Sample records for pterional approach2 frontolateral

  1. Perspective of the frontolateral craniotomies Perspectivas das craniotomias frontolaterais

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    Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo


    Full Text Available The pterional craniotomy is one of the most frequently surgical approaches used in neurosurgery and currently it has become a mainsteam. It allows excellent microsurgical exposure of anterior and posterior regions of the arterial circle of Willis, supra and paraselar regions, the superior orbital fissure of sphenoid bone, cavernous sinus, orbit, temporal lobe, midbrain and the frontal lobe. Like others techniques, the pterional craniotomy presented disadvantages related to dissection of the temporal muscle. From the first fronto lateral craniotomy described by Dandy to expose the optic chiasm and the pituitary we pass through the Yasargil's classical description of craniotomy centered in fronto-temporal sylvian fissure until reaching the recent"minipterional craniotomy", modifications of the pterional craniotomy were proposed to reduce the extra cranial tissue trauma and reduce the area of craniotomy without affecting the exposure of surgical targets, thus improving their aesthetic and functional results. An historical analysis of the frontolateral approaches has demonstrated that they have evolved from larger craniotomies to smaller ones, however only the minipterional craniotomy is able to offer similar surgical exposure.A craniotomia pterional é um dos acessos cirúrgicos mais freqüentemente utilizados. Esta técnica permite excelente exposição microcirúrgica das regiões anterior e posterior do polígono de Willis, regiões supra-selar, fissura orbital superior do osso esfenóide, seio cavernoso, órbita, lobo temporal, mesencéfalo e lobo frontal. Como outras técnicas, a craniotomia pterional tem desvantagens relacionadas à manipulação do músculo temporal. Desde a primeira craniotomia fronto lateral descrita por Dandy para expor o quiasma óptico e a hipófise, passando pela descrição clássica de Yasrgil para craniotomia centrada na fissura silviana, até chegar em craniotomias recentes como a"minipterional", modificações da

  2. Unusual sutural bones at pterion

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    Nayak SB


    Full Text Available The existence of Wormian (sutural bones in the skull is well known. We found three unusual Wormian bones at the right pterion in an adult Indian skull. The variation noted was unilateral. This type of variation has not been reported yet.


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    Pavan P. Havaldar


    Full Text Available Background: Pterion is defined as an H-shaped small circular area formed by the junction of four bones: frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid on norma lateralis of the skull, Pterion junction has been used as a common extra-cranial landmark for surgeons in microsurgical and surgical approaches towards important pathologies of this region. Pterion is an important landmark for anterior branch of middle meningeal artery, Broca’s motor speech area to the left, insula, the lateral cerebral fissure, for the pathologies of optic nerve, orbit, sphenoidal ridge and for the anterior circulation aneurysm and tumors, because of its clinical importance we focused our present study on morphology of shape of pterion. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 pterions were examined from 250 adult dry skulls. The present study was undertaken in adult south Indian skulls from different regions of south India, from different medical colleges. We have observed different shapes of pterion like sphenoparietal frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric. Results: The sutural morphology of the pterion and asterion is important in surgical approaches to the cranial fossae. 250 human skulls of known gender (148 male, 102 female were examined on both sides. Four types of pterion were observed – sphenoparietal 72.8%, frontotemporal 16.4%, stellate 8.8% and epipteric 2%. Conclusion: The pterion is points of sutural confluence seen in the norma lateralis of the skull. The patterns of formation exhibit population based variations. The sutural morphology of the pterion is important in surgical approaches to the cranial fossae. These findings may helpful in surgical approaches and interventions via the pterion.

  4. [Our current technique for basic pterional craniotomy]. (United States)

    Kaneko, Nobuyuki; Kurita, Hiroki; Hino, Ken; Nagayama, Kazuki; Tsubokawa, Tamiji; Tanaka, Naoko; Fujitsuka, Mitsuyuki; Nakamura, Masanao; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki


    Pterional cnaniotomy is frequently used in neurosurgical practice, but still poses significant cosmetic and functional drawbacks. Here, we describe our modified technique to overcome such problems as the sterilization of the scalp without brush and razor, preemptive analgesia, preservation of the periostium for reconstruction, retrograde dissection of the temporal muscle, and complete sphenoidotomy using chisel or drills. The tips of our pterional craniotomy offer suitable size and depth of working field around the paraclinoidal regions, maintaining cosmetic satisfaction of the patients.

  5. Pterion: An anatomical variation and surgical landmark

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    Prashant E Natekar


    Full Text Available Introduction : The frontal and the parietal bones superiorly and the greater wing of the sphenoid and the squamous temporal inferiorly of one side meet at an H-shaped sutural junction termed the pterion. This is an important anatomical and anthropological landmark as it overlies both the anterior branch of middle meningeal artery and the lateral fissure of the cerebral hemisphere. The knowledge of sutural joints between frontal, parietal, sphenoid and temporal bones at pterion is clinically, radiologically and surgically important during surgical interventions involving burr hole surgeries. Materials and Methods : Study performed on 150 dry temporal bones. The pterion, and its sutural articulations with frontal, parietal, sphenoid and temporal bones and also anatomical variations, if any, were studied. Results : Four types of pterion, i.e. sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric, were observed. Conclusions : The knowledge of the variations of pterion and its surgical anatomy, in Indian population are important for surgeons operating in the fieldThe present study will also contribute additional information of skull bone fractures in infancy and early childhood, which may be associated with large intersutural bones giving false appearance of fracture radiologically and also during surgical interventions involving burr hole surgeries, as their extensions may lead to continuation of fracture lines.

  6. Microsurgical one-stage treatment of intracranial mirror aneurysms via bilateral frontolateral approaches

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    Hong-guang WANG


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate surgical strategies, clinical effects and complications of microsurgical one-stage treatment of intracranial mirror aneurysms via bilateral frontolateral approaches.  Methods Review clinical data of 18 cases with anterior circulation mirror aneurysms who underwent one-stage clipping via bilateral frontolateral approaches from July 2010 to July 2015 admitted to Department of Neurosurgery in Tianjin Huanhu Hospital. The operative efficacy was evaluated according to postoperative Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS.  Results The 36 aneurysms in 18 patients were successfully clipped via bilateral frontolateral approaches at one-stage, including 18 posterior communicating artery (PCoA mirror aneurysms in 9 cases and 18 middle cerebral artery (MCA mirror aneurysms in 9 cases. GOS score of 5 was discovered in 16 cases, and 4 was discovered in 2 cases after operation. One case underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS due to communicating hydrocephalus, one case got postoperative pulmonary infection and no death occurred. Intracranial CTA at 6 months postoperatively showed aneurysms of 18 patients were clipped completely, the parent artery blood flow was smooth, and no recurrence was found.  Conclusions Microsurgical one-stage clipping via bilateral frontolateral approaches for treating intracranial mirror aneurysms is a sugrical method with small incision, fitting surgical field, high safety, satisfactory effect and good prognosis, which is a new minimally invasive neurosurgical technique. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.012

  7. Modified pterional craniotomy without "MacCarty keyhole". (United States)

    Moscovici, Samuel; Mizrahi, Cezar José; Margolin, Emil; Spektor, Sergey


    Pterional craniotomy is one of the most widely used approaches in neurosurgery. The MacCarty keyhole has remained the preferred means of beginning the craniotomy to achieve a low access point; however, the bone opening may result in a residual defect and an aesthetically unpleasant depression in the periorbital area. We present our modification of the traditional technique. Instead of drilling the keyhole in the frontoperiorbital area, the classical location, we perform a 5 × 15 mm strip craniectomy at the lowest accessible point in the infratemporal fossa, corresponding to the projection of the most lateral point of the sphenoid ridge. The anterior half of this opening exposes the basal frontal dura, while the posterior half brings the temporal dura into view. This modified technique was applied in 48 pterional craniotomies performed for removal of a variety of neoplasms during 2014-2015. There were no approach-related complications. Aesthetic outcomes and patient acceptance have been good; no patient developed skin depression in the periorbital area. In our experience, craniotomy for a pterional approach with the lowest possible access to the frontotemporal skull base may be performed by drilling a narrow oblong opening, without the use of any keyhole or burr hole, to create a smaller skull defect and achieve optimal aesthetic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphometric Study of Pterion in Dry Human Skull Bone in North Indian Population

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    Full Text Available Pterion is the bony land mark which lies in the norma lateralis of the skull. It is almost Hshaped which is formed by the articulation of four bones with each other i.e. frontal, parietal, greater wing of sphenoid and temporal bones. The pterion is having a great clinical significance. The present study is done on 65 dry human skull mean 130 pteria of both sides of the skull (right and left sides are studied. The morphological shapes of the pteria are noted, recorded and photographed. The study of the location of pterion from zygomatic-frontal suture and mid-point of superior border of zygomatic arch is done for the land marking of the pterion superficially in the temporal region. The aim of this study is to compare our study with the standard literature and studies done by other authors for any variations in the study. Out of 130 pteria studied, spheno-parietal type of pterion is found in 94 (72.31% cases, epipteric type in 30 (23.0% cases, fronto-teporal type in 6 (4.61% cases and stellate type of pterion is not found in the present study. Mean distance between zygomatico-frontal suture and central point of pterion is found to be (38.71±3.1037 mm on right side and (36.29±3.7307 mm on left side, the mean distance between midpoint of zygomatic arch and center point of pterion is found to be (39±2.5635 mm on right side and (37.00±3.3481 mm on left side. The anatomical variations are important. The epipteric type of pterion sometimes is considered as fractured skull which sometimes create problem neurosurgeons during their surgery. The present study will be helpful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists, forensic medicine and forensic dentologist in their diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Effectiveness of Temporal Augmentation Using a Calvarial Onlay Graft during Pterional Craniotomy


    Yoon Soo Kim; Hyung Suk Yi; Han Kyu Kim; Yea Sik Han


    Temporal hollowing occurs to varying degrees after pterional craniotomy. The most common cause of temporal hollowing is a bony defect of the pterional and temporal regions due to the resection of the sphenoid ridge and temporal squama for adequate exposure without overhang. The augmentation of such bony defects is important in preventing craniofacial deformities and postoperative hollowness. Temporal cranioplasty has been performed using a range of materials, such as acrylics, porous polyethy...

  10. The localization and morphology of pterion in adult West Anatolian skulls. (United States)

    Aksu, Funda; Akyer, Sahika Pınar; Kale, Ayşin; Geylan, Serdar; Gayretli, Ozcan


    The pterion is an important skull landmark because it is located where the frontal, the great wing of sphenoid, parietal, and squamous parts of the temporal bone junction. The objectives of this study were to determine the localization and the shape of pterion on skulls and to find out the distances between the pterion and some certain anatomic landmarks on neighboring structures. The study was performed on the skulls of 128 (256 sides) adult West Anatolian people. All of the morphometric measurements of the distances between the pterion and the anatomic landmarks were performed using a Vernier caliper with an accuracy of 0.1 mm. The pterion was classified into 4 types: the sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate, or epipteric types. The incidences of types of pterion in the skulls were also found as the sphenoparietal type (85.2%), the epipteric type (8.2%), the stellate type (5.5%), and the frontotemporal type (1.1%). The mean (SD) distances from the center of the pterion to the zygomatic arch were measured as 40.02 (4.06) mm and 39.88 (4.01) mm; to the frontozygomatic suture, 31.80 (4.51) mm and 31.44 (4.73) mm; to the zygomatic angle, 41.54 (4.95) mm and 41.35 (5.14) mm; to the mastoid process, 82.48 (5.45) mm and 81.81 (5.50) mm; and to the external acoustic meatus, 53.29 (4.55) mm and 56.22 (4.60) mm, on the right and left sides, respectively. The mean (SD) distances between the foremost point of pterion and the anterior edge of the lateral wall of the orbit were 31.02 (5.78) mm and 32.31 (5.79) mm on the right and left sides, respectively. The localization and the shape of pterion are of importance because it is an anatomic landmark and should be of use in surgical approaches and interventions via the pterion.




    Introduction. Pterion and asterion are craniometrical landmarks of sutural confluence observable in a lateral view of the skull. Both represent points of reference and/or access in the field of neurosurgery, and are aspects of importance in disciplines such as physical anthropology and legal medicine for the morphological differences between the different populations. Materials and Methods. Examinations were conducted bilaterally in 85 (eighty five) dry skulls from Mexican adults. The average...

  12. Effectiveness of Temporal Augmentation Using a Calvarial Onlay Graft during Pterional Craniotomy

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    Yoon Soo Kim


    Full Text Available Temporal hollowing occurs to varying degrees after pterional craniotomy. The most common cause of temporal hollowing is a bony defect of the pterional and temporal regions due to the resection of the sphenoid ridge and temporal squama for adequate exposure without overhang. The augmentation of such bony defects is important in preventing craniofacial deformities and postoperative hollowness. Temporal cranioplasty has been performed using a range of materials, such as acrylics, porous polyethylene, bone cement, titanium, muscle flaps, and prosthetic dermis. These methods are limited by the risk of damage to adjacent tissue and infection, a prolonged preparation phase, the possibility of reabsorption, and cost inefficiency. We have developed a method of temporal augmentation using a calvarial onlay graft as a single-stage neurosurgical reconstructive operation in patients requiring craniotomy. In this report, we describe the surgical details and review our institutional outcomes. The patients were divided into pterional craniotomy and onlay graft groups. Clinical temporal hollowing was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Temporal soft tissue thickness was measured on preoperative and postoperative computed tomography (CT studies. Both the VAS and CT-based assessments were compared between the groups. Our review indicated that the use of an onlay graft was associated with a lower VAS score and left-right discrepancy in the temporal contour than were observed in patients undergoing pterional craniotomy without an onlay graft.

  13. Effectiveness of Temporal Augmentation Using a Calvarial Onlay Graft during Pterional Craniotomy. (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Soo; Yi, Hyung Suk; Kim, Han Kyu; Han, Yea Sik


    Temporal hollowing occurs to varying degrees after pterional craniotomy. The most common cause of temporal hollowing is a bony defect of the pterional and temporal regions due to the resection of the sphenoid ridge and temporal squama for adequate exposure without overhang. The augmentation of such bony defects is important in preventing craniofacial deformities and postoperative hollowness. Temporal cranioplasty has been performed using a range of materials, such as acrylics, porous polyethylene, bone cement, titanium, muscle flaps, and prosthetic dermis. These methods are limited by the risk of damage to adjacent tissue and infection, a prolonged preparation phase, the possibility of reabsorption, and cost inefficiency. We have developed a method of temporal augmentation using a calvarial onlay graft as a single-stage neurosurgical reconstructive operation in patients requiring craniotomy. In this report, we describe the surgical details and review our institutional outcomes. The patients were divided into pterional craniotomy and onlay graft groups. Clinical temporal hollowing was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Temporal soft tissue thickness was measured on preoperative and postoperative computed tomography (CT) studies. Both the VAS and CT-based assessments were compared between the groups. Our review indicated that the use of an onlay graft was associated with a lower VAS score and left-right discrepancy in the temporal contour than were observed in patients undergoing pterional craniotomy without an onlay graft.

  14. Postoperative posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION following right pterional meningioma surgery

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    Boby Varkey Maramattom


    Full Text Available Postoperative visual loss (POVL is an unpredictable complication of nonocular surgeries. Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION is particularly feared in spinal surgeries in the prone position. We report a rare case of PION occurring after surgery for a pterional meningioma and discuss the various factors implicated in POVL.

  15. When is posterolateral orbitotomy useful in a pterional craniotomy? A morphometric study. (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Wadhwa, Rishi; Nourbakhsh, Ali; Caldito, Gloria; Nanda, Anil; Guthikonda, Bharat


    Adding posterolateral orbitotomy to pterional craniotomy allows greater exposure of the anterolateral skull base. However, there is a paucity of literature quantifying the relative benefit of adding posterolateral orbitotomy for various surgical targets. Our study is a step to address this issue. We performed dissections of five cadaveric heads (10 sides). The anterior communicating artery (A-Com) complex, posterior chiasm (anterior third ventricular region), ipsilateral optic canal, and ipsilateral supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation were chosen as targets. A pterional craniotomy was performed and the targets were morphometrically analyzed. Subsequently, posterolateral orbitotomy was done and analysis repeated. The field of view and measurements quantifying the angle of attack were compared. Addition of orbitotomy to pterional craniotomy increased the angle of exposure to ICA bifurcation, anterior third ventricular region, and A-Com complex by average of 15%, 29%, and 50%, respectively. Our study shows the addition of a posterolateral orbitotomy to the pterional craniotomy improves the angle of attack to the anterior third ventricular region and the A-Com complex, thus supporting the use of orbitopterional craniotomy for suprasellar lesions extending into anteroinferior third ventricle and A-Com aneurysms that point superiorly/posteriorly.

  16. Post-operative orofacial pain, temporomandibular dysfunction and trigeminal sensitivity after recent pterional craniotomy: preliminary study. (United States)

    Brazoloto, Thiago Medina; de Siqueira, Silvia Regina Dowgan Tesseroli; Rocha-Filho, Pedro Augusto Sampaio; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli


    Surgical trauma at the temporalis muscle is a potential cause of post-craniotomy headache and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of pain, masticatory dysfunction and trigeminal somatosensory abnormalities in patients who acquired aneurysms following pterional craniotomy. Fifteen patients were evaluated before and after the surgical procedure by a trained dentist. The evaluation consisted of the (1) research diagnostic criteria for TMD, (2) a standardized orofacial pain questionnaire and (3) a systematic protocol for quantitative sensory testing (QST) for the trigeminal nerve. After pterional craniotomy, 80% of the subjects, 12 patients, developed orofacial pain triggered by mandibular function. The pain intensity was measured by using the visual analog scale (VAS), and the mean pain intensity was 3.7. The prevalence of masticatory dysfunction was 86.7%, and there was a significant reduction of the maximum mouth opening. The sensory evaluation showed tactile and thermal hypoesthesia in the area of pterional access in all patients. There was a high frequency of temporomandibular dysfunction, postoperative orofacial pain and trigeminal sensory abnormalities. These findings can help to understand several abnormalities that can contribute to postoperative headache or orofacial pain complaints after pterional surgeries.

  17. When Is Posterolateral Orbitotomy Useful in a Pterional Craniotomy? A Morphometric Study


    Brown, Benjamin; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Wadhwa, Rishi; Nourbakhsh, Ali; Caldito, Gloria; Nanda, Anil; Guthikonda, Bharat


    Adding posterolateral orbitotomy to pterional craniotomy allows greater exposure of the anterolateral skull base. However, there is a paucity of literature quantifying the relative benefit of adding posterolateral orbitotomy for various surgical targets. Our study is a step to address this issue. We performed dissections of five cadaveric heads (10 sides). The anterior communicating artery (A-Com) complex, posterior chiasm (anterior third ventricular region), ipsilateral optic canal, and ipsi...

  18. [Objective assessment of the respiratory function of the larynx after fronto-lateral laryngectomy with epiglottoplasty and after supracricoid laryngectomy with CHP or CHEP]. (United States)

    Matyja, Grzegorz; Zietek, Eugeniusz; Kawczyński, Maciej; Firlit, Katarzyna; Tarnowska, Czesława


    Enlarged fronto-lateral laryngectomy with epiglottoplasty and supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidopexy (CHP) or cricohyoidoepiglottopexy (CHEP) differ from each other as regards surgical technique, extent of the resection and method of reconstruction. Despite of that, selected carcinomas of the true vocal cord staged as T2N0, which are included in indications to all mentioned laryngectomies, can be equally treated with each of these methods. The aim of this study is objective evaluation of the respiratory function of the larynx after three types of operation and comparison of the results. Material included 64 patients treated during the period of 1993-2002: 39 patients after supracricoid laryngectomy (18 with CHP and 21 with CHEP) and 25 after enlarged fronto-lateral laryngectomy with epiglottoplasty. Spirometry was performed before and after the operation in 27 cases and only after the operation in 34 cases. The shapes of flow-volume loops and 32 spirometric parameters were evaluated. The decannulation rates were: a) 98,5% after enlarged fronto-lateral laryngectomy with epiglottoplasty, b) 80,6% after supracricoid laryngectomy with CHP, c) 70,1% after supracricoid laryngectomy with CHEP. Although the decannulation rate was better after CHP than after CHEP the spirometric parameters were better in patients after CHEP than in those after CHP. The airflow similar to normal was found in 15% patients after CHEP as well as after CHP and in 28% patients after epiglottoplasty. There were no restrictive abnormalities in the whole group of operated patients, but occurrences of obturation, especially inspiratory, were quite often. In conclusion, which follows from the comparison of three types of reconstructive laryngectomies, better results of respiratory function of the larynx were found after epiglottoplasty than after supracricoid laryngectomy with CHEP or CHP.

  19. One-stage clipping of bilateral middle cerebral artery aneurysms via the bilateral pterional keyhole approach. (United States)

    Maruyama, Keisuke; Kurita, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Ryuichi; Noguchi, Akio; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki


    Five patients aged 55 to 73 years (mean 63 years) underwent one-stage clipping for unruptured aneurysms in the bilateral middle cerebral arteries (mean size 4.5 mm, range 2 to 7 mm) via the bilateral pterional keyhole approach in our institute. Important points are as follows: the head is affixed with no rotation; one side manipulation is started 5 minutes after the other side to avoid conflict of surgical instruments; a 5-cm curvilinear skin incision is made inside the hairline and pterional keyhole craniotomy is made bilaterally using 2 burr holes; the whole operating table is rotated 15 degrees to one side to facilitate the microsurgical trans-sylvian approach and aneurysm clipping; the operating table is rotated to the other side for the contralateral procedure; and particular care is taken to avoid bilateral brain injury. This approach provided minimum but sufficient working space required for trans-sylvian dissection. Aneurysm neck clipping was safely performed in a mean operation time of 5 hours 17 minutes. No complications occurred and satisfactory cosmetic results were obtained in all patients. Postoperative neuroimaging studies exhibited bilateral complete clipping with minimal intracranial air content and minimum consequences of brain retraction. One-stage clipping via the pterional keyhole approach is a safe and effective therapeutic option for small bilateral aneurysms.

  20. ESTUDIO MORFOLÓGICO DEL PTERION Y ASTERION EN CRÁNEOS ADULTOS MEXICANOS. Estudio morfológico del pterion y asterion en cráneos adultos mexicanos

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    Rodolfo Morales Ávalos


    Full Text Available Introducción. El pterion y asterion son puntos craneométricos de confluencia sutural observables en una vista lateral del cráneo, ambos representan puntos de referencia y/o acceso dentro del campo de la neurocirugía así como puntos de importancia dentro de la antropología física y medicina legal por sus diferencias morfológicas entre las diferentes poblaciones. Materiales y Métodos. Se examinaron ochenta y cinco cráneos secos de adultos mexicanos bilateralmente, se obtuvieron las distancias promedio entre el centro del pterion y el borde posterior de la sutura frontocigomática, borde superior del arco cigomático, base de la fosa mandibular, vértice de la apófisis mastoides y el centro del asterion. Resultados. Se identificaron cuatro tipos de pterion: esfenoparietal (90%, estellar (4.12%, epiptérico (3.53% y frontotemporal (2.35%. Se identificaron dos tipos de asterion: tipo 1 (7.06% y  tipo 2 (92.94%. Conclu-siones. Los resultados obtenidos en la morfología sutural de ambos puntos y los resultados de las mediciones son de importancia para el abordaje neuroquirúrgico del cráneo, patólogos forenses y antropólogos.  Introduction. Pterion and asterion are craniometrical landmarks of sutural confluence observable in a lateral view of the skull. Both represent points of reference and/or access in the field of neurosurgery, and are aspects of importance in disciplines such as physical anthropology and legal medicine for the morphological differences between the different populations. Materials and Methods. Examinations were conducted bilaterally in 85 (eighty five dry skulls from Mexican adults. The average distances were obtained from the center of the pterion to the following landmarks: posterior edge of the frontozygomatic suture, superior edge of the zygomatic arch, base of the mandibular fossa, vertex of the mastoid process and the center of the asterion. Results. Four types of pterion were identified: sphenoparietal (90

  1. [Operative neurosurgery: personal view and historical backgrounds (3). Anterior circulation--pterional approach]. (United States)

    Yonekawa, Yasuhiro


    Under the title of anterior circulation aneurysms and the pterional approach, followings are presented and emphasized along with mentioning their historical development in our present performance status. Pterional approach: head positioning with Mayfield-Kees fixation apparatus using one pin around the processus matoideus and the other 2 pins on the contralateral side behind the hair line the head turned 30 degrees and reclined chin-up l5-20 grade. Skin incision beginning just in front of the tragus ending up at the midline hair line in a curvilinear fashion always including the superficial temporal artery STA in its frontal branch and the facial nerve (frontal branch) in the skin flap. A muscle fascial preparation is so fashioned such that a strip of myofascial cuff is left at the linea temporalis and the temporal musculature is reflected and retracted towards the postero-basal direction in order to expose the pterion, for which a small short myofascial incision is added parallel to the skin incision towards the tragus up to several cm above it to prevent postoperative trismus. Bone flap is sawed out usually using three burr holes, at the key hole just at the proximal part of the linea temporalis, frontomedially on the squama frontalis and on the sutura squamosa, so that the Sylvian fissure and the superior temporal gyrus are exposed enough for further procedure. The sphenoid ridge is drilled away until the most lateral corner of the superior orbital fissure comes into view. Thus one has drilled away enough to do surgery in question at the skull base even at the time of "angry brain" due to subarachnoid hemorrhage SAH. This procedure can be followed by selective extradural anterior clinoidectomy SEAC in case of necessity. The dura is opened in a curvilinear fashion so that the dura can be reflected over the drilled sphenoid wing and so that the Sylvian fissure and the superior temporal gyrus is exposed for the treatment of aneurysms of the internal carotid artery

  2. Prevalência de doenças orais e de disfunção mandibular em pacientes submetidos à craniotomia pterional


    Thiago Medina Brazoloto


    INTRODUÇÃO: A craniotomia pterional é, frequentemente, utilizada para clipagem de aneurismas cerebrais e ressecção de tumores de base de crânio. O traumatismo cirúrgico ao músculo temporal pode levar à cefaléia pós-craniotomia e disfunção mandibular (DTM). Por outro lado, as doenças bucais como cárie dentária, periodontite e câncer bucal são um problema de saúde pública e podem confundir o diagnóstico diferencial das dores orofaciais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar quantitativamente a se...

  3. Application of tenioid myo-perichondrium flap neoplasty of the larynx for vertical fron-tolateral partial laryngectomy in treating la-ryngocarcinoma%垂直侧前位喉部分切除带状肌软骨膜瓣修补术在喉癌治疗中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱吉萍; 高智; 张文强


    目的:探讨垂直侧前位喉部分切除带状肌软骨膜瓣修补术在喉癌治疗中的应用.方法:选取2013-01/2015-05黑龙江省七台河市人民医院收治的行直侧前位喉部分切除带状肌软骨膜瓣修补术的喉癌患者30例作为研究对象,回顾性分析其临床资料.结果:全部病例均为一期愈合.经电子喉镜检查(术后1月),出现1例喉腔太过于狭窄,从而导致患者未实施拔管操作,剩余患者一次性拔管,有效拔管率96.67%;喉腔表面湿润、光滑、无肉芽组织行成;患者均未出现语言交流问题;随访2~2.2年,5例(16.67%)喉癌复发,其余患者均存活,并生活健康.结论:声门型喉癌患者采用垂直侧前位喉部分切除带状肌软骨膜瓣修补术治疗,对患者的治疗效果比较好,是一种有效的治疗方式.%AIM: To discuss the application of tenioid myo -perichondrium flap neoplasty of the larynx for vertical frontolateral partial laryngectomy in treating laryngocarcinoma. METHODS:30 cases with laryngocarcinoma given tenioid myo⁃perichondrium flap neoplasty of the larynx for vertical frontolateral partial laryn⁃gectomy, admitted into Peoples Hospital of Qitaihe City, were chosen as study objects. RESULTS: All patients recovered after the first phrase of treatment. According to the laryngoscopy results one month after treatment, almost all patients had their tube drawn successfully except one patient, failed because of narrow cavum laryngis, and the effective decannulation rate was 96.67%. The surfaces of cavum laryngis in patients were smooth and moist, without granulation tissues. No patients showed communication problems. 2~2.2 years fellow⁃up study showed that, except for 5 cases of laryngeal cancer recurrence, patients all survived and kept a healthy living. CONCLUSION: Tenioid myo⁃perichondri⁃um flap neoplasty of the larynx for vertical frontolateral partial lar

  4. 翼点入路手术治疗基底动脉顶端动脉瘤%Surgical treatment for basilar artery apex aneurysm via pterional approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高成; 刘相轸; 陈会荣; 林成海; 李敬文; 赵振环


    目的 回顾分析基底动脉顶端动脉瘤的手术方法和疗效.方法 2002年1月至2006年1月手术治疗基底动脉顶端动脉瘤9例,其中男3例,女6例,年龄29~57岁(平均46.6±8.4岁).按照Hunt-Hess分级,Ⅰ级2例,Ⅱ级5例,Ⅲ级2例.全部患者采用翼点入路手术,术后复查脑血管造影,随访2个月-4年(平均19个月).结果 完全夹闭6例,不全夹闭1例,包裹2例.全部病人存活,按照GOS预后分级,Ⅴ级5例,Ⅳ级3例,Ⅲ级1例.结论 掌握手术技巧,熟悉脚间池的区域显微解剖,对具体病人进行个体化设计,是提高基底动脉顶端动脉瘤手术效果的关键.%Objective To review the method and outcome of surgical treatment for basilar artery apex aneurysms. Method Nine patients who suffered basilar artery apex aneurysms were operated from Jan. 2002 to Jan. 2006. Among these patients, 3 was man and 6 was women. The age is from 29 to 57 years and average is 46.6± 8.4. Two is grade Ⅰ, 5 is grade Ⅱ and 2 is grade Ⅲ according to the Hunt-Hess grading scale system. All patients were treated via pterional approach and post-operational DSA was done to evaluate the effect of operation. The period of follow-up was from 2 months to 4 years. Results None of the patients died of operation. Six aneurysms were clipped completely and 1 was clipped incompletely, and 2 was wrapping. According to the GOS scale, 5 patients were Ⅴ, 3 was Ⅳ and 1 was Ⅲ. Conclusions Surgical treatment is an important method for the therapy of the basilar artery apex aneurysms. Excellent surgical technique and familiarity with microanatomy of interpeduncular cistern is demanded for obtaining a good outcome.

  5. Dysfunction of the temporalis muscle after pterional craniotomy for intracranial aneurysms: comparative, prospective and randomized study of one flap versus two flaps dieresis Disfunção do músculo temporal após craniotomia pterional para tratamento de aneurismas intracranianos: estudo comparativo, prospectivo e aleatório da diérese em camada única versus camada dupla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Patients with intracranial aneurysm(s of the carotid artery territory, treated with pterional craniotomy, were prospectively and randomly addressed to one layer flap (n=36 or myocutaneous (MC versus two layers' dieresis (n=32 or interfascial (IF. The study protocol included the patient's sex, age, area of craniotomy, time of flap dieresis and synthesis, time of bone dieresis and synthesis, the intracranial time, including dura mater dieresis and synthesis and time of flap retraction. Before and after surgery, the patients were evaluated with examination specially oriented to V and VII cranial nerves, bi-temporal diameter measurement, the symmetry of the temporal region, tempora-mandibularis joint (TMJ movements and cranial CT scan. The evaluations of the TMJ dysfunctions were postoperative pain, movement limitations at mastication, occlusion, mouth aperture and lateral movements of the jaw. The statistical analysis showed that the incidence of pain at TMJ and moderate and severe temporalis muscle atrophy was observed, comparing MC and IF, and there were significant differences among these ones, being greater in IF group. We concluded that both techniques permit equivalent access to the studied intracranial aneurysm(s, and the atrophy of temporalis muscle, pain and movement limitations of the temporomandibularis joint were prevalent, worse and more long-lasting in two-layers flap dieresis than in one-layer flap dieresis.Pacientes com aneurisma(s intracraniano(s foram tratados pela via pterional e de modo prospectivo e aleatório submetidos às variantes técnicas, miocutânea (MC(n=36 ou em retalho único e interfascial (IF (n=32 ou em retalho duplo. No protocolo foram anotados o sexo, idade, área da craniotomia, período de diérese e síntese do retalho, período de diérese e síntese óssea, o período do procedimento intracraniano, incluindo o tempo de diérese e síntese da dura-máter e o período de retração do retalho. Os pacientes


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金满; 胡火军; 王雄伟


    [目的]为提高临床治愈率,了解经翼点入路开颅动脉瘤夹闭术治疗脉络膜前动脉起始部动脉瘤的临床应用价值.[方法]选择2007年1月-2010年12月收住我院神经外科的脉络膜前动脉起始部动脉瘤患者共11例(观察组).回顾性分析所有患者临床资料,随访其预后转归情况,并与以往其他手术入路比较(对照组).[结果]所有患者动脉瘤均夹闭成功,术后并发症发生率为9.1%,明显低于对照组(P<0.05).术后随访3~6个月,按GDS量表评定预后情况:预后良好者8例,中度残障者2例,重度残障者1例,明显优于对照组(P<0.05).术后3个月行DSA和MRI复查,动脉瘤均被成功夫闭,无再出血者.[结论]经翼点入路开颅能示使脉络膜前动脉起始部动脉瘤较好暴露于术野,减少夹闭术时对脑组织损伤机会,降低并发症的发生率,取得较好的临床效果.%[Objective] To improve clinical cure rate, understand the value of clinical application of craniotomy clipping surgery by pterional approach to treat aneurysm of starting part before artery of choroidal. [Methods] 11 cases (observe group) of patients with aneurysm of starting part before artery of choroidal that were treated in our department of neurosurgery between January 2007 and December 2010 were selected. Contrastively analysis were performed for the clinical data of all patients', and followed up prognostic results of all patients', and we compared with other group. [Results] Aneurysms of all patient's were closed successfully, postoperative complication rate was 9.1%, which were obviously lower than in control group (P < 0.05). We followed up for 3 to 6 months, and we evaluated the results according to the GOS scale: prognostic evaluation accounted for 8 cases, moderate disabilities accounted for 2 cases, and severe disabilities accounted for 1 case, which were obviously better than the control group (P< 0.05). 3 months after surgery, the DSA and MR1 review results

  7. Dumbbell trigeminal schwannoma in a child: complete removal by a one-stage pterional surgical approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, C.C.P.; Beems, T.; Erasmus, C.E.; Lindert, E.J. van


    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe a rare case of a trigeminal schwannoma in a child and the surgical procedure performed for therapy. PATIENT AND METHODS: A 6-year-old girl presented with tiredness, dysarthric speech and cerebellar symptoms. Imaging studies revealed a unilateral dumbbell-shap

  8. Developments in neuroendoscopy: trial of a miniature rigid endoscope with a multidirectional steerable tip camera in the anatomical lab. (United States)

    Ebner, Florian H; Marquardt, Jakob S; Hirt, Bernhard; Honegger, Juergen; Herlan, Stephan; Tatagiba, Marcos; Schuhmann, Martin U


    The aim of this study is to assess field of view, usability and applicability of a rigid, multidirectional steerable video endoscope (EndActive) in various intracranial regions relevant to neurosurgical practice. In four cadaveric specimens, frontolateral, pterional, transnasal (to sella and clivus), interhemispheric (transcallosal and retrocallosal) and retrosigmoid approaches as well as precoronal burr holes for ventriculoscopy were performed. Anatomical target structures were defined in each region. We assessed field of view as well as optical and ergonomic features of the prototype. The EndActive is a 4-mm-diameter rigid video (endo)scope with an integral image sensor comprising an embedded light source. The viewing direction in a range of 160° can either be controlled by the computer keyboard or a four-way joystick mounted to the handle section of the endoscope. The endoscopic imaging system allows the operator to simultaneously see both a 160° wide-angle view of the site and an inset of a specific region of interest. The surgeon can hold the device like a microsurgical instrument in one hand and control movements precisely due to its reduced weight and ergonomic shape. The multiplanar variable-view rigid endoscope proved to be useful for following anatomical structures (cranial nerves I-XII). The device is effective in narrow working spaces where movements jeopardize the delicate surrounding structures. The multiplanar variable viewing mechanism in a compact device offers advantages in terms of safety and ergonomics. Improving the usability will probably optimize the applicability of endoscopic techniques in neurosurgery.

  9. Carbonate reservoir characterization. An integrated approach. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, F. Jerry [Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States)


    What would the oil barons of Texas really like to know? Well, in the pages of this book they might find some answers. This hugely experienced author working in Texas, America's main oil-rich state, has produced a work that goes after one of the holy grails of oil prospecting. One main target in petroleum recovery is the description of the three-dimensional distribution of petrophysical properties on the interwell scale in carbonate reservoirs. Doing so would improve performance predictions by means of fluid-flow computer simulations. Lucia's book focuses on the improvement of geological, petrophysical, and geostatistical methods, describes the basic petrophysical properties, important geology parameters, and rock fabrics from cores, and discusses their spatial distribution. A closing chapter deals with reservoir models as an input into flow simulators. Not only does this book provide a hugely practical approach that uses geostatistical as well as petrophysical methods, it can also be used as course material to integrate geology, geophysics and engineering. (orig.)

  10. Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering: An Integrated Approach, 2nd Edition (United States)

    Callister, William D., Jr.


    This Second Edition of Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering continues to take an integrated approach to the topic organization. One specific structure, characteristic, or property type at a time is discussed for all three basic material types--metals, ceramics, and polymeric materials. This order of presentation allows for early introduction of non-metals and supports the engineer's role of choosing a material based on its characteristics. New copies of this text include a CD at no additional charge. The CD is an integral part of the text package and features animated software modules and the last five text chapters in .pdf format.

  11. The Sciences: An Integrated Approach, 2nd Edition (by James Trefil and Robert M. Hazen) (United States)

    Hoffman, Reviewed By Megan M.


    "You're going to teach the organic chemistry section of the Natural Science class?" - one of my biology colleagues asked me last semester - "Better you than me!" "You are?" added a chemistry professor, with interest. Yet these same people ardently believe that all our students should have a basic understanding of carbon's remarkable bonding capabilities and how they relate to life on Earth. If our art or economics majors can learn about organic chemistry and genetics and astronomy, our faculty should be able to teach those same topics, regardless of their acknowledged specialties. The basis of a scientifically literate society is not expertise in specific arcane subfields of science. Scientific literacy is a general understanding of what science is, what science can and cannot do, and what scientific accomplishments have occurred over the centuries. If you subscribe to this definition of scientific literacy, James Trefil and Robert M. Hazen's The Sciences: An Integrated Approach can help you and your general science students. The self-avowed purpose of this text is to address science illiteracy in America. Trefil and Hazen propose that the best way to combat scientific illiteracy is to provide integrated science courses that focus on a broad understanding of science, rather than the specialized knowledge available to a science major. The new edition of The Sciences has been influenced by the 1996 publication of the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. While the first edition of Trefil and Hazen's book admirably addressed the integration of the natural and physical sciences, in this second edition, the authors have increased the connections between science and real-world situations and have made a more conscious effort to emphasize the process of science and the overlapping nature of scientific disciplines. The text is based on 25 "scientific concepts", one per chapter. These concepts are clearly explained in relatively jargon-free language and are then tied explicitly to familiar situations and life experiences. For instance, a power outage at a baseball game helps set the scene for quantum mechanics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, while jump-starting a car illustrates the conversion of energy from potential through kinetic to chemical. Most of the fine pedagogical features of the first edition have been continued, including descriptions of relevant technologies, historical aspects of various discoveries, and clear descriptions of mathematical approaches to the topics. The second edition of The Sciences has increased the accessibility of science and scientific concepts by adding several new features to the successful features of the first edition: "The Ongoing Process of Science" addresses current scientific questions; "Stop and Think" encourages students to consider further implications of the topic at hand; and "Science News" provides excerpts from the periodical of the same name. In addition, previous features that highlighted connections to human physiology have been broadened to include all living things, thus allowing students to make connections between the familiar and the more abstract, for instance magnetic navigation in birds (Electricity and Magnetism), upright human posture (Plate Tectonics) and blood clotting (The Chemical Bond). A final addition to each chapter is "Great Ideas Across the Sciences", which ties the Great Idea on which the chapter is based to each of the natural sciences. This latter addition is one that students might easily overlook, but it has great potential for opening class discussion on how, for instance, the science of entropy relates to weather, arthritis, volcanoes, and gasoline use (Chapter 4). Trefil and Hazen offer a basis for understanding physics, chemistry, biology, earth science, and cosmology. While the text and figures provide a basic description of these topics, this book will not produce physicists, chemists, etc. Keep the general-science purpose of the text in mind when you begin to feel that the chapters on your favorite topic are leaving out details or ideas that you consider crucial to scientific literacy in your area. My first impression of the chapter on Classical and Modern Genetics was that it did not spend enough time on Mendel and his foundational contributions to biology. Consequently, I went well beyond the text material in my lecture on Mendelian genetics. To my regret, I learned that this extra, "crucial" material was more intimidating than enlightening. While there are sure to be critics who will wish that certain topics were covered in more depth or who will want topics added or deleted, my conclusion after teaching from this book is that Trefil and Hazen have provided a clear, well-considered, and extremely useful text for a general science course.

  12. What is the Best Route to the Meckel Cave? Anatomical Comparison between the Endoscopic Endonasal Approach and a Lateral Approach


    Van Rompaey, Jason; Bush, Carrie; Khabbaz, Eyad; Vender, John; Panizza, Ben; Solares,C. Arturo


    Background Traditionally, a pterional approach is utilized to access the Meckel cave. Depending on the tumor location, extradural dissection of the Gasserian ganglion can be performed. An endoscopic endonasal access could potentially avoid a craniotomy in these cases.

  13. Supraorbital-pterional approach for microsurgical management of large meningiomas in medial sphenoid wing and tuberculum sellae%眶上翼点入路处理大型蝶骨嵴内侧脑膜瘤和鞍结节脑膜瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亦成; 丁学华; 胡国汉; 王驹; 侯立军; 楼美清; 陈志刚; 张光霁



  14. Educational Planning in the United States. Symposium on Educational Requirements for the 1970's, an Interdisciplinary Approach (2nd). (United States)

    Elam, Stanley, Ed.; Swanson, Gordon I., Ed.

    Five papers comprise this book of symposium proceedings. Philip Smith, in "Objectives for American Education," theorizes that the U.S. can afford a sophisticated, dedicated profession to run the schools, and that educational leaders must become dedicated or other leaders will replace them. Francis Chase, in "The Status of Educational Planning in…

  15. A pilot study about speech changes after partial Tucker's laryngectomy: the reduction of regressive voicing assimilation. (United States)

    Galant, C; Lagier, A; Vercasson, C; Santini, L; Dessi, P; Giovanni, A; Fakhry, N


    Partial frontolateral laryngectomy (PL) is performed to remove larynx tumor while preserving its main functions. So far, the speech changes induced by difficulties of voicing and the alterations to the vocal tract due to PL have been seldom addressed. The goal of our study was to make an acoustic analysis of regressive voicing assimilation (RVA) among patients after PL and to study the relationship with rates of speech. A retrospective study was conducted from January to April 2013. 11 subjects treated by partial frontolateral laryngectomy, and ten healthy subjects were included. Functional recordings of voice were analyzed and compared. For assimilation sequences we found a significant modification of voicing ratio in healthy subjects (p vowel duration is significantly modified only for healthy subjects. For all subjects (PL patients and healthy) the duration of C1 consonant was not significantly modified. Our results highlight the presence of RVA in healthy subjects, but also in PL patients in the rapid speaking mode.

  16. [Surgical treatment of patients with cancer of the larynx with lesions of the anterior commissure]. (United States)

    Bariliak, Iu R


    Eighty two patients with glottic tumors extending to the anterior commissure underwent surgical treatment: 11 patients for cordectomy in its classic form, 11 patients for fronto-lateral cordectomy, 59 patients for extended cordectomy, and 1 patient for hemilaryngectomy according to Otan. Analysis of the postoperative clinical state of the patients suggests that surgery for vocal cord carcinoma involving the anterior commissure should not necessarily include tracheostomy and laryngeal tamponade.

  17. Microsurgical management of anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Guo-jun


    Full Text Available Objective To explore the operative experience of anterior communicating artery (ACoA aneurysms treated with microsurgery via pterional approach. Methods The clinical manifestations, angiograms, and surgical operation in 52 patients with ACoA were retrospectively analyzed. Results Clipping of aneurysms was successfully achieved in all cases. According to Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS, 47 patients (90.38% were discharged in good condition, 3 patients (5.77% were in slight disability, 2 patients (3.85% were in moderate disability. Conclusion Pterional approach to an anterior communicating artery aneurysm is an excellent accessing method.

  18. Surgical treatment of spheno - orbital meningiomas: a clinical review of 18 cases%蝶眶脑膜瘤18例手术治疗临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凯; 麦麦提力·米吉提; 柳琛; 更·党木仁加甫; 刘波; 张庭荣


    Objective To investigate the effect and follow - up outcome of transcranial approach for spheno - orbital meningiomas.Method Eighteen cases of spheno - orbital meningiomas were removed through different transcranial approaches including frontal - temporal ( pterional and modified pterional ) approach ( 15 cases),orbital -zygomatic approach( 2 cases) and orbital -zygomatic combined with extended transbifrontal approach( 1 case).The involved sphenoid wing and peri -orbit bone were removed to prevent recurrence.The superior orbital fissure and optic canal were decompressed.The visual function evaluation was performed.The extent of tumor resection was judged by intraoperative finding and postoperative image examination.Results The extent of tumor resection:2 cases were Simpson Grade Ⅰ,6 Grade Ⅱ,8 Grade Ⅲ and 2 Grade Ⅳ.After surgery,proptosis was improved in all patients.Visual function was improved in 13 cases.There was no operation - related death.Tumor recurrence was found in 2 cases.Conclusions Adequate exposure of tumor and bony decompression of related cranial nerves could be achieved from appropriate transcranial approaches,thus could relieve clinical symptoms such as proptosis,visual function disturbance and ocular motor malfunction.Complete surgical resection is difficult to be achieved because of involvement of orbital apex,superior orbital fissure and cavernous sinus.%目的 探讨经颅入路显微切除蝶眶脑膜瘤的手术方法、疗效及随访结果.方法 对18例蝶眶脑膜瘤患者选用额颞入路、眶颧入路或眶颧结合扩大前颅窝底入路硬膜外结合硬膜内切除肿瘤,在硬膜外磨除增生的蝶骨大翼骨质、眶上裂、视神经管开放减压,其中经额颞入路15例,眶颧入路2例,眶额结合扩大前颅窝底入路1例,术前、术后均有视觉功能评价、手术录像及术后影像评估肿瘤切除程度.结果 肿瘤切除程度:Simpson Ⅰ级2例,SimpsonⅡ级6例,SimpsonⅢ级8

  19. Olfactory groove meningiomas: approaches and complications. (United States)

    Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires de; Tahara, Adriana; Almeida, Antonio Nogueira; Simm, Renata; Silva, Arnaldo Neves da; Maldaun, Marcos Vinicius Calfatt; Panagopoulos, Alexandros Theodoros; Zicarelli, Carlos Alexandre; Silva, Pedro Gabriel


    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM) account for 4.5% of all intracranial meningiomas. We report 21 patients with OGMs. Tumors were operated on using three surgical approaches: bifrontal (7 patients), fronto-pterional (11 patients) and fronto-orbital (3 patients). Total tumor removal (Simpson Grade 1) was achieved in 13 patients and Simpson II in 8 patients. Perioperative mortality was 4.76%. The average size of the OGM was 4.3+/-1.1cm. The overall recurrence rate was 19%. We preferred to use the pterional approach, which provides quick access to the tumor with less brain exposure. It also allows complete drainage of cisternal cerebrospinal fluid, providing a good level of brain relaxation during surgery. However, for long, thin tumors, hemostasis can be difficult using this approach.

  20. Association of meningioma and intracranial aneurysm: Report of five cases and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javalkar Vijayakumar


    Full Text Available Meningiomas associated with intracranial aneurysms are very rare. The co-existence of both lesions is not only a diagnostic challenge but also has important therapeutic implications. We analyzed our experience of five such patients, the second largest group in the literature. All the lesions were successfully managed surgically. All the patients were female. The location of the meningioma was clinoidal (2, planum sphenoidale (1, petroclival (1 and pterional (1. Three patients had posterior communicating (PCOM artery aneurysm associated with meningioma. The other aneurysms were internal carotid artery (ICA and anterior communicating artery (ACOM. One patient with pterional meningioma had an anomalous meningeal artery arising from the right ophthalmic artery. In three patients both lesions underwent treatment at the same sitting. In two patients meningioma underwent excision first followed by aneurysm clipping. From our experience the incidence of meningiomas associated with aneurysms was 1.1%, which is not higher than the incidence of aneurysms in the general population.

  1. Cerebrovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    950404 Operative treatment of multiple intracranialaneurvsms in one stage.GAO Yongzhong(高永中),etal.Dept Neurosurg.Tianjin Med Coll Hosp.Tianjin,300052.Chin J Nerv & Ment Dis 1994;20(6):329-331In this study,seven patients with intracranial multi-ple aneurysms are reported.Every patient sufferedfrom two aneurysms simultaneously.Totally,therewere fourteen aneurysms(thirteen saccular and onefusiform aneurysm).There was one patient with bilat-eral arterior chorioid artery aneurysms.All of the sac-cular aneurysms were clipped through a single pterion-al approach and the fusiform aneurysm was wrappedwith muscle tissue.After clipping,some of the a-neurysmal sacs were punctured or an angiographical

  2. Successful resection of the recurrence of a cavernous malformation of the optic chiasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Scholz


    Full Text Available Martin Scholz, Albrecht Harders, Sebastian Lücke, Ioannis Pechlivanis, Martin Engelhardt, Kirsten SchmiederDepartment of Neurosurgery, Ruhr-University Bochum, Knappschaftskrankenhaus, GermanyAbstract: The case of a 33-year-old female who suffered from a recurrence of an intrachiasmatic cavernous malformation is presented. She had already undergone surgery in 1991 and 2001 and was admitted to our hospital with reduced vision in the right eye. After MRI, and diagnosis of recurrence of the cavernoma, a neurosurgical operation was performed using the pterional approach. The intraoperative situation was documented with micro photographs. The postoperative course was uneventful. The female described a minimal improvement of her vision. No postoperative complications were observed. To our knowledge, microsurgically complete extirpation of a recurrence of an intrachiasmatic cavernoma has not yet been reported in the literature.Keywords: optic chiasm, pterional approach, cavernous malformation

  3. Ruptured fusiform aneurysm of the proximal anterior cerebral artery in young patient - case report


    Ion Georgiana; Chiriac A.; Dobrin N.; Poeata I.


    A 16-year old male presented with a ruptured aneurysm of the proximal segment of the anterior cerebral artery, with symptoms like sudden headache. Paraclinical explorations revealed a fusiform aneurysm of the right A1 segment. The optimal treatment used was the microsurgical one via right pterional approach. The aneurysm was associated with a saccular pseudoneurysm at the proximal part. The saccular portion was clipped and the fusiform one was wrapped with muscle. The postoperative evolution ...

  4. Clinical use of regional Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake in dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). Klinische Wertigkeit des regionalen [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO Uptake bei der Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ (DAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, U. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, TU Muenchen (Germany)); Schmauss, F. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, TU Muenchen (Germany)); Wagner-Manslau, C. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, TU Muenchen (Germany)); Buttermann, G. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, TU Muenchen (Germany)); Zimmer, R. (Psychiatrische Klinik, TU Muenchen (Germany))


    In 46 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was compared with cognitive performance (MMSE, CAMCOG). The cortico-cerebellar ratio (CCR), determined by [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO-SPECT was used as a rCBF-equivalent. In the mild demented group we found a bilateral CCR-reduction parietal posterior, in moderate DAT bilateral temporoparietal and leftsided frontolateral defects were seen. Severe DAT showed an additional perfusion decrease mid frontal. With increasing severity of DAT an asymmetric perfusion occurred in 17/46 patients with accentuated CCR-reduction on the left side (temporal>parietal). High correlations between CCR and MMSE (r[>=]0.70) existed frontolateral, temporal and parietal in the left hemisphere. Significant associations between CCR and CAMCOG were obtained for language in the left temporal posterior region (r=0.64), for memory task left temporal anterior (r=0.59) and for praxis left parietal posterior (r=0.55). In detecting rCBF abnormalities the sensitivity for all 46 DAT patients was 91% and 70% in the mild cases. (orig.)

  5. Determination of hemisphere dominance for language: comparison of frontal and temporal fMRI activation with intracarotid amytal testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreer, J.; Arnold, S.; Ziyeh, S.; Klisch, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Neurozentrum, University of Freiburg (Germany); Quiske, A.; Altenmueller, D.; Schulze-Bonhage, A. [Section for Presurgical Epilepsy Diagnosis, Neurozentrum, University of Freiburg (Germany); Wohlfarth, R.; Steinhoff, B.J. [Epilepsiezentrum, Kehl-Kork (Germany); Herpers, M.; Kassubek, J. [Department of Neurology, Neurozentrum, University of Freiburg (Germany); Honegger, J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Neurozentrum, University of Freiburg (Germany)


    The reliability of frontal and temporal fMRI activations for the determination of hemisphere language dominance was evaluated in comparison with intracarotid amytal testing (IAT). Twenty-two patients were studied by IAT (bilateral in 13, unilateral in 9 patients) and fMRI using a paradigm requiring semantic decisions. Global and regional (frontal and temporoparietal) lateralisation indices (LI) were calculated from the number of activated (r>0.4) voxels in both hemispheres. Frontolateral activations associated with the language task were seen in all patients, temporoparietal activations in 20 of 22. Regional LI corresponded better with IAT results than global LI. Frontolateral LI were consistent with IAT in all patients with bilateral IAT (including three patients with right dominant and one patient with bilateral language representation) and were not conflicting in any of the patients with unilateral IAT. Temporoparietal LI were discordant with IAT in two patients with atypical language representation. In the determination of hemisphere dominance for language, regional analysis of fMRI activation is superior to global analysis. In cases with clear-cut fMRI lateralisation, i.e. consistent lateralised activation of frontal and temporoparietal language zones, IAT may be unnecessary. FMRI should be performed prior to IAT in all patients going to be operated in brain regions potentially involved in language. (orig.)

  6. 儿童颅咽管瘤显微手术治疗的临床分析%The Cl inical Analysis of Microsurgery Therapy in Pediatric Craniopharyngioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元隆; 梅文忠; 陈剑舞; 吴喜跃; 康德智


    Objective To explore the image characteristics,microsurgery methods and the preven-tion and treatment of postoperative complications of craniopharyngioma in children. Methods Clinical information of 1 9 cases of pediatric craniopharyngioma receiving surgical procedure,including image char-acteristics,surgical approaches and postoperative complications,were analyzed retrospectively. Results Total resection was performed in 14 cases(73.7%),subtotal resection in 5 cases(26.3%). Three differ-ent approaches were used,including the fronto-basal interhemispheric approach(10 cases),the pterion ap-proach(7 cases),and the transcallosal-interforniceal approach(2 cases). The postoperative complications were as follows:diabetes insipidus in 15 cases,electrolyte disorder in 14 cases,hypopituitarism in 10 cases,epilepsy in 5 cases,intracranial infection in 4 cases,and central high fever in 3 cases. There was no case of death in peroperative period. 1 9 cases were followed up. 10 cases of hypopituitarism needed long-term hormone replacement,2 cases died because of hypopituitarism. Conclusion Preopera-tive image evaluation,proper choice of surgical approach and active prevention and therapy of postoperative complication are important links in improving the prognosis of craniopharyngioma.%目的:探讨儿童颅咽管瘤影像学特征、显微手术方法及术后并发症的防治。方法回顾性分析19例颅咽管瘤儿童的临床资料(包括影像学特征、手术入路、术后并发症等)。结果19例患儿全切除14例(73.7%),次全切除5例(26.3%)。手术入路包括经额底纵裂入路10例,经翼点入路7例,经胼胝体-穹隆间入路2例;术后并发症:尿崩症15例,电解质紊乱14例,垂体功能低下10例,癫痫5例,颅内感染4例,中枢性高热3例。围手术期无死亡病例。随访19例,垂体功能低下需要长期激素替代10例,因垂体功能低下死亡2例。结论术前的影像学评估、合理的手术

  7. Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming. (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Tuin, Inka; Hobson, J Allan


    The goal of the study was to seek physiological correlates of lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming is a dissociated state with aspects of waking and dreaming combined in a way so as to suggest a specific alteration in brain physiology for which we now present preliminary but intriguing evidence. We show that the unusual combination of hallucinatory dream activity and wake-like reflective awareness and agentive control experienced in lucid dreams is paralleled by significant changes in electrophysiology. 19-channel EEG was recorded on up to 5 nights for each participant. Lucid episodes occurred as a result of pre-sleep autosuggestion. Sleep laboratory of the Neurological Clinic, Frankfurt University. Six student volunteers who had been trained to become lucid and to signal lucidity through a pattern of horizontal eye movements. Results show lucid dreaming to have REM-like power in frequency bands delta and theta, and higher-than-REM activity in the gamma band, the between-states-difference peaking around 40 Hz. Power in the 40 Hz band is strongest in the frontal and frontolateral region. Overall coherence levels are similar in waking and lucid dreaming and significantly higher than in REM sleep, throughout the entire frequency spectrum analyzed. Regarding specific frequency bands, waking is characterized by high coherence in alpha, and lucid dreaming by increased delta and theta band coherence. In lucid dreaming, coherence is largest in frontolateral and frontal areas. Our data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas.

