolics (TP, and high antioxidant capacity (AC in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%–80%, extraction temperature (ET, 40–70°C, and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20–40 mL/g on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan.

  14. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia

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    Halijah Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%, camphene (16.6% and 10.2%, β-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%, and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%, respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9% and β-pinene (20.2% and 19.0% were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits.

  15. Cytotoxicity study of ethanol extract of the stem bark of asam kandis (Garcinia cowa Roxb.) on T47D breast cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elidahanum; Husni; Faras; Nahari; Yan; Wirasti; Fatma; Sri; Wahyuni; Dachriyanus

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of the stem bark of asam kandis[Garcinia cowa Roxb.(G.cowa)]on T47 D breast cancer cell line.Methods:The cytotoxicity of ethanol extract was carried out against human breast cancer cell line(T47D) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay.The extract was added at various concentrations(0.1.1,10 and 100 μg/mL).The level of cytotoxicity was determined by calculating the level of IC50,that was based on the percentage of the cell death after 24 h treatment with the extract.Cell morphological changes were observed by using inverted microscope.Results:The 3-(4.5-dimelhylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltelrazolium bromide assay showed that ethanol extract of G.cowa exhibited significant cytotoxic effect on T47 D with IC50 value of(5.10+1.68) μg/mL.Morphological alteration of the cell lines after exposure to ethanol extract of G.cowa was observed under phase contrast microscope in a dosc-dependent manner.ConclusionsThe results suggest the possible use of ethanol extract of asam kandis for preparing herbal medicine for cancer-related ailments.

  16. Summary of Exploitation on Sapium sebiferum(L.) Roxb. Seeds%乌桕籽综合开发利用概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晖; 杨志斌; 胡静

    2011-01-01

    In order to further study on the utilization value of Sapium sebiferum(L.) Roxb.,which belongs to biomass energy.The authors illustrates the utilization value of its Seeds,which concluded the waxes,kernel and shell.Based on summarization the main application of its fat,kernel oil and seed shell,the author puts forward suggestions for solving practical problems and realizing efficient use of its seeds exploitation.%为了深入研究乌桕作为生物质能源的利用价值,笔者从乌桕籽蜡、仁、壳各部分利用价值等方面对乌桕籽的开发利用进行了阐述。通过综述乌桕籽所提取的皮油、梓油及籽壳的主要用途,对乌桕籽资源开发利用提出建议,从而解决实际应用中出现的问题,实现乌桕籽的高效利用。

  17. PENINGKATAN PENYEDIAAN BAHAN BAKU OBAT ALAMI BERSUMBER DARI TEMULAWAK Penelitan Produksi Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb Melalui Penggunaan Ukuran Bibit yang Berbeda

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    Kasiran Kasiran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The need of raw material for the natural medicine which is derived from Javanese turmeric, in Indonesia, has continuously increased. Traditional medicine industries needed 4,950 tons of them in 1997 and climbed to 8,104 tons in 2002. On the other hand, the production of Javanese turmeric was fluctuative during the period of 1996 to 2002, namely 4,616 tons in 1996 and 7,147 tons in 2002. To fulfill the need for the Javanese turmeric mentioned above is to make efforts of inreasing production. This research is carried out in efforts to increase the production of Javanese turmeric through a cultivation that applies seeds of different sizes. The research result has shown that the use of a seed with a size of 40 grams yields a bigger tuber that weighs 863,56 grams per plant. While the use of smaller size of seed (20 grams yields a smaller tuber weighing 740,52 grams per plant. Therefore, cultivation that uses a larger size of seed will be able to increase the Javanese turmeric tubers production which means the increase of supply for natural medicine's raw materials that derived from Javanese turmeric.Key words: curcuma xanthorriza roxb, natural medicine, raw material, javanese turmeric

  18. ISSR Marker Based Population Genetic Study of Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz: A Commercially Important Bamboo of Manipur, North-East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilkanta, Heikrujam; Amom, Thoungamba; Rahaman, Hamidur

    2017-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz is an economically important bamboo of North-East India experiencing population depletion in its natural habitats. Genetic variation studies were conducted in 7 populations sampled from 5 districts of Manipur using ISSR molecular markers. The investigation was carried out as a primary step towards developing effective conservation strategies for the protection of bamboo germplasm. ISSR marker analysis showed significant level of genetic variation within the populations as revealed by moderately high average values of Nei's genetic diversity (H 0.1639), Shannon's diversity index (I 0.2563), percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB 59.18), total genetic variation (Ht 0.1961), and genetic diversity within population (Hs 0.1639). The study also divulged a high genetic variation at species level with Shannon's diversity index (I), Nei's genetic diversity (H), and percentage of polymorphic band (PPB%) recorded at 0.3218, 0.1939, and 88.37, respectively. Genetic differentiation among the populations (Gst) was merely 19.42% leaving 80.58% of genetic variation exhibited within the populations. The low genetic diversity between populations was consistent with AMOVA. The low genetic differentiation among populations coupled with existence of significantly high genetic diversity at species level indicated the urgent necessity of preserving and protecting all the existing natural bamboo populations in the region. PMID:28168084

  19. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK NPK DAN KOMPOS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SEMAI JABON (ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA ROXB MIQ PADA MEDIA TANAH BEKAS TAMBANG EMAS (TAILING

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    Basuki Wasis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tailings is one of the waste generated in the gold mining activities that contain nutrients are low. One of the principles for the management of tailings is merevegetasi land disturbed so that the necessary selection of the type that can be developed, in this case Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb Miq. Is one type that is recommended to be developed in the post-mine land revegetation because it is a type of fast-growing and has a high adaptability to various soil types. Experimental design used in this study was factorial design with two factors. The first factor is fertilizer NPK with 4 level and the second factor is the compost with 4 level. The best dose of the combination of the two fertilizer on the growth of seedlings jabon is high NPK fertilizer with compost dose of 15 grams and 10 grams and diameter growth for seedlings jabon, the best dose is the dose of 15 grams of NPK fertilizer and compost 0 grams

  20. Safety assessment of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil, its antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activity and efficacy as antimicrobial in preservation of Piper nigrum L. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, N K

    2012-02-01

    The investigation deals with antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant efficacy of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil (EO), its two major constituents and their comparison with five commonly used organic acid preservatives. The chemical profile of EO, characterized through GC and GC-MS analysis, revealed linalool (56.10%) and methyl cinnamate (19.73%) as major components. The EO, linalool and methyl cinnamate completely inhibited the growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus (LHP-10) as well as aflatoxin B(1) secretion at different concentrations. Methyl cinnamate was found to be more efficacious than EO, linalool and five organic acid preservatives, showing antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy at a low concentration (0.6 μl/ml) and the nature of its toxicity was fungicidal. However, EO showed strong antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value at 5.6 μl/ml. Moreover, EO was found to have negligible mammalian toxicity as its LD(50) value, determined through oral administration on mice, was calculated to be 6124μl/kg body weight during safety profile assessment. During in vivo investigation on fruit systems, the Zanthoxylum EO, when tested as fumigant, provided 66.27% and 86.33% protection respectively at 1.25 μl/ml and 2.5 μl/ml against fungi infesting Piper nigrum L. fruits demonstrating its practical efficacy as a plant based antimicrobial for post harvest application.

  1. Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb; An Endemic Medicinal Plant of Assam Relieves Pain and Delays Nociceptive Response: An Assay for Its Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity

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    Nilutpal Sharma Bora

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Garcinia lanceifolia, a lesser known species of the genus Garcinia, was extracted with methanol after pretreatment with petroleum ether. The resultant extract was evaluated for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential using various models. The assays were carried out on adult male Wistar Albino rats. The analgesic activity was assayed by hot plate method and tail flick assay using Morphine sulphate as standard drug at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight and the results were expressed as mean increase in latency after drug administration ± SEM. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by Carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model using Diclofenac sodium as standard drug at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. The results were expressed in terms of mean increase in paw volume ± SEM. The extract of the stem bark was given in doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight. All the doses were administered per orally. Results reveal that Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb. posseses remarkable analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  2. Development and Function of Root System of Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb.%四角菱根系的发育和功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆昌燕; 刘体育; 郑兴峰

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] This paper aimed to explore the adaptive characteristics of development and function of the root system of Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb. [ Method ] Observation was conducted on the growth and development from the seedling cultivated in artificial water channels, and comparison in the cultivation was done of normal plants and treated plants in three groups of separately excising off adventitious roots,pinnate appendices (special adventitious roots) ,and adventitious roots and pinnate appendices [ Result ] The radical and the pinnate appendices both grew determinately, and the apex of radical presented browning death after the radical stopped growth. The adventitious roots on the base of radical and the node of stem grew downwards and spirally into the tier of soil under water body. The pinnate appendix was generally with four lines of branches in radial symmetry. After only the root,and both the adventitious root and the pinnate appendix were excised off, etiolating of the new floating leaf occurred, however,if only the pinnate appendix was cut away, the new floating leaf kept green. [ Conclusion ] The adventitious root system, which continually arose towards the stem apex along with growth of the stem and was in stead of the root system from the radical, can better fix its plant which was thin and floating in water body, and was with important absorption function. The pinnate appendix was a complementary photosynthetic organ of specialized adventitious root.%[目的]研究四角菱(Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb.)根系的发育和功能适应性特征.[方法]采用人工水槽对四角菱幼苗进行培养观察,设置切除不定根、切除羽状物(特化不定根)以及同时切除不定根和羽状物3个处理,并与正常生长的植株进行对比.[结果]四角菱的胚根和羽状物进行有限生长,胚根停止生长后顶端出现褐化死亡;胚根基部和茎节上的不定根向水底泥层生长,并在泥层中弯曲生

  3. Luffa echinata Roxb. Induces Human Colon Cancer Cell (HT-29 Death by Triggering the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway

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    Yan Yu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The antiproliferative properties and cell death mechanism induced by the extract of the fruits of Luffa echinata Roxb. (LER were investigated. The methanolic extract of LER inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (HT-29 in both dose-dependent and time-dependent manners and caused a significant increase in the population of apoptotic cells. In addition, obvious shrinkage and destruction of the monolayer were observed in LER-treated cells, but not in untreated cells. Analysis of the cell cycle after treatment of HT-29 cells with various concentrations indicated that LER extracts inhibited the cellular proliferation of HT-29 cells via G2/M phase arrest of the cell cycle. The Reactive oxygen species (ROS level determination revealed that LER extracts induced apoptotic cell death via ROS generation. In addition, LER treatment led to a rapid drop in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP as a decrease in fluorescence. The transcripts of several apoptosis-related genes were investigated by RT-PCR analysis. The caspase-3 transcripts of HT-29 cells significantly accumulated and the level of Bcl-XL mRNA was decreased after treatment with LER extract. Furthermore, the ratio of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis genes (Bax and Bcl-2 was sharply increased from 1.6 to 54.1. These experiments suggest that LER has anticancer properties via inducing the apoptosis in colon cancer cells, which provided the impetus for further studies on the therapeutic potential of LER against human colon carcinoma.

  4. Flower bud transcriptome analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn. Roxb. and primary investigation of drought induced flowering: pathway construction and G-quadruplex prediction based on transcriptome.

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    Minglei Yang

    Full Text Available Sapium sebiferum (Linn. Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA and triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRXⅡ39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants.

  5. Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2012-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 μM Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 μM activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes.

  6. Micropropagation and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent boswellic acid production in callus cultures of Boswellia serrata Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Tukaram D; Ghorpade, Ravi P; Nitnaware, Kirti M; Ahire, Mahendra L; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Chopra, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation through cotyledonary and leaf node and boswellic acid production in stem callus of a woody medicinal endangered tree species Boswellia serrata Roxb. is reported. The response for shoots, roots and callus formation were varied in cotyledonary and leafy nodal explants from in vitro germinated seeds, if inoculated on Murshige and Skoog's (MS) medium fortified with cytokinins and auxins alone or together. A maximum of 8.0 ± 0.1 shoots/cotyledonary node explant and 6.9 ± 0.1 shoots/leafy node explants were produced in 91 and 88 % cultures respectively on medium with 2.5 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 200 mg l(-1) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Shoots treated with 2.5 μM IBA showed the highest average root number (4.5) and the highest percentage of rooting (89 %). Well rooted plantlets were acclimatized and 76.5 % of the plantlets showed survival upon transfer to field conditions. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of the micropropagated plants compared with mother plant revealed true-to-type nature. The four major boswellic acid components in calluses raised from root, stem, cotyledon and leaf explants were analyzed using HPLC. The total content of four boswellic acid components was higher in stem callus obtained on MS with 15.0 μM IAA, 5.0 μM BA and 200 mg l(-1) PVP. The protocol reported can be used for conservation and exploitation of in vitro production of medicinally important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory metabolites of B. serrata.

  7. Antihyperglycemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Extract and Its Active Compound Xanthorrhizol in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Bo Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthorrhizol, a natural compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Java turmeric, has been reported to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties; however, its effects on metabolic disorders remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of xanthorrhizol (XAN and C. xanthorrhiza extract (CXE with standardized XAN on hyperglycemia and inflammatory markers in high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese mice. Treatment with XAN (10 or 25 mg/kg/day or CXE (50 or 100 mg/kg/day significantly decreased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in HFD-induced obese mice. XAN and CXE treatments also lowered insulin, glucose, free fatty acid (FFA, and triglyceride (TG levels in serum. Epididymal fat pad and adipocyte size were decreased by high doses of XAN (26.6% and 20.1% and CXE (25.8% and 22.5%, respectively. XAN and CXE treatment also suppressed the development of fatty liver by decreasing liver fat accumulation. Moreover, XAN and CXE significantly inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and C-reactive protein (CRP in adipose tissue (27.8–82.7%, liver (43.9–84.7%, and muscle (65.2–92.5%. Overall, these results suggest that XAN and CXE, with their antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities, might be used as potent antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka. Objective: The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals.Materials and Methods: The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6 th hour postchallenge. Chronic inflammation was developed by using Complete Freund′s Adjuvant (CFA. Paw volume, ankle joint circumference, and body weight were assessed on 1 st , 4 th , 8 th , 14 th , 17 th , and 21 st day. Paste was applied once every day to the inflamed area of the paw of respective groups of animals, continuously for 14 days. Statistics: The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett′s post hoc test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulations did not show any dermal toxicity and found to be safe. Both the pastes significantly (P < 0.05 suppressed, carrageenan-induced paw edema at 6 th hour and Holoptelea integrifolia appears to be more effective than Plumbago zeylanica. Significant reduction was observed in paw volume, ankle joint circumference and animal body weight gained. Conclusions: The tested formulations (P. zeylanica root and H. integrifolia bark pastes showed significant antiinflammatory activity. The present findings therefore support its utility in arthritic pain, inflammation and the claim of traditional practitioners.

  9. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb. leaf extract on Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) and Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Shyamalima; Yadav, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb. have been traditionally used as an herbal remedy to treat the intestinal helminthic infections in traditional medicine of India. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of C. bonducella leaf extract against Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda) and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda). Materials and Methods: The in vitro anthelmintic activity of the extract was investigated on adult worms of S. obvelata (Nematoda) and H. diminuta (Cestoda) in terms of physical motility and mortality of parasites. The in vivo study was performed in H. diminuta-rat model and S. obvelata-mice model, by monitoring the egg per gram of feces count and worm count of animals following the treatment with different doses of plant extract. Results: The study recorded significant and dose-dependent anthelmintic effects of the extract on both the parasites. In the in vitro study, 30 mg/ml concentration of extract caused mortality of H. diminuta in 2.5 ± 0.2 h and S. obvelata in 3.57 ± 0.16 h. In the in vivo study, the extract showed a comparatively better efficacy on S. obvelata, where its 800 mg/kg dose revealed 93% reduction of worm load in mice, as compared to 85% worm load reduction of H. diminuta in rats. Conclusions: The findings suggest that leaf extract of C. bonducella possesses significant anthelmintic effects and supports its use as an anthelmintic in traditional medicine. This appears to be the first report of in vivo anthelmintic activity of C. bonducella against these parasites. PMID:27757275

  10. In vitro asymbiotic seed germination, mycorrhization and seedling development of Acampae praemorsa (Roxb.) Blatt. & Mc Cann, a common south Indian orchid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kullaiyan Sathiyadash; Thangavelu Muthukumar; Shanmugaraj Bala Murugan; Ramalingam Sathishkumar; Eswaranpillai Uma; Sarah Jaison; Perumalsamy Priyadharsini

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develope a conservation strategies for orchid species. Methods: Seeds of Acampae praemorsa (Roxb.) Blatt. Mc Cann (A. praemorsa) were obtained from mature pods collected from Velliangiri hills and germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentration of Benzylaminopurine (BAP). Results: Maximum seed germination (85%) was observed on MS media supplemented with 2 mg/LBAP. Seed germination percentage increased with increasing concentrations of BAP (0.5 mg/L to 2 mg/L), but 3 mg/L of BAP inhibited seed germination. Variations observed were significantly (P<0.01) different for concentrations of growth regulators, days and their interactions. The embryos in the seeds swelled prior to germination. Fifty days after inoculation, well developed greenish porotocorm like bodies (PLBs) were formed and by 80th day, 85% (maximum) of the PLBs were observed in MS supplemented with 2 mg/L BAP. Eighty days after seed sowing, the germination rate decreased and the PLBs were transformed into first and second leaf stages in media supplemented with Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Maximum seedling numbers (84%) were observed in MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L NAA at 110th day. After 110 days, the seedlings were transferred to 0.6 g/L MS medium containing activated charcoal and similar concentration of growth regulators for root induction. After rooting, the seedlings were transferred to ex vitro conditions. Conclusions: In present study all the mycorrhizal seedlings survived, because orchid mycorrhizal fungi enhance growth of orchid plantlets and present study gives an effective protocol for seed germination and plantlet regeneration from immature seeds which can be used for establishing A. praemorsa populations in Velliangiri Hills and elsewhere.

  11. A novel triterpenoid isolated from the root bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb (Tree of Heaven), AECHL-1 as a potential anti-cancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavhale, Manish S; Kumar, Santosh; Mishra, Shri Hari; Sitasawad, Sandhya L

    2009-01-01

    We report here the isolation and characterization of a new compound Ailanthus excelsa chloroform extract-1 (AECHL-1) (C(29)H(36)O(10); molecular weight 543.8) from the root bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. The compound possesses anti-cancer activity against a variety of cancer cell lines of different origin. AECHL-1 treatment for 12 to 48 hr inhibited cell proliferation and induced death in B16F10, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and PC3 cells with minimum growth inhibition in normal HEK 293. The antitumor effect of AECHL-1 was comparable with that of the conventional antitumor drugs paclitaxel and cisplatin. AECHL-1-induced growth inhibition was associated with S/G(2)-M arrests in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and PC3 cells and a G(1) arrest in B16F10 cells. We observed microtubule disruption in MCF-7 cells treated with AECHL-1 in vitro. Compared with control, subcutaneous injection of AECHL-1 to the sites of tumor of mouse melanoma B16F10 implanted in C57BL/6 mice and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in athymic nude mice resulted in significant decrease in tumor volume. In B16F10 tumors, AECHL-1 at 50 microg/mouse/day dose for 15 days resulted in increased expression of tumor suppressor proteins P53/p21, reduction in the expression of the oncogene c-Myc, and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cdk4. Additionally, AECHL-1 treatment resulted in the phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in B16F10 tumors, which seems to exhibit p53-dependent growth inhibitory responses. The present data demonstrate the activity of a triterpenoid AECHL-1 which possess a broad spectrum of activity against cancer cells. We propose here that AECHL-1 is a futuristic anti-cancer drug whose therapeutic potential needs to be widely explored for chemotherapy against cancer.

  12. Comparison of the transcriptomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in response to the bacterial wilt infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  13. Manganese-mitigation of cadmium toxicity to seedling growth of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. is controlled by the manganese/cadmium molar ratio under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huimin; Zhang, Yuxiu; Chai, Tuanyao; Tan, Jinjuan; Wang, Jianwu; Feng, Shanshan; Liu, Geyu

    2013-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) can interact with cadmium (Cd) in environments and influence the toxic effect of Cd on plants. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the Mn/Cd ratio and plant Cd-toxicity along Cd concentrations. In this paper, we studied the effects of external Mn/Cd molar ratios (0, 10, 30, 50 and 60) on Cd toxicity in the Mn hyperaccumulator and Cd tolerant plant, Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., at three Cd levels (50, 100 and 200 μM) under hydroponic conditions. Our result showed that seedling growth (y) under Cd stress was strongly positively related to the solution Mn/Cd molar ratio (SMCR). The relationship between the two variables under solution Cd concentrations was well explained by the linear regression model y=a+b1 (SMCR)+b2 (Solution-Cd). Increasing SMCR significantly reduced the Cd concentration and increased the Mn concentration in plant tissues. However, seedling growth was consistent with the shoot Mn/Cd molar ratio rather than with the Mn or Cd concentrations in plant tissues. At low levels of SMCR (e.g. 0 and 10), elevation of Mn distribution in shoot tissues might be a mechanism in P. acinosa seedlings to defend against Cd-toxicity. In comparison with low levels of SMCR, high levels of SMCR (e.g. 50 and 60) greatly alleviated lipid peroxidation and plant water-loss, and enhanced photosynthesis. However, the alleviated lipid peroxidation in the Mn-mitigation of Cd toxicity was likely to be the secondary effect resulting from the antagonism between Mn and Cd in the plant.