  8. Clip reconstruction of a large right MCA bifurcation aneurysm. Case report

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    Giovani A.


    Full Text Available We report a case of complex large middle cerebral artery (MCA bifurcation aneurysm that ruptured during dissection from the very adherent MCA branches but was successfully clipped and the MCA bifurcation reconstructed using 4 Yasargill clips. Through a right pterional craniotomy the sylvian fissure was largely opened as to allow enough workspace for clipping the aneurysm and placing a temporary clip on M1. The pacient recovered very well after surgery and was discharged after 1 week with no neurological deficit. Complex MCA bifurcation aneurysms can be safely reconstructed using regular clips, without the need of using fenestrated clips or complex by-pass procedures.

  9. Uncommon cavernous malformation of the optic chiasm: a case report

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    Ning Xianbin


    Full Text Available Abstract Cavernous malformation (CM is a vascular malformation disorder characterized by a berry-like mass of expanded blood vessels. CM, originating from the optic chiasm. usually leads to chiasma syndrome presenting with bitemporal hemianopsia. We report a 28-year-old male presenting with left homonymous hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed an occupied lesion located in the right side of the optic chiasm, and a clinical diagnosis of chiasmal CM was made. Microsurgical excision was performed via anterolateral pterional craniotomy. The patient showed good recovery with slight improvement of the visual field deficits after the operation. No CM recurrence was discovered during the follow-up MRI scans.

  10. Ruptured fusiform aneurysm of the proximal anterior cerebral artery in young patient - case report

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    Ion Georgiana


    Full Text Available A 16-year old male presented with a ruptured aneurysm of the proximal segment of the anterior cerebral artery, with symptoms like sudden headache. Paraclinical explorations revealed a fusiform aneurysm of the right A1 segment. The optimal treatment used was the microsurgical one via right pterional approach. The aneurysm was associated with a saccular pseudoneurysm at the proximal part. The saccular portion was clipped and the fusiform one was wrapped with muscle. The postoperative evolution was favorable, without neurological deficits.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dobrin


    Full Text Available The arterio-venous fistulae in the temporal regions, to be first described by Bartholin around 1730, were considered as tardy post-traumatic lesions correlated with the impact of tough objects in the above-mentioned area. The superficial temporal arterio-venous axis is usually interested at the level of the pterional region, while establishment of some communication between the artery and the vein generates an arterio-venous fistula with a systolodiastolic murmur and the tendency for progressive growth. The study discusses a clinical case and its surgical solution.

  12. Interdigitated craniotomy: a simple technique to fix a bone flap with only a single plate. (United States)

    Takahashi, Noboru; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Saito, Keiichi; Tominaga, Teiji


    In pterional craniotomy, fixation plates cause artifacts on postoperative radiological images; furthermore, they often disfigure the scalp in hairless areas. The authors describe a simple technique to fix a cranial bone flap with only a single plate underneath the temporalis muscle in an area with hair, rather than using a plate in a hairless area. The key to this technique is to cut the anterior site of the bone flap at alternate angles on the cut surface. Interdigitation between the bone flap and skull enables single-plate fixation in the area with hair, which reduces artifacts on postoperative radiological images and provides excellent postoperative cosmetic results.

  13. What is the Best Route to the Meckel Cave? Anatomical Comparison between the Endoscopic Endonasal Approach and a Lateral Approach. (United States)

    Van Rompaey, Jason; Bush, Carrie; Khabbaz, Eyad; Vender, John; Panizza, Ben; Solares, C Arturo


    Background Traditionally, a pterional approach is utilized to access the Meckel cave. Depending on the tumor location, extradural dissection of the Gasserian ganglion can be performed. An endoscopic endonasal access could potentially avoid a craniotomy in these cases. Methods We performed an endoscopic endonasal approach as well as a lateral approach to the Meckel cave on six anatomic specimens. To access the Meckel cave endoscopically, a complete sphenoethmoidectomy and maxillary antrostomy followed by a transpterygoid approach was performed. For lateral access, a pterional craniotomy with extradural dissection was performed. Results The endoscopic endonasal approach allowed adequate access to the Gasserian ganglion. All the relevant anatomy was identified without difficulty. Both approaches allowed for a similar exposure, but the endonasal approach avoided brain retraction and improved anteromedial exposure of the Gasserian ganglion. The lateral approach provided improved access posterolaterally and to the superior portion. Conclusion The endoscopic endonasal approach to the Meckel cave is anatomically feasible. The morbidity associated with brain retraction from the open approaches can be avoided. Further understanding of the endoscopic anatomy within this region can facilitate continued advancement in endoscopic endonasal surgery and improvement in the safety and efficacy of these procedures.

  14. Cranio-orbital approach for complex aneurysmal surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, M O


    Certain aneurysms of the anterior circulation continue to offer a technical challenge for safe exposure and clipping. The purpose of this paper was to describe the cranio-orbital approach for surgical clipping of complex aneurysms and to evaluate prospectively the associated complications of this approach. Prospective audit of all patients undergoing cranio-orbital approach for aneurysm surgery from 1997 to 2004 by the senior author. Twenty-five patients, eight male and 17 female, median age of 52 years, range 28-73. All patients had a standard pterional approach supplemented by an orbital osteotomy. In the 7-year period 367 patients underwent treatment for their aneurysms (169 clipped and 198 coiled). Of the 169 patients who were operated on, 29 had a skull base approach, of which 25 were cranio-orbital. The aneurysm location was as follows: 16 middle cerebral artery (MCA), three carotid bifurcation, four anterior communicating artery (ACOMM), one ophthalmic and one basilar. There were no approach-related complications. The cranio-orbital craniotomy can be a useful adjunct in the surgical treatment of giant or complex aneurysms. It offers the following advantages over a standard pterional approach: reduces operative distance; allows easy splitting of the sylvian fissure; and provides a wide arc of exposure with multiple working corridors.

  15. Communication adjustment of patients with a laryngectomy in Turkey: analysis by type of surgery and mode of speech. (United States)

    Evitts, Paul M; Kasapoglu, Fikret; Demirci, Ugur; Miller, Julia Sterne


    Previous studies have routinely shown that individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL) have a decreased quality of life (QoL). However, the questionnaires frequently used are not specifically designed for persons with laryngeal cancer and may not reflect the issues of most concern to IWL. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the overall communication adjustment of IWL in Turkey, (2) the differences in communication adjustment among types of surgery for the treatment of laryngeal cancer, and (3) the differences in communication adjustment among types of speech following treatment for laryngeal cancer. Fifty-two patients (50 males and two females) who underwent surgical treatment for laryngeal cancer (i.e. total, supraglottic, frontolateral, vertical, supracricoid) and were being seen for follow-up care were recruited from an ENT clinic in Bursa, Turkey. Patients were provided with a written translation of the Self-Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngectomy (SECEL) which yielded information on three subscales (General, Environment, and Attitude) and a Total score. Kruskall-Wallis and Wilcoxon signed ranks nonparametric tests of significance showed that overall adjustment was within the well-adjusted range for all types of surgery and modes of speech with two exceptions: Mean scores for supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidopexy (28.5) and esophageal speech (29.3) were both within the poorly adjusted range on the Environment subscale [lowest mean score = 8.7 (supraglottic)]. Total mean scores ranged from 19.8 (supraglottic) to 49.9 (esophageal speech). Mean scores of the General subscale ranged from 4.0 (electrolaryngeal speech) to 7.7 (tracheoesophageal speech). Mean scores of the Attitude subscale ranged from 6.2 (supraglottic) to 19 (electrolaryngeal). Results of the Kruskall-Wallis test also showed a significant difference between type of surgery for the Environment subscale (p = 0.003), the Attitude subscale (p = 0.039), and the

  16. Technical nuances of subtemporal approach for the treatment of basilar tip aneurysm (United States)

    Nakov, Vladimir S.; Spiriev, Toma Y.; Todorov, Ivan T.; Simeonov, Plamen


    Background: Basilar tip aneurysms are one of the most complex vascular lesions to treat surgically because of their location, depth of the approach, and close proximity of vital neurovascular structures such as the mesencephalon, cranial nerves, perforating arteries to the thalamus. There are different surgical approaches utilized to reach basilar tip aneurysms, namely, pterional, pretemporal, orbitozygomatic, subtemporal, and anterior petrosectomy. Each of them has its advantages and limitations. Methods: In this paper, we present our personal experience with the use of subtemporal approach. The technique is described in detail including its nuances and potential pitfalls. Results: The subtemporal approach is indicated for basilar tip aneurysms located at the level of the floor of the sella turcica to 1 cm above the dorsum sellae. Conclusion: Subtemporal approach offers good surgical corridor for the management of these complex vascular lesions. PMID:28217394

  17. Minimally invasive keyhole approaches for removal of tumors of the third ventricle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Qing; DONG Jun; HUANG Qiang


    Background In recent years, keyhole microsurgery has become an important subject of modem minimally invasive neurosurgery. In this study, minimally invasive techniques avoiding unnecessary tissue injuries were applied to refine traditional approaches for the removal of third ventricular tumors within a limited operative filed.Methods Individualized keyhole approaches were designed according to the characteristics of third ventricular tumors and their growth patterns. A series of keyhole approaches such as supraorbital subfrontal approach,infratentorial supracerebellar approach, interhemispheric transcallosal approach, pterional approach were taken to enter the third ventricle anteriorly, posteriorly, superiorly or laterally, respectively. A total of 34 removed tumors in or extended into the third ventricle included 11 craniopharyngiomas, 10 pituitary adenomas, 2 pinealomas, 1cholesteatoma, 3 germinomas, and 7 gliomas.Results Total tumor resection was done in 27 (79.4%) of the patients, and subtotal resection in 7 patients (20.6%). Residual tumor was due to tight adherence of germinoma to the vein of Galen (1 patient),craniopharyngioma to the pituitary stalk (3), supratentorial extension of pineal region gliomas (1), suprasellar extension of gliomas (1) and giant pituitary adenoma (1). Complications such as brain contusion, postoperative hemorrhage and infection were not associated with keyhole approaches. Extended incision or enlarged bone flap was not made because of episode during operation or inadequate exposure.Conclusions Keyhole approaches are safe, effective and minimally invasive in the surgical treatment of tumors deeply seated in the third ventricle. Individualized keyhole approach ensures a successful treatment. Tumors in the upper middle part of the third ventricle can be exposed by the interhemispheric transcallosal keyhole approach. Tumors of the posterior third ventricle may be well exposed by the infratentorial supracerebellar keyhole approach

  18. Microsurgical subtemporal approach to aneurysms on the P 2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery

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    Zhitao Jing


    Full Text Available Background: Aneurysms arising from the P 2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all intracranial aneurysms. To date, few studies concerning the management of P 2 segment aneurysms have been reported. Objective: To review the microsurgical techniques and clinical outcomes of microsurgical treatment by different approaches in patients with aneurysms on the P 2 segment of the PCA. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with P2 segment aneurysms had microsurgical treatment by subtemporal approach. All the patients had drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for decompression, and indocyanine green (ICG angiography was used in 20 patients to assess the effect of clipping. Results: Of the 42 patients, 16 were operated by combined pterional-subtemporal approach. In 40 patients aneurysms were successfully treated by clipping the P 2 aneurysmal neck while preserving the parent artery. Two patients with giant aneurysms were treated using surgical trapping. Postoperatively, 41 patients had a good recovery. One patient after aneurysm trapping had ischemic infarction in the PCA tertiary and presented with hemiparesis and homonymous hemianopia. However, this patient recovered after three weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Subtemporal approach is the most appropriate approach to clip the aneurysms of the P 2 segment. It allows the neurosurgeon to operate on the aneurysms while preserving the patency of the parent artery. Gaint P 2 segment aneurysms can safely be treated by rapping of the aneurysm by combined subtemporal or pterional-subtemporal approach in experienced hands.ICG angiography will be an important tool in monitoring for the presence of residual aneurysm or perforating artery occlusion during aneurysm clipping. Preoperative lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid may help to avoid temporal lobe damage.

  19. Morphologic and Osteometric Analysis of the Skull of Markhoz Goat (Iranian Angora

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    Nader Goodarzi


    Full Text Available This study provides some comprehensive osteometric and morphologic descriptions of the skull region of the Markhoz goat. Totally, 17 osteometric parameters of eight skulls of Markhoz goat were measured and expressed as mean ± SD. A skull length of 18.67 ± 0.66, a cranial length of 11.1±0.38, a facial length of 10.23±0.76, a skull index of 47.77±1.96, a cranial index of 54.04±2.29, a facial index of 100.77±6.85 and a foramen magnum index of 89.32±14.1 were recorded. Morphologically frontal bone did not constitute the caudal extent of frontal surface; rather it was formed by the parietal bone. There were two supraorbital foramina in both sides. The prominent facial tuberosity lies dorsally to the 3rd cheek tooth. The infraorbital foramen was single on either side which was located directly dorsally to the junction of the first and second upper premolar. The orbits were round and complete and located on a frontolateral oblique plane. The basilar part of the occipital bone was surrounded by two pairs of muscular tubercles with similar size. The temporal line was continuous of the temporal crest and ran over the parietal bone. In conclusion, the morphologic and osteometric data of Markhoz goat are comparable to other ruminants.

  20. Music-syntactic processing and auditory memory: similarities and differences between ERAN and MMN. (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan


    The early right anterior negativity (ERAN) is an event-related potential (ERP) reflecting processing of music-syntactic information, that is, of acoustic information structured according to abstract and complex regularities. The ERAN is usually maximal between 150 and 250 ms, has anterior scalp distribution (and often right-hemispheric weighting), can be modified by short- and long-term musical experience, can be elicited under ignore conditions, and emerges in early childhood. Main generators of the ERAN appear to be located in inferior fronto-lateral cortex. The ERAN resembles both the physical MMN and the abstract feature MMN in a number of properties, but the cognitive mechanisms underlying ERAN and MMN partly differ: Whereas the generation of the MMN is based on representations of regularities of intersound relationships that are extracted online from the acoustic environment, the generation of the ERAN relies on representations of music-syntactic regularities that already exist in a long-term memory format. Other processes, such as predicting subsequent acoustic events and comparing new acoustic information with the predicted sound, presumably overlap strongly for MMN and ERAN.

  1. Case series of ruptured Jamaican berry aneurysms four decades ago

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    MON Ibe


    Full Text Available Objective From our personal experiences, it is our wish to examine the incidence of ruptured intracranial aneurysms about four decades ago in Jamaica, the West Indies, with regards to postoperative deterioration of neurological/psychological functions. Materials and Method The author, while working in Jamaica, the West Indies, from 1975 to 1977 (3 years, operated on 6 cases of ruptured intracranial aneurysms of 5 females and 1 male. The source of these data is from the author′s surgery records. Result There were 4 aneurysms from the posterior communicating artery, and 1 each from the anterior communicating artery, and the middle cerebral artery. Their ages ranged from 31 to 64 years. They presented with diverse neurological disturbances. Their aneurysms, which were diagnosed through contrast carotid angiography, were all clipped through fronto-lateral craniotomy under general anaesthesia. The procedures were well tolerated by the patients. There were no complications and no gross additional neurological deficits postoperatively. The wounds had healed by primary intention. The patients were discharged home 12 days postoperatively, the stitches having been removed 2 days earlier. Follow-up checks started about 7 days after discharge. The neurological deficits had cleared about 3 months later. Conclusion Having bled, the aneurysms exposed themselves by causing sudden severe headaches, and various neurological problems, depending on their locations. We found more females than males. The posterior communicating artery aneurysm was predominant. There were no cerebro-vascular spasms postoperatively. Greek ANEURYSMA (Ana= up or across, eurys - wide or broad

  2. Secondary bilateral synchrony due to fronto-mesial lesions: an invasive recording study

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    Full Text Available Frontal lobe epilepsies may present difficulties in focus localization in the pre-operative work-up for epilepsy surgery. This is specially true in patients with normal MRIs. We report on a 16 years-old girl that started with seizures by the age of 8 years. They were brief nocturnal episodes with automatisms such as bicycling and boxing. Seizure frequency ranged from 4-10 per night. Scalp EEG showed few right frontal convexity spiking and intense secondary bilateral syncrhony (SBS. High resolution MRI directed to the frontal lobes was normal. Ictal SPECT suggested a right fronto-lateral focus. Ictal video-EEG showed no focal onset. She was submitted to invasive recordings after subdural plates implantation. Electrodes covered all the frontal convexity and mesial surface bilaterally. Ictal recordings disclosed stereotyped seizures starting from the right mesial frontal. Using a high-resolution tool to measure intra and interhemispheric latencies, the timing and direction of seizure spread from the right fronto-mesial region were studied. Motor strip mapping was performed by means of electrical stimulation. She was submitted to a right frontal lobe resection, 1.5 cm ahead of the motor strip and has been seizure free since surgery (8 months. Pathological examination found a 4 mm area of cortical dysplasia. Invasive studies are needed to allow adequate localization in patients with non-localizatory non-invasive work-up and may lead to excellent results in relation to seizures after surgery.

  3. Bumblebee calligraphy: the design and control of flight motifs in the learning and return flights of Bombus terrestris. (United States)

    Philippides, Andrew; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Riabinina, Olena; Collett, Thomas S


    Many wasps and bees learn the position of their nest relative to nearby visual features during elaborate 'learning' flights that they perform on leaving the nest. Return flights to the nest are thought to be patterned so that insects can reach their nest by matching their current view to views of their surroundings stored during learning flights. To understand how ground-nesting bumblebees might implement such a matching process, we have video-recorded the bees' learning and return flights and analysed the similarities and differences between the principal motifs of their flights. Loops that take bees away from and bring them back towards the nest are common during learning flights and less so in return flights. Zigzags are more prominent on return flights. Both motifs tend to be nest based. Bees often both fly towards and face the nest in the middle of loops and at the turns of zigzags. Before and after flight direction and body orientation are aligned, the two diverge from each other so that the nest is held within the bees' fronto-lateral visual field while flight direction relative to the nest can fluctuate more widely. These and other parallels between loops and zigzags suggest that they are stable variations of an underlying pattern, which enable bees to store and reacquire similar nest-focused views during learning and return flights.

  4. Diagnosis and treatment for giant pituitary adenomas%巨大垂体腺瘤的诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺振华; 袁静敏; 李强; 张新定; 潘亚文; 史雪峰; 兰正波


    目的:探讨内镜经鼻蝶入路或联合翼点入路开颅手术分次切除巨大垂体腺瘤的治疗效果和并发症处理。方法回顾性分析45例巨大垂体腺瘤病人的临床资料,根据垂体瘤的不同生长类型,分别采取内镜经鼻蝶入路或联合翼点入路开颅手术分次切除肿瘤后,观察其临床疗效和术后并发症。结果一次手术肿瘤镜下全切除26例,次全切除12例,部分切除7例。两次手术全切除9例,次全切除6例。两次手术间隔时间为6~8周。术后并发症:一过性尿崩13例,脑脊液鼻漏5例,中枢性低钠血症2例,中枢性高热10例,垂体功能低下12例,以上均经术后对症支持治疗后好转或症状消失。蝶窦内感染3例,其中2例再次内镜下清理后好转,1例保守抗炎治疗痊愈。随访39例,时间2个月~3年,平均2.1年。复发9例,6例再次手术,余3例放弃治疗。结论对于巨大、向鞍上生长的垂体腺瘤,神经内镜和经颅手术联合分次切除肿瘤,是提高全切率、降低病死率及减少并发症的重要手段。%Objective To explore the surgical outcome and complications of limited removal in several sessions for giant pituitary adenomas via endoscopic transsphenoidal approach or in combination with pterional approach. Methods Clinical data of 45 patients with giant pituitary adenomas were analyzed retrospectively, who underwent fractional resection by craniotomy via endoscopic transsphenoidal or combined with pterional approach. The clinical outcome and postoperative complications were observed. Results In the first surgery, total removal was achieved in 26 patients, subtotal removal in 12, partial removal in 7. Nine patients got total resection and 6 got subtotal removal in the second surgery. The optimal interval between the two operations was 6 to 8 weeks. The postoperative complications included transient diabetes insipidus in 13 patients, cerebrospinal fluid nasal leakage in 5, central hyponatremia

  5. The anatomical variations of sylvian veins and cisterns. (United States)

    Aydin, I H; Tüzün, Y; Takçi, E; Kadioğlu, H H; Kayaoğlu, C R; Barlas, E


    The anatomical variations of sylvian vein and cistern were investigated during the pterional approach in 750 operative cases with different pathologies. All patients were operated on at the Neurosurgical Department of Ataturk University Medical School, Erzurum, Turkiye. The patients underwent surgery for the lesions necessitating the right or left pterional approach. The findings were recorded during surgical intervention and observed through the operative sketches of the pathologies, the slides, and videotapes of the operations. In our study, we surgically classified the variations of sylvian vein, according to its branching and draining patterns. Type I: The fronto-orbital (frontosylvian), fronto-parietal (parietosylvian) and anterior temporal (temporosylvian) veins drain into one sylvian vein. Type II: Two superficial sylvian veins with separated basal vein draining into the sphenoparietal and Rosenthal's basal vein. Type III: Two superficial sylvian veins draining into the sphenoparietal and the superior petrosal veins. Type IV: Hypoplastic superficial sylvian vein and the deep one. Four types of sylvian vein variations were defined as follows. The type I was seen in 52.8% (n = 396), the type II was found in 19.2% (n = 144), type III was recorded in 18.2% (n = 137), and type IV, or hypoplastic and deep form was discovered in 9.8% (n = 73) of patients. The coursing of sylvian vein was in the temporal side (Temporal Coursing) in 62.4 percent of the cases (n = 469), in the frontal side (Frontal Coursing) in 25 % of the patients (n = 187) and in 9 percent of the cases (n = 67) in the deep localization (Deep Coursing). Only 3.6% of the cases (n = 27) showed Mixed Coursing. The variations of the sylvian cisterns were classified into three types, according to the relationships between the lateral fronto-orbital gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. In Sylvian type, the frontal and temporal lobes are loosely (Sylvian Type A, wide and large) or tightly (Sylvian Type B

  6. The variations of Sylvian veins and cisterns in anterior circulation aneurysms. An operative study. (United States)

    Aydin, I H; Kadioğlu, H H; Tüzün, Y; Kayaoğlu, C R; Takçi, E


    The anatomical variations of Sylvian vein and cistern were investigated during the pterional approach in 230 patients with 276 aneurysms of anterior circulation arteries, that were operated on at the Neurosurgical Department of Atatürk University Medical School. Erzurum, Türkiye. All patients underwent radical surgery for aneurysm by the right or left pterional approach. The findings were recorded during surgical intervention and observed through the slides and videotapes of the operations. In our study, we surgically classified the variations of the Sylvian vein, according to its branching and draining patterns. Type I: The fronto-orbital (frontosylvian), fronto-parietal (parietosylvian) and anterior temporal (temporosylvian) veins drain into one sylvian vein. Type II: Two superficial Sylvian veins with separated basal vein draining into the sphenoparietal and Rosenthal's basal vein. Type III: Two superficial Sylvian veins draining into the sphenoparietal and the superior petrosal veins. Type IV: Hypoplastic superficial Sylvian vein and the deep one. Four types of Sylvian vein variations were defined as follows. The Type I was seen in 45% (n = 103), the Type II was found in 29% (n = 67), Type III was recorded in 15% (n = 34) and Type IV, or hypoplastic and deep form was discovered in 11% (n = 26) of patients. The course of the Sylvian vein was on the temporal side (Temporal Coursing) in 70 percent of the cases (n = 160), on the frontal side (Frontal Coursing) in 19% of the patients (n = 45) and in 8 percent of the cases (n = 18) in the deep localization (Deep Coursing). Only 3 percent of the cases (n = 7) showed a mixed course. The variations of the Sylvian cisterns were classified into three types, according to the relationships between the lateral fronto-orbital gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. In Sylvian Type, the frontal and temporal lobes are loosely (Sylvian Type A, Large) or tightly (Sylvian Type B, Close and Narrow) approximated on the surface

  7. Electrophysiological indices of interference resolution covary with individual fluid intelligence: investigating reactive control processes in a 3-back working memory task. (United States)

    Perfetti, Bernardo; Varanese, Sara; Mancino, Elisa; Mercuri, Pasqua; Tesse, Marcello; Franciotti, Raffaella; Bonanni, Laura; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco


    It has been proposed that the well-established relationship between working memory (WM) and fluid intelligence (gf) is mediated by executive mechanisms underlying interference control. The latter relies upon the integrity of a frontoparietal brain network, whose activity is modulated by general cognition. In regards to the chronology of this activation, only few EEG studies investigated the topic, although none of them examined the regional interaction or the effects of individual differences in gf. The current investigation sought at extending previous research by characterizing the EEG markers (temporal activation and regional coupling) of interference control and the effects of the individual variation in gf. To this end, we recorded the EEG activity of 33 participants while performing verbal and spatial versions of a 3-back WM task. In a separate session, participants were administered with a test of fluid intelligence. Interference-inducing trials were associated with an increased negativity in the frontal scalp region occurring in two separate time windows and probably reflecting two different stages of the underlying cognitive process. In addition, we found that scalp distribution of such activity differed among individuals, being the strongest activation of the left and right frontolateral sites related to high gf level. Finally, high- and low-gf participants showed different patterns in the modulation of regional connectivity (electrodes coherence in the range of 4.5-7.5Hz) according to changes in attention load among types of trials. Our findings suggest that high-gf participants may rely upon effective engagement and modulation of attention resources to face interference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cerebral tomo-scintigraphy with HmPAO Tc: Differential diagnosis between Parkinson`s disease, Alzheimer`s disease and the disease of diffuse Lewy`s bodies; Tomoscintigraphie cerebrale au HmPAO Tc: diagnostic differenntiel entre Parkinson, Alzheimer et maladie a corps de Lewy diffus

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    Leduc, V. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Lecouffe, P. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U Lille (France); Defebvre, L.; Pasquier, F. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Pham, T.; Lamy, C. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U Lille (France); Destee, A. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Steinling, M. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France)


    The Lewy bodies disease (LBD) brings together a Parkinson syndrome and a cortical dementia. The clinical diagnosis is sometimes difficult, since there are numerous common points with Idiopathic Parkinson`s Disease (IPD) and the Alzheimer`s Disease (AD). The goal of this work is to determine the place of SPECT with HmPAO-Tc in the differential diagnosis of these three entities. We have studied 19 patients with an IPD (Hughes` criterion), 19 patients with an AD (NINCDS-ADRDA), 14 patients with a LBD (criteria of Byrne and Mc Keith). The three groups do not differ either as age, duration of disease or MMS. The SPECT was achieved by using the Tomomatic 564 (555 MBq of HmPAO Tc). The fixation of HmPAO was measured in 10 pairs of regions of predetermined interest (OM + 5 cm), and the results were expressed by the fixation indices (reference: the mean cerebellar values). The statistical analysis was based on the Mann and Withney Test and a posteriori ad-hoc comparisons. A significant difference in the value of fixation indices was found between IPD and LBD: lower values for LBD at the level of occipital and temporo-parietal regions and at the level of left T.P.O. cortex. There exists a significant difference for the posterior cortical regions: AD < IPD. The differences between AD and LBD occur in the fronto-lateral and fronto-posterior regions in a bilateral way: LBD < AD. The aspect observed by SPECT may therefore contribute to diagnosis due to the loco-regional differences evidenced in this study

  9. Bombesin receptors and transplanted stem cells in rat brain: High-resolution scan with 99mTc BN1.1 (United States)

    Scopinaro, F.; Paschali, E.; Di Santo, G.; Antonellis, T.; Massari, R.; Trotta, C.; Gourni, H.; Bouziotis, P.; David, V.; Soluri, A.; Varvarigou, A. D.


    The aim of this work is to detect the presence of transplanted stem cells (TSC) in rat brain with high-resolution (HR) scintigraphy and labelled bombesin (BN). BN is a morphogen for Central Nervous System (CNS) as well as for other organs: CNS-oriented TSC over-express BN Receptors (BNR). BN is also a neurotransmitter and modulates several functions of CNS. 99mTc labelled BN-like peptide scan of CNS is the ideal method to detect growing TSC once knowing normal distribution of BNRs in CNS. HR Planar and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images of rat brain were performed with new HR detectors (Li-tech, Italy). Pertechnetate, 99mTc HMPAO and the new 99mTc BN1.1 (patented) were i.v. administered in five rats. HR SPECT of 99mTc BN1.1 detected olfactory tract, fronto-lateral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and amygdale. Results of SPECT were confirmed by bio-distribution study performed after autopsy of three of the five rats. The remaining two rats underwent cerebral lesions followed by transplant of TSC. Three months later, HR scintigraphy was repeated and showed images completely different from previous basal study, with hot spot of 99mTc BN1.1 corresponding to the site of TSC transplant. Immuno-histochemistry confirmed the presence of viable TSC. Not only 99mTc BN1.1 HR scan showed viability of transplanted TSC but also the "background brain" was the still now unknown map of BNR in mammalian brain.

  10. 纯岛叶低级别胶质瘤的显微外科治疗%Microsurgical treatment of purely insular low grade gliomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华; 冯继; 裴玉芳; 冯三平; 陈兴河; 江涛


    Objective To investigate microsurgical method and outcome for purely insular low grade gliomas. Methods The clinical data of 17 patients with purely insular low grade glioma, which was located at the left insula in 8 and right insula in 9, were analyzed retrospectively. All the tumors were removed via pterional transsylvian approach. Results Complete removal of the tumor was achieved in 12 patients and subtotal removal in 5. The diagnosis was established by postoperative pathological analysis, including 8 astrocytomas, 4 oligodendrogliomas and 5 oligoastrocytomas. There was no operative mortality. Early postoperative complications such as hemiplegia occurred in 2 patients and aphasia in 2. Seventeen patients were followed up for 6 to 12 months, hemiparesis occurred in 1 patient, mild aphasia in 1 and no tumor recurrence was found. Conclusions Microsurgery via pterional transsylvian approach is a safe and effective means for purely insular low grade gliomas. The good understanding of the insular anatomy is helpful for resection of insular low grade gliomas to the full extent and alleviation of neurological disorders of patients after operation.%目的 探讨纯岛叶低级别胶质瘤的显微手术方法及疗效.方法 回顾性分析17例纯岛叶低级别胶质瘤病人的临床资料.其中肿瘤位于左侧岛叶8例,右侧岛叶9例,均采用翼点外侧裂入路手术切除肿瘤.结果 肿瘤全切除12例,近全切除5例.病理结果:星形细胞瘤8例,少枝胶质细胞瘤4例,少枝星形细胞瘤5例.无手术死亡,术后早期发生偏瘫、失语各2例.随访17例,时间6~12个月,均未见肿瘤复发,轻偏瘫1例,轻度失语1例.结论 应用显微外科技术经翼点外侧裂入路治疗纯岛叶低级别胶质瘤安全、有效.了解岛叶解剖有助于最大程度切除岛叶低级别胶质瘤,减少病人术后神经功能障碍.

  11. 蝶骨嵴内侧脑膜瘤围手术期的处理要点%Perioperative treatment of the medial sphenoid ridge meningioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仲森; 傅先明; 费小瑞; 钱若兵; 何金超; 贾力; 牛朝诗


    Objective To investigate the perioperative management strategies for medial sphenoid ridge meningioma (MSRM). Methods The clinical data of 46 MSRM patients undergoing neuro-microsurgery were analyzed retrospectively. The pterional or extended pterional approach was adopted in 45 patients and subfrontal approach in 1. Results According to Simpson resection grade for meningioma, grade Ⅰ was in 4 cases, grade Ⅱ in 16, grade Ⅲ in 17 and grade Ⅳ in 9. The consciousness alteration and hemiplegia appeared in 4 patients, neuropsychiatric symptoms in 3 and tumor cavity bleeding in 1. The recover was good in 24 patients, fair in 18, and poor in 3, and one patient died. Conclusions The surgical resection is the most effective treatment for sphenoid ridge meningiomas. The detailed and comprehensive preoperative evaluation, individualized surgical treatment strategy, solid anatomical knowledge on the skull base and skilled surgical techniques and timely treatment of postoperative complications are key factors for improving therapeutic efficacy and prognosis of MSRM.%目的:探讨蝶骨嵴内侧型脑膜瘤围手术期处理策略。方法回顾性分析46例蝶骨嵴内侧型脑膜瘤的病例资料,均采用显微神经外科治疗。经翼点或扩大翼点入路45例,经额底入路1例。结果根据脑膜瘤Simpson切除分级:Ⅰ级4例,Ⅱ级16例,Ⅲ级17例,Ⅳ级9例。术后出现意识改变、肢体轻瘫4例,神经精神症状3例,瘤腔渗血1例。愈后良好24例,一般18例,差3例,死亡1例。结论显微外科切除是蝶骨嵴脑膜瘤治疗最有效的方法,详细全面的术前评估、个体化的手术治疗策略、扎实的颅底解剖知识,熟练的手术技巧,术后并发症及时处理等围手术期处理策略,是提高蝶骨嵴内侧脑膜瘤治疗效果和愈后的关键因素。

  12. Implantation of 3D-Printed Patient-Specific Aneurysm Models into Cadaveric Specimens: A New Training Paradigm to Allow for Improvements in Cerebrovascular Surgery and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnau Benet


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the feasibility of implanting 3D-printed brain aneurysm model in human cadavers and to assess their utility in neurosurgical research, complex case management/planning, and operative training. Methods. Two 3D-printed aneurysm models, basilar apex and middle cerebral artery, were generated and implanted in four cadaveric specimens. The aneurysms were implanted at the same anatomical region as the modeled patient. Pterional and orbitozygomatic approaches were done on each specimen. The aneurysm implant, manipulation capabilities, and surgical clipping were evaluated. Results. The 3D aneurysm models were successfully implanted to the cadaveric specimens’ arterial circulation in all cases. The features of the neck in terms of flexibility and its relationship with other arterial branches allowed for the practice of surgical maneuvering characteristic to aneurysm clipping. Furthermore, the relationship of the aneurysm dome with the surrounding structures allowed for better understanding of the aneurysmal local mass effect. Noticeably, all of these observations were done in a realistic environment provided by our customized embalming model for neurosurgical simulation. Conclusion. 3D aneurysms models implanted in cadaveric specimens may represent an untapped training method for replicating clip technique; for practicing certain approaches to aneurysms specific to a particular patient; and for improving neurosurgical research.

  13. Morphological Study of Wormian Bones in Dried Human Skulls

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    Divyesh Patel


    Full Text Available Background: Wormian bones may be defined as a those accidental bones found in the cranium having no regular relation to their normal ossification centre. They are assocated with cranial and central nervous system abnormalities. Knowledge of these bones is important for anthropo-logists, forensic experts, radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons to avoid misleading for multiple fractures of the skull. Materials and Methods: Adult dry human skulls (n= 27 of unknown age and sex availablein the Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Surat were included in the study. Result: Overall incidence of wormian bone was 44.4%. They occurred more frequently at lambdoid suture (48.14%.Wormian bones were also presentat asterion (18.5%, along the coronal suture (0.03%, along the parito-temporal suture (0.07%, along the occipito-mastoid suture (0.03%,andat pterion (0.03 %. Wormain bones were found 48.1% on left half of skull and 37.03% on right half of skull. Conclusion: The Wormian bones were more frequent at the lambdoid suture. The clinical importances of these variant bones were emphasized with relevant review of literature. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 222-225

  14. Microsurgical resection of craniopharyngioma of the third ventricle via an improved transventricular approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-guo; YOU Chao; CAI Bo-wen; JIANG Shu; SUN Hong; GUO Fu-you; YANG Yong-bo; WU Bo


    Background Craniopharyngioma of the third ventricle is difficult to treat and its therapeutic regimens and operative approaches have been controversial. This study was undertaken to probe indications for microsurgical resection of craniopharyngioma of the third ventricle via an improved transventricular approach, its surgical procedures and therapeutic effects, and prevention of postoperative complications.Methods Fifty-one patients with craniopharyngioma of the third ventricle were treated from January 2000 to October 2004 by an improved transventricular approach for removing the tumor via the interventricular foramen,the intermedius of the septum pellucidum or choroid fissure. Symptoms and signs of the patients, and results of imaging, operation, and follow-up were analyzed. Results Of the 51 patients who had received the improved transventricular resection, 4 underwent a combined approach with an entrance of the pterion. Forty patients (78.43%) underwent total resection and others subtotal resection, without an operative death. Epileptic seizures were found in 3 patients (5.88%) and subdural effusion in the operative field in 4 (7.84%). All patients showed good general conditions after operation, and follow-up for an average of 27.52 months showed relapse of the tumour in 8 patients (15.69%).Conclusions Microsurgical resection of craniopharyngioma of the third ventricle by an improved transventricular approach has advantages of operative safety and efficacy, lower mortality and disability, and less complications.

  15. Plagiocefalia frontal sinostósica: Resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hodelín Tablada


    Full Text Available Se estudiaron de forma retrospectiva 10 niños con craneosinostosis tipo plagiocefalia frontal sinostósica, operados en el Servicio de Neurocirugía Infantil del Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía. Como técnica quirúrgica se empleó la craniectomía lineal en el sitio de la hemisura coronal sinostosada, ampliada hasta la región del pterión. La totalidad de los infantes evolucionaron con hipoplasia orbitaria y abombamiento frontal y a más de la mitad se les realizó operación en los primeros 6 meses de la vida. Hubo importante variación del índice cefálico, así como mejoría estética comparativamente, antes de la operación y después de éstaA retrospective study of 10 children with frontal synostotic plagiocephaly like craniosynostosis operated on at the Children's Neurosurgery Department of the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery was carried out. It was used the surgical technique of linear craniectomy in the site of the coronal synostotic fissure extended to the pterion region. All children evoluted with orbital hypoplasia and frontal convexity. More than a half underwent surgery during the first six months of life. There was an important cephalic index variation, as well as anaesthetic improvement after the operation

  16. Endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approach for resection of retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma. (United States)

    Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson


    Retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas are formidable cranial base tumors to resect because of their intimate relationship with neighboring critical neurovascular structures, particularly the undersurface of the optic chiasm and hypothalamus. Radical resection offers the best chance of minimizing tumor recurrence, although this may be associated with significant surgical morbidity. Although various transcranial approaches have been utilized (transbasal subfrontal, frontobasal interhemispheric, pterional, orbitozygomatic, and petrosal) for resection of retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas, each is associated with some degree of brain retraction, and direct visualization of the retrochiasmatic region is often incomplete, therefore resulting in blind dissection. The endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approach provides the most direct route to the retrochiasmatic region while affording unmatched visualization of the undersurface of the optic chiasm, third ventricle, and hypothalamus. This advantage allows for direct bimanual tumor dissection off of these critical structures by using microsurgical principles. The endonasal route also has the advantage of avoiding brain retraction and risk of cerebral edema that can be associated with transcranial approaches. In this operative video atlas report, the authors demonstrate their step-by-step techniques for resection of a suprasellar retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma using a purely endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approach. They describe and illustrate the operative nuances and surgical pearls to safely and efficiently perform the approach, tumor resection, and multilayered reconstruction of the cranial base defect. The video can be found here: .

  17. Surgical experience of the ruptured distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms. (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Young; Kim, Moon-Kyu; Cho, Byung-Moon; Park, Se-Hyuck; Oh, Sae-Moon


    Distal anterior cerebral artery (DACA) aneurysms are fragile and known to have high risks for intraoperative premature rupture and a relatively high associated morbidity. To improve surgical outcomes of DACA aneurysms, we reviewed our surgical strategy and its results postoperatively. A total of 845 patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms were operated in our hospital from January 1991 to December 2005. Twenty-three of 845 patients had ruptured DACA aneurysms which were operated on according to our surgical strategy. Our surgical strategy was as follows; early surgery, appropriate releasing of CSF, appropriate surgical approach, using neuronavigating system, securing the bridging veins, using temporary clipping and/or tentative clipping, meticulous manipulation of aneurysm, and using micro-Doppler flow probe. Twenty of 23 patients who had complete medical records were studied retrospectively. We observed the postoperative radiographic findings and checked Glasgow Outcome Scale score sixth months after the operation. Nineteen DACA aneurysms were clipped through a unilateral interhemispheric approach and one DACA aneurysm was clipped through a pterional approach. Postoperative radiographic findings revealed complete clipping of aneurysmal neck without stenosis or occlusion of parent arteries. In two patients, a residual neck of aneurysm was visualized. Seventeen patients showed good recovery, one patient resulted in moderate disability, while 2 patients died. With our surgical strategy it was possible to achieve acceptable surgical morbidity and mortality rates in patients with DACA aneurysms. Appropriate use of tentative clipping, temporary clipping and neuro-navigating systems can give great help for safe approach and clipping of DACA aneurysm.

  18. [Microsurgical treatment of internal carotid bifurcation aneurysms]. (United States)

    González-Darder, J M; González-López, P; Botella-Maciá, L


    Clinical and imaging findings of a series of 14 internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms microsurgically treated are presented. A total of 10 lesions were diagnosed before rupture and 4 patients presented with subarachnoidal hemorrhage and frontobasal intracerebral bleeding. Diagnosis was done using neuroimaging (CT scan, angio-CT-3D, angio-MRI, angiography) but patients with ruptured aneurysms were treated with the sole information provided by the angio-CT-3D. The average fundus size was 8.4mm (3-13.3) and the average neck size was 6.8mm (3-9.6), being the fundus-to-neck ratio 1.32 (0.46-2.05). All lesions were microsurgically treated through a pterional approach with the help of temporary clipping of the afferent vessels in all cases. We used peroperative neuroprotective, neuromonitorization and micro-doppler cerebral flow measurement. Clinical results were excellent with 13 patients GOS grade 5 and one grade 4 three month afterwards of hospital discharge and complete exclusion of the lesion in angiographic controls done solely in patients with ruptured lesions.

  19. Life-threatening allergic vasculitis after clipping an unruptured aneurysm: Case report, weighing the risk of nickel allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grande


    Full Text Available Background: This case report represents one of the estimated 17,000 aneurysms clipped annually in the United States, often with nickel-containing clips. The authors highlight the development of life-threatening allergic vasculitis in a 33-year-old woman after aneurysm clipping. Case Description: After suffering subarachnoid hemorrhage, the patient had coil embolization at another facility for rupture of a right internal carotid artery (ICA aneurysm. An incidental finding, an unruptured left posterior communicating artery aneurysm unamenable to coiling, was then successfully clipped via a left pterional craniotomy. Arriving in our emergency department 11 days later, she progressively declined during the next weeks, facing deteriorating clinical status (i.e. seizures and additional infarctions in the left frontal lobe, midline shift, and new infarctions in the bilateral frontal lobe, right sylvian, right insular regions, and posterior cerebral artery distribution. During decompressive surgery, biopsy findings raised the possibility of lymphocytic vasculitis; consultations with rheumatology, allergy, and immunology specialists identified that our patient had a nickel allergy. After reoperation to replace the nickel-containing clip with one of a titanium alloy, the patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and was discharged 6 days later to a rehabilitation facility. Conclusions: Nickel-related allergies are more common than appreciated, affecting up to 10% of patients. Fortunately, severe reactions are rare; nevertheless, vascular neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication when using cobalt alloy aneurysms clips. The use of titanium alloy clips eliminates this risk.

  20. Accurate Localization of Aneurysm Neck Margins in Clipping of a Carotid Cave Aneurysm Using Intraoperative Dual-Volume 3-Dimensional Volume-Rendering Rotational Angiography. (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Ta; Hsu, Szu-Kai; Su, I-Chang


    Full visualization of the aneurysm neck is usually impossible in a classical pterional craniotomy when a paraclinoid aneurysm is located on the opposite side of the internal carotid artery. Optic nerve (ON) retraction is required for better aneurysmal exposure, but ON injuries may occur. In a case of a 70-year-old female harboring a carotid cave aneurysm, we introduced a new method to delineate better the margins of the aneurysm neck by using intraoperative 3-dimensional (3D) rotational angiography (RA) with dual-volume reconstruction. After complete exposure of the aneurysm, we placed a straight clip adjacent to the aneurysm for localization purposes and performed 3D-RA to locate the distal end of the aneurysm neck relative to the localization clip. With a better anatomic understanding of the neck position, we were able to reduce ON retraction and position the clip across the aneurysm neck more precisely. With the advantage of a hybrid operating room, we introduced a novel technique to define the margins of the obscured aneurysm neck more clearly by obtaining a 3D-RA dual-volume reconstruction image to locate the aneurysm neck relative to a localization clip. This technique facilitates the clipping procedure and also reduces the risk related to ON retraction during surgical exposure of a paraclinoid aneurysm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suprasellar Mature Cystic Teratoma: An Unusual Location for an Uncommon Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed B. Sweiss


    Full Text Available Intracranial germ cell tumors are uncommon and account for only 0.3–3.4% of all intracranial tumors. Teratomas are a subset of these neoplasms, and their finding in brain structures is exceptionally rare, and occurrence within the skull base is quite novel. The authors report the case of a 57-year-old male patient who presented with vision changes, incontinence, ataxia, and altered mental status of 1 week’s duration. Imaging revealed a large intrasellar mass with suprasellar extension, involvement of the ventricular system, and marked hydrocephalus with the enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. The patient underwent a pterional craniotomy/transsylvian approach for resection of the mass. Postoperative histological examination of the resected mass was confirmatory for a mature cystic teratoma. This was followed by radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and adjuvant radiotherapy. At the most recent followup, approximately 4 years later, the patient is doing well with improved vision since the operation. This report highlights our experience with a teratoma in a very unusual location, and we review the relevant literature.

  2. Large capillary hemangioma of the temporal bone with a dural tail sign: A case report

    KAUST Repository



    The present study reports a rare case of large capillary hemangioma of the temporal bone with a dural tail sign. A 57-year-old female presented with pulsatile tinnitus and episodic vertigo associated with a ten-year history of an intermittent faint headache. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the right petrous bone, which was hypointense on T1-weighted images and heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and showed a dural tail sign following gadolinium administration. Pre-operatively, this tumor was believed to be a meningioma. During surgery, the vascular tumor was removed by a modified pterional approach. A histopathological examination indicated that the tumor was a capillary hemangioma. Although intraosseous capillary hemangiomas are rare, they most frequently affect the temporal bone. Hemangiomas of the temporal bone may mimic other more common basal tumors. The diagnosis is most often made during surgical resection. The dural tail sign is not specific for meningioma, as it also occurs in other intracranial or extracranial tumors. The treatment of intratemporal hemangiomas is complete surgical excision, with radiotherapy used for unresectable lesions. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the fourth case of intraosseous intracranial capillary hemangioma, but the largest intratemporal hemangioma to be reported in the literature to date.

  3. Sellar Chordoma Presenting as Pseudo-macroprolactinoma with Unilateral Third Cranial Nerve Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-feng Wang; Hong-xi Ma; Cheng-yuan Ma; Yi-nan Luo; Peng-fei Ge


    We described a 61-year-old female with a sellar chordoma,which presented as pseudo-macroprolactinoma with unilateral third cranial nerve palsy.Physical examination revealed that her right upper lid could not be raised by itself,right eyeball movement limited to the abduction direction,right pupil dilated to 4.5 mm with negative reaction to light,and hemianopsia in bitemporal sides.CT scanning showed a hyperdense lesion at sellar region without bone destruction.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the tumor was 2.3 cm×1.8 cm×2.6 cm,with iso-intensity on T1WI,hyper-intensity on T2WI and heterogeneous enhancement on contrast imaging.Endocrine examination showed her serum prolactin level increased to 1,031.49 mlU/ml.The tumor was sub-totally resected via pterional craniotomy under microscope and was histologically proven to be a chordoma.Postoperatively,she recovered uneventfully but ptosis and hemianopsia remained at the 6th month.

  4. Large capillary hemangioma of the temporal bone with a dural tail sign: A case report. (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chenguang; Chen, Xin; Liu, Yaohua; Han, Dayong; Gao, Xin; Kawamoto, Keiji; Zhao, Shiguang


    The present study reports a rare case of large capillary hemangioma of the temporal bone with a dural tail sign. A 57-year-old female presented with pulsatile tinnitus and episodic vertigo associated with a ten-year history of an intermittent faint headache. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the right petrous bone, which was hypointense on T1-weighted images and heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and showed a dural tail sign following gadolinium administration. Pre-operatively, this tumor was believed to be a meningioma. During surgery, the vascular tumor was removed by a modified pterional approach. A histopathological examination indicated that the tumor was a capillary hemangioma. Although intraosseous capillary hemangiomas are rare, they most frequently affect the temporal bone. Hemangiomas of the temporal bone may mimic other more common basal tumors. The diagnosis is most often made during surgical resection. The dural tail sign is not specific for meningioma, as it also occurs in other intracranial or extracranial tumors. The treatment of intratemporal hemangiomas is complete surgical excision, with radiotherapy used for unresectable lesions. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the fourth case of intraosseous intracranial capillary hemangioma, but the largest intratemporal hemangioma to be reported in the literature to date.

  5. Surgical treatment of trigonocephalies and associated hypoteleorbitism. (United States)

    Hinojosa, J; Esparza, J; Muñoz, M J; Salván, R; Romance, A; Alén, J F; Muñoz, A


    Premature closure of metopic suture is a relatively uncommon form of craniosyostosis with an estimated incidence of 0,3 per 1000 live births, comprising about 7% of surgical craniosynostosis referred to craniofacial centers. A broad phenotypical spectrum spreads from minor metopic ridges to severe trigonocephaly with pterional indentation supraorbital bar retrusion, temporal and parietal compensating bossings and hypotelorism. Most of the cases arise spontaneously although autosomal dominant inheritance has been described and association with cromosomal abnormalities and different syndromes has been widely reported. Surgical correction has been attempted with good cosmetic results using several variations of the standard frontoorbitary advance. However there is still a number of questions to be solved in relation to this entity, mainly on its pathogenesis, but also on its development, natural history and treatment. Direct surgical approach to associated hypotelorism is a matter of argument when considering the reestablishment of normal interorbitary distances. We have conducted a retrospective analysis of our serie consisting of twenty-eight cases of trigonocephalies. Surgical correction of hypotelorism was attempted in eleven cases while the resting seven children remained "not treated". The objective was to review the functional outcome and cosmetic results comparing the different techniques applied to the frontal bone and to observe evolution of the hypoteleorbitism after the treatment with or without osteotomies and grafting of the nasoethmoidal area.

  6. Loss of visual evoked potential following temporary occlusion of the superior hypophyseal artery during aneurysm clip placement surgery. Case report. (United States)

    Goto, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Kodama, Kunihiko; Kusano, Yoshikazu; Sakai, Keiichi; Hongo, Kazuhiro


    The authors report a case in which a 62-year-old woman with a history of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm was found to have a de novo paraclinoid aneurysm in the right internal carotid artery during a routine medical examination. Surgical clip placement was performed via a contralateral pterional approach under visual evoked potential (VEP) monitoring. The superior hypophyseal artery (SHA) was found to originate from the aneurysm body. The artery was temporarily occluded prior to application of the clip to the aneurysm neck. The VEP signal was lost 3 minutes after the SHA was occluded, and the potentials gradually recovered 10 minutes after the artery was released. The disappearance of VEP signal was reproducible with SHA occlusion. The clip was applied to the aneurysm body to preserve the origin of the SHA. The patient did not have any deterioration of vision after surgery. Intraoperative VEP monitoring can be used to help determine whether the SHA can be sacrificed safely.

  7. Frontal dermoid cyst coexisting with suprasellar craniopharyngioma: a spectrum of ectodermally derived epithelial-lined cystic lesions? (United States)

    Abou-Al-Shaar, Hussam; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Zaidi, Hasan A; Russell-Goldman, Eleanor; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Laws, Edward R; Antonio Chiocca, E


    There is a wide group of lesions that may exist in the sellar and suprasellar regions. Embryologically, there is varying evidence that many of these entities may in fact represent a continuum of pathology deriving from a common ectodermal origin. The authors report a case of a concomitant suprasellar craniopharyngioma invading the third ventricle with a concurrent frontal lobe cystic dermoid tumor. A 21-year-old man presented to the authors' service with a 3-day history of worsening headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurry vision. Magnetic resonance imaging depicted a right frontal lobe lesion associated with a separate suprasellar cystic lesion invading the third ventricle. The patient underwent a right pterional craniotomy for resection of both lesions. Gross-total resection of the right frontal lesion was achieved, and subtotal resection of the suprasellar lesion was accomplished with some residual tumor adherent to the walls of the third ventricle. Histopathological examination of the resected right frontal lesion documented a diagnosis of dermoid cyst and, for the suprasellar lesion, a diagnosis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. The occurrence of craniopharyngioma with dermoid cyst has not been reported in the literature before. Such an association might indeed suggest the previously reported hypothesis that these lesions represent a spectrum of ectodermally derived epithelial-lined cystic lesions.

  8. Anterior Skull Base Defects Reconstructed Using Three-Layer Method: 78 Consecutive Cases with Long-Term Follow-Up. (United States)

    Geyik, Murat; Erkutlu, Ibrahim; Alptekin, Mehmet; Gezgin, Inan; Mizrak, Ayse; Dokur, Mehmet; Gok, Abdulvahap


    Objectives Anterior skull base defects are potentially lethal and surgical treatment must be performed as soon as possible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether our technique is effective or not in long-term period. Design Retrospective chart review of all patients whose data were entered into the Hospital Registry System between 1995 and 2015. Setting/Participants This study was performed at the Gaziantep University School of Medicine, Gaziantep, Turkey, in 2015 and included 78 patients who in the past 20 years underwent three-layer reconstruction surgery for anterior skull base defects at the same university. Main Outcome Measures Among the patients, defects repaired by transcranial approach had the lowest recurrence rate. Overall, successful repair was achieved in 100% of the patients. Results Pure transbasal approach was used as a single procedure on 71 (91%) patients. Combined approaches were used in seven (9%) cases. The extended transbasal approach was combined with a transfacial approach in four patients and with a pterional approach in three patients. Conclusion We encourage the use of three-layer reconstruction and recommend free fascia lata grafts and galeal flaps with vascularized pedicle as sealing material of choice in all types of cases such as tumor and trauma.

  9. Intradural chordoma mimicking a lateral sphenoid wing meningioma: a case report. (United States)

    Kunert, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Tomasz; Matyja, Ewa; Marchel, Andrzej


    Chordomas are rare tumours arising from notochordal remnants. Classical chordomas are generally extradural and, despite benign histopathology, they typically destroy the clivus and surrounding bone structures. Intradural lesions are extremely rare and less than thirty cases of intracranial, exclusively intradural chordomas have been reported so far. The intracranial, intradural but extranotochordal location of chordoma is extremely unique. The authors present a case of chordoma in intracranial location that clinically mimics lateral sphenoid wing meningioma. A previously healthy 39-year-old man was admitted to our Department because of optic disc oedema without neurological deficits. Neuroimaging studies showed a large, contrast-enhanced tumour in the right frontotemporal region that was thought to be a pterional meningioma. The patient underwent successful removal of the tumour. Histopathological study revealed a typical pattern of chordoma, confirmed by immunohistochemical findings. Because of the tumour location the differentiation between chordoma and chordoid meningioma ought to be considered. Such cases, including the present one, may lead to the conclusion that embryonic notochordal remnants may be lost in different places, even away from the neuroaxis.

  10. Associations between white matter microstructure and amyloid burden in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: A multimodal imaging investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Racine


    Full Text Available Some cognitively healthy individuals develop brain amyloid accumulation, suggestive of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD, but the effect of amyloid on other potentially informative imaging modalities, such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, in characterizing brain changes in preclinical AD requires further exploration. In this study, a sample (N = 139, mean age 60.6, range 46 to 71 from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP, a cohort enriched for AD risk factors, was recruited for a multimodal imaging investigation that included DTI and [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB positron emission tomography (PET. Participants were grouped as amyloid positive (Aβ+, amyloid indeterminate (Aβi, or amyloid negative (Aβ− based on the amount and pattern of amyloid deposition. Regional voxel-wise analyses of four DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial diffusivity (Da, and radial diffusivity (Dr, were performed based on amyloid grouping. Three regions of interest (ROIs, the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum, hippocampal cingulum, and lateral fornix, were selected based on their involvement in the early stages of AD. Voxel-wise analysis revealed higher FA among Aβ+ compared to Aβ− in all three ROIs and in Aβi compared to Aβ− in the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum. Follow-up exploratory whole-brain analyses were consistent with the ROI findings, revealing multiple regions where higher FA was associated with greater amyloid. Lower fronto-lateral gray matter MD was associated with higher amyloid burden. Further investigation showed a negative correlation between MD and PiB signal, suggesting that Aβ accumulation impairs diffusion. Interestingly, these findings in a largely presymptomatic sample are in contradistinction to relationships reported in the literature in symptomatic disease stages of Mild Cognitive Impairment and AD, which usually show higher MD and lower FA. Together with

  11. Associations between white matter microstructure and amyloid burden in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: A multimodal imaging investigation (United States)

    Racine, Annie M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Christian, Bradley T.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Oh, Jennifer; Cleary, Caitlin A.; Birdsill, Alex; Hillmer, Ansel T.; Murali, Dhanabalan; Barnhart, Todd E.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Rowley, Howard A.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Johnson, Sterling C.


    Some cognitively healthy individuals develop brain amyloid accumulation, suggestive of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the effect of amyloid on other potentially informative imaging modalities, such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), in characterizing brain changes in preclinical AD requires further exploration. In this study, a sample (N = 139, mean age 60.6, range 46 to 71) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP), a cohort enriched for AD risk factors, was recruited for a multimodal imaging investigation that included DTI and [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET). Participants were grouped as amyloid positive (Aβ+), amyloid indeterminate (Aβi), or amyloid negative (Aβ−) based on the amount and pattern of amyloid deposition. Regional voxel-wise analyses of four DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (Da), and radial diffusivity (Dr), were performed based on amyloid grouping. Three regions of interest (ROIs), the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum, hippocampal cingulum, and lateral fornix, were selected based on their involvement in the early stages of AD. Voxel-wise analysis revealed higher FA among Aβ+ compared to Aβ− in all three ROIs and in Aβi compared to Aβ− in the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum. Follow-up exploratory whole-brain analyses were consistent with the ROI findings, revealing multiple regions where higher FA was associated with greater amyloid. Lower fronto-lateral gray matter MD was associated with higher amyloid burden. Further investigation showed a negative correlation between MD and PiB signal, suggesting that Aβ accumulation impairs diffusion. Interestingly, these findings in a largely presymptomatic sample are in contradistinction to relationships reported in the literature in symptomatic disease stages of Mild Cognitive Impairment and AD, which usually show higher MD and lower FA. Together with analyses

  12. Middle frontal horizontal partial laryngectomy (MFHPL: a treatment for stage T1b squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx involving anterior vocal commissure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bin Lei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The therapeutic effect of middle frontal horizontal partial laryngectomy (MFHPL in treating stage T1b squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx involving anterior vocal commissure (AVC was compared with that of the anterior frontolateral vertical partial laryngectomy (AFVPL. The feasibility and practical significance of MFHPL in clinical application was discussed in the present study. METHODS: From January 1996 to January 2010, a total of 65 patients diagnosed with stage T1bN0M0 glottic laryngeal cancer were treated with MFHPL or AFVPL. The postoperative complications, glottic reconstruction, recurrence rate, voice quality and survival rates were evaluated and compared between two treatments. RESULTS: AFVPL and MFHPL were performed in 34 and 31 patients, respectively. Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed that in the MFHPL-treated patients the reconstructed glottis was spacious and symmetric. In contrast, AFVPL treatment resulted in irregular glottic area with poor symmetry and tubular glottis. The incidence of postoperative laryngeal stenosis significantly differed between the MFHPL- and AFVPL-treated groups (P = 0.025. No significant difference was detected in the 3- and 5-year overall- or tumor-free survival rates between two treatments. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI and maximum phonation time (MPT after surgery were 51.0±12.99 and 12.42±3.44 sec in the AFVPL-treated group; while in the MFHPL-treated patients they were 31.81±7.48 and 7.65±1.98 sec, respectively. Both differences in VHI (P = 0.012 and MPT (P = 0.024 were significant between two treatments. CONCLUSIONS: MFHPL was comparable to AFVPL with respect to postoperative complications, recurrence rate and survival rates, but possessed advantages over AFVPL in terms of the incidence of laryngeal stenosis and voice quality. Our study indicated that MFHPL has a potential value in clinical practice of treating stage T1b squamous cell carcinoma of the

  13. 经眶上外侧入路夹闭颅内前循环动脉瘤的临床应用%Surgical treatment of anterior circulation aneurysms via lateral supraorbital approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦冰; 应广宇; 胡华; 陈高; 张建民; 王林


    目的:总结和评价经眶上外侧入路夹闭动脉瘤治疗颅内前循环动脉瘤患者的临床疗效,并与传统的翼点入路手术进行比较。方法:回顾性分析2012年10月—2014年9月收治浙江大学医学院附属第二医院神经外科采用眶上外侧入路手术的99例前循环动脉瘤患者的临床资料,并与2010年1月—2011年12月在该科住院并采用翼点入路手术的75例前循环动脉瘤患者进行比较,分析两组患者手术时间、术中动脉瘤破裂率、术后近期恢复情况、术后动脉瘤残留率等情况的差异。结果:眶上外侧入路组手术时间较翼点入路组缩短37~61 min,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);两组术中动脉瘤破裂率、术后动脉瘤残留率等差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05)。两组术后3个月格拉斯哥预后评分差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论:眶上外侧入路治疗前循环动脉瘤具有损伤小、速度快的优点,可以作为翼点入路的良好替代方案。%Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the surgery with lateral supraorbital approach for clipping anterior circulation aneurysms. Mtehods: The clinical data of 99 patients with anterior circulation aneurysms who underwent a clipping via lateral supraorbital approach from October 2012 to September 2014and 75 patients, who underwent a clipping via pterional approach from January 2010 to December 2011 in the second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine were reviewed. The operative duration, prognosis, residual rate and rupture rate during surgery were compared between two groups.Results:The patients by lateral supraorbital approach had a shorter operative duration, namely 37 ~61 min less than that in the patients by pterional approach.No difference were found in residual rate and rupture rate between two groups.The Glasgow Outcome Scale ( GOS ) at 3 months after surgery showed no significant difference

  14. 颅咽管瘤显微手术治疗及术后并发症分析%Microsurgical treatment and analysis of postoperative complications for craniopharyngiomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储卫华; 林江凯; 朱刚; 高伯元; 崔高宇; 孟辉; 吴南; 冯华


    Objective To investigate the microsurgical treatment and analysis of the postoperative complications for craniopharyngiomas. Methods Clinical data of 103 patients with craniopharyngioma undergoing microsurgical resection were analyzed retrospectively. The operation was performed via pterional approach in 76 cases, subfrontal approach in 16, transcallosal approach in 10 and transsphenoidal approach in 1. Results Total tumor removal was achieved in 65 cases, subtotal removal in 26 and partial removal in 12. Postoperatively diabetes insipidus occurred in 69 cases, epilepsy in 7, central high fever in 5, oculomotor nerve injury in 4, permanent hypopituitarism in 3. Two patients died within 1 month after operation. Sixty-seven patients were followed up for mean of 3.5 years, ranged from 2 months to 11 years. Normal work and life enjoyment were found in 52 patients, adiposity in 12, anterior pituitary hypofunction in 3. The tumors recurred in 11 cases and 6 patients died. Conelusions The choice of microsurgical approach for craniopharyngioma resection is based on the location, size and characteristic of the tumor, while pterional approach is appropriate for most patients. Skillful microsurgery, meticulous manipulation, and active management for postoperative complications are very important in reducing the fatality and disability rate and improving life quality.%目的 探讨显微手术切除颅咽管瘤的有效方法及术后并发症分析.方法 回顾性分析103例颅咽管瘤病人的临床资料.手术均在显微镜下进行,其中采取翼点人路76例,额下人路16例,纵裂胼胝体入路10例,经蝶入路1例.结果 肿瘤全切除65例,次全切除26例,大部分切除12例.术后出现尿崩69例,术后癫痫7例,中枢性高热5例,动眼神经损伤4例,垂体功能永久性低下3例;术后1月内死亡2例.随访67例,随访时间2个月~11年.平均3.5年.能基本正常学习生活52例,肥胖12例,垂体前叶功能低下3例,死亡6

  15. Glioblastoma multiforme of the optic chiasm: A rare case of common pathology (United States)

    Lyapichev, Kirill A.; Bregy, Amade; Cassel, Adrienne; Handfield, Chelsea; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Kay, Matthew D.; Basil, Gregory; Komotar, Ricardo J.


    Background: Malignant optic and chiasmatic gliomas are extremely rare, and are classified pathologically as anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Approximately 40 cases of optic GBM in adults have been reported in the literature, and only five of them were described to originate from the optic chiasm. Case Description: An 82-year-old male patient with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus type 2, melanoma, and bladder cancer presented with gradual vision loss of the left eye in a period of 1 month. After neuro-ophthalmological examination, the decision of thither magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies was made. It showed a contrast enhancing mass in the region of the optic chiasm. In this case, imaging study was not enough to establish an accurate diagnosis and a left pterional craniotomy for biopsy and resection of the optic chiasmal mass was performed. After histological evaluation of the mass tissue, the diagnosis of GBM was made. Taking into account the patient's poor condition and unfavorable prognosis he was moved to inpatient hospice. The patient deceased within 2 months after surgery. Conclusion: Chiasmal GBM is an extremely rare condition where a biopsy is necessary for accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment. Differential diagnosis for such lesions can be very difficult and include demyelinating optic neuritis and non-demyelinating inflammatory optic neuropathy (e.g., sarcoid), vascular lesions (e.g., cavernoma), compressive lesions of the optic apparatus, metastatic malignancy, and primary tumors of the anterior optic pathway. The role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy including novel stereotaxic radiosurgery methods is still unclear and will need to be evaluated. PMID:27512611

  16. Contrast-enhanced Reformatted MR Images for Preoperative Assessment of the Bridging Veins of the Skull Base. (United States)

    Wangaryattawanich, Pattana; Chavali, Lakshmi S; Shah, Komal B; Gogia, Bhanu; Valenzuela, Raul F; DeMonte, Franco; Kumar, Ashok J; Hayman, L Anne


    Magnetic resonance (MR) venography and computed tomographic (CT) venography are suited for displaying the convexity veins that drain the medial and lateral surfaces of the brain hemispheres. However, such is not the case for the bridging veins of the skull base. Technical factors prevent contrast material-enhanced MR or CT images obtained in standard axial, coronal, and sagittal planes from fully displaying the curved pathways of these clinically important venous structures. This limitation can be overcome by using a reconstruction technique that depicts these venous structures and their interconnections. Curved and multiplanar reformatted images that distill the important venous features often require knowledgeable manipulation of source images by an operator who is familiar with numerous venous variants and their surgical implications. The normal anatomy of the draining veins is detailed-anatomy that radiologists must master before they can show the surgeon the important venous anatomy that is often missing at standard imaging; this information will foster better communication between radiologists and their surgical colleagues. As a practical matter, the skull base veins are arbitrarily subdivided into those that are at greatest risk with the pterional approach and the subtemporal approach, respectively. These approaches can be expanded to define connections between the superficial venous system and the other valveless venous networks that drain the deep portions of the cerebral hemisphere, the scalp, face, muscles of the neck, diploë of the skull, and meninges. As radiologists gain experience, their image interpretations should mature beyond simple analysis of the primary hemodynamic changes induced by intraoperative sacrifice or injury.

  17. Risk factors and consequences of unexpected trapping for ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Fukuda


    Full Text Available Background: While clipping cerebral aneurysms at the neck is optimal, in some cases this is not possible and other strategies are necessary. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes for inability to clip reconstruct ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA aneurysms. Methods: Of the 70 cases of ruptured ACoA aneurysms between January 2006 and December 2013, our institutional experience revealed four cases of small ACoA aneurysms that had been considered clippable prior to operation but required trapping. When a unilateral A2 segment of anterior cerebral artery (ACA was compromised by trapping, revascularization was performed by bypass surgery. Clinical presentation, angiographic characteristics, operative approach, intraoperative findings, and treatment outcomes were assessed. Results: Very small aneurysm under 3 mm was a risk factor for unexpected trapping. The reason for unexpected trapping was laceration of the aneurysmal neck in two cases, and lack of clippaple component due to disintegration of entire aneurysmal wall at the time of rupture in the others. Aneurysms with bilateral A1 were treated with sole trapping through pterional approach in two cases. The other two cases had hypoplastic unilateral A1 segment of ACA and were treated with combination of aneurysm trapping and revascularization of A2 segment of ACA through interhemispheric approach. No patients had new cerebral infarctions of cortical ACA territory from surgery. Cognitive dysfunction was observed in three cases, but all patients became independent at 12-month follow up. Conclusions: Unexpected trapping was performed when ruptured ACoA aneurysms were unclippable. Trapping with or without bypass can result in reasonable outcomes, with acceptable risk of cognitive dysfunction.

  18. Parasellar meningiomas in pregnancy: surgical results and visual outcomes. (United States)

    Moscovici, Samuel; Fraifeld, Shifra; Cohen, José E; Dotan, Shlomo; Elchalal, Uriel; Shoshan, Yigal; Spektor, Sergey


    Rapid visual deterioration may occur as the result of the quick growth of parasellar meningiomas in the high-hormone/increased fluid retention milieu of pregnancy; however, surgery before delivery entails increased maternal-fetal risk. We present our experience in the management of parasellar meningiomas that compress the optic apparatus during pregnancy, with a focus on decisions regarding the timing of surgery. Serial visual examinations and other clinical data for 11 women presenting from 2002 to 2012 with visual deterioration during pregnancy or delivery as the result of parasellar meningiomas involving the optic apparatus were reviewed. Indications for surgery during pregnancy included severely compromised vision, rapid visual deterioration, and early-to-midstage pregnancy with the potential for significant tumor growth and visual decrease before delivery. All patients underwent surgery with the use of skull base techniques via pterional craniotomy. An advanced extradural-intradural (i.e., Dolenc) approach, with modifications, was used in seven. All women achieved a Glasgow Outcome Score of 5 at discharge with no new neurologic deficits; all children are developing normally at a mean 4.5 years of age (range, 1-9.5 years). Surgery during pregnancy was recommended for six women: four operated at gestational weeks 20-23 had excellent postoperative visual recovery; two who delayed surgery until after delivery have permanent unilateral blindness. Among five others operated after delivery, four had good visual recovery and one has pronounced but correctable deficits. Three of five women diagnosed at gestational weeks 32-35 experienced spontaneous visual improvement after delivery, before surgery. We recommend that surgery be offered to patients during pregnancy when a delay may result in severe permanent visual impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Glioblastoma multiforme of the optic chiasm: A rare case of common pathology. (United States)

    Lyapichev, Kirill A; Bregy, Amade; Cassel, Adrienne; Handfield, Chelsea; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Kay, Matthew D; Basil, Gregory; Komotar, Ricardo J


    Malignant optic and chiasmatic gliomas are extremely rare, and are classified pathologically as anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Approximately 40 cases of optic GBM in adults have been reported in the literature, and only five of them were described to originate from the optic chiasm. An 82-year-old male patient with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus type 2, melanoma, and bladder cancer presented with gradual vision loss of the left eye in a period of 1 month. After neuro-ophthalmological examination, the decision of thither magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies was made. It showed a contrast enhancing mass in the region of the optic chiasm. In this case, imaging study was not enough to establish an accurate diagnosis and a left pterional craniotomy for biopsy and resection of the optic chiasmal mass was performed. After histological evaluation of the mass tissue, the diagnosis of GBM was made. Taking into account the patient's poor condition and unfavorable prognosis he was moved to inpatient hospice. The patient deceased within 2 months after surgery. Chiasmal GBM is an extremely rare condition where a biopsy is necessary for accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment. Differential diagnosis for such lesions can be very difficult and include demyelinating optic neuritis and non-demyelinating inflammatory optic neuropathy (e.g., sarcoid), vascular lesions (e.g., cavernoma), compressive lesions of the optic apparatus, metastatic malignancy, and primary tumors of the anterior optic pathway. The role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy including novel stereotaxic radiosurgery methods is still unclear and will need to be evaluated.

  20. Microsurgical treatment for posterior communicating artery aneurysms%后交通动脉瘤的显微手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢飞; 孙鸿; 毛伯镛; 游潮; 贺民; 刘翼; 毛庆


    Objective To review experience with microsurgical treatment for posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms. Methods Clinical data of 108 patients with PCoA aneurysms treated by microsurgery through the pterional approach were analyzed retrospectively, including clipping of aneurysmal neck in 107 cases and wrapping of aneurysm in 1. Aneurismal incision and the indocyanine green angiography were routinely performed after the clipping. Results Total clipping of aneurysmal neck in 107 cases and wrapping of aneurysm in 1. Intraoperatively intracranial aneurysm burst ruptured in 18 patients. Preoperative hydrocephalus occurred in 11 cases, and improved in 6 and no significantly improved in S postoperatively. The postoperative GOS scores were as follows: 4 to 5 scores in 93 patients, 2 to 3 in 11 and 1 (death) in 4. Eighty-four patients were followed up for 6 to 12 months, and there was no residual aneurysm or recurrence. Conclusions Microsurgery is an ideal method for treatment of PCoA aneurysms. Intraoperatively aneurysmal incision and the indocyanine green angiography are useful in judging the clipping effect.%目的 总结显微手术治疗后交通动脉瘤的经验.方法 回顾性分析108例后交通动脉瘤病人的临床资料,采用翼点入路显微手术治疗,行瘤颈夹闭术107例,动脉瘤包裹术1例.瘤颈夹闭后术中常规切开瘤体并行吲哚菁绿荧光血管造影.结果 动脉瘤颈完全夹闭107例,动脉瘤包裹1例.术中动脉瘤破裂18例.术前脑积水11例,术后改善6例,无明显改善5例.术后GOS评分:4~5分93例,2~3分11例,1分(死亡)4例.84例获随访6~12个月,无动脉瘤残留及复发.结论 显微手术是治疗后交通动脉瘤的理想方法,术中常规切开瘤体并行吲哚菁绿荧光血管造影可有效判断夹闭效果.

  1. 颞叶内侧占位病灶所致癫痫的显微外科治疗%Microsurgical treatment of epilepsy induced by the medial temporal lobe lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐德明; 徐纪文; 刘凤强; 钱佳栋; 芮奕峰


    Objective To evaluate the surgical effect of the surgical removal of both medial temporal lobe lesion and hippocampus amygdala for treating epilepsy. Methods Retrospectively analyzed 18 cases of epilepsy induced by the medial temporal lobe lesion and their hippocampal epileptic discharge was recorded by the deep electrode. Removed both medial temporal lobe lesion and hippocampus amygdala through medial temporal gyrus by modified pterional approach. The lesion had been totally removed in all of these 18 cases in naked eye. Evaluated the effect of surgery for epilepsy by Engel grading scale. Results These cases were followed up for average 2.8 years. Engel Ⅰ for 13 cases, Engel Ⅱ for 4 cases, Engel Ⅲ for 1 cases, Engel Ⅳ for none after operation. But there were lateral 1/4 quadrantanopsia in 2 cases, recent memory decreasing in 3 cases and none of death or any other complication. Conclusion Surgical removal of both medial temporal lobe lesion and hippocampus amygdala is a safe and effective method for treating epilepsy with less complication.%目的 观察病灶切除联合海马杏仁核切除术治疗颞叶内侧占位病灶所致癫痫的手术效果.方法 回顾性分析颞叶内侧占位病灶所致癫痫且术中深部电极探查出海马异常放电的18例患者,采用改良翼点切口开颅经颞中回皮层入路行病灶切除联合海马杏仁核切除治疗,18例患者均取得了占位病灶的肉眼全切,采用Engel分级量表评价癫痫控制效果.结果 所有病例均获得随访,平均2.8年.术后Engel分级Ⅰ级13例,Ⅱ级4例,Ⅲ级1例,Ⅳ级0例,2例出现对侧1/4象限盲;3例出现近期记忆功能较术前下降,无手术死亡及其他持久并发症.结论 病灶切除联合海马杏仁核切除术治疗病侧海马异常放电的颞叶内侧占位病灶所致癫痫,并发症少,安全有效.

  2. Results of microsurgical removal of 147 central skull base meningiomas%147例颅底中央区脑膜瘤的显微手术疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆; 杨军; 闫长祥; 孙炜; 张宏伟; 任铭; 孟庆虎; 于春江


    Objective To investigate the strategy and techniques of microsurgical treatment for central skull base meningioma. Methods A retrospective review was performed in 147 central skull base meningiomas, which were admitted consecutively from April 2004 to December 2007, and were removed via subfrontal approach, pterional approach, suboccipital retrosigmoid approach, subtemperal transtentorial approach, presigrnoid supra- and infratentorial approach and far lateral approach depending on the position and the extension of the tumors. Results The tumors were totally resected ( Simpson Ⅰ , Ⅱ ) in one-stage in 112 cases. The function of cranial nerves was improved in 30 cases. There were new functional deficits or deterioration of cranial nerves in 25 cases. There was no operative mortality. Contusion Despite of the challenges encountered in treating complex central skull base meniugiomas, precise preoperative evaluation, tailored surgical approaches according to tumor extension and microsurgical techniques can serve two purposes: total resection and minimal morbidity.%目的 探讨颅底中央区脑膜瘤的手术治疗策略和方法.方法 收集147例颅底中央区脑膜瘤患者,根据肿瘤部位和生长方向不同,分别选择额下入路、翼点人路、枕下乙状窦后入路、颞下经小脑幕入路、乙状窦前幕上下联合入路、远外侧入路等予以显微手术切除,对手术方法和疗效进行回顾性分析总结.结果 Simpson Ⅰ、Ⅱ级切除112例,Ⅲ级32例,Ⅳ级3例.1例术后颅内感染.30例脑神经功能较术前改善,25例脑神经功能障碍较术前加重或出现新的神经功能损害.结论 个体化的手术方案,显微手术操作能提高颅底中央区脑膜瘤的全切除率和手术疗效.

  3. Microanatomy and surgical relevance of the olfactory cistern. (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Sen; Zheng, He-Ping; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Fa-Hui; Jing, Jun-Jie; Wang, Ru-Mi


    pterional approach, or anterior interhemispheric approach. However, in the minority of cases, separation of the olfactory tract is not safe because of the anterior origin of the olfactory arteries or segmental blood supply. It is difficult to separate the olfactory nerve without any damage to the olfactory nerve, even with very skilled hands.

  4. Surgical management of large and giant intracavernous and paraclinoid aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bai-nan; SUN Zheng-hui; JIANG Jin-li; WU Chen; ZHOU Ding-biao; YU Xin-guang; LI Bao-min


    Background Due to their location,large and giant intracavernous and paraclinoid aneurysms remain a challenge for vascular neurosurgeons.We identified characteristics.surgical indications and treatment strategies of large and giant intracavernous and paraclinoid aneurysms in 36 patients.Methods The pterional approach was routinely used.The cervical internal carotid artery was exposed for proximal control of parent vessel and retrograde suction decompression.Paraclinoid aneurysms were directly clipped,intracavernous pseudoaneurysm was repaired and the intracavernous aneurysms were trapped with extracranial-intracranial bypass of saphenous vein graft.Intraoperative electroencephaIogram (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring were used to detect cerebral ischemia during the temporary occlusion of parent arteries.Microvascular Doppler ultrasonography was used to assess blood flow of the parent and branch vessels.Endoscopy was helpful particularly in dealing with internal carotid artery posterior wall aneurysms.Postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in 33 of the 36 patients.Results Thirty-two paraclinoid aneurysms were directly clipped,1 intracavernous pseudoaneurysm was repaired and the other 3 intracavernous aneurysms were trapped with revascula rization.Except for two patients who died in the early postoperative stage,34 patients' follow-up was 6-65 months (mean 10 months)and a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 4 to 5 at discharge.At the 6-month follow-up examination,Rankin Outcome Scale scores were 0 to 2 in 32 patients.EEG and SSEP monitoring changed in six patients.Twelve clips were readjusted when insufficient blood flow in parent and branch vessels was detected.Three posterior wall aneurysms were clipped.Conclusions Intracavernous aneurysms not amenable to endovascular treatment should be treated surgically and surgical treatment is the first option for paraclinoid aneurysms.The temporary parent vessel occlusion

  5. 显微手术治疗颅内动脉瘤38例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 38 cases of treatment for intracranial aneurysm by microsurgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱盛; 王东华; 黄文强; 周亮


    OBJECTIVE To explore the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms, microsurgical operation for treatment of intracra-nial aneurysm. METHODS The clinical data of 38 cases of intracranial aneurysms from July, 2007 to January, 2012 were analyzed retrospectively, the patients were confirmed by receiving the computed tomography angiography (CTA) , the transpterion-al approach was introduced in the craniotomy to protect the temporalis. RESULTS The coincidence rate of CTA and intraopera-tive diagnosis for aneurysms was 100%. 18 cases recovered with normal life and work, 10 cases recovered with mild nervous system symptoms, 5 cases recovered with Moderate nervous system symptoms, 2 cases recovered with serious neurological symptoms, and 3 case died. CONCLUSION CTA technique in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysm is accurate, reliable, with great application value; The improved pterional approach in the treatment of anterior circulation intracranial aneurysms, the operative field can be well revealed; the skilled application of microsurgical technique, is the key to successful operation.%目的 探讨颅内动脉瘤的诊断、显微手术治疗颅内动脉瘤的技巧.方法 回顾性分析显微手术治疗38例(41个)颅内动脉瘤患者,术前均进行头颅CTA检查,采取改良翼点入路显微镜下夹闭治疗动脉瘤.结果 CTA对动脉瘤诊断与术中符合率为100%;预后方面,恢复良好18例,轻度残疾10例,中度残疾5例,重度残疾2例,死亡3例.结论 CTA技术在颅内动脉瘤诊断中准确可靠,应用价值较大;改良翼点入路在处理前循环颅内动脉瘤时,手术视野能得到良好显露;熟练应用显微外科技术是手术成功的关键.

  6. [Infratentorial hemorrhage following supratentorial surgery]. (United States)

    Tomii, M; Nakajima, M; Ikeuchi, S; Ogawa, T; Abe, T


    Hemorrhage in regions remote from the site of initial intracranial operations is rare, but does occur. We report three cases of cerebellar hemorrhage that developed after supratentorial surgery, all of which had similar clinical findings and CT images. The first case was a 37-year-old man with a craniopharyngioma in the suprasellar lesion. Partial removal of the tumor was performed through frontal craniotomy and the translaminaterminals approach. A large quantity of cerebospinal fluid (CSF) was suctioned from the third ventricle during the operation, resulting in marked brain shrinkage. The second and third cases were 34- and 51-year-old women with unruptured right middle cerebral aneurysms. Clipping of the aneurysms through the pterional approach was performed in both cases. In the second case, CSF was suctioned in large quantity from the carotid and prechiasmal cistern at the operation, resulting in marked brain shrinkage. In the third case, however, only a small volume of CSF was suctioned from the carotid and prechiasmal cistern during the operation, and no marked brain shrinkage was observed. CT scan showed that the hematomas were located mainly in the subdural or the subarachnoid spaces over the cerebellar hemisphere and partially extending into the cerebellar cortex. The mechanism of cerebellar hemorrhage in these series of patients was thought to be multifactorial. The possible etiology for cerebellar hemorrhage in the three cases presented was examined, including the role of CSF suction during surgery and disturbance of venous circulation in the posterior fossa. Suction of the CSF may cause intracranial hypotension. Further reduction of intracranial pressure leads to an increased transluminal venous pressure. There was no episode of hypertension or disturbed blood coagulation during or after the operation. The preoperative angiogram also revealed no abnormality at the region of the posterior fossa. Neuroimaging of infratentorial hemorrhage after

  7. Resection of large invasive pituitary adenomas with individualized approach under neuronavigator guidance:a report of 17 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-min CHENG


    Full Text Available Objective To explore the operative method and therapeutic efficacy of surgical resection of large invasive pituitary adenomas with individualized approach under neuronavigator guidance.Methods Seventeen patients(10 males and 7 females,aged from 22 to 78 years with a mean of 39.2±9.2 years suffering from large invasive pituitary adenoma of higher than Hardy IV grade hospitalized from 2004 to 2009 were involved in the present study.All procedures were performed with the assistance of neuronavigator via individualized pterion approach,subfrontal extradural approach,trans-sphenoidal approach,or combined approach.The dispersedly invasive pituitary adenomas were resected under the guidance of neuronavigator by fully utilizing the natural anatomical cleavages.All the patients received follow-up CT scanning 3 days after operation,MRI scanning 1 to 3 months after operation,and clinical follow-up ranged from 6 to 72 months.The resection extent and outcome were assessed by imaging examination and clinical results.Results Total tumor removal was achieved in 15 cases,subtotal removal in 1 case,and extensive partial removal in 1 case.The visual impairment and headache were ameliorated in most cases,but in 1 patient they were worsened.Transient diabetes insipidus occurred in 8 cases,electrolyte disturbances were observed in 2 cases,leakage of cerebrospinal fluid appeared in 2 cases,hyposmia in 2 cases,visual impairment aggravated in 1 case,oculomotor nerve and abducens nerve paralysis on the operative side in 1 case,epidural hematoma in occipital and parietal regions in 1 case.No patient died during the follow-up period.Conclusions Individualized surgical approach designed according to the growth direction of tumor under neuronavigator guidance is helpful for the operators to identify the vessels and nerves in the operative field distinctly during the operation,thus the total removal rate is improved,safely of the operation to remove large invasive pituitary

  8. Feasibility of transcranial photoacoustic imaging for interventional guidance of endonasal surgeries (United States)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Ostrowski, Anastasia K.; Kazanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad


    Endonasal surgeries to remove pituitary tumors incur the deadly risk of carotid artery injury due to limitations with real-time visualization of blood vessels surrounded by bone. We propose to use photoacoustic imaging to overcome current limitations. Blood vessels and surrounding bone would be illuminated by an optical fiber attached to the endonasal drill, while a transducer placed on the pterional region outside of the skull acquires images. To investigate feasibility, a plastisol phantom embedded with a spherical metal target was submerged in a water tank. The target was aligned with a 1-mm optical fiber coupled to a 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. An Ultrasonix L14-5W/60 linear transducer, placed approximately 1 cm above the phantom, acquired photoacoustic and ultrasound images of the target in the presence and absence of 2- and 4-mm-thick human adult cadaveric skull specimens. Though visualized at 18 mm depth when no bone was present, the target was not detectable in ultrasound images when the 4-mm thick skull specimen was placed between the transducer and phantom. In contrast, the target was visible in photoacoustic images at depths of 17-18 mm with and without the skull specimen. To mimic a clinical scenario where cranial bone in the nasal cavity reduces optical transmission prior to drill penetration, the 2-mm-thick specimen was placed between the phantom and optical fiber, while the 4-mm specimen remained between the phantom and transducer. In this case, the target was present at depths of 15-17 mm for energies ranging 9-18 mJ. With conventional delay-and-sum beamforming, the photoacoustic signal-tonoise ratios measured 15-18 dB and the contrast measured 5-13 dB. A short-lag spatial coherence beamformer was applied to increase signal contrast by 11-27 dB with similar values for SNR at most laser energies. Results are generally promising for photoacoustic-guided endonasal surgeries.

  9. 大脑前动脉远端破裂动脉瘤的显微外科治疗%Microsurgical treatment for ruptured distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费小斌; 徐伟东; 那汉荣; 周新民; 潘鹤鸣; 高恒


    Objective To evaluate the clinical features and microsurgical strategies of ruptured distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms ( DACAA). Methods 10 consecutive cases of ruptured DACAA operated from August 2006 to July 2011 were reviewed and followed up. According to Hunt-Hess classification, 2 belonged to grade Ⅰ, 2 gradeⅡ, 5 grade ⅢI and 1 grade Ⅳ. All patients were made definite diagnosis by 64 rows helical CT angiography ( CTA) or Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA). The diameter of all DACAAs was between 3-16 mm. Pterional approach was selected for 3 cases with A2 aneurysm, 7 cases with A3 aneurysm underwent interhemispheric approach. Results 10 ruptured DACAAs were clipped through microsurgery in 10 cases. 2 cases carried multiple aneurysms. One middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm was clipped through one-stage operation, the other fusiform basal artery aneurysm didn 't receive surgical treatment. According to Glasgow Outcome Scale, all cases were favorable except one death due to severe postoperative cerebral vasospasm. Conclusion Successful clinical management of DACAA depends on appropriate surgical approach and skilled microsurgery techniques.%目的 探讨破裂大脑前动脉远端动脉瘤的临床特征和显微外科治疗方法.方法 回顾性分析2006年8月~ 2011年7月经手术夹闭的10例患者的临床资料.术前Hunt-Hess分级Ⅰ级2例,Ⅱ级2例,Ⅲ级5例,Ⅳ级1例.64排CT血管造影(CTA)或脑血管造影(DSA)确诊.瘤体直径在3~16 mm之间,位于A2段3个,采用翼点入路;A3段7个,采用经大脑纵裂间入路.结果 10例患者的动脉瘤均经显微手术成功夹闭.2例为多发动脉瘤,其中1例大脑中动脉分叉处动脉瘤一期予以夹闭,另1例基底动脉梭形动脉瘤未予治疗.9例患者治疗效果满意,无明显神经功能缺损和其他并发症,1例术后并发严重脑血管痉挛死亡.按照GOS预后评分,9例恢复良好,1例死亡.结论 采用合适的手术入路和

  10. Surgical treatment of orbital apex tumors by refined transcranial orbitotomy through superolateral approaches%改良经颅眶上外侧壁入路治疗眶尖区肿瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈菊祥; 严勇; 王潇文; 谢天浩; 徐涛; 周劲旭; 秦荣; 张晨冉; 张磊


    目的 探讨改良经颅眶上外侧壁入路治疗眶尖区肿瘤的手术指证、入路选择和显微外科手术策略.方法 回顾性分析经颅开眶治疗的眶尖区肿瘤55例,采用改良经颅眶上外侧壁开眶入路,其中以眶-翼点为主39例,联合眶-额、眶-颧、颧-翼点入路16例.术后常规复查增强MRI,并进行密切随访.结果 肿瘤全切除38例(69.1%),次全切除7例(12.7%),大部或部分切除7例(12.7%),活检3例(5.5%).术后视功能良好45例(81.8%),存在动眼神经和视神经损伤者9例(16.4%),偏瘫l例(1.8%).结论 经颅眶上外侧壁开眶结合显微技巧可较好治疗眶尖区肿瘤;合适的角度开眶可最大限度切除眶尖区肿瘤和保护神经功能,减少不必要的创伤.%Objective To investigate the indications,approaches,and essentials of cranio-orbital surgeries for orbital tumors.Methods Fifty-five orbital tumors treated by refined transcranial orbitotomy through superolateral approaches,from 2003 to 2011,were reviewed.Thirty-nine tumors were excised with orbitopterional approaches,while 16 were excised with orbitofrontal approaches,orbitozygomatic approaches,or zygomatic-pterional approaches.Results Of the 55 orbital tumors,38 (69.1%) were totally resected,7 (12.7%) were subtotally resected,and 7 (12.7%) were partly resected.The other 3 (5.5%)took biopsies.The optic functions improved or retained in 45 (81.8%) patients.Nine (16.4%) patients suffered from eye-moving disfunctions or visual-acuity declines,and 1 (1.8%) patient suffered from hemiparalysis.Conclusions Tumors in the posterior and apex part of the orbit,or tumors extended from the orbit to the cranial,can be well treated through transcranial approaches.Appropriate methods may help to bring maximum convenience to exposure and excision of the lesions,and to conserve the functions.Unnecessary injuries could be avoided as well.

  11. 颅咽管瘤的显微手术治疗及疗效评估%Microneurosurgical treatment and therapeutic efficacy assessment of craniopharyngioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储呈春; 李卫东; 孙青芳; 李云峰; 沈建康; 卞留贯


    Objective To explore the surgical approach and outcome of craniopharyngioma by microsurgery. Methods Clinical data of 43 patients with craniopharyngioma were analyzed retrospectively. The surgical approach included transsphenoidal approach in 7 cases, pterional approach in 32, and laminal terminal approach through frontobasal interhemispheric fissure in 2 and anterior transcallosal approach in 2. The neurological, visual and pituitary functions were assessed before and after the operation. Results Total tumor removal was achieved in 32 cases (74%), subtotal removal in 9 (21%) and partial removal in 2 (5%). Electrolyte disturbance occurred in 31 cases postoperatively, bilateral subdural effusion in 1 and epidural hematoma in 1, and 2 patients died. The patients were followed up for mean period of 28 months, ranged from 4 to 90 months. Tumor recurrence was found in 3 cases, including reoperation in 2 and γ-knife treatment in 1 case. The pituitary dysfunction significantly increased postoperatively (P < 0.05), and no significant changes in neurological and visual function after treatment. Conclusions The choice of surgical approach should base on the location and growth pattern of craniopharyngioma and the experience of surgeon. The pituitary function is apt to be impaired during the operation.%目的 探讨显微手术治疗颅咽管瘤的手术入路及手术疗效.方法 回顾性分析43例颅咽管瘤病人的临床资料,采用经鼻蝶入路7例,翼点入路32例,额底经纵裂终板入路2例,经胼胝体前部入路2例.评估病人手术前后神经功能、垂体功能、视功能评分.结果 肿瘤全切除32例(74%),次全切除9例(21%),部分切除2例(5%).术后发生电解质紊乱31例,双侧硬脑膜下积液1例,继发颅内硬脑膜外血肿1例,死亡2例.随访4~90个月,平均28个月.肿瘤复发3例,其中再次手术治疗2例,γ-刀治疗1例.手术前后神经功能、视功能变化不明显,垂体功能

  12. Operative treatment fororbitocranial tumors.%眶颅沟通性肿瘤的手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光辉; 张虹; 吴宇平; 吕扬成; 刘劲松; 马杰科; 朱江; 李成


    目的 探讨眶颅沟通性肿瘤临床治疗方法.方法 18例眶颅沟通瘤均经手术和病理证实,视神经胶质瘤7例,泪腺腺样囊性癌4例,蝶骨嵴脑膜瘤3例,海绵状血管瘤2例,泪腺腺瘤1例,神经鞘瘤1例,10例经额眶联合径路手术,5例经翼点入路手术,3例行额颞眶颧入路手术.7例恶性肿瘤患者接受术前术后放疗,术前剂量45 Gy,术后剂量为50~69Gy,5例进行4~6个周期的化疗,术前化疗2例,2周期,术后化疗3例,2~4周期.结果 全部患者均顺利完成手术,无严重并发症发生及手术死亡患者,肿瘤全切14例,次全切除3例,部分切除1例;有4例创口局部感染,清创缝合1~2次后创口延迟愈合.未行眶内容物剜除术者,视力有不同程度的改善.7例良性肿瘤术后随访至今仍存活.11例恶性肿瘤,2例术后1年死于肿瘤转移,1例术后3年失访,其余8例随访至今仍存活.结论 经翼点、额眶、额颞眶颧入路3种径路是处理眶颅沟通性肿瘤理想手术方法.%Objective To discuss the methods of operative treatment for orbitocranial tumor. Methods In 18 patients, 10 cases with orbitocranial tumors were operated by fronto-orbital approach, 8 cases by pterional approach,and 3 cases by fronto-orbi-to-zygomatico-temporal approach. Results 14 cases with orbitocranial tumors were totally removed; 3case was subtotally removed and 1 case was partially removed. All patients' symptoms and signs were improved. Conclusion The three mentioned operative approaches can offer more advantages in surgical treatment for orbitocranial tumors,the operative skills will obtain the satisfactory effect.

  13. 侵袭性脑膜瘤的诊断和治疗%Diagnosis and treatment of aggressive meningiomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷尚炯; 刘洪泉; 王洪生


    Objective To explore clinical feature and therapeutic experiences of aggressive meningiomas.Methods The clinical dada of 52 patients with aggressive meningiomas who received the operation,were analyzed retrospectively.Of 52 cases,44 located in cerebral convexity, parasagital ,parafalx and lateral ventricle,6 located in skull-base and 2 located in infratentorial space.Craniotomy of supratentorial tumors was performed through supratentorial horseshoe incision. Craniotomy of infratentorial tumors was performed through paramedian incision.Tumors of skull-base was performed through pterion approach,retrosigmoid approach and subfrontal approach respectively. Results 75 operations were carried out for 52 patients.Of them,only one operation for 34 patients, second operation for 14 patients,third operation for 3 patients,fourth operation for 1 patient.24 patients underwent additional adjuvant general radiotherapy,4 patients underwent conformal intensity-modulated radiotherapy and 11 patients underwent Gamma-knife radiotherapy.Simpson grade I resection was achieved for 30 patients,Simpson grade Ⅱ resection for 10 patients,Simpson grade Ⅲresection for 11 patients,and Simpson grade Ⅳ resection for 1 patients.37 patients were followed up from one month to 11 years.Recurrences occurred for all 7 Grade Ⅲ meningioma patients.Of 30 followed-up Grade Ⅱ meningioma patients,no recurrences occurred for 16 patients,recurrences occurred for 14 patients.Conclusions Aggressive meningioma were rare intracranial tumor.Its prognosis was poor.Surgical resection followed by radiotherapy were key means to prolong survival time of patients.%目的:探讨侵袭性脑膜瘤的临床特点和治疗方法。方法对手术治疗的52例侵袭性脑膜瘤患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。肿瘤位于幕上凸面、镰窦旁、侧脑室内共44例,颅底6例,幕下2例。幕上肿瘤主要采用马蹄形瓣状开颅,幕下采用幕下旁正中切口。颅底肿瘤分别采


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 冯继; 刘银凤; 杨大伟; 李玉斌; 王永恒


    superficial temporal artery can be acted as the sign of interfascial pterional approach;Integrity of blood vessels and nerves of the muscle bone flap can lower the risk of temporal muscleatrophyandtemporalfossacollapse.

  15. Technique analysis of microsurgical treatment of large and huge sphenoid wing meningiomas%显微手术切除蝶骨嵴大型脑膜瘤手术要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鹏; 王钰; 翁潮弟; 田立桩; 武弋; 周杰


    Objective To investigate and evaluate the technique of microsurgery,for the treatment of the large and huge meningiomas of the sphenoid wing. Methods Fifty-eight patients were finally diagnosed by CT and/or MR in this series. The sphenoid wing meningiomas were from 4 cm×3.5 cm×3.5 cm to 11 cm×10 cm×8 cm in volume,and were located at outside sphenoid wing in 28 and at the inner in 30,and were spherical in 53 and en plaque in 5.The microsurgery for resection of the tumors was done through a cranio-orbito-zygomatic or craniozygomatic approach in 10, and through a modified pterional approach in 48.Results Total resection was achieved in 52.No death occurred in the group.Follow-up of 6 months to 9.5 years showed obvious nervous function impmvement in 49 and regrowth of the tumor in 8. Conclusions Based on the volume and development of the tumor,it is very imprtant for improving merapeutic Outcome to choose appropriate operative approach, get rid of the tumor piece by piece,and protect the nerves and vessels intraoperatively.%目的 探讨显微手术切除蝶骨嵴大型和巨大型脑膜瘤的手术要点.方法 本组58例脑膜瘤患者经CT或MR检查确诊,其中采用颅眶颧或颅颧入路10例,采用改良翼点入路48例,均行显微手术切除肿瘤,3例发生颅内外沟通者于肿瘤切除后"三明治"法行颅底重建,3例患者的残余瘤体行X-刀治疗.结果 本组肿瘤全切52例,大部切除6例,无死亡病例.术后神经功能明显改善者49例.随访6月~9.5年,8例有不同程度复发.结论 根据肿瘤的生长方向选择恰当手术入路,采用显微手术分块切除肿瘤,强调术中注意对重要神经和血管进行保护,这些要点是提高手术效果的重要措施.

  16. Modelling of the Blood Plasma Species of Biguanide Derivatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    relationship (LFER) plots to estimate formation constants of an unknown metal ion,11 .... average number of protons per ligand) approaches 2 (pH<2), which indicate formation ..... pair electrons that can direct to the transition metals, indicating.

  17. Isolation of a 60 kDa protein with in vitro anticancer activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 4, 2007 ... activity against human cancer cell lines from the purple fluid of the Persian Gulf sea .... cells were grown in DMEM (GIBCO) cell culture medium containing. 10% fetal bovine .... Animal cell culture: A practical approach . 2nd ed.

  18. Voice Biometrics for Information Assurance Applications (United States)


    verification capability). Approach #2: The individual speaker selects a test phrase (our approach) — In the NRL voice biomet - rics system, the...templates must be issued to all users. Approach #2: Unprocessed speech waveforms (our approach) — If the fingerprint-matching biomet - rics method that the amount of data to be stored is larger compared to the previous approach. The minimum amount of information we need to perform voice biomet

  19. New insights into co-digestion of activated sludge and food waste: Biogas versus biofertilizer. (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Yu


    This study explored two holistic approaches for co-digestion of activated sludge and food waste. In Approach 1, mixed activated sludge and food waste were first hydrolyzed with fungal mash, and produced hydrolysate without separation was directly subject to anaerobic digestion. In Approach 2, solid generated after hydrolysis of food waste by fungal mash was directly converted to biofertilizer, while separated liquid with high soluble COD concentration was further co-digested with activated sludge for biomethane production. Although the potential energy produced from Approach 1 was about 1.8-time higher than that from Approach 2, the total economic revenue generated from Approach 2 was about 1.9-fold of that from Approach 1 due to high market value of biofertilizer. It is expected that this study may lead to a paradigm shift in biosolid management towards environmental and economic sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical experience of 179 cases with craniopharyngiomas%颅咽管瘤179例手术治疗经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石祥恩; 张永力; 吴斌


    downward to the intral sella through the foramen of sellar septum. As the tumor of the inferior type, the pterional approaches were performed in 150 patients and the subfrontal approach in 16 patients. As the superior type, transcallosum into the anterior third ventricle part were undergone in 13 cases. Great care was made to preservie the perforating arteries to the neural structures of the third ventricular floor for the tumor of the inferior type. Avoidance of injury was required to the neural structures of the third ventricular floor when used by the transcallosum approach to the anterior part of the third ventricular floor for the tumor of the superior floor.Results: Total, subtotal and partial removal of the tumor was achieved in 161, 12 and 6 patients, respectively. Four (2.2%) deaths occurred at early postoperative stage. All patients were followed-up from 3 months to 5 years (mean, 1.5 years), with 154 (88%) patients regained normal life, 14 (8%) had their self-life and the 7 (4%) need assist life. Seven (3.9%) patients experienced their tumor recurrence on MR imaging by following-up. Of them, 4 patients were followed up their tumor recurrence within half-year and 3 patients within one year. Five patients with recurrent tumor were reoperated on and the other 2 patients were undergone the external radiation of the tumor and γ-knife of the tumor respectively. Conclusion: Craniopharyngiomas can be treated surgically with a good result. It is the key to avoid injury of the hypothalamic structures and preserve the perforating arteries to hypothalamus to achieve good surgical results, while attempt was made to completely remove the tumor.

  1. Neuronal apoptosis and neurofilament protein expression in the lateral geniculate body of cats following acute optic nerve injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    BACKGROUND: The visual pathway have 6 parts, involving optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate body, optic radiation and cortical striatum area. Corresponding changes may be found in these 6 parts following optic nerve injury. At present, studies mainly focus on optic nerve and retina, but studies on lateral geniculate body are few.OBJECTIVE: To prepare models of acute optic nerve injury for observing the changes of neurons in lateral geniculate body, expression of neurofilament protein at different time after injury and cell apoptosis under the optical microscope, and for investigating the changes of neurons in lateral geniculate body following acute optic nerve injury.DESIGN: Completely randomized grouping design, controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ji'nan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Twenty-eight adult healthy cats of either gender and common grade, weighing from 2.0 to 3.5 kg, were provided by the Animal Experimental Center of Fudan University. The involved cats were divided into 2 groups according to table of random digit: normal control group (n =3) and model group (n =25). Injury 6 hours, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days five time points were set in model group for later observation, 5 cats at each time point. TUNEL kit (Bohringer-Mannheim company)and NF200& Mr 68 000 mouse monoclonal antibody (NeoMarkers Company) were used in this experiment.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ji'nan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA between June 2004 and June 2005. ① The cats of model group were developed into cat models of acute intracranial optic nerve injury as follows: The anesthetized cats were placed in lateral position. By imitating operation to human, pterion approach was used. An incision was made at the joint line between outer canthus and tragus, and deepened along cranial base until white optic nerve via optic nerve pore

  2. Microsurgical removal of olfactory groove meningiomas%嗅沟脑膜瘤的显微外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁日生; 周良辅; 毛颖; 张荣; 杨卫忠


    目的 探讨进一步提高嗅沟脑膜瘤治疗效果的有效方法.方法 应用显微神经外科技术治疗嗅沟脑膜瘤67例,其中首次发病57例,复发8例,二次复发2例.术中采用改良Derome入路12例,双侧额底入路28例,改良翼点入路21例,单侧额底入路6例.肿瘤切除包括附着硬膜、肿瘤基底增生破坏的骨质以及受累的副鼻窦黏膜,最后对缺损颅底做修补重建.结果 按照脑膜瘤切除的Simpson分级标准,肿瘤获Simpson Ⅰ类切除59例,Ⅱ类切除7例,Ⅳ类切除1例.术后并发脑脊液漏和颅内感染仅1例,经处理治愈.术后1个月内死亡2例(2.9%),死因分别为心衰和下丘脑损伤.47例(72.3%)患者随访1~10年,平均64个月.2例高龄患者死亡,其中1例死于肺炎,1例死因不详.45例生存患者中,复发3例,为Ⅱ类或Ⅳ类切除者,Ⅰ类切除者均无复发.除3例患者仍存在视力下降和2例患者一侧肢体轻瘫外,其余患者恢复良好,已恢复工作或能生活自理.结论 全切除肿瘤(Simpson Ⅰ类)应是嗅沟脑膜瘤的手术目的,特别是新发的病例.选择适当的手术入路是全切除肿瘤的根本保证.采用适当的带血管蒂材料修补、重建前颅底是手术治疗嗅沟脑膜瘤至关重要和必须做到的.%Objective To explore an effective method for further improving the surgical results of treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas.Methods Sixty seven cases of olfactory groove meningiomas were treated by microneurosurgery, among which fifty seven were de novo cases, eight were recurrent tumors and the other two re-recurrent cases.Modified Derome approach was used in 12 cases, bilateral subfrontal approach in 28 cases, modified pterional approach in 21 cases and unilateral subfrontal approach in six cases.Tumors were resected microsurgically with radical removal of invaded dura, bone, and paranasal sinus mucosa.Reconstruction was performed in patients with skull base defect.Results Simpson grade

  3. The application and mechanism analysis of postoperative intracranial pressure monitoring in giant meningioma (clinical analysis of 7 cases)%巨大脑膜瘤术后颅内压监测七例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈罡; 翟伟伟; 虞正权


    目的 观察巨大型脑膜瘤切除术后颅内压(ICP)的变化规律,分析并探讨其变化规律的原因.方法 回顾性分析苏州大学附属第一医院于2013年10月至2014年7月收治并手术治疗的7例颅内巨大型脑膜瘤患者的临床资料、手术方式、ICP监测数据.肿瘤分别位于额部(1例),嗅沟(1例),蝶骨嵴(2例),大脑镰旁(1例),矢状窦(1例),岩斜区(1例).手术方式分别采用扩大翼点入路,额下入路,纵裂入路,颞下入路切除肿瘤.ICP监测探头置于硬脑膜下,平均监测时间约9d.所有患者术后均常规应用20%甘露醇脱水.结果 7例肿瘤均镜下全切(Simpson Ⅰ、Ⅱ级),患者术后第3天均出现ICP升高,第4天达到高峰,第5~7天逐渐回到正常水平.其中1例患者在术后第3天意识恶化,ICP持续上升,CT提示严重脑水肿,急诊行去骨瓣减压和气管切开术.所有患者恢复良好,仅有1例患者术后出现脑脊液鼻漏,保守治疗后明显改善.结论 ICP监测在巨大脑膜瘤切除术后应用作用显著,根据其变化趋势,不仅可以分析术后ICP波动的原因,同时结合充分的术前检查、合理的手术入路、细致的术后管理,为患者术后脑功能的改善提供了帮助.%Objective To investigate varying patterns of intracranial pressure (ICP) after giant meningioma resection and analyze the causes of the variation of ICP in different postoperative phases.Methods Clinical data,surgical approachs and the ICP monitoring data of 7 patients with giant meningioma in different positions who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from October 2013 to July 2014 and received microsurgical resection via different approachs were analysed retrospectively.The tunour locations were in convexity (n =1),olfactory groove (n =1),sphenoidal ridge (n =2),parasagittal(n =1),falx (n =1),petroclival (n =1) and resected via longitudinal fissure approach,subfrontal approach,extensive pterional

  4. Treatment of orbitocranial penetrating injuries caused by non-firearm foreign bodies: a report of 20 cases%非火器类异物致眶颅贯通伤的救治(附20例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢香琼; 吴惺; 袁强; 吴思荣; 虞剑; 孙一睿; 杜倬婴; 毛颖; 周良辅


    Objective To provide data support and experiences for the management of orbitocranial penetrating injuries by summarizing 20 patients with orbitocranial penetrating injury.Methods Twenty patients with orbitocranial penetrating injury caused by non-firearm foreign bodies admitted to the Nerve Trauma Center,Huashan Hospital,Fudan University from January 2004 to January 2014 were analyzed retrospectively.The clinical data of the patients included age,sex,Glasgow coma scale (GCS) on admission,time from injury to surgery,foreign body type,surgical approach,type of injury and scope,hospitalization time and visual acuity,as well as major complications affecting prognosis.They were followed up from 3 months to 2 years.The prognosis of patients was assessed by the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS).Results There are 18 males and 2 females,their age ranged from 9 to 66 years old (mean 31.7 years).GCS was 15 ~ 14 in 19 patients(95%),12 in 1 patients (5%).All the injuries were caused by accidents,11 of them were metallic foreign bodies,4 were wooden foreign bodies,3 were bamboo products,and 2 were plastic foreign bodies.CT findings revealed that the orbital entrances of 8 foreign bodies were located at the inner canthi,8 were located at the lower eyelids,2 were located at outer canthi,and 2 were located at the upper eyelids.Of the 20 patients,10 foreign bodies entered from superior orbital fissure into skull.The 8 intracranial entries were located at the great wing of sphenoid,and 2 were located at anterior clinoid process.Five patients were operated via bifrontal transbasal approach and 15 were operated via pterional approach.Five patients complicated with intracranial infection and they eventually recovered and discharged.The GOS grade Ⅴ was in 18 cases and grade Ⅳwas in 2 cases.Conclusions The early detection of intracranial injury and correct surgical treatment will significantly improve the prognosis of the patients with non-firearm orbitocranial penetrating injuries

  5. On-farm quantification of sustainability indicators: an application to egg production sytems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.