  14. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation on Seedlings of Pterocarpus indicus%丛枝菌根真菌对印度紫檀幼苗的接种效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德军; 邱琼; 景跃波; 耿云芬; 张帆; 卯吉华; 张快富

    2015-01-01

    采用盆栽试验的方法,以不同剂量的丛枝菌根真菌菌剂接种印度紫檀幼苗,测定其根系中AMF的侵染率、苗木的生长指标及光合指标,研究菌剂对印度紫檀幼苗的接种效应。结果表明, AMF接种处理后,在印度紫檀幼苗根系中的侵染率较高,接种不同剂量菌剂侵染率可达72.5%~77.67%;接种217天后印度紫檀苗高比对照增加39.69%~72.0%、地径增加19.51%~48.78%、生物量增加58.15%~220.26%;净光合速率、气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度、蒸腾速率明显高于对照,增强了叶片的光合作用;印度紫檀幼苗对菌剂的依赖性属于中等强度(158.15%~289.87%)。在所试验的4个剂量中,以接种10 g/株的处理对印度紫檀幼苗的生长效果最佳,其次是15 g/株的处理。%The objective of the study was to assess the inoculation effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi ( AMF) on seedlings of Pterocarpus indicus.Using Myco Apply Endo, the AMF inoculants introduced from US as the materials, four different applying amounts namely 5 g/seedling , 10 g/seedling , 15 g/seedling and 20 g/seedling were test-ed.The root AM colonization ratio, seedling growth and photosynthetic parameters of seedlings were measured and analyzed .The results showed that high root AM colonization ratio were detected in inoculated seedlings , with the colonization ratio of 72.50 %~77.67 %.Two hundred and seventeen days after inoculation , compared with the control, the height, basal diameter and biomass of inoculated seedlings increased by 39.69 % ~72.0 %, 19.51%~48.78 %and 58.15 %~220.26 %respectively.Besides, the net phytosyntheric rate (Pn), stoma-tal conductance ( Gs) , intercellular CO2 concentration ( Ci) and transpiration rate ( Tr) of the inoculated seedlings were significantly higher than the control.The mycorrhizal dependency of Pterocarpus indicus was 158.15 %~289.87 %.Among the four tested applying amounts of

  15. Pterocarpus santalinus L. Regulated Ultraviolet B Irradiation-induced Procollagen Reduction and Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression Through Activation of TGF-β/Smad and Inhibition of the MAPK/AP-1 Pathway in Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Lin, Pei; Hwang, Eunson; Wang, Yushuai; Yan, Zhengfei; Ngo, Hien T T; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-08-31

    Ultraviolet light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage human skin and prematurely cause aging. A growing body of research is focusing on considering plants and plant-derived compounds as anti-photoaging therapeutic material. Pterocarpus santalinus L., as an Indian traditional medicine, possesses antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Here, we studied the anti-photoaging effects of ethanolic extract of P. santalinus L. heartwood (EPS) on ultraviolet radiation B (UVB)-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Results showed that EPS significantly inhibited the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases and IL-6 caused by UVB irradiation, and suppressed UVB-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38, as well as the activation of AP-1 transcription factors. Further study indicated that UVB-induced production of MMP-1 and IL-6 could be inhibit by PD 98059 (an ERK inhibitor) and SP600125 (A JNK inhibitor), implied that EPS inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 and IL-6 secretion by inactivating MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, EPS possessed an excellent antioxidant activity, which could increase cytoprotective antioxidants such as HO-1, NQ-O1 expression by facilitating the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Treatment of NHDFs with EPS also recovered UVB-induced procollagen type I reduction by activating TGF-β/Smad pathway. These findings demonstrated that EPS had a potential effect against UVB-induced skin photoaging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Crude extracts of, and purified compounds from, Pterocarpus angolensis, and the essential oil of Lippia javanica: their in-vitro cytotoxicities and activities against selected bacteria and Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samie, A; Housein, A; Lall, N; Meyer, J J M

    2009-07-01

    In a recent study, various extracts of Pterocarpus angolensis were prepared and tested against bacteria. The acetone extract was found to be the most active against all the bacteria investigated, with minimum inhibitory concentrations varying from 0.0156 mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus to 2 mg/ml against Enterobacter cloacae. Seven pure compounds were subsequently isolated from the ethanol extract of P. angolensis. Using several chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, the structures of five of these compounds - phthalate and four derivatives of epicatechin [(-)-epicatechin, epicatechin-3-O-galate, epicatechin (4beta-8)-epicatechin (B2), and a hexamer of epicatechin] - were successfully determined. The seven purified compounds were then further tested, in vitro, against Staphylococcus aureus and Entamoeba histolytica, and for their in-vitro cytotoxic activity. Although all seven were active against S. aureus, just one of the purified compounds from P. angolensis and piperitenone, a pure compound isolated from Lippia javanica essential oil, were found to have marked activity against Entamoeba histolytica, with median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 25 and 100 microg/ml, respectively. The other P. angolensis compounds were either weakly active or showed no activity against the amoebae when tested at concentrations up to 400 microg/ml. All seven compounds isolated from P. angolensis showed less toxicity against cultures of human (HCT-8) cells than piperitenone, with IC(50) of 175-375 microg/ml. The presence of epichatechin and derivatives (with strong antibacterial activities but generally weak activities against Entamoeba histolytica) in the stem bark of P. angolensis has thus been demonstrated. Further investigation of the activities of these compounds and their potential use in the treatment of bacterial diseases appears justified.

  17. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction Conditions for Improving Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities In Vitro from Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb. Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Mao, Yi-Dan; Wang, Yi-Fan; Raza, Aun; Qiu, Li-Peng; Xu, Xiu-Quan

    2017-03-06

    Stems are the important residues of Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb., which are abundant in phenolic compounds. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) is confirmed as a novel extraction technology with main advantages of enhancing extraction yield and physiological activities of the extracts from various plants. In this study, UAEE was applied to obtain the highest yield of phenolic content, strongest antioxidant, and antitumor activities and to optimize the extraction conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). The extracts from the stems of T. quadrispinosa were characterized by determination of their antioxidant activities through 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAC) methods and of their antitumor activity by MTT method. The selected key independent variables were cellulase concentration (X₁: 1.5%-2.5%), extraction time (X₂: 20-30 min) and extraction temperature (X₃: 40-60 °C). The optimal extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) value of the extracts were determined as 1.74% cellulase concentration, 25.5 min ultrasonic extraction time and 49.0 °C ultrasonic temperature. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 53.6 ± 2.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) was obtained, which agreed well with the predicted value (52.596 mg GAE/g·DW. Furthermore, the extracts obtained from UAEE presented highest antioxidant activities through ABTS, DPPH, TAC and FRAC methods were of 1.54 ± 0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g·DW; 1.45 ± 0.07 mmol·TE/g·DW; 45.2 ± 2.2 mg·GAE/g·DW; 50.4 ± 2.6 μmol FeSO₄ equivalent/g·DW and lowest IC50 values of 160.4 ± 11.6 μg/mL, 126.1 ± 10.8 μg/mL, and 178.3 ± 13.1 μg/mL against Hela, HepG-2 and U251 tumor cells, respectively. The results indicated that the UAEE was an efficient alternative to improve extraction yield

  18. A novel triterpenoid isolated from the root bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb (Tree of Heaven, AECHL-1 as a potential anti-cancer agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish S Lavhale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We report here the isolation and characterization of a new compound Ailanthus excelsa chloroform extract-1 (AECHL-1 (C(29H(36O(10; molecular weight 543.8 from the root bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. The compound possesses anti-cancer activity against a variety of cancer cell lines of different origin. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: AECHL-1 treatment for 12 to 48 hr inhibited cell proliferation and induced death in B16F10, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and PC3 cells with minimum growth inhibition in normal HEK 293. The antitumor effect of AECHL-1 was comparable with that of the conventional antitumor drugs paclitaxel and cisplatin. AECHL-1-induced growth inhibition was associated with S/G(2-M arrests in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and PC3 cells and a G(1 arrest in B16F10 cells. We observed microtubule disruption in MCF-7 cells treated with AECHL-1 in vitro. Compared with control, subcutaneous injection of AECHL-1 to the sites of tumor of mouse melanoma B16F10 implanted in C57BL/6 mice and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in athymic nude mice resulted in significant decrease in tumor volume. In B16F10 tumors, AECHL-1 at 50 microg/mouse/day dose for 15 days resulted in increased expression of tumor suppressor proteins P53/p21, reduction in the expression of the oncogene c-Myc, and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cdk4. Additionally, AECHL-1 treatment resulted in the phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in B16F10 tumors, which seems to exhibit p53-dependent growth inhibitory responses. CONCLUSIONS: The present data demonstrate the activity of a triterpenoid AECHL-1 which possess a broad spectrum of activity against cancer cells. We propose here that AECHL-1 is a futuristic anti-cancer drug whose therapeutic potential needs to be widely explored for chemotherapy against cancer.

  19. Determination of Carotenoids in the Fruit of Elaeagnus conferta Roxb. by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%密花胡颓子果实主要类胡萝卜素组分及含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海涛; 金晓琴; 成龙平; 杨莉; 陈建华; 番汝昌; 杨玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective]The berry of Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. was found to accumulate lycopene up to 54 mg per 100 g of fresh weight, which is about 17 times higher than that of tomato. However, little is known about the carotenoid composition and content in the big and good tasty flesh of E. conferta Roxb., also a member of Elaeagnaceae family. This study aimed to analyze carotenoid components and contents in the fruit of E. conferta Roxb. by high performance liquid chromatograph(HPLC)method.[Method] Methanol:chloroform (1:2 v/v) was used to extract carotenoids from ripe fruits of E. conferta Roxb.. The separation was carried on a YMC C30 (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 µm, column temperature 235℃) and an injection volume was 20μL. Methanol (A), 80%methanol containing 0.2%ammonium acetate (B) and methyl tert-butyl ether (C) were used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1 through gradient elution: (1) 0-6 min, 95%A+5%B; (2) 7-11 min, 80%A+5%B+15%C; (3) 12-32 min, 30%A+5%B+65%C;(4) 33 min to end, 95%A+5%B. The eluent was detected at 244 nm. [Result] Lycopene andβ-carotene were two major carotenoids in the flesh of E. conferta Roxb., and their content differed markedly between two genetic genotypes. Theβ-carotene content in Detianmihuahutuizi 1 was up to (231.84±16.00) µg·g-1DW, which is one of the highest ones in the known species. The flesh of Detianmihuahutuizi 2 contained lycopene of (1 054.10±29.19) µg·g-1DW, which is about seven times higher than that of tomato.[Conclusion]The results showed that the flesh of E. conferta Roxb. accumulated abundant lycopene andβ-carotene, which endow E. conferta Roxb. as a wilding fruit resource with great development and application value. Meanwhile, E. conferta Roxb. also is an ideal research material for studying molecular mechanism of high accumulation of lycopene andβ-carotene in fruit.%【目的】胡颓子属植物牛奶子果实大量积累番茄红素,高达番茄的17倍,而该属中果实大、口感好的密

  20. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant%Total phenolic,total flavonoid content,and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb.,an Indian medicinal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Biplab De; N Devanna; Raja Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    AIM:The objective of the present study was to determine the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents,and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of different leaf extracts of Meyna spinosa Roxb.ex Link,a traditional medicinal plant of India.METHODS:Free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of the methanol,ethyl acetate,and petroleum ether extracts of Meyna spinosa leaves were investigated using several in vitro and ex vivo assays,including the 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging,superoxide anion scavenging,hydroxyl radical scavenging,nitric oxide radical scavenging,hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity,metal chelating assay,and reducing power ability method.Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated by the ferric thiocyanate method.Inhibition assay of lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis were also performed to confirm the protective effect of the extracts.Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were estimated using standard chemical assay procedures.RESULTS:Methanol extracts showed the highest polyphenolic content and possessed the better antioxidant activity than the other two extracts.Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the methanol extract were (90.08 ± 0.44) mg gallic acid equivalents/g and (58.50 ± 0.09) mg quercetin equivalents/g,respectively.The IC50 of the methanol extract in the DPPH,superoxide anion,hydroxyl radical,nitric oxide radical,hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and metal chelating assays were (16.4 ± 0.41),(35.9 ± 0.19),(24.1 ± 0.33),(23.7 ± 0.09),(126.8 ± 2.92),and (117.2 ± 1.01) μg·mL-1,respectively.The methanol e.xtract showed potent reducing power ability,total antioxidant activity,and significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis which was similar to that of standards.CONCLUSION:The results indicated a direct correlation between the antioxidant activity and the polyphenolic content of the extracts,which may the foremost contributors to the

  1. BERRYA ROXB. and CARPODIPTERA GRIS.

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    a. j. g. h. kostermans

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available In his monographic treatment of Tiliaceae, Burret {in Notizbl. bot.Gart. Berlin 9: 607. 1926 pointed out the close affinity of Berrya andCarpodiptera, the former represented in Asia and the Pacific area, thelatter from Africa and America.

  2. Biogeochemical investigation in south eastern Andhra Pradesh: the distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in plants and soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, K.K.; Raju, A.N. [Sri Venkateswara Univ., Tirupati (India). Dept. of Geology

    2000-09-01

    The concentration of rare earth elements (REE), thorium and uranium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the plant species, Pterocarpus santalinus, P. marsupium and P. dalbergioides, and the soils on which they were growing. Higher concentrations of lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) were observed in both plants and soils. Large amounts of thorium and uranium were found in the soil. In all tree species, the concentration of REEs were higher in the heartwood than the leaves. The heartwood of P. santalinus accumulated larger quantities of uranium (average concentration of 1.22 ppm) and thorium (mean value of 2.57 ppm) than the other two species. (orig.)

  3. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb Leaf Extract Down-Regulates Expression of PPARγ2 and Leptin Genes in High Fat Diet Fed C57BL/6J Mice and Retards in Vitro 3T3L1 Pre-Adipocyte Differentiation

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    A. V. Ramachandran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD induced obesity and (ii in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPARγ2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPARγ2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity.

  4. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb aqueous extract down-regulates in vivo expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules in atherogenic rats and inhibits in vitro macrophage differentiation and foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Salunke, Sunita P; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluates efficacy of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) leaves extract in ameliorating experimental atherosclerosis using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Atherogenic (ATH) diet fed rats recorded significant increment in the serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL), autoantibody against oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), markers of LDL oxidation and decrement in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) along with increment in aortic TC and TG. The ex vivo LDL oxidation assay revealed an increased susceptibility of LDL isolated from ATH rats to undergo copper mediated oxidation. These set of changes were minimized by simultaneous co-supplementation of SR extract to ATH diet fed rats. Histopathology of aorta and immunolocalization studies recorded pronounced atheromatous plaque formation, vascular calcification, significant elastin derangements and higher expression of macrophage surface marker (F4/80), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and p-selectin in ATH rats. Whereas, ATH+SR rats depicted minimal evidence of atheromatous plaque formation, calcium deposition, distortion/defragmentation of elastin and accumulation of macrophages along with lowered expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin compared to ATH rats. Further, monocyte to macrophage differentiation and in vitro foam cell formation were significantly attenuated in presence of SR extract. In conclusion, SR extract has the potency of controlling experimental atherosclerosis and can be used as promising herbal supplement in combating atherosclerosis.

  5. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract down-regulates expression of PPARγ2 and leptin genes in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J Mice and retards in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ramani, Umed V; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-01-01

    Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPARγ2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPARγ2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity.

  6. 乌桕籽脱蜡工艺技术及脱蜡机械的设计%Dewaxing Process Technique and Mechanical Design for Sapium sebiferum Roxb. Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志斌; 张风; 王凯; 李晖; 徐向阳

    2011-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum(Linn.) Roxb.is high economic valuable species,which can be extacted two kinds of oil(sapium fat,kernel oil) from the same oil grain.Main application of the seed is producted sapium fat and kernel oil.The authors mainly introduces extraction process of sapium fat and design of dewaxing machine,Then practical significance for its industry development.%乌桕是经济价值较高的树种,是在同一油料籽粒上提取两种油脂(桕脂、梓油)的油料作物。乌桕的主要用途是利用乌桕籽来提取桕脂和梓油。笔者主要介绍了桕脂的提取工艺及脱蜡机械的设计,对发展乌桕产业具有现实意义。

  7. PENGHAMBATAN OKSIDASI LDL DAN AKUMULASI KOLESTEROL PADA MAKROFAG OLEH EKSTRAK TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb [The Inhibition of Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Cholesterol Accumulation on the Macrophage by Temulawak Extract

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    Aisyah Tri Septiana1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease is caused among others by atherosclerosis, which is the result of oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL and cholesterol accumulation on macrophage, and which is inhibited by temulawak (Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb extract. The objective of this study was to find out the kinds and consentration of temulawak extract which could inhibit LDL oxidation, and to find out the effect of temulawak extract on the accumulation of cholesterol on macrophage. Temulawak was extracted by water, ethanol, aceton and dichlorometane. Inhibition of LDL oxidation was found out by measuring the level of malonaldehyde content of oxidized LDL-CuSO4 which was supplemented with water extract, ethanol extract, aceton extract and dichlorometane extract. of temulawak at concentrations of 43 g, 430 g, and 4300 g per ml of LDL. The percentage of malonaldehyde reduction due to supplementation with water extract, ethanol extract, acetone extract and dichloromethane extract was 44.27; 47.68; 51.83 and 61.2 respectively. The inhibition of LDL oxidation by temulawak extract depends on its concentration. The percentage of malonaldehyde reduction due to supplementation with temulawak extract of 43 µg, 430 µg, and 4300 µg per ml of LDL was 43.63; 56.72; and 53.89.. Concentration of temulawak extract resulting in the highest inhibition of LDL oxidation was 430 µg/ml LDL. Temulawak extract tends to inhibit cholesterol accumulation on macrophage. There is a relationship between the inhibition of cholesterol accumulation on the macrophage and the inhibition of LDL oxidation by temulawak extract

  8. Comparative of steam distillation and petroleum ether extraction of volatile oil from trapa bispinosa roxb%水蒸气蒸馏法与石油醚萃取法提取菱角壳挥发油的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱才会; 王可; 王丽梅

    2015-01-01

    用不同方法对菱角壳挥发油进行提取,比较邻苯二甲酸二丁酯( DBP)的提取效果,为菱角壳挥发油化学成分分析提供参考依据。首先用水蒸气蒸馏法( SD)和石油醚萃取法提取挥发油,用气相色谱—质谱联合分析法( GC—MS)对提取物进行分析。结果显示:水蒸气蒸馏法与石油醚萃取法提取菱角壳挥发油获得的化合物分别有19种和10种,用水蒸气蒸馏法提取的化合物中含量最多的物质是1-甲基-2-吡咯烷酮,邻苯二甲酸二丁酯相对含量是3.60%,石油醚萃取法提取的化合物中含量最多的物质是正二十四烷,邻苯二甲酸二丁酯相对含量是9.61%。用石油醚萃取法能够从菱角壳中获得较高产率的具有抑制肿瘤细胞生长的邻苯二甲酸二丁酯( DBP)。%The objective of this study is to use different methods to extract the volatile oil from water chestnut shell and compare the effect of extraction of Dibutyl phthalate ( DBP) and provides the reference for the analysis of chem-ical constituents of volatile oil from water chestnut shell.Methods:First of all,the volatile oil extracted from Trapa bispinosa Roxb by steam distillation ( SD) and petroleum ether extraction is analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) .Results:The number of chemical compound which is extracted from Trapa bispinosa Roxb by steam distillation method and petroleum ether extraction were 19 and 10, The most compounds extracted from Trapa bispinosa Roxb by water steam distillation method is 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, The relative content of dibutyl phthalate(DBP)is 3.60%, The most compounds extracted from Trapa bispinosa Roxb by petroleum ether extraction method was the Tetracosane, the relative content of dibutyl phthalate ( DBP) is 9.61%.Conclusion: Dibutyl phthalate ( DBP) could inhibit the growth of tumor and the higher yield of Dibutyl phthalate ( DBP) can be ob-tained from Trapa bispinosa

  9. Regional Variation in Non-Timber Forest Product Harvest Strategies, Trade, and Ecological Impacts: the Case of Black Dammar (Canarium strictum Roxb. Use and Conservation in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India

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    Anita Varghese

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide depend on the harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFP for their livelihoods, and the importance of understanding the complex relationships between NTFP harvest and conservation is increasingly recognized. This study employs a cross-disciplinary, regional approach to identify some of the links between patterns of harvest, trade, and conservation of one of South India's most heavily harvested resins, Canarium strictum Roxb. (Burseraceae, or black dammar. We focus on indigenous communities in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR and ask: How is C. strictum tapped and is there variation across communities? How is C. strictum resin sold and bought, and what trade routes are involved? What are the impacts of tapping on C. strictum trees and population structure? We carried out interviews and focus-group discussions with harvesters in eight villages in three different regions, and with buyers and traders inside and outside of the NBR. We also established twenty-two 20 x 20 m plots to document population structure. Three broad resin-harvest strategies were identified: collection from natural fissures, tapping using incisions, and tapping using incisions and fire, each practiced in a different region. However, within each strategy there was large variation in tapping frequency and timing, tenure practices, and resin quality. The loss of tree tenure in some areas has led to a higher frequency of tapping and to the production of lower quality, lower value resin. Factors driving changes in both tenure and tapping strategies include rising commercial demand and value, pressure from outside harvesters, changes in livelihood strategies, and habitat destruction. Tapping leads to elevated mortality of C. strictum adults, with fire-tapping have a greater negative impact than tapping with no fire. The combination of social and ecological approaches used here provides insight on strategies for better conservation of C. strictum. These

  10. Producción de biomasa verde y calidad de aceites esenciales de palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini Roxb. con aplicación de fertilizantes de síntesis y orgánicos

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    Javier Alberto Pinzón-Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de fertilizantes minerales en cultivos de Cymbopogon martini Roxb. (Palmarosa con el fin de incrementar la biomasa y el rendimiento de aceite esencial (AE es una práctica cada vez más frecuente. Este aceite es rico en geraniol y acetato de geranilo, moléculas con alto valor en las industrias de productos cosméticos y farmacéutica. Las plantas fueron obtenidas del Centro Nacional de Investigación Agroindustrial de Plantas Aromaticas y Medicinales de la Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS (Cenivam (07° 08' 31.68"N, 73° 07' 06.14O; 988 m.s.n.m., Santander, Colombia. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la productividad de biomasa y analizar la calidad y el rendimiento de los aceites esenciales (AE de este cultivo con la aplicación de tres tipos de fertilizantes químico: Nutrimon® 14-14-14, NPK granulado (10% N, 14% P2O5 , 14% K2O, en dosis de 2, 4 y 6 g/planta, más un tratamiento con 400 g de un fertilizante orgánico,. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con trece tratamientos y tres cosechas de tres plantas cada una como repeticiones. Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis de variancia con comparación de las medias por la prueba de Tukey a 5% de probabilidad. No se observaron correlaciones entre biomasa y rendimiento del AE en función del tipo del fertilizante aplicado, lo que sugirió que los tratamientos que incrementaron la producción de biomasa no necesariamente representaron mayor rendimiento del AE y viceversa. Se encontró que los fertilizantes orgánicos son ideales para este cultivo, ya que favorecieron rendimientos relativamente altos en aceite, con altos porcentajes de geraniol y acetato de geranilo.

  11. Effects of Flooding on the Growth and Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Taxodium ascendens Brongn and Sapium sebiferum(Linn.) Roxb Seedlings in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area%模拟三峡库区淹水对植物生长及生理生化方面的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川; 周倩; 王大铭; 辜夕容

    2011-01-01

    以池杉Taxodium ascendens Brongn.和乌桕Sapium sebiferum(Linn.)Roxb.当年实生幼苗为材料,通过人为控水进行淹水胁迫,设置了对照组CK和水淹组,测定了两树种生长及生理生化等方面的指标.结果表明:淹水胁迫结束后,两树种水淹组幼苗主根长、主(粗)根数、地径、株高和株质量都显著(p〈0.05)低于对照组,而乌桕在长期淹水胁迫后各生长指标(株质量除外)比池杉降低的程度更大.两树种叶绿素和类胡萝卜素的质量分数也发生了显著变化,到试验结束时,池杉幼苗叶绿素和类胡萝卜素的质量分数分别比对照组降低41.28%和35.38%;而乌桕幼苗比对照组降低68.10%和59.19%.随着淹水胁迫时间的延长,叶片丙二醛(MDA)质量分数呈上升趋势,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性呈先降后升趋势,而过氧化物酶(POD)活性则一直低于对照水平.%Under the condition of water controlling and submergence stress,two different kinds of water treatments(control group and submergence group) were applied to examine the growth,physiological and biochemical characteristics of Taxodium ascendens Brongn and Sapium sebiferum(Linn.) Roxb seedlings.The result indicated that growth indices in submergence group were significantly lower than those in control group,while the growth indices(except the plant fresh weight) of S.sebiferum(Linn.) Roxb seedlings were lower than those of T.ascendens Brongn seedlings.And the chlorophyll and carotenoid had changed greatly.The chlorophyll and carotenoid of T.ascendens Brongn seedlings in submergence group respectively lowered 41.28%,35.38% than control group,and S.sebiferum(Linn.) Roxb seedlings 68.10%,59.19%.With submergence stress treatment prolonged,the content of MDA increased,the SOD activity had a change of descend firstly then ascend,but the POD activity was always lower than the controlled level.