    1. On-farm quantification of sustainability indicators (SI) is an effective way to make sustainable development measurable. The egg production sector was used as a case study to illustrate this approach. 2. The objective was to select SI for economic, ecological and societal issues, and to analyse t

  6. Methods for evaluating information sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger


    The article briefly presents and discusses 12 different approaches to the evaluation of information sources (for example a Wikipedia entry or a journal article): (1) the checklist approach; (2) classical peer review; (3) modified peer review; (4) evaluation based on examining the coverage...

  7. Measuring Boston’s Security Investment: Methods and Tools to Assess Homeland Security Initiatives. Policy Analysis Exercise (United States)


    recommendations for MOEP as they move forward in developing a performance management system: (1) Implement a Balanced Scorecard approach; (2) Focus on...performance management systems, particularly those measuring preparedness and security -- we determined that the Balanced Scorecard is the most practical, applicable, and sustainable solution for MOEP.

  8. A proposed model for construction project management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to workers to provide information on goals, strategies, and policies. (Campbell, 2011: ... ging, controlling, planning, and leading are deli vered”. Baker. ([n.d.]: 5) .... team members, and for ensuring a safe working environment, basic personal ...... Communication: A hands-on approach. 2nd edition. ... marketing. Sandown: ...

  9. Language Management Theory as One Approach in Language Policy and Planning (United States)

    Nekvapil, Jirí


    Language Policy and Planning is currently a significantly diversified research area and thus it is not easy to find common denominators that help to define basic approaches within it. Richard B. Baldauf attempted to do so by differentiating between four basic approaches: (1) the classical approach, (2) the language management approach (Language…

  10. Simultaneous declines in summer survival of three shorebird species signals a flyway at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Lok, Tamar; Chen, Ying; Hassell, Chris J.; Yang, Hong-yan; Boyle, Adrian; Slaymaker, Matt; Chan, Ying-chi; Melville, David S.; Zhang, Zheng-wang; Ma, Zhijun


    1. There is increasing concern about the world’s animal migrations. With many land-use and climatological changes occurring simultaneously, pinning down the causes of large-scale conservation problems requires sophisticated and data-intensive approaches. 2. Declining shorebird numbers along the East

  11. Simultaneous declines in summer survival of three shorebird species signals a flyway at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T,; Lok, T,; Chen, Y.; Hassell, C.J.; Yang, H.-Y.; Boyle, A.; Slaymaker, M.; Chan, Y.-C; Melville, D.S.; Zhang, Z.W.; Ma, Z.


    There is increasing concern about the world’s animal migrations. With many land-use andclimatological changes occurring simultaneously, pinning down the causes of large-scale conservationproblems requires sophisticated and data-intensive approaches.2. Declining shorebird numbers along the East Asian

  12. Performance Appraisal in Academic and Research Libraries. (United States)

    Yarbrough, Larry N.

    There is a need for increased efficiency and effectiveness in the employment of the library's human resources. Performance appraisal can serve as a basis for salary and advancement decisions, career development, and performance improvement. Three criteria for performance appraisal can be distinguished: (1) the trait approach, (2) the job…

  13. Distributed Computing in Universities and Colleges. (United States)

    Sircar, Sumit


    Analyzes the implications of distributed computing in institutions of higher education. Discusses (1) the extent to which the quality of computing might be enhanced by adopting a distributed computing approach, (2) variations in distributed systems design and the cost of adoption, and (3) administration of distributed systems. (Author/CMV)

  14. Three Aspects of PLATO Use at Chanute AFB: CBE Production Techniques, Computer-Aided Management, Formative Development of CBE Lessons. (United States)

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    This report describes various aspects of lesson production and use of the PLATO system at Chanute Air Force Base. The first chapter considers four major factors influencing lesson production: (1) implementation of the "lean approach," (2) the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) role in lesson production, (3) the transfer of…

  15. 3-way Anova Interactions: Deconstructed


    Phil Ender


    Three approaches to understanding 3-way anova interactions will be presented: 1) a conceptual approach, 2) an anova approach and 3) a regression approach using dummy coding. The three approaches are illustrated through the use of a synthetic dataset with a significant 3-way interaction.

  16. Work and Rights. (United States)

    Sen, Amartya


    Examines four conceptual features of decent work essential to its achievement in a context of globalization: (1) an inclusive approach, (2) rights-based thinking, (3) placing work within a broad economic, political, and social context, and (4) extension of thinking from international to truly global. Contains 17 references. (JOW)

  17. Issues and Trends in Secondary Guidance and Counseling Programs (United States)

    Pietrofesa, John J.


    Utilization of counseling groups leads to (1) variety of approaches, (2) more directive counseling, (3) counselees with varied backgrounds, (4) growth of groups for interracial harmony. Changes in counselor role by use of: (1) paraprofessionals, (2) guidance workers, (3) cybernetics, (4) developmental approach in an existential framework. (EK)

  18. 76 FR 30036 - Importation of Fresh Pitaya Fruit From Central America Into the Continental United States (United States)


    ... and auditing implementation of the systems approach. (2) The NPPO of the exporting country must... subject to a systems approach that would include requirements for monitoring and oversight, establishment... Information: Additional information about APHIS and its programs is available on the Internet at...

  19. Basic concepts of medical genetics, pathogenetics, Part 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem


    Oct 23, 2012 ... Sickle cell anemia is another example of a drastic genetic disease resulting from a single point mutation of the beta glo- bin gene. Point mutations ..... 1- Which of the following diagnostic techniques is of no value in the diagnosis of neural ... [3] Pierce Benjamin A. Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. 2nd ed.

  20. New techniques for positron emission tomography in the study of human neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D.E.


    This progress report describes accomplishments of four programs. The four programs are entitled (1) Faster,simpler processing of positron-computing precursors: New physicochemical approaches, (2) Novel solid phase reagents and methods to improve radiosynthesis and isotope production, (3) Quantitative evaluation of the extraction of information from PET images, and (4) Optimization of tracer kinetic methods for radioligand studies in PET.

  1. New techniques for positron emission tomography in the study of human neurological disorders. Progress report, June 1990--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D.E.


    This progress report describes accomplishments of four programs. The four programs are entitled (1) Faster,simpler processing of positron-computing precursors: New physicochemical approaches, (2) Novel solid phase reagents and methods to improve radiosynthesis and isotope production, (3) Quantitative evaluation of the extraction of information from PET images, and (4) Optimization of tracer kinetic methods for radioligand studies in PET.

  2. STECH,4(2), S/NO 10, MAY, 2015

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 10, 2015 ... world class institutions like NASA during the latter's space activities. ..... Engineering & Math) in so doing increasing the overall interest in Space research and ... Open source mapping to trace affected areas in a typhoon so that relief efforts can be .... Remote sensing: the image chain approach (2nd ed.).

  3. Joint Services Electronics Program. (United States)


    Grebogi , et al. 3 that these fractal dimensions imply a sensitivity to initial conditions (and hence noise) which diverges as the dimension approaches 2...appear. 2. Qing Hu, J. U. Free, M. Iansiti, 0. Liengme, and M. Tinkham, Proc. 1984 Appl. Supercond. Conf., to appear. 3. C. Grebogi , S.W. McDonald, E

  4. Using Value-Focused Thinking to Evaluate the Practicality of Ground-Source Heat Pumps at Military Installations (United States)


    refrigerant to change from a cold, low-pressure liquid to a hot, low-pressure vapor and the process repeats ( Cengel and Boles, 1994). Condenser Evaporator... Cengel , Yunus and Michael Boles. Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach (2nd edition). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994. Clinton, William J

  5. In View of Current and Future Fiscal Restraints and the Need for Efficiency and Joint Operations, What Is the Army’s Primary Role in Defense Support to Civil Authorities During Homeland Disaster and Emergency Events (United States)


    W. Creswell , in the second edition of Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design. The researcher used one approach during the study. This approach make the process more efficient. 98John W. Creswell , Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches, 2nd ed (Thousand...

  6. Multiple-scale prediction of forest loss risk across Borneo (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Ewan A. Macdonald; Erin L. Landguth; Yadvinder Malhi; David W. Macdonald


    Context: The forests of Borneo have among the highest biodiversity and also the highest forest loss rates on the planet. Objectives: Our objectives were to: (1) compare multiple modelling approaches, (2) evaluate the utility of landscape composition and configuration as predictors, (3) assess the influence of the ratio of forest loss and persistence points in the...

  7. Ethnic and Race Relations in Austin, Texas. Policy Research Project Report, Number 137. (United States)

    Texas Univ., Austin. Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs.

    This report, conducted by faculty and students in the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas, describes a survey on and interviews regarding ethnic and race relations among Austin, Texas residents and community leaders. Its six chapters include (1) "Introduction" (the research approach); (2) "Ethnic…

  8. 76 FR 55237 - Use of Derivatives by Investment Companies Under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (United States)


    ..., diversification, exposure to certain securities-related issuers, portfolio concentration, valuation, and related... securities-related issuers; The application of the Act's provisions concerning portfolio diversification and... Regulation of Portfolio Leverage 1. The Current Asset Segregation Approach 2. Other Approaches C. Request for...

  9. The treatment of insomnia through mass media, the results of a televised behavioural training programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klip, EC


    An important trend in behavioural medicine is a psyche-educational approach to health problems. A training course aimed at the treatment of sleep disorders has been developed using the following basic principles: (1) a symptomatic approach, (2) emphasis on information on sleep and sleep disorders,

  10. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies. (United States)

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  11. Documenting Community Engagement Practices and Outcomes: Insights from Recipients of the 2010 Carnegie Community Engagement Classification (United States)

    Noel, Jana; Earwicker, David P.


    This study was performed to document the strategies and methods used by successful applicants for the 2010 Carnegie Community Engagement Classification and to document the cultural shifts connected with the application process and receipt of the Classification. Four major findings emerged: (1) Applicants benefited from a team approach; (2)…

  12. 'Acquisition Disappears in Adultery': Interaction in the Translation Class. (United States)

    Edge, Julian


    Describes a classroom procedure which: (1) applies to translation classes lessons learned from the communicative approach , (2) motivates students to produce learning materials for each other, (3) makes translation the topic of peer discussion, and (4) facilitates discussion of accuracy and appropriateness in natural and target languages. (SED)

  13. APOL1 Oligomerization as the Key Mediator of Kidney Disease in African Americans (United States)


    in in vitro systems, cells, model organisms, and human kidney biopsy specimens using molecular biology, biochemistry , protein chemistry, and...biology, biochemistry , protein chemistry, and microscopy-based approaches. 2. Keywords: Kidney, ESRD, APOL1, African American 3. Accomplishments...with human kidney disease and also validate the use of these animal models for in vivo testing of new therapies. Accomplishments/Activities

  14. Outreach and Engagement Education for Graduate Students in Natural Resources: Developing a Course to Enrich a Graduate Outreach Requirement (United States)

    Latimore, Jo A.; Dreelin, Erin A.; Burroughs, Jordan Pusateri


    Scientists need to engage stakeholders in natural resource management; however, few graduate programs prepare students to conduct outreach and engagement. Given this need, the authors' goals were to (1) create a one-credit course that introduced outreach and engagement practices and participatory approaches, (2) improve the quality of graduate…

  15. The treatment of insomnia through mass media, the results of a televised behavioural training programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klip, EC


    An important trend in behavioural medicine is a psyche-educational approach to health problems. A training course aimed at the treatment of sleep disorders has been developed using the following basic principles: (1) a symptomatic approach, (2) emphasis on information on sleep and sleep disorders, (

  16. Policies on Special Needs Education: Competing Strategies and Discourses (United States)

    Tisdall, E. Kay M.; Riddell, Sheila


    This paper critically examines the array of policy approaches that have been adopted in the field of special needs education in Scotland over recent years. These are characterized in the following ways: (1) supporting or changing the child--an individualized approach; (2) making schools inclusive for all--a systems approach; (3) challenging the…

  17. New producers and new 11-, 19-, and 20-residue peptaibiotics: suzukacillins B and C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roehrich, C. R.; Iversen, Anita; Degenkolb, T.


    In the course of a project aimed to assess the significance of antibiotics for the producing organism(s) in the natural habitat, we screened a specimen of the fungicolous fungus Hypocrea phellinicola growing on its natural host Phellinus ferruginosus1. Using a peptaibiomics approach2,3, we detect...

  18. Language Management Theory as One Approach in Language Policy and Planning (United States)

    Nekvapil, Jirí


    Language Policy and Planning is currently a significantly diversified research area and thus it is not easy to find common denominators that help to define basic approaches within it. Richard B. Baldauf attempted to do so by differentiating between four basic approaches: (1) the classical approach, (2) the language management approach (Language…

  19. Screening the natural habitat: New peptaibiotics from specimens and pure cultures of the fungicolous fungus Hypocrea pulvinata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roehrich, C. R.; Iversen, Anita; Degenkolb, T.


    In order to further investigate the significance of antibiotics for the producing organism(s) in the natural habitat, we screened specimens of the fungicolous fungus Hypocrea pulvinata growing on its natural hosts Piptoporus betulinus and Fomitopsis pinicola1. Using a peptaibiomics approach2, we...

  20. Development of an Interpretive Structural Model and Strategies for Implementation Based on a Descriptive and Prescriptive Analysis of Resources for Environmental Education/Studies. A Sourcebook for the Design of a Regional Environmental Learning System, Volume IV: Conducting Collective Inquiry. (United States)

    Warfield, John N.

    The steps, approaches, and tools of the collective inquiry process posited by a Regional Environmental Learning System is the subject of this volume. Approaches discussed include: (1) charette approach, (2) AT&T/Battelle approach, and (3) the Washington State approach. Tools for collective inquiry are described and field tests are discussed.…

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 18, 2011 ... Total RNA was isolated from frozen lung tissue using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, ... of two discrete electropherogram peaks corresponding to the 28S and 18S rRNA at a ratio approaching 2:1. cDNA microarray.

  2. Human-Robot Teams Informed by Human Performance Moderator Functions (United States)


    42]). Multiagent concepts [14] are well-suited for developing adaptive systems. Russell and Norvig [62] define agents as able to perceive and act...62. Russell, S.J., and Norvig , P. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 2nd ed. Prentice Hall (2002) 63. Salvucci, D.D. Predicting the

  3. Improving Human Effectiveness Through Embedded Virtual Simulation (Amelioration de l’efficacite humaine grace a la simulation virtuelle integree) (United States)


    environment and direct their activity towards achieving goals (Russell & Norvig , 2003). In computer-based tutors, learning agents observe and act upon... Norvig , P. (2003). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-790395-2

  4. Balancing Exploration and Exploitation in Agent Learning (United States)


    combination of both reinforcement learning methods are used (Russell & Norvig , 2003). The method used relies on the calculation of a point utility...Russel, S., & Norvig , P. (2003). Artificial intelligence: A modern approach (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Prentice Hall. Sutton, R., & Barto, A

  5. The Formation of Conservation-Based Behaviour of Mechanical Engineering Students through Contextual Learning Approach (United States)

    Sudarman; Djuniadi; Sutopo, Yeri


    This study was aimed to figure out: (1) the implementation of contextual learning approaches; (2) the learning outcome of conservation education using contextual approach on the internship program preparation class; (3) the conservation-based behaviour of the internship program participants; (4) the contribution of conservation education results…

  6. Comparative economic performance and carbon footprint of two farming models for producing atlantic salmon (salmo salar): Land-based closed containment system in freshwater and open pen in seawater (United States)

    Ocean net pen production of Atlantic salmon is approaching 2 million metric tons (MT) annually and has proven to be cost- and energy- efficient. Recently, with technology improvements, freshwater aquaculture of Atlantic salmon from eggs to harvestable size of 4 -5 kg in land-based closed containmen...

  7. Analysis of proteins using DIGE and MALDI mass spectrometry (United States)

    In this work the sensitivity of the quantitative proteomics approach 2D-DIGE/MS (twoDimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis / Mass Spectrometry) was tested by detecting decreasing amounts of a specific protein at the low picomole and sub-picomole range. Sensitivity of the 2D-D...

  8. Aspects of heavy-ion collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolschin, G. [Institut für Theoretische Physik der Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    Three aspects of relativistic heavy-ion collisions are considered in this article: (1) Stopping and baryon transport in a QCD-based approach, (2) charged-hadron production in a nonequilibrium-statistical relativistic diffusion model (RDM), and (3) quarkonia suppression and in particular, Υ suppression in PbPb at the current LHC energy of √(s{sub NN}) = 2.76TeV.

  9. University Capstone Project: Enhanced Initiation Techniques for Thermochemical Energy Conversion (United States)


    Nitrogen in Spark-Plug Assisted Atmospheric -pressure Microwave Discharges by Rotational Raman Scattering.” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. al. Effects of Corona , Spark and Surface Discharges on Ignition Delay and Deflagration-to-Detonation Times in Pulsed Detonation Engines. AIAA...non-equilibrium plasma ignition systems using microwave and nano-second repetitive discharge approaches, 2) a platform to characterize the ignition

  10. Leadership and Personality


    和泉, 光保; イズミ, ミツヤス; Mitsuyasu, Izumi


    In order to get a useful idea to make military officers selection test, this study is done about whatpersonal factors are more commonly related successful leadership. First of all, this problem is discussedunder following four heading ; (1) Trait approach (2) Typological approach (3) Functional, Situationalapproach (4) Social Psychological approach. After that, I get a useful idea from Maddi's personality theories. Then, I summarize the main points ofhis theory and try to relate his theory to...

  11. Annual Progress Report - Fiscal Year 1978. (United States)


    Vaccine development; (U) Dengue virus 23. TECNICO O8JECTIV E. 24 APPROACH. 2. PROGRESS (PIRVMA I AdmA.f I N .14,s INIP i4FI NIId Or .. ’ P FIS A .0 JI...accomplished by manual methods alone. Of the purified bacterial toxic proteins which are readily available and of potential BW importance, the...interesting result in that these phospholipases hindered aggregation by other agents, such as collagen and arachidonic acid. Platelet Counts. Manual

  12. High Thermoelectric Performance by Convergence of Bands in IV-VI Semiconductors, Heavily Doped PbTe, and Alloys/Nanocomposites (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Pei, Yanzhong (Inventor)


    The present invention teaches an effective mechanism for enhancing thermoelectric performance through additional conductive bands. Using heavily doped p-PbTe materials as an example, a quantitative explanation is disclosed, as to why and how these additional bands affect the figure of merit. A high zT of approaching 2 at high temperatures makes these simple, likely more stable (than nanostructured materials) and Tl-free materials excellent for thermoelectric applications.

  13. Three’s Company: The Efficacy of Third-Party Intervention in Support of Counterinsurgency (United States)


    Basics of Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 2nd ed. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2006), 270. 28 Test Set 2: Bivariate...that the sample 88 Neuman. Basics of Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative...1 0 1 1 1 0 Cuba v. Movimiento (26 De Julio) 1958 LOSS 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 45 CONFLICT Onset OUTCOME SUCCESS DURAT LONG INTERV MIL

  14. Bayesian Logic Programs for Plan Recognition and Machine Reading (United States)


    representing relational domains involving several objects, their properties, and their relationships with other objects (Russell & Norvig , 2003). A term in...Russell & Norvig , 2003) from a specified query (SLD resolution) to obtain all possible de- ductive proofs for the query. In the context of the current task...IJCAI 1995), pp. 1146–1152, Montreal, Canada. Russell, S., & Norvig , P. (2003). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (2 edition). Prentice Hall

  15. U.S. Navy Unmanned Test Methods and Performance Limits for Underwater Breathing Apparatus (United States)


    F., “Mechanics of Ventilation”, In: Walter F. Boron and Emile L. Boulpaep, eds., Medical Physiology : A Cellular and Molecular Approach, 2nd edition...widely used outside of the U.S. Navy4, however they are gaining credence in the medical literature. Dr. Walter F. Boron , 72nd President of the...American Physiological Society, Secretary-General of the International Union of Physiological Sciences and co-editor of the book, Medical Physiology , uses

  16. Simulation-based comparison of two approaches frequently used for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwick, Stefan [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Brix, Gunnar [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Munich (Germany); Tofts, Paul S. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Imaging Physics, Falmer, Sussex (United Kingdom); Strecker, Ralph [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Kopp-Schneider, Annette [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Semmler, Wolfhard [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kiessling, Fabian [RWTH-Aachen University, Experimental Molecular Imaging, Medical Faculty, Aachen (Germany)


    The purpose was to compare two approaches for the acquisition and analysis of dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI data with respect to differences in the modelling of the arterial input-function (AIF), the dependency of the model parameters on physiological parameters and their numerical stability. Eight hundred tissue concentration curves were simulated for different combinations of perfusion, permeability, interstitial volume and plasma volume based on two measured AIFs and analysed according to the two commonly used approaches. The transfer constants (Approach 1) K {sup trans} and (Approach 2) k{sub ep} were correlated with all tissue parameters. K {sup trans} showed a stronger dependency on perfusion, and k{sub ep} on permeability. The volume parameters (Approach 1) v{sub e} and (Approach 2) A were mainly influenced by the interstitial and plasma volume. Both approaches allow only rough characterisation of tissue microcirculation and microvasculature. Approach 2 seems to be somewhat more robust than 1, mainly due to the different methods of CA administration. (orig.)

  17. Chemical shift imaging at 3 Tesla: effect of echo time on assessing bone marrow abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Grande, F. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Servizio di Radiologia, Lugano, TI (Switzerland); Subhawong, Ty [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Flammang, A. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Malvern, PA (United States); Fayad, L.M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Our purpose is to test the effect of varied in-phase (IP) and opposed-phase (OP) sequence order on characterizing marrow signal changes at 3T. The study was HIPAA compliant and IRB approved. Informed consent was waived. At 3T, IP and OP sequences were acquired in three patients with biopsy-proven osteosarcomas, using two methods: approach 1 (OP acquisition before IP acquisition) and approach 2 (OP after IP). Signal intensity (SI) measurements in 12 locations of biopsy-proven osteosarcoma and in six locations with normal bone marrow were performed independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The signal intensity ratio (SIR) was measured within the marrow where there was T1 signal lower than skeletal muscle. A SIR < 20 % on the OP compared with IP imaging was considered positive for marrow replacement, while SIR > = 20 % was considered negative. Interobserver agreement was measured by the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). In 75 % (18/24) of locations within the biopsy-proven tumors, the SIR was >20 % (SI drop more than 20 % in OP compared to IP) using approach 2 and in 100 % (24/24) of the locations the SIR was <20 % (SI drop less than 20 % in OP compared to IP) using approach 1, indicating a high percentage of false-negative results by approach 2, and no false-negative results with approach 1. There was good agreement between observer measurement (CCC = 0.96). At 3T, the OP sequence should be acquired prior to the IP sequence, because susceptibility artifacts on a later-acquired OP sequence may lead to an erroneous interpretation of marrow signal abnormalities. (orig.)

  18. 15. ESRF users meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotis C, Kafatos; Ulrich, K.U.; Weib, S.; Rossberg, A.; Scheinost, A.C.; Foerstendorf, H.; Zanker, H.; Meyerheim, H.L.; Sander, D.; Popescu, R.; Kirschner, J.; Robach, O.; Ferrer, S.; Lyman, P.F.; Shneerson, V.L.; Fung, R.; Harder, R.J.; Parihar, S.S.; Johnson-Steigelman, H.T.; Lu, E.D.; Saldin, D.K.; Eastwood, D.S.; Atkinson, D.; Tanner, B.K.; Hase, T.P.A.; Van Kampen, M.; Hjorvarsson, B.; Brown, S.; Thompson, P.; Konovalov, O.; Saint-Martin, E.; Daillant, J.; Luzet, D.; Szlachetko, J.; Barrett, R.; Berset, M.; Dousse, J.C.; Fennane, K.; Hoszowska, J.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Pajek, M.; Szlachetko, M.; Monaco, A.; Chumakov, A.; Crichton, W.; Van Buerck, I.; Wortmann, G.; Meyer, A.; Ponkratz, U.; Ruffer, R.; Sakurai, Y.; Hiraoka, N.; Itou, M.; Buslaps, T.; Honkimki, V.; Maeno, Y.; Collart, E.; Shukla, A.; Rueff, J.P.; Leininger, Ph.; Ishii, H.; Cai, Y.; Cheong, S.W.; Martins, R.M.S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Silva, R.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Acapito, F.; Seta, M. de; Capelini, G.; Giorgi, M.; Schorr, G.; Geandier, G.; Alves Marques, M.; Barros Marquesa, M.I. de; Cabaco, M.I.; Gaspara, A.M.; Marques, M.P.M.; Amado, A.M.; Amorim da Costa, A.M.; Bruneseaux, F.; Weisbecker, P.; Brandao, M.J.; Aeby-Gautier, E.; Simmonds, H.; Lei, C.; Das, A.; Trolley, D.; Thomas, H.E.; Macdonald, J.E.; Wiegart, L.; Tolan, M.; Struth, B.; Petukhov, A.V.; Thijssen, J.H.J.; Hart, D.C.; Imhof, A.; Van Blaaderen, A.; Dolbnya, I.P.; Snigirev, A.; Mossaid, A.; Snigireva, I.; Reconditi, M.; Brunello, E


    This document gathers the posters presented on the one day and a half long plenary meeting workshop. This meeting workshop is a privileged forum where ESRF users can exchange their views on the latest scientific and technical development involving synchrotron radiation. One poster deals with the investigation of colloid composition and uranium bond structure to see whether the migration of contaminants from abandoned mines could be stimulated or attenuated by colloids. Another poster is dedicated to the investigation of the uranium speciation in covered mine tailings by a combination of micro-spectroscopic and wet chemical approaches. 2 posters deal with the contribution of synchrotron radiation to radiotherapy.

  19. Regional Amplitude-Distance Relations, Discrimination and Detection (United States)


    greater than 1.66 - perhaps approaching 2.5. In 1977 Jones, Long and McKee published a study of attenuation in the Southeastern United States. In Figure...margin, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 65, 235-244. Jones, F. B., L. T. Long, and J. H. McKee (1977). Study of the attenuation and azimuthal dependence of...dynamics of seismic waves to distance of 3500 km from the epicenter, Akad. Nauk SSSR, Trudy Inst. Fiziki Zemli, 32, 63-87. (Translated by A. Ryall, DARPA

  20. Information delivery manuals to facilitate it supported energy analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    In response to continuing Building Information Modeling (BIM) progress, building performance simulation tools such as IESVE are being utilized to explore construction projects and influence design decisions with increasing frequency. To maximize the potential of these tools, a specification...... of information exchange and digital workflows is required. This paper presents the preliminary findings of an ongoing study aimed at developing an Information Delivery Manual (IDM) for IT supported energy analysis at concept design phase. The IDM development is based on: (1) a review of current approaches (2...

  1. A systematic review and reflection on leadership research in China in New Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Kai; Yuan, Yingjie; Kesting, Peter


    Based on the leadership research literature published on Chinese core academic journals from 2000 to 2010, this paper provided a comprehensive review on the status quo of leadership research in Mainland China. The current paper reviewed the development of relevant literature and topic distributions...... aspects of Chinese leadership research. This paper claimed that: 1) Chinese leadership research complied with the limitations of western re-search paradigm when adopting western leadership research approach; 2) Innovations of leadership theories should incorporate representative leadership practices; 3...

  2. The SE Book: Principles and Techniques of Software Engineering or orAn ABZ of The Theory & Practice of Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    This ``epos'' emphasises (1) software development from both a formal and an informal approach; (2) the use of mathematics, logic and algebras, as well as discrete mathematics: Sets, Cartesians, lists, functions, maps; (3) property as well as model-oriented specifications; (4) semiotics in the form......) the TripTych of domain analysis, requirements engineering and software design -- and much much more. It relates all aspects of (12) platform technologies, (13) legal issues of software, (14) quality assurance, and (15) project and product management to the above (1-11 incl.). Highlights of the book series...

  3. Maintenance approaches and practices in selected foreign nuclear power programs and other US industries: Review and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Commission published a Notice of Proposed Rule-making on Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants on November 28, 1988, spelling out NRC's expectations in maintenance. In preparing the proposed rule, the NRC reviewed maintenance practices in other countries and considered maintenance approaches in other industries in this country. As a result of the review of maintenance practices, it was concluded that certain practices in the following areas have been found to contribute significantly to effective maintenance: (1) systems approach; (2) effectiveness monitoring; (3) technician qualifications and motivation; and (4) maintenance organization. 87 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Arabic Language Learning Assisted by Computer, based on Automatic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Terbeh, Naim


    This work consists of creating a system of the Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) based on a system of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) for the Arabic language using the tool CMU Sphinx3 [1], based on the approach of HMM. To this work, we have constructed a corpus of six hours of speech recordings with a number of nine speakers. we find in the robustness to noise a grounds for the choice of the HMM approach [2]. the results achieved are encouraging since our corpus is made by only nine speakers, but they are always reasons that open the door for other improvement works.

  5. Working environment committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheller, Vibeke Kristine; Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus T.

    In Denmark, a new Working Environment Act was passed in 2010. The assumptions behind the act are that increased flexibility in the organization of OHS work will: 1) enable a more systematic approach, 2) elevate OHS issues to a strategic level within the company, and 3) integrate these concerns...... in other key business processes. In this paper we examine the validity of these assumptions through a number of qualitative case studies. We discuss whether flexibility, systematization, and strategy lead to better OHS discussions and practices within the case companies....

  6. Axillary artery counter-current aortography in the newborn with aortic arch obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, K.C.; Lo, R.N.S.; Leung, M.P.


    13 newborn infants with aortic coarctation were evaluated by counter-current aortographic technique. The right radial or brachial artery approach (2 cases in each group) did not give successful aortic arch imaging while the right axiallary artery approach resulted in adequate imaging in each of 9 cases investigated. In 2, the axillary artery was transiently weakened but returned to normal within 24 hours. No other complications were encountered. Axillary artery counter-current aortography is a safe and relatively non-invasive procedure which can be used to image the aortic arch in the newborn babies when other non-invasive diagnosis of aortic arch obstruction is tentative. (orig.).

  7. A New Method For Cosmological Parameter Estimation From SNIa Data (United States)

    March, Marisa; Trotta, R.; Berkes, P.; Starkman, G. D.; Vaudrevange, P. M.


    We present a new methodology to extract constraints on cosmological parameters from SNIa data obtained with the SALT2 lightcurve fitter. The power of our Bayesian method lies in its full exploitation of relevant prior information, which is ignored by the usual chisquare approach. Using realistic simulated data sets we demonstrate that our method outperforms the usual chisquare approach 2/3 of the time while achieving better long-term coverage properties. A further benefit of our methodology is its ability to produce a posterior probability distribution for the intrinsic dispersion of SNe. This feature can also be used to detect hidden systematics in the data.

  8. Synthesis of polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles through a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/cyclization/reduction. (United States)

    Malik, Michał; Jarosz, Sławomir


    The synthesis of polyhydroxylated 2-allylpyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/reduction with Zn(BH4)2 is described. The stereochemical course of the reduction step is rationalized. Two of the obtained compounds are transformed into stereoisomers of naturally-occurring iminosugar (+)-lentiginosine. In an alternative approach, 2,2-diallylpyrrolidines are obtained from bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/addition of another equivalent of allylmagnesium bromide.

  9. Tricks and tips in pancreatoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna; Pallisera; Rafael; Morales; Jose; Manuel; Ramia


    Pancreaticoduodenectomy(PD) is the standard surgical treatment for tumors of the pancreatic head, proximal bile duct, duodenum and ampulla, and represents the only hope of cure in cases of malignancy. Since its initial description in 1935 by Whipple et al, this complex surgical technique has evolved and undergone several modifications. We review three key issues in PD:(1) the initial approach to the superior mesenteric artery, known as the artery-first approach;(2) arterial complications caused by anatomic variants of the hepatic artery or celiac artery stenosis; and(3) the extent of lymphadenectomy.

  10. Evaluation of a mixed-order planar and periphonic Ambisonics playback implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käsbach, Johannes; Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel; Buchholz, Jörg


    Planar (2D) and periphonic (3D) higher-order Ambisonics (HOA) playback systems are widely used in multi-channel audio applications. For a given Ambisonics order, 2D systems require far less loudspeakers and provide a larger spatial resolution but cannot naturally reproduce elevated sound sources...... can be significantly increased by adding 2D components and thereby approaching 2D system’s performance. Simultaneously, frequency spectrum properties of horizontal sound sources were restored and did not show a low pass filtering effect as it is present in 3D HOA systems....

  11. Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Power Distribution Network with a Modified Capacity Allocation Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago


    The growing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) represents an operational challenge to system operators, mainly at the distribution level by introducing congestion and voltage drop problems. To solve these potential problems, a two-level coordination approach is proposed in this study......-VPPs, considering the case of EVs charging and discharging. The three mechanisms include: (1) a market-based approach; (2) a pro-rata approach; and (3) a newly-proposed constrained market-based approach. A case study considering a 37-bus distribution network and high penetration of electric vehicles is presented...

  12. Buoyancy Can-Can (United States)

    Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Jane Bray


    In this paper, a discrepant event is used to initiate a learning cycle1 lesson to help students develop an understanding of the concept and equation for buoyant force. The data are gathered using readily available equipment and then graphically analyzed using a four-step analysis consistent with the modeling instructional approach.2 This laboratory activity is appropriate for high school or first-year college physics, and provides the opportunity for review of free-body diagrams, experimental design, and graphical analysis. We use the "BSCS 5E" version of the Karplus learning cycle idea, popularized by Bybee, in which students are expected to Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate.3

  13. Systematic Comparison of the Performance of Different 2D and 3D Ligand-Based Virtual Screening Methodologies to Discover Anticonvulsant Drugs. (United States)

    Di Ianni, Mauricio E; Gantner, Melisa E; Ruiz, María E; Castro, Eduardo A; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E; Talevi, Alan


    Virtual screening encompasses a wide range of computational approaches aimed at the high-throughput, cost-efficient exploration of chemical libraries or databases to discover new bioactive compounds or novel medical indications of known drugs. Here, we have performed a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of 2D and 3D ligand-based approaches (2D and 3D similarity, QSAR models, pharmacophoric hypothesis) in a simulated virtual campaign on a chemical library containing 50 known anticonvulsant drugs and 950 decoys with no previous reports of anticonvulsant effect. To perform such comparison, we resorted to Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. We also tested the relative performance of consensus methodologies. Our results indicate that the selective combination of the individual approaches (through voting and ranking combination schemes) significantly outperforms the individual algorithms and/or models. Among the best-performing individual approaches, 2D similarity search based on circular fingerprints and 3D similarity approaches should be highlighted. Combining the results from different query molecules also led to enhanced enrichment.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In recent years, although college students have acquired ahigh level of proficiency in English reading, they have made verylittle advancement in English writing. This is due to the factthat inadequate importance is attached to writing in the teachingof English, and that students have rather vague ideas about therole of writing in foreign language learning and about the differ-ent discourse patterns existing between English and Chinese.Thus, this paper suggests that, in order to improve students’writing ability, two ways be adopted to raise students’ awarenessof learning to write: 1) integrating the product-oriented ap-proach with the process-oriented approach; 2) using students’reading as a writing source.

  15. Two image denoising approaches based on wavelet neural network and particle swarm optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunyi Yan; Baolong Guo


    Two image denoising approaches based on wavelet neural network (WNN) optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO) are proposed. The noisy image is filtered by the modified median filtering (MMF).Feature values are extracted based on the MMF and then normalized in order to avoid data scattering. In approach 1, WNN is used to tell those uncorrupted but filtered by MMF and then the pixels are restored to their original values while other pixels will retain. In approach 2, WNN distinguishes the corrupted pixels and then these pixels are replaced by MMF results while other pixels retain. WNN can be seen as a classifier to distinguish the corrupted or uncorrupted pixels from others in both approaches. PSO is adopted to optimize and train the WNN for its low requirements and easy employment. Experiments have shown that in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and subjective image quality, both proposed approaches are superior to traditional median filtering.

  16. TRIP: An interactive retrieving-inferring data imputation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhixu


    Data imputation aims at filling in missing attribute values in databases. Existing imputation approaches to nonquantitive string data can be roughly put into two categories: (1) inferring-based approaches [2], and (2) retrieving-based approaches [1]. Specifically, the inferring-based approaches find substitutes or estimations for the missing ones from the complete part of the data set. However, they typically fall short in filling in unique missing attribute values which do not exist in the complete part of the data set [1]. The retrieving-based approaches resort to external resources for help by formulating proper web search queries to retrieve web pages containing the missing values from the Web, and then extracting the missing values from the retrieved web pages [1]. This webbased retrieving approach reaches a high imputation precision and recall, but on the other hand, issues a large number of web search queries, which brings a large overhead [1]. © 2016 IEEE.

  17. A new entropy model for RNA: part IV, The Minimum Free Energy (mFE and the thermodynamically most-probable folding pathway (TMPFP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Dawson


    Full Text Available Here we discuss four important questions (1 how can we be sure that the thermodynamically most-probable folding-pathway yields the minimum free energy for secondary structure using the dynamic programming algorithm (DPA approach, (2 what are its limitations, (3 how can we extend the DPA to find the minimum free energy with pseudoknots, and finally (4 what limitations can we expect to find in a DPA approach for pseudoknots. It is our supposition that some structures cannot be fit uniquely by the DPA, but may exist in real biology situations when disordered regions in the biomolecule are necessary. These regions would be identifiable by using suboptimal structure analysis. This grants us some qualitative tools to identify truly random RNA sequences, because such are likely to have greater degeneracy in their thermodynamically most-probable folding-pathway.

  18. The SE Book: Principles and Techniques of Software Engineering or orAn ABZ of The Theory & Practice of Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    ) the TripTych of domain analysis, requirements engineering and software design -- and much much more. It relates all aspects of (12) platform technologies, (13) legal issues of software, (14) quality assurance, and (15) project and product management to the above (1-11 incl.). Highlights of the book series......This ``epos'' emphasises (1) software development from both a formal and an informal approach; (2) the use of mathematics, logic and algebras, as well as discrete mathematics: Sets, Cartesians, lists, functions, maps; (3) property as well as model-oriented specifications; (4) semiotics in the form...... are: (A) Emphasis on design: Literally a thousand development examples are given; and on ``Calculi'' of (B) domain and (C) requirements engineering: Domain facet ``operators'' like: (d.1) Instrinsics, (d.2) support technology, (d.3) management & organisation, (d.4) rules & regulations, (d.5) human...

  19. FPGA Implementation of 2-D DCT & DWT Engines for Vision Based Tracking of Dynamic Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remya Ramesan


    Full Text Available Real time motion estimation for tracking is a challenging task. Several techniques can transform an image into frequency domain, such as DCT, DFT and wavelet transform. Direct implementation of 2-D DCT takes N^4 multiplications for an N x N image which is impractical. The proposed architecture for implementation of 2-D DCT uses look up tables. They are used to store pre-computed vector products that completely eliminate the multiplier. This makes the architecture highly time efficient, and the routing delay and power consumption is also reduced significantly. Another approach, 2-D discrete wavelet transform based motion estimation (DWT-ME provides substantial improvements in quality and area. The proposed architecture uses Haar wavelet transform for motion estimation. In this paper, we present the comparison of the performance of discrete cosine transform, discrete wavelet transform for implementation in motion estimation.

  20. Firewalls, black-hole thermodynamics, and singular solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation

    CERN Document Server

    Zurek, Wojciech H


    We investigate thermodynamic equilibrium of a self-gravitating perfect fluid in a spherically symmetric system containing a black hole of mass M by means of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation. At r >> 2M its solutions describe a black-body radiation atmosphere with the Hawking temperature T_BH~1/(8 \\pi M) that is increasingly blueshifted as r approaches 2M. However, there is no horizon at the Schwarzschild radius. Instead, the fluid becomes increasingly hot and dense there, piling up into a "firewall" with the peak temperatures and densities reaching Planck values somewhat below r = 2M. This firewall surrounds a negative point mass residing at r=0, the only singularity of the solution. The entropy of the firewall is comparable to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

  1. Esthesioneuroblastoma; A report of seven cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Ko-hichi (Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Aoki, Yukimasa (Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Karasawa, Katsuyuki (Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Nakagawa, Keiichi (Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Hasezawa, Kenji (Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Muta, Nobuharu (Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Terahara, Atsuro (Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Onogi, Yuzo (Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Sasaki, Yasuhito (Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Akanuma, Atsuo (Japanese Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Mohri, Noboru (Second Dept. of Pathology, Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan))


    The biologic behavior of esthesioneuroblastoma in seven patients, treated from 1978 to 1989, is reviewed. The patients were initially treated with surgical resection (2 cases), radiation alone (1 case) or a combination of radiation and surgery (4 cases). The radiation dose ranged from 30 to 62 Gy. Operations were performed via a transmaxillary approach (2 cases), lateral rhinotomy approach (3 cases) and craniofacial approach (1 case). Four of the seven patients experienced local recurrence, occurring after disease-free intervals as long as 6 years. The other three patients died of distant metastasis within one year after initial treatment. The effectiveness of radiation therapy varied, and in some patients a dose of 60 Gy was not enough to control microscopic disease. One patient developed bone marrow metastases which was fatal due to the ensuing pancytopenia. One patient developed a brain metastasis. Hyams' histopathologic staging of the tumor appeared to be related to prognosis. (orig.).

  2. Managing for success: developing and exploiting international opportunities in geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This study is designed to assist the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) in deciding what kind of strategy it wants and needs in order to make its international effort as cost-effective and appropriate as possible. The purpose of this study is to construct a logic base on which DGE can, in turn, establish its own strategy for international cooperation, and can begin to plan for necessary organization, procedural and policy reforms. This report will constitute a set of decision guidelines for DGE to consider in determining the nature of future strategy-related reforms. Each chapter asks, and then answers, the question on which it is centered as follows: (1) what are the deficiencies in DGE's current approach; (2) what should an international strategy for DGE ensure; (3) how can an international strategy for DGE be manifested; (4) which strategic model presents the best opportunity now; and (5) how can the recommended alternative be achieved.

  3. Kinetic and Stochastic Models of 1D yeast ``prions" (United States)

    Kunes, Kay


    Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeasts have proteins, which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast ``prions" are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein (1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics along with our own stochastic approach (2). Both models assume reconformation only upon aggregation, and include aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates.

  4. Rare earth Ibuprofen complexes: Highlighting a pharmaceutical (United States)

    Kaup, Gina; Meiners, Denise; Kynast, Ulrich H.


    Complexes of Gd3+, Eu3+ and Tb3+ with the widely applied, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drug Ibuprofen ("ibu") have been prepared and characterized with respect to their photo-physical properties. The native complexes proved to be non-luminescent, but acquired very high quantum efficiencies of up to 75% with Eu3+ on co-coordination with bidentate ligands (1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2‧-bipyridine), accompanied by luminescent life times approaching 2 ms. However, due to energy back transfer to the ligand's triplet and the lack of suitable Tb3+ receptor states, the long life times could not grant the expected high efficiencies for Tb(ibu)3phen, the highest value amounting to 27% only despite an accompanying decay of 1.927 ms.

  5. Increasing sediment accumulation rates in La Fonera (Palamós) submarine canyon axis and their relationship with bottom trawling activities (United States)

    Puig, P.; Martín, J.; Masqué, P.; Palanques, A.


    Previous studies conducted in La Fonera (Palamós) submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) found that trawling activities along the canyon flanks cause resuspension and transport of sediments toward the canyon axis. 210Pb chronology supported by 137Cs dating applied to a sediment core collected at 1750 m in 2002 suggested a doubling of the sediment accumulation rate since the 1970s, coincident with the rapid industrialization of the local trawling fleet. The same canyon area has been revisited a decade later, and new data are consistent with a sedimentary regime shift during the 1970s and also suggest that the accumulation rate during the last decade could be greater than expected, approaching ~2.4 cm yr-1 (compared to ~0.25 cm yr-1 pre-1970s). These results support the hypothesis that commercial bottom trawling can substantially affect sediment dynamics and budgets on continental margins, eventually initiating the formation of anthropogenic depocenters in submarine canyon environments.

  6. ERP system implementation costs and selection factors of an implementation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Björn; Sudzina, Frantisek; Newman, Mike


    Different approaches on implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERPs) systems exist. In this article, we investigate relationship between factors influencing selection of implementation approach and companies' ability to stay within budget when implementing ERPs. The question is: do factors......, which influence the implementation approach in an ERP project, cause also an increase of the project cost in a European context? Our survey was conducted in Denmark, Slovakia and Slovenia and focused on this issue. Our main findings are that: 1) the number of implemented modules influences selection...... of an implementation approach; 2) companies with information strategies are more likely to stay within budget regarding ERP systems implementation. However, we also found that: 3) implementation approach does not significantly influence ability to stay within budget; 4) a clear relationship between factors influencing...

  7. Allometric Biomass, Biomass Expansion Factor and Wood Density Models for the OP42 Hybrid Poplar in Southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Tærø; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Stupak, Inge


    Biomass and biomass expansion factor functions are important in wood resource assessment, especially with regards to bioenergy feedstocks and carbon pools. We sampled 48 poplar trees in seven stands with the purpose of estimating allometric models for predicting biomass of individual tree...... components, stem-to-aboveground biomass expansion factors (BEF) and stem basic densities of the OP42 hybrid poplar clone in southern Scandinavia. Stand age ranged from 3 to 31 years, individual tree diameter at breast height (dbh) from 1.2 to 41 cm and aboveground tree biomass from 0.39 to 670 kg. Models...... for predicting total aboveground leafless, stem and branch biomass included dbh and tree height as predictor variables and explained more than 97 % of the total variation. The BEF was approaching 2.0 for the smallest trees but declined with increasing tree size and stabilized around 1.2 for trees with dbh >10 cm...

  8. Selected topics on the active control of helicopter aeromechanical and vibration problems (United States)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.


    This paper describes in a concise manner three selected topics on the active control of helicopter aeromechanical and vibration problems. The three topics are as follows: (1) the active control of helicopter air-resonance using an LQG/LTR approach; (2) simulation of higher harmonic control (HHC) applied to a four bladed hingeless helicopter rotor in forward flight; and (3) vibration suppression in forward flight on a hingeless helicopter rotor using an actively controlled, partial span, trailing edge flap, which is mounted on the blade. Only a few selected illustrative results are presented. The results obtained clearly indicate that the partial span, actively controlled flap has considerable potential for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors.

  9. Instructions for the use of the methodological tools applicable to polluted sites and soils; Mode d'emploi des outils methodologiques applicables aux sites et sols pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The French policy in the domain of polluted sites and soils is based on a limited number of principles which are: the prevention of future pollutions, the identification of all possible potential risks, a well-suited treatment process which depends on the effective environmental impact and on the intended use of the site. This document aims at identifying the main questions raised by a given situation. It proposed useful methodological tools for the construction of answers to the problems encountered: 1 - general approach (main guidelines for the different steps of the management of a polluted site, different possible approaches); 2 - examples of application (industrial site in use, closing down of an industrial site, accidental situation (recent pollution), fortuitous discovery of a pollution on a site, pollutions with limited surface extension, site involved in a land transaction, polluted site with a sensible use, industrial waste lands). (J.S.)

  10. Simultaneous fault detection and control for stochastic time-delay systems (United States)

    Meng, Xian-Ji; Yang, Guang-Hong


    This paper is concerned with the simultaneous fault detection and control problem for Itô-type stochastic time-delay systems. A full-order dynamic output feedback controller is designed to achieve the desired control and detection objectives. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) for stochastic time-delay systems, the controller design with multiple objectives can be addressed by employing the multiple Lyapunov functions approach, (2) the dynamic output feedback controller synthesis conditions described by linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) are derived and (3) within the proposed fault detection and control framework, a better integrated control and detection performance can be obtained. Some numerical examples including the comparison results are presented to show the advantages of the proposed method.

  11. Nanowire-quantum-dot solar cells and the influence of nanowire length on the charge collection efficiency (United States)

    Leschkies, Kurtis S.; Jacobs, Alan G.; Norris, David J.; Aydil, Eray S.


    External quantum efficiency in solar cells based on junctions between PbSe quantum dots (QDs) and thin ZnO films is increased by replacing the ZnO films with a vertically oriented array of single-crystalline ZnO nanowires, and infiltrating this array with colloidal QDs. When illuminated with 100 mW/cm2 of simulated solar light, QD-nanowire solar cells exhibited power conversion efficiencies approaching 2%, approximately three times higher than that achieved with thin-film ZnO devices constructed with the same amount of QDs. Significant photocurrent and power conversion improvement with increasing nanowire length is consistent with higher exciton and charge collection efficiencies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirajul Munir


    Full Text Available The purpose of presentstudy is to critically assess the reading comprehension textbooks which have been prescribed for use at the English Education Department ofPublic Islamic Higher Education in West Sumatera.The writer used criteria taken from Cunningswoth’s(1995 and Miekley’s (2005. These include(1 Aims and Approaches; (2 Design and Organization; (3 Content; (4 Skills; (5 Vocabulary and Grammar; (6 Exercises and Activities; (7 Methodology; (8 Attractiveness of the Text and Physical Make-Up; (9 Teacher’s Manual; and (10 Practical Consideration. To interpret the checklist, the four rating scale was used, namely excellent, good, fair, and poor. The research showed that every textbook has strong and weak points. This result of this analysis could be used as the basis to gain more effective reading textbooks for the lecturer of reading comprehension. Keywords: evaluation; textbook; Islamic Higher Education

  13. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer


    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized...... antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3...... impairment; 3) prior treatment consisting of at least two different antipsychotic trials, each for a minimum duration and dosage; 4) systematic monitoring of adherence and meeting of minimum adherence criteria; 5) ideally at least one prospective treatment trial; and 6) criteria that clearly separate...

  14. Automated classification of histopathology images of prostate cancer using a Bag-of-Words approach (United States)

    Sanghavi, Foram M.; Agaian, Sos S.


    The goals of this paper are (1) test the Computer Aided Classification of the prostate cancer histopathology images based on the Bag-of-Words (BoW) approach (2) evaluate the performance of the classification grade 3 and 4 of the proposed method using the results of the approach proposed by the authors Khurd et al. in [9] and (3) classify the different grades of cancer namely, grade 0, 3, 4, and 5 using the proposed approach. The system performance is assessed using 132 prostate cancer histopathology of different grades. The system performance of the SURF features are also analyzed by comparing the results with SIFT features using different cluster sizes. The results show 90.15% accuracy in detection of prostate cancer images using SURF features with 75 clusters for k-mean clustering. The results showed higher sensitivity for SURF based BoW classification compared to SIFT based BoW.

  15. Evaluation of automated sample preparation, retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and data analysis methods for the metabolomic study of Arabidopsis species. (United States)

    Gu, Qun; David, Frank; Lynen, Frédéric; Rumpel, Klaus; Dugardeyn, Jasper; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Xu, Guowang; Sandra, Pat


    In this paper, automated sample preparation, retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data analysis methods for the metabolomics study were evaluated. A miniaturized and automated derivatisation method using sequential oximation and silylation was applied to a polar extract of 4 types (2 types×2 ages) of Arabidopsis thaliana, a popular model organism often used in plant sciences and genetics. Automation of the derivatisation process offers excellent repeatability, and the time between sample preparation and analysis was short and constant, reducing artifact formation. Retention time locked (RTL) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used, resulting in reproducible retention times and GC-MS profiles. Two approaches were used for data analysis. XCMS followed by principal component analysis (approach 1) and AMDIS deconvolution combined with a commercially available program (Mass Profiler Professional) followed by principal component analysis (approach 2) were compared. Several features that were up- or down-regulated in the different types were detected.

  16. Percutaneous mitral valve repair. (United States)

    Gillinov, A Marc; Liddicoat, John R


    Surgical mitral valve repair is the procedure of choice to treat mitral regurgitation of all etiologies. Whereas annuloplasty is the cornerstone of mitral valve repair, a variety of other surgical techniques are utilized to correct dysfunction of the leaflets and subvalvular apparatus; in most cases, surgical repair entails application of multiple repair techniques in each patient. Preclinical studies and early human experience have demonstrated that some of these surgical repair techniques can be performed using percutaneous approaches. Specifically, there has been great progress in the development of novel technology to facilitate percutaneous annuloplasty and percutaneous edge-to-edge repair. The objectives of this report were to (1) discuss the surgical foundations for these percutaneous approaches; (2) review device design and experimental and clinical results of percutaneous valve repair; and (3) address future directions, including the key challenges of patient selection and clinical trial design.

  17. Escape probability of the super-Penrose process

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Kota; Miyamoto, Umpei; Igata, Takahisa; Patil, Mandar


    We consider a head-on collision of two massive particles that move in the equatorial plane of an extremal Kerr black hole, which results in the production of two massless particles. Focusing a typical case, where both of the colliding particles have zero angular momenta, we show that a massless particle produced in such a collision can escape to infinity with arbitrarily large energy in the near-horizon limit of the collision point. Furthermore, if we assume that the emission of the produced massless particles is isotropic in the center-of-mass frame but confined to the equatorial plane, the escape probability of the produced massless particle approaches $5/12$ and almost all escaping massless particles have arbitrarily large energy at infinity and an impact parameter approaching $2M$.

  18. Synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of 5-benzylidene-2-[(pyridine-4-ylmethylenehydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-one and 2-[(pyridine-4-ylmethylene hydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danniel Delmondes Feitoza


    Full Text Available A new series of 5-benzylidene-2-[(pyridine-4-ylmethylenehydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-ones 4a-l have been synthesized. These compounds were designed by a molecular hybridization approach. 2-[(Pyridine-4-ylmethylenehydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-ones 3a-d were also obtained and used as intermediates to give the target compounds. The in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were evaluated for both series. The intermediate 3b showed considerable antibiotic activity against B. subtilis and C. albicans. In the cytotoxic activity compounds 3b (IC50= 4.25 ± 0.36 µg/mL and 4l (IC50= 1.38 ± 0.04 µg/mL were effective for inhibition of human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K-562 and human lung carcinoma (NCI-H292 cell lines, respectively.

  19. Comparative study between 2D and 3D FEM techniques in single bolt, single lap, composite bolted joints for space structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Dumitru COMAN


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element models have been developed to study the effects of bolt-hole clearance on the mechanical behavior of bolted composites (graphite/epoxy joints in space structures. The type of the studied joint was single bolt, single lap, and the geometry is a standard type for these kind of composite joints space structures. In this study, two approaches, 2D (linear analysis and 3D (nonlinear analysis were developed and the results were compared to numerical and experiment results from literature. The contact between the parts affecting the accuracy and efficiency of the models is detailed. The model’s capability to predict the three-dimensional effects such as secondary bending and through-thickness variations of the stress and stain tensor fields is presented.

  20. A teaching skills assessment tool inspired by the Calgary-Cambridge model and the patient-centered approach. (United States)

    Sommer, Johanna; Lanier, Cédric; Perron, Noelle Junod; Nendaz, Mathieu; Clavet, Diane; Audétat, Marie-Claude


    The aim of this study was to develop a descriptive tool for peer review of clinical teaching skills. Two analogies framed our research: (1) between the patient-centered and the learner-centered approach; (2) between the structures of clinical encounters (Calgary-Cambridge communication model) and teaching sessions. During the course of one year, each step of the action research was carried out in collaboration with twelve clinical teachers from an outpatient general internal medicine clinic and with three experts in medical education. The content validation consisted of a literature review, expert opinion and the participatory research process. Interrater reliability was evaluated by three clinical teachers coding thirty audiotaped standardized learner-teacher interactions. This tool contains sixteen items covering the process and content of clinical supervisions. Descriptors define the expected teaching behaviors for three levels of competence. Interrater reliability was significant for eleven items (Kendall's coefficient pteaching skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel needleless liquid jet injection methodology for improving direct cardiac gene delivery: An optimization of parameters, AAV mediated therapy and investigation of host responses in ischemic heart failure (United States)

    Fargnoli, Anthony Samuel

    Heart disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with 22 million new patients diagnosed annually. Essentially, all present therapies have significant cost burden to the healthcare system, yet fail to increase survival rates. One key employed strategy is the genetic reprogramming of cells to increase contractility via gene therapy, which has advanced to Phase IIb Clinical Trials for advanced heart failure patients. It has been argued that the most significant barrier preventing FDA approval are resolving problems with safe, efficient myocardial delivery, whereby direct injection in the infarct and remote tissue areas is not clinically feasible. Here, we aim to: (1) Improve direct cardiac gene delivery through the development of a novel liquid jet device approach (2) Compare the new method against traditional IM injection with two different vector constructions and evaluate outcome (3) Evaluate the host response resulting from both modes of direct cardiac injection, then advance a drug/gene combination with controlled release nanoparticle formulations.

  2. Robust pose determination for autonomous docking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, J.S.; Jatko, W.B.; Ferrell, R.K.; Gleason, S.S.


    This paper describes current work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a robotic vision system capable of recognizing designated objects by their intrinsic geometry. This method, based on single camera vision, combines point features and a model-based technique using geometric feature matching for the pose calculation. In this approach, 2-D point features are connected into higher-order shapes and then matched with corresponding features of the model. Pose estimates are made using a closed-form point solution based on model features of four coplanar points. Rotations are represented by quaternions that simplify the calculations in determining the least squares solution for the coordinate transformation. This pose determination method including image acquisition, feature extraction, feature correspondence, and pose calculation has been implemented on a real-time system using a standard camera and image processing hardware. Experimental results are given for relative error measurements.

  3. Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, M.C.; Goering, S.W.


    The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.

  4. Influence of nuclear physics inputs and astrophysical conditions on Th/U chronometer

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, Zhongming; Meng, Jie


    The productions of thorium and uranium are key ingredients in $r$-process nucleo-cosmochronology. With the combination of improved nuclear and stellar data, we have made detailed investigations on the $r$-process abundance pattern in the very metal-poor halo stars based on the classical $r$-process approach. It is found that the results are almost independent of specified simulations to observed abundances. The influence from nuclear mass uncertainties on Th/U chronometer can approach 2 Gyr. Moreover, the ages of the metal-poor stars HE 1523-0901, CS 31082-001, and BD +17$^\\circ$3248 are determined as $11.8\\pm 3.7$, $13.5\\pm 2.9$, and $10.9 \\pm 2.9$ Gyr, respectively. The results can serve as an independent check for age estimate of the universe.

  5. An integrated systems biology approach to the study of preterm birth using "-omic" technology - a guideline for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Maureen


    Full Text Available Abstract Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and perinatal morbidity. The etiology of preterm is multi-factorial and still unclear. As evidence increases for a genetic contribution to PTB, so does the need to explore genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in its study. This review suggests research guidelines for the conduct of high throughput systems biology investigations into preterm birth with the expectation that this will facilitate the sharing of samples and data internationally through consortia, generating the power needed to study preterm birth using integrated "-omics" technologies. The issues to be addressed include: (1 integrated "-omics" approaches, (2 phenotyping, (3 sample collection, (4 data management-integrative databases, (5 international consortia and (6 translational feasibility. This manuscript is the product of discussions initiated by the "-Omics" Working Group at the Preterm Birth International Collaborative Meeting held at the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland in April 2009.

  6. Random walks on Sierpinski gaskets of different dimensions (United States)

    Weber, Sebastian; Klafter, Joseph; Blumen, Alexander


    We study random walks (RWs) on classical and dual Sierpinski gaskets (SG and DSG), naturally embedded in d -dimensional Euclidian spaces (ESs). For large d the spectral dimension ds approaches 2, the marginal RW dimension. In contrast to RW over two-dimensional ES, RWs over SG and DSG show a very rich behavior. First, the time discrete scale invariance leads to logarithmic-periodic (log-periodic) oscillations in the RW properties monitored, which increase in amplitude with d . Second, the asymptotic approach to the theoretically predicted RW power laws is significantly altered depending on d and on the variant of the fractal (SG or DSG) under study. In addition, we discuss the suitability of standard RW properties to determine ds , a question of great practical relevance.

  7. Tag Based Audio Search Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran Vellachu


    Full Text Available The volume of the music database is increasing day by day. Getting the required song as per the choice of the listener is a big challenge. Hence, it is really hard to manage this huge quantity, in terms of searching, filtering, through the music database. It is surprising to see that the audio and music industry still rely on very simplistic metadata to describe music files. However, while searching audio resource, an efficient "Tag Based Audio Search Engine" is necessary. The current research focuses on two aspects of the musical databases 1. Tag Based Semantic Annotation Generation using the tag based approach.2. An audio search engine, using which the user can retrieve the songs based on the users choice. The proposed method can be used to annotation and retrieve songs based on musical instruments used , mood of the song, theme of the song, singer, music director, artist, film director, instrument, genre or style and so on.

  8. Screening of the meson fields in the Nambu - Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florkowski, W. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Friman, B.L. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik


    The spatial dependence of the finite-temperature meson correlation function in the (pseudo)scalar channel is studied in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The screening masses, obtained from the asymptotic behaviour of the static correlation function, are found to differ substantially from the dynamic masses, defined by a pole of the meson propagator. In particular, at high temperatures, the meson screening masses are large, although there are no well defined meson modes. In the high-temperature limit, the screening masses approach 2{pi}T, which corresponds to a gas of non-interacting, massless quarks. However interaction effects remain well beyond the chiral transition temperatures. The overall temperature dependence of the screening masses is in agreement with lattice results. (author). 26 refs, 5 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjipto Subadi


    Full Text Available The study aimed to review and describe: 1 Coaching model of social sciences teacher in SMP Muhammadiyah Kartasura. 2 Test the validation of coaching model on social sciences teacher. This study used a qualitative approach of phenomenology. This study was conducted in SMP Muhammadiyah Kartasura, Sukoharjo district. The research design was classroom action research. The subject in this research were students, teachers, the principal. Data collection technique used observation, testing and interview. The interview process using theory of first and second order understanding. Data were analyzed using an interactive model included data reduction, data display, and conclusion. This study concluded that 1 Coaching Model of social sciences teacher in SMP Muhammadiyah Kartasura used modification lesson study approach. 2 Validation of the coaching model using two kinds of validation namely theory of validation and practice of validation.

  10. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis]. (United States)

    Enk, C D; Gardlo, K; Hochberg, M; Ingber, A; Ruzicka, T


    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa, Leishmania, which resides in macrophages. The parasite is transmitted by an infected female sandfly. The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis approaches 2 million new cases per year with 90% of the cases occurring in the "Old World", while the "New World" accounts for the rest. Infection may be restricted to the skin with development of characteristic ulcers, or may affect the mucous membranes in its mucocutaneous form. The clinical diagnosis is verified by the presence of amastigotes in slit-skin smears. Therapeutic modalities include systemic treatments such as the pentavalent antimony compound sodium stibogluconate, liposomal formulations of amphotericin B, oral ketoconazole or itraconazole, as well as topical paromomycin sulphate, local heat, freezing with liquid nitrogen, or photodynamic therapy. An effective vaccine is not available.

  11. The redshift-evolution of the distribution of star formation among dark matter halos as seen in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Béthermin, Matthieu; Doré, Olivier; Lagache, Guilaine; Sargent, Mark; Daddi, Emanuele; Cousin, Morgane; Aussel, Hervé


    [Abridged] Recent studies revealed a strong correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass of star-forming galaxies, the so-called star-forming main sequence. An empirical modeling approach (2-SFM) which distinguishes between the main sequence and rarer starburst galaxies is capable of reproducing most statistical properties of infrared galaxies. In this paper, we extend this approach by establishing a connection between stellar mass and halo mass with the technique of abundance matching. Based on a few, simple assumptions and a physically motivated formalism, our model successfully predicts the (cross-)power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB), the cross-correlation between CIB and cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing, and the correlation functions of bright, resolved infrared galaxies measured by Herschel, Planck, ACT and SPT. We use this model to infer the redshift distribution these observables, as well as the level of correlation between CIB-anisotropies at different ...

  12. Representing clinical communication knowledge through database management system integration. (United States)

    Khairat, Saif; Craven, Catherine; Gong, Yang


    Clinical communication failures are considered the leading cause of medical errors [1]. The complexity of the clinical culture and the significant variance in training and education levels form a challenge to enhancing communication within the clinical team. In order to improve communication, a comprehensive understanding of the overall communication process in health care is required. In an attempt to further understand clinical communication, we conducted a thorough methodology literature review to identify strengths and limitations of previous approaches [2]. Our research proposes a new data collection method to study the clinical communication activities among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) clinical teams with a primary focus on the attending physician. In this paper, we present the first ICU communication instrument, and, we introduce the use of database management system to aid in discovering patterns and associations within our ICU communications data repository.

  13. Analytic bootstrap at large spin

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviraj, Apratim; Sinha, Aninda


    We use analytic conformal bootstrap methods to determine the anomalous dimensions and OPE coefficients for large spin operators in general conformal field theories in four dimensions containing a scalar operator of conformal dimension $\\Delta_\\phi$. It is known that such theories will contain an infinite sequence of large spin operators with twists approaching $2\\Delta_\\phi+2n$ for each integer $n$. By considering the case where such operators are separated by a twist gap from other operators at large spin, we analytically determine the $n$, $\\Delta_\\phi$ dependence of the anomalous dimensions. We find that for all $n$, the anomalous dimensions are negative for $\\Delta_\\phi$ satisfying the unitarity bound, thus extending the Nachtmann theorem to non-zero $n$. In the limit when $n$ is large, we find agreement with the AdS/CFT prediction corresponding to the Eikonal limit of a 2-2 scattering with dominant graviton exchange.

  14. Synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of 5-benzylidene-2-[(pyridine-4-ylmethylene)hydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-one and 2-[(pyridine-4-ylmethylene) hydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitoza, Danniel Delmondes; Alves, Antonio Jose; Lima, Jose Gildo de, E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife - PE (Brazil); Araujo, Janete Magali; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Rodrigues, Maria do Desterro; Silva, Teresinha Goncalves; Nascimento, Silene Carneiro do; Goes, Alexandre Jose da Silva [Departamento de Antibioticos, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife - PE (Brazil)


    A new series of 5-benzylidene-2-[(pyridine-4-ylmethylene)hydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-ones 4a-l have been synthesized. These compounds were designed by a molecular hybridization approach. 2-[(Pyridine-4-ylmethylene)hydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-ones 3a-d were also obtained and used as intermediates to give the target compounds. The in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were evaluated for both series. The intermediate 3b showed considerable antibiotic activity against B. subtilis and C. albicans. In the cytotoxic activity compounds 3b (IC{sub 50} = 4.25 +- 0.36 {mu}g/mL) and 4l (IC{sub 50} = 1.38 +- 0.04 {mu}g/mL) were effective for inhibition of human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K-562) and human lung carcinoma (NCI-H292) cell lines, respectively. (author)

  15. Dynamics and Optimal Feet Force Distributions of a Realistic Four-legged Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Agarwal


    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed dynamic modeling of realistic four-legged robot. The direct and inverse kinematic analysis for each leg has been considered in order to develop an overall kinematic model of the robot, when it follows a straight path. This study also aims to estimate optimal feet force distributions of the said robot, which is necessary for its real-time control. Three different approaches namely, minimization of norm of feet forces (approach 1, minimization of norm of joint torques (approach 2 and minimization of norm of joint power (approach 3 have been developed. Simulation result shows that approach 3 is more energy efficient foot force formulation than other two approaches. Lagrange-Euler formulation has been utilized to determine the joint torques. The developed dynamic models have been examined through computer simulation of continuous gait of the four-legged robot.

  16. Social Media in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nabeth, Thierry


    By using social media, many companies try to exploit new forms of interaction, collaboration, and knowledge sharing through leveraging the social, collaborative dimension of social software. The traditional collective knowledge management model based on a top-down approach is now opening up new...... avenues for a bottom-up approach incorporating a more personal knowledge management dimension, which could be synergized into collective knowledge using the social-collaborative dimension of social media. This article addresses the following questions: (1) How can social media support the management...... of personal and collective knowledge using a synergetic approach? (2) Do the personal and collective dimensions compete with each other or can they reinforce each other in a more effective manner using social media? Our findings indicate that social media supports both the personal and collective dimensions...

  17. Supervisory Feedback Efficiency: Developing a Framework Based on Iranian EFL Teachers’ and Supervisors’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mehrpour


    Full Text Available Believing that providing EFL teachers with effective supervisory feedback during the post-observation conference is essential, researchers in the current study report on the views of Iranian EFL teachers and supervisors as to what constitutes effective supervisory feedback. Having conducted a qualitative content analysis of the data obtained from interviews with teachers and supervisors, researchers came up with a framework of the constituent elements of effective supervisory feedback, which includes 1 adopting a more creative approach 2 using above-the-utterance mitigation 3 gauging the teachers’ ZPD 4 being socioculturally sensitive 5 assessing the teachers’ beliefs and attitudes and 6 developing public relations. The results showed the teachers’ overall dissatisfaction with the present supervisory feedback. The paper concludes by suggestions to include supervisory training courses in the existing teacher development programs to better empower supervisors in their dealing with EFL supervisees throughout the country.

  18. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte


    comparability to characterize municipal solid waste. This methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1,442 households in three municipalities in Denmark. The main fractions contributing to the residual household waste were food waste and miscellaneous waste. Statistical analysis suggested......Data for the composition of municipal solid waste is a critical basis for any assessment of waste technologies and waste management systems. The detailed quantification of waste fractions is absolutely needed for a better technological development of waste treatment. The current waste composition...... data in Denmark are among the most detailed in the world. However, these data are more than 10 years old, and the following issues remain very important: (1) sampling approach, (2) representativeness of samples, (3) data uncertainties, (4) time and geographical variation. Moreover, in the absence...

  19. Overview of the INEX 2008 Book Track (United States)

    Kazai, Gabriella; Doucet, Antoine; Landoni, Monica

    This paper provides an overview of the INEX 2008 Book Track. Now in its second year, the track aimed at broadening its scope by investigating topics of interest in the fields of information retrieval, human computer interaction, digital libraries, and eBooks. The main topics of investigation were defined around challenges for supporting users in reading, searching, and navigating the full texts of digitized books. Based on these themes, four tasks were defined: 1) The Book Retrieval task aimed at comparing traditional and book-specific retrieval approaches, 2) the Page in Context task aimed at evaluating the value of focused retrieval approaches for searching books, 3) the Structure Extraction task aimed to test automatic techniques for deriving structure from OCR and layout information, and 4) the Active Reading task aimed to explore suitable user interfaces for eBooks enabling reading, annotation, review, and summary across multiple books. We report on the setup and results of each of these tasks.

  20. Coevolving Relationships between Political Science and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Ostrom


    Full Text Available During the last 50 years, at least four interdisciplinary developments have occurred at the boundaries of political science and economics that have affected the central questions that both political scientists and economists ask, the empirical evidence amassed as a new foundation for understanding political economies, and new questions for future research. These include: (1 the Public Choice Approach, (2 the Governance of the Commons debate, (3 New Institutional Economics, and (4 Behavioral Approaches to Explaining Human Actions. In this short essay, I briefly review the challenges that these approaches have brought to political science and some of the general findings stimulated by these approaches before identifying some of the major issues on the contemporary agenda.

  1. Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. I. Cross Validation of Polarization Measurements by Impedance Spectroscopy and Current-Potential Sweep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiao Dong; Pederson, Larry R.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.


    The aim of this paper is to address three issues in solid oxide fuel cells: (1) cross-validation of the polarization of a single cell measured using both dc and ac approaches, (2) the precise determination of the total areal specific resistance (ASR), and (3) understanding cathode polarization with LSCF cathodes. The ASR of a solid oxide fuel cell is a dynamic property, meaning that it changes with current density. The ASR measured using ac impedance spectroscopy (low frequency interception with real Z´ axis of ac impedance spectrum) matches with that measured from a dc IV sweep (the tangent of dc i-V curve). Due to the dynamic nature of ASR, we found that an ac impedance spectrum measured under open circuit voltage or on a half cell may not represent cathode performance under real operating conditions, particularly at high current density. In this work, the electrode polarization was governed by the cathode activation polarization; the anode contribution was negligible.

  2. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1986 (United States)



    Information is presented on the 43 projects funded by the United States Geological Survey 's Water Resources Grant Program in fiscal year 1986. The report gives the grant number; project title; performing organization; principal investigator(s); dates; and a project description which includes (1) identification of the water related problems and problem-solution approach, (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, (4) approach, and (5) result users. The 43 projects include 14 in the area of groundwater management, 6 in surface-water management, 2 in systems-operating/planning, 3 in irrigation management, 8 in desalination/reuse, 6 in economic/institutional studies, and 4 in climate variability. The reports contain tables showing (1) funding according to research topic, (2) projects funded to type of submitting organization, (3) proposals received, research topic, and funding levels, and (4) submitting organization. A comparison is given to fiscal year 1985 in each case. (USGS)

  3. A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa. (United States)

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Smit, Izak P J; Ingram, Ben R

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs.

  4. “When ‘Bad’ is ‘Good’”: Identifying Personal Communication and Sentiment in Drug-Related Tweets (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Lamy, Francois R; Carlson, Robert G; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Sheth, Amit


    Background To harness the full potential of social media for epidemiological surveillance of drug abuse trends, the field needs a greater level of automation in processing and analyzing social media content. Objectives The objective of the study is to describe the development of supervised machine-learning techniques for the eDrugTrends platform to automatically classify tweets by type/source of communication (personal, official/media, retail) and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral) expressed in cannabis- and synthetic cannabinoid–related tweets. Methods Tweets were collected using Twitter streaming Application Programming Interface and filtered through the eDrugTrends platform using keywords related to cannabis, marijuana edibles, marijuana concentrates, and synthetic cannabinoids. After creating coding rules and assessing intercoder reliability, a manually labeled data set (N=4000) was developed by coding several batches of randomly selected subsets of tweets extracted from the pool of 15,623,869 collected by eDrugTrends (May-November 2015). Out of 4000 tweets, 25% (1000/4000) were used to build source classifiers and 75% (3000/4000) were used for sentiment classifiers. Logistic Regression (LR), Naive Bayes (NB), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were used to train the classifiers. Source classification (n=1000) tested Approach 1 that used short URLs, and Approach 2 where URLs were expanded and included into the bag-of-words analysis. For sentiment classification, Approach 1 used all tweets, regardless of their source/type (n=3000), while Approach 2 applied sentiment classification to personal communication tweets only (2633/3000, 88%). Multiclass and binary classification tasks were examined, and machine-learning sentiment classifier performance was compared with Valence Aware Dictionary for sEntiment Reasoning (VADER), a lexicon and rule-based method. The performance of each classifier was assessed using 5-fold cross validation that calculated average F

  5. Stories of change: the text analysis of handovers in an Italian psychiatric residential care home. (United States)

    Accordini, M; Saita, E; Irtelli, F; Buratti, M; Savuto, G


    two decades. Method Emotional text analysis (ETA) was used to analyse the MHWs' handovers completed from 1990 to 2011. Results The analysis generated four clusters and three main factors illustrating the change in the MHWs' representations of the residential care home and its occupants. The factors showed: (1) the shift from an individualistic, problem-focused view to an inclusive, community-based approach; (2) the presence of a descriptive as well as a specialized language; and (3) the presence of a double focus: on patients and professionals. Conclusions Handovers transcripts document the following changes: (1) a shift from a symptom-based to a recovery-oriented approach; (2) a modification of the MHWs values towards an holistic view of the patient; (3) a growing importance assigned to accountability, services integration and teamwork. The paper shows that handovers can be used diachronically to document organizational change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Fuzzy set approach to quality function deployment: An investigation (United States)

    Masud, Abu S. M.


    The final report of the 1992 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship at the Space Exploration Initiative Office (SEIO) in Langley Research Center is presented. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a process, focused on facilitating the integration of the customer's voice in the design and development of a product or service. Various input, in the form of judgements and evaluations, are required during the QFD analyses. All the input variables in these analyses are treated as numeric variables. The purpose of the research was to investigate how QFD analyses can be performed when some or all of the input variables are treated as linguistic variables with values expressed as fuzzy numbers. The reason for this consideration is that human judgement, perception, and cognition are often ambiguous and are better represented as fuzzy numbers. Two approaches for using fuzzy sets in QFD have been proposed. In both cases, all the input variables are considered as linguistic variables with values indicated as linguistic expressions. These expressions are then converted to fuzzy numbers. The difference between the two approaches is due to how the QFD computations are performed with these fuzzy numbers. In Approach 1, the fuzzy numbers are first converted to their equivalent crisp scores and then the QFD computations are performed using these crisp scores. As a result, the output of this approach are crisp numbers, similar to those in traditional QFD. In Approach 2, all the QFD computations are performed with the fuzzy numbers and the output are fuzzy numbers also. Both the approaches have been explained with the help of illustrative examples of QFD application. Approach 2 has also been applied in a QFD application exercise in SEIO, involving a 'mini moon rover' design. The mini moon rover is a proposed tele-operated vehicle that will traverse and perform various tasks, including autonomous operations, on the moon surface. The output of the moon rover application exercise is a

  7. Classification of LiDAR Data with Point Based Classification Methods (United States)

    Yastikli, N.; Cetin, Z.


    LiDAR is one of the most effective systems for 3 dimensional (3D) data collection in wide areas. Nowadays, airborne LiDAR data is used frequently in various applications such as object extraction, 3D modelling, change detection and revision of maps with increasing point density and accuracy. The classification of the LiDAR points is the first step of LiDAR data processing chain and should be handled in proper way since the 3D city modelling, building extraction, DEM generation, etc. applications directly use the classified point clouds. The different classification methods can be seen in recent researches and most of researches work with the gridded LiDAR point cloud. In grid based data processing of the LiDAR data, the characteristic point loss in the LiDAR point cloud especially vegetation and buildings or losing height accuracy during the interpolation stage are inevitable. In this case, the possible solution is the use of the raw point cloud data for classification to avoid data and accuracy loss in gridding process. In this study, the point based classification possibilities of the LiDAR point cloud is investigated to obtain more accurate classes. The automatic point based approaches, which are based on hierarchical rules, have been proposed to achieve ground, building and vegetation classes using the raw LiDAR point cloud data. In proposed approaches, every single LiDAR point is analyzed according to their features such as height, multi-return, etc. then automatically assigned to the class which they belong to. The use of un-gridded point cloud in proposed point based classification process helped the determination of more realistic rule sets. The detailed parameter analyses have been performed to obtain the most appropriate parameters in the rule sets to achieve accurate classes. The hierarchical rule sets were created for proposed Approach 1 (using selected spatial-based and echo-based features) and Approach 2 (using only selected spatial-based features


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carroll


    Full Text Available The response of Monterey Bay to the Great Tohoku earthquake of 2011 is examined in this study. From a practical standpoint, although the resulting tsunami did not cause any damage to the open harbors at Monterey and Moss Landing, it caused extensive damage to boats and infrastructure in Santa Cruz Harbor, which is closed to surrounding waters. From a scientific standpoint, the observed and predicted amplitudes of the tsunami at 1 km from the source were 21.3 and 22.5 m based on the primary arrival from one DART bottom pressure recorder located 986 km ENE of the epicenter. The predicted and observed travel times for the tsunami to reach Monterey Bay agreed within 3%. The predicted and observed periods of the tsunami-generated wave before it entered the bay yielded periods that approached 2 hours. Once the tsunami entered Monterey Bay it was transformed into a seiche with a primary period of 36-37 minutes, corresponding to quarter-wave resonance within the bay. Finally, from a predictive standpoint, major tsunamis that enter the bay from the northwest, as in the present case, are the ones most likely to cause damage to Santa Cruz harbor.

  9. Konstruksi dan Identifikasi Properti Psikometris Instrumen Pengukuran Kebahagiaan Berbasis Pendekatan Indigenous Psychology: Studi Multitrait‐Multimethod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Jati Anggoro


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a scale of happiness based on indigenous psychology approach and identify it’s psychometric properties. The research was divided into three step of scenario: 1. happiness construct exploration based on indigenous psychology approach; 2. Develop the construct into a scale of happiness (Likert model; and 3. Identify it’s psychometric properties (reliability and validity. The psychometric properties analyses consist of internal consistency reliability (alpha‐Cronbach and construct validity (convergent‐discriminant. Multitrait‐multimethod matrix was used on the analysis in order to identify the convergent‐discriminant validity (including three comparative scales: Self‐Esteem Scale Rosenberg, Self‐Esteem Inventory Coopersmith, and PGC Morale Scale. The exploration result shows a unique indicators of happiness in the East native culture (N=604. The psychometric properties analysis show the alpha reliability α=0.895 and the validity was psychometrically accepted (N=111. The conclusion of this study: happiness is a unique construct that consist of strong contextual aspects and the measurement of a native happiness should used a scale of happiness that based on indigenous psychology approach. Further result will be discussed.

  10. Myocardial contrast echocardiography to assess perfusion in a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion injury (United States)

    Hossack, John A.; Li, Yinbo; Christensen, Jonathan P.; Yang, Zequan; French, Brent A.


    Noninvasive approaches for measuring anatomical and physiological changes resulting from myocardial ischemia / reperfusion injury in the mouse heart have significant value since the mouse provides a practical, low-cost model for modeling human heart disease. In this work, perfusion was assessed before, during and after an induced closed- chest, coronary ischemic event. Ultrasound contrast agent, similar to MP1950, in a saline suspension, was injected via cannulated carotid artery as a bolus and imaged using a Siemens Sequoia 512 scanner and a 15L8 intraoperative transducer operating in second harmonic imaging mode. Image sequences were transferred from the scanner to a PC for analysis. Regions of interest were defined in septal and anterior segments of the myocardium. During the ischemic event, when perfusion was diminished in the anterior segment, mean video intensity in the affected segment was reduced by one half. Furthermore, following reperfusion, hyperemia (enhanced blood flow) was observed in the anterior segment. Specifically, the mean video intensity in the affected segment was increased by approximately 50% over the original baseline level prior to ischemia. Following the approach of Kaul et al., [1], gamma variate curves were fitted to the time varying level of mean video intensity. This foundation suggests the possibility of quantifying myocardial blood flow in ischemic regions of a mouse heart using automated analysis of contrast image data sets. An improved approach to perfusion assessment using the destruction-reperfusion approach [2] is also presented.

  11. ITSG-Grace2016 data preprocessing methodologies revisited: impact of using Level-1A data products (United States)

    Klinger, Beate; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten


    For the ITSG-Grace2016 release, the gravity field recovery is based on the use of official GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) Level-1B data products, generated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Before gravity field recovery, the Level-1B instrument data are preprocessed. This data preprocessing step includes the combination of Level-1B star camera (SCA1B) and angular acceleration (ACC1B) data for an improved attitude determination (sensor fusion), instrument data screening and ACC1B data calibration. Based on a Level-1A test dataset, provided for individual month throughout the GRACE period by the Center of Space Research at the University of Texas at Austin (UTCSR), the impact of using Level-1A instead of Level-1B data products within the ITSG-Grace2016 processing chain is analyzed. We discuss (1) the attitude determination through an optimal combination of SCA1A and ACC1A data using our sensor fusion approach, (2) the impact of the new attitude product on temporal gravity field solutions, and (3) possible benefits of using Level-1A data for instrument data screening and calibration. As the GRACE mission is currently reaching its end-of-life, the presented work aims not only at a better understanding of GRACE science data to reduce the impact of possible error sources on the gravity field recovery, but it also aims at preparing Level-1A data handling capabilities for the GRACE Follow-On mission.

  12. Microstructural Characterization and Wear Properties of Fe-Based Amorphous-Crystalline Coating Deposited by Twin Wire Arc Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Arizmendi-Morquecho


    Full Text Available Twin wire arc spraying (TWAS was used to produce an amorphous crystalline Fe-based coating on AISI 1018 steel substrate using a commercial powder (140MXC in order to improve microhardness and wear properties. The microstructures of coating were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM as well as the powder precursor. Analysis in the coating showed the formation of an amorphous matrix with boron and tungsten carbides randomly dispersed. At high amplifications were identified boron carbides at interface boron carbide/amorphous matrix by TEM. This kind of carbides growth can be attributed to partial crystallization by heterogeneous nucleation. These interfaces have not been reported in the literature by thermal spraying process. The measurements of average microhardness on amorphous matrix and boron carbides were 9.1 and 23.85 GPa, respectively. By contrast, the microhardness values of unmelted boron carbide in the amorphous phase were higher than in the substrate, approaching 2.14 GPa. The relative wear resistance of coating was 5.6 times that of substrate. These results indicate that the twin wire arc spraying is a promising technique to prepare amorphous crystalline coatings.

  13. CSR Integration into the Financial Economy: A Conceptual Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana - Loredana FRECEA


    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is a complex concept and its design integrates economic, social and environmental issues, pointing out the operational effects on a voluntary basis. It is considered a strategic point in the actual evolution of the economy, due to the financial market dynamism, being identified a critical correlation between financial crises and corporate social responsibility. The main purpose of this paper is to synthesize, through a literature review, the multiple dimensions of CSR, with a special emphasis on the theoretical approach. In order to provide a coherent overview on the banking CSR, it will be proposed a division of the CSR theories according to: (1 the ethical approach, (2 the stakeholders approach, and (3 the corporate governance approach. The major aim of this paper is to fill a gap in the theoretical approach of the CSR for the banking system, due to the necessity to unify the CSR reporting elements in order to find a balance between the bank’s organizational structure and their legitimacy to operate on the financial market.

  14. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    As part of a DOE goal to develop one or more OTEC Modular Experiment Plants, TRW performed designs, analyses, and evaluations of cold water pipe (CWP) concepts for NOAA. After reviewing the results of the CWP concept selection phase NOAA/DOE selected three concepts for a baseline design: (1) a FRP CWP of sandwich wall construction suspended from the Applied Physics Laboratory/John Hopkins University (APL/JHU) barge at a site 200 miles east of the coast of Brazil using a horizontal deployment scheme (this is TRW's preferred approach); (2) an elastomer CWP suspended from the APL/JHU barge off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico using either a horizontal or vertical deployment scheme; and (3) a polyethylene CWP (single or multiple pipe) suspended from the Gibbs and Cox spar at the Puerto Rico site using a horizontal deployment scheme. TRW has developed a baseline design for each of these configurations. Detailed designs and analyses for the FRP, polyethylene, and elastomer concepts, respectively, are described. A discussion of fabrication plans and processes, schedules for mobilization of facilities and equipment, installation plans, and cost breakdown are given for each concept. (WHK)

  15. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry


    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  16. 增强学生用英语思维的写作意识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴杰; 刘静


    Listening, speaking, reading and writing are the four basic skills in English learning in which writing is usually ignored by the students.Since the implement of CET-4 and CET-6, the teachers and students put more attention on the reading whose scores are much easier to get in the exams. And the time and guidance put on the writing decreases relatively. So most of the students' writing level is still at the starting points. In this paper, there are four main ways listed to solve this problem. 1) integrating the product-oriented approach with the process-oriented approach. 2) the taking of the reading as the base or the source to writing development. 3) by the feedback from the teachers. 4) arranging a series of activities to strengthen the writing awareness in English, And here the most important thing is that taking the appropriate way according to the actual situation to strengthen the students' awareness in English writing and improve their writing skill.

  17. Design and operation of the core topography data acquisition system for TMI-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, L S; Brown, H L


    Development of effective procedures for recovery from the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island 2 nuclear station requires a detailed and quantitative description of the postaccident configuration of the core. This report describes the techniques, equipment, and procedures used for making precise ultrasonic, sonar-like measurements of the cavity left in the upper core region as a result of the accident and details the primary results of the measurements. The system developed for the measurements uses computer techniques for the command and control of remote mechanical and electronic equipment, and for data acquisition and reduction. The system was designed, fabricated, and tested; procedures developed; and personnel trained in 4-1/2 months. The primary results are detailed topographic maps of the cavity. A variety of visual aids was developed to supplement the maps and aid in interpreting companion videotape surveys. The measurements reveal a cavity of 9.3 m/sup 3/, approximately 26% of the total core volume. The cavity occupies most of the full diameter of the core to an average depth of about 1.5 m and approaches 2 m in places.

  18. Making a Math Teaching Aids of Junior High School Based on Scientific Approach Through an Integrated and Sustainable Training (United States)

    Pujiastuti, E.; Mashuri


    Not all of teachers of Mathematics in Junior High School (JHS) can design and create teaching aids. Moreover, if teaching aids should be designed so that it can be used in learning through scientific approaches. The problem: How to conduct an integrated and sustainable training that the math teacher of JHS, especially in Semarang can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach? The purpose of this study to find a way of integrated and continuous training so that the math teacher of JHS can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach. This article was based on research with a qualitative approach. Through trials activities of resulting of training model, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), interviews, and triangulation of the results of the research were: (1) Produced a training model of integrated and sustainable that the mathematics teacher of JHS can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach. (2) In training, there was the provision of material and workshop (3) There was a mentoring in the classroom. (4) Sustainability of the consultation. Our advice: (1) the trainer should be clever, (2) the training can be held at the holidays, while the assistance during the holiday season was over.

  19. Moving global health forward in academic institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Wernli


    Full Text Available Global health has attracted growing attention from academic institutions. Its emergence corresponds to the increasing interdependence that characterizes our time and provides a new worldview to address health challenges globally. There is still a large potential to better delineate the limits of the field, drawing on a wide perspective across sciences and geographical areas. As an implementation and integration science, academic global health aims primarily to respond to societal needs through research, education, and practice. From five academic institutions closely engaged with international Geneva, we propose here a definition of global health based on six core principles: 1 cross–border/multilevel approach, 2 inter–/trans–disciplinarity, 3 systems thinking, 4 innovation, 5 sustainability, and 6 human rights/equity. This definition aims to reduce the century–old divide between medicine and public health while extending our perspective to other highly relevant fields. Overall, this article provides an intellectual framework to improve health for all in our contemporary world with implications for academic institutions and science policy.

  20. Are we giving azathioprine too late? The case for early immunomodulation in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    María Josefina Etchevers; Montserrat Aceituno; Miquel Sans


    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes two entities, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Both are chronic conditions with frequent complications and surgical procedures and a great impact on patient's quality of life. The thiopurine antimetabolites azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are widely used in IBD patients. Current indications include maintenance therapy, steroid-dependant disease, fistula closure, prevention of infliximab immunogenicity and prevention of Crohn's disease recurrence. Surprisingly, the wide use of immunosuppressants in the last decades has not decreased the need of surgery, probably because these treatments are introduced at too late stages in disease course. An earlier use of immunossupressants is now advocated by some authors. The rational includes: (1) failure to modify IBD natural history of present therapeutic approach, (2) demonstration that azathioprine can induce mucosal healing, a relevant prognostic factor for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and (3) demonstration that early immunossupression has a very positive impact on pediatric, recently diagnosed Crohn's disease patients. We are now awaiting the results of new studies, to clarify the contribution of azathioprine, as compared to infliximab (SONIC Study), and to demonstrate the usefulness of azathioprine in recently diagnosed adult Crohn's disease patients (AZTEC study).

  1. Attacking the obesity epidemic: the potential health benefits of providing nutrition information in restaurants. (United States)

    Burton, Scot; Creyer, Elizabeth H; Kees, Jeremy; Huggins, Kyle


    Requiring restaurants to present nutrition information on menus is under consideration as a potential way to slow the increasing prevalence of obesity. Using a survey methodology, we examined how accurately consumers estimate the nutrient content of typical restaurant meals. Based on these results, we then conducted an experiment to address how the provision of nutrition information on menus influences purchase intentions and reported preferences. For both the survey and experiment, data were analyzed using analysis of variance techniques. Survey results showed that levels of calories, fat, and saturated fat in less-healthful restaurant items were significantly underestimated by consumers. Actual fat and saturated fat levels were twice consumers' estimates and calories approached 2 times more than what consumers expected. In the subsequent experiment, for items for which levels of calories, fat, and saturated fat substantially exceeded consumers' expectations, the provision of nutrition information had a significant influence on product attitude, purchase intention, and choice. Most consumers are unaware of the high levels of calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium found in many menu items. Provision of nutrition information on restaurant menus could potentially have a positive impact on public health by reducing the consumption of less-healthful foods.

  2. Methodologically sound: Evaluating the psychometric approach to the assessment of human life history [reply to Copping, Campbell, and Muncer, 2014]. (United States)

    Figueredo, Aurelio José; Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Black, Candace Jasmine; García, Rafael Antonio; Fernandes, Heitor Barcellos Ferreira; Wolf, Pedro Sofio Abril; Woodley of Menie, Michael Anthony


    Copping, Campbell, and Muncer (2014) have recently published an article critical of the psychometric approach to the assessment of life history (LH) strategy. Their purported goal was testing for the convergent validation and examining the psychometric structure of the High-K Strategy Scale (HKSS). As much of the literature on the psychometrics of human LH during the past decade or so has emanated from our research laboratory and those of close collaborators, we have prepared this detailed response. Our response is organized into four main sections: (1) A review of psychometric methods for the assessment of human LH strategy, expounding upon the essence of our approach; (2) our theoretical/conceptual concerns regarding the critique, addressing the broader issues raised by the critique regarding the latent and hierarchical structure of LH strategy; (3) our statistical/methodological concerns regarding the critique, examining the validity and persuasiveness of the empirical case made specifically against the HKSS; and (4) our recommendations for future research that we think might be helpful in closing the gap between the psychometric and biometric approaches to measurement in this area. Clearly stating our theoretical positions, describing our existing body of work, and acknowledging their limitations should assist future researchers in planning and implementing more informed and prudent empirical research that will synthesize the psychometric approach to the assessment of LH strategy with complementary methods.

  3. Accomplishing simple, solubility-based separations of rare earth elements with complexes bearing size-sensitive molecular apertures. (United States)

    Bogart, Justin A; Cole, Bren E; Boreen, Michael A; Lippincott, Connor A; Manor, Brian C; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J


    Rare earth (RE) metals are critical components of electronic materials and permanent magnets. Recycling of consumer materials is a promising new source of rare REs. To incentivize recycling, there is a clear need for the development of simple methods for targeted separations of mixtures of RE metal salts. Metal complexes of a tripodal hydroxylaminato ligand, TriNOx(3-), featured a size-sensitive aperture formed of its three η(2)-(N,O) ligand arms. Exposure of cations in the aperture induced a self-associative equilibrium comprising RE(TriNOx)THF and [RE(TriNOx)]2 species. Differences in the equilibrium constants Kdimer for early and late metals enabled simple separations through leaching. Separations were performed on RE1/RE2 mixtures, where RE1 = La-Sm and RE2 = Gd-Lu, with emphasis on Eu/Y separations for potential applications in the recycling of phosphor waste from compact fluorescent light bulbs. Using the leaching method, separations factors approaching 2,000 were obtained for early-late RE combinations. Following solvent optimization, >95% pure samples of Eu were obtained with a 67% recovery for the technologically relevant Eu/Y separation.

  4. Safety-cost trade-offs in medical device reuse: a Markov decision process model. (United States)

    Sloan, Thomas W


    Healthcare expenditures in the US are approaching 2 trillion dollars, and hospitals and other healthcare providers are under tremendous pressure to rein in costs. One cost-saving approach which is gaining popularity is the reuse of medical devices which were designed only for a single use. Device makers decry this practice as unsanitary and unsafe, but a growing number of third-party firms are willing to sterilize, refurbish, and/or remanufacture devices and resell them to hospitals at a fraction of the original price. Is this practice safe? Is reliance on single-use devices sustainable? A Markov decision process (MDP) model is formulated to study the trade-offs involved in these decisions. Several key parameters are examined: device costs, device failure probabilities, and failure penalty cost. For each of these parameters, expressions are developed which identify the indifference point between using new and reprocessed devices. The results can be used to inform the debate on the economic, ethical, legal, and environmental dimensions of this complex issue.

  5. 2002 summary of the report on studies and activities. Research on the Disposal of High-level Long-lived Radioactive Wastes; 2002 synthese du bilan des etudes et travaux. Recherches pour le stockage des dechets radioactifs haute activite et a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This synthesis presents the studies underway and the major results obtained in the framework of the second research area prescribed by the Law of 1991 (the feasibility study of a deep geological repository). It also clarifies the French and international contexts of that research, namely with regard to the development of scientific partnerships. Content: 1 - scientific knowledge gained in 2002: packages, materials evolution, works about the clayey environment, works about the granitic environment, modeling approach; 2 - the 2002 granite dossier: context and goals, content; 3 - the 2002 concept choices for the clayey environment: overall architecture, packages and storage cells for B-type wastes, packages and storage cells for C-type vitrified wastes, packages and storage cells for spent fuels; 4 - international context: IAEA, OECD/NEA, integrated group for the safety case (IGSC), forum for stakeholders confidence (FSC), working party on decommissioning and dismantling (WPDD), general direction of energy transport, general direction of research, status of partnerships and bilateral agreements, advance of research cooperations, European Union; 5 - ANDRA's participations to international meetings; 6 - scientific partnerships: Ecole des Mines, BRGM, GdR FORPRO, MoMas, CEA, IFP, PRACTIS, PARIS, 7 - information and evaluation: national commission of evaluation (CNE), scientific committee, permanent group, orientation and follow-up committee; 8 - ANDRA's theses; 9 - ANDRA's publications. (J.S.)

  6. Single-gene negative binomial regression models for RNA-Seq data with higher-order asymptotic inference. (United States)

    Di, Yanming


    We consider negative binomial (NB) regression models for RNA-Seq read counts and investigate an approach where such NB regression models are fitted to individual genes separately and, in particular, the NB dispersion parameter is estimated from each gene separately without assuming commonalities between genes. This single-gene approach contrasts with the more widely-used dispersion-modeling approach where the NB dispersion is modeled as a simple function of the mean or other measures of read abundance, and then estimated from a large number of genes combined. We show that through the use of higher-order asymptotic techniques, inferences with correct type I errors can be made about the regression coefficients in a single-gene NB regression model even when the dispersion is unknown and the sample size is small. The motivations for studying single-gene models include: 1) they provide a basis of reference for understanding and quantifying the power-robustness trade-offs of the dispersion-modeling approach; 2) they can also be potentially useful in practice if moderate sample sizes become available and diagnostic tools indicate potential problems with simple models of dispersion.

  7. Should Degree Programs in Biomedical and Health Informatics be Dedicated or Integrated? : Reflections and Recommendations after more than 40 Years of Medical Informatics Education at TU Braunschweig, including 10 Years of B.Sc. and 15 Years of M.Sc. Integrated Degree Curricula. (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold; Marschollek, Michael; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Zeisberg, Ute


    Education in biomedical and health informatics (BMHI) has been established in many countries throughout the world. For degree programs in BMHI we can distinguish between those that are completely stand-alone or dedicated to the discipline vs. those that are integrated within another program. After running integrated degree medical informatics programs at TU Braunschweig for 10 years at the B.Sc. and for 15 years at the M.Sc level, we (1) report about this educational approach, (2) analyze recommendations on, implementations of, and experiences with degree educational programs in BMHI worldwide, (3) summarize our lessons learned with the integrated approach at TU Braunschweig, and (4) suggest an answer to the question, whether degree programs in biomedical and health informatics should be dedicated or integrated. According to our experience at TU Braunschweig and based on our analysis of publications, there is a clear dominance of dedicated degree programs in BMHI. The specialization in medical informatics within a computer science program, as offered at TU Braunschweig, may be a good way of implementing an integrated, informatics-based approach to medical informatics, in particular if a dual degree option can be chosen. The option of curricula leading to double degrees, i.e. in this case to two separate degrees in computer science and in medical informatics might, however, be a better solution.

  8. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas: Nineteenth Quarterly Progress Report (Second Quarter 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala


    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation, and is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we continue, but have as yet been unsuccessful in our attempts, to negotiate with Atmos Energy for a final test of the project demonstration unit. In the meantime, MTR has located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA. Several commercial sales have resulted from the partnership with ABB, and total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units are now approaching $2.6 million.

  9. Biomass production from electricity using ammonia as an electron carrier in a reverse microbial fuel cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell O Khunjar

    Full Text Available The storage of renewable electrical energy within chemical bonds of biofuels and other chemicals is a route to decreasing petroleum usage. A critical challenge is the efficient transfer of electrons into a biological host that can covert this energy into high energy organic compounds. In this paper, we describe an approach whereby biomass is grown using energy obtained from a soluble mediator that is regenerated electrochemically. The net result is a separate-stage reverse microbial fuel cell (rMFC that fixes CO₂ into biomass using electrical energy. We selected ammonia as a low cost, abundant, safe, and soluble redox mediator that facilitated energy transfer to biomass. Nitrosomonas europaea, a chemolithoautotroph, was used as the biocatalyst due to its inherent capability to utilize ammonia as its sole energy source for growth. An electrochemical reactor was designed for the regeneration of ammonia from nitrite, and current efficiencies of 100% were achieved. Calculations indicated that overall bioproduction efficiency could approach 2.7±0.2% under optimal electrolysis conditions. The application of chemolithoautotrophy for industrial bioproduction has been largely unexplored, and results suggest that this and related rMFC platforms may enable biofuel and related biochemical production.

  10. Equation of State of Spin-polarized Neutron Matter and Three-body Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Within the spin-dependent Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) framework, the equation of state of the spinpolarized neutron matter has been investigated by adopting the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction supplemented with a microscopic three-body force. The three-body force has been turn out to be crucial for reproducing the empirical saturation properties of nuclear matter in a non-relativistic microscopic approach[2] such as BHF. The related physical quantities such as spin-symmetry energy, magnetic susceptibility, have been extracted. The three-body force effects have been studied and discussed with a special attention. It is found that in the whole range of spin-polarization, the cnergy per particle of spin-polarized neutron matter fulfills a quadratic relation versus the spin-polarization parameter. The calculated spin-symmetry energies as a function of densityare shown in Fig.l, where the solid curve is obtained by using the AVis two-body force plus the three-body force and the dashed curve is the result by adopting the pure AVis two-body force.

  11. Increasing the detection rate of congenital heart disease during routine obstetric screening using cine loop sweeps. (United States)

    Scott, Ted E; Jones, Judy; Rosenberg, Herschel; Thomson, Andrea; Ghandehari, Hournaz; Rosta, Neil; Jozkow, Kim; Stromer, Malka; Swan, Hans


    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate an increase in the detection rate of fetal cardiac defects using 2 cine loop sweeps. Image reviewers examined a series of 93 cases randomly sorted, including 79 studies with normal findings and 14 studies with abnormal findings. All of the images were assessed by 5 standard criteria. Cases were classified as normal, abnormal, or indeterminate. Reviewers using the conventional approach reviewed 3 still images: the 4-chamber, left ventricular outflow tract, and right ventricular outflow tract views. Reviewers using the cine loop sweeps viewed 2 grayscale sweeps through the fetal heart in real time. The image sequences were reviewed independently by 2 experts, 3 nonexperts, and 2 sonographers blinded to each others' results. The cine loop sweeps had an increased detection rate of 38% for the nonexperts and 36% for the experts compared with the conventional approach. The cine loop sweeps allowed identification of all cardiac defects by at least 2 of the 7 reviewers; the percentage of cases with false-positive findings was 3.9%. With the conventional approach, 2 defects went undetected by all reviewers, and 4 defects were found by only 1 reviewer; the percentage of cases with false-positive findings was 5.4%. The use of cine loop sweeps has the potential to increase the detection of fetal cardiac defects without increasing the rate of false-positive findings or increasing the interpretation and decision-making times.

  12. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification (United States)


    A decade ago celiac disease was considered extremely rare outside Europe and, therefore, was almost completely ignored by health care professionals. In only 10 years, key milestones have moved celiac disease from obscurity into the popular spotlight worldwide. Now we are observing another interesting phenomenon that is generating great confusion among health care professionals. The number of individuals embracing a gluten-free diet (GFD) appears much higher than the projected number of celiac disease patients, fueling a global market of gluten-free products approaching $2.5 billion (US) in global sales in 2010. This trend is supported by the notion that, along with celiac disease, other conditions related to the ingestion of gluten have emerged as health care concerns. This review will summarize our current knowledge about the three main forms of gluten reactions: allergic (wheat allergy), autoimmune (celiac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and gluten ataxia) and possibly immune-mediated (gluten sensitivity), and also outline pathogenic, clinical and epidemiological differences and propose new nomenclature and classifications. PMID:22313950

  13. {sup 13}C structuring shifts for the analysis of model {beta}-hairpins and {beta}-sheets in proteins: diagnostic shifts appear only at the cross-strand H-bonded residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Irene; Scian, Michele; Stewart, James M.; Kier, Brandon L.; Andersen, Niels H., E-mail: [University of Washington, Department of Chemistry (United States)


    The present studies have shown that {sup 13}C=O, {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} and {sup 13}C{sup {beta}} of H-bonded strand residues in {beta}-hairpins provide additional probes for quantitating the extent of folding in {beta}-hairpins and other {beta}-sheet models. Large differences in the structuring shifts (CSDs) of these {sup 13}C sites in H-bonded versus non-H-bonded sites are observed: the differences between H-bonded and non-H-bonded sites are greater than 1.2 ppm for all three {sup 13}C probes. This prompts us to suggest that efforts to determine the extent of hairpin folding from {sup 13}C shifts should be based exclusively on the observation at the cross-strand H-bonded sites. Furthermore, the statistics suggest the {sup 13}C Prime and {sup 13}C{sup {beta}}CSDs will provide the best differentiation with 100 %-folded CSD values approaching -2.6 and +3 ppm, respectively, for the H-bonded sites. These conclusions can be extended to edge-strands of protein {beta}-sheets. Our survey of reported {sup 13}C shifts in {beta}-proteins indicates that some of the currently employed random coil values need to be adjusted, particularly for ionization-induced effects.

  14. Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Power Distribution Network with a Modified Capacity Allocation Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Hu


    Full Text Available The growing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs represents an operational challenge to system operators, mainly at the distribution level by introducing congestion and voltage drop problems. To solve these potential problems, a two-level coordination approach is proposed in this study. An aggregation entity, i.e., an EV virtual power plant (EV-VPP, is used to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO and EV owners considering the decentralized electricity market structure. In level I, to prevent the line congestion and voltage drop problems, the EV-VPP internally respects the line and voltage constraints when making optimal charging schedules. In level II, to avoid power transformer congestion problems, this paper investigates three different coordination mechanisms, or power transformer capacity allocation mechanisms, between the DSO and the EV-VPPs, considering the case of EVs charging and discharging. The three mechanisms include: (1 a market-based approach; (2 a pro-rata approach; and (3 a newly-proposed constrained market-based approach. A case study considering a 37-bus distribution network and high penetration of electric vehicles is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed coordination mechanism, comparing with the existing ones.

  15. Human-Animal Relationship: A Comparative Study in Working and Breeding Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu


    Full Text Available The importance of a good human-horse relationship in every equestrian discipline is recognized by the specialists all over the world. The aim of the study was to comparatively assess the behavioural response towards humans in different horse categories, in two seasons. The human-animal relationship was investigated during a year, in two different seasons in working horses (171 in the winter, 168 in the summer, stallions (62 in the winter, 66 in the summer and broodmares and young horses (137 in the winter, 146 in the summer. Using specific methods, the general attitude of the horses was evaluated (apathetic or alert and their reactions (aggressiveness, fear/avoidance, indifference, friendliness to the: (1 assessors’ approach (2 walking besides and (3 the attempt of touching the animal. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. The value of minimal significance was considered at P 0.05. For the behavioural responses (aggressiveness, fear, indifference or friendly response, statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 were found among the assessed horse categories. The season had no significant influence on the variability of responses in the behavioural tests in none of the horse categories. The results indicate an inadequate human-animal relationship in all the studied horse categories, with negative implications on the welfare of the animals. This problem has low remedial possibilities, because it needs human mentality change of those working with horses.

  16. Developing efficient search strategies to identify reports of adverse effects in MEDLINE and EMBASE. (United States)

    Golder, Su; McIntosh, Heather M; Duffy, Steve; Glanville, Julie


    This study aimed to assess the performance, in terms of sensitivity and precision, of different approaches to searching MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies of adverse effects. Five approaches to searching for adverse effects evidence were identified: approach 1, using specified adverse effects; approach 2, using subheadings/qualifiers; approach 3, using text words; approach 4, using indexing terms; approach 5, searching for specific study designs. The sensitivity and precision of these five approaches, and combinations of these approaches, were compared in a case study using a systematic review of the adverse effects of seven anti-epileptic drugs. The most sensitive search strategy in MEDLINE (97.0%) required a combination of terms for specified adverse effects, floating subheadings, and text words for 'adverse effects'. In EMBASE, a combination of terms for specified adverse effects and text words for 'adverse effects' provided the most sensitive search strategy (98.6%). Both these search strategies yielded low precision (2.8%). A highly sensitive search in either database requires a combination of approaches, and has low precision. This suggests that better reporting and indexing of adverse effects is required and that an effective generic search filter may not yet be feasible.

  17. Convergence and Optimality of Adaptive Regularization for Ill-posed Deconvolution Problems in Infinite Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-fei Wang; Qing-hua Ma


    The adaptive regularization method is first proposed by Ryzhikov et al. in [6] for the deconvolution in elimination of multiples which appear frequently in geoscience and remote sensing. They have done experiments to show that this method is very effective. This method is better than the Tikhonov regularization in the sense that it is adaptive, i.e., it automatically eliminates the small eigenvalues of the operator when the operator is near singular. In this paper, we give theoretical analysis about the adaptive regularization. We introduce an a priori strategy and an a posteriori strategy for choosing the regularization parameter, and prove regularities of the adaptive regularization for both strategies. For the former, we show that the order of the convergence rate can approach 2Ov(‖n‖ 4v/4v+1 ) for some 0 < v < 1, while for the latter, the order of the convergence rate can be at most O(‖n‖ 2v/2v+1) for some 0 < v < 1.

  18. [Tubeless cutaneous ureterostomy through a single stoma with new extraperitoneal ureteral route up to stoma]. (United States)

    Ishizuka, E; Iwasaki, A; Oogo, Y; Ueki, T; Sawada, T


    Tubeless cutaneous ureterostomy through a single stoma has been said to be difficult to establish in patients with normal ureters or normal ureters combined with thick fatty abdominal wall, because of the poor blood supply at the end of the ureters. The technical improvements observed were as follows: 1) The peritoneal fold and the upward traction of the gonadal vessels decrease the ureteral tension and keep the blood supply to the ureters in the extraperitoneal approach. 2) The gonadal vessels and its surrounding tissue, covering the subcutaneous fatty tissue, help the ureteral adhesion at the anastomotic site. 3) Full diminution of the skin defect caused by flap formation, decreases the horizontal tension of the side-to-side anastomized ureters. Sixteen patients with normal ureters underwent this procedure. In a short-term (4-37 months) observation, 4 of the patients, including one with thick abdominal fat, showed unilateral hydronephrosis and 2 patients unilateral non-function kidney. The remaining 10 patients had no complications. Moreover, all the patients have kept their ureterostomies tubeless and their serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels were within normal limits except for one patient. It is reasonably concluded that the new method will result in success clinically even in patients with normal ureters and thick abdominal fatty tissue.