  12. 海南香枝木与越南香枝木木材构造特征比较解剖研究%Comparative anatomical research on the wood structure between Dalbergia odorifera T.Chen and D.rimosa Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂兰; 徐峰; 罗建举; 李英健; 蓝方敏

    2008-01-01

    对海南香枝木和越南香枝木木材构造特征进行比较解剖研究.结果表明;两者的宏观构造在材色气味、纹理结构等方面有较大的差异.微观构造特征的差异主要表现在木射线的种类、射线细胞的形态、射线组织的类型;其余解剖特征差异则不明显.海南香枝木的树种名称为降香黄檀(Dalbergia odorifera T.Chen),越南香枝木的树种名称为多裂黄檀(D.rimosa Roxb.).

  13. Traditional Indian medicines used for the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim; Mishra, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants.

  14. Standardization of some herbal antidiabetic drugs in polyherbal formulation

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    Harinarayan Singh Chandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurvedic formulations are used to treat a wide variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports standardization of eight herbal anti-diabetic drugs−Momordica charantia (seeds, Syzigium cumini (seeds, Trigonella foenum (seeds, Azadirachta indica (leaves, Emblica offi cinalis (fruits, Curcuma longa (rhizomes, Gymnema sylvestre (leaves, Pterocarpus marsupium (heart-wood individually and in polyherbal marketed samples of Baidyanath Madhumehari Churna Material and Methods: Shivayu Madhuhari Churna, Meghdut Madhushoonya Churna and were compared to the in-house preparation for physicochemical properties. Results and Conclusions: The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory.

  15. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Patil; Ravindra Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have always been an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 800 plants may possess anti-diabetic potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants 33 plants were reviewed. The most effective antidiabetic Indian medicinal plants are Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelose, Agrimonia eupatoria, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Benincasa hispida, Beta vulgaris, Caesalpinia bonducella, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia indica, Eucalyptus globules, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Hibiscus rosasinesis, Ipomoea batatas, Jatropha curcus, Mangifera indica, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Punica granatum, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum. A wide array of plant derived active principles representing numerous chemical compounds has demonstrated activity consistent with their possible use in the treatment of diabetes.

  16. Synthesis and antihyperglycemic activity of phenolic C-glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Preeti; Kumar, Manmeet; Rahuja, Neha; Lal Srivastava, Daya Shankar; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Maurya, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Various phenolic C-glycosides were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo antihyperglycemic activity employing glucose uptake by rat muscle cell lines (L-6) and low dosed-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, respectively. Some of phenolic C-glycosides were isolated from Pterocarpus marsupium and Ulmus wallichiana and other were synthesized by unprotected sugar and phloroacetophenone using Sc(OTf)(3) in aqueous ethanol. Eight among tested compounds showed significant lowering of blood glucose level on low dosed-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The compound 24 lowered the blood glucose levels by 34.9% and 33.6% during 0-5h and 0-24h, respectively, at the dose of 25mg/kg body weight which is comparable to standard antidiabetic drug metformin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Standardization of some herbal antidiabetic drugs in polyherbal formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Pathak, A. K.; Tailang, Mukul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ayurvedic formulations are used to treat a wide variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports standardization of eight herbal anti-diabetic drugs–Momordica charantia (seeds), Syzigium cumini (seeds), Trigonella foenum (seeds), Azadirachta indica (leaves), Emblica offi cinalis (fruits), Curcuma longa (rhizomes), Gymnema sylvestre (leaves), Pterocarpus marsupium (heart-wood) individually and in polyherbal marketed samples of Baidyanath Madhumehari Churna Material and Methods: Shivayu Madhuhari Churna, Meghdut Madhushoonya Churna and were compared to the in-house preparation for physicochemical properties. Results and Conclusions: The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory. PMID:21731396

  18. Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants. PMID:23841105

  19. Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ibrahim Rizvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants.

  20. Estimates of biological nitrogen fixation by Pterocarpus lucens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TonukariJ

    2002-11-15

    Nov 15, 2002 ... spectrometer (EA-IRMS, PDZ Europe LTD, CW1 6ZA,. UK). Results ... Plant leaf biomass (P) was assessed from diameter at breast height ..... nitrogen fixation using the natural abundance method in a plantation of Casuarina ...

  1. Valorisation de Pterocarpus santalinoides L'Hér. ex De ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... teneurs en protéines et en sucres totaux de ce dernier sont inférieures à celles dosées dans le morphotype 1. ... végétaux y compris les graines de P. santalinoides .... extraction de ses huiles à des fins alimentaires ou.

  2. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA AMADA ROXB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Jain, Rakesh Barik* and Arti Jain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant potential of rhizomes of Curcuma amada (Zingiberaceae. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts were subjected to in vitro antioxidant activity screening models such as DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. In all the models studied, both the extracts showed nearly equal activities thereby justifying the traditional claims of the plant.

  3. Terminalia belerica Roxb. seed oil: a potential biodiesel resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Rakesh; Sharma, Meeta; Khan, Arif Ali

    2010-02-01

    Terminalia belerica seeds, collected from Indian forests, were explored as an alternate bioresource for biodiesel synthesis. The oil yield of T. belerica seed is about 31% (dry weight basis). The fatty acid profile of T. belerica seed oil shows predominance of oleic acid (C(18:1)) glycerides (61.5%) along with linoleic (18.5%) and palmitic (11.6%) glycerides. Oil was extracted and evaluated for physico-chemical properties vis-a-vis jatropha, sunflower, soybean and rapeseed oil. T. belerica oil was transesterified with methanol in the presence of sodium methoxide catalyst. The physico-chemical properties of synthesized methyl ester were compared to jatropha, sunflower, soybean and rapeseed methyl esters as per ASTM D-6751 specification of biodiesel. Synthesized T. belerica methyl ester was also blended in diesel at 5-20% ratios and evaluated for key physico-chemical properties as per IS 1460 specification and found to meet in properties evaluated as per specific standards. The study revealed the possibility of T. belerica seed oil as potential resource of biodiesel.

  4. CYTO SCREENING OF LEAVES OF HOLOPTELEA INTEGRIFOLIA Roxb.

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    H K I Singh Parmar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As per the traditional herbal medicine books many medicinal plants are available in India, the ayurveda is a traditional for the oldest Indian medication the book contain a lot of drug description and they are use for cure and treat a dieses or alter the physiology and biological changes into the human body to remove the pain and stress form the body. The Holoptelea integrifolia is known as chillure in common language, the plat are geographical changes of the karanja (Millettia pinnata In this article the cytological characteristics of Holoptelea integrifolia have been presented.

  5. Phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary Helen PA; Susheela Gomathy K; Jayasree S; Nizzy AM; Rajagopal B; Jeeva S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of essential oil isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.Methods:Fresh rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza were subjected to hydro distillation process to obtain essential oil and characterized by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and six fungi by the disc diffusion method. Results: GC – MS analysis of the essential oil extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza contained the derivatives of xanthorihizol, camphene and curcumene, monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, hydrocarbons and other minor compounds. The antimicrobial activity of the oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic bacteria, no activity was observed against the fungi Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that the rhizome extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza possess secondary metabolites and potential to develop antimicrobial drugs.

  6. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Bark of Acacia suma Roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    successively extracted with different solvents followed by preliminary phytochemical ... the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, tannins and phenolic .... such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids that ... to their relative similarities.

  7. High frequency shoot regeneration of Sterculia urens Roxb. an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... ingredient in the preparation of emulsions, lotions, denture fixative powders, bulk ... the wood leads to borer attack, which may prove fatal. Unscientific .... cytokinin had a significant effect on the frequency of shoot regeneration ...

  8. Micropropagation of Sterculia urens Roxb., an endangered tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... lotions, denture fixative powders and bulk laxatives. .... Effect of growth adjuvants, anti-oxidants and GA3 in MS medium with 5.0 µM TDZ on shoot regeneration from .... not involve a callus phase, which may lead to a genetic.

  9. A New Prenylated Xanthone from Latex of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

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    Zhi Na

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new prenylated xanthone, 1,6-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-(3,7-dimethyloct-2,6-dienyl xanthone (3-O-methylcowaxanthone (1, together with four known xanthones, cowaxanthone (2, 7-O-methylgarcinone (3, α-mangostin (4 and γ-mangostin (5 were isolated from the latex of Garcinia cowa. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation, including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. The cytotoxic activitiy of 1 against five human cancer cell lines, HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480, was evaluated, but it was inactive (IC 50>40μM.

  10. Biochemical Changes During Seed Germination of Sterculia urens Roxb.

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    Botcha SATYANARAYANA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes biochemical changes taking place during seed germination of Sterculia urens. The levels of proteins, total amino acids, reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and lipids were studied during various stages of seed germination (0-15 days. Total protein content was decreased in cotyledons during seed germination while free amino acid content increased to its maximum extent by 9th day of germination and reverse trend thereafter. The levels of reducing sugars and total soluble sugars increased till 6th day of germination and decreased thereafter. The lipid content was high at initial stages of germination (0-6 days but gradually decreased by 15th day of germination.

  11. Biochemical Changes During Seed Germination of Sterculia urens Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    Botcha SATYANARAYANA; Prattipati Subhashini DEVI; Atluru ARUNDATHI

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes biochemical changes taking place during seed germination of Sterculia urens. The levels of proteins, total amino acids, reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and lipids were studied during various stages of seed germination (0-15 days). Total protein content was decreased in cotyledons during seed germination while free amino acid content increased to its maximum extent by 9th day of germination and reverse trend thereafter. The levels of reducing sugars and total ...

  12. Phenotypic aberrations during micropropagation of Soymida febrifuga (Roxb. Adr. Juss

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    Kishore Kumar CHIRUVELLA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Like most of the medicinal plants Soymida febrifuga (Meliaceae possess significance for its valuable secondary metabolites. Multiplication of this endemic plant is limited by difficulty in rooting of stem cuttings, high seedling mortality rates and low seed viability period. Hence efficient protocols for in vitro mass propagation has been established from field grown and aseptic seedlings explants. Strikingly, we observed aberrant structures such as vitrified shoots, faciated shoots, albino shoots as well shoot necrosis during its micropropagation. These phenotypic maladies were observed during organogenesis and rooting. Compared to other abnormalities, shoot necrosis nonetheless was frequent and pronounced leading to plant death. Shoots when subjected to rooting also displayed necrosis which was controlled by transferring to MS medium containing various concentrations and combinations of calcium levels, activated charcoal, glucose, fructose and auxins. Microshoots initiated roots on half strength MS medium with IBA and IAA individually or in combination within two weeks. MS half strength solid medium supplemented with CAN (556 mg l–1, CAP (1.0 mg l–1, IAA (2.0 mg l–1 and IBA (2.0 mg l–1 in combination was found to be more efficient in showing high frequency (95% of root regeneration. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and 70-85% of regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized to natural environment. In vitro derived plantlets were morphologically similar to in vivo plants.

  13. Comparative phytochemical and anti-bacterial studies of two indigenous medicinal plants Curcuma caesia Roxb. and Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb

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    Sweetymol Jose

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional medicinal plants could serve as a good supply of new dependable, biodegradable, renewable drugs and can be utilised for its anti-bacterial activity directly or indirectly. Aims: To evaluate the phytochemical and anti-bacterial properties of two morphologically similar indigenous medicinal plants Curcuma caesia and Curcuma aeruginosa belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of rhizome extracts using methanol was performed for the presence of active principles. Qualitative analysis was carried out for diverse phytoconstituents. Different concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/ml of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and water serial extracts from the rhizome of C. caesia and C. aeruginosa were tested against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus haemolyticus and Bacillus cereus and Gram negative (Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogens, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens bacteria. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard (NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform anti-bacterial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Statistical Analysis: All the values of the results were expressed as means of two independent experiments ΁ standard deviation. Results: Phytochemical screening of these two plants confirmed the presence of various bioactive substances and thus validating its use in herbal remedies. Anti-bacterial studies showed varying degree of inhibitory action against all the tested bacteria. Among the Gram positive bacteria, acetone extract of C. caesia showed maximum activity against S. aureus and hexane extract of C. aeruginosa exhibited maximum activity against B. cereus. In Gram negative bacteria, chloroform extract of C. caesia showed maximum inhibitory action against S. marcescens, whereas the methanol extract of C. aeruginosa showed higher inhibitory action against S. typhi. Conclusions: The findings about present study suggest that the rhizome extract possess excellent anti-bacterial potential that can be used for therapeutic purposes for many bacterial infectious diseases with proper evaluation procedures. The present study validated the use of these plants in traditional medicine and recommends for making new pharmaceuticals for therapeutic needs.

  14. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulati Vandana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and (ii ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml, Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml, Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts

  15. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i) the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and (ii) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml), Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml), Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml) and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml) exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts have good potential

  16. A BRIEF ON DIABETIC, AND ANTIDIABETIC PLANTS FOUND IN EASTERN UTTARPRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISHRA JHANSEE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included.

  17. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting, phytochemical and physico-chemical studies of anti-diabetic herbal extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itankar, Prakash R.; Sawant, Dattatray B.; Tauqeer, Mohd.; Charde, Sonal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal medicines have gained increasing popularity in the last few decades, and this global resurgence of herbal medicines increases their commercial value. However, this increasing demand has resulted in a decline in their quality, primarily due to a lack of adequate regulations pertaining to herbal medicines. Aim: To develop an optimized methodology for the standardization of herbal raw materials. Materials and Methods: The present study has been designed to examine each of the five herbal anti-diabetic drugs, Gymnema sylvester R. Br., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh., Enicostema littorale Blume., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. The in-house extracts and marketed extracts were evaluated using physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, quantification of polyphenols (Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profiling with reference to marker compounds in plant extracts. Results: All the plants mainly contain polyphenolic compounds and are quantified in the range of 3.6–21.72% w/w. E. officinalis contain the highest and E. littorale contain the lowest content of polyphenol among plant extracts analyzed. HPTLC fingerprinting showed that the in-house extracts were of better quality than marketed extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained from the study could be utilized for setting limits for the reference phytoconstituents (biomarker) for the quality control and quality assurance of these anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:27011722

  18. Structure and floristic composition of tree stand in tropical forest in the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Sudhakar Reddy; Shilpa Babar; Giriraj Amamath; Chiranjibi Pattanaik

    2011-01-01

    The changes in species composition,abundance and forest stand structure were analyzed across altitudinal regimes in tropical forests of Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh,India.Three 1-ha plots were established with one each in low,medium and high altitudes.A total of 153 species,2129 stems (709 stems ·ha-l) of>10 cm girth were enumerated.Species richness and diversity pattern varied along altitudinal gradient and increased with the altitude.Species richness varied from 52 to 110 species·ha-1 and stand density from 639 to 836 stems·ha-1 with average basal area of 34.39 m2·ha-1.Shannon-Wiener index (H) ranged from 4.55 to 5.17.Low altitude (i.e.,Site 1) is dominated by Xylia xylocarpa (59.22) and Lagerstroemia parviflora (23.90),medium altitude (i.e.,Site 2) by Xylia xylocarpa (45.50) Bursera serrata (17.29),and high altitude (i.e.,Site 3) has Schleichera oleosa (28.25) Pterocarpus marsupium (26.55) as predominant species.Taxonomically,Rubiaceae (12 species),Fabaceae (12),Euphorbiaceae (11),Rutaceae (7) and Lauraceae (7) were dominant families.Density-wise,Fabaceae,Combretaceae,Euphorbiaceae,Anacardiaceae and Myrtaceae were abundant.Thus,conservation assessment based on altitudinal regimes and the information on species structure and function can provide baseline information for monitoring and sustaining the biodiversity.

  19. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasim Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action.

  20. Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493

  1. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  2. UJI EFEK ANTIDIARE INFUS KULIT BATANG ANGSANA (Pterocarpus indicus Willd TERHADAP TIKUS PUTIH JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Hargono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kulit batang angsana banyak digunakan oleh masyarakat Indonesia untuk mengobati diare. Penggunaannya masih didasarkan atas pengalaman. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam rangka upaya untuk membuktikan efektivitasnya.Kegiatan-kegiatan yang dilakukan meliputi pemeriksaan simplisia secara organoleptik untuk membuktikan kebenaran simplisia yang diteliti. Akhirnya dilakukan uji LD 50 dan fefek antidiare simplisia kulit batang angsana tersebut.Enam kelompok perlakukan tikus putih jantan terdiri atas satu kelompok negatif, tiga kelompok diberi infus kulit batang angsana, masing-masing dengan kadar 6%, 18% dan 60% serta dua kelompok kontrol positif. Uji antidiare dilakukan dengan metode transit instinal.

  3. Surface Modification of Narra Wood (Pterocarpus indicus) by Ion Shower Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blantocas, Gene Q.; Ramos, Henry J.; Wada, Motoi

    2006-10-01

    A gas discharge ion source (GDIS) was used as test facility to produce and study the characteristics of diffused, low-energy hydrogen ion showers. Narra wood samples were then exposed to the showers to investigate topographical effects of ion irradiation. Analysis of beam constituents by mass spectroscopy shows H+ ions to be the dominant species suggesting an essential participatory role for this particular monatomic ion in the surface modification process. Low energy irradiation (600-700 eV) produced hydrophobic surfaces with scanning electron micrographs showing partial closure of surface pores. Whereas, a reversion to hydrophilicity was observed for higher energy irradiation (>900 eV), with surface images showing exterior degradation believed to be the etching effects of the chemically active H+ species. The irradiated samples absorbency was quantified via the wetting model wherein the contact angle’s time rate equation was numerically solved and fitted onto experimental data. The change rate proportionality constant K with value 0.0015 corresponding to 600 eV beam energy, exhibited the longest moisture absorptive inhibition time of more than 10 min. An increasing value of K indicates increased wetting behavior.

  4. Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus sebagai Bioindikator untuk Polusi di Sekitar Terminal Lebak Bulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waryanti Waryanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta as one of the biggest city in Indonesia, it own more than 6.506.244 units of motor vehicles. The combustion of fossil fuels in motor vehicles can cause air pollution. Station is represented as one of heavy pollution location. The observation has be done by abservate the amount of vehicles, stomatal characteristic, and weight of dust on Angsana leaves, which growth around Lebak Bulus station. As the result, there is relation between weight of dust on leaf and stomatal characteristic, with r value = 1. The level weighat of dust on leaf has effect to stomata conditions, such as surface of stomata become smaller and shape of stomata become irregular, but amount and size of stomata didn’t influenced. In some case, leaf can be identifid by visible symptoms of injury such as chlorotic at the leaf veins, which caused by SO2 or black or brown flecks at the leaf veins, which caused by NOx.

  5. Methanolic extract of Pterocarpus santalinus induces apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, H J; Hong, Y K; Kim, K H; Han, C H; Cho, S H; Choi, J S; Kim, Byung-Woo

    2006-04-21

    Ptercarpus santalinus (Fabaceae) has been used as a folk remedy in Korea, and it has been shown to exhibit antiinflammations, antiulcers and anticancer effects. In this study, therefore, we report the cytotoxic activity and the mechanism of cell death exhibited by the methanol extract of Ptercarpus santalinus (MEPS) against human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line, HeLa. Treatment of HeLa cells with various concentrations of MEPS resulted in growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as determined by cell viability, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and sub-G1 phase accumulation. In Western blot analysis, apoptosis in the HeLa cells was associated with the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into the cytosol, activation of caspases-3, -8, -9 and proteolytic cleavage of PARP. These results suggest that MEPS exhibits antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells via apoptosis, and it may be a potential candidate in field of anticancer drug discovery.

  6. In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Monali P.; Padhy, Rabindra N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Methods Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antibacterial potentiality of leaf extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens. Results Two Gram-positive isolates, E. faecalis and S. aureus, were resistant to 14 of the 18 antibiotics used. Gram-negative isolates A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 10, 12, 9, 11, 11, 10, and 11 antibiotics, respectively, of the 14 antibiotics used. Methanolic leaf extracts of Anogeissus acuminata had the maximum zone of inhibition size—29 mm against S. aureus and 28 mm against E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. Cassia tora had 29 mm as the zone of inhibition size for E. faecalis, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, the most effective 10 plants against uropathogens could be arranged in decreasing order as follows: C. tora > A. acuminata > Schleichera oleosa > Pterocarpus santalinus > Eugenia jambolana > Bridelia retusa > Mimusops elengi > Stereospermum kunthianum > Tectona grandis > Anthocephalus cadamba. The following eight plants had moderate control capacity: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia latifolia, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gmelina arborea, Pongamia pinnata, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Shorea robusta. E. coli, followed by A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, and P

  7. Evaluation of 90 day repeated dose oral toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of 3'-hydroxypterostilbene in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammed; Bani, Sarang; Natarajan, Sankaran; Pandey, Anjali; S, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium. Despite many proposed therapeutic applications, the safety profile of 3'-HPT has not been established. The present work investigated 90 day repeated oral dose and reproductive (developmental) toxicity of 3'-HPT as a test substance in rats as per OECD guidelines. 90 day toxicity was conducted in sixty Sprague Dawley rats of each sex (120 rats), grouped into six dosage groups of 0 (control), 0 (control recovery), 20 (low dose), 80 (mid dose), 200 (high dose) and 200 (high dose recovery) mg/kg bwt/day (body weight/day) respectively. For the reproductive toxicity study forty Wistar rats of each sex (80 rats) divided into four dosage groups received 0 (vehicle control), 20 (low dose), 100 (mid dose) and 200 (high dose) mg/kg bwt/day of 3'-HPT respectively for a period of two weeks while pre-mating, mating, on the day before sacrifice, in females during pregnancy and four days of lactation period. Results showed no significant differences in body weight, food intake, absolute organ weight, haematology, with no adverse effects (toxicity) on biochemical values nor any abnormal clinical signs or behavioural changes were observed in any of the control/treatment groups, including reproductive and developmental parameters, gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of 200 mg/kg bwt/day in rats after oral administration, implying 3'-HPT did not exhibit any toxicity under the study conditions employed.

  8. Growth response of Pterocarpus soyauxii and Lophira alata seedlings to host soil mycorrhizal inocula in relation to land use types.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onguene, N.A.; Ngonkeu, L.E.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in mycorrhizal inoculum in soils due to land use types (LUT) can be alleviated by quantity and quality inoculum addition. A bioassay was carried out to determine how host soil mycorrhizal inoculum influenced mycorrhizal colonization, carbon allocation and partitioning of seedlings of two

  9. Role of Pterocarpus santalinus against mitochondrial dysfunction and membrane lipid changes induced by ulcerogens in rat gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Shoba; Devi, R S; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2007-11-20

    Free radicals produced by ulcerogenic agents affect the TCA cycle enzymes located in the outer membrane of the mitochondria. Upon induction with ulcerogens, peroxidation of membrane lipids bring about alterations in the mitochondrial enzyme activity. This indicates an increase in the permeability levels of the mitochondrial membrane. The ability of PSE to scavenge the reactive oxygen species results in restoration of activities of TCA cycle enzymes. NSAIDs interfere with the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids in vitro and in vivo, resulting in uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation process. This usually results in diminished cellular ATP production. The recovery of gastric mucosal barrier function through maintenance of energy metabolism results in maintenance of ATP levels, as observed in this study upon treatment with PSE. Membrane integrity altered by peroxidation is known to have a modified fatty acid composition, a disruption of permeability, a decrease in electrical resistance, and increase in flip-flopping between monolayers and inactivated cross-linked proteins. The severe depletion of arachidonic acid in ulcer induced groups was prevented upon treatment with PSE. The acid inhibitory property of the herbal extract enables the maintenance of GL activity upon treatment with PSE. The ability to prevent membrane peroxidation has been traced to the presence of active constituents in the PSE. In essence, PSE has been found to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, provide mitochondrial cell integrity, through the maintenance of lipid bilayer by its ability to provide a hydrophobic character to the gastric mucosa, further indicating its ability to reverse the action of NSAIDs and mast cell degranulators in gastric mucosa.