  19. Monte Carlo analysis for finite-temperature magnetism of Nd2Fe14B permanent magnet (United States)

    Toga, Yuta; Matsumoto, Munehisa; Miyashita, Seiji; Akai, Hisazumi; Doi, Shotaro; Miyake, Takashi; Sakuma, Akimasa


    We investigate the effects of magnetic inhomogeneities and thermal fluctuations on the magnetic properties of a rare-earth intermetallic compound, Nd2Fe14B . The constrained Monte Carlo method is applied to a Nd2Fe14B bulk system to realize the experimentally observed spin reorientation and magnetic anisotropy constants KmA(m =1 ,2 ,4 ) at finite temperatures. Subsequently, it is found that the temperature dependence of K1A deviates from the Callen-Callen law, K1A(T ) ∝M (T) 3 , even above room temperature, TR˜300 K , when the Fe (Nd) anisotropy terms are removed to leave only the Nd (Fe) anisotropy terms. This is because the exchange couplings between Nd moments and Fe spins are much smaller than those between Fe spins. It is also found that the exponent n in the external magnetic field Hext response of barrier height FB=FB0(1-Hext/H0) n is less than 2 in the low-temperature region below TR, whereas n approaches 2 when T >TR , indicating the presence of Stoner-Wohlfarth-type magnetization rotation. This reflects the fact that the magnetic anisotropy is mainly governed by the K1A term in the T >TR region.

  20. Region of interest-based versus whole-lung segmentation-based approach for MR lung perfusion quantification in 2-year-old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, M.; Sommer, V.; Hagelstein, C.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Neff, K.W. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Zoellner, F.G. [Heidelberg University, Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Zahn, K. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Paediatric Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Schaible, T. [Heidelberg University, Department of Paediatrics, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)


    With a region of interest (ROI)-based approach 2-year-old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) show reduced MR lung perfusion values on the ipsilateral side compared to the contralateral. This study evaluates whether results can be reproduced by segmentation of whole-lung and whether there are differences between the ROI-based and whole-lung measurements. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, pulmonary blood flow (PBF), pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantified in 30 children after CDH repair. Quantification results of an ROI-based (six cylindrical ROIs generated of five adjacent slices per lung-side) and a whole-lung segmentation approach were compared. In both approaches PBF and PBV were significantly reduced on the ipsilateral side (p always <0.0001). In ipsilateral lungs, PBF of the ROI-based and the whole-lung segmentation-based approach was equal (p=0.50). In contralateral lungs, the ROI-based approach significantly overestimated PBF in comparison to the whole-lung segmentation approach by approximately 9.5 % (p=0.0013). MR lung perfusion in 2-year-old children after CDH is significantly reduced ipsilaterally. In the contralateral lung, the ROI-based approach significantly overestimates perfusion, which can be explained by exclusion of the most ventral parts of the lung. Therefore whole-lung segmentation should be preferred. (orig.)

  1. Percutaneous forefoot surgery. (United States)

    Bauer, T


    Percutaneous methods can be used to perform many surgical procedures on the soft tissues and bones of the forefoot, thereby providing treatment options for all the disorders and deformities seen at this site. Theoretical advantages of percutaneous surgery include lower morbidity rates and faster recovery with immediate weight bearing. Disadvantages are the requirement for specific equipment, specific requirements for post-operative management, and lengthy learning curve. At present, percutaneous hallux valgus correction is mainly achieved with chevron osteotomy of the first metatarsal, for which internal fixation and a minimally invasive approach (2 cm incision) seem reliable and reproducible. This procedure is currently the focus of research and evaluation. Percutaneous surgery for hallux rigidus is simple and provides similar outcomes to those of open surgery. Lateral metatarsal malalignment and toe deformities are good indications for percutaneous treatment, which produces results similar to those of conventional surgery with lower morbidity rates. Finally, fifth ray abnormalities are currently the ideal indication for percutaneous surgery, given the simplicity of the procedure and post-operative course, high reliability, and very low rate of iatrogenic complications. The most commonly performed percutaneous techniques are described herein, with their current indications, main outcomes, and recent developments.

  2. Framing crisis response messages on Facebook: a second level agenda analysis of MH370

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abang Ahmad Dayang Aizza Maisha


    Full Text Available A crisis can certainly bring great threats to an organisation. In time of crisis, what the organisation says and does may impose significant effect on the organisation’s effort to survive its reputational damages. Although crisis responses are considered a common topic, this rapidly growing field of research is however vital to be critically explored. In light of Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT [1] and the Second-level Agenda Setting approach [2], this study seeks to analyse the message frames used by Malaysia Airlines System (MAS in the formation of MH370 crisis response messages that that were disseminated directly to the organisation’s stakeholders on Facebook. The convergence of framing and second level agenda setting has made this study significant as it advances the explication of potential crisis communication effects by underscoring the distinct importance held by certain attributes and frames, in the content of a crisis response message. This paper also includes discussion on the directions for future research on crisis response strategies particularly in the local context.

  3. Methodologically Sound: Evaluating the Psychometric Approach to the Assessment of Human Life History [Reply to Copping, Campbell, and Muncer, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio José Figueredo


    Full Text Available Copping, Campbell, and Muncer (2014 have recently published an article critical of the psychometric approach to the assessment of life history (LH strategy. Their purported goal was testing for the convergent validation and examining the psychometric structure of the High-K Strategy Scale (HKSS. As much of the literature on the psychometrics of human LH during the past decade or so has emanated from our research laboratory and those of close collaborators, we have prepared this detailed response. Our response is organized into four main sections: (1 A review of psychometric methods for the assessment of human LH strategy, expounding upon the essence of our approach; (2 our theoretical/conceptual concerns regarding the critique, addressing the broader issues raised by the critique regarding the latent and hierarchical structure of LH strategy; (3 our statistical/methodological concerns regarding the critique, examining the validity and persuasiveness of the empirical case made specifically against the HKSS; and (4 our recommendations for future research that we think might be helpful in closing the gap between the psychometric and biometric approaches to measurement in this area. Clearly stating our theoretical positions, describing our existing body of work, and acknowledging their limitations should assist future researchers in planning and implementing more informed and prudent empirical research that will synthesize the psychometric approach to the assessment of LH strategy with complementary methods.

  4. The evaluation of trustworthiness to identify health insurance fraud in dentistry. (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Li; Pai, Hao-Ting; Wu, Mei-Fang; Wu, Fan; Li, Chen-Lin


    According to the investigations of the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), health insurance fraud has caused an enormous pecuniary loss in the U.S. In Taiwan, in dentistry the problem is getting worse if dentists (authorized entities) file fraudulent claims. Several methods have been developed to solve health insurance fraud; however, these methods are like a rule-based mechanism. Without exploring the behavior patterns, these methods are time-consuming and ineffective; in addition, they are inadequate for managing the fraudulent dentists. Based on social network theory, we develop an evaluation approach to solve the problem of cross-dentist fraud. The trustworthiness score of a dentist is calculated based upon the amount and type of dental operations performed on the same patient and the same tooth by that dentist and other dentists. The simulation provides the following evidence. (1) This specific type of fraud can be identified effectively using our evaluation approach. (2) A retrospective study for the claims is also performed. (3) The proposed method is effective in identifying the fraudulent dentists. We provide a new direction for investigating the genuineness of claims data. If the insurer can detect fraudulent dentists using the traditional method and the proposed method simultaneously, the detection will be more transparent and ultimately reduce the losses caused by fraudulent claims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lessons learned from undertaking community-based participatory research dissertations: the trials and triumphs of two junior health scholars. (United States)

    Khobzi, Nooshin; Flicker, Sarah


    For graduate students addressing health issues pertinent to marginalized communities, community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods may be an appropriate mode of inquiry. Although there are a number of useful guides on conducting traditional doctoral dissertations (TDD), there is a paucity of similar resources for students engaged in CBPR. Drawing on our own experiences, we aimed to describe the key lessons learned from doing participatory doctoral research. Furthermore, this paper outlines 6 suggestions for those who may be considering or already conducting a CBPR dissertation. Suggestions are derived from elements of the CBPR process that were employed in our own projects. Upon reflection on our experiences conducting CBPR dissertations, we identified 4 lessons learned: (1) to understand the differences between TDDs and the CBPR approach; (2) to be aware of and able to clearly articulate the advantages of CBPR doctoral dissertations; (3) to acknowledge and plan for the possible challenges of CBPR doctoral research; and (4) to recognize aspects of the CBPR process that contribute to the successful completion of doctoral projects. This paper provides an additional resource for doctoral students, based on our own experiences working on CBPR projects. Despite many of the obstacles and challenges, we found the process of engaging in CBPR dissertations deeply rewarding, and hope that our experiences are useful to others.

  6. Protein expression profile of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5, a sugarcane endophytic plant growth-promoting bacterium. (United States)

    Lery, Leticia M S; Coelho, Ana; von Kruger, Wanda M A; Gonçalves, Mayla S M; Santos, Marise F; Valente, Richard H; Santos, Eidy O; Rocha, Surza L G; Perales, Jonas; Domont, Gilberto B; Teixeira, Katia R S; Bertalan, Marcelo; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Bisch, Paulo M


    This is the first broad proteomic description of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, an endophytic bacterium, responsible for the major fraction of the atmospheric nitrogen fixed in sugarcane in tropical regions. Proteomic coverage of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 was obtained by two independent approaches: 2-DE followed by MALDI-TOF or TOF-TOF MS and 1-DE followed by chromatography in a C18 column online coupled to an ESI-Q-TOF or ESI-IT mass spectrometer. The 583 identified proteins were sorted into functional categories and used to describe potential metabolic pathways for nucleotides, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, cofactors and energy production, according to the Enzyme Commission of Enzyme Nomenclature (EC) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) databases. The identification of such proteins and their possible insertion in conserved biochemical routes will allow comparisons between G. diazotrophicus and other bacterial species. Furthermore, the 88 proteins classified as conserved unknown or unknown constitute a potential target for functional genomic studies, aiming at the understanding of protein function and regulation of gene expression. The knowledge of metabolic fundamentals and coordination of these actions are crucial for the rational, safe and sustainable interference on crops. The entire dataset, including peptide sequence information, is available as Supporting Information and is the major contribution of this work.

  7. Deformation Behavior of Al0.25CoCrFeNi High-Entropy Alloy after Recrystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiong Hou


    Full Text Available Cold rolling with subsequent annealing can be used to produce the recrystallized structure in high entropy alloys (HEAs. The Al0.25CoCrFeNi HEAs rolled to different final thickness (230, 400, 540, 800, 1000, 1500 μm are prepared to investigate their microstructure evolutions and mechanical behaviors after annealing. Only the single face-centered cubic phase was obtained after cold rolling and recrystallization annealing at 1100 °C for 10 h. The average recrystallized grain size in this alloy after annealing ranges from 92 μm to 136 μm. The annealed thin sheets show obviously size effects on the flow stress and formability. The yield strength and tensile strength decrease as t/d (thickness/average grain diameter ratio decreases until the t/d approaches 2.23. In addition, the stretchability (formability decreases with the decrease of the t/d ratio especially when the t/d ratio is lower than about 6. According to the present results, yield strength can be expressed as a function of the t/d ratio.

  8. Perspectives on the ethical concerns and justifications of the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV testing recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waxman Michael J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC recommended three changes to HIV testing methods in US healthcare settings: (1 an opt-out approach, (2 removal of separate signed consent, and (3 optional HIV prevention counseling. These recommendations led to a public debate about their moral acceptability. Methods We interviewed 25 members from the fields of US HIV advocacy, care, policy, and research about the ethical merits and demerits of the three changes to HIV testing methods. We performed a qualitative analysis of the participant responses in the interviews and summarized the major themes. Results In general, arguments in favor of the methods were based upon their ultimate contribution to increasing HIV testing and permitting the consequent benefits of identifying those who are HIV infected and linking them to further care. Conclusions The prevailing theme of ethical concern focused on suspicions that the methods might not be properly implemented, and that further safeguards might be needed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar


    Full Text Available Issues related to pricing strategy in the Indonesian construction industry are covered%2C including problems of current pricing strategy in construction%2C exploration of pricing strategies with a market-based approach%2C and survey findings of the top Indonesian contractors regarding their current pricing practices and the applicability of market-based pricing strategy models developed by Mochtar and Arditi. Comparisons with similar survey findings of the top U.S. contractors are conducted whenever possible. In conclusion%2C the belief that current pricing strategy in construction is predominantly cost-based is confirmed by the survey findings%3B indeed%2C in setting the markup%2C most contractors rely on subjective assessment of the competition. Using simulated bidding scenarios%2C it is discovered that Indonesian contractors tend to be more market-based as they know more about the owner%5C%27s characteristics%2C competitors%5C%27 characteristics%2C and market demand. Consequently%2C the implementation of bidding procedure proposed by Mochtar and Arditi is supported. To maximize the benefits of market-based pricing strategies%2C the bidding procedure change should be explored by all parties involved in the Indonesian construction industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Cost-based+pricing%2C+market-based+pricing%2C+pricing+variables%2C+bidding+procedure.

  10. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment Based on Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: State of Gujarat, India (United States)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir


    The Gujarat state of India is one of the most seismically active intercontinental regions of the world. Historically, it has experienced many damaging earthquakes including the devastating 1819 Rann of Kachchh and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The effect of the later one is grossly underestimated by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP). To assess a more adequate earthquake hazard for the state of Gujarat, we apply Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation taking into account naturally fractal distribution of earthquake loci. USLE has evident implications since any estimate of seismic hazard depends on the size of the territory considered and, therefore, may differ dramatically from the actual one when scaled down to the proportion of the area of interest (e.g. of a city) from the enveloping area of investigation. We cross-compare the seismic hazard maps compiled for the same standard regular grid 0.2° × 0.2° (1) in terms of design ground acceleration based on the neo-deterministic approach, (2) in terms of probabilistic exceedance of peak ground acceleration by GSHAP, and (3) the one resulted from the USLE application. Finally, we present the maps of seismic risks for the state of Gujarat integrating the obtained seismic hazard, population density based on India's Census 2011 data, and a few model assumptions of vulnerability.

  11. ESR study of atomic hydrogen and tritium in solid T$_{2}$ and T$_{2}$:H$_{2}$ matrices below 1K

    CERN Document Server

    Sheludiakov, S; Järvinen, J; Vainio, O; Lehtonen, L; Zvezdov, D; Vasiliev, S; Lee, D M; Khmelenko, V V


    We report on the first ESR study of atomic hydrogen and tritium stabilized in a solid T$_{2}$ and T$_{2}$:H$_{2}$ matrices down to 70$\\,$mK. The concentrations of T atoms in pure T$_{2}$ approached $2\\times10^{20}$cm$^{-3}$ and record-high concentrations of H atoms $\\sim1\\times10^{20}$cm$^{-3}$ were reached in T$_{2}$:H$_{2}$ solid mixtures where a fraction of T atoms became converted into H due to the isotopic exchange reaction T+H$_2\\rightarrow$TH+H. The maximum concentrations of unpaired T and H atoms was limited by their recombination which becomes enforced by efficient atomic diffusion due to a presence of a large number of vacancies and phonons generated in the matrices by $\\beta$-particles. Recombination also appeared in an explosive manner both being stimulated and spontaneously in thick films where sample cooling was insufficient. We suggest that the main mechanism for H and T migration is physical diffusion related to tunneling or hopping to vacant sites in contrast to isotopic chemical reactions wh...

  12. Review and analysis of quality improvement techniques in police departments: application for public health. (United States)

    Riley, William; Brewer, Russell


    This qualitative study reviews and analyzes quality improvement (QI) techniques in police departments as a background for assessing ways to introduce QI into public health departments. Police departments and public health departments have many elements in common. These findings provide some understanding of how public health departments can incorporate QI methods as well as learn about the potential barriers to implementing QI projects that are inherent in government agencies. The study consists of extensive interviews of informants from academic settings and police departments across the nation. The findings describe (1) the extent of QI diffusion into police departments, (2) barriers and enablers of QI diffusion in police departments, (3) a typology of QI diffusion, and (4) the metrics and incentives to promote QI in the absence of profit motives. Seven specific recommendations are made to promote the application and adoption of QI in public health: (1) implement QI as a comprehensive management approach, (2) top official involvement, (3) a broad focus on mission and vision, (4) lessons for overcoming barriers, (5) how to find resources, (6) how to integrate proven methods, and (7) how to build on existing capabilities.

  13. Analysis of third-party certification approaches using an occupational health and safety conformity-assessment model. (United States)

    Redinger, C F; Levine, S P


    The occupational health and safety conformity-assessment model presented in this article was developed (1) to analyze 22 public and private programs to determine the extent to which these programs use third parties in conformity-assessment determinations, and (2) to establish a framework to guide future policy developments related to the use of third parties in occupational health and safety conformity-assessment activities. The units of analysis for this study included select Occupational Safety and Health Administration programs and standards, International Organization for Standardization-based standards and guidelines, and standards and guidelines developed by nongovernmental bodies. The model is based on a 15-cell matrix that categorizes first-, second-, and third-party activities in terms of assessment, accreditation, and accreditation-recognition activities. The third-party component of the model has three categories: industrial hygiene/safety testing and sampling; product, equipment, and laboratory certification; and, occupational health and safety management system registration/certification. Using the model, 16 of the 22 programs were found to have a third-party component in their conformity-assessment structure. The analysis revealed that (1) the model provides a useful means to describe and analyze various third-party approaches, (2) the model needs modification to capture aspects of traditional governmental conformity-assessment/enforcement activities, and (3) several existing third-party conformity-assessment systems offer robust models that can guide future third-party policy formulation and implementation activities.

  14. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: A case study in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.; Kendall, R.L. (eds.)


    Between 1963 and 1980, the Hudson River estuary was the focus of one of the most ambitious environmental research and assessment programs ever performed. The studies supported a series of US federal proceedings involving licenses and discharge permits for two controversial electric power generating facilities: the Cornwall pumped storage facility, and units 2 and 3 of the Indian Point nuclear generating station. Both facilities were to draw large volumes of water from a region of the Hudson used as spawning and nursery habitat by several fish species, including the striped bass. Fishermen and conservationists feared that a major fraction of the striped bass eggs and larvae in the Hudson would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Additional fish would be killed on trash screens at the intakes. Scientists were asked to aid the utility companies and regulatory agencies in determining the biological importance of entrainment and impingement. This monograph contains both technical papers that present research results and synthesis papers that summarize and interpret the results. The intent was to: (1) summarize the scientific issues and approaches; (2) present the significant results of the Hudson River biological studies; (3) describe the role of the studies in the decision-making process; (4) evaluate the successes and failures of the studies; and (5) present recommendations for future estuarine impact assessments. Separate abstracts are processed for 22 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  15. March 2013 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A dinner meeting was held on Wednesday, 3/20/2013 at Scottsdale Shea beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 14 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, infectious disease, nursing, and radiology communities.Copies of the book “Breathing in America: Diseases, Progress, and Hope” were distributed.Three cases were presented:1.Tim Kuberski, infectious diseases from Maricopa, presented a 49 year old woman with a history of alcoholism who presented with RML pneumonia. Despite azithromycin and cephtriaxone she developed progressive respiratory failure and a right pleural effusion. A right chest tube was placed. Cultures of blood and the pleural fluid were negative. She was suspected of having an anaerobic infection. Follow-up CT scan showed abscess formation in her RML with areas of dense consolidation on the left and a left pleural effusion. Discussion focused on whether RML resection should be performed. Most favored a surgical approach. 2.Andrew Goldstein, thoracic surgery, presented a …

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of whole saliva from chronic periodontitis patients. (United States)

    Gonçalves, Lorena Da Rós; Soares, Márcia Regina; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Garcia, Carlos; Camisasca, Danielle Resende; Domont, Gilberto; Feitosa, Alfredo C R; Pereira, Denise de Abreu; Zingali, Russolina B; Alves, Gilda


    Chronic periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory process affecting tooth supporting tissues in the presence of pathogenic bacterial biofilm. There is some evidence for changes in the protein composition of whole saliva from chronic periodontitis patients, but there have been no studies using a proteomic approach. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare the protein profiles of unstimulated whole saliva from patients with periodontitis and healthy subjects by two complementary approaches (2D-gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography). Protein spots of interest were analyzed by MALDI-TOF-TOF, and the data was complemented by an ESI-Q-TOF experiment. The analyses revealed that subjects with periodontal disease have increased amounts of blood proteins (serum albumin and hemoglobin) and immunoglobulin, and they have a lower abundance of cystatin compared to the control group. A higher number of protein spots were observed in the periodontitis group, of which most were identified as alpha-amylase. This higher number of alpha-amylase variants seems to be caused by hydrolysis by cysteine proteases under such inflammatory conditions. This approach gives novel insights into alterations of salivary protein in presence of periodontal inflammation and may contribute to the improvement of periodontal diagnosis.

  17. \\Defining Patient Advocacy for the Context of Clinical Ethics Consultation: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Consultants. (United States)

    Brazg, Tracy; Lindhorst, Taryn; Dudzinski, Denise; Wilfond, Benjamin


    The idea of patient advocacy as a function of clinical ethics consultation (CEC) has been debated in the bioethics literature. In particular, opinion is divided as to whether patient advocacy inherently is in conflict with the other duties of the ethics consultant, especially that of impartial mediator. The debate is complicated, however, because patient advocacy is not uniformly conceptualized. This article examines two literatures that are crucial to understanding patient advocacy in the context of bioethical deliberations: the CEC literature and the literature on advocacy in the social work profession. A review of this literature identifies four distinct approaches to patient advocacy that are relevant to CEC: (1) the best interest approach, (2) the patient rights approach, (3) the representational approach, and (4) the empowerment approach. After providing a clearer understanding of the varied meanings of patient advocacy in the context of CEC, we assert that patient advocacy is not inherently inconsistent with the function of the ethics consultant and the CEC process. Finally, we provide a framework to help consultants determine if they should adopt an advocacy role.

  18. A combined de novo protein sequencing and cDNA library approach to the venomic analysis of Chinese spider Araneus ventricosus. (United States)

    Duan, Zhigui; Cao, Rui; Jiang, Liping; Liang, Songping


    In past years, spider venoms have attracted increasing attention due to their extraordinary chemical and pharmacological diversity. The recently popularized proteomic method highly improved our ability to analyze the proteins in the venom. However, the lack of information about isolated venom proteins sequences dramatically limits the ability to confidently identify venom proteins. In the present paper, the venom from Araneus ventricosus was analyzed using two complementary approaches: 2-DE/Shotgun-LC-MS/MS coupled to MASCOT search and 2-DE/Shotgun-LC-MS/MS coupled to manual de novo sequencing followed by local venom protein database (LVPD) search. The LVPD was constructed with toxin-like protein sequences obtained from the analysis of cDNA library from A. ventricosus venom glands. Our results indicate that a total of 130 toxin-like protein sequences were unambiguously identified by manual de novo sequencing coupled to LVPD search, accounting for 86.67% of all toxin-like proteins in LVPD. Thus manual de novo sequencing coupled to LVPD search was proved an extremely effective approach for the analysis of venom proteins. In addition, the approach displays impeccable advantage in validating mutant positions of isoforms from the same toxin-like family. Intriguingly, methyl esterifcation of glutamic acid was discovered for the first time in animal venom proteins by manual de novo sequencing.

  19. Combination therapy using antioxidants and low level laser therapy (LLLT) on noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) (United States)

    Chang, So-Young; Lim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Min young; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae-Yun; Rhee, Chung-Ku


    One of the most common factors that cause hearing disorders is noise trauma. Noise is an increasing hazard and it is pervasive, which makes it difficult to take precautions and prevent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The prevalence of hearing loss among factory workers to be 42 %[1]. Ocupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) continues to be a significant occupational hazard. ONIHL is permanent and may cause significant disability, for which there currently exists no cure, but is largely preventable. More than 30 million Americans are potentially exposed to hazardous noise levels in occupations such as transportation, construction, and coal mining, as well as recreationally. In the mainstream setting, exposure avoidance strategies aimed to reduce the incidence of ONIHL remain the focus of public health and occupational medicine approaches[2]. In military conditions this is most often caused by such things as explosions, blasts, or loud noises from vehicles ranging from 100 to 140 dB[3] and military weapons generating approximately 140-185 dB peak sound pressure levels[4].

  20. Integrating Theory and Practice: Applying the Quality Improvement Paradigm to Product Line Engineering (United States)

    Stark, Michael; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)


    My assertion is that not only are product lines a relevant research topic, but that the tools used by empirical software engineering researchers can address observed practical problems. Our experience at NASA has been there are often externally proposed solutions available, but that we have had difficulties applying them in our particular context. We have also focused on return on investment issues when evaluating product lines, and while these are important, one can not attain objective data on success or failure until several applications from a product family have been deployed. The use of the Quality Improvement Paradigm (QIP) can address these issues: (1) Planning an adoption path from an organization's current state to a product line approach; (2) Constructing a development process to fit the organization's adoption path; (3) Evaluation of product line development processes as the project is being developed. The QIP consists of the following six steps: (1) Characterize the project and its environment; (2) Set quantifiable goals for successful project performance; (3) Choose the appropriate process models, supporting methods, and tools for the project; (4) Execute the process, analyze interim results, and provide real-time feedback for corrective action; (5) Analyze the results of completed projects and recommend improvements; and (6) Package the lessons learned as updated and refined process models. A figure shows the QIP in detail. The iterative nature of the QIP supports an incremental development approach to product lines, and the project learning and feedback provide the necessary early evaluations.

  1. Detection of lobular structures in normal breast tissue. (United States)

    Apou, Grégory; Schaadt, Nadine S; Naegel, Benoît; Forestier, Germain; Schönmeyer, Ralf; Feuerhake, Friedrich; Wemmert, Cédric; Grote, Anne


    Ongoing research into inflammatory conditions raises an increasing need to evaluate immune cells in histological sections in biologically relevant regions of interest (ROIs). Herein, we compare different approaches to automatically detect lobular structures in human normal breast tissue in digitized whole slide images (WSIs). This automation is required to perform objective and consistent quantitative studies on large data sets. In normal breast tissue from nine healthy patients immunohistochemically stained for different markers, we evaluated and compared three different image analysis methods to automatically detect lobular structures in WSIs: (1) a bottom-up approach using the cell-based data for subsequent tissue level classification, (2) a top-down method starting with texture classification at tissue level analysis of cell densities in specific ROIs, and (3) a direct texture classification using deep learning technology. All three methods result in comparable overall quality allowing automated detection of lobular structures with minor advantage in sensitivity (approach 3), specificity (approach 2), or processing time (approach 1). Combining the outputs of the approaches further improved the precision. Different approaches of automated ROI detection are feasible and should be selected according to the individual needs of biomarker research. Additionally, detected ROIs could be used as a basis for quantification of immune infiltration in lobular structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimally invasive exposure in revision total hip arthroplasty: a guide to selection and technique. (United States)

    Toms, Andrew; Greidanus, Nelson; Garbuz, Donald; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P


    Revision total hip arthroplasty requires a careful surgical plan. Selection of the appropriate exposure is an essential step for success. Exposure is important not only for the complete and safe visualization and extraction of components and cement, but also for the achievement of a stable construct at the end of the procedure. In addition, controlled exposure minimizes intraoperative complications and bone and soft-tissue damage, essential considerations for eradication of infection. Three questions need to be addressed at the preoperative stage: (1) Is this a straightforward revision that can be handled with a standard approach? (2) Is this a more complex revision requiring an extensile exposure? (3) Is this an unusual revision requiring special techniques to allow adequate access that cannot be obtained using standard extensile techniques? Each group of exposures presents three further possibilities, each of which has specific indications, advantages, and disadvantages. In conjunction with the preoperative analysis, this knowledge should enable the revision surgeon to select the most appropriate approach, resulting in optimal exposure for each individual revision scenario.

  3. Current role of lung scintigraphy in pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Giordano, A; Angiolillo, D J


    The pivotal role of lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) has been questioned in recent years due to the introduction of spiral computed tomography. However, the scintigraphic results used for comparisons are often those of the authoritative PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) study, carried out in the 1980s. Pulmonary scintigraphy has progressed from those years both in the methodological and interpretative fields, although perhaps too slowly. Results better than those of PIOPED's have been presented by study groups who used: 1) perfusion-only approach, 2) SPET imaging; 3) new interpretative criteria; 4) different prediction rules to integrate clinical and scintigraphic probabilities of PE. These advances are still insufficiently recognised by the nuclear medicine community, possibly due to a sort of PIOPED-based "cultural globalisation". This paper reviews the actual advantages and limitations of nuclear medicine techniques, the diagnostic role of scintigraphy within the diagnostic algorithms proposed by international working groups and scientific societies and the results obtained from SPET imaging in the diagnosis of PE.

  4. Current role of lung scintigraphy in pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, A. [Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore A. Gemelli, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Rome (Italy); Angiolillo, D. J. [Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore A. Gemelli, Institute of Cardiology, Rome (Italy)


    The pivotal role of lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) has been questioned in recent years due to the introduction of spiral computed tomography. However, the scintigraphic results used for comparisons are often those of the authoritative PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) study, carried out in the 1980s. Pulmonary scintigraphy has progressed from those years both in the methodological and interpretative fields, although perhaps too slowly. Results better than those of PIOPED's have been presented by study groups who used: 1) perfusion-only approach; 2) SPET imaging; 3) new interpretative criteria; 4) different prediction rules to integrate clinical and scintigraphic probabilities of PE. These advances are still insufficiently recognised by the nuclear medicine community, possibly due to a sort of PIOPED-based cultural globalisation. This paper reviews the actual advantages and limitations of nuclear medicine techniques, the diagnostic role of scintigraphy within the diagnostic algorithms proposed by international working groups and scientific societies and the results obtained from SPET imaging in the diagnosis of PE.

  5. Valence band hybridization in N-rich GaN1-xAsx alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K.M.; Denlinger, J.D.; Shan, W.; Ager III, J.W.; Kimura, A.; Tang, H.F.; Kuech, T.F.


    We have used photo-modulated transmission and optical absorption spectroscopies to measure the composition dependence of interband optical transitions in N-rich GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} alloys with x up to 0.06. The direct bandgap gradually decreases as x increases. In the dilute x limit, the observed band gap approaches 2.8 eV; this limiting value is attributed to a transition between the As localized level, which has been previously observed in As-doped GaN at 0.6 eV above the valence band maximum in As-doped GaN, and the conduction band minimum. The structure of the valence band of GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} is explained by the hybridization of the localized As states with the extended valence band states of GaN matrix. The hybridization is directly confirmed by soft x-ray emission experiments. To describe the electronic structure of the GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} alloys in the entire composition range a linear interpolation is used to combine the effects of valence band hybridization in N-rich alloys with conduction band anticrossing in As-rich alloys.

  6. Climate-related global changes in the southern Caribbean: Trinidad and Tobago (United States)

    Singh, Bhawan


    A climate change deriving from the atmospheric build up of greenhouse gases (GHG) is supposed to become evident by the middle of the next century. This GHG-induced climate change would supposedly lead to a global warming of about 2 to 4°C and a rise in mean sea level of about 60 cm towards the end of the next century. This study focuses on the field measurements and interpretations of a number of, supposedly, climate-driven regional changes, including shifts in climate and hydrology, coastal erosion and sedimentation, salinisation of coastal aquifers and estuaries, and also coral bleaching, in Trinidad and Tobago, in the southern Caribbean. The results show significant changes and shifts in temperature and rainfall, severe coastal erosion, approaching 2 to 4 m per year for certain beaches, appreciable salinisation of a number of coastal aquifers and an estuary along the Caroni swamp, in Trinidad, and what appears to be partial coral bleaching, at the Culloden Reef in Tobago. These field-observed regional changes may conceivably be interpreted as early signals of a GHG-induced climate change. However, in view of the uncertainty surrounding GHG-induced climate change and sea level rise and the limitations of our data, especially the length of record, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of these results.

  7. Improved hydrogen photoproduction from photosynthetic bacteria and green algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P.F.; Lien, S.; Seibert, M.


    Photosynthetic bacteria evolve hydrogen at much higher rates than do other classes of photosynthetic microorganisms. In addition, they tolerate harsh environments, grow rapidly, and utilize both visible and near infrared light in photosynthesis. They do not split water, but this does not necessarily eliminate their potential use in future applied systems. They are easily manipulated genetically, and thus might be modified to metabolize common biomass waste materials in place of expensive defined organic substrates. Furthermore, the potential for increasing hydrogen photoproduction via genetic techniques is promising. Strains that partially degrade cellulose, have high photoproduction rates, or contain very large amounts of the enzymes associated with hydrogen metabolism have been isolated. Green algae also produce hydrogen but are capable of using water as a substrate. For example, C. reinhardi can evolve hydrogen and oxygen at a molar ratio approaching 2:1. Based upon effect of dichlorophenyl dimethylurea (a specific inhibitor of photosystem II, PSII) on hydrogen photoproduction in the wild type strain and upon results obtained with PSII mutants, one can demonstrate that water is the major source of electrons for hydrogen production. The potential efficiency of in vivo coupling between hydrogenase and the photosynthetic electron transport system is high. Up to 76% of the reductants generated by the electron transport system can be channeled directly to the enzyme for in vivo hydrogen production. Rates exceeding 170 of H/sub 2/ mg Chl/sup -1/ hr/sup -1/ have been observed.

  8. Evolution of regional to global paddy rice mapping methods (United States)

    Dong, J.; Xiao, X.


    Paddy rice agriculture plays an important role in various environmental issues including food security, water use, climate change, and disease transmission. However, regional and global paddy rice maps are surprisingly scarce and sporadic despite numerous efforts in paddy rice mapping algorithms and applications. In this presentation we would like to review the existing paddy rice mapping methods from the literatures ranging from the 1980s to 2015. In particular, we illustrated the evolution of these paddy rice mapping efforts, looking specifically at the future trajectory of paddy rice mapping methodologies. The biophysical features and growth phases of paddy rice were analyzed first, and feature selections for paddy rice mapping were analyzed from spectral, polarimetric, temporal, spatial, and textural aspects. We sorted out paddy rice mapping algorithms into four categories: 1) Reflectance data and image statistic-based approaches, 2) vegetation index (VI) data and enhanced image statistic-based approaches, 3) VI or RADAR backscatter-based temporal analysis approaches, and 4) phenology-based approaches through remote sensing recognition of key growth phases. The phenology-based approaches using unique features of paddy rice (e.g., transplanting) for mapping have been increasingly used in paddy rice mapping. Based on the literature review, we discussed a series of issues for large scale operational paddy rice mapping.

  9. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)


    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature ( C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  10. Commercializing Government-sponsored Innovations: Twelve Successful Buildings Case Studies (United States)

    Brown, M. A.; Berry, L. G.; Goel, R. K.


    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies.

  11. Clinical management of infantile cholelithiasis. (United States)

    Jeanty, Cerine; Derderian, S Christopher; Courtier, Jesse; Hirose, Shinjiro


    Infantile cholelithiasis is a rare disease process, and management strategies are poorly defined. We therefore examined the risk factors, complications, and management of this disease at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed infants with cholelithiasis diagnosed on ultrasound between 1997 and 2013. Details of the patient's medical history, presentation, imaging findings, laboratory values, and treatment were reviewed and analyzed. Over the 16-year period, 50 infants were evaluated for cholelithiasis. Thirty-seven (74%) had at least one risk factor for gallstone development which included total parenteral nutrition, diuretic therapy, cephalosporin antibiotic treatment, sepsis, congenital heart disease (CHD), prematurity, or a malabsorptive gastrointestinal condition. Thirteen (26%) infants were symptomatic, most commonly presenting with emesis and jaundice. Complications from gallstones included choledocholithiasis (9), cholecystitis (3), and pancreatitis (1). Nearly half (6/13) of patients with complicated cholelithiasis had CHD. Of infants presenting with complications, 9 had a cholecystectomy, most commonly via a laparoscopic approach, 2 had an ERCP for choledocholithiasis, and 2 were medically managed. In patients managed conservatively, resolution of gallstones occurred in 25%. Infantile cholelithiasis has variable outcomes ranging from spontaneous resolution to choledocholithiasis or cholecystitis. While patients with complicated cholelithiasis often undergo an operation, infants <1year of age have higher anesthetic and surgical risks. Conservative management with ERCP or medical treatment can also be successful, which offers an alternative to operative intervention in properly selected patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping Banana Plants from High Spatial Resolution Orthophotos to Facilitate Plant Health Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Johansen


    Full Text Available The Banana Bunchy Top Virus (Genus: Babuvirus reduces plant growth and prevents banana production. Because of the very large number of properties with banana plants in South East Queensland, Australia, a mapping approach was developed to delineate individual and clusters of banana plants to help plant identification and enable prioritization of plant inspections for Banana Bunchy Top Virus. Due to current outbreaks in South East Queensland, there are concerns that the virus may spread to the major banana growing districts further north. The mapping approach developed was based on very high spatial resolution airborne orthophotos. Object-based image analysis was used to: (1 detect banana plants using edge and line detection approaches; (2 produce accurate and realistic outlines around classified banana plants; and (3 evaluate the mapping results. The mapping approach was developed based on 10 image tiles of 1 km × 1 km and was applied to orthophotos (3600 image tiles from September 2011 covering the entire Sunshine Coast Region in South East Queensland. Based on field inspections of the classified maps, a user’s mapping accuracy of 88% (n = 146 was achieved. The results will facilitate the detection of banana plants and increase the inspection rate of Banana Bunchy Top Virus in the future.

  13. MHD stability of configurations with distorted toroidal coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.A.; Ardela, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)


    We have investigated the local ideal MHD stability properties of a compact tokamak/torsatron configuration that models the proposed EPEIUS device. The {beta} limits imposed by the Mercier criterion and ballooning modes approach 1% in 50 kA peaked toroidal current and in current-free cases. A sequence at {beta}=6.75% is demonstrated to become marginally stable to local modes when the 180 kA toroidal current prescribed becomes sufficiently hollow that the maximum value of the inverse rotational transform q{sub max} exceeds 5 and the minimum value q{sub min} near the plasma edge approaches 2. The stabilisation mechanism is associated with the shape of the flux surface average of the parallel current density {sigma}>. A {sigma}> profile that increases in magnitude radially exercises a strong stabilizing influence on the energy principle. In the outer half of the plasma volume, the Mercier criterion (and to a lesser extent the ballooning eigenvalue) displays very local unstable spikes that align with rational values of 1/(qL). We interpret this as a potential for pressure-driven island formation rather than a strict stability limit. This phenomenon requires more detailed investigation using equilibrium codes that can study magnetic island structures. Global internal and external mode stability properties must also be examined, particularly for hollow current profile cases where the large toroidal plasma current concentrated near the plasma edge could destabilize external modes. (author) 1 fig., 5 refs.

  14. Effective g factor in black phosphorus thin films (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Lou, Wen-Kai; Zhang, Dong; Cheng, Fang; Zhou, Guanghui; Chang, Kai


    We theoretically investigate the effective g factor in the black phosphorus (BP) thin films (TFs) based on a multiband k .p theory. We demonstrate that the effective single particle g factor in pristine BP TF is anisotropic arising from its anisotropic band structure with gxx *≈gyy *≈2.0 and gzz * sensitively depending on the interband coupling and the band gap. The gzz * approaches 2.0 with increasing hole doping density and gate electric field since both of them minish the interband coupling by reducing the overlap integral between the electron and hole wave functions. We also estimate the exchange interaction enhancement on the effective single particle g factor by using the screened Hartree-Fock approximation. The exchange interaction enhanced g factor (gex) shows maxima (minima) at odd (even) filling factors. The effective g factor (g*) oscillates with the increase of magnetic field and sensitively depends on the Landau level broadening as well as the gate electric field since both of them affect the interband coupling and the electron-electron interactions.

  15. Illustration and analysis of a coordinated approach to an effective forensic trace evidence capability. (United States)

    Stoney, David A; Stoney, Paul L


    An effective trace evidence capability is defined as one that exploits all useful particle types, chooses appropriate technologies to do so, and directly integrates the findings with case-specific problems. Limitations of current approaches inhibit the attainment of an effective capability and it has been strongly argued that a new approach to trace evidence analysis is essential. A hypothetical case example is presented to illustrate and analyze how forensic particle analysis can be used as a powerful practical tool in forensic investigations. The specifics in this example, including the casework investigation, laboratory analyses, and close professional interactions, provide focal points for subsequent analysis of how this outcome can be achieved. This leads to the specification of five key elements that are deemed necessary and sufficient for effective forensic particle analysis: (1) a dynamic forensic analytical approach, (2) concise and efficient protocols addressing particle combinations, (3) multidisciplinary capabilities of analysis and interpretation, (4) readily accessible external specialist resources, and (5) information integration and communication. A coordinating role, absent in current approaches to trace evidence analysis, is essential to achieving these elements. However, the level of expertise required for the coordinating role is readily attainable. Some additional laboratory protocols are also essential. However, none of these has greater staffing requirements than those routinely met by existing forensic trace evidence practitioners. The major challenges that remain are organizational acceptance, planning and implementation.

  16. Improving Hospital-Wide Early Resource Allocation through Machine Learning. (United States)

    Gartner, Daniel; Padman, Rema


    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which early determination of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) can be used for better allocation of scarce hospital resources. When elective patients seek admission, the true DRG, currently determined only at discharge, is unknown. We approach the problem of early DRG determination in three stages: (1) test how much a Naïve Bayes classifier can improve classification accuracy as compared to a hospital's current approach; (2) develop a statistical program that makes admission and scheduling decisions based on the patients' clincial pathways and scarce hospital resources; and (3) feed the DRG as classified by the Naïve Bayes classifier and the hospitals' baseline approach into the model (which we evaluate in simulation). Our results reveal that the DRG grouper performs poorly in classifying the DRG correctly before admission while the Naïve Bayes approach substantially improves the classification task. The results from the connection of the classification method with the mathematical program also reveal that resource allocation decisions can be more effective and efficient with the hybrid approach.

  17. Risk of viral acute gastrointestinal illness from nondisinfected drinking water distribution systems. (United States)

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Borchardt, Mark A; Kieke, Burney A; Spencer, Susan K; Loge, Frank J


    Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence from virus intrusions into the distribution systems of 14 nondisinfecting, groundwater-source, community water systems. Water samples for virus quantification were collected monthly at wells and households during four 12-week periods in 2006-2007. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection was installed on the communities' wellheads during one study year; UV was absent the other year. UV was intended to eliminate virus contributions from the wells and without residual disinfectant present in these systems, any increase in virus concentration downstream at household taps represented virus contributions from the distribution system (Approach 1). During no-UV periods, distribution system viruses were estimated by the difference between well water and household tap virus concentrations (Approach 2). For both approaches, a Monte Carlo risk assessment framework was used to estimate AGI risk from distribution systems using study-specific exposure-response relationships. Depending on the exposure-response relationship selected, AGI risk from the distribution systems was 0.0180-0.0661 and 0.001-0.1047 episodes/person-year estimated by Approaches 1 and 2, respectively. These values represented 0.1-4.9% of AGI risk from all exposure routes, and 1.6-67.8% of risk related to drinking water exposure. Virus intrusions into nondisinfected drinking water distribution systems can contribute to sporadic AGI.

  18. Ab initio study of TaON, an active photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. (United States)

    Reshak, A H


    Tantalum oxynitride has been studied as an active photocatalyst under visible light, using a full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the framework of density functional theory. The electronic and optical properties of TaON are calculated using local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation (EVGGA) and the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential approximation to describe the exchange-correlation potential. The calculated band gap value obtained by the mBJ approximation approach (2.5 eV) is very close to the experimental result (2.5 eV). We found that hybridization among the Ta-d, O-p and N-p states results in the formation of a covalent bond between Ta-N and Ta-O. The calculated optical properties confirm that the TaON is an active photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. TaON has a high dielectric constant and the components show anisotropy in the energy range between 3.0 eV and 10.0 eV. A high refractive index of 2.47 at 632.8 nm is obtained which shows better agreement with the experimental value (2.5 at 632.8 nm) than previous results.

  19. Coordinating Permit Offices and the Development of Utility-Scale Geothermal Energy (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, A.; Young, K.; Witherbee, K.


    Permitting is a major component of the geothermal development process. Better coordination across government agencies could reduce uncertainty of the process and the actual time of permitting. This presentation highlights various forms of coordinating permit offices at the state and federal level in the western United States, discusses inefficiencies and mitigation techniques for permitting natural resource projects, analyzes whether various approaches are easily adaptable to utility-scale geothermal development, and addresses advantages and challenges for coordinating permit offices. Key successful strategies identified include: 1. Flexibility in implementing the approach (i.e. less statutory requirements for the approach); 2. Less dependence on a final environmental review for information sharing and permit coordination; 3. State and federal partnerships developed through memorandum of understanding to define roles and share data and/or developer information. A few of the most helpful techniques include: 1. A central point of contact for the developer to ask questions surrounding the project; 2. Pre-application meetings to assist the developer in identifying all of the permits, regulatory approvals, and associated information or data required; 3. A permit schedule or timeline to set expectations for the developer and agencies; 4. Consolidating the public notice, comment, and hearing period into fewer hearings held concurrently.

  20. Practice benefit from participating in a practice-based research network study of postpartum depression: a national research network (NRN) report. (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P; Pace, Wilson; Dietrich, Allen; Bertram, Susan; Kurland, Margary; Graham, Deborah; Huff, Jessica; Rocca, Liliana; Wollan, Peter


    At the midpoint of a large clinical trial taking place in a practice-based research network (PBRN), we asked leaders of the enrolled practices about the impact of participating in a PBRN study. Using semistructured interviews, the lead study nurse and physician from each site were queried about the impact of study participation on issues related to the study topic of postpartum depression (PPD) as well as any other impacts on the practice not directly related to PPD. From the results, initial themes were identified by 3 of the investigators (BPY, SB, MK) and confirmed by all the authors. Interviewee responses were grouped by theme. Forty-eight study leaders from 28 solo, moderately sized group and residency practices were interviewed during a period of 60 days. Practices were located in 20 different states, and 54% were in rural communities. Six major themes emerged. Study participation led to: ((1)) the recognition of the need for systematic approaches; ((2)) more effective teamwork and communication within the practice; ((3)) adaptation and extension of the PPD study tools and a systematic approach to the care of other chronic conditions; ((4)) increased professional self-worth and community recognition; ((5)) opportunity and support for staff members to "stretch" into new roles; and ((6)) increased research literacy within the practice. Participating in a PBRN research study can provide advantages to practices that extend beyond the study's specific purpose and content. These results provide further support for the value of PBRN research funding.

  1. Increase Jc by Improving the Array of Nb3Sn strands for Fusion Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Xuan


    During Phase I, our efforts were focusing on improving the array of subelement in the tube type strands by hardening the Sn core and the subelement matrix to effectively increase the Jc of the strands. Below is a summary of the results. 1) We were unsuccessful in improving the array using a Cu-Sn matrix approach. 2) We slightly improved the array using Sn with 1.5at%Ti doped core, and a 217-subelement restacked strand was made and drawn down without any breakage. 3) We greatly improved the array using the Glidcop Al-15 to replace the pure Cu sheath in the subelement, and a 217-subelement restacked strand was made and drawn down. Both strands have very good drawability and the array showed good improvement. 4) We also improved the array using improved wire drawing techniques using Hyper Tech's new caterpillar wire drawing machines to enable straight wire drawing for the entire wire drawing process. 5) The 919-subelement restack strand shows its non-Cu Jc over 2100 A/mm2 at 12 T/4.2 K and AC loss of 508 mJ/cm3.

  2. Reporter-encapsulated liposomes on graphene field effect transistors for signal enhanced detection of physiological enzymes. (United States)

    Chen, Hu; Lim, Seng Koon; Chen, Peng; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yi; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Platt, Mark; Liedberg, Bo; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong


    A novel approach for enzymatic assay using reporter-encapsulated liposomes on graphene field effect transistors (FET) is proposed. This approach involves real time monitoring of drain current (Id) of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) upon rupture of reporter-encapsulated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) liposomes triggered by enzymes. For validation of the proposed approach, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) is used as the reporter for specific detection of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a key enzyme in various membrane related physiological processes. Experimental results revealed that Id increased with PLA2 concentration, which is attributed to the interaction between released TNP and rGO. The limit of detection (LOD) achieved by the proposed approach was 80 pM, which is superior to most assays reported previously and much lower than the cut-off level of circulating secretory PLA2 (2.07 nM). Besides the high accuracy of the electronic detection methodology, the signal enhancement effect realized by the excess concentration of TNP (approximately 1 mM) in liposomes is believed to be the main reason for the significantly enhanced sensitivity of the proposed assay, indicating great potential for further improvement in the sensitivity by increasing the concentration of TNP. In addition, the proposed approach is rapid (incubation time ≤ 10 min) and label-free, thus showing great potential for practical applications in the future.

  3. Dynamic optimization in environmental economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Elke; Tragler, Gernot; Veliov, Vladimir M. (eds.) [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Mathematical Methods in Economics; Semmler, Willi [The New School for Social Research, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Economics


    This book contains two chapters with the topics: 1. Chapter: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ECONOMY AND CLIMATE: (a) Climate Change and Technical Progress: Impact of Informational Constraints. (b) Environmental Policy in a Dynamic Model with Heterogeneous Agents and Voting. (c) Optimal Environmental Policy in the Presence of Multiple Equilibria and Reversible Hysteresis. (d). Modeling the Dynamics of the Transition to a Green Economy. (e) One-Parameter GHG Emission Policy With R and D-Based Growth. (f) Pollution, Public Health Care, and Life Expectancy when Inequality Matters. (g) Uncertain Climate Policy and the Green Paradox. (h) Uniqueness Versus Indeterminacy in the Tragedy of the Commons - A ''Geometric'' Approach. 2. Chapter: OPTIMAL EXTRACTION OF RESOURCES: (j) Dynamic Behavior of Oil Importers and Exporters Under Uncertainty. (k) Robust Control of a Spatially Distributed Commercial Fishery. (l) On the Effect of Resource Exploitation on Growth: Domestic Innovation vs. Technological Diffusion Through Trade. (m) Forest Management and Biodiversity in Size-Structured Forests Under Climate Change. (n) Carbon Taxes and Comparison of Trading Regimes in Fossil Fuels. (o) Landowning, Status and Population Growth. (p) Optimal Harvesting of Size-Structured Biological Populations.

  4. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification. (United States)

    Sapone, Anna; Bai, Julio C; Ciacci, Carolina; Dolinsek, Jernej; Green, Peter H R; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Kaukinen, Katri; Rostami, Kamran; Sanders, David S; Schumann, Michael; Ullrich, Reiner; Villalta, Danilo; Volta, Umberto; Catassi, Carlo; Fasano, Alessio


    A decade ago celiac disease was considered extremely rare outside Europe and, therefore, was almost completely ignored by health care professionals. In only 10 years, key milestones have moved celiac disease from obscurity into the popular spotlight worldwide. Now we are observing another interesting phenomenon that is generating great confusion among health care professionals. The number of individuals embracing a gluten-free diet (GFD) appears much higher than the projected number of celiac disease patients, fueling a global market of gluten-free products approaching $2.5 billion (US) in global sales in 2010. This trend is supported by the notion that, along with celiac disease, other conditions related to the ingestion of gluten have emerged as health care concerns. This review will summarize our current knowledge about the three main forms of gluten reactions: allergic (wheat allergy), autoimmune (celiac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and gluten ataxia) and possibly immune-mediated (gluten sensitivity), and also outline pathogenic, clinical and epidemiological differences and propose new nomenclature and classifications.

  5. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapone Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract A decade ago celiac disease was considered extremely rare outside Europe and, therefore, was almost completely ignored by health care professionals. In only 10 years, key milestones have moved celiac disease from obscurity into the popular spotlight worldwide. Now we are observing another interesting phenomenon that is generating great confusion among health care professionals. The number of individuals embracing a gluten-free diet (GFD appears much higher than the projected number of celiac disease patients, fueling a global market of gluten-free products approaching $2.5 billion (US in global sales in 2010. This trend is supported by the notion that, along with celiac disease, other conditions related to the ingestion of gluten have emerged as health care concerns. This review will summarize our current knowledge about the three main forms of gluten reactions: allergic (wheat allergy, autoimmune (celiac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and gluten ataxia and possibly immune-mediated (gluten sensitivity, and also outline pathogenic, clinical and epidemiological differences and propose new nomenclature and classifications.

  6. Assessing the Health and Performance Risks of Reduced Carbon Dioxide Exposures and Resource Utilization (United States)

    James, John T.


    There have been a cluster of anecdotal reports that ISS crews are experiencing adverse health effects from on orbit exposure to CO2 levels well below the current Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC), which is 5.3 mmHg for 180 days of exposure. Developing evidence that this standard should be reduced to protect crew health is not a simple process. Dr. John James' team looked at the reports of headaches by the crew during private medical conferences and matched these with CO2 levels around the time of these reports. They then compared these to CO2 levels when there were no reports of headache. Using benchmark dose modeling, they found that the risk of headache could be predicted in concentration ranges from 2 to 5 mmHg. However, the data are incomplete because there were insufficient data when crews were exposed to concentrations below 2 mmHg. James' team also asked whether neuro-cognitive effects could be identified with CO2 exposure levels and found that these could not be associated with CO2 levels. Finally, they addressed the question of resource use to meet various levels of CO2 control if the SMACs were lowered. They estimated that CO2 restrictions approaching 2 mmHg would require substantial increases in power use and up-mass resources. They are refining their data on CO2 and headaches, and are looking at potential interactions of intracranial pressure and CO2 levels in eliciting ocular effects.

  7. Can we reduce debris flow to an equivalent one-phase flow? (United States)

    Chareyre, B.; Marzougui, D.; Chauchat, J.


    A recent extension of the discrete element method is reported for the simulation of dense mixtures of non-colloidal particles and viscous fluids in the non-inertial regime. As an application, we examine the interplay between rate dependent dilatancy and hydro-mechanical coupling which can be expected in debris flow. The numerical model includes sphere-sphere contacts using a soft contact approach [2], short range hydrodynamic interactions defined by frame-invariant expressions of forces and torques in the lubrication approximation, and drag forces resulting from the poromechanical coupling computed with the DEM-PFV technique [3]. The bulk shear stress is decomposed into contact stress and hydrodynamic stress. Both contributions are shown to be increasing functions of a dimensionless shear rate Iv, in agreement with experimental results [4]. Statistics of microstructural variables highlight a complex interplay between solid contacts and hydrodynamic interactions. In contrast with a popular idea, the results suggest that lubrication may not necessarily reduce the contribution of contact forces to the bulk shear stress. The proposed model is general and applies directly to sheared satured granular media in which pore pressure feedback plays a key role. We argue that it can be the case for debris fow, especially during the triggering phase, when run-out include transitional phases, and when the flow is stopped. It is then concluded that debris cannot be computed by assuming solely the rheological properties of an equivalent mixture.

  8. Computational Social Creativity. (United States)

    Saunders, Rob; Bown, Oliver


    This article reviews the development of computational models of creativity where social interactions are central. We refer to this area as computational social creativity. Its context is described, including the broader study of creativity, the computational modeling of other social phenomena, and computational models of individual creativity. Computational modeling has been applied to a number of areas of social creativity and has the potential to contribute to our understanding of creativity. A number of requirements for computational models of social creativity are common in artificial life and computational social science simulations. Three key themes are identified: (1) computational social creativity research has a critical role to play in understanding creativity as a social phenomenon and advancing computational creativity by making clear epistemological contributions in ways that would be challenging for other approaches; (2) the methodologies developed in artificial life and computational social science carry over directly to computational social creativity; and (3) the combination of computational social creativity with individual models of creativity presents significant opportunities and poses interesting challenges for the development of integrated models of creativity that have yet to be realized.

  9. Loss concentration and evacuation by mini-wire-septa from circular machines for spallation neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Schönauer, Horst Otto


    Efficient loss management is crucial in high-intensity circular machines like neutron sources, and those using superconducting magnets. Collimator systems have been designed or are under intensive study [1]. The common problem of collimation is the outscattering from the collimator faces which are most frequently hit at shallow depth. In this situation high collection efficiency can only be achieved by two-or-more-stage, double-jaw, systems requiring betatron phase advances approaching 2p. As the outscattering is isotropic, both transverse planes are affected and the system layout becomes a two-dimensional problem. Any convincing single-stage collimation system would be simpler to operate and is likely to be less expensive. The possible physical evacuation of the lost beam towards a remote dump can drastically reduce the radioactivity level in the tunnel. Moreover, fitting a two-stage system into an existing machine is difficult and in general not very promising. In this situation a wire septum may be the onl...

  10. A New Approach to Monte Carlo Simulations in Statistical Physics (United States)

    Landau, David P.


    Monte Carlo simulations [1] have become a powerful tool for the study of diverse problems in statistical/condensed matter physics. Standard methods sample the probability distribution for the states of the system, most often in the canonical ensemble, and over the past several decades enormous improvements have been made in performance. Nonetheless, difficulties arise near phase transitions-due to critical slowing down near 2nd order transitions and to metastability near 1st order transitions, and these complications limit the applicability of the method. We shall describe a new Monte Carlo approach [2] that uses a random walk in energy space to determine the density of states directly. Once the density of states is known, all thermodynamic properties can be calculated. This approach can be extended to multi-dimensional parameter spaces and should be effective for systems with complex energy landscapes, e.g., spin glasses, protein folding models, etc. Generalizations should produce a broadly applicable optimization tool. 1. A Guide to Monte Carlo Simulations in Statistical Physics, D. P. Landau and K. Binder (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2000). 2. Fugao Wang and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2050 (2001); Phys. Rev. E64, 056101-1 (2001).

  11. The Wang-Landau Sampling Algorithm (United States)

    Landau, David P.


    Over the past several decades Monte Carlo simulations[1] have evolved into a powerful tool for the study of wide-ranging problems in statistical/condensed matter physics. Standard methods sample the probability distribution for the states of the system, usually in the canonical ensemble, and enormous improvements have been made in performance through the implementation of novel algorithms. Nonetheless, difficulties arise near phase transitions, either due to critical slowing down near 2nd order transitions or to metastability near 1st order transitions, thus limiting the applicability of the method. We shall describe a new and different Monte Carlo approach [2] that uses a random walk in energy space to determine the density of states directly. Once the density of states is estimated, all thermodynamic properties can be calculated at all temperatures. This approach can be extended to multi-dimensional parameter spaces and has already found use in classical models of interacting particles including systems with complex energy landscapes, e.g., spin glasses, protein folding models, etc., as well as for quantum models. 1. A Guide to Monte Carlo Simulations in Statistical Physics, D. P. Landau and K. Binder (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 2000). 2. Fugao Wang and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2050 (2001); Phys. Rev. E64, 056101-1 (2001).

  12. Evolution of genome organizations of squirrels (Sciuridae) revealed by cross-species chromosome painting. (United States)

    Li, Tangliang; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Biltueva, Larisa; Fu, Beiyuan; Wang, Jinhuan; Nie, Wenhui; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang


    With complete sets of chromosome-specific painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of human and grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), the whole genome homologies between human and representatives of tree squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, Callosciurus erythraeus), flying squirrels (Petaurista albiventer) and chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) have been defined by cross-species chromosome painting. The results show that, unlike the highly rearranged karyotypes of mouse and rat, the karyotypes of squirrels are highly conserved. Two methods have been used to reconstruct the genome phylogeny of squirrels with the laboratory rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as the out-group: (1) phylogenetic analysis by parsimony using chromosomal characters identified by comparative cytogenetic approaches; (2) mapping the genome rearrangements onto recently published sequence-based molecular trees. Our chromosome painting results, in combination with molecular data, show that flying squirrels are phylogenetically close to New World tree squirrels. Chromosome painting and G-banding comparisons place chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus ), with a derived karyotype, outside the clade comprising tree and flying squirrels. The superorder Glires (orde Rodentia + order Lagomorpha) is firmly supported by two conserved syntenic associations between human chromosomes 1 and 10p homologues, and between 9 and 11 homologues.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Aaron L.; Hylko, James M.


    Depending on the invasive nature of performing waste management activities, excessive concentrations of mists, vapors, gases, dusts or fumes may be present thus creating hazards to the employee from either inhalation into the lungs or absorption through the skin. To address these hazards, similar exposure groups and an exposure profile result consisting of: (1) a hazard index (concentration); (2) an exposure rating (monitoring results or exposure probabilities); and (3) a frequency rating (hours of potential exposure per week) are used to assign an exposure risk rating (ERR). The ERR determines if the potential hazards pose significant risks to employees linking potential exposure and breathing zone (BZ) monitoring requirements. Three case studies consisting of: (1) a hazard-task approach; (2) a hazard-job classification-task approach; and (3) a hazard approach demonstrate how to conduct exposure assessments using this methodology. Environment, safety and health professionals can then categorize levels of risk and evaluate the need for BZ monitoring, thereby quantifying employee exposure levels accurately.

  14. Identification of Lignin and Polysaccharide Modifications in Populus Wood by Chemometric Analysis of 2D NMR Spectra from Dissolved Cell Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mattias Hedenstrom; Susanne Wiklund-Lindstrom; Tommy (O)man; Fachuang Lu; Lorenz Gerber; Paul Schatz; Bj(o)rn Sundberg; John Ralph


    2D ~(13)C-~1H HSQC NMR spectroscopy of acetylated cell walls in solution gives a detailed fingerprint that can be used to assess the chemical composition of the complete wall without extensive degradation. We demonstrate how multivariate analysis of such spectra can be used to visualize cell wall changes between sample types as high-resolution 2D NMR loading spectra. Changes in composition and structure for both lignin and polysaccharides can subsequently be interpreted on a molecular level. The multivariate approach alleviates problems associated with peak picking of overlap-ping peaks, and it allows the deduction of the relative importance of each peak for sample discrimination. As a first proof of concept, we compare Populus tension wood to normal wood. All well established differences in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin compositions between these wood types were readily detected, confirming the reliability of the multivariate approach. In a second example, wood from transgenic Populus modified in their degree of pectin methylesterification was compared to that of wild-type trees. We show that differences in both lignin and polysaccharide composition that are difficult to detect with traditional spectral analysis and that could not be a priori predicted were revealed by the multi-variate approach. 2D NMR of dissolved cell wall samples combined with multivariate analysis constitutes a novel approach in cell wall analysis and provides a new tool that will benefit cell wall research.

  15. Theoretical model for mesoscopic-level scale-free self-organization of functional brain networks. (United States)

    Piersa, Jaroslaw; Piekniewski, Filip; Schreiber, Tomasz


    In this paper, we provide theoretical and numerical analysis of a geometric activity flow network model which is aimed at explaining mathematically the scale-free functional graph self-organization phenomena emerging in complex nervous systems at a mesoscale level. In our model, each unit corresponds to a large number of neurons and may be roughly seen as abstracting the functional behavior exhibited by a single voxel under functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the course of the dynamics, the units exchange portions of formal charge, which correspond to waves of activity in the underlying microscale neuronal circuit. The geometric model abstracts away the neuronal complexity and is mathematically tractable, which allows us to establish explicit results on its ground states and the resulting charge transfer graph modeling functional graph of the network. We show that, for a wide choice of parameters and geometrical setups, our model yields a scale-free functional connectivity with the exponent approaching 2, which is in agreement with previous empirical studies based on fMRI. The level of universality of the presented theory allows us to claim that the model does shed light on mesoscale functional self-organization phenomena of the nervous system, even without resorting to closer details of brain connectivity geometry which often remain unknown. The material presented here significantly extends our previous work where a simplified mean-field model in a similar spirit was constructed, ignoring the underlying network geometry.

  16. ASTRO-FOLD 2.0: an Enhanced Framework for Protein Structure Prediction. (United States)

    Subramani, A; Wei, Y; Floudas, C A


    The three-dimensional (3-D) structure prediction of proteins, given their amino acid sequence, is addressed using the first principles-based approach ASTRO-FOLD 2.0. The key features presented are: (1) Secondary structure prediction using a novel optimization-based consensus approach, (2) β-sheet topology prediction using mixed-integer linear optimization (MILP), (3) Residue-to-residue contact prediction using a high-resolution distance-dependent force field and MILP formulation, (4) Tight dihedral angle and distance bound generation for loop residues using dihedral angle clustering and non-linear optimization (NLP), (5) 3-D structure prediction using deterministic global optimization, stochastic conformational space annealing, and the full-atomistic ECEPP/3 potential, (6) Near-native structure selection using a traveling salesman problem-based clustering approach, ICON, and (7) Improved bound generation using chemical shifts of subsets of heavy atoms, generated by SPARTA and CS23D. Computational results of ASTRO-FOLD 2.0 on 47 blind targets of the recently concluded CASP9 experiment are presented.

  17. Bounds in 4D conformal field theories with global symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattazzi, Riccardo; Vichi, Alessandro [Institut de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rychkov, Slava [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, and Faculte de Physique, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (France)


    We explore the constraining power of OPE associativity in 4D conformal field theory with a continuous global symmetry group. We give a general analysis of crossing symmetry constraints in the 4-point function ({phi}{phi}{phi}{dagger}{phi}{dagger}), where {phi} is a primary scalar operator in a given representation R. These constraints take the form of 'vectorial sum rules' for conformal blocks of operators whose representations appear in RxR and Rx R-bar . The coefficients in these sum rules are related to the Fierz transformation matrices for the RxRx R-bar x R-bar invariant tensors. We show that the number of equations is always equal to the number of symmetry channels to be constrained. We also analyze in detail two cases-the fundamental of SO(N) and the fundamental of SU(N). We derive the vectorial sum rules explicitly, and use them to study the dimension of the lowest singlet scalar in the {phi} x {phi}{dagger} OPE. We prove the existence of an upper bound on the dimension of this scalar. The bound depends on the conformal dimension of {phi} and approaches 2 in the limit dim({Phi}){yields}1. For several small groups, we compute the behavior of the bound at dim({Phi})>1. We discuss implications of our bound for the conformal technicolor scenario of electroweak symmetry breaking.

  18. Scalar potential model of redshift and discrete redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Hodge, J C


    On the galactic scale the universe is inhomogeneous and redshift $z$ is occasionally less than zero. A scalar potential model (SPM) that links the galaxy scale $z$ to the cosmological scale $z$ of the Hubble Law is postulated. Several differences among galaxy types suggest that spiral galaxies are Sources and that early type, lenticular, and irregular galaxies are Sinks of a scalar potential field. The morphology-radius and the intragalactic medium cluster observations support the movement of matter from Source galaxies to Sink galaxies. A cell structure of galaxy groups and clusters is proposed to resolve a paradox concerning the scalar potential like the Olber's paradox concerning light. For the sample galaxies, the ratio of the luminosity of Source galaxies to the luminosity of Sink galaxies approaches $2.7 \\pm 0.1$. An equation is derived from sample data, which is anisotropic and inhomogeneous, relating $z$ of and the distance $D$ to galaxies. The calculated $z$ has a correlation coefficient of 0.88 with...

  19. Effect of inorganic carbon on anaerobic ammonium oxidation enriched in sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Dexiang; Li Xiaoming; Yang Qi; Zeng Guangming; Guo Liang; Yue Xiu


    The present lab-scale research reveals the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation microorganism from methanogenic anaerobic granular sludge and the effect of inorganic carbon (sodium bicarbonate) on anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The enrichment of anammox bacteria was carried out in a 7.0-L SBR and the effect of bicarbonate on anammox was conducted in a 3.0-L SBR. Research results , especially the biomass, showed first signs of anammox activity after 54 d cultivation with synthetic wastewater, when the pH was controlled between 7.5 and 8.3, the temperature was 35℃. The anammox activity increased as the influent bicarbonate concentration increased from 1.0 to 1.5 g/L and then, was inhibited as the bicarbonate concentration approached 2.0 g/L. However, the activity could be restored by the reduction of bicarbonate concentration to 1.0 g/L, as shown by rapid conversion of ammonium, and nitrite and nitrate production with normal stoichiometry. The optimization of the bicarbonate concentration in the reactor could increase the anammox rate up to 66.4 mgN/(L·d).

  20. Second-generation-heliostat optimization studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The objective of this study was to define and quantify cost reductions in the Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace Second Generation Heliostat resulting from design and cost optimization. These cost reductions were based on optimizing the heliostat performance vs. cost and engineering design, and reviewing the design specification in selected technological areas with a goal of removing nonrealistic requirements and eliminating or minimizing overdesign. Specific technological areas investigated were: (1) designing the heliostat for survival strength rather than stiffness and reducing the operational wind requirements as dictated by this design approach; (2) reducing the pointing accuracy and/or beam quality required for some fraction or all of the heliostat field; (3) modifying the operational temperature range; (4) relaxing the rate at which the heliostat must move in the slew mode; (5) using alternate beam safety strategies; (6) analyzing actual wind data for selected sites in the southwest United States vs. the heliostat design specification survival wind requirements; (7) estimating heliostat damage for winds in excess of the design specification over a 30 year period; (8) evaluating the impact of designing the heliostat for higher wind loads; and (9) investigating the applicability to heliostat design of the standard engineering practices for designing buildings.

  1. Mechanical energy estimation during walking: validity and sensitivity in typical gait and in children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Van de Walle, P; Hallemans, A; Schwartz, M; Truijen, S; Gosselink, R; Desloovere, K


    Gait efficiency in children with cerebral palsy is usually quantified by metabolic energy expenditure. Mechanical energy estimations, however, can be a valuable supplement as they can be assessed during gait analysis and plotted over the gait cycle, thus revealing information on timing and sources of increases in energy expenditure. Unfortunately, little information on validity and sensitivity exists. Three mechanical estimation approaches: (1) centre of mass (CoM) approach, (2) sum of segmental energies (SSE) approach and (3) integrated joint power approach, were validated against oxygen consumption and each other. Sensitivity was assessed in typical gait and in children with diplegia. CoM approach underestimated total energy expenditure and showed poor sensitivity. SSE approach overestimated energy expenditure and showed acceptable sensitivity. Validity and sensitivity were best in the integrated joint power approach. This method is therefore preferred for mechanical energy estimation in children with diplegia. However, mechanical energy should supplement, not replace metabolic energy, as total energy expended is not captured in any mechanical approach.

  2. Various Energy-Saving Approaches to a TFT-LCD Panel Fab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Kuang Chang


    Full Text Available This study employs the developed simulation software for the energy use of the high-tech fabrication plant (hereafter referred as a fab to examine six energy-saving approaches for the make-up air unit (MAU of a TFT-LCD (thin-film transistor liquid-crystal display fab. The studied approaches include: (1 Approach 1: adjust the set point of dry bulb temperature and relative humidity in the cleanroom; (2 Approach 2: lower the flow rate of supply air volume in the MAU; (3 Approach 3: use a draw-through type instead of push through type MAU; (4 Approach 4: combine the two stage cooling coils in MAU to a single stage coil; (5 Approach 5: reduce the original MAU exit temperature from 16.5 °C to 14.5 °C; and (6 Approach 6: avoid an excessive increase in pressure drop over the filter by replacing the HEPA filter more frequently. The simulated results are further compared to the measured data of the studied TFT-LCD fab in Taiwan. The simulated results showed that Approach 1 exhibits more significant influence on annual power consumption than the other approaches. The advantage/disadvantage of each approach is elaborated. The impact of the six approaches on the annual power consumption of the fab is also discussed.

  3. Climate-related global changes in the southern Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhawan [Department of Geography, University of Montreal, Montreal, QU (Canada)


    A climate change deriving from the atmospheric build up of greenhouse gases (GHG) is supposed to become evident by the middle of the next century. This GHG-induced climate change would supposedly lead to a global warming of about 2 to 4C and a rise in mean sea level of about 60 cm towards the end of the next century. This study focuses on the field measurements and interpretations of a number of, supposedly, climate-driven regional changes, including shifts in climate and hydrology, coastal erosion and sedimentation, salinisation of coastal aquifers and estuaries, and also coral bleaching, in Trinidad and Tobago, in the southern Caribbean. The results show significant changes and shifts in temperature and rainfall, severe coastal erosion, approaching 2 to 4m per year for certain beaches, appreciable salinisation of a number of coastal aquifers and an estuary along the Caroni swamp, in Trinidad, and what appears to be partial coral bleaching, at the Culloden Reef in Tobago. These field-observed regional changes may conceivably be interpreted as early signals of a GHG-induced climate change. However, in view of the uncertainty surrounding GHG-induced climate change and sea level rise and the limitations of our data, especially the length of record, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of these results

  4. A proteomics approach to study synergistic and antagonistic interactions of the fungal-bacterial consortium Fusarium oxysporum wild-type MSA 35. (United States)

    Moretti, Marino; Grunau, Alexander; Minerdi, Daniela; Gehrig, Peter; Roschitzki, Bernd; Eberl, Leo; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Riedel, Kathrin


    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen that causes severe damage of many economically important crop species. Various microorganisms have been shown to inhibit this soil-borne plant pathogen, including non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strains. In this study, F. oxysporum wild-type (WT) MSA 35, a biocontrol multispecies consortium that consists of a fungus and numerous rhizobacteria mainly belonging to gamma-proteobacteria, was analyzed by two complementary metaproteomic approaches (2-DE combined with MALDI-Tof/Tof MS and 1-D PAGE combined with LC-ESI-MS/MS) to identify fungal or bacterial factors potentially involved in antagonistic or synergistic interactions between the consortium members. Moreover, the proteome profiles of F. oxysporum WT MSA 35 and its cured counter-part CU MSA 35 (WT treated with antibiotics) were compared with unravel the bacterial impact on consortium functioning. Our study presents the first proteome mapping of an antagonistic F. oxysporum strain and proposes candidate proteins that might play an important role for the biocontrol activity and the close interrelationship between the fungus and its bacterial partners.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Nurjaman


    Full Text Available The background of this study is the school of the new students of mathematics education courses came from grade high, medium and low. Here the writer wants to see how much influence of the school level on new students’ critical thinking skills and creative mathematical. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in new students’ mathematical disposition, critical & creative thinking ability through the mathematical problem posing approach based on school level (high, medium, low. The method used in this research is the experimental method, with only posttest design. The population of this study is all the students of mathematics education department in Cimahi; while the sample is selected randomly from one college. Then from this chosen college is taken two samples from random class. The instrument of essay test is used to measure students’ critical and mathematical creative thinking ability; while non-test instrument is questionnaire of attitude scale. The results show that: 1 based on the school level (high, medium, and low; there is difference in students’ mathematical critical thinking ability through problem posing approach. 2 based on the school level (high, medium, and low; there is difference in the students’ mathematical critical thinking ability through problem posing approach. 3 based on the school level (high, medium, and low; there is difference in students’ mathematical disposition.

  6. Investigation of the transfer and dissipation of energy in isotropic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Yoffe, Samuel R


    A parallel pseudospectral code for the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of isotropic turbulence has been developed. The code has been extensively benchmarked using established results from literature. The code has been used to conduct a series of runs for freely-decaying turbulence. We explore the use of power-law decay of the total energy to determine an evolved time and compare with the use of dynamic quantities such as the peak dissipation rate, maximum transport power and velocity derivative skewness. Stationary turbulence has also been investigated, where we ensure that the energy input rate remains constant for all runs. We present results for Reynolds numbers up to R{\\lambda} = 335 on a 1024^3 lattice. An exploitation of the pseudospectral technique is used to calculate second and third-order structure functions from the energy and transfer spectra, with a comparison presented to the real-space calculation. An alternative to ESS is discussed, with the second-order exponent found to approach 2/3. The d...

  7. Numerical ragweed pollen forecasts using different source maps: a comparison for France (United States)

    Zink, Katrin; Kaufmann, Pirmin; Petitpierre, Blaise; Broennimann, Olivier; Guisan, Antoine; Gentilini, Eros; Rotach, Mathias W.


    One of the key input parameters for numerical pollen forecasts is the distribution of pollen sources. Generally, three different methodologies exist to assemble such distribution maps: (1) plant inventories, (2) land use data in combination with annual pollen counts, and (3) ecological modeling. We have used six exemplary maps for all of these methodologies to study their applicability and usefulness in numerical pollen forecasts. The ragweed pollen season of 2012 in France has been simulated with the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-ART using each of the distribution maps in turn. The simulated pollen concentrations were statistically compared to measured values to derive a ranking of the maps with respect to their performance. Overall, approach (2) resulted in the best correspondence between observed and simulated pollen concentrations for the year 2012. It is shown that maps resulting from ecological modeling that does not include a sophisticated estimation of the plant density have a very low predictive skill. For inventory maps and the maps based on land use data and pollen counts, the results depend very much on the observational site. The use of pollen counts to calibrate the map enhances the performance of the model considerably.

  8. The systematic review and bibliometric network analysis (SeBriNA) is a new method to contextualize evidence. Part 1: description. (United States)

    Kho, Michelle E; Brouwers, Melissa C


    We describe a new methodology, the systematic review and bibliometric network analysis (SeBriNA), to contextualize the quality and quantity of patient-centered outcomes evidence relative to complementary documents such as reviews, practice guidelines, editorials, and media reports. The SeBriNA is informed by systematic review and bibliometric analysis methodologies. It focuses on two key concepts: 1) quality of evidence for patient-centered outcomes using cumulative meta-analysis and the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) appraisal approach; 2) quantity of original research and its citation relationships to related documents. It includes four steps: 1) research questions and document selection; 2) data extraction and analysis; 3) document network relationships; and 4) document network visualization. The primary output from the SeBriNA is an analysis of 1) evidence-the annual cumulative meta-analysis estimate of effect juxtaposed against quality of evidence by patient-centered outcomes (GRADE), and 2) context-the network of relationships between related documents and original research. This analysis can be represented as a single figure. The SeBriNA may help decision makers conceptualize, interpret, and visualize the quantity, quality, and relevance of original research within a network of related documents. Applications include prospective support for clinical and policy decisions and identification of research gaps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved constraints on cosmological parameters from SNIa data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March, M.C.; Trotta, R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Astrophysics Group; Berkes, P. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham (United States). Volen Centre for Complex Systems; Starkman, G.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland (United States). CERCA and Dept. of Physics; Vaudrevange, P.M. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland (United States). CERCA and Dept. of Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    We present a new method based on a Bayesian hierarchical model to extract constraints on cosmological parameters from SNIa data obtained with the SALT-II lightcurve fitter. We demonstrate with simulated data sets that our method delivers considerably tighter statistical constraints on the cosmological parameters and that it outperforms the usual {chi}{sup 2} approach 2/3 of the times. As a further benefit, a full posterior probability distribution for the dispersion of the intrinsic magnitude of SNe is obtained. We apply this method to recent SNIa data and find that it improves statistical constraints on cosmological parameters from SNIa data alone by about 40% w.r.t. the standard approach. From the combination of SNIa, CMB and BAO data we obtain {omega}{sub m}=0.29{+-}0.01, {omega}{sub {lambda}}=0.72{+-}0.01 (assuming w=-1) and {omega}{sub m}=0.28{+-}0.01, w=-0.90{+-}0.04 (assuming flatness; statistical uncertainties only). We constrain the intrinsic dispersion of the B-band magnitude of the SNIa population, obtaining {sigma}{sub {mu}}{sup int}=0.13{+-}0.01 [mag]. Applications to systematic uncertainties will be discussed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  10. A spherical shell target scheme for laser-driven neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Min-Qing, E-mail:; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Si-Zhong; Wu, Jun-Feng; Chen, Mo [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Cai, Hong-Bo, E-mail:; Zhou, Cang-Tao; Cao, Li-Hua; Zheng, Chun-Yang; Zhu, Shao-Ping; He, X. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Dong, Quan-Li [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 260405 (China); Sheng, Zheng-Ming [Department of Physics, Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Pei, Wen-Bing [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, Shanghai 201800 (China)


    A scheme for neutron production is investigated in which an ultra-intense laser is irradiated into a two-layer (deuterium and aurum) spherical shell target through the cone shaped entrance hole. It is found that the energy conversion efficiency from laser to target can reach as high as 71%, and deuterium ions are heated to a maximum energy of several MeV from the inner layer surface. These ions are accelerated towards the center of the cavity and accumulated finally with a high density up to tens of critical density in several picoseconds. Two different mechanisms account for the efficient yield of the neutrons in the cavity: (1) At the early stage, the neutrons are generated by the high energy deuterium ions based on the “beam-target” approach. (2) At the later stage, the neutrons are generated by the thermonuclear fusion when the most of the deuterium ions reach equilibrium in the cavity. It is also found that a large number of deuterium ions accelerated inward can pass through the target center and the outer Au layer and finally stopped in the CD{sub 2} layer. This also causes efficient yield of neutrons inside the CD{sub 2} layer due to “beam-target” approach. A postprocessor has been designed to evaluate the neutron yield and the neutron spectrum is obtained.

  11. First-Principles Modeling of Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Karl Johnson


    The objective of this project is to complement experimental efforts of MHoCE partners by using state-of-the-art theory and modeling to study the structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics of hydrogen storage materials. Specific goals include prediction of the heats of formation and other thermodynamic properties of alloys from first principles methods, identification of new alloys that can be tested experimentally, calculation of surface and energetic properties of nanoparticles, and calculation of kinetics involved with hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. Discovery of new metal hydrides with enhanced properties compared with existing materials is a critical need for the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. New materials discovery can be aided by the use of first principles (ab initio) computational modeling in two ways: (1) The properties, including mechanisms, of existing materials can be better elucidated through a combined modeling/experimental approach. (2) The thermodynamic properties of novel materials that have not been made can, in many cases, be quickly screened with ab initio methods. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to explore millions of possible reaction conditions consisting of different element spaces, compositions, and temperatures. We have identified potentially promising single- and multi-step reactions that can be explored experimentally.

  12. Economic analysis of health care interventions. (United States)

    Konski, Andre


    According to US government statistics, health care expenditures approached $2 trillion in 2005 or $6,697/person, with spending expected to exceed $4.1 trillion by 2016 ( Total Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services spending (including Medicaid, State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), and Medicare) was $660.7 million in 2005. Despite the decline in the growth rate of health care spending growth over the past 4 years, health care spending increased 6.9% from 2004 to 2005 and was 16% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2005 and forecasted to be 19.6% of the GDP by 2016. Although the percentage of GDP may not concern providers of health care products or services, it has an affect on the rest of the economy. Spending on health care by employers or patients increases the cost of the products produced, making goods produced here in the United States less attractive to world markets in the age of globalization in addition to leaving less money for patients to spend on other goods and services or save.

  13. A stack-based flex-compressive piezoelectric energy harvesting cell for large quasi-static loads (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Shi, Zhifei; Wang, Jianjun; Xiang, Hongjun


    In this paper, a flex-compressive piezoelectric energy harvesting cell (F-C PEHC) is proposed. This cell has a large load capacity and adjustable force transmission coefficient assembled from replaceable individual components. A statically indeterminate mechanical model for the cell is established and the theoretical force transmission coefficient is derived based on structural mechanics. An inverse correlation between the force transmission coefficient and the relative stiffness of Element 1’s limbs is found. An experimental study is also conducted to verify the theoretical results. Both weakened and enhanced modes are achieved for this experiment. The maximum power output approaches 4.5 mW at 120 kΩ resistive load under a 4 Hz harmonic excitation with 600 N amplitude for the weakened mode, whereas the maximum power output approaches 17.8 mW at 120 kΩ under corresponding load for the enhanced mode. The experimental measurements of output voltages are compared with the theoretical ones in both weakened and enhanced modes. The experimental measurements of open-circuit voltages are slightly smaller for harmonic excitations with amplitudes that vary from 400 N to 800 N and the errors are within 14%. During the experiment, the maximum load approaches 2.8 kN which is quite large but not the ultimate bearing capacity of the present device. The mechanical model and theoretical transmission coefficient can be used in other flex-compressive mode energy transducers.

  14. Elements of complexity in subsurface modeling, exemplified with three case studies (United States)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Truex, Michael J.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Bacon, Diana H.; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.


    There are complexity elements to consider when applying subsurface flow and transport models to support environmental analyses. Modelers balance the benefits and costs of modeling along the spectrum of complexity, taking into account the attributes of more simple models (e.g., lower cost, faster execution, easier to explain, less mechanistic) and the attributes of more complex models (higher cost, slower execution, harder to explain, more mechanistic and technically defensible). In this report, modeling complexity is examined with respect to considering this balance. The discussion of modeling complexity is organized into three primary elements: (1) modeling approach, (2) description of process, and (3) description of heterogeneity. Three examples are used to examine these complexity elements. Two of the examples use simulations generated from a complex model to develop simpler models for efficient use in model applications. The first example is designed to support performance evaluation of soil-vapor-extraction remediation in terms of groundwater protection. The second example investigates the importance of simulating different categories of geochemical reactions for carbon sequestration and selecting appropriate simplifications for use in evaluating sequestration scenarios. In the third example, the modeling history for a uranium-contaminated site demonstrates that conservative parameter estimates were inadequate surrogates for complex, critical processes and there is discussion on the selection of more appropriate model complexity for this application. All three examples highlight how complexity considerations are essential to create scientifically defensible models that achieve a balance between model simplification and complexity.

  15. X-Ray Absorption Spectra of Amorphous Ices from GW Quasiparticle Calculation (United States)

    Kong, Lingzhu; Car, Roberto


    We use a GW approach[2] to compute the x-ray absorption spectra of model low- and high-density amorphous ice structures(LDA and HDA)[3]. We include the structural effects of quantum zero point motion using colored-noise Langevin molecular dynamics[4]. The calculated spectra differences in the main and post edge region between LDA and HDA agree well with experimental observations. We attribute these differences to the presence of interstitial molecules within the first coordination shell range in HDA. This assignment is further supported by a calculation of the spectrum of ice VIII, a high-pressure structure that maximizes the number of interstitial molecules and, accordingly, shows a much weaker post-edge feature. We further rationalize the spectral similarity between HDA and liquid water, and between LDA and ice Ih in terms of the respective similarities in the H-bond network topology and bond angle distributions. Supported by grants DOE-DE-SC0005180, DOE DE-SC0008626 and NSF-CHE-0956500.

  16. Searching for Adverse Effects in MEDLINE and EMBASE Requires a Combined Approach for Efficient Retrieval, A review of: Golder, Su, Heather M. McIntosh, Steve Duffy, and Julie Glanville. “Developing Efficient Search Strategies to Identify Reports of Adverse Effects in MEDLINE and EMBASE.” Health Information & Libraries Journal 23.1 (Mar. 2006: 3-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy L. Brown


    Full Text Available Objective – To assess the sensitivity and precision of various search strategies for retrieving adverse effects studies from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Design – Analytical survey. Subjects – A case study using a recently published systematic review of the effectiveness and adverse effects of seven new anti-epileptic drugs. Setting – MEDLINE and EMBASE searches performed by researchers at the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the UK Cochrane Centre Search Filters Design Group at the University of York, UK. Methods – Five key approaches to searching were defined. The first approach used either text words or controlled vocabulary to search for specific adverse effects. The second used subheadings or qualifiers either attached to drug names found in the controlled vocabulary (approach 2a or ‘floating’ without drug names (approach 2b. The third approach used text words as synonyms for the phrase ‘adverse effects.’ The fourth used controlled indexing terms for adverse effects. The fifth and final approach used two published search strategies incorporating study design (Badgett et al., Loke et al.. These five approaches were used to search for studies of the adverse effects of seven new anti‐epileptic drugs. 5,011 unique papers were retrieved. Of these, 236 were judged potentially relevant and 225 full text articles were obtained. The inclusion criteria from a previously published systematic review (Wilby et al. were applied to the papers, and 79 met the criteria. Five papers were added to the set after being identified from reference lists, clinical experts, and other sources. This new set of 84 studies was used as a quasi gold standard (QGS against which more than 300 combinations of the five approaches could be tested. To create the set of possible approaches, the researchers combined search strategies one through four in all possible ways, and used all available subheading combinations from 2a and 2b. The Badgett

  17. Weed mapping in early-season maize fields using object-based analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Peña

    Full Text Available The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1 classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2 discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3 generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r(2=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance.

  18. Anion-Directed Copper(II) Metallocages, Coordination Chain, and Complex Double Salt: Structures, Magnetic Properties, EPR Spectra, and Density Functional Study. (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Yun; Zhong, Ming-Shiou; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Bhattacharya, Dibyendu; Lee, Yen-Wei; Lai, Long-Li


    A series of Cu(II) metallo-assemblies showing anion-directed structural variations, including five metallocages [(G(n-) )⊂{Cu2 (Hdpma)4 }]((8-n)+) (A(-) )8-n (G(n-) =NO3 (-) , ClO4 (-) , SiF6 (2-) , BF4 (-) , SO4 (2-) ; A(-) =NO3 (-) , ClO4 (-) , BF4 (-) , CH3 SO4 (-) ; Hdpma=bis(3-pyridylmethyl)ammonium cation), a complex double salt, namely, (H3 dpma)4 (CuCl4 )5 Cl2 , and a coordination chain, namely, [Cu2 (dpma)(OAc)4 ], are reported. The influence of the anion can be explained by its coordinating ability, the affinity of which for the Cu(II) center interferes significantly with metallocage formation, and its shape, which offers host-guest recognition ability to engage in weak metal-anion coordination and hydrogen bonding to the organic ligand, which are responsible for metallocage templation. EPR studies of these metallocages in the powder phase at room temperature and 77 K showed a trend of the g values (g|| >2.10>g⊥ >2.00) indicating a dx2-y2 -based ground state with square-pyramidal geometry for the Cu(II) centers. The magnetism of these metallocages can be interpreted as the result of a combination of relatively small magnetic coupling integrals and a substantial contribution of temperature-independent paramagnetism (TIP). The weak magnetic interaction is corroborated by the results of DFT calculations and the EPR spectra. Availability of the low-lying state for spin population was confirmed by a magnetization study, which revealed a magnetic moment approaching 2Nβ, which would explain the presence of the larger TIP term.

  19. Weight of evidence: a review of concept and methods. (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L


    "Weight of evidence" (WOE) is a common term in the published scientific and policy-making literature, most often seen in the context of risk assessment (RA). Its definition, however, is unclear. A systematic review of the scientific literature was undertaken to characterize the concept. For the years 1994 through 2004, PubMed was searched for publications in which "weight of evidence" appeared in the abstract and/or title. Of the 276 papers that met these criteria, 92 were selected for review: 71 papers published in 2003 and 2004 (WOE appeared in abstract/title) and 21 from 1994 through 2002 (WOE appeared in title). WOE has three characteristic uses in this literature: (1) metaphorical, where WOE refers to a collection of studies or to an unspecified methodological approach; (2) methodological, where WOE points to established interpretative methodologies (e.g., systematic narrative review, meta-analysis, causal criteria, and/or quality criteria for toxicological studies) or where WOE means that "all" rather than some subset of the evidence is examined, or rarely, where WOE points to methods using quantitative weights for evidence; and (3) theoretical, where WOE serves as a label for a conceptual framework. Several problems are identified: the frequent lack of definition of the term "weight of evidence," multiple uses of the term and a lack of consensus about its meaning, and the many different kinds of weights, both qualitative and quantitative, which can be used in RA. A practical recommendation emerges: the WOE concept and its associated methods should be fully described when used. A research agenda should examine the advantages of quantitative versus qualitative weighting schemes, how best to improve existing methods, and how best to combine those methods (e.g., epidemiology's causal criteria with toxicology's quality criteria).

  20. Towards lightweight and flexible high performance nanocrystalline silicon solar cells through light trapping and transport layers (United States)

    Gray, Zachary R.

    This thesis investigates ways to enhance the efficiency of thin film solar cells through the application of both novel nano-element array light trapping architectures and nickel oxide hole transport/electron blocking layers. Experimental results independently demonstrate a 22% enhancement in short circuit current density (JSC) resulting from a nano-element array light trapping architecture and a ˜23% enhancement in fill factor (FF) and ˜16% enhancement in open circuit voltage (VOC) resulting from a nickel oxide transport layer. In each case, the overall efficiency of the device employing the light trapping or transport layer was superior to that of the corresponding control device. Since the efficiency of a solar cell scales with the product of JSC, FF, and VOC, it follows that the results of this thesis suggest high performance thin film solar cells can be realized in the event light trapping architectures and transport layers can be simultaneously optimized. The realizations of these performance enhancements stem from extensive process optimization for numerous light trapping and transport layer fabrication approaches. These approaches were guided by numerical modeling techniques which will also be discussed. Key developments in this thesis include (1) the fabrication of nano-element topographies conducive to light trapping using various fabrication approaches, (2) the deposition of defect free nc-Si:H onto structured topographies by switching from SiH4 to SiF 4 PECVD gas chemistry, and (3) the development of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth conditions for NiO. Keywords: light trapping, nano-element array, hole transport layer, electron blocking layer, nickel oxide, nanocrystalline silicon, aluminum doped zinc oxide, atomic layer deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, electron beam lithography, ANSYS HFSS.

  1. Stretching the frontiers of precaution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Osborn


    Full Text Available The increasing pace and impact of technological change in the world underline the growing need for taking due precautions. In this essay the author reviews a number of cases over the past 2 centuries where new technologies have been introduced too rapidly with too little attention to possible consequences and avoidable damage to health or the environment has been caused. The author goes on to discuss the precautionary approach to new technology, and urges more widespread use of it. He underlines the importance of 4 key points: (1 technology must not be demonised as the enemy - wise use of technology and technological solutions are themselves part of a precautionary approach; (2 a concern for social and environmental justice must be part of a broad precautionary approach - innovations which may potentially benefit one group while putting other groups at risk are very problematic; (3 we must safeguard the public realm and its ability to weigh up proposed innovations and new processes dispassionately - the privatisation of regulation and management of safeguards is very dangerous; (4 innovation and the management of precautionary safeguards are too important to be left to experts or governments alone - there must be sufficient public understanding and support for the introduction of new technologies with all the risks they may involve if public confidence is not to be eroded and greater restrictions imposed. The precautionary approach does not claim to be the answer to all issues concerning the wise use of new technologies. But it does point the way to how we can use public policy frameworks and processes to guide and constrain technological developments in the most appropriate way, and avoid some of the worst possible outcomes. At a time of accelerating technological change and overwhelming human dominance of the natural environment it is vital that we make wise use of this approach.

  2. Cluster-based exposure variation analysis. (United States)

    Samani, Afshin; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Madeleine, Pascal


    Static posture, repetitive movements and lack of physical variation are known risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and thus needs to be properly assessed in occupational studies. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the effectiveness of a conventional exposure variation analysis (EVA) in discriminating exposure time lines and (ii) to compare it with a new cluster-based method for analysis of exposure variation. For this purpose, we simulated a repeated cyclic exposure varying within each cycle between "low" and "high" exposure levels in a "near" or "far" range, and with "low" or "high" velocities (exposure change rates). The duration of each cycle was also manipulated by selecting a "small" or "large" standard deviation of the cycle time. Theses parameters reflected three dimensions of exposure variation, i.e. range, frequency and temporal similarity.Each simulation trace included two realizations of 100 concatenated cycles with either low (ρ = 0.1), medium (ρ = 0.5) or high (ρ = 0.9) correlation between the realizations. These traces were analyzed by conventional EVA, and a novel cluster-based EVA (C-EVA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on the marginal distributions of 1) the EVA of each of the realizations (univariate approach), 2) a combination of the EVA of both realizations (multivariate approach) and 3) C-EVA. The least number of principal components describing more than 90% of variability in each case was selected and the projection of marginal distributions along the selected principal component was calculated. A linear classifier was then applied to these projections to discriminate between the simulated exposure patterns, and the accuracy of classified realizations was determined. C-EVA classified exposures more correctly than univariate and multivariate EVA approaches; classification accuracy was 49%, 47% and 52% for EVA (univariate and multivariate), and C-EVA, respectively (p analysis are the advantages

  3. Toward a reconsideration of inclusion and exclusion criteria in cleft lip and palate: implications for psychological research. (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Rumsey, Nichola


    Background : This article investigates the prevalence of conditions that affect cognitive and/or psychosocial functioning in 10-year-old children born with a cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) and explores how the presence of such additional difficulties may affect the reporting of outcomes in psychological research. Design : Cross-sectional data derived from routine psychological assessments. Setting : Centralized treatment, Norway. Participants : Data on cleft type and additional conditions were collected for 754 children with CL/P from 11 consecutive birth cohorts. Data on psychological adjustment were collected for three consecutive birth cohorts (n = 169). Main Outcome Measures : The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), completed by children and parents. Results : A total of 240 children (32%) in the sample had an additional condition, such as developmental delay, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or a specific language impairment or dyslexia. Analysis of SDQ scores using conventional exclusion criteria (approach 1) was compared with a second method (approach 2), which included all children and categorized them according to the presence or absence of additional conditions. Significant variation in profiles of psychosocial adjustment was found depending on the approach to exclusion. Conclusions : The presence of additional conditions in a sample may affect results and subsequently the conclusions drawn in relation to the psychosocial adjustment of children born with CL/P. The present study emphasizes the importance of careful assessments and reporting of all associated conditions, in order to improve the understanding of the impact of a cleft and the consequences of associated conditions in this population.

  4. Weed mapping in early-season maize fields using object-based analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. (United States)

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca


    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r(2)=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance.

  5. iSPHERE - A New Approach to Collaborative Research and Cloud Computing (United States)

    Al-Ubaidi, T.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Kallio, E. J.; Harry, A.; Alexeev, I. I.; Vázquez-Poletti, J. L.; Enke, H.; Magin, T.; Mair, M.; Scherf, M.; Poedts, S.; De Causmaecker, P.; Heynderickx, D.; Congedo, P.; Manolescu, I.; Esser, B.; Webb, S.; Ruja, C.


    The project iSPHERE (integrated Scientific Platform for HEterogeneous Research and Engineering) that has been proposed for Horizon 2020 (EINFRA-9- 2015, [1]) aims at creating a next generation Virtual Research Environment (VRE) that embraces existing and emerging technologies and standards in order to provide a versatile platform for scientific investigations and collaboration. The presentation will introduce the large project consortium, provide a comprehensive overview of iSPHERE's basic concepts and approaches and outline general user requirements that the VRE will strive to satisfy. An overview of the envisioned architecture will be given, focusing on the adapted Service Bus concept, i.e. the "Scientific Service Bus" as it is called in iSPHERE. The bus will act as a central hub for all communication and user access, and will be implemented in the course of the project. The agile approach [2] that has been chosen for detailed elaboration and documentation of user requirements, as well as for the actual implementation of the system, will be outlined and its motivation and basic structure will be discussed. The presentation will show which user communities will benefit and which concrete problems, scientific investigations are facing today, will be tackled by the system. Another focus of the presentation is iSPHERE's seamless integration of cloud computing resources and how these will benefit scientific modeling teams by providing a reliable and web based environment for cloud based model execution, storage of results, and comparison with measurements, including fully web based tools for data mining, analysis and visualization. Also the envisioned creation of a dedicated data model for experimental plasma physics will be discussed. It will be shown why the Scientific Service Bus provides an ideal basis to integrate a number of data models and communication protocols and to provide mechanisms for data exchange across multiple and even multidisciplinary platforms.

  6. Parlamentarismo frente a presidencialismo. Actualización de un debate crucial para América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Flórez Ruiz


    Full Text Available La oposición parlamentario/presidencial funda el discurso moderno de los regímenes políticos, dando lugar a la discusión sobre la “mejor” estructura de gobierno para el desarrollo de la democracia. Discusión que será el eje conductor de uno de los debates más ricos de la ciencia política contemporánea. Los estudios sobre la materia han superado sucesivas etapas que pueden caracterizarse como sigue: 1 defensa de la superioridad absoluta de un modelo con base en los vicios intrínsecos del otro, que resultarían desfavorables para la estabilidad democrática (The best system approach; 2 relativización de las ventajas en abstracto del tipo de régimen mediante la explicación de la fragilidad democrática por factores “exógenos” al modelo de gobierno; 3 replanteamiento de los términos del debate a partir de la exploración de los mecanismos de racionalización de los regímenes políticos. En la actualidad, el giro metodológico que opera el análisis cuidadoso del contexto (sistema electoral y de partidos, historia y costumbre constitucional abre nuevos horizontes de investigación al tiempo que recupera la importancia del debate para Latinoamérica, en tanto cuna y laboratorio histórico del modelo presidencialista.

  7. A Mixed Approach for Modeling Blood Flow in Brain Microcirculation (United States)

    Peyrounette, M.; Sylvie, L.; Davit, Y.; Quintard, M.


    We have previously demonstrated [1] that the vascular system of the healthy human brain cortex is a superposition of two structural components, each corresponding to a different spatial scale. At small-scale, the vascular network has a capillary structure, which is homogeneous and space-filling over a cut-off length. At larger scale, veins and arteries conform to a quasi-fractal branched structure. This structural duality is consistent with the functional duality of the vasculature, i.e. distribution and exchange. From a modeling perspective, this can be viewed as the superposition of: (a) a continuum model describing slow transport in the small-scale capillary network, characterized by a representative elementary volume and effective properties; and (b) a discrete network approach [2] describing fast transport in the arterial and venous network, which cannot be homogenized because of its fractal nature. This problematic is analogous to modeling problems encountered in geological media, e.g, in petroleum engineering, where fast conducting channels (wells or fractures) are embedded in a porous medium (reservoir rock). An efficient method to reduce the computational cost of fractures/continuum simulations is to use relatively large grid blocks for the continuum model. However, this also makes it difficult to accurately couple both structural components. In this work, we solve this issue by adapting the "well model" concept used in petroleum engineering [3] to brain specific 3-D situations. We obtain a unique linear system of equations describing the discrete network, the continuum and the well model coupling. Results are presented for realistic geometries and compared with a non-homogenized small-scale network model of an idealized periodic capillary network of known permeability. [1] Lorthois & Cassot, J. Theor. Biol. 262, 614-633, 2010. [2] Lorthois et al., Neuroimage 54 : 1031-1042, 2011. [3] Peaceman, SPE J. 18, 183-194, 1978.

  8. Electrostatic levitation facility optimized for neutron diffraction studies of high temperature liquids at a spallation neutron source. (United States)

    Mauro, N A; Vogt, A J; Derendorf, K S; Johnson, M L; Rustan, G E; Quirinale, D G; Kreyssig, A; Lokshin, K A; Neuefeind, J C; An, Ke; Wang, Xun-Li; Goldman, A I; Egami, T; Kelton, K F


    Neutron diffraction studies of metallic liquids provide valuable information about inherent topological and chemical ordering on multiple length scales as well as insight into dynamical processes at the level of a few atoms. However, there exist very few facilities in the world that allow such studies to be made of reactive metallic liquids in a containerless environment, and these are designed for use at reactor-based neutron sources. We present an electrostatic levitation facility, NESL (for Neutron ElectroStatic Levitator), which takes advantage of the enhanced capabilities and increased neutron flux available at spallation neutron sources (SNSs). NESL enables high quality elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments to be made of reactive metallic and other liquids in the equilibrium and supercooled temperature regime. The apparatus is comprised of a high vacuum chamber, external and internal neutron collimation optics, and a sample exchange mechanism that allows up to 30 samples to be processed between chamber openings. Two heating lasers allow excellent sample temperature homogeneity, even for samples approaching 500 mg, and an automated temperature control system allows isothermal measurements to be conducted for times approaching 2 h in the liquid state, with variations in the average sample temperature of less than 0.5%. To demonstrate the capabilities of the facility for elastic scattering studies of liquids, a high quality total structure factor for Zr64Ni36 measured slightly above the liquidus temperature is presented from experiments conducted on the nanoscale-ordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) beam line at the SNS after only 30 min of acquisition time for a small sample (∼100 mg).

  9. The INGV-CNT crustal motion map for the Euro-Mediterranean region (United States)

    Serpelloni, Enrico; D'Agostino, Nicola; Devoti, Roberto; Anzidei, Marco; Avallone, Antonio; Cavaliere, Adriano; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Ambrosio, Ciriaco; Esposito, Alessandra; Falco, Luigi; Galvani, Alessandro; Pietrantonio, Grazia; Riguzzi, Federica; Selvaggi, Giulio; Sepe, Vincenzo


    Several thousands GPS/GNSS permanent stations, managed by both scientific and cadastral institutions, are now available on the European plate and its boundaries. The data coming from these stations provide unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage of time-dependent deformation signals essential to understanding the fundamental physics that govern tectonic deformation, faulting, and fluid transport. The National Earthquake Center (Centro Nazionale Terremoti, CNT) of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, INGV) in Italy, is the Italian leader institutions for the collection, management and scientific analysis of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) measurements. Distinct analysis centers independently and routinely process and analyse data using high-quality geodetic software (Bernese, Gamit, Gipsy) to measure the movements of > 1000 points spanning the Eurasian plate and its boundaries. The goal of this project is to offer high-quality geodetic products, increase their accessibility to the European scientific community and promote the inter-disciplinary data exchange through a multi-level, user-friendly data gateway. The access to the data products delivered by this project will require the construction of appropriate web services for mining, visualisations and download the geodetic products (time series of different parameters, maps). These activities will be performed in strict contact with the GNSS Working Group of the EPOS project ( that is proposing to integrate, archive and distribute data, metadata and products for available GNSS stations on the European plate. In this work we will present: 1) the distinct solutions in a Eurasian reference frame obtained by different software (Bernese, Gamit, Gipsy) and approaches; 2) the analysis of noise characteristics of the different solutions; 3) a study on the optimal strategies to combine multi-software solutions (combination at

  10. Micromechanics-based modeling of stress–strain and fracture behavior of heat-treated boron steels for hot stamping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srithananan, P.; Kaewtatip, P.; Uthaisangsuk, V., E-mail:


    In the automotive industry, hot stamped parts with tailored properties have shown advantageous safety performance. Such components are produced by applying different heat treatment conditions after forming for different zones in order to obtain various combinations of hard and soft microstructures. In this work, pure martensitic, pure bainitic, and three martensitic/bainitic phase microstructures were initially generated from the boron steel grade 22MnB5 by a two-step quenching procedure in which different holding times in the bainitic temperature range were varied. Increased phase fraction of bainite due to longer holding time led to decreased yield and tensile strength; however, elongation and resulting energy absorbability became significantly higher. To describe mechanical properties and failure behavior of hot stamped parts containing multiphase microstructures, influences of microstructure characteristics should be considered on the micro-scale. Using modeling, 2-D representative volume elements (RVE) were generated from observed real microstructures and flow curves of the individual single phases were defined, taking into account a dislocation theory based model and local chemical compositions. Then, effective stress–strain curves of the heat-treated boron steels were calculated by using the isostrain and non-isostrain methods and compared with tensile test results. Regarding fracture behavior, damage curves of fully martensitic and bainitic structures were determined by means of tensile tests of different notched samples and a hybrid digital image correlation (DIC)–finite element (FE) approach. 2-D RVE simulations of a martensite/bainite mixture were carried out under various states of stress, in which the obtained damage curves were individually applied for each phase. The predicted damage curve from RVE simulations for two-phase boron steel fairly agreed with experimental fracture strains. Moreover, correspondingly normalized Lode angle could be

  11. Sustainable Land Use in Mountain Regions Under Global Change: Synthesis Across Scales and Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Huber


    Full Text Available Mountain regions provide essential ecosystem goods and services (EGS for both mountain dwellers and people living outside these areas. Global change endangers the capacity of mountain ecosystems to provide key services. The Mountland project focused on three case study regions in the Swiss Alps and aimed to propose land-use practices and alternative policy solutions to ensure the provision of key EGS under climate and land-use changes. We summarized and synthesized the results of the project and provide insights into the ecological, socioeconomic, and political processes relevant for analyzing global change impacts on a European mountain region. In Mountland, an integrative approach was applied, combining methods from economics and the political and natural sciences to analyze ecosystem functioning from a holistic human-environment system perspective. In general, surveys, experiments, and model results revealed that climate and socioeconomic changes are likely to increase the vulnerability of the EGS analyzed. We regard the following key characteristics of coupled human-environment systems as central to our case study areas in mountain regions: thresholds, heterogeneity, trade-offs, and feedback. Our results suggest that the institutional framework should be strengthened in a way that better addresses these characteristics, allowing for (1 more integrative approaches, (2 a more network-oriented management and steering of political processes that integrate local stakeholders, and (3 enhanced capacity building to decrease the identified vulnerability as central elements in the policy process. Further, to maintain and support the future provision of EGS in mountain regions, policy making should also focus on project-oriented, cross-sectoral policies and spatial planning as a coordination instrument for land use in general.

  12. On the determination of net bedload transport patters in a natural tidal inlet system (Knudedyb in the Danish Wadden Sea) (United States)

    Ernstsen, V. B.; Lefebvre, A.; Bartholdy, J.; Bartholomä, A.; Winter, C.


    An airborne swath topography survey using a LIDAR (Laser Induced Detection And Ranging or Light Detection And Ranging) system and a ship borne swath bathymetry survey using a multibeam echosounder (MBES) system were carried out within a 100 km2 quadratic section of the natural tidal inlet system Knudedyb in the Danish Wadden Sea. On the basis of the LIDAR data a detailed (0.5 m grid cell size) digital elevation model (DEM) of the dry-lying areas around low water (with the intertidal flats being of primary concern) was generated; whereas the MBES data were used to generate a detailed (also 0.5 m grid cell size) DEM of the tidal inlet main channel. The spatial distribution and characteristics of bedforms in a coastal system potentially yield information on the net bedload transport patterns in the system. The sandy main channel and intertidal flats of the Knudedyb tidal inlet are covered by bedforms. Bedform characterisation using a random field statistical approach (2D spectral analysis, cf. Lefebvre et al. 2011) as well as a discrete approach, in which the geometric variables of individual bedforms are determined (cf. Ernstsen et al. 2010), will be applied to the high-resolution DEMs. Based on these analyses net bedload transport patterns in the Knudedyb tidal inlet system will be determined. The findings will be used to investigate a potential exchange of sand between the main tidal channel and the adjacent intertidal flats. Acknowledgements This work is funded by the Danish Council for Independent Research | Natural Sciences (grant 10-081102) and the German Research Foundation DFG-Research Center / Excellence Cluster "The Ocean in the Earth System".

  13. Violência e abuso sexual na família Violence and sexual abuse within the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Araújo


    Full Text Available Trata-se de relato de experiência de supervisão e atendimento de famílias que sofreram violência intrafamiliar, encaminhadas para atendimento psicológico após denúncia ou suspeita de abuso sexual infantil cometido por parentes próximos. O texto examina essa experiência à luz de reflexões surgidas nessa prática, diante dos conflitos, impasses e dificuldades vividos por profissionais e famílias envolvidos no problema. A abordagem de intervenção aqui proposta tem três características principais: 1 baseia-se no enfoque psicossocial 2 propõe o atendimento familiar conjunto, envolvendo toda a família, inclusive o agressor; e, 3introduz a perspectiva de gênero, fator historicamente preponderante na construção de relações de violência e dominação-exploração dentro da família.This article reports on the experience of supervising and providing care to families who have experienced intra-family violence and who were referred to psychological care following suspicion or denouncement of child sexual abuse committed by close relatives. It reviews this experience in the light of reflections arising from the practice in view of the conflicts, impasses and difficulties faced by professionals and families concerned. The type of intervention proposed here has three major characteristics: 1 it is based on a psychosocial approach 2 it proposes a family group treatment including the assailant and 3 it introduces the gender perspective, a historically prevailing factor in the construction of violence and domination/exploitation relationships within the family.