  10. Growth response of Pterocarpus soyauxii and Lophira alata seedlings to host soil mycorrhizal inocula in relation to land use types.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onguene, N.A.; Ngonkeu, L.E.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in mycorrhizal inoculum in soils due to land use types (LUT) can be alleviated by quantity and quality inoculum addition. A bioassay was carried out to determine how host soil mycorrhizal inoculum influenced mycorrhizal colonization, carbon allocation and partitioning of seedlings of two

  11. Development of indirect competitive ELISA for quantification of mitragynine in Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsuwanchote, Supattra; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Keawpradub, Niwat; Putalun, Waraporn; Morimoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) against mitragynine (MG), an analgesic alkaloid from Kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa), was produced. MG was coupled to carrier proteins employing either 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS), a zero-length cross linker or a 5-carbon length glutaraldehyde cross linker. To confirm the immunogenicity, the hapten numbers were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Preparation of the MAb was accomplished by the electrofusion method. Hybridoma 1A6 that was constructed from the fusion between splenocytes of EDC/NHS conjugate immunized mice and SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells was selected, cloned twice and expanded. The cross-reactivities (CRs) of this MAb 1A6 with a series of indole alkaloids were 30.54%, 24.83% and 8.63% for speciogynine, paynantheine and mitraciliatine, respectively. Using this MAb, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed with a measurement range of 32.92-250 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis of the MG contents in plant samples by icELISA correlated well with the standard high performance liquid chromatography method (R(2)=0.994). The MAb against mitragynine provided a tool for detection of MG in Kratom preparations.

  12. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sreejith

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents.

  13. Variation in phenol, electrical conductivity, and sugar contents in Grewia oppositifolia Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.K.Uniyal

    2013-01-01

    We estimated variation in the allocation of metabolites (phenol,sugar,and electrical conductance) in seed,fruit and seedling leachates of 25 populations of Grewia.oppositifolia.Higher quantity of phenolics and higher electrical conductance were observed in plants from lower-middle altitudes but this was not correlated significantly with germination,survival,or plant height.On the other hand,sugar content in fruit pulp leachates was greatest in higher elevational populations and these sources also recorded higher germination,survival,and plant height under nursery conditions.Thus we recommend that germplasm (seed) should be collected from moderately higher elevational sources for nursery as well as future breeding strategies of this potential agroforestry tree crop of the central Himalaya.

  14. Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation for the antipyretic effect of the seeds of Saraca asoca Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasmal S; Majumdar S; Gupta M; Mukherjee A; Mukherjee PK

    2012-01-01

    To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization, physiochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity. Methods: Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical, phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations. Also, the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Wistar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Results: After phytochemical screening, the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin, tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia. The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin (100 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.01) antipyretic activity when compared to the control group. The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature.Conclusions:The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods.

  15. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb. Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Ahmad Ganie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, β-amyrin, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines.

  16. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia bonduc (linn Roxb seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate phytochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and trace metal concentrations of Caesalpinia bonducella. The phytochemical screening of the extracts of leaves of C. bonducella revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as Steroid, Triterpenoids, Reducing Sugar(A, Reducing Sugar(B, Sugars, Flavonoids, Saponin, Amino acids with absence of Alkaloids, Phenolic Compounds, Catachins, Tannins, Anthroquinones.  The ethanol solvent was used for extraction and was used to screen the antimicrobial activity of C. bonducella leaves against certain pathogens by disc diffusion method. In the antimicrobial study, in bacteria, the test sample was most effective against Escherichia coli NCIM 2931 (B2 while smaller effect was noticed from Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 5021 (B3. In fungi, this was effective against Epidermophyton floccosum var. nigricans MTCC 613 (F2 whereas smaller effect was observed in Candida glabrata MTCC 3984 (F1. All the microbial strains depict higher sensitivity to the higher concentration (1.2 mg / disc for the test sample when compared to the positive control except bacterial strains such as Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2920 (B1 and Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 5021 (B3.  The result was supported the view that C. bonducella is a potent antimicrobial agent compared with the conventional antibiotic. The concentrations of trace metals in plants were not cross the standard level. Hence, it is signified that Aloe vera plant extract is safe to be used as an antimicrobial agent.

  17. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Syzygium operculatum (Roxb.) Niedz. bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman; Ahmmed Rusti Foysol; Anaytulla; Md. Masudur Rahman; Mohammed Aktar Sayeed; Md. Abdullah-Al-Mamun; Mohammad Mustakim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the methanol extract of Syzygium operculatum bark (MSOB) using in vivo and in vitro models. Methods: Antidiabetic activity was assessed by using alloxan induced (120 mg/kg body weight) diabetic mice. The plant extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administrated i.p. to diabetic mice in comparison with standard metformin hydrochloride (150 mg/kg body weight). The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by using a range of in vitro assays and results were compared to standards. Results: The extract MSOB 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg reduced the blood glucose level 44.05%and 55.53% respectively where the standard drug metformin reduced 69.42% in dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. The extract MSOB showed significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content and reducing power capacity compared to standards. The IC50 values were found 300.34 μg/mL in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay where 40.31 μg/mL for ascorbic acid. The total phenol and flavonoid contents were 197.5 and 267.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram, respectively. Conclusions: The present study indicates that the extract of Syzygium operculatum bark is the potential sources of natural antioxidant and possesses significant antidiabetic activities.

  18. Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bartogenic Acid Isolated from Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpesh Ramdas Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa are prescribed in the ayurvedic literature for the treatment of pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions. In present investigation, activity guided isolation of bartogenic acid (BA and its evaluation in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis in rats is reported. Among the various extracts and fractions investigated preliminarily for carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Large-scale isolation and characterization using chromatography and spectral study confirmed that the constituent responsible for the observed pharmacological effects was BA. Subsequently the BA was evaluated for effectiveness against CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results indicate that at doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg kg−1 day−1, p.o., BA protects rats against the primary and secondary arthritic lesions, body weight changes and haematological perturbations induced by CFA. The serum markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor, were also reduced in the BA-treated arthritic rats. The overall severity of arthritis as determined by radiological analysis and pain scores indicated that BA exerts a potent protective effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In conclusion, the present study validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of B. racemosa in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. It further establishes the potent anti-arthritic effects of BA. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of BA in the treatment of various immuno-inflammatory disorders.

  19. Effect of growth on wood traits in seed-raised plantations of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pramod Pande; Laxmi Rawat

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of growth on wood ana-tomical dimensions and specific gravity of seed-raised plan-tation wood of Dalbergia sissoo with twelve trees of different diameters and similar ages. Fiber length ranged from 925 to 1,287μm, fiber-diameter was 19–23μm, wall thickness was 4.2–5.4μm, vessel-element-length was 152–188μm, vessel-element-diameter was 152–200μm, and specific gravity was 0.59–0.72. Growth parameters including tree height, diameter at breast height, net primary productivity and net ecosystem productivity were significantly and positively correlated. Growth parameters showed non-significant positive relation-ships with fiber-length, fiber diameter, wall thickness, vessel element length, and vessel element diameter. The trend of wood traits increased with growth. Specific gravity showed non-significant negative relationships with growth parame-ters. Although the growth rate had varied relationships with wood properties, as reported by various workers, the wood element dimensions showed no significant relationship with growth parameters and there was little effect of growth rate on wood traits in seed-raised plantation of D. sissoo.

  20. Micropropagation and assessment of genetic fidelity of Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) nees using RAPD and ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Arvind Kumar; Pradhan, Sushen; Basistha, Bharat Chandra; Sen, Arnab

    2015-08-01

    Dendrocalamus strictus popularly known as 'Male bamboo' is a multipurpose bamboo which is extensively utilized in pharmaceutical, paper, agricultural and other industrial implements. In this study, in vitro regeneration of D. strictus through nodal culture has been attempted. Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 4 mg/l BAP was found to be most effective in shoot regeneration with 3.68 ± 0.37 shoots per explant. The effect of Kn was found to be moderate. These hormones also had considerable effect on the shoot length. The highest shoot length after 6 weeks (3.11 ± 0.41 cm) was noted with 5 mg/l BAP followed by 3.07 ± 0.28 cm with 5 mg/l Kn, while decrease in the shoot length was noted with other treatments. The effect of IBA and NAA individually or in combination at different concentrations on rooting was evaluated. The highest number of root (1.36 ± 0.04) was regenerated on full-strength MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l NAA, while maximum length of 1.64 ± 0.03 cm of roots was recorded with combination of 1 mg/l IBA and 3 mg/l NAA. Tissue-cultured plants thus obtained were successfully transferred to the soil. The clonal fidelity among the in vitro-regenerated plantlets was assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers. The ten RAPD decamers produced 58 amplicons, while nine ISSR primers generated a total of 66 bands. All the bands generated were monomorphic. These results confirmed the clonal fidelity of the tissue culture-raised D. strictus plantlets and corroborated the fact that nodal culture is perhaps the safest mode for multiplication of true to type plants.

  1. In vitro micropropagation and flowering in Ipomoea sepiaria Roxb. An important ethanomedicinal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meena K Cheruvathur; Jyothi Abraham; T Dennis Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To standardize a protocol for the micropropagation and in vitro flowering of Ipomoea sepiaria(I. sepiaria), an important ethanomedicinal plant. Methods: The nodal cuttings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA) or Kinetin (Kn; 1.0-4.0 mg/L) alone or in combination withα-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 0.2-1.0 mg/L) for shoot proliferation. For rooting ½ MS medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or NAA (0.5-3.0 mg/L) was used. When the 45-day-old in vitro derived nodal cuttings were subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA and various concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA; 0.5-3.0 mg/L), in vitro flowering was observed. Results:The highest shoot induction response in terms of percent cultures responding and number of shoots per explant was observed on 3.0 mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA. On this medium 100%cultures responded with an average number of 3.2 shoots per explant. The optimum rooting was observed on 2.0 mg/L IBA. Here 100%shoots rooted with an average number of 5.1 roots per shoot. The optimum in vitro flowering response (38%) was observed on 2.0 mg/L ABA. Conclusion:The present protocol is an efficient method for the rapid multiplication, flowering and conservation of this medicinal plant.

  2. Phytostabilization of heavy metals by the emergent macrophyte Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff.: a phytoremediation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Tarek M; Gharib, Fatma A; Ghazi, Safia M; Mansour, Khalid H

    2017-03-21

    The present study was conducted to investigate the potential of Vossia cuspidata as a phytoremediator to accumulate heavy metals from polluted water bodies. Thirty-two quadrats, distributed equally in eight sites (six polluted sites along Ismailia canal and two unpolluted sites along the Nile River) were selected seasonally for plant, water and sediment investigations. Winter plants recorded the highest values of shoot height, diameter, and leaf width, but the lowest shoot density. Plants collected in autumn had the lowest values of leaf length, width and area, while those in spring had the highest shoot density, with the lowest shoot height. Summer populations had the highest fresh and dry plant biomass, while winter plants had the lowest. Fresh production and dry biomass of V. cuspidata in the unpolluted Nile were significantly higher than polluted canals. Chlorophyll a and carotenoids were reduced under pollution stress. Spring plants accumulated the highest concentrations of Cr, Cu and Pb in their root, and the lowest Al, Cd, Cr and Zn in their shoot. The bioaccumulation factor for most investigated metals, except Al, Cr and Fe was greater than 1, while the translocation factor of all metals was less than 1, therefore this plant is considered to be a potential for phytostabilization of these metals.

  3. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn. and Gmelina arborea (Roxb. for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlings planted in the uncontaminated soils. T. grandis and G. arborea as shown in this study could be good species for phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated habitats due to oil exploration and exploitation especially at low concentrations.

  4. Physiological response of gmelina (Gmelina arborea Roxb. to hydric conditions of the colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Gmelina is an important forest species because of its adaptability to different tropical environments, rapid growth and high quality wood for many uses. Although the species thrives in lowlands, both wet and dry, water availability is the main limiting factor for production in the latter. The transpiration rate, stomatal resistance, water potential and chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments content were monitored for three climatic seasons (rainy, transitional and dry and three ages (seedling (2-10 months, juvenile (10-16 months and adult (48-60 months, in order to observe the physiological response of gmelina to conditions in northern Colombia. Transpiration rates decreased with the age of the trees and the critical value of leaf water potential, that generates stomatal closure, was observed below -2.6 MPa. The dry season resulted in increased carotenoid content, in contrast to the content of chlorophyll A, B and total.

  5. Larvicidal efficacy of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extracts against vector mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arivoli S; Samuel T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larvicidal activity of Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods:The larvicidal activity was determined against three vector mosquito species at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 hours. Results:The leaf extracts of C. collinus was found to exhibit a larvicidal activity against the larvae of An. stephensi with a LC50 value of 399.72 ppm. Conclusions:The results indicate moderate level of larvicidal activity against vector mosquitoes.

  6. Effect of Senna alata (L) Roxb (Fabaceae) Leaf Extracts on alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International ... forest, is of great importance in traditional medical practice in ..... Atlas, 6th ed., Brussels, Belgium, 2013. 16. Matsui T ...

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and isolated compound from Dalbergia stipulacea Roxb. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Bhat, Tahir Ahmad; Singh, Rattan Deep

    2017-07-01

    The study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of extracts and isolated compound of Dalbergia stipulacea. Combined extracts (chloroform and methanol) of plant leaves fractionated with n-butanol loaded with column afforded a flavonoid glycoside compound identified as luteolin 4'-rutinoside. Different extracts and isolated compound exhibited pronounced antibacterial and antifungal varied activities against four bacteria (Clostridium acetobutylinium, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans, and Pseudomonas sp.) and one fungus (Candida albicans) susceptibility were determined using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts and isolated compounds was determined by broth dilution method. The maximum activity was shown by chloroform extract against C. albicans with a zone of inhibition of 17 mm and minimum activity was displayed by methanolic extract against Pseudomonas sp. with 5 mm. However, isolated compound has shown maximum activity against Pseudomonas sp. with 15 mm. The MIC values higher in methanol extract against Pseudomonas sp. and isolated compound shows good against Pseudomonas sp. and B. subtilis. Our findings indicate that plant could be used as a good antimicrobial agent in food, pharmaceutical and bio-pesticide industries.

  8. In vitro antioxidant potential in sequential extracts of Curcuma caesia roxb. rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Reenu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study deals with antioxidant potential of sequential extracts of fresh and dried rhizomes of Curcuma caesia, using solvents viz., hexane, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water, which was analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species assay. Total phenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. C. caesia showed significant antioxidant activity in chloroform, benzene and ethyl acetate extracts. The chloroform extract was highly effective as free radical scavengers, electron-donating agents and reducing molybdate ions except for reducing lipid peroxidation. The highest total phenol content was also exhibited by chloroform and benzene extracts. Antioxidant potential expressed by C. caesia in the sequential extracts could be effectively utilized for identification of the bioactive compounds for future phytopharmacological applications.

  9. In vivo sedative activity of methanolic extract of Stericulia villosa Roxb. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Forhad; Talukder, Bashudeb; Rana, Mohammad Nasiruddin; Tasnim, Refat; Nipun, Tanzina Sharmin; Uddin, S M Naim; Hossen, S M Moazzem

    2016-10-21

    This plant is very popular ingredient of local made drinks during hot summer. After drinking this drink people feels fresh, relaxed and can enjoy sound sleep. Present study was aimed to assess the sedative properties of a plant Sterculia villosa leaves. Therefore, we tried to find out the methanolic extract from the leaves of Sterculia villosa leaves having any sedative activity or not. The extract were subjected to various in vivo methods like hole cross test, open field test, elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, thiopental sodium induced sleeping time test. Diazepam was used as the standard drug. From the study, it is clear that the extract has excellent CNS depressant activity by reducing locomotors activity of mice in every cases of hole cross test, open field test, elevated plus-maze (EPM) test compared to the standard diazepam. In addition, the extract prolong the sleeping time (230 min) with quick onset of action (9 min) in contrast to the standard and control group. From the present study it can be conclude that the extract posses significant a sedative property that may lead to new drug development and further investigation is necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms and to isolate the active principles.

  10. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF DALBERGIA SISSOO (ROXB. BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD ASIF

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible anti-inflammatory activity of a 90% ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo bark was studied in a model of inflammation using a right hind paw oedema method in Wistar rats. One percent carrageenan in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC was administered through the sub-plantar region of the right hind paw of the animals. CMC was used as a suspending agent because it does not produce evident changes in activity response. Phytochemical investigation of bark extract showed that it contained carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, tannins and flavonoids.After oral administration of ethanolic extract at different doses (300, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, inhibition of right hind paw oedema was observed at 30, 60, and 120 min time intervals. The antiinflammatoryeffects of the extract were compared with a standard dose of indomethacin (10 mg/kg. In acute toxicity studies, the extract was found to be safe up to 3000 mg/kg, p.o. in the rats. The biological effects increased with increasing doses. The ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo bark at 1000 mg/kg showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity compared to the other groups (300 and 500 mg/kg throughout the observation period.

  11. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn.) and Gmelina arborea (Roxb.) for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi; Efemena Dickens Dolor; Ebere Mercy Okechukwu

    2007-01-01

    A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlin...

  12. Psychopharmacological potentials of methanol leaf extract of Securinega virosa Roxb (Ex Willd) Baill. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, M G; Yakubu, Y; Magaji, R A; Musa, A M; Yaro, A H; Hussaini, I M

    2014-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling chronic psychiatric illness. The existing antipsychotic agents are associated with untoward effects and drug interactions leading to the intensification of search for newer agents with better efficacy and safety profile. Securinega virosa is a commonly used medicinal plant in African traditional medicine. The decoction of the leaves of the plant in combination with other plants is used in the management of mental illness. In this study, we evaluate the antipsychotic potential of the methanol leaf extract (25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) of the plant using apomorphine-induced stereotypic climbing behavior and swim-induced grooming tests, all in mice. The CNS depressant effect was also evaluated using ketamine-induced sleep test mice. The extract at the highest dose tested (100 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced the apomorphine (1 mg kg(-1))-induced stereotypic climbing behavior after 30 min. Similarly, haloperidol (2 mg kg(-1)), the standard agent significantly (pclimbing behavior. In the swim-induced grooming test, the extract significantly (pplant in the management of mental illness.

  13. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Leucas cephalotes (Roxb.ex Roth Spreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhukya Baburao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The whole plant of the methanolic extract from Leucas cephalotes was screened for invitro antioxidant (using the DPPH method, invivo analgesic (using hot plate test in mice and anti-inflammatory (using rat paw edema test activities. The methanolic extract of Leucas cephalotes (MELC scavenged the DPPH radicals in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value to scavenge DPPH radicals was found to be 421.3µg/ml. A significant (pO extrato metanólico total de Leucas cephalotes foi submetido à triagem para as atividades antioxidante in vitro (utilizando o método DPPH, analgésica (utilizando teste da placa quente, em camundongos e antiinflamatória (utilizando teste de edema da pata de rato, nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. O extrato metanólico de Leucas cephalotes (MELC inativou radicais difenil picril hidrazila (DPPH de forma dose-dependente. O IC50 para essa atividade foi de 421,3 µg/mL. Observou-se atividade analgésica significativa (p<0,0005 a 60 minutos, com 200 mg/kg, e, com 400 mg/kg, observou-se atividade máxima. A resposta antiinflamatória máxima foi produzida, respectivamente, em 3 h e 2 h, com doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. Estes resultados sugerem que o extrato metanólico de Leucas cephalotes apresenta efeitos analgésico e antiinflamatório significativos, comparáveis aos fármacos padrão.

  14. Palmarosa [Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats.] as a putative crop for phytoremediation, in tannery sludge polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Janhvi; Chand, Sukhmal; Pandey, Shipra; Rajkumari; Patra, D D

    2015-12-01

    A field experiment using tannery sludge as a soil amendment material and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) as a potential phytostabilizer was conducted to investigate their synergistic effect in relation to the improvement in soil quality/property. Three consecutive harvests of two cultivars of palmarosa-PRC-1 and Trishna, were examined to find out the influence of different tannery sludge doses on their herb, dry matter, essential oil yield and heavy metal accumulation. Soil fertility parameters (N, P, K, Organic carbon) were markedly affected by different doses of sludge. Enhanced soil nitrogen was positively correlated with herb yield (0.719*) and plant height (0.797*). The highest dose of tannery sludge (100 t ha(-1)) exhibited best performance than other treatments with respect to herb, dry matter and oil yield in all three harvests. Trishna was found to be superior to PRC-1 in relation to same studied traits. Quality of oil varied, but was insignificant statistically. Uptake of heavy metals followed same order (Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd) in roots and shoots. Translocation factor 1 was observed in case of all heavy metals. Overall, tannery sludge enhanced the productivity of crop and metal accumulation occurred in roots with a meager translocation to shoots, hence it can be used as a phytostabiliser. The major advantage of taking palmarosa in metal polluted soil is that unlike food and agricultural crops, the product (essential oil) is extracted by hydro-distillation and there is no chance of oil contamination, thus is commercially acceptable.

  15. Protective effect ofAmorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume. tuber against thioacetamide induced oxidative stress in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Puthuparampil Nazarudeen Ansil; Anand Nitha; Pallara Janardhanan Wills; Vahab Jazaira; Mukalel Sankunni Latha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To identify the phytochemical constituents ofAmorphophallus campanulatus (A. campanulatus) tuber and to evaluate its antioxidant potential throughin vitro andin vivo models. Methods: Phytochemical screening andin vitro antioxidant activities ofA. campanulatus tuber n-hexane extract (ACHE) and methanolic extract (ACME) were evaluated using DPPH, hydroxyl radical, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity assays. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also investigated. The protective potential of two different doses ofACME (125 and250 mg/kg) was also evaluated against thioacetamide (TAA) induced oxidative stress in rats. Silymarin used as a standard drug control. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by quantifying the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The antioxidant potential ofACME were also evaluated by the estimation of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in hepatic and renal tissues. Histopathologic changes of liver were also evaluated.Results:In vitro studies revealed thatACME has higher antioxidant and radical scavenging activity thanACHE, which may be attributed to its higher phenolic and flavonoid content.ACME significantly prevented the elevation of serumAST, ALT, ALP, LDH, and tissue malondialdehyde levels(P < 0.05). Hepatic and renalGSH, GST, GR, GPx, and catalase levels were remarkably increased by the treatment with the extract. Quantification of histopathological changes also supported the dose dependent protective effects ofACME.Conclusions: The results do suggest thatA. campanulatus tuber could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  16. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil.

  17. Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Daun Pandan Wangi (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Sukandar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui toksisitas dari ekstrak daun pandan wangimenggunakan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. Ekstrak dibuat dengan cara maserasimenggunakan tiga macam pelarut, yaitu butanol, etil asetat, dan petroleum eter. Uji toksisitasdilakukan dengan menggunakan larva udang Artemia salina Leach yang berumur 48 jam. Efektoksik masing-masing ekstrak diidentifikasi dengan presentase kematian larva udangmenggunakan analisis probit (LC50. Ekstrak aktif kemudian diuji kandungan fitokimianya dansenyawa bioaktif yang terkandung di dalamnya dengan menggunakan GC-MS. Hasilnyamenunjukkan ekstrak etil asetat bersifat toksik (LC50 : 288,4 ppm. Senyawa yang terkandungdalam ekstrak etil asetat adalah senyawa terpenoid dan steroid.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum Roxb. on paracetamol induced toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabeena Hussain Syed; Ajay Gajanan Namdeo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of leaves ofErythroxylum monogynum Methods: Methanolic extract of leaves of E. monogynum was given in doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for 7 d and toxicity was induced by paracetamol (2 mg/kg) on Day 8. Silymarin (50 mg/kg) was used as reference standard. After 24 h of toxicity induction blood samples were collected from retro-orbital plexsus and analyzed for serum parameters like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminse, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Livers isolated were studied for histopathological changes. (E. monogynum) on paracetamol induced toxicity. Results: Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of E. monogynum leaves showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. Prior administration of this extract restored the elevated levels serum markers as compared to toxic group which is also confirmed by the histopathological changes observed.Conclusions:The present study showed that methanolic extract of leaves of E. monogynum possess hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.

  19. Potential antifilarial activity of roots of Asparagus adscendens Roxb, against Setaria cervi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Khan, N U; Singhal, K C

    1997-02-01

    Effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the roots of A. adscendens was studied on the spontaneous movements of whole worm and nerve muscle (n.m.) preparation of S. cervi and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro. Aqueous as well alcoholic extracts caused inhibition of spontaneous motility of whole worm and n.m. preparation of S. cervi characterized by initial, short lasting small increase in amplitude and tone of contractions followed by paralysis. The initial stimulatory effect was not observed by aqueous extract on n.m. preparation. The concentration required to inhibit the movements of n.m. preparation was 1/4th for aqueous and 1/3rd for alcoholic extract suggesting a cuticular permeability barrier. The effect of acetylcholine on n.m. preparation was concentration related being more with a concentration of 5 micrograms/ml as compared to 1 microgram/ml. Both alcoholic as well as aqueous extracts caused death of microfilariae in vitro, LC50 and LC90 being 8 and 16 ng/ml for aqueous, 3 and 12 ng/ml for alcoholic extracts respectively.

  20. SINERGIS TAURIN LINTAH LAUT (Discodoris sp. DAN TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb. DALAM SERBUK MINUMAN FUNGSIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marwita Sari Putri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSumber daya perairan seperti lintah laut (Discodoris sp. dapat dibuat menjadi minuman fungsional.Lintah laut telah dilaporkan memiliki sifat antioksidan dan mengandung taurin. Penelitian ini dilakukandalam 2 tahap: 1 persiapan bahan baku (Discodoris sp, 2 formulasi produk minuman fungsional.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah: 1 untuk menentukan konsentrasi komposisi bahan baku denganmempertimbangkan efek sinergis dari taurin pada minuman fungsional, 2 untuk mengetahui pengaruhpreparasi pada serbuk minuman fungsional terhadap jumlah taurin. Tiga formula terbaik yang diterimasecara organoleptik yaitu formula T1 (Discodoris sp. 20%, jahe 40%, 20% curcuma, lemon 20%, T2 formula(Discodoris sp. 25%, jahe 40%, 15% curcuma, lemon 20% dan T3 formula (Discodoris sp. 30%, jahe 40%,10% curcuma, lemon 20%.Kata kunci: efek sinergis, lintah laut, minuman fungsional, taurin

  1. Sebiferone, a New Triterpenoid from Stem Bark of Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From the stem bark of Sapium sebiferum a new triterpenoid, named sebiferone (1), was isolated. The structure of the new compound was elucidated as 3β-acetoxy-D-friedoolen-14-en -1-one-28-oic acid on the basis of spectral and chemical methods.

  2. Chemical profiling of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. rhizome using different techniques of solvent extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanimah Simoh

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: It was evident from the results that C. aeruginosa rhizome extracted using two different techniques of solvent extractions (MTBE and M/C contained various chemical classes of compounds including terpenoids, sterols, organic acids, fatty acids and sugars. Different methods of extraction have led to different compounds extraction for C. aeruginosa rhizome. The results also indicated that the plant was a source of phytochemical importance.

  3. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of flavonoids from Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb.) (Simaroubaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ataa; Tundis, Rosa; Hawas, Usama W; El-Kousy, Salah M; Rashed, Khaled; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Huefner, Antje; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Menichinib, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, and the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Ailanthus excelsa, a plant used in Egyptian traditional medicine. Chromatographic separation of a methanol extract of A. excelsa leaves yielded four flavones, namely apigenin (1), apigenin 7-O-beta-glucoside (2), luteolin (3), and luteolin 7-O-beta-glucoside (4), and seven flavonols, namely kaempferol (5), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-arabinoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-beta-galactoside (7), quercetin (8), quercetin 3-O-alpha-arabinoside (9), quercetin 3-O-beta-galactoside (10), and quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (11). The A. excelsa extract tested in different in vitro systems (DPPH and FRAP assays) showed significant antioxidant activity. The potential antiproliferative activity of the A. excelsa extract and isolated flavonoids against five human cancer cell lines such as ACHN, COR-L23, A375, C32, and A549 was investigated in vitro by the SRB assay in comparison with one normal cell line, 142BR. The extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against C32 cells with an IC50 value of 36.5 microg ml(-1). Interesting activity against COR-L23 was found with 10 (IC50 value of 3.2 microg ml(-1)). Compounds 1 and 3 inhibited cell growth in both amelanotic melanoma and malignant melanoma cells.

  4. Protein patterns and chemical constituents of Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle and Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayçu, Gülriz; Said, Ataa; Farag, Ahmed; Rashed, Khaled

    2010-01-01

     There is a growing interest in correlating biochemical constituents of plants with their taxonomic properties. Generally the genus Ailanthus is noted for the presence of quassinoids, alkaloids, lipids, fatty acids, terpenoids and some proteins. In this study, we aimed to investigate the similarities and/or differences in the chemical constituents and protein patterns of different Ailanthus species. We assume that our parameters may be used as an additional tool for chemotaxonomic st...

  5. Two new tetracyclic triterpenes from the heartwood of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Pullela V; Rao, R Ranga; Rao, J Madhusudana

    2006-08-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpenes, ailexcelone and ailexcelol, together with ocotillone, malabaricol, epoxymalabaricol, lupeol, and sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside were isolated from the heartwood of Ailanthus excelsa. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR data. Ocotillone, malabaricol and epoxymalabaricol were isolated for the first time from A. excelsa. All of the isolates were tested for their antifungal activity.

  6. New mannose-binding lectin isolated from the rhizome of Sarsaparilla Smilax glabra Roxb. (Liliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Linda S M; Sun, Samuel S M; Wang, Hua; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2004-10-06

    A new mannose-binding lectin, designated SGM2, was isolated from the rhizome of a Chinese medicinal herb Smilax glabra (also known as sarsaparilla in general) by saline extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation and fractionation, and affinity chromatography on fetuin- and mannose-agarose. SGM2 is shown to have a molecular mass of 37 kDa on gel filtration and 12.5 kDa on SDS-PAGE, indicating that it is a trimeric protein composed of three identical subunits. When the first 30 amino acid residues at the N-terminal were compared, SGM2 had approximately 40% homology with those of some other monocots. SGM2 had the property of hemagglutinating activity toward rabbit erythrocytes, which could be reversed by mannose and mannose polymers. SGM2 exhibited antiviral activities against both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with the same EC(50) of 8.1 microM.

  7. Limitation of mitragynine biosynthesis in Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. through tryptamine availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoonratanaa, Tossaton; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Georgiev, Milen I; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Metabolite profiles of Mitragyna speciosa were determined by means of 1H NMR-based and HPLC-based analyses. The results indicated that high contents of secologanin, caffeic acid, gallic acid, epigallocatechin, and mitragynine were accumulated in leaves. In M. speciosa, feedings of tryptamine, tryptophan, phenylalanine or tyrosine significantly increased the mitragynine contents. Feedings of tryptamine and loganin also enhanced the mitragynine accumulation, but feeding of loganin only did not affect the mitragynine level. The mRNA levels of anthranilate synthase alpha subunit (ASA), tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), and strictosidine synthase (STR) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in control plants and those exposed to methyl jasmonate (MJ; 10 microM). All genes responded to MJ after a 24-h treatment. The mitragynine contents were also enhanced and corresponded to the transcript levels. From the present results we conclude that a high content of secologanin together with a undetectable level of tryptamine in M. speciosa feature the limitation of mitragynine biosynthesis. Additionally, expression of all the genes limits production of an essential precursor for mitragynine production.

  8. (Euph tion an ega vi horbiac nd anti irosa R ceae) sicklin Roxb. e ng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    induced diarrheal model showed the leaves and root bark extracts possess ... antioxidant activities, with the ethanol extract having the greatest .... screening of ... acy bioassay r in-vivo s ction of oxy hite as a phy use of erythro particularly e.

  9. Effective Control of Postprandial Glucose Level through Inhibition of Intestinal Alpha Glucosidase by Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Ghadyale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of intestinal alpha glucosidase plays a major role in preventing rise in postprandial glucose level in diabetics. Cymbopogon martinii (CM (family Poaceae is used in traditional Indian medicine in treatment of diabetes mellitus. The alpha glucosidase inhibitory action of the plant is studied. The active component was separated using hot water extraction of the whole plant powder, differential solvent extraction, and silica gel column chromatography. The 30 : 70 toluene : ethyl acetate fraction showed optimum activity. The silica gel chromatography fraction demonstrated 98, 98, and 68% inhibition for starch, maltose, and sucrose, respectively, at 5 mg/kg body weight of rats. Intestinal absorption studies using noneverted intestinal sacs, as well as in vivo studies in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using oral glucose tolerance with maltose and sucrose load, revealed better inhibition of alpha glucosidase as compared to acarbose. Kinetic studies using Lineweaver Burk plot showed mixed to noncompetitive type of inhibition by CM. In vivo studies with maltose load of 2 mg and 3 mg/gm body weight showed a noncompetitive pattern of inhibition at 5 mg/kg body weight of CM as against 60 mg/kg body weight of acarbose. Thus CM is more effective alpha glucosidase inhibitor and at lower concentration than acarbose.

  10. Effect of Momordica dioica Roxb on gentamicin model of acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Avijeet; Singhai, A K

    2010-09-01

    The ethanolic extract of the fruits of Momordica dioica was studied for its protective and curative effect against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats of both sexes. Gentamicin intoxicated group showed significant increase in blood urea (69.48 +/- 4.34) and serum creatinine (3.017 +/- 0.208) from normal levels 33.72 +/- 1.92 and 0.818 +/- 0.073, respectively, in control group. In the preventive regimen, the extract at dose levels of 200 mg kg(-1) showed significant reduction in the elevated blood urea (47.93 +/- 2.46) and serum creatinine (2.067 +/- 0.1745), respectively. This treatment normalised the histopathological changes compared to the intoxicated group. In the curative regimen at 200 mg kg(-1) blood urea was found to be 48.21 +/- 2.36 and serum creatinine level was 2.050 +/- 0.183, which revealed significant curative effect. In vivo antioxidant and free radial scavenging activities were also determined. The maximum free radical scavenging activity with ethanolic extract was the basis of selection of this extract for in vivo study. Reduced glutathione (GSH) level was significantly (p Momordica dioica seeds possesses marked nephroprotective and curative activities without any toxicity due to its antioxidant activity and could offer a promising role in the treatment of acute renal injury caused by nephrotoxin-like gentamicin.

  11. ANALYSIS OF MACRONUTRIENCONTENT, GLYCEMIC INDEX AND CALCIUM OXALATE ELIMINATION IN Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Lukitaningsih

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the research to find alternative sources of carbohydrates as a replacement for rice has been developed. Walur is one of the carbohydrate sources that can be explored because it can be grown in any area with out special treatment. However, walur has limitation for direct consumption, because it contains calcium oxalate. The purposes of this study were to determine the chemical character (macronutrient content, calculate glycemic index and get the proper washing techniques to elimin ate calcium oxalate of walur. Macro nutrients content studied in this research include carbohydrates, fats, protein, star chand crude fiber. Analysis of macronutrients has been chemically done, while the glycemic index was measured by in vivo using glucose as a standard. Elimination of calcium oxalate was conducted by washing the fresh walur tubers using a solution of0.01NHCl-NaOH, 5% NaCl, and solution of lemon-lime. The content of oxalate before and after washing was analyzed by permanganometry method. The results showed that walur containing 4.34 ±0.07% of reducingsugar,3.24 ± 0.06 % of not-reducing sugar, 11.27±0.40 % of crude fiber,0.03±1.05 % of starchand0.57±0.01 % of protein. Qualitative analysis of fatty acids showed that hexade canoicacid, octade cadienoicacid, and the acide icosatetranoic were detected in high concentrations. The glycemic index valueof walur was relative lylow, about of 16.9. In addition, washing technique using a solution of lemon-lime was the most excellent technique and can reduce the oxalate content up to61.82%.Fromthis research, it can be concluded that walur can be used as food substitute esrice after washing treatment using lemon-lime solution to remove the calcium oxalate content.

  12. Phenotypic aberrations during micropropagation of Soymida febrifuga (Roxb. Adr. Juss

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    Kishore Kumar CHIRUVELLA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Like most of the medicinal plants Soymida febrifuga (Meliaceae possess significance for its valuable secondary metabolites. Multiplication of this endemic plant is limited by difficulty in rooting of stem cuttings, high seedling mortality rates and low seed viability period. Hence efficient protocols for in vitro mass propagation has been established from field grown and aseptic seedlings explants. Strikingly, we observed aberrant structures such as vitrified shoots, faciated shoots, albino shoots as well shoot necrosis during its micropropagation. These phenotypic maladies were observed during organogenesis and rooting. Compared to other abnormalities, shoot necrosis nonetheless was frequent and pronounced leading to plant death. Shoots when subjected to rooting also displayed necrosis which was controlled by transferring to MS medium containing various concentrations and combinations of calcium levels, activated charcoal, glucose, fructose and auxins. Microshoots initiated roots on half strength MS medium with IBA and IAA individually or in combination within two weeks. MS half strength solid medium supplemented with CAN (556 mg l–1, CAP (1.0 mg l–1, IAA (2.0 mg l–1 and IBA (2.0 mg l–1 in combination was found to be more efficient in showing high frequency (95% of root regeneration. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and 70-85% of regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized to natural environment. In vitro derived plantlets were morphologically similar to in vivo plants.

  13. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

    2014-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, β-amyrin, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines. PMID:24949441

  14. Pengaruh Pemberiaan Tepung Temulawak (Curcuma Xanthorrizha Roxb) Dalam Ransum Terhadap Kualitas Karkas Ayam Broiler Umur 6 Minggu [The Influence of Temulawak Flour (Curcuma xanthorrizha Roxb) In A Portion to Quality of Carcass Broiler 6 Weeks Old

    OpenAIRE

    Yunilas; Mirwandhono, Edhy; Sinaga, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This research aim to give of temulawak flour in ransum to carcass quality (colour, tekstur and pH) broiler 6 week old. This experiment was arranged by completely random design (CDR) which consists of 5 treatments and 4 replications, and each replication consist of 5 chickens. The parameter in this experiment are meat colour, meat teksture, and meat pH. The result of research obtained of temulawak flour until level 4% in ransum not significant (P>0.05) to meat colour, meat teksture an...

  15. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity and acute oral toxicity of standardized ethanolic extract of the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Sutha; Esfahani, Azadeh Sabetghadam; Ismail, Sabariah; Ramanathan, Surash; Yam, Mun Fei

    2010-04-22

    Ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was used to evaluate the analgesic and toxicity effects in vivo. The extract was standardized using GC-MS, which showed that 1 mg of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract contains 0.1238 mg of xanthorrhizol. The analgesic activity was studied in rats using three different models, namely the hot plate test, tail flick test and formalin-induced pain test. The acute oral toxicity was examined by the oral administration of standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract in mice at doses ranging from 300-5,000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days. Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show significant analgesic effect in the hot plate and tail flick tests. However, in the formalin-induced pain test, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract significantly (P Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show any toxic effects in mice at 5 g/kg. These experimental results suggest that the standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract showed peripheral and central antinociceptive activity associated with neurogenic pain as well as a relative absence of toxic effects which could compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.

  16. Allometric relationship for estimating above-ground biomass of Aegialitis rotundifolia Roxb.of Sundarbans mangrove forest, in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Raqibul Hasan Siddique·Mahmood Hossain; M d.Rezaul Karim Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Tree biomass plays a key role in sustainable management by providing different aspects of ecosystem.Estimation of above ground biomass by non-destructive means requires the development of allometric equations.Most researchers used DBH (diameter at breast height) and TH (total height) to develop allometric equation for a tree.Very few species-specific allometric equations are currently available for shrubs to estimate of biomass from measured plant attributes.Therefore,we used some of readily measurable variables to develop allometric equations such as girth at collar-height (GCH) and height of girth measuring point (GMH) with total height (TH) for A.rotundifolia,a mangrove species of Sundarbans of Bangladesh,as it is too dwarf to take DBH and too irregular in base to take Girth at a fixed height.Linear,non-linear and logarithmic regression techniques were tried to determine the best regression model to estimate the above-ground biomass of stem,branch and leaf.A total of 186 regression equations were generated from the combination of independent variables.Best fit regression equations were determined by examining co-efficient of determination (R2),co-efficient of variation (Cv),mean-square of the error (Mserror),residual mean error (Rsme),and F-value.Multiple linear regression models showed more efficient over other types of regression equation.The performance of regression equations was increased by inclusion of GMH as an independent variable along with total height and GCH.

  17. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Marimuthu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions. Results: The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC 50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce. Conclusions: From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  18. Sucrose mobilization in relation to essential oil biogenesis during palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii Roxb. Wats. var. motia) inflorescence development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinod Shanker Dubey; Ritu Bhalla; Rajesh Luthra

    2003-06-01

    Palmarosa inflorescence with partially opened spikelets is biogenetically active to incorporate [U-14C]sucrose into essential oil. The percent distribution of 14C-radioactivity incorporated into geranyl acetate was relatively higher as compared to that in geraniol, the major essential oil constituent of palmarosa. At the partially opened spikelet stage, more of the geraniol synthesized was acetylated to form geranyl acetate, suggesting that majority of the newly synthesized geraniol undergoes acetylation, thus producing more geranyl acetate. In vitro development of palmarosa inflorescence, fed with [U-14C]sucrose, resulted in a substantial reduction in percent label from geranyl acetate with a corresponding increase in free geraniol, thereby suggesting the role of an esterase in the production of geraniol from geranyl acetate. At time course measurement of 14CO2 incorporation into geraniol and geranyl acetate substantiated this observation. Soluble acid invertase was the major enzyme involved in the sucrose breakdown throughout the inflorescence development. The activities of cell wall bound acid invertase, alkaline invertase and sucrose synthase were relatively lower as compared to the soluble acid invertase. Sucrose to reducing sugars ratio decreased till fully opened spikelets stage, concomitant with increased acid invertase activity and higher metabolic activity. The phenomenon of essential oil biosynthesis has been discussed in relation to changes in these physiological parameters.

  19. THE NUTRITIVE VALUES OF PUFA-CONCENTRATE SUPPLEMENTED WITH YEAST AND Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb STORED IN SEVERAL WEEKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sulistyowati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid-concentrates containing fatty acid sources (roasted corn grain,roasted soy bean meal, and corn oil was designated as PUFA- concentrate for dairy goat. There werefour PUFA-concentrates, no supplement (PC0, 0.5% or 5 g yeast (PCY, 2% or 20 g curcuma powder(PCC, and 0.5% or 5g yeast with 2% or 20g curcuma powder (PCM. These PUFA-concentrates wereevaluated for nutrients and fatty acid contents during 2, 4, and 6 weeks of storage. The application oftreatments utilized in this research was completely randomized design with repeated measurement andsplit plot statistical analysis. Results showed that the contents of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract,crude protein, N-free extract, gross energy, acid detergent fiber, Ca, P, and Saccharomyces cereviseaewere significantly (P<0.05 remained stable as caused by unchained moisture of PUFA-concentrate withcombined supplements (Y5C20 in the 6 weeks of storage. The total PUFA (P, P/S, monounsaturatedfatty acid (MUFA, and long chained fatty acid contents tended to be high in PUFA-concentrate with 2%or 20 g curcuma powder. Whereas, the PUFA-concentrate with a combination of 0.5% or 5 g yeast and2% or 20 g curcuma powder was higher in unsaturated (U fat and the ratio of U/S. In conclusion, combining all nutrient performances during the storage of 2 to 6 weeks, the PUFA-concentrate with0.5% or 5 g yeast and 2% or 20 g curcuma powder was considered nutritionally good.

  20. STUDIES ON THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND SCREENING FOR ANTI-MITOTIC EFFICACY OF SALICORNIA BRACHIATA ROXB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.Pavan Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicorniabrachiata is a euhalopytic plant belonging to the family Chenopodiaceae. The present study investigates the phytochemistry, characterization and antimitotic activity of ethanolic extract of S.brachiata.Plants popularly known as Sea asparagus are cooked and eaten or pickled. It is also a good fodder for cattle, sheep and goat. Plant material is also used as raw material in paper and board factories. Its seeds yield high quality edible oil which is highly polyunsaturated and similar to safflower oil in fatty acid.S.brachiata was collected from the back waters of Bapatla,Guntur district. The collected plant material was shade dried and pulverized. The plant material Was studied for phytochemistry,spectroscopic analysis i.e.,UV- Visible, FT-IR and anti mitotic activity.S. brachiata has been prescribed in traditional medicines for the treatment of intestinal ailments, nephropathy, and hepatitis in Oriental countries. In addition, S.brachiata has recently reported to be effective on the atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. A variety of pharmacological experiments have revealed that solvent-extracted fractions of S.brachiata exhibited anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities,supporting rationale behind its several traditional uses.The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of Tannins and Flavonoids in the plant. UV-Vis Spectrum, used for the quantitative analysis of the plant extract showed peaks at 280 and 290 nm. Identification of the functional groups was performed by FT-IR spectroscopy which confirmed the presence of phenolic, alcoholic and aromatic compounds.

  1. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govindarajan Marimuthu; Rajeswary Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobiumdulce (P. dulce) against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx.quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions.Results:The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce.Conclusions:From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  2. Amelioration of oxidative stress in bio-membranes and macromolecules by non-toxic dye from Morinda tinctoria (Roxb.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Dipita; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2012-06-01

    Plant dyes have been in use for coloring and varied purposes since prehistoric times. A red dye found in the roots of plants belonging to genus Morinda is a well recognized coloring ingredient. The dye fraction obtained from the methanolic extract of the roots of Morinda tinctoria was explored for its role in attenuating damages caused by H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. The antioxidant potential of the dye fraction was assessed through DPPH radical scavenging, deoxyribose degradation and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. It was subsequently screened for its efficiency in extenuating damage incurred to biomembrane (using erythrocytes and their ghost membranes) and macromolecules (pBR322 DNA, lipids and proteins) from exposure to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the non-toxic nature of the dye was supported by the histological evaluation conducted on the tissue sections from the major organs of Swiss Albino mice as well as effect on Hep3B cell line (human hepatic carcinoma). The LC-MS confirms the dye fraction to be morindone. Our study strongly suggests that morindone present in the root extracts of M. tinctoria, in addition to being a colorant, definitely holds promise in the pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Effect of aluminium toxicity on growth responses and antioxidant activities in Gmelina arborea Roxb. inoculated with AM fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhane, Mayura; Borde, Mahesh; Jite, Paramjit Kaur

    2012-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviating the adverse Aluminium effects on growth and antioxidant activity was tested in Gmelina plants. Under greenhouse and aluminium stress condition, the mycorrhizal Gmelina plants showed good growth as compared to non mycorrhizal Gmelina plants. Mycorrhizal colonization in Gmelina was found not to be significantly influenced by aluminium concentrations. Results also indicate that symbiotic association was successfully established between Glomus intraradices and Gmelina plants and mycorrhizal colonization consequently increased the biomass of Gmelina. The root proline accumulation was found to increase in mycorrhizal Gmelina plants for osmotic adjustment of stress tissues under first and second level of Aluminium stress. It was observed that Mycorrhizal colonization increased the shoot root Peroxidase and Superoxide dismutase activities in mycorrhizal Gmelina under second level of Aluminium stress. Mycorrhizal fungi play a major role in phytostabilization by secreting one of the glycoprotein, i.e., Glomalin, which stabilizes the Aluminium in soil as well as in the roots of Gmelina plants.

  4. High Performance Thin layer Chromatography: Densitometry Method for Determination of Rubraxanthone in the Stem Bark Extract of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Dachriyanus; Aulia, Hilyatul; Susanti, Meri

    2017-01-01

    Garcinia cowa is a medicinal plant widely grown in Southeast Asia and tropical countries. Various parts of this plant have been used in traditional folk medicine. The bark, latex, and root have been used as an antipyretic agent, while fruit and leaves have been used as an expectorant, for indigestion and improvement of blood circulation. This study aims to determine the concentration of rubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G. cowa by the high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). HPTLC method was performed on precoated silica gel G 60 F254 plates using an HPTLC system with a developed mobile-phase system of chloroform: ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid (86:6:3:5). A volume of 5 μL of standard and sample solutions was applied to the chromatographic plates. The plates were developed in saturated mode of twin trough chamber at room temperature. The method was validated based on linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and specificity. The spots were observed at ultraviolet 243 nm. The linearity of rubraxanthone was obtained between 52.5 and 157.5 ppm/spot. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 4.03 and 13.42 ppm/spot, respectively. The proposed method showed good linearity, precision, accuracy, and high sensitivity. Therefore, it may be applied for the quantification of rubraxanthone in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G. cowa. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method provides rapid qualitative and quantitative estimation of rubraxanthone as a marker com¬pound in G. cowa extract used for commercial productRubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extracts of G. cowa was successfully quantified using HPTLC method. Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin-layer chromatography, HPTLC: High-performance thin-layer chromatography, LOD: Limit of detection, LOQ: Limit of quantification, ICH: International Conference on Harmonization.

  5. Sub-chronic toxicological evaluation of cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B from the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Parasuraman

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study concludes that both cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B exert severe toxic effects on lungs, brain, liver, heart and kidneys. They do not cause any significant pathological change in the reproductive system; neither do they induce neurodegenerative changes in brain. When compared to cleistanthin A, cleistanthin B is more toxic in rats.

  6. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC 50 and LC 90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  7. Pengaruh Penggunaan Senyawa Pengomplek dan Bahan Tambahan Terhadap Mutu Tinta Pemilu dari Ekstrak Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Muchtar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Election ink is applied to the forefinger of voters during election in order to prevent electoral frauds such as double voting. The current election inks contain silver nitrate solutions to make it more durable which stains the skin on exposure to ultraviolet light, leaving a mark that is impossible to wash off and is only removed as external skin cells are replaced. But the silver nitrate solution may damage the human skins and is poisonous to the environment. This research was carried out to investigate the use of gambir extracts for election inks as environment-friendly raw materials. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal ink from gambir extrac which technically could meet quality requirements of the election ink. In this study, gambir was extracted through the following refinement process; heating in boiling water, stirring, cooling, filtering, molding, and drying. The cube black then was dissolved in technical ethanol, added one of the complexing compounds FeSO4 and FeNO3 depending on the formula used. The best ink composition was 70% gambier extract in ethanol, 22% of FeSO4 saturated solution in ethanol, 5% of turmeric extract, and 3% of crystal violet solution 4%. This ink was more homogenous with violet color at pH 3.86 which gave rub resistant to water and soap. The ink stains could stay on finger skin for 3 days. Analytical results showed that the ink did not contain Pb, Cd, and Hg while Cu 65.04 ppm and fulfill the requirement of general election commitee number 16/2013.ABSTRAK Tinta pemilu  digunakan untuk identifikasi pada jari tangan pada waktu pemilihan umum atau kegiatan sejenis lainnya guna mencegah terjadinya kecurangan. Pada tinta pemilu saat ini digunakan bahan perak nitrat agar lebih tahan lama, namun penggunaan perak nitrat dapat merusak kulit dan bersifat racun. Untuk itu telah dilakukan penelitian pengaruh jenis bahan senyawa pengomplek dan bahan tambahan terhadap mutu tinta pemilu dari ekstrak gambir. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan tinta dari ekstrak gambir yang secara teknis dapat memenuhi persyaratan kualitas tinta pemilu. Dalam penelitian ini gambir diolah menjadi cube black gambir melalui proses penghalusan, pemanasan dalam air mendidih, pengadukan, pendinginan, penyaringan, pencetakan, dan pengeringan. Selanjutnya cube black gambir dilarutkan dalam etanol teknis, ditambahkan salah satu dari senyawa pengomplek, FeSO4 dan FeNO3 tergantung formula yang digunakan. Komposisi tinta terbaik adalah 70 bagian ekstrak gambir dalam etanol, 22 bagian larutan jenuh FeSO4 dalam etanol, 5 bagian ektrak kunyit serta 3 bagian larutan kristal violet 4%. Tinta lebih homogen dengan warna yang dihasilkan violet, pH 3,86, tahan gosok terhadap air dan  sabun. Daya tahan tinta dapat tahan sampai tiga hari, kandungan logam Pb, Cd, Hg tidak terdeteksi dan kandungan Cu sebesar 65,04 ppm, tinta memenuhi persyaratan Peraturan Komisi Pemilihan Umum nomor 16 tahun 2013. 

  8. Influence of Organic Materials-Formulated Media and Interval Water Supply on Seedling Growth of Gmelina (Gmelina arborea Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suli Suswana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials can improve the seedling grow media through increasing water holding capacity, nutrients availabilities, and improve its physical and biological condition. In West Java, there are many sources of organic materials that can be used as a component of the media. However, there have not known which is better of the organic materials type and how its formulation yet. The objective of the study is to test four of the organic material types as a component formulation of grow media in different water supply interval in these effects on seedling growth of gmelina. This experiment was conducted in Green House of Agricultural Faculty of Nusantara Islamic University in Bandung at elevation 695 meters above sea level, from November 2014 until February 2015. The experiment used Split Plot Design, where kind and proportion of organic materials treatment laid as sub-plots, and interval water supply treatment as main-plots. The organic materials formulated media treatment comprised of: control (o0, 1/3 part consist solid cow manure (o1, 2/3 part consist solid cow manure (o2, 1/3 part consist solid goat manure (o3, 2/3 part consist solid goat manure (o4, 1/3 part consist broiler litter (o5, 2/3 part consist broiler litter (o6, 1/3 part consist of domestic waste compost (o7, 2/3 part consist of domestic waste compost (o8. The formulated media was made based on volumetric measurement. The interval water supply comprised of: one time per day (i1, 2 times per day (i2, and 3 times per day (i3. Observation of seedling growth variables was done at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after transplanting (WAT. The results showed that plants height at 8 WAT, in interval water supply i1 treatment, at o1, o5, o7, and o8 treatments higher significantly than o0 treatment. At 12 WAT, in water supply i1, at o5 and o7 higher significantly than o0. Whereas, in water supplies i2 and i3, no one of the organic materials treatments that have better effect than control treatment, either 8 WAT nor 12 WAT. At 8 and 12 WAT, it is no significance interacting effect on leafs broad, but its main effect of formulated organic materials of the media treatment significance at 8 WAT, where broad leaf at o8 higher significantly than o0. On the contrary, leaf broad at o6 lower significantly than o0. At 12 WAT, main effect of the both factors extend significance effects, where leaf broad of i2 and i3 treatments higher significantly than i1; and o3, o4, and o8 higher significantly than o0. The o1 treatment was higher substantially than o0. Whole of the study can be concluded that formulated media with 2/3 part soil + 1/3 part solid cow manure, 2/3 part soil + 1/3 broiler litter, or 2/3 part soil + 2/3 domestic waste compost could enhance water used efficiency, that are sufficient with interval water supply once a day.

  9. Biomass production, nutrient cycling, and carbon fixation by Salicornia brachiata Roxb.: A promising halophyte for coastal saline soil rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Aditya P; Chaudhary, Doongar R; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-08-02

    In order to increase our understanding of the interaction of soil-halophyte (Salicornia brachiata) relations and phytoremediation, we investigated the aboveground biomass, carbon fixation, and nutrient composition (N, P, K, Na, Ca, and Mg) of S. brachiata using six sampling sites with varying characteristics over one growing season in intertidal marshes. Simultaneously, soil characteristics and nutrient concentrations were also estimated. There was a significant variation in soil characteristics and nutrient contents spatially (except pH) as well as temporally. Nutrient contents in aboveground biomass of S. brachiata were also significantly differed spatially (except C and Cl) as well as temporally. Aboveground biomass of S. brachiata ranged from 2.51 to 6.07 t/ha at maturity and it was positively correlated with soil electrical conductivity and available Na, whereas negatively with soil pH. The K/Na ratio in plant was below one, showing tolerance to salinity. The aboveground C fixation values ranged from 0.77 to 1.93 C t/ha at all six sampling sites. This study provides new understandings into nutrient cycling-C fixation potential of highly salt-tolerant halophyte S. brachiata growing on intertidal soils of India. S. brachiata have a potential for amelioration of the salinity due to higher Na bioaccumulation factor.

  10. Proteoglycans from Boswellia serrata Roxb. and B. carteri Birdw. and identification of a proteolytic plant basic secretory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Andreas; König, Simone; Lechtenberg, Matthias;

    2012-01-01

    Water-soluble high molecular weight compounds were isolated in yields of 21-22% from the oleogum of Boswellia serrata and B. carteri. Using anion exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography, different proteoglycans were purified and characterized, leading to four principally different...... groups: (i) Hyp-/Ser-rich extensins with O-glycosidic attached arabinan side chains; (ii) Modified extensins, with arabinogalactosylated side chains containing GlA and 4-O-Me-GlcA; (iii) Glycoproteins with N-glycosidic side chains containing higher amounts of Fuc, Man and GluNH(2,) featuring a 200 k...

  11. MOLECULAR CONFIRMATION OF SEX IN REGENERATED PLANTLETS OF SPINE GOURD (Momordica dioica Roxb. Ex. WILD BY USING RAPD MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raju

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissue culture techniques offer a great opportunity to overcome the limitations associated with the large scale cultivation of spine gourd. Present study was carried out to formulate the best possible media for large scale production of spine gourd and result of the study revealed that highest percentage (85% of embryogenic callus was obtained from MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L each of 2, 4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D and 6- Benzylamino Purine (BAP in leaf explants of spine gourd. Maximum number of shoots (12.15 ± 1.51 shoots were observed on MS medium augmented with BAP (4.0 mg/L in combination with L-glutamine (2.0 mg/L from leaf derived embryogenic callus of spine gourd. Identification of sex by using morphological characters in the newly regenerated plantlets of spine gourd at fourth leaf stage is another problem for large scale propagation of female plants. PCR based molecular marker OPA-15, a Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD primer can be used as a differential marker to identify female plants form male plants at pre-flowering stage in newly regenerated plantlets (in vitro and as well as in field plants (in vivo of spine gourd. A unique amplification band (700 bp in size appeared only in female samples, but not in male samples of spine gourd.

  12. FORMULASI VANISHING CREAM MINYAK ATSIRI RIMPANG JAHE (Zingiber officinale Roxb) DAN UJI AKTIVITAS REPELAN TERHADAP NYAMUK Aedes aegypti BETINA

    OpenAIRE

    Azis Ikhsanudin

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil of Ginger rhizome is a natural subtance which has been proved to have a repellent effect to the mosquito. The aim of this study was to know the effect of this subtance/these substances in vanishing cream dosage forms as repellant to the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. The essential oil of Ginger rhizome was isolated with aqueous vapor destillation. Then the result was determined for its physical properties, these were: viscosity, adhesivity, spreadibility and i...

  13. Investigation on cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial and volatile profile of Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb. R. Br. flower used in Indian medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalakshmi. S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Wrightia tinctoria flower extract. Methods: Total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids content, DPPH scavenging activity, the reducing power activity, phosphomolybednum activity, metal chelating activity, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity of crude extract, Cytotoxicity activity, GC-MS analysis and Antibacterial screening were evaluated. Results: Total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids in the extract was found to be 55.29±0.45 mg GAE, 370.53±1.213 mg QE and 1.825±0.321 mg/g respectively, where the reducing power, phosphomolybednum activity and metal chelating activity were increasing with increasing concentration of the flower extract. The antioxidant activity (IC50 of the flower extract was said to be 43.16 毺 g/mL by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl method and 124.07 mg AAE/100g of plant extract by phosphomolybednum method. The antibacterial studies of the ethanolic flower extract tested at different concentration of extracts, where 250mg/mL concentration of extract showed good inhibitory activity against all the test pathogens compared with standard antibiotics like streptomycin and penicillin. The cytotoxic activity of flower extract was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the LC50 value found to be 3.544 毺 g/mL. Conclusions: The presence of major bioactive compound, hexadecanoic acid justifies the use of the whole plant for various ailments by traditional practitioners. Further studies are needed to explore the potential phenolics, flavonoid compounds from W. tinctoria for application in drug delivery, nutritional or pharmaceutical fields.

  14. Hyaluronidase Inhibitory Activity of Pentacylic Triterpenoids from Prismatomeris tetrandra (Roxb. K. Schum: Isolation, Synthesis and QSAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hayati Abdullah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian hyaluronidase degrades hyaluronic acid by the cleavage of the β-1,4-glycosidic bond furnishing a tetrasaccharide molecule as the main product which is a highly angiogenic and potent inducer of inflammatory cytokines. Ursolic acid 1, isolated from Prismatomeris tetrandra, was identified as having the potential to develop inhibitors of hyaluronidase. A series of ursolic acid analogues were either synthesized via structure modification of ursolic acid 1 or commercially obtained. The evaluation of the inhibitory activity of these compounds on the hyaluronidase enzyme was conducted. Several structural, topological and quantum chemical descriptors for these compounds were calculated using semi empirical quantum chemical methods. A quantitative structure activity relationship study (QSAR was performed to correlate these descriptors with the hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. The statistical characteristics provided by the best multi linear model (BML (R2 = 0.9717, R2cv = 0.9506 indicated satisfactory stability and predictive ability of the developed model. The in silico molecular docking study which was used to determine the binding interactions revealed that the ursolic acid analog 22 had a strong affinity towards human hyaluronidase.

  15. Induction of DNA damage by the leaves and rhizomes of Curcuma amada Roxb in breast cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaprabha, J.; B Dharani; PR Padma; Sumathi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate DNA damage inducing effect of the methanolic extract of both the leaves and the rhizomes of Curcuma amada (C. amada) against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 and analyze the active components present in the methanolic extract of the leaves and the rhizomes. Methods: The DNA damage induced in yeast was assessed using diphenylamine method. The DNA damage induced by the extracts in cell lines was assessed using single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay)....

  16. Pharmacognostical,phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation for the antipyretic effect of the seeds of Saraca asoca Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasmal; S; Majumdar; S; Gupta; M; Mukherjee; A; Mukherjee; PK

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization,physiochomical evaluation,preliminary phylochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity.Methods:Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical,phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations.Also,the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Wislar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg.Results:After phytochemical screening,the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin,tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia.The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin(100 mg/kg)showed significant(P<0.01)antipyretic activity when compared to the control group.The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature.Conclusions:The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phylochemieal met hods.

  17. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  18. FORMULASI VANISHING CREAM MINYAK ATSIRI RIMPANG JAHE (Zingiber officinale Roxb DAN UJI AKTIVITAS REPELAN TERHADAP NYAMUK Aedes aegypti BETINA

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    Azis Ikhsanudin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Ginger rhizome is a natural subtance which has been proved to have a repellent effect to the mosquito. The aim of this study was to know the effect of this subtance/these substances in vanishing cream dosage forms as repellant to the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. The essential oil of Ginger rhizome was isolated with aqueous vapor destillation. Then the result was determined for its physical properties, these were: viscosity, adhesivity, spreadibility and its repellant effect to mosquito as well. The vanishing cream formulation, containing variation of the essential oil concentration were prepared, these were: FI (formulation I, FII, FIII, FIV and FV, containing 6,25%, 12,5%, 15%, 20% and 25% of the essential oil respectivity. Each formulas were tested for their physical properties were viscosity, adhesivity, spreadibility and its repellant effect to mosquito as well. The datas were analyzed. Statistically using SPSS version 16 with Kolmogorov-Smirnov and continued with the t-test (Mann-Whitney (=0,05. The result showed that the duration of the adhesivity of FI was the longest than the others (1,37±0,15 minutes; the spreadibility of the FI was widest (71,69±1,76 mm2 , and the viscosity was the largert than others (27±0 cps. The repellant capasity of the FV was the longest than the others (47,3±1,80 minutes.

  19. Inositol methyl tranferase from a halophytic wild rice, Porteresia coarctata Roxb. (Tateoka): regulation of pinitol synthesis under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sonali; Patra, Barunava; Ray, Sudipta; Majumder, Arun Lahiri

    2008-10-01

    Methylated inositol D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol) accumulates in a number of plants naturally or in response to stress. Here, we present evidence for accumulation and salt-enhanced synthesis of pinitol in Porteresia coarctata, a halophytic wild rice, in contrast to its absence in domesticated rice. A cDNA for Porteresia coarctata inositol methyl transferase 1 (PcIMT1), coding for the inositol methyl transferase implicated in the synthesis of pinitol has been cloned from P. coarctata, bacterially overexpressed and shown to be functional in vitro. In silico analysis confirms the absence of an IMT1 homolog in Oryza genome, and PcIMT1 is identified as phylogenetically remotely related to the methyl transferase gene family in rice. Both transcript and proteomic analysis show the up-regulation of PcIMT1 expression following exposure to salinity. Coordinated expression of L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (PcINO1) gene along with PcIMT1 indicates that in P. coarctata, accumulation of pinitol via inositol is a stress-regulated pathway. The presence of pinitol synthesizing protein/gene in a wild halophytic rice is remarkable, although its exact role in salt tolerance of P. coarctata cannot be currently ascertained. The enhanced synthesis of pinitol in Porteresia under stress may be one of the adaptive features employed by the plant in addition to its known salt-exclusion mechanism.

  20. In vitro inhibitory effects of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. seeds on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase.

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    Dnyaneshwar Madhukar Nagmoti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to asses and characterizes the inhibitory action of methanolic extract of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce seeds on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes as well as to characterize compounds responsible for these activities. The methanolic extract was assessed for total phenolic, flavanoid and triterpenoids content by using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent, Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 and Vaniline-perchloric acid assay, respectively. The methanolic extract was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA reagent, respectively. The IC50 values of methanolic extract of P. dulce against maltase and sucrase enzymes was found to be 10.32±1.52 and 2.84±0.96 mg/ml respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values of methanolic extract of P. dulce against pancreatic α-amylase was found to be 16.75±1.81 mg/ml. The kinetics of glucosidase enzyme was determined by Lineweaver Burk plot and it was found to be non competitive in nature. Reversed phase HPLC analysis revealed oleanolic acid as the main triterpenoid constituent in the extract compared with standard oleanolic acid. Therefore, the enzyme inhibitory activity of P. dulce methanolic extract may be endorsed to the presence of oleanolic acid triterpenoid, thus justifying its traditional use in the management of diabetes.

  1. AN AYURVEDIC POLYHERBAL FORMULATION PDBT FOR DYSLIPIDEMIA AND PREVENTION OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD IN PRE-DIABETIC INDIVIDUALS

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    Nakanekar Amit Vishwas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pre-diabetes is a ‘grey area’ between normal and diabetes. Various studies have shown that pre-diabetic subjects who developed diabetes had higher triglyceride and cholesterol values at baseline. At the time of diagnosis of diabetes around half of the patients will show some evidence of coronary artery disease. Treating dyslipidaemia in pre diabetes condition can not only reduce the conversion rate to diabetes but also occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD. The Purpose of present study was to see whether an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation PDBT which contains water extracts of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia, Vijaysar (Pterocarpus marsupium, Gudmar (Gymnemma sylvestre, Karvellak (Momordica charantia and Shunthi (Zinziber officinale can reduce mild to moderate dyslipidaemia in Pre-diabetic state as compared to placebo. A double blind placebo controlled (Randomized Controlled Trial RCT was conducted on 100 patients (50 in each group having mean age 48.78 ± 10.098; for 6 months to see the effect of polyherbal formulation as compared to placebo in pre-diabetic individuals. A diagnostic criterion for pre-diabetes was set according American Diabetic Association (ADA 2000. Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL, was done with Wyebenga and Pileggi’s method / Bio-lab Kit. Triglycerides were estimated by enzymatic Kit method. Blood sugar level (BSL was calculated by Glucose oxidase- peroxidase (GOD-POD method. Low Density lipoprotein (LDL, Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL was calculated by formula. These investigations were done before treatment (BT and after treatment (AT. Unpaired T and paired T test were applied by INSTAT 2 software as a test of significance. Mean Cholesterol before treatment and after treatment 200.04 ± 41.6 and 172.09 ± 42.29, Mean HDL before treatment and after treatment 44.544 ± 10.517 and 47.30 ± 8.35, Mean LDL 116.37 and 92.91. Triglycerides before treatment and A. T. 160.16 ± 132.02 in PDBT treated group

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation of Padauk (Pterocarpus soyauxii) leaf on high fat diet/streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats' brain and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, Jamiyu A; Oboh, Ganiyu; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S; Rocha, João B T; Schetinger, Maria R; Guterries, Jessie; Stefanello, Naiara; Carvalho, Fabiano; Schmatz, Roberta; Morsch, Vera M; Boligon, Aline

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of Padauk leaf on brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, ectonucleotidases and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in the platelet of high fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The animals were divided into six groups (n=7): normal control rats; diabetic rats+high fat diet (HFD); diabetic rats+HFD+Metformin; diabetic rats+HFD+acarbose; diabetic rats+HFD+10% Padauk leaf; normal rats+basal diet+10% Padauk leaf. After 30days of experiment comprising of acclimatization, dietary manipulation, pre-treatment with STZ and supplementation with Padauk leaf, the animals were sacrificed and the rats' brain and blood were collected for subsequent analysis. The results demonstrated that the elevated MDA content and AChE activity in the diabetic rats were significantly reduced when compared with the control rats. Furthermore, the increased NTPDases, 5'-nucleotidase and ADA activities in the diabetic rats were significantly reduced when compared with the control rats. This study demonstrated that Padauk leaf exhibited modulatory effects on purinergic and cholinergic enzymes involved in the prevention of platelet abnormality and consequent vascular complications in diabetic state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Protected Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-22

    38 A. pseudiodonthus 110 E. nabncautle 10 ~ nopu 39 A. pterocarpus III E. IhmSOa a. ll~os 8 P. mcnssu 39a A. rolshinsji var. ocdidenssalis, 112 E...floors) Arabis shockleyl Asci epl as eastwvoodiana Astragalus pterocarpus A. uncialis Coryphantha vi vipara Cryptantha compact. Eriogonum eremi cum E...Oophorus var. lonchocalyx (RC)* A. pseudiodanthus (RT) A. pterocarpus (RC) A. serenoi var. sardescens (RT) A. tephrodes var. eur ylobus (RE) A

  4. A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L. syn Senna tora (L. Roxb. seed extract

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    Garg Satyendra K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases play an important role in virulence of many human, plant and insect pathogens. The proteinaceous protease inhibitors of plant origin have been reported widely from many plant species. The inhibitors may potentially be used for multiple therapeutic applications in viral, bacterial, fungal diseases and physiological disorders. In traditional Indian medicine system, Cassia tora (Senna tora is reportedly effective in treatment of skin and gastrointestinal disorders. The present study explores the protease inhibitory activity of the above plant seeds against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. Methods The crushed seeds of Cassia tora were washed thoroughly with acetone and hexane for depigmentation and defatting. The proteins were fractionated by ammonium sulphate (0-30, 30-60, 60-90% followed by dialysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC. The inhibitory potential of crude seed extract and most active dialyzed fraction against trypsin and proteases was established by spot test using unprocessed x-ray film and casein digestion methods, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of most active fraction (30-60% and SEC elutes were carried employing Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Gelatin SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of fungal spore germination was studied in the presence of dialyzed active inhibitor fraction. Standard deviation (SD and ANOVA were employed as statistical tools. Results The crude seeds' extract displayed strong antitryptic, bacterial and fungal protease inhibitory activity on x-ray film. The seed protein fraction 30-60% was found most active for trypsin inhibition in caseinolytic assay (P Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases remained only 4, 7 and 3.1%, respectively when proteases were incubated with 3 mg ml-1 seed protein extract for 60 min. The inhibitory activity was evident in gelatin SDS-PAGE where a major band (~17-19 kD of protease inhibitor (PI was detected in dialyzed and SEC elute. The conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus was moderately inhibited (30% by the dialyzed seed extract. Conclusions Cassia tora seed extract has strong protease inhibitory activity against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. The inhibitor in Cassia tora may attenuate microbial proteases and also might be used as phytoprotecting agent.

  5. In vitro anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial potential and induction of DNA strand break of partially purified Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

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    Madhulika Bhagat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta reflexa is an important medicinal plant, mentioned in Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of medicine. The plant is selected to evaluate the possibility for novel pharmaceuticals for anticancer and antibiotics drugs. Since most of these drugs had developed resisitance against currently used chemotherapeutics. This study describes the in vitro anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial and single stand DNA break of the holoprasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa. Bioassay-guided fractionation and partial purification of the plant were done and evaluated for antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines by SRB assay and single strand DNA break by comet assay. Further antibacterial activity was also performed by agar well diffusion assay. The alcoholic extract, chloroform fraction and partially purified ethylacetate-methanol (1:1 sub-fraction of C. reflexa showed anti-proliferative potential against IMR-32 and 502713 human cancer cell lines. Alcoholic extract exhibited anti-proliferative activity of 74% and 72%, chloroform fraction demonstrated 91% and 95% against neuroblastoma (IMR-32 and colon (502713 cancer cell lines at 100 μg/ml. Single strand DNA break of the chloroform fraction was also demonstrated using comet assay, indicating that possible mode of cell death may be apoptosis. Anti-microbial properties were evaluated against eight species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms and maximum zone of inhibition for anti-bacterial activity was found against Staphylococcus aureus (22 mm by alcoholic extract, 21 mm by chloroform fraction and 12 mm by ethylacetate-methanol (1:1 sub-fraction. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the chloroform fraction was 1500 μg/ml for S. aureus. The plant was found to be equally effective against gram-positive and negative bacteria. Studies are well underway to isolate and identify active compounds from chloroform fraction and ethyl acetate:methanol (1:1 sub-fraction, which can be used as effective drug for various diseases.

  6. Studies on the apoptosis inducing and cell cycle regulatory effect of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb chloroform extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep 3B

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    Ramesh J. Praseeja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Preliminary studies in our lab showed the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC activity of Cuscuta reflexa in Hep 3B cell line. This study aims to detail the mechanism behind the anti-HCC effect of C. reflexa on HCC cell line. The chloroform extract of C. reflexa (CRCE reduced the proliferation of Hep 3B cells in a dose and time dependent manner without showing much cytotoxic effect on non-hepatocyte cell lines, HEK 293 and RAW 264.7. C. reflexa induced apoptosis in Hep 3B cells as evidenced by DNA fragmentation, Annexin V-FITC apoptotic assay, PARP cleavage, Caspase activation etc. Treatment with this extract significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. It also caused G1 arrest, associated with apoptotic induction. The active fractions present in CRCE were also isolated by TLC.Industrial relevance. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has gained major clinical interest because of its worldwide increasing incidence and carries a poor survival rate. A complete cure for this disease is not available today. C. reflexa is ethnomedically used for the treatment of various diseases especially jaundice. In this study we have evaluated the apoptosis inducing and associated cell cycle regulatory effect of CRCE in HCC cell line (Hep 3B. Results showed that CRCE is able to induce apoptosis in Hep 3B cells in a dose and time dependent manner through the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. CRCE is a potential candidate for further development as an anti-HCC drug. The HPTLC fingerprint profile of CRCE was analyzed and the active fraction was isolated. Further studies are needed to identify and characterize the isolated active fraction for the development of active anti-HCC drug.Keywords. Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hep 3B; Cuscuta reflexa; Apoptosis; Cell cycle arrest

  7. Validated HPTLC technique for simultaneous evaluation of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin in Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: A systematic approach for quality control of herbals

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    Md. Sarfaraj Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the simultaneous quantification of two biologically active elements, flavonoids gallic acid (GA and quercetin (QE, in methanolic extract of Trichosanthes dioica that was customarily used to lower blood sugar and cholesterol. Methods: Silica gel 60F254 having receded with aluminum plate was applied for the separation. We used toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (5:4:1, v/v/v as a solvent system for the separation. Results: At 270 nm in reflectance mode densitometric analysis was performed. Squeezed bands for GA and QE were achieved at Rf (0.31 ± 0.03 and (0.50 ± 0.02. The scheme was validated for sensitivity, specificity, limit of detection and quantification. Linear relationship was found between the concentration range of 100–1 000 ng spot–1 for GA and 150–900 ng spot–1 for GA and QE, respectively. The instrumental precision was noted to be 1.03–1.96 (% RSD and 1.09–1.98 (% RSD for GA and QE, separately. Methodology specificity was determined at three different study point with varying concentration for recovery studies. Mean % recovery was noted to be 99.4%–99.9% and 98.7%–99.3% and the content estimated as (31.00 ± 1.18% and (39.00 ± 1.24% for GA and QE, respectively. Conclusions: The developed high performance thin layer chromatography scheme can be used for routine quality control analysis of Trichosanthes dioica and several other formulations containing these markers.

  8. Morfometrik Usus dan Performa Ayam Broiler yang Diberi Cekaman Panas dan Ekstrak n-Heksana Kulit Batang “Jaloh” (Salix tetrasperma Roxb

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    Sugito

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The n-hexane fraction of “jaloh” extract could reduce detrimental effects of heat stress on broiler chicken. An experiment was conducted to study morphometric of small intestine villi (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and performances of broiler exposed to heat stress on 33±1oC for 4 hours/day and given extract n-hexane of “jaloh” bark (EHJ with doses 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight (BW. Thirty broilers aged 20 days (Cobb strain were randomly divided into 5 groups of treatments. The first treatment group was external control namely chickens without heat stress and without EHJ administration (tCP. The second group of treatment was internal control representing chickens exposed to heat stress without EHJ administration (CP. The third, fourth, and fifth treatment groups consisted of chickens exposed to heat stress and given 5 (CP+EHJ5, 10 (CP+EHJ10, and 20 mg/kg BW of EHJ (CP+EHJ20, respectively. Heat stress and “jaloh” extract were implemented every day. “Jaloh” extracts were given 1 hour before temperature in the cage was raised. Results showed that heat stress decreased weight gain and height of jejunum villi, and increased feed conversion ratio. The dose of 10 mg/kg BW of EHJ can improve performance of broiler chickens and morphometric of small intestine villi.

  9. Heat stress effect and given of hexane extract jaloh bark (Salix tetrasperma Roxb to cortisol level, triiodothyronine and hematology profile of broiler chickens

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    Sugito

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma concentration of cortisol and hematological profile on broiler chickens can be used as heat stress indicators. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of administration of n-hexane extract of jaloh bark (EHJ on heat-stressed broiler chicken. Thirty broilers, aged 20 days (strain Cobb, were randomly divided into 5 groups. The first group was external control (tCP i.e. chickens without heat stress and without EHJ administration. The second group was internal control (CP representing chickens given heat stress without EHJ administration. The third, fourth, and fifth groups were chickens given heat stress and EHJ administration at doses 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg BW, respectively symbolized as CP+EHJ5, CP+EHJ10, and CP+EHJ20. The experimental broilers were exposed to heat stress in constant temperature of 33 ± 1oC for 4 hours daily for 5 and 10 days. The EHJ was given 1 hour before temperature in the cage was raised and was given in daily basis. The level of cortisol in feces were measured from feces collected 1-2 hours before treatment, 3-4 hours after heat stress exposure, and 2-3 hours after heat stress termination. This research indicated that heat stress at temperature 33 ± 1oC during 2 and 4 hours increased cortisol excretion in feces (P<0.05 and increased ratio H : L (P<0.10. The EHJ at dose of 10 mg/kg BW relatively gave more protection from heat stress impact on broilers.

  10. Antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity of Michelia champaca Linn., (white variety), Ixora brachiata Roxb. and Rhynchosia cana (Willd.) D.C. flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimala, R; Nagarajan, S; Alam, M; Susan, T; Joy, S

    1997-12-01

    Methanolic extracts of the flowers of M. champaca, I. Brachiata and R. cana were found to possess antiinflammatory activity against cotton pellet granuloma in rats at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight, sc. The latter two drugs showed higher activity (AIA) as compared to that of M. champaca. They reduced the protein content, acid phosphatase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxalo-acetate transaminase activities in liver and serum. A significant reduction in the ascorbic acid content in adrenals was also observed in drug-treated animals. R. cana was recorded to possess significant antipyretic activity from the first hour of administration. These pharmacological properties may be traced to the presence of flavonoids in the flowers of these plants.

  11. Phytoremediation potential of a novel fern, Salvinia cucullata, Roxb. Ex Bory, to pulp and paper mill effluent: Physiological and anatomical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suchismita; Mazumdar, Kisholay

    2016-11-01

    The study was conducted with an aim to remediate effluent from a pulp and paper mill, after treating it for 28 days with an aquatic fern, Salvinia cucullata. The effluent had high BOD, COD, TS, TSS, TDS, P, hardness and chloride, and several heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn) above national limits. However, the plant survived a wide range of effluent concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, v/v), and flourished well, particularly at 25% (v/v), resisted membrane injury and generation of H2O2 and O2, showed better growth and induced all the major antioxidant enzymes. The plants also induced lipid peroxidation. Most of the elemental profiles were higher than the toxic levels stipulated for plants, indicating tolerance to metal. In fact, barring Fe, for Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mg and P, at all the effluent doses, and for Cd, Ni and Mn, up to 75% (v/v) effluent, greater concentrations were observed in leaf than in root. This plant was more suited for nutrient removal, as it effectively reduced BOD, Zn, Fe, Ni, Mg, P and increased dissolve oxygen. Further, pH, hardness, chloride, TS and Mn was reduced optimally by 25-50% (v/v) treatments. SEM revealed prominent structural damages from 50 to 100% treatments. Presence of Pb as well as Fe in the EDX peaks were observed in the cortex rather than in the root vascular zone. This plant could be suggested to be an effective phytoremediator of multi-contaminant effluent with maximum benefit at low doses (25-50%, v/v).

  12. Isolation of a new compound, 2-butanone 4-glucopyranoside 6'-O-gallate and other 8 compounds from the anti-inflammatory leave extracts of Memecylon edule Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualkaew, Somsak; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Wongkrajang, Yuwadee; Umehara, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    This present study was designed to isolate the compounds of Memecylon edule. The chemical compounds were purified by chromatographic methods and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (UV, MS and NMR). The major isolated compounds were tested for anti-inflammatory activity. The methanolic extracts of M. edule leaves gave a new compound 2-butanone 4-glucopyranoside 6'-O-gallate (1) with eight known compounds, namely, 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) (3), (2R, 3R)-dihydromyricetin-4'-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), myricetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (5), benzyl-(6-O-α-L arabinofuranosyl) O-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), benzyl-(6-O-α-l-rhanmopyranosyl) O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7), 2-phenylethyl-(6-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8) and methyl benzoate 2-(6-O-α-l-rhamnosyl)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (9). All compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. The major compounds (2, 3 and 5) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, M. edule was recognised to be a good source for phenolic compounds and these compounds may contribute to anti-inflammatory activity of the extract.

  13. Pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus pada konsentrasi tepung daun jaloh (Salix tetrasperma Roxb yang berbeda dalam pakan

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    Cut Dara Dewi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi kemungkinan pemanfaatan tepung daun jaloh (S. tetrasperma sebagai bahan baku alternatif untuk pakan ikan lele(C. gariepinus. Dalam penelitian ini telah diuji beberapa tingkat proporsi tepung daun jaloh yaitu (0%, 5%, 10%, dan 15% .Pemberian pakan dilakukan tiga kali sehari, yaitu pada pukul 08.00, 12.00 dan 17.00 WIB,sebanyak5%dari berat bobot tubuhnyaselama 35 hari. Hasil uji ANOVA menunjukkan bahwa pemberian tepung daun jaloh memberikan pengaruh nyata (P0,05. Uji lanjut Duncan’s menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan kontrol (tanpa daun jaloh dalam pakan memberikan hasil terbaik dari segi pertumbuhan mutlak, pertumbuhan harian dan kelangsungan hidup. Oleh karena itu dapat disimpulkan tepung daun jaloh kurang sesuai sebagai bahan baku alternatif dalam pakan ikan lele dumbo.

  14. Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb. DC. (Rubiaceae, a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    A.J.S. Raju

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wendlandia tinctoria is a semi-evergreen tree species. It shows massive flowering for about a month during March-April. The floral characteristics such as the white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated nectar having 15-18% sugar concentration are well tailored for visitation by butterflies. The nectar is hexose-rich and contains the essential amino acids such as arginine and histidine and the non-essential amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glysine, hydroxyproline, tyrosine, glutamic acid and serine. The inflorescences with clusters of flowers provide an excellent platform for foraging by butterflies. The flowers are long-lived and attractive to butterflies. A variety of butterflies visit the flowers for nectar and in doing so, they pollinate them. Nymphalids are very diverse and utilize the flowers until exhausted. The flowers being small in size with a small amount of nectar compel the butterflies to do a more laborious search for nectar from a greater number of flowers. But, the clustered state of the flowers is energetically profitable for butterflies to reduce search time and also flight time to collect a good amount of nectar; such a probing behaviour is advantageous for the plant to achieve self- and cross-pollination. Therefore, the study shows that the association between W. tinctoria and butterflies is mutual and such an association is referred to as psychophilous. This plant serves as a key nectar source for butterflies at the study site where floral nectar sources are scarce during the summer season.

  15. Inhibition of 5α-Reductase, IL-6 Secretion, and Oxidation Process of Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher Extract as Functional Food and Nutraceuticals Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantida Chaiyana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the biological activities related to hair loss of Equisetum debile extracts, including 5α-reductase inhibition, interleukin-6 (IL-6 secretion reduction, and anti-oxidation. E. debile extracts were obtained by maceration in various solvents. Crude extract (CE was obtained by maceration in 95% ethanol. Chlorophyll-free extract (CF was the CE which of the chlorophyll has been removed by electrocoagulation. Hexane extract (HE, ethyl acetate extract (EA, and ethanolic extract (ET were fraction extracts obtained from maceration in hexane, ethyl acetate, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The extracts were investigated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase and IL-6 secretion. Total phenolic contents (TPC were investigated and antioxidant activities were determined by means of 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was determined by the ferric thiocyanate method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts on dermal papilla cells and irritation test by hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane assay were also investigated. All extracts could inhibit 5α-reductase and decrease IL-6 secretion in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage. The antioxidant activity of E. debile extracts was directly related to their TPC. ET which contained the highest TPC (68.8 ± 6.7 mg GA/g showed the highest equivalent concentration (EC1 of 289.1 ± 26.4 mM FeSO4/g, TEAC of 156.6 ± 34.6 mM Trolox/g, and 20.0 ± 6.0% DPPH inhibition. However, EA exhibited the highest inhibition against lipid peroxidation (57.2 ± 0.4%. In addition, EA showed no cytotoxicity on dermal papilla cell line and no irritation on chorioallantoic membrane of hen’s eggs. In conclusion, EA was suggested as the most attractive ingredients for functional food and nutraceuticals because of the high inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase, IL-6 secretion, and lipid peroxidation inhibition.

  16. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. produces antidepressant-like effects in rodents, associated with activation of the CREB-BDNF-ERK signaling pathway and reversal of HPA axis hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qu, Fa-Lin; Gao, Yue; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Rahman, Khalid; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2017-03-06

    There are many plants of genus Piper which have been reported to induce antidepressant-like effects, Piper sarmentosum (PS) is one of them. PS is a Chinese herbal medicine and a traditional edible vegetable. In the present study, the antidepressant-like effects of PS extracts and the ethyl acetate fraction of PS extracts (PSY) were assessed using the open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. Furthermore, we applied a 4 consecutive weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) as a model of depression in rats, followed by a sucrose preference test. Then we examined the possible mechanisms of this action. The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the serum corticosterone (CORT) concentrations, and the protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the phosphorylated form CREB and ERK1/2 were detected by qRT-PCR or Western blot. The results showed that PS extracts (100, 200mg/kg) and PSY (12.5, 25, 50mg/kg) treatment produced antidepressant-like effects in mice similar to fluoxetine (20mg/kg), indicated by the reduced immobility time in the FST and TST, while both had no influence on the locomotor activity in the OFT. PSY treatment significantly increased sucrose preference and reduced serum CORT levels in CUMS rats. Moreover, PSY up-regulated BDNF protein levels, and increased CREB and ERK phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus on CUMS rats. These findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of PS extracts and PSY are mediated, at least in part, by modulating HPA axis, BDNF, CREB and ERK phosphorylation and expression in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Liver and Kidney Functional Indices of Pregnant Rats Following the Administration of the Crude Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alkaloids from Senna alata leaves implicated as the active constituents of abortifacient are yet to be investigated for their effects on the normal functioning of the maternal liver and kidney. Therefore, the effects of crude alkaloids on some biochemical indices of kidney and liver damage were investigated in pregnant rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were randomized into 4 groups: A (control, B, C, and D and were orally administered 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the alkaloids respectively once daily on days 10-18 post coitum. Results: Thin-layer chromatographic separation gave five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47, and 0.55 that produced creamy precipitate and reddish-brown colour, respectively, with Mayer’s and Wagner’s reagents. Quantitative determination gave 0.30 g which corresponded to a percentage yield of 1.50 % of the alkaloids. The decreases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, aspartate (AST and alanine transaminases in the liver and kidney of the animals by the alkaloids were accompanied by corresponding increases in the serum enzymes. The alkaloids reduced liver- and kidney-body weight ratios, serum globulin, urea, uric acid, and phosphate ions while the serum concentrations of albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, potassium ions, AST/ALT ratio, blood urea nitrogen: creatinine increased. The levels of sodium, calcium, and chloride ions did not change significantly (P>0.05. Conclusion: Overall, the alkaloid at doses of 250-1000 mg/kg body weight produced permeability changes in the plasma membrane of the organs and adversely affected the normal secretory, synthetic, and excretory functions of these organs.

  18. Effects of Post-coital Administration of Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb) Leaves on some Fetal and Maternal Outcomes of Pregnant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Musa, Isa Fakai

    2012-10-01

    The abortifacient claim of Senna alata (S. alata) was scientifically validated recently with alkaloids speculated to be the bioactive agent. This speculation is yet to be substantiated or refuted by scientific evidence. The present study was aimed to investigate the pregnancy terminating effects of the alkaloids from S. alata leaves. Twenty four Pregnant rats (143.99±1.21 g) allocated randomly to four groups: A, B, C and D respectively received, 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the S. alata extracted alkaloids orally, once daily from day 10 until day 18 post-coitum. The indices of abortifacient were evaluated at the end of the exposure period. The results were analyzed by both the analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Thin-layer chromatographic separation produced five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47 and 0.55 which gave positive reaction with Meyer's and Wagner's reagents, respectively. The number of implantation sites and corpora lutea, as well as the concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone, weight of uterus, uterine/ body weight ratio, glucose and cholesterol decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas the resorption index, pre- and post-implantation losses, uterine protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly. None of the alkaloid treated animals presented with provoked vaginal opening or bleeding except fetal deaths. The alkaloid decreased the maternal weight gain, as well as feed and water intake. Overall, the alkaloids from S. alata leaves exhibited anti-implantation, anti-gonadotropic, anti-progesteronic, embryonic resorptive, feto-maternal toxic activities but not complete abortifacient. The alkaloids alone may not be the sole abortifacient bioactive agent in the leaf extract.

  19. Preliminary Analysis of the Development and Utilization of Sapium sebiferum(L) Roxb%浅析乌桕的开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张均

    2007-01-01

    乌桕不仅是上等的用材,也是良好的木本油料、化工原料,并具有药用价值和观赏价值.乌桕广泛分布于我国南北东西数十个省,适应性强,栽培容易,用途很多,经济效益显著,是一个值得开发利用的树种.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian folk remedy, through inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Ojha

    Full Text Available Inflammation is part of self-limiting non-specific immune response, which occurs during bodily injury. In some disorders the inflammatory process becomes continuous, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer etc. Several Indian tribes used the bark of Odina wodier (OWB for treating inflammatory disorders. Thus, we have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of OWB methanol extract and its major constituent chlorogenic acid (CA, using three popular in vivo antiinflammatory models: Carrageenan- and Dextran-induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma, and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. To elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action we determine the level of major inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 or PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12. Further, we determine the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB, and NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IK-Bα by protein and mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis in drug treated LPS-induced murine macrophage model. Moreover, we determined the acute and sub-acute toxicity of OWB extract in BALB/c mice. Our study demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity of OWB extract and CA along with the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 expressions. Further, the expression of TLR4, NF-κBp65, MyD88, iNOS and COX-2 molecules were reduced in drug-treated groups, but not in the LPS-stimulated untreated or control groups, Thus, our results collectively indicated that the OWB extract and CA can efficiently inhibit inflammation through the down regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway.

  1. Extracts from Tribulus species may modulate platelet adhesion by interfering with arachidonic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The present work was designed to study the effects of crude extracts from Tribulus pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on selected biological functions of human blood platelets in vitro. Platelet suspensions were pre-incubated with extracts from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus, at the final concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50 µg/ml. Then, for platelet activation thrombin, was used. The effects of crude extracts from T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on adhesion of blood platelets to collagen were determined by method according to Tuszynski and Murphy. Arachidonic acid metabolism was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In these studies we also compared the action of tested crude plant extracts with the effects of the polyphenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, which has antiplatelet and antioxidative properties. The performed assays demonstrated that the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus and the phenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus might influence the platelet functions in vitro. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of this tested extract and its phenolic fraction on adhesion of resting platelets and thrombin - stimulated platelets to collagen was found. We also observed that the crude extract from T. pterocarpus, like the polyphenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus reduced TBARS production in blood platelets. In the comparative studies, the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus was not found to be more effective antiplatelet factor, than the polyphenolic fraction from this plant. The results obtained suggest that T. pterocarpus may be a promising source of natural compounds, valuable in the prevention of the enhanced activity of blood platelets in numerous cardiovascular diseases.

  2. 4种易与红木混淆木材的构造分析%Anatomic Structure of Four Wood Species Similar with Dalbergia cochinchinensis and Pterocarpus macarocarpus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕; 吕建雄; 邱坚; 罗蓓; 瞿娟

    2014-01-01

    对葱叶状铁木豆、木果缅茄、阿诺古夷苏木和胶漆树四种木材的宏观和微观构造进行观察分析,并与其易混淆的紫檀、花梨等红木类木材进行比较,发现此4种木材除了宏观颜色与红木相似外,其构造与红木木材有非常大的差别,旨为消费者购买相关木制品时识别其种类提供参考.

  3. Estimation of number and density, and random distribution testing of important plant species in Ban Pong Forest, Sansai District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand using T-Square sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phahol Sakkatat

    Full Text Available A study by T-square sampling method was conducted to investigate importantplant species in Ban Pong Forest, Sansai district, Chiang Mai province by estimation of theirnumber and density, and testing of their random distribution. The result showed that, therewere 14 kinds of important plant species, viz. Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb., Shoreaobtuse Wall. exBlume, Bridelia retusa (L. A. Juss, Derris scandens Benth., Thysostachyssiamensis, Parinari anamense Hance, Vitex pinnata L.f., Canarium subulatum Guill.,Litsea glutinosa C.B.Roxb., Alphonsea glabrifolia Craib., Pueraria mirifica, Vaticastapfiana van Slooten, Walsura robusta Rox. and Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. By far,Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb was greatest in number and density, and all of the specieshad random distribution, except Walsura robusta Roxb and Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 5751 - 5800 of 11090 ... Vol 15, No 32 (2016), Growth regulators, DNA content and anatomy ... goats vaccinated against Pestes des petit ruminants (PPR), Abstract PDF ... bark extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus poir (fabaceae), Abstract PDF.

  5. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karou, D.; Dicko, M.H.; Simpore, J.; Traore, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Polyphenols from four medicinal plants of Burkina Faso, Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and anti

  6. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karou, D.; Dicko, M.H.; Simpore, J.; Traore, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Polyphenols from four medicinal plants of Burkina Faso, Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and anti

  7. A HEARTWOOD PIGMENT IN DALBERGIA CELL CULTURES. (R827612E02)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an extensive survey of the genera Baphia, Caesalpinia, Dalbergia, Haematoxylon, and Pterocarpus, we have identified a number of species whose cell cultures accumulated pigments similar to those in heartwood. Thirteen rosewood (Dalbergia) species produce...

  8. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karou, D.; Dicko, M.H.; Simpore, J.; Traore, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Polyphenols from four medicinal plants of Burkina Faso, Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and

  9. Spectral variability within species and its effects on savanna tree species discrimination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available . buxifolia and G. senegalensis), Lonchocarpus capassa, Peltoforum africanum, Piliostigma thonningii, Pterocarpus rotundifolia, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos sp (S. madagascariensis, S. usambarensis), Terminalia sericea and Ziziphus mucronata. Discriminating...

  10. EFFECTS OF REGIONAL AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON TALLOW COMPONENTS IN ROXB SEEDS (SAPIUM SEBIFERUM L. )%地域环境对乌桕种子油脂成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾庆龙; 刘金林

    2001-01-01

    通过对全国11个省的21个市(县)74份乌桕种子样品的油脂成分含量及其与环境因素之间关系的分析,结果表明:①皮油中棕榈酸含量与纬度呈负相关,而皮油中油酸含量与纬度呈正相关:②皮油含量与经度呈正相关;③皮油含量、皮油中棕榈酸含量与年积温呈正相关,皮油中油酸含量与年积温呈负相关:④皮油含量、皮油中棕榈酸含量与年降水量呈正相关,皮油中油酸含量与年降水量呈负相关.

  11. Microwave extraction and rapid isolation of arjunic acid from Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) stem bark and quantification of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid using HPLC-PDA technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Subash Chandra; Jain, Chhoten Lal; Padhi, Madan Mohan; Devalla, Ramesh Babu

    2012-07-01

    Arjunic acid and arjunolic acid are main bioactive components of Terminalia arjuna stem bark and reported for various biological activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of arjunic and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna was investigated with developed and validated HPLC-PDA method, which resulted in the isolation of a novel anticancer molecule i.e. arjunic acid. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and volume of extraction solvents, microwave power, microwave extraction time, on the extraction efficiencies of arjunic, and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna were evaluated. The optimal extraction conditions identified were 5.0 g quantity of stem bark powder, 20 mL of ethyl acetate, preleaching time 10 min, microwave power 600 W, temperature 65°C, and microwave irradiation time 5 min. The results showed that MAE is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumptions than reported methods. The HPLC-PDA analysis method was developed and validated to have good linearity, precision, sensitivity, and accuracy. MAE-HPLC-PDA is a faster, convenient, and appropriate method for isolation and determination of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid in the stem bark of T. arjuna.

  12. Monoecy, anemophily, anemochory and regeneration ecology of Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott. and Endl. (Malvaceae, an economically important endemic and endangered dry deciduous tree species of southern Eastern Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hildegardia populifolia is a critically endangered tree species. All phenological events—leaf flushing, shedding, flowering, fruit dispersal occur one after the other during the dry season. It is morphologically andromonoecious but functionally monoecious. It produces a strikingly male-biased male and bisexual flower ratio; it is self-incompatible and obligately outcrossing. The flowers are nectariferous and the nectar has hexose-rich sugars, some essential and non-essential amino acids. Trigona bee and Rhynchium wasp were the exclusive foragers, though their foraging activity does not promote cross-pollination. The male flower number, the pollen output, the pollen characteristics and the placement of anthers on the top of androphore conform to anemophily. The natural fruit set does not exceed 5%. The fruit is 5-follicled with one or two seeds. The low fruit set is compensated by the production of more 2-seeded follicles. Fruit characteristics such as wing-like follicles, membranous follicle sheath and being very light weight characterize anemochory. Seeds with a hard coat do not germinate readily during the rainy season and their germination depends on the soil chemicals and nutrient environment. The soil is deficient in nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. Partly burned seeds due to natural or human-caused fires germinate quickly in water saturated soil. The study suggests that seed germination and seedling growth rates are regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors along with natural and anthropogenic fires. We recommend that seedlings should be raised in nurseries and then transferred to natural habitats to build up the population.

  13. 贵州省乌桕资源调查与品种选育策略初探%Resources Survey of Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.and Preliminary Study of Breeding Strategy in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乃春; 陈波涛; 邓伯龙

    2008-01-01

    报道了贵州省乌桕资源的数量、分布、产量和主要类型,并据此提出了乌桕用作生物柴油开发的品种选育策略.贵州省目前拥有一定规模的可利用乌桕资源,在主要产区建立小型生物柴油加工厂以拓宽乌桕籽市场,将会促进贵州省乌桕资源的开发和保护,进一步扩大乌桕的原料来源.

  14. 乌桕δ-羟基赖氨酸的鉴别及其含量测定%Identification and Determination of δ-Hydroxylysine from Sapium Sebiferum (L.) Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍光华; 李艳; 郭成志

    2005-01-01

    本文报道采用溶剂提取和色谱法分离乌桕特殊氨基酸,然后利用保留时间、已知物峰高增加和核磁共振波谱法定性,并设计氨基酸离子交换色谱短程序定量测定乌桕特殊氨基酸.结果证明,乌桕中存在的特殊氨基酸为δ-羟基赖氨酸,而且是乌桕的一种非常见蛋白氨基酸.

  15. Determination of Nitidine Chloride in Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. by HPLC%HPLC测定两面针药材中氯化两面针碱的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋虹

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定药材中氯化两面针碱含量的方法 .方法 采用色谱柱为SymmetryshielyTM RP18柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),流动相为乙腈-0.04 mol·L-1醋酸钠溶液(用醋酸调节pH为6.5),检测波长为270 nm.结果 氯化两面针在0.25~5.0μg内线性关系良好.平均回收率为99.6%,RSD为1.49%.结论 该方法 简单准确,重复性好,可用于两面针药材的质量控制.

  16. Pharmacological activities of Curcuma caesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satyendra Baghel; Rajendra Baghel; Kshamashil Sharma; Indu Sikarwar

    2013-01-01

      Curcuma caesia Roxb. is a perennial, erect rhizomatous herb with large leaves. Fresh rhizomes are aromatic with intense camphoraceous odour, cultivated for its rhizomes, which are used in traditional medicine...

  17. Pro-toxic 1,2-Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid esters, including unprecedented 10-membered macrocyclic diesters, in the medicinally-used Alafia cf. caudata and Amphineurion marginatum (Apocynaceae: Apocynoideae: Nerieae and Apoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects indicated the presence of pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in Alafia cf. caudata Stapf (Nerieae: Alafinae) and Amphineurion marginatum (Roxb.) D.J. Middleton (Apocyneae: Amphineuriinae). Subsequently, monoesters of retronecine ...

  18. Substrate affects growth and yield of shiitake mushroom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M Ashrafuzzaman; A K M Kamruzzaman; M Razi ismail; S M Shahidullah; S A Fakir

    2009-01-01

    ... (Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb.), Ipil-ipil [Leucaena glauca (Linn) Benth], Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam), Mango (Mangifera indica L.), Raintree [Albizia saman (Jacq.) F Müll], Segun (Tectona grandis L.), Shimul (Bombax ceiba L), Shisoo...

  19. Characterization of weed flora in rubber trees plantations of Bongo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-10-31

    Oct 31, 2013 ... of 1 and 2 years old, weeds were dominated by leguminous cover crop Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. ... diminish the growth of the tree by up to 50% (Grist ... diversity of the plantation, (2) analyze the evolution.

  20. Diversity of archaea and bacteria in a biogas reactor fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Pennisetum sinese Roxb, Archaea, Bacteria, Biogas reactor, 16S rDNA sequencing ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, .... in 50 μL reaction volumes, containing 100 ng.

  1. New oligospirostanosides and oligofurostanosides from Asparagus adscendens roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S C; Chand, R; Bhatti, B S; Sati, O P

    1982-09-01

    The methanol extract of the defatted roots of Asparagus adscendens Roxb. yielded beta-sitosterol beta-D-glucoside, two new spirostanol glycosides (asparanin C and asparanin D) and two new furostanol glycosides (asparoside C and asparoside D).

  2. The botanical legacy of Thomas Hardwicke’s journey to Srinagar in 1796

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1796, Thomas Hardwicke travelled through northern India between what is now Fatehgarh in Uttar Pradesh and Srinagar in Uttarakhand. Hardwicke collected and described plants encountered and had many of the plants illustrated from life. He published an account of the journey in 1799 including a list of plant species. I review the names validated in the original paper, and also those published subsequently by Sir James Edward Smith and William Roxburgh based partly or wholly on the material or drawings acquired by Hardwicke on the journey to Srinagar. The large collection of Hardwicke plant drawings now held in the British Library, and a smaller set in the Botany Library of the Natural History Museum, are considered in relation to the application and typification of plant names related to Hardwicke’s botanical exploration in India. The names of seven plant species were validly published in the 1799 paper (Androsace rotundifolia Hardw., Ficus laminosa Hardw., Justicia thyrsiformis Roxb. ex Hardw., Linum trigynum Roxb. ex Hardw., Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw., Salvia integrifolia Roxb. ex Hardw. and Volkameria bicolor Hardw., plus one new combination (Echites antidysentericus (L. Roxb. ex Hardw.. As concluded by Britten more than a century ago, Ficus laminosa is the correct name for the fig variously referred to F. saemocarpa Miq. or F. squamosa Roxb. Smith based Rhododendron arboreum Sm. and Bignonia undulata Sm. on Hardwicke plants. At least a dozen Roxburgh names, including Crataegus integrifolia Roxb., Gardenia tetrasperma Roxb. and Morus serrata Roxb., are based, at least partly, on Hardwicke’s collections. In total, 23 names are lectotypified here and one neotype is designated.

  3. A new genus and species of Heteromysini (Crustacea- Mysidacea) from the backwater of Kochi (Kerala, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.; Buju, A.

    ; pleopods rudimentary in both sexes; telson entire, apex with two pairs of spines, outer pair longer than inner. Uropods without spines. Females with marsupium formed of two pairs of lamellae. Figure 1. Location of station (arrowhead indicates the occurrence... pleopods rudimentary in both sexes, telson with or without apical cleft, and third thoracic endopod sometimes enlarged and robust. The new genus Kochimysis clearly belongs to the tribe Heteromysini based on these characters. The tribe at present contains 10...

  4. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  5. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terézia Horváthová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the temperature-size rule (TSR, ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2 and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium, and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber. Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment.

  6. Sacred Grove of Punyagiri Hill, Vizianagaram District, AP, India: Ecological And Sociological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Srinivasa Rao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  Sacred groves are important repositories of rare endangered endemic plants and floral diversity that have been conserved by the local people or communities in a sustainable manner. Sri Umakotilingeswara Swami Temple is a famous Siva Kshetra located in Vizianagaram district of the Andhra Pradesh, India. This holy shrine is situated in the Punyagiri hills, 4 kms away from the Srungavarapu Kota and 62 kms away from the Visakhapatnam (a coastal city of Andhra Pradesh. Two study sites were selected, one was in the sacred grove region another was in forest region. Line transects were used for collection of data on species richness and diversity of the flora. Density and basal area were more in the sacred grove region than the nearby forest region. Some important medicinal and valuable plants were reported in this region, plants such as Saraca asoca (Roxb., Diospyros peregryna (L., Sterculia urens (Roxb., Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb., Ficus relisiosa (L., Strublus aspera (L., Chloroxylon swietenia (L., Firmiana colorata (Roxb., Albizia odoratissima (L., Dalbergia paniculata (Roxb., Dalbergia sisso (Roxb., Azadiricta indica A. Juss., Diospyros chloroxylon (L., Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb., Mangifera indica (L., Eucalyptus globulesv(Labelle, Bombax ceieba (L., Aegle marmelos, Ailanthus excelsa and some important pteridophytes and Bryophytes were reported in the sacred forest of the Punyagiri hills. Extension of the temple buildings and other developmental activities may be threat to the sacred groves. Invasion by the exotic weeds may further degrade the structure and composition of the sacred forests as a whole.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12176 International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 30-47

  7. Phylogenetics of neotropical Platymiscium (Leguminosae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Chase, Mark W; Robinson, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    Platymiscium is a neotropical legume genus of forest trees in the Pterocarpus clade of the pantropical "dalbergioid" clade. It comprises 19 species (29 taxa), distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. This study presents a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platymiscium and allies inferred from...

  8. Miombo trees and mycorrhizae: ecological strategies, a basis for afforestation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyanziza, E.

    1994-01-01

    This project has covered one or several aspects of the life cycle of the main miombo tree species, namely Afzelia quanzensis ,Brachystegia microphylla, Brachystegia spiciformis ,Julbernardia globifloraand Pterocarpus angolensis . These aspects included natural

  9. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Klitgaard, Bente B; Forest, Félix

    2011-01-01

    conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic...

  10. Structure and composition of moist coastal forests in Dorado, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio C. Figueroa; Luis Totti; Ariel E. Lugo; Roy O. Woodbury

    1984-01-01

    Changes in forest structure and area over a 44-year period in coastal moist forests in Puerto Rico show succession toward a single climax on white sands. A Pterocarpus forest has not changed and is considered a climax on flooded soils.

  11. The biological characteristics and control of Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura, damaged himalayan cedar [Cedrus deo-dara (Roxb.) Loud.]%为害雪松的思茅松毛虫生物学特性及其防治的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周传良; 刘雄兰; 董丽云; 练飞; 叶绍芹

    2004-01-01

    雪松Cedrus deodara(Roxb.)Loud.是重要的园林绿化树种,树姿优美,终年常绿,有很高的观赏价值,在浙江省的各地公园、庭院广为栽培。近年在云和县林业局大院内,发现该树受食叶害虫思茅松毛虫Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura严重危害,毁损针叶,影响园林绿化和观

  12. Determination of L-sesamin and L-asarinin in Zanthoxylum(Roxb.) DC. by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定不同部位两面针原植物中L-芝麻脂素和L-细辛脂素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守尧; 周本杰; 汪艳

    2002-01-01

    目的建立两面针原植物中L-芝麻脂素和L-细辛脂素的测定方法,并测定两面针不同部位两者的含量.方法采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC),色谱柱为HYPERSIL BDS C18,流动相为乙腈:水(50:50),检测波长287nm.结果L-芝麻脂素和L-细辛脂素的平均回收率和相对标准差分别为100.13%、1.61%和101.24%、1.46%.结论此法可用于两面针的质量控制.两面针原植物根部的被测成分含量最高.

  13. New records of Oleaceae plants distributed in Jiangxi province%江西木犀科植物新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季春峰

    2012-01-01

    Five newly recorded Oleaceae plants in Jiangxi province were reported in the paper, I. E. Osmanthus armatus Diels, Olea dioica Roxb. , Jasminum floridum Bunge. , J. Urophyllum Hemsl. , and J. Seguinii Levl.%报道了江西省木犀科植物分布新记录5种,即红柄木犀(Osmanthus armatus Diels)、异株木犀榄(Olea dioica Roxb.)、探春花(Jasminum floridum Bunge.)、川素馨(J.urophyllum Hemsl.)、亮叶素馨(J.seguinii Levl.).

  14. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-binding antagonist activity of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, I; Rafi, I A A; Jalil, J

    2005-01-01

    Forty-nine methanol extracts of 37 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets, using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, the extracts of six Zingiberaceae species (Alpinia galanga Swartz., Boesenbergia pandurata Roxb., Curcuma ochorrhiza Val., C. aeruginosa Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Z. zerumbet Koenig.), two Cinnamomum species (C. altissimum Kosterm. and C. pubescens Kochummen.), Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. f. Momordica charantia Linn. and Piper aduncum L. are potential sources of new PAF antagonists, as they showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 18.4 microg ml(-1).

  15. Dragon’s blood secretion and its ecological significance

    OpenAIRE

    Jura-Morawiec, Joanna; Tulik, Mirela

    2016-01-01

    Dragon’s blood is the name given to a red exudate produced by some plant species belonging to the genera Daemonorops, Dracaena, Croton and Pterocarpus. These are endemic to various parts of the globe. It is classified as a resin or latex depending on its mode of secretion and its chemical composition, which is species specific. This red substance functions in defence and is produced (a) constitutively and stored in preformed anatomical structures, or (b) by induction in response to traumatic ...

  16. 刺猬紫檀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温乃明; 王廷本

    2006-01-01

    刺猬紫檀Pterocarpus erinaceus(刺猬花梨)蝶形花科FABACEAE紫檀属,商品名:阿姆比拉ambila(也释为安比拉);塞内加尔叫塞内加尔红木Senegal Rose wood;几内亚比绍称波桑格Pau Sangue。属于《中国红木》花梨木类。

  17. 血竭的开发应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仲昆; 王衍

    1999-01-01

    @@ 血竭为棕榈科植物麒麟竭Daemonorops draco BI.果实及树干中的树脂,原植物有百合科的龙血树属Dracaena Vard. ex L.,棕榈科的黄藤属Daemonorops BI. ex Schult.f.,大戟科的巴豆属Croton和豆科的紫檀属Pterocarpus Jacq.中的10余种植物.

  18. Phylogenetics of neotropical Platymiscium (Leguminosae: Dalbergieae): systematics, divergence times, and biogeography inferred from nuclear ribosomal and plastid DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, Charilaos; Chase, Mark W; Robinson, Daniel N; Russell, Stephen J; Klitgaard, Bente B

    2008-10-01

    Platymiscium is a neotropical legume genus of forest trees in the Pterocarpus clade of the pantropical "dalbergioid" clade. It comprises 19 species (29 taxa), distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. This study presents a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platymiscium and allies inferred from nuclear ribosomal (nrITS) and plastid (trnL, trnL-F and matK) DNA sequence data using parsimony and Bayesian methods. Divergence times are estimated using a Bayesian method assuming a relaxed molecular clock (multidivtime). Within the Pterocarpus clade, new sister relationships are recovered: Pterocarpus + Etaballia, Inocarpus + Tipuana and Paramachaerium + Maraniona. Our results support monophyly of Platymiscium, which is resolved into three major clades, each with distinct geographic ranges and ecological preferences. Diversification in Platymiscium has been driven by habitat fragmentation, invasion of novel geographic regions, and ecological diversification, revealing general patterns of diversification in the neotropics. We hypothesize that Platymiscium arose in dry habitats of South America and radiated northward. The Amazon basin was invaded twice both within the last 5.6 My and Central America twice before the closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Divergence times of the P. pubescens complex, restricted to seasonally dry tropical forests of South America, support pre-Pleistocene divergence in this biome.

  19. Kajian Komposisi Jalur Hijau Jalan di Kota Yogyakarta Terhadap Penjerapan Polutan Timbal (Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadlhinsyah Damanik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the composition of the green belt and its ability to adsorb particles of lead (Pb, determine the amount of particulate emissions of lead in the ambient air resulting from vehicle traffic activities and evaluate the composition of green belt some streets. The research was conducted using a survey method, the technical implementation is done by observation, questionnaires and secondary data collection. Sampling was done by purposive sampling is the selection of the sample with certain considerations deemed relevant according to the research objectives. Data were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the green belt in three streets was dominated by Angsana trees (Pterocarpus indicus form a line 1 (one row crops. The composition of the green belt type, quantity, function, size, and distribution of plants available have not been able to reduce the concentration of lead (Pb and thus require rearrangement. The roads planted with tree of Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus and Tanjung (Mimusops elengi had concentrations of lead (Pb lower, as much as 1,39 µg/m3 at Urip Sumoharjo and as much as 1,11 µg/m3 at Laksda Adisucipto compared the road that only planted tree of Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus is contained at Ahmad Dahlan with (Pb concentration as much as 1,56 µg/m3. Concentrations of lead (Pb in the third road was approaching the threshold value, but still below the quality standards specified.

  20. HPLC-photodiode array detection analysis of curcuminoids in Curcuma species indigenous to Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Rein; Windono, Tri; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Boersma, Ykelien L.; Koulman, Albert; Kayser, Oliver

    An optimized HPLC method with photodiode array detection was developed and applied to analyse the curcuminoids curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bis-demethoxycurcumin in rhizomes of Curcuma mangga Val &. v. Zijp, C. heyneana Val. & v. Zijp, C. aeruginosa Roxb. and C. soloensis Val. (Zingiberaceae),