  14. A method for differentiating cancer prevalence according to health status, exemplified using a population-based sample of Italian colorectal cancer cases. (United States)

    Baili, Paolo; Vicentini, Massimo; Tumino, Rosario; Vercelli, Marina; Lorenzo, Michela; Foschi, Roberto; Guzzinati, Stefano; Dal Maso, Luigino; Minicozzi, Pamela; de Lorenzo, Francesco; Micheli, Andrea; di Salvo, Francesca


    Cancer prevalence is the proportion of a population diagnosed with cancer. We present a method for differentiating prevalence into the proportions expected to survive without relapse, die of cancer within a year, and die of cancer within 10 years or survive with relapse at the end of the 10th year. The method was applied to samples of colorectal cancer cases, randomly extracted from four Italian cancer registries (CRs). The CRs collected data on treatments, local relapses, distant relapses, and causes of death: 1) over the entire follow-up to 31 December 2007 for 601 cases diagnosed in 2002 (cohort approach); 2) over a single year (2007) for five cohorts of cases defined by year of diagnosis (from 1997 to 2001), alive at 1 January 2007 (total 298 cases). The cohorts were combined into a fictitious cohort with 10 years survival experience. For each year j after diagnosis the health status of cases alive at the beginning of j was estimated at the end of the 10th year. From these estimates the 10-year colorectal cancer prevalence was differentiated. We estimated: 74.7% alive without relapse or not undergoing treatment at the end of 10 years; 8.1% had died of colorectal cancer within a year; 11.4% had died of colorectal cancer 1-10 years after diagnosis or had relapsed or were undergoing treatment at the end of the 10th year; and 5.8% had died of other causes. We have introduced a new method for estimating the healthcare and rehabilitation demands of cancer survivors based on CR data plus treatment and relapse data specifically collected for samples of cases archived by CRs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbaset Buhmeida


    Full Text Available The role of DNA content as a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC is highly controversial. Some of these controversies are due to purely technical reasons, e.g. variable practices in interpreting the DNA histograms, which is problematic particularly in advanced cases. In this report, we give a detailed account on various options how these histograms could be optimally interpreted, with the idea of establishing the potential value of DNA image cytometry in prognosis and in selection of proper treatment. Material consists of nuclei isolated from 50 ƒĘm paraffin sections from 160 patients with stage II, III or IV CRC diagnosed, treated and followed-up in our clinic. The nuclei were stained with the Feulgen stain. Nuclear DNA was measured using computer-assisted image cytometry. We applied 4 different approaches to analyse the DNA histograms: 1 appearance of the histogram (ABCDE approach, 2 range of DNA values, 3 peak evaluation, and 4 events present at high DNA values. Intra-observer reproducibility of these four histogram interpretation was 89%, 95%, 96%, and 100%, respectively. We depicted selected histograms to illustrate the four analytical approaches in cases with different stages of CRC, with variable disease outcome. In our analysis, the range of DNA values was the best prognosticator, i.e., the tumours with the widest histograms had the most ominous prognosis. These data implicate that DNA cytometry based on isolated nuclei is valuable in predicting the prognosis of CRC. Different interpretation techniques differed in their reproducibility, but the method showing the best prognostic value also had high reproducibility in our analysis.

  16. TU-F-CAMPUS-I-05: Investigation of An EMCCD Detector with Variable Gain in a Micro-CT System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, S Bysani; Ionita, C; Rudin, S [Department of Biomedical Engineering, SUNY Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center at SUNY Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Nagesh, S Setlur; Bednarek, D [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center at SUNY Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)


    Purpose: To investigate the performance of a newly built Electron Multiplying Charged Coupled Device (EMCCD) based Micro-CT system, with variable detector gain, using a phantom containing contrast agent of different concentrations. Methods: We built a micro- CT system with an EMCCD having 8 microns pixels and on-chip variable gain. We tested the system using a phantom containing five tubes filled with different iodine contrast solutions (30% to 70%). First, we scanned the phantom using various x-ray exposures values at 40 kVp and constant detector gain. Next, for the same tube currents, the detector gain was increased to maintain the air value of the projection image constant. A standard FDK algorithm was used to reconstruct the data. Performance was analyzed by comparing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements for increased gain with those for the low constant gain at each exposure. Results: The high detector gain reconstructed data SNR was always greater than the low gain data SNR for all x-ray settings and for all iodine features. The largest increases were observed for low contrast features, 30% iodine concentration, where the SNR improvement approached 2. Conclusion: One of the first implementations of an EMCCD based micro- CT system was presented and used to image a phantom with various iodine solution concentrations. The analysis of the reconstructed volumes showed a significant improvement of the SNR especially for low contrast features. The unique on-chip gain feature is a substantial benefit allowing the use of the system at very low x-ray exposures per frame.Partial support: NIH grant R01EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp. Partial support: NIH grant R01EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

  17. Identification and analysis of signaling networks potentially involved in breast carcinoma metastasis to the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    Full Text Available Brain is a common site of breast cancer metastasis associated with significant neurologic morbidity, decreased quality of life, and greatly shortened survival. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning brain colonization by breast carcinoma cells are poorly understood. Here, we used 2D-DIGE (Difference in Gel Electrophoresis proteomic analysis followed by LC-tandem mass spectrometry to identify the proteins differentially expressed in brain-targeting breast carcinoma cells (MB231-Br compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cell line. Between the two cell lines, we identified 12 proteins consistently exhibiting greater than 2-fold (p<0.05 difference in expression, which were associated by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA with two major signaling networks involving TNFα/TGFβ-, NFκB-, HSP-70-, TP53-, and IFNγ-associated pathways. Remarkably, highly related networks were revealed by the IPA analysis of a list of 19 brain-metastasis-associated proteins identified recently by the group of Dr. A. Sierra using MDA-MB-435-based experimental system (Martin et al., J Proteome Res 2008 7:908-20, or a 17-gene classifier associated with breast cancer brain relapse reported by the group of Dr. J. Massague based on a microarray analysis of clinically annotated breast tumors from 368 patients (Bos et al., Nature 2009 459: 1005-9. These findings, showing that different experimental systems and approaches (2D-DIGE proteomics used on brain targeting cell lines or gene expression analysis of patient samples with documented brain relapse yield highly related signaling networks, suggest strongly that these signaling networks could be essential for a successful colonization of the brain by metastatic breast carcinoma cells.

  18. Joining the club: Conforming to and resisting biology in practice (United States)

    Buxton, Cory Alexander


    This study explores how science and scientists were produced and reproduced within the setting of a university biology department. It builds upon recent work in anthropology of education and feminist science studies. My purpose was to look at both the contextual and constitutive values of science as they were negotiated and played out in the training of scientists in a setting where: (1) women were well represented in leadership positions; and (2) "mainstream" science was being both taught and practiced. Findings included the organization of a status hierarchy within the department, the meanings of science and scientists that students constructed within the social spaces they occupied, examples of individual resistance to certain norms of biology practice, and examples of institutional opposition to that resistance. There was some evidence that the unusually high representation of women in positions of leadership in the biology department did result in changes in both the contextual and constitutive values of how science was conceptualized, practiced and taught in this setting. Contextually, social spaces controlled by women were likely to emphasize: (1) teamwork bringing together participants with varied backgrounds and perspectives; (2) flexible and collaborative use of physical space; and (3) willingness to do work for which they went unacknowledged or to share rewards equally even when the work distribution was not equitable. Constitutively, these social spaces were prone to: (1) interdisciplinary synthesis and comprehensive approaches; (2) the study of topics that reconsidered beliefs about gender roles in plant and animal reproduction; (3) work that would be slower and take longer to produce (and publish) but might make a large contribution (be a high quality product) eventually; and (4) an awareness by women that their practices were different in some ways than the practices of their male colleagues.

  19. Assuring safety without animal testing: Unilever's ongoing research programme to deliver novel ways to assure consumer safety. (United States)

    Westmoreland, Carl; Carmichael, Paul; Dent, Matt; Fentem, Julia; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Pease, Camilla; Reynolds, Fiona


    Assuring consumer safety without the generation of new animal data is currently a considerable challenge. However, through the application of new technologies and the further development of risk-based approaches for safety assessment, we remain confident it is ultimately achievable. For many complex, multi-organ consumer safety endpoints, the development, evaluation and application of new, non-animal approaches is hampered by a lack of biological understanding of the underlying mechanistic processes involved. The enormity of this scientific challenge should not be underestimated. To tackle this challenge a substantial research programme was initiated by Unilever in 2004 to critically evaluate the feasibility of a new conceptual approach based upon the following key components: 1.Developing new, exposure-driven risk assessment approaches. 2.Developing new biological (in vitro) and computer-based (in silico) predictive models. 3.Evaluating the applicability of new technologies for generating data (e.g. "omics", informatics) and for integrating new types of data (e.g. systems approaches) for risk-based safety assessment. Our research efforts are focussed in the priority areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhaled toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biology and molecular mechanisms that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement in EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, Carcinogenomics), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. Colipa, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US "Human Toxicology Project" consortium).

  20. Consumer Reports - Best Buy Drugs’ Outreach Project in Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, PharmD, PhD


    Full Text Available The objectives for this study were to apply four different approaches for disseminating Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs (CR-BBD information about effectiveness, safety, and cost to patients for therapeutic classes of medications that they were using and then (1 evaluate the usefulness of the information to participants and (2 document resultant information seeking. For the three approaches that utilized face-to-face contact (Approaches 2 through 4, we also compared them in terms of (1 number of medications reviewed per person, (2 availability of CR-BBD information per person, (3 changes that could be made for each person, and (4 potential/likely cost savings (per person per month. Finally, we described the availability of CR-BBD information for each participant categorized by the 19 therapeutic classes of medications for which there were Best Buy Drugs reports. Data were collected via self-administered surveys, in-person interviews, and telephone interviews. The results showed that almost all of the participants in the information sessions held for this study had at least one medication for which Best Buy Drug information was available with significant savings potential to be gained by using the recommended Best Buy Drug. Potential cost savings through the use of recommended Best Buy Drugs was $89.47 per person per month averaged over all participants (n = 172 and was $157.20 per person per month for those with savings over zero dollars (n = 98. Thirty-two percent of respondents to our evaluation survey reportedly sought more information from a physician and 30 percent sought more information from a pharmacist. We concluded that provision of information about effectiveness, safety, and cost to patients has the potential for achieving significant cost savings. Recommendations regarding (1 the timing of provision, (2 targeting of recipients and (3 traversing impediments are given.

  1. Rayleigh-Wave Group-Velocity Tomography of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani


    We use surface-wave tomography to investigate the lithospheric structure of the Arabian plate, which is traditionally divided into the Arabian shield in the west and the Arabian platform in the east. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks. The Arabian platform is primarily covered by very thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. We develop high-resolution tomographic images from fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocities across Saudi Arabia, utilizing the teleseismic data recorded by the permanent Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN). Our study extends previous efforts on surface wave work by increasing ray path density and improving spatial resolution. Good quality dispersion measurements for roughly 3000 Rayleigh-wave paths have been obtained and utilized for the group-velocity tomography. We have applied the Fast Marching Surface Tomography (FMST) scheme of Rawlinson (2005) to obtain Rayleigh-wave group-velocity images for periods from 8 s to 40 s on a 0.8° 0.8° grid and at resolutions approaching 2.5° based on the checkerboard tests. Our results indicate that short-period group-velocity maps (8-15 s) correlate well with surface geology, with slow velocities delineating the main sedimentary features including the Arabian platform, the Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia. For longer periods (20-40 s), the velocity contrast is due to the differences in crustal thickness and subduction/collision zones. The lower velocities are sensitive to the thicker continental crust beneath the eastern Arabia and the subduction/collision zones between the Arabian and Eurasian plate, while the higher velocities in the west infer mantle velocity.

  2. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life. (United States)

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik


    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10 μ in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission.

  3. International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs for Fundamental Understanding of Fuels Performance and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed


    The International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs to Support Science-Based Development of Innovative Fuels was held June 16-17, 2011, in Paris, France. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) sponsored the workshop to identify gaps in global capabilities that need to be filled to meet projected needs in the 21st century. First and foremost, the workshop brought nine countries and associated international organizations, together in support of common needs for nuclear fuels and materials testing, characterization, PIE, and modeling capabilities. Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, IAEA, and ITU (on behalf of European Union Joint Research Centers) discussed issues and opportunities for future technical advancements and collaborations. Second, the presentations provided a base level of understanding of current international capabilities. Three main categories were covered: (1) status of facilities and near term plans, (2) PIE needs from fuels engineering and material science perspectives, and (3) novel PIE techniques being developed to meet the needs. The International presentations provided valuable data consistent with the outcome of the National Workshop held in March 2011. Finally, the panel discussion on 21st century PIE capabilities, created a unified approach for future collaborations. In conclusion, (1) existing capabilities are not sufficient to meet the needs of a science-based approach, (2) safety issues and fuels behavior during abnormal conditions will receive more focus post-Fukushima; therefore we need to adopt our techniques to those issues, and (3) International collaboration is needed in the areas of codes and standards development for the new techniques.

  4. Measuring size and composition of species pools: a comparison of dark diversity estimates. (United States)

    de Bello, Francesco; Fibich, Pavel; Zelený, David; Kopecký, Martin; Mudrák, Ondřej; Chytrý, Milan; Pyšek, Petr; Wild, Jan; Michalcová, Dana; Sádlo, Jiří; Šmilauer, Petr; Lepš, Jan; Pärtel, Meelis


    Ecological theory and biodiversity conservation have traditionally relied on the number of species recorded at a site, but it is agreed that site richness represents only a portion of the species that can inhabit particular ecological conditions, that is, the habitat-specific species pool. Knowledge of the species pool at different sites enables meaningful comparisons of biodiversity and provides insights into processes of biodiversity formation. Empirical studies, however, are limited due to conceptual and methodological difficulties in determining both the size and composition of the absent part of species pools, the so-called dark diversity. We used >50,000 vegetation plots from 18 types of habitats throughout the Czech Republic, most of which served as a training dataset and 1083 as a subset of test sites. These data were used to compare predicted results from three quantitative methods with those of previously published expert estimates based on species habitat preferences: (1) species co-occurrence based on Beals' smoothing approach; (2) species ecological requirements, with envelopes around community mean Ellenberg values; and (3) species distribution models, using species environmental niches modeled by Biomod software. Dark diversity estimates were compared at both plot and habitat levels, and each method was applied in different configurations. While there were some differences in the results obtained by different methods, particularly at the plot level, there was a clear convergence, especially at the habitat level. The better convergence at the habitat level reflects less variation in local environmental conditions, whereas variation at the plot level is an effect of each particular method. The co-occurrence agreed closest the expert estimate, followed by the method based on species ecological requirements. We conclude that several analytical methods can estimate species pools of given habitats. However, the strengths and weaknesses of different methods

  5. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 2. An evaluation of thermal water in the Bruneau-Grand View area, southwest Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, H.W.; Whitehead, R.L.; Hoover, D.B.; Tippens, C.L.


    The Bruneau-Grand View area occupies about 1,100 square miles in southwest Idaho and is on the southern flank of the large depression in which lies the western Snake River Plain. The igneous and sedimentary rocks in the area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. The aquifers in the area have been separated into two broad units: (1) the volcanic-rock aquifers, and (2) the overlying sedimentary-rock aquifers. The Idavada Volcanics or underlying rock units probably constitute the reservoir that contains thermal water. An audio-magnetotelluric survey indicates that a large conductive zone having apparent resistivities approaching 2 ohm-meters underlies a part of the area at a relatively shallow depth. Chemical analysis of 94 water samples collected in 1973 show that the thermal waters in the area are of a sodium bicarbonate type. Although dissolved-solids concentrations of water ranged from 181 to 1,100 milligrams per litre (mg/1) in the volcanic-rock aquifers, they were generally less than 500 mg/1. Measured chloride concentrations of water in the volcanic-rock aquifers were less than 20 mg/1. Temperatures of water from wells and springs ranged from 9.5/sup 0/ to 83.0/sup 0/C. Temperatures of water from the volcanic-rock aquifers ranged from 40.0/sup 0/ to 83.0/sup 0/C, whereas temperatures of water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers seldom exceeded 35/sup 0/C. Aquifer temperatures at depth, as estimated by silica and sodium-potassium-calcium geochemical thermometers, probably do not exceed 150/sup 0/C. The gas in water from the volcanic-rock aquifers is composed chiefly of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. Methane gas (probably derived from organic material) was also found in some water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers.

  6. Modeling organic aerosol from the oxidation of α-pinene in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chen


    Full Text Available A model has been developed to simulate the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA and was tested against data produced in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM flow reactor and a large environmental chamber. The model framework is based on the two-dimensional volatility basis set approach (2D-VBS, in which SOA oxidation products in the model are distributed on the 2-D space of effective saturation concentration (Ci* and oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C. The modeled organic aerosol mass concentrations (COA and O : C agree with laboratory measurements within estimated uncertainties. However, while both measured and modeled O : C increase with increasing OH exposure as expected, the increase of modeled O : C is rapid at low OH exposure and then slows as OH exposure increases while the increase of measured O : C is initially slow and then accelerates as OH exposure increases. A global sensitivity analysis indicates that modeled COA values are most sensitive to the assumed values for the number of Ci* bins, the heterogeneous OH reaction rate coefficient, and the yield of first-generation products. Modeled SOA O : C values are most sensitive to the assumed O : C of first-generation oxidation products, the number of Ci* bins, the heterogeneous OH reaction rate coefficient, and the number of O : C bins. All these sensitivities vary as a function of OH exposure. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the 2D-VBS model framework may require modifications to resolve discrepancies between modeled and measured O : C as a function of OH exposure.

  7. A monomeric complex of ammonia and cuprous chloride: H{sub 3}N⋯CuCl isolated and characterised by rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Dror M.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Stephens, Susanna L.; Walker, Nicholas R., E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, Bedson Building, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Tew, David P.; Legon, Anthony C., E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)


    The H{sub 3}N⋯CuCl monomer has been generated and isolated in the gas phase through laser vaporisation of a copper sample in the presence of low concentrations of NH{sub 3} and CCl{sub 4} in argon. The resulting complex cools to a rotational temperature approaching 2 K during supersonic expansion of the gas sample and is characterised by broadband rotational spectroscopy between 7 and 18.5 GHz. The spectra of six isotopologues are measured and analysed to determine rotational, B{sub 0}; centrifugal distortion, D{sub J}, D{sub JK}; and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of Cu, Cl, and {sup 14}N nuclei, χ{sub aa} (X). The geometry of the complex is C{sub 3v} with the N, Cu, and Cl atoms located on the a inertial axis. Bond distances and the ∠(H —N⋯Cu) bond angle within the complex are precisely evaluated through fitting of geometrical parameters to the experimentally determined moments of inertia and through ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)(F12*)/AVQZ level. The r(Cu —Cl), r(Cu —N), and ∠(H —N⋯Cu) parameters are, respectively, evaluated to be 2.0614(7) Å, 1.9182(13) Å, and 111.40(6)° in the r{sub 0} geometry, in good agreement with the ab initio calculations. Geometrical parameters evaluated for the isolated complex are compared with those established crystallographically for a solid-state sample of [Cu(NH{sub 3})Cl].

  8. Comparison of student's learning achievement through realistic mathematics education (RME) approach and problem solving approach on grade VII (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Salwah


    The type of this research was experiment. The purpose of this study was to determine the difference and the quality of student's learning achievement between students who obtained learning through Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach and students who obtained learning through problem solving approach. This study was a quasi-experimental research with non-equivalent experiment group design. The population of this study was all students of grade VII in one of junior high school in Palopo, in the second semester of academic year 2015/2016. Two classes were selected purposively as sample of research that was: year VII-5 as many as 28 students were selected as experiment group I and VII-6 as many as 23 students were selected as experiment group II. Treatment that used in the experiment group I was learning by RME Approach, whereas in the experiment group II by problem solving approach. Technique of data collection in this study gave pretest and posttest to students. The analysis used in this research was an analysis of descriptive statistics and analysis of inferential statistics using t-test. Based on the analysis of descriptive statistics, it can be concluded that the average score of students' mathematics learning after taught using problem solving approach was similar to the average results of students' mathematics learning after taught using realistic mathematics education (RME) approach, which are both at the high category. In addition, It can also be concluded that; (1) there was no difference in the results of students' mathematics learning taught using realistic mathematics education (RME) approach and students who taught using problem solving approach, (2) quality of learning achievement of students who received RME approach and problem solving approach learning was same, which was at the high category.

  9. Rotator cuff-sparing approaches for glenohumeral joint access: an anatomic feasibility study. (United States)

    Amirthanayagam, Tressa D; Amis, Andrew A; Reilly, Peter; Emery, Roger J H


    The deltopectoral approach for total shoulder arthroplasty can result in subscapularis dysfunction. In addition, glenoid wear is more prevalent posteriorly, a region difficult to access with this approach. We propose a posterior approach for access in total shoulder arthroplasty that uses the internervous interval between the infraspinatus and teres minor. This study compares this internervous posterior approach with other rotator cuff-sparing techniques, namely, the subscapularis-splitting and rotator interval approaches. The 3 approaches were performed on 12 fresh frozen cadavers. The degree of circumferential access to the glenohumeral joint, the force exerted on the rotator cuff, the proximity of neurovascular structures, and the depth of the incisions were measured, and digital photographs of the approaches in different arm positions were analyzed. The posterior approach permits direct linear access to 60% of the humeral and 59% of the glenoid joint circumference compared with 39% and 42% for the subscapularis-splitting approach and 37% and 28% for the rotator interval approach. The mean force of retraction on the rotator cuff was 2.76 (standard deviation [SD], 1.10) N with the posterior approach, 2.72 (SD, 1.22) N with the rotator interval, and 4.75 (SD, 2.56) N with the subscapularis-splitting approach. From the digital photographs and depth measurements, the estimated volumetric access available for instrumentation during surgery was comparable for the 3 approaches. The internervous posterior approach provides greater access to the shoulder joint while minimizing damage to the rotator cuff. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Achieving a coherent curriculum in second grade: Science as the organizer (United States)

    Park Rogers, Meredith A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine how a team of four second grade teachers used their approach to teaching science as a means for designing and implementing a coherent curriculum. Within this study, curriculum coherency refers to making logical instructional connections that are both visible and explicit for students. A teacher using a common teaching strategy or critical thinking skills in such a way that the commonalities between subject areas are clearly demonstrated to students is one example of curriculum coherency. The research framework guiding this study was phenomenology; I used a case study method for data analysis. The primary data source was field notes gathered during 10 weeks of classroom observations. Secondary data sources included observations of team meetings, two sets of interviews with each of the four teachers, an interview with the school principal, and artifacts used and developed by the teachers. An analysis of the data led me to interpret the following findings: (1) the teachers viewed science as a tool to motivate their students to learn and believed in teaching science through an inquiry-based approach; (2) they described science inquiry as a process of thinking organized around questions, and saw their teaching role as shifting between guided and open classroom inquiry; (3) they taught all subjects using an inquiry-based approach, emphasized the process skills associated with doing scientific inquiry, and consistently used the language of the process skills throughout their instruction of all disciplines; (4) their team's collaborative approach played a significant role in achieving their vision of a coherent curriculum; the successfulness of their collaboration relied on the unique contributions of each member and her commitment to professional development. This study demonstrates how an inquiry-based science curriculum can provide educators with an effective model for designing and implementing a coherent curriculum. Furthermore

  11. Evolution of regional to global paddy rice mapping methods: A review (United States)

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming


    Paddy rice agriculture plays an important role in various environmental issues including food security, water use, climate change, and disease transmission. However, regional and global paddy rice maps are surprisingly scarce and sporadic despite numerous efforts in paddy rice mapping algorithms and applications. With the increasing need for regional to global paddy rice maps, this paper reviewed the existing paddy rice mapping methods from the literatures ranging from the 1980s to 2015. In particular, we illustrated the evolution of these paddy rice mapping efforts, looking specifically at the future trajectory of paddy rice mapping methodologies. The biophysical features and growth phases of paddy rice were analyzed first, and feature selections for paddy rice mapping were analyzed from spectral, polarimetric, temporal, spatial, and textural aspects. We sorted out paddy rice mapping algorithms into four categories: (1) Reflectance data and image statistic-based approaches, (2) vegetation index (VI) data and enhanced image statistic-based approaches, (3) VI or RADAR backscatter-based temporal analysis approaches, and (4) phenology-based approaches through remote sensing recognition of key growth phases. The phenology-based approaches using unique features of paddy rice (e.g., transplanting) for mapping have been increasingly used in paddy rice mapping. Current applications of these phenology-based approaches generally use coarse resolution MODIS data, which involves mixed pixel issues in Asia where smallholders comprise the majority of paddy rice agriculture. The free release of Landsat archive data and the launch of Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 are providing unprecedented opportunities to map paddy rice in fragmented landscapes with higher spatial resolution. Based on the literature review, we discussed a series of issues for large scale operational paddy rice mapping.

  12. Genetics of stroke in a UK African ancestry case-control study (United States)

    Rutten-Jacobs, Loes; Curtis, Charles; Patel, Hamel; Breen, Gerome; Newhouse, Stephen; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Markus, Hugh S.


    Objective: Despite epidemiologic data showing an increased stroke incidence in African ancestry populations, genetic studies in this group have so far been limited, and there has been little characterization of the genetic contribution to stroke liability in this population, particularly for stroke subtypes. Methods: We evaluated the evidence that genetic factors contribute to stroke and stroke subtypes in a population of 917 African and African Caribbean stroke cases and 868 matched controls from London, United Kingdom. We (1) estimated the heritability of stroke in this population using genomic-relatedness matrix-restricted maximum likelihood approaches, (2) assessed loci associated with stroke in Europeans in our population, and (3) evaluated the influence of genetic factors underlying cardiovascular risk factors on stroke using polygenic risk scoring. Results: Our results indicate a substantial genetic contribution to stroke risk in African ancestry populations (h2 = 0.35 [SE = 0.19], p = 0.043). Polygenic risk scores indicate that cardiovascular risk scores contribute to the genetic liability (odds ratio [OR] 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.17], p = 0.029) and point to a strong influence of type 2 diabetes in large vessel stroke (OR 1.62 [95% CI 1.19–2.22], p = 0.0024). Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with ischemic stroke in Europeans shared direction of effect in SLESS (p = 0.031), suggesting that disease mechanisms are shared across ancestries. Conclusions: Stroke in African ancestry populations is highly heritable and influenced by genetic determinants underlying cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, stroke loci identified in Europeans share direction of effect in African populations. Future genome-wide association studies must focus on incorporating African ancestry individuals. PMID:28349126

  13. A single qualitative study can show same findings as years of quantitative research: Obstructive sleep apnoea as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Tandeter


    Full Text Available Background Many years of quantitative research led to our present knowledge of the symptoms and associated features (S&AF of the obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome. Aims 1. To prove that a qualitative research approach may identify symptoms and associated features of OSA in less time/effort than that used in a quantitative approach; 2. To describe the experience of patients with OSA and the effects of the syndrome on their quality of life and that of their spouses and families (issues that quantitative methods fail to recognize. Methods We used a narrative inquiry methodology (qualitative research. The sample was selected using the “snowball sampling technique". The sample included 10 patients with moderate to severe OSA who had good adherence to CPAP and significant clinical improvement after treatment, and 3 of the patient’s spouses. Results The following issues were identified: A long pre-diagnosis phase of OSA (20 years in one of the patients; Characteristic S&AF of the syndrome as experienced by patients and their spouses; The need for increased awareness of both the public and the medical establishment in regards to this disorder; Premature ejaculation (not reported previously and nightmares (non-conclusive in the literature were identified and improved with CPAP therapy. Conclusion With the use of quantitative research methods it took decades to discover things that we found in one simple qualitative study. We therefore urge scientists to use more often these qualitative methods when looking for S&AF of diseases and syndromes.

  14. A systems approach to obesity. (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Mui, Yeeli; Haidari, Leila A; Spiker, Marie L; Gittelsohn, Joel


    Obesity has become a truly global epidemic, affecting all age groups, all populations, and countries of all income levels. To date, existing policies and interventions have not reversed these trends, suggesting that innovative approaches are needed to transform obesity prevention and control. There are a number of indications that the obesity epidemic is a systems problem, as opposed to a simple problem with a linear cause-and-effect relationship. What may be needed to successfully address obesity is an approach that considers the entire system when making any important decision, observation, or change. A systems approach to obesity prevention and control has many benefits, including the potential to further understand indirect effects or to test policies virtually before implementing them in the real world. Discussed here are 5 key efforts to implement a systems approach for obesity prevention: 1) utilize more global approaches; 2) bring new experts from disciplines that do not traditionally work with obesity to share experiences and ideas with obesity experts; 3) utilize systems methods, such as systems mapping and modeling; 4) modify and combine traditional approaches to achieve a stronger systems orientation; and 5) bridge existing gaps between research, education, policy, and action. This article also provides an example of how a systems approach has been used to convene a multidisciplinary team and conduct systems mapping and modeling as part of an obesity prevention program in Baltimore, Maryland. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  15. Failure probability under parameter uncertainty. (United States)

    Gerrard, R; Tsanakas, A


    In many problems of risk analysis, failure is equivalent to the event of a random risk factor exceeding a given threshold. Failure probabilities can be controlled if a decisionmaker is able to set the threshold at an appropriate level. This abstract situation applies, for example, to environmental risks with infrastructure controls; to supply chain risks with inventory controls; and to insurance solvency risks with capital controls. However, uncertainty around the distribution of the risk factor implies that parameter error will be present and the measures taken to control failure probabilities may not be effective. We show that parameter uncertainty increases the probability (understood as expected frequency) of failures. For a large class of loss distributions, arising from increasing transformations of location-scale families (including the log-normal, Weibull, and Pareto distributions), the article shows that failure probabilities can be exactly calculated, as they are independent of the true (but unknown) parameters. Hence it is possible to obtain an explicit measure of the effect of parameter uncertainty on failure probability. Failure probability can be controlled in two different ways: (1) by reducing the nominal required failure probability, depending on the size of the available data set, and (2) by modifying of the distribution itself that is used to calculate the risk control. Approach (1) corresponds to a frequentist/regulatory view of probability, while approach (2) is consistent with a Bayesian/personalistic view. We furthermore show that the two approaches are consistent in achieving the required failure probability. Finally, we briefly discuss the effects of data pooling and its systemic risk implications. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures; Corrosion et protection des materiaux a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbaud, F.; Desgranges, Clara; Martinelli, Laure; Rouillard, Fabien [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Duhamel, Cecile [Mines ParisTech, Centre des materiaux UMR-CNRS 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Marchetti, Loic; Perrin, Stephane [CEA, Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse (France); Molins, Regine [Mines ParisTech, Direction de la Recherche, 60 Bvd Saint Michel, 75272 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Chevalier, S.; Heintz, O. [Laboratoire interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Univ. de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); David, N.; Fiorani, J.M.; Vilasi, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, Univ. Henri Poincare Nancy-1 - CNRS, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Wouters, Y.; Galerie, A. [SIMAP UMR CNRS 5266, Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la Piscine BP 75, 38402 Saint-Martin-d' Heres Cedex (France); Mangelinck, D. [IM2NP, UMR6242, CNRS, Univ. Paul Cezanne, Case 142, Faculte de Saint Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Viguier, B.; Monceau, D. [Univ. de Toulouse, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, INP-ENSIACET, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 44362, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Soustelle, M. [Ecole nationale superieure des mines, Saint Etienne (France); Pijolat, M. [Centre Spin, Ecole des mines de Saint Etienne (France); Favergeon, J.; Brancherie, D.; Moulin, G.; Dawi, K. [Laboratoire Roberval, UTC (France); Wolski, K.; Barnier, V. [Centre SMS, EMSE, UMR 5146, LCG, Univ. de Lyon, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Rebillat, F. [LCTS, Univ. de Bordeaux (France); Lavigne, O. [Onera, Dep. Materiaux et Structures Metalliques, BP 72, 29 av. de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon (France); Brossard, J.M. [Dep. energetique et procedes, Veolia Environnement Recherche et Innovation, Limay (France); Ropital, F. [IFP Energies Nouvelles, BP 3, 69360 Solaize (France); Mougin, J. [CEA-Liten, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)


    This book was made from the lectures given in 2010 at the thematic school on 'materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures'. It gathers the contributions from scientists and engineers coming from various communities and presents a state-of-the-art of the scientific and technological developments concerning the behaviour of materials at high temperature, in aggressive environments and in various domains (aerospace, nuclear, energy valorization, and chemical industries). It supplies pedagogical tools to grasp high temperature corrosion thanks to the understanding of oxidation mechanisms. It proposes some protection solutions for materials and structures. Content: 1 - corrosion costs; macro-economical and metallurgical approach; 2 - basic concepts of thermo-chemistry; 3 - introduction to the Calphad (calculation of phase diagrams) method; 4 - use of the thermodynamic tool: application to pack-cementation; 5 - elements of crystallography and of real solids description; 6 - diffusion in solids; 7 - notions of mechanics inside crystals; 8 - high temperature corrosion: phenomena, models, simulations; 9 - pseudo-stationary regime in heterogeneous kinetics; 10 - nucleation, growth and kinetic models; 11 - test experiments in heterogeneous kinetics; 12 - mechanical aspects of metal/oxide systems; 13 - coupling phenomena in high temperature oxidation; 14 - other corrosion types; 15 - methods of oxidized surfaces analysis at micro- and nano-scales; 16 - use of SIMS in the study of high temperature corrosion of metals and alloys; 17 - oxidation of ceramics and of ceramic matrix composite materials; 18 - protective coatings against corrosion and oxidation; 19 - high temperature corrosion in the 4. generation of nuclear reactor systems; 20 - heat exchangers corrosion in municipal waste energy valorization facilities; 21 - high temperature corrosion in oil refining and petrochemistry; 22 - high temperature corrosion in new energies industry. (J.S.)

  17. Overview of subtalar arthrodesis techniques: options, pitfalls and solutions. (United States)

    Tuijthof, Gabriëlle J M; Beimers, Lijkele; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Dankelman, Jenny; Dijk, C Niek van


    Subtalar arthrodesis (SA) is the preferred treatment for painful isolated subtalar disease. Although results are generally favourable, analysis of current operative techniques will help optimizing this treatment. The aim was to give an overview of SA-techniques and their pitfalls. Possible solutions were identified. A literature search was performed for papers that presented SA operative techniques. The general technique was divided into phases: surgical approach, cartilage removal, bone graft selection, hindfoot deformity correction and fixation. The published series were invariably retrospective reviews of small heterogenous groups of different hindfoot pathologies. The weighted outcome rate for SA was 85% (68-100%) performed in 766 feet and for SA requiring correction of malalignment 65% (36-96%) in 1001 feet. Non-union (weighted percentage 12%), malalignment (18%), and screw removal (17%) were the prevailing late complications. The following pitfalls were identified: 1) early complications related to the incisions made in open approaches, 2) insufficient cartilage removal, improper bone graft selection and fixation techniques, all possibly leading to non-union, 3) morbidity caused by bone graft harvesting and secondary screw removal, 4) under- or overcorrection of the hindfoot possibly due to improper intraoperative verification and 5) inadequate assessment of bony fusion. The review provides solutions to possibly overcome some pitfalls: 1) if applicable use an arthroscopic approach in combination with distraction devices and new burrs, 2) if possible use local bone graft or allografts, 3) use two screws for fixation to prevent rotational micromotion, and 4) improve assessment of operative outcome by application of appropriate assessment of bony fusion and alignment. The review provides practical suggestions to optimize SA-techniques. Copyright (c) 2009 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toward sub-20nm pitch Fin patterning and integration with DSA (United States)

    Sayan, Safak; Marzook, Taisir; Chan, BT; Vandenbroeck, Nadia; Singh, Arjun; Laidler, David; Sanchez, Efrain A.; Leray, Philippe; R. Delgadillo, Paulina; Gronheid, Roel; Vandenberghe, Geert; Clark, William; Juncker, Aurelie


    Directed Self Assembly (DSA) has gained increased momentum in recent years as a cost-effective means for extending lithography to sub-30nm pitch, primarily presenting itself as an alternative to mainstream 193i pitch division approaches such as SADP and SAQP. Towards these goals, IMEC has excelled at understanding and implementing directed self-assembly based on PS-b-PMMA block co-polymers (BCPs) using LiNe flow [1]. These efforts increase the understanding of how block copolymers might be implemented as part of HVM compatible DSA integration schemes. In recent contributions, we have proposed and successfully demonstrated two state-of-the-art CMOS process flows which employed DSA based on the PS-b-PMMA, LiNe flow at IMEC (pitch = 28 nm) to form FinFET arrays via both a `cut-last' and `cut-first' approach [2-4]. Therein, we described the relevant film stacks (hard mask and STI stacks) to achieve robust patterning and pattern transfer into IMEC's FEOL device film stacks. We also described some of the pattern placement and overlay challenges associated with these two strategies. In this contribution, we will present materials and processes for FinFET patterning and integration towards sub-20 nm pitch technology nodes. This presents a noteworthy challenge for DSA using BCPs as the ultimate resolution for PS-b-PMMA may not achieve such dimensions. The emphasis will continue to be towards patterning approaches, wafer alignment strategies, the effects of DSA processing on wafer alignment and overlay.

  19. Superior spatial resolution in confocal X-ray techniques using collimating channel array optics: elemental mapping and speciation in archaeological human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, S.; Agyeman-Budu, D. N.; Woll, A. R.; Swanston, T.; Varney, T. L.; Cooper, D. M. L.; Hallin, E.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.; Coulthard, I.


    Confocal X-ray fluorescence imaging (CXFI) and confocal X-ray absorption spectroscopy (CXAS) respectively enable the study of three dimensionally resolved localization and speciation of elements. Applied to a thick sample, essentially any volume element of interest within the X-ray fluorescence escape depth can be examined without the need for physical thin sectioning. To date, X-ray confocal detection generally has employed a polycapillary optic in front of the detector to collect fluorescence from the probe volume formed at the intersection of its focus with the incident microfocus beam. This work demonstrates the capability of a novel Collimating Channel Array (CCA) optic in providing an improved and essentially energy independent depth resolution approaching 2 μm. By presenting a comparison of elemental maps of archaeological bone collected without confocal detection, and with polycapillary- and CCA-based confocal detection, this study highlights the strengths and limitations of each mode. Unlike the polycapillary, the CCA shows similar spatial resolution in maps for both low (Ca) and high (Pb and Sr) energy X-ray fluorescence, thus illustrating the energy independent nature of the CCA optic resolution. While superior spatial resolution is demonstrated for all of these elements, the most significant improvement is observed for Ca, demonstrating the advantage of employing the CCA optic in examining light elements. In addition to CXFI, this configuration also enables the collection of Pb L3 CXAS data from micro-volumes with dimensions comparable to bone microstructures of interest. Our CXAS result, which represents the first CCA-based biological CXAS, demonstrates the ability of CCA optics to collect site specific spectroscopic information. The demonstrated combination of site-specific elemental localization and speciation data will be useful in diverse fields.

  20. Nonlinear gravity-wave interactions in stratified turbulence (United States)

    Remmel, Mark; Sukhatme, Jai; Smith, Leslie M.


    To investigate the dynamics of gravity waves in stratified Boussinesq flows, a model is derived that consists of all three-gravity-wave-mode interactions (the GGG model), excluding interactions involving the vortical mode. The GGG model is a natural extension of weak turbulence theory that accounts for exact three-gravity-wave resonances. The model is examined numerically by means of random, large-scale, high-frequency forcing. An immediate observation is a robust growth of the so-called vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF). In addition, there is a forward transfer of energy and equilibration of the nonzero-frequency (sometimes called "fast") gravity-wave modes. These results show that gravity-wave-mode interactions by themselves are capable of systematic interscale energy transfer in a stratified fluid. Comparing numerical simulations of the GGG model and the full Boussinesq system, for the range of Froude numbers ( Fr) considered (0.05 ≤ Fr ≤ 1), in both systems the VSHF is hardest to resolve. When adequately resolved, VSHF growth is more vigorous in the GGG model. Furthermore, a VSHF is observed to form in milder stratification scenarios in the GGG model than the full Boussinesq system. Finally, fully three-dimensional nonzero-frequency gravity-wave modes equilibrate in both systems and their scaling with vertical wavenumber follows similar power-laws. The slopes of the power-laws obtained depend on Fr and approach -2 (from above) at Fr = 0.05, which is the strongest stratification that can be properly resolved with our computational resources.

  1. Semiconservative replication in the quasispecies model (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Deeds, Eric J.; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.


    This paper extends Eigen’s quasispecies equations to account for the semiconservative nature of DNA replication. We solve the equations in the limit of infinite sequence length for the simplest case of a static, sharply peaked fitness landscape. We show that the error catastrophe occurs when μ , the product of sequence length and per base pair mismatch probability, exceeds 2 ln [2/ ( 1+1/k ) ] , where k>1 is the first-order growth rate constant of the viable “master” sequence (with all other sequences having a first-order growth rate constant of 1 ). This is in contrast to the result of ln k for conservative replication. In particular, as k→∞ , the error catastrophe is never reached for conservative replication, while for semiconservative replication the critical μ approaches 2 ln 2 . Semiconservative replication is therefore considerably less robust than conservative replication to the effect of replication errors. We also show that the mean equilibrium fitness of a semiconservatively replicating system is given by k ( 2 e-μ/2 -1 ) below the error catastrophe, in contrast to the standard result of k e-μ for conservative replication (derived by Kimura and Maruyama in 1966). From this result it is readily shown that semiconservative replication is necessary to account for the observation that, at sufficiently high mutagen concentrations, faster replicating cells will die more quickly than more slowly replicating cells. Thus, in contrast to Eigen’s original model, the semiconservative quasispecies equations are able to provide a mathematical basis for explaining the efficacy of mutagens as chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Design of Collusion-Resistant Fingerprinting Systems: Review and New Results (United States)

    Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    To protect the copyright of a media file, one idea is to develop a traitor tracing system that identifies its unauthorized distribution or usage by tracing fingerprints of illegal users (i.e., traitors). There exists a simple yet effective attack that can break a naive traitor tracing system easily known as the collusion attack. The design of a fingerprinting system that is robust against collusion attacks has been intensively studied in the last decade. A review of previous work in this field will be given. Most previous work deals with collusion attacks with equal weights or its variants (e.g., the cascade of several collusion attacks with equal weights). Consequently, the weight of each colluder is a constant throughout the collusion process. The collusion attack on continuous media such as audio and video with time-varying weights is simple to implement. However, we are not aware of any effective solution to this type of attacks. To address this problem, we first show that this can be formulated as a multi-user detection problem in a wireless communication system with a time-varying channel response. Being inspired by the multi-carrier code division multiaccess (MC-CDMA) technique, we propose a new fingerprinting system that consists of the following modules: 1) codeword generation with a multi-carrier approach, 2) colluder weight estimation, 3) advanced message symbol detection. We construct hiding codes with code spreading followed by multi-carrier modulation. For colluder weight estimation, we show that the colluder weight estimation is analogous to channel response estimation, which can be solved by inserting pilot signals in the embedded fingerprint. As to advanced message symbol detection, we replace the traditional correlation-based detector with the maximal ratio combining (MRC) detector and the parallel interference cancellation (PIC) multiuser detector. The superior performance of the proposed fingerprinting system in terms of user/colluder capacity

  3. Global Analysis of Mannitol 2-Dehydrogenase in Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 during Mannitol Production through Enzymatic, Genetic and Proteomic Approaches. (United States)

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bleckwedel, Juliana; Fadda, Silvina; Picariello, Gianluca; Hebert, Elvira M; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda


    Several plants, fungi, algae, and certain bacteria produce mannitol, a polyol derived from fructose. Mannitol has multiple industrial applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and medical industries, being mainly used as a non-metabolizable sweetener in foods. Many heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria synthesize mannitol when an alternative electron acceptor such as fructose is present in the medium. In previous work, we reported the ability of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 to efficiently produce mannitol from sugarcane molasses as carbon source at constant pH of 5.0; the activity of the enzyme mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH) responsible for the fructose conversion into mannitol being highest during the log cell growth phase. Here, a detailed assessment of the MDH activity and relative expression of the mdh gene during the growth of L. reuteri CRL 1101 in the presence of fructose is presented. It was observed that MDH was markedly induced by the presence of fructose. A direct correlation between the maximum MDH enzyme activity and a high level of mdh transcript expression during the log-phase of cells grown in a fructose-containing chemically defined medium was detected. Furthermore, two proteomic approaches (2DE and shotgun proteomics) applied in this study confirmed the inducible expression of MDH in L. reuteri. A global study of the effect of fructose on activity, mdh gene, and protein expressions of MDH in L. reuteri is thus for the first time presented. This work represents a deep insight into the polyol formation by a Lactobacillus strain with biotechnological potential in the nutraceutics and pharmaceutical areas.

  4. Utilization of audio-visual aids by family welfare workers. (United States)

    Naik, V R; Jain, P K; Sharma, B B


    Communication efforts have been an important component of the Indian Family Planning Welfare Program since its inception. However, its chief interests in its early years were clinical, until the adoption of the extension approach in 1963. Educational materials were developed, especially in the period 1965-8, to fit mass, group meeting and home visit approaches. Audiovisual aids were developed for use by extension workers, who had previously relied entirely on verbal approaches. This paper examines their use. A questionnaire was designed for workers in motivational programs at 3 levels: Village Level (Family Planning Health Assistant, Auxilliary Nurse-Midwife, Dias), Block Level (Public Health Nurse, Lady Health Visitor, Block Extension Educator), and District (District Extension Educator, District Mass Education and Information Officer). 3 Districts were selected from each State on the basis of overall family planning performance during 1970-2 (good, average, or poor). Units of other agencies were also included on the same basis. Findings: 1) Workers in all 3 categories preferred individual contacts over group meetings or mass approach. 2) 56-64% said they used audiovisual aids "sometimes" (when available). 25% said they used them "many times" and only 15.9% said "rarely." 3) More than 1/2 of workers in each category said they were not properly oriented toward the use of audiovisual aids. Nonavailability of the aids in the market was also cited. About 1/3 of village level and 1/2 of other workers said that the materials were heavy and liable to be damaged. Complexity, inaccuracy and confusion in use were not widely cited (less than 30%).

  5. Indirect Global Warming Potentials of Halons Using Atmospheric Models (United States)

    Youn, D.; Patten, K. O.; Wuebbles, D. J.


    Emission of bromochlorofluorocarbons, or Halons, results in stratospheric ozone depletion. This leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to direct warming contribution of the Halons as greenhouse gases. This cooling is a key indirect effect of Halons on radiative forcing or climate. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a relative index used to compare the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas, relative to an equal amount of carbon dioxide. Until now, indirect GWPs have been calculated based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC), which oversimplifies the complex processes in the atmosphere. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, 2-D and 3-D global chemical transport models (CTM) were used as the computational tool to derive more realistic ozone changes caused by pulse perturbation of Halons at the surface. Indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and -1301 for a 100-year time horizon were explicitly calculated based on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 2-D global CTM and radiative transport model (RTM) and the 3-D CTM, MOZART-3.1. The 2-D and 3-D model simulations show acceptable temporal variations in the atmosphere as well as derived lifetimes and direct GWP values of the Halons. The 2-D model-based indirect GWPs for a 100-year horizon are -16,294 for Halon-1211 and -33,648 for Halon-1301. 3-D indirect GWP for Halon-1211 is -18,216. The indirect GWPs for Halon-1211 presented here are much smaller than previous published results using the previous simplified appraoch.

  6. Vacuum Nuller Testbed Performance, Characterization and Null Control (United States)

    Lyon, R. G.; Clampin, M.; Petrone, P.; Mallik, U.; Madison, T.; Bolcar, M.; Noecker, C.; Kendrick, S.; Helmbrecht, M. A.


    The Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) can detect and characterize exoplanets with filled, segmented and sparse aperture telescopes, thereby spanning the choice of future internal coronagraph exoplanet missions. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed a Vacuum Nuller Testbed (VNT) to advance this approach, and assess and advance technologies needed to realize a VNC as a flight instrument. The VNT is an ultra-stable testbed operating at 15 Hz in vacuum. It consists of a MachZehnder nulling interferometer; modified with a "W" configuration to accommodate a hexpacked MEMS based deformable mirror (DM), coherent fiber bundle and achromatic phase shifters. The 2-output channels are imaged with a vacuum photon counting camera and conventional camera. Error-sensing and feedback to DM and delay line with control algorithms are implemented in a real-time architecture. The inherent advantage of the VNC is that it is its own interferometer and directly controls its errors by exploiting images from bright and dark channels simultaneously. Conservation of energy requires the sum total of the photon counts be conserved independent of the VNC state. Thus sensing and control bandwidth is limited by the target stars throughput, with the net effect that the higher bandwidth offloads stressing stability tolerances within the telescope. We report our recent progress with the VNT towards achieving an incremental sequence of contrast milestones of 10(exp 8) , 10(exp 9) and 10(exp 10) respectively at inner working angles approaching 2A/D. Discussed will be the optics, lab results, technologies, and null control. Shown will be evidence that the milestones have been achieved.

  7. The effect of sulfide dissolved in silicate melts on enhancing the solubility of the Highly Siderophile Elements (United States)

    O'Neill, H. S.


    There are large inconsistencies among experimental studies of Highly Siderophile Element (HSE) partitioning relations between silicates and metal or sulfide phases, which has usually been attributed to "micronuggets", a general term for sub-optical (approximately HSE sulfide-melt/silicate-melt partition coefficients, where results range over several orders of magnitude. Moreover, nearly all the reported results of directly determined sulfide-melt/silicate-melt partition coefficients are considerably lower than values calculated by combining metal/silicate-melt with metal/sulfide-melt partition coefficients. This discrepancy has been attributed to large effects of S dissolved as sulfide in the silicate melts on HSE solubilities. As such large effects are not expected from the thermodynamic modeling of sulfide solubilities in silicate melts, it has been proposed that HSEs dissolve in sulfide-containing silicate melts by forming HSE-S complexes. This idea has been tested by experiments that compare the solubilities of Ir, Re and Ru in a high-TiO2 silicate melt both with and without dissolved sulfide at 1400 to 1600ºC at atmospheric pressure. The high TiO2 suppresses micronuggets. Experiments were analysed by LA-ICP-MS, with detection limits approaching 2 ppb. For Ir, the results show that at fO2 low enough to enable measurable sulfide in the melt, the presence of the sulfide just raises the level of dissolved Ir above detection limits. These results suggest a fairly large influence of the sulfide, but are not quantitative. By contrast, the experiments on Ru and Re clearly show only a modest effect of dissolved sulfide.

  8. Comparison of sinoscopic techniques for examining the rostral maxillary and ventral conchal sinuses of horses. (United States)

    Perkins, Justin D; Bennett, Cees; Windley, Zoë; Schumacher, Jim


    To develop a reliable technique for sinoscopic examination of the ventral conchal (VCS) and rostral maxillary sinuses (RMS) of horses Descriptive study Cadaveric equine heads (n=40) The VCS and RMS were examined endoscopically using: (1) rostral trephination of the RMS (rostral RMS approach); (2) caudal trephination of the RMS (caudal RMS approach); (3) conchofrontal sinus (CFS) trephination followed by RMS trephination at a site identified by endoscopic transillumination of the maxillary bone at the most rostral aspect of the caudal maxillary sinus (CMS) (light-indicated RMS approach); (4) CFS trephination with fenestration of the ventral conchal bulla (VCB; frontal VCB approach); (5) CMS trephination with VCB fenestration (caudal VCB approach); and (6) CFS and CMS trephination with VCB fenestration (combined VCB approach). Success in observing the rostral and caudal aspects of the VCS and RMS with each approach were: (1) rostral RMS approach (0 horses; 16 horses [40%]); (2) caudal RMS approach (0 horses; 11 horses [28%]); (3) light-indicated RMS approach (3 horses [8%]; 24 horses [60%]); (4) frontal VCB approach (24 horses [60%]; 29 horses [73%] respectively); (5) caudal VCB approach (16 horses [40%] both structures); and (6) combined VCB approach (27 horses [68%]; 35 horses [88%]). Trephination into the CFS coupled with fenestration of the VCB provided consistent access to both the rostral and caudal aspects of the RMS and VCS. A trephine hole into the RMS provided poor access to the VCS, and placed the reserve crowns of the maxillary cheek teeth at risk of damage. The RMS and VCS can be best examined endoscopically using approaches with fenestration of the VCB.

  9. Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorck von Korff


    Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called "messes" or "wicked problems." The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.

  10. Current re-vegetation patterns and restoration issues in degraded geological phosphorus-rich mountain areas: A synthetic analysis of Central Yunnan, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yan


    Full Text Available China has the largest area of inland geological phosphorus-rich (GPR mountains in the world, where vegetation restoration is key to safeguarding the environment. We reviewed the published literature and collected new data in order to analyze re-vegetation patterns and the status of plant communities in central Yunnan. The aim of our analysis was to suggest future improvements to restoration strategies in GPR mountain regions. Our results showed that spontaneous recovery was the most widespread type of restoration. N-fixing species such as Coriaria nepalensis and Alnus nepalensis play a vital role in succession. In the past, monoculture tree plantation was the primary method used in afforestation activities in central Yunnan; in recent years however, several different methods of restoration have been introduced including the use of agroforestry systems. For practical restoration, we found that spontaneous recovery was capable of delivering the best results, but that during its early stages, restoration results were affected by several factors including erosion risk, the origin of propagates and environmental variation. In contrast, methods employing human-made communities performed better in their early stages, but were constrained by higher costs and vulnerability to degradation and erosion. The use of N-fixing species such as A. nepalensis and Acacia mearnsii in plantations were unsuccessful in restoring full ecosystem functions. The success of restoration activities in GPR mountain regions could be improved through the following measures: (1 developing a better understanding of the respective advantages and disadvantages of current natural and human-engineered restoration approaches; (2 elucidating the feedback mechanism between phosphorus-rich soil and species selected for restoration, especially N-fixing species; (3 introducing market incentives aimed at encouraging specific restoration activities such as agroforestry, and improving the

  11. Spatial patterns of native freshwater mussels in the Upper Mississippi River (United States)

    Ries, Patricia R.; DeJager, Nathan R.; Zigler, Steven J.; Newton, Teresa


    Multiple physical and biological factors structure freshwater mussel communities in large rivers, and their distributions have been described as clumped or patchy. However, few surveys of mussel populations have been conducted over areas large enough and at resolutions fine enough to quantify spatial patterns in their distribution. We used global and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (i.e., Moran’s I) to quantify spatial patterns of adult and juvenile (≤5 y of age) freshwater mussels across multiple scales based on survey data from 4 reaches (navigation pools 3, 5, 6, and 18) of the Upper Mississippi River, USA. Native mussel densities were sampled at a resolution of ∼300 m and across distances ranging from 21 to 37 km, making these some of the most spatially extensive surveys conducted in a large river. Patch density and the degree and scale of patchiness varied by river reach, age group, and the scale of analysis. In all 4 pools, some patches of adults overlapped patches of juveniles, suggesting spatial and temporal persistence of adequate habitat. In pools 3 and 5, patches of juveniles were found where there were few adults, suggesting recent emergence of positive structuring mechanisms. Last, in pools 3, 5, and 6, some patches of adults were found where there were few juveniles, suggesting that negative structuring mechanisms may have replaced positive ones, leading to a lack of localized recruitment. Our results suggest that: 1) the detection of patches of freshwater mussels requires a multiscaled approach, 2) insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of structuring mechanisms can be gained by conducting independent analyses of adults and juveniles, and 3) maps of patch distributions can be used to guide restoration and management actions and identify areas where mussels are most likely to influence ecosystem function.

  12. The rescue of miR-148a expression in pancreatic cancer: an inappropriate therapeutic tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Delpu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that physiologically modulate proteins expression, and regulate numerous cellular mechanisms. Alteration of microRNA expression has been described in cancer and is associated to tumor initiation and progression. The microRNA 148a (miR-148a is frequently down-regulated in cancer. We previously demonstrated that its down-regulation by DNA hypermethylation is an early event in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC carcinogenesis, suggesting a tumor suppressive function. Here, we investigate the potential role of miR-148a over-expression in PDAC as a therapeutic tool. We first report the consequences of miR-148a over-expression in PDAC cell lines. We demonstrate that miR-148a over-expression has no dramatic effect on cell proliferation and cell chemo-sensitivity in four well described PDAC cell lines. We also investigate the modulation of protein expression by a global proteomic approach (2D-DIGE. We show that despite its massive over-expression, miR-148a weakly modulates protein expression, thus preventing the identification of protein targets in PDAC cell lines. More importantly, in vivo data demonstrate that modulating miR-148a expression either in the epithelia tumor cells and/or in the tumor microenvironment does not impede tumor growth. Taken together, we demonstrate herein that miR-148a does not impact PDAC proliferation both in vitro and in vivo thus suggesting a weak potential as a therapeutic tool.

  13. Prejunctional effects of the nicotinic ACh receptor agonist dimethylphenylpiperazinium at the rat neuromuscular junction. (United States)

    Singh, S; Prior, C


    1. We have studied the effects of the nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor agonist dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) on the evoked release of ACh from motor terminals in the rat isolated hemidiaphragm using an electrophysiological approach. 2. DMPP (1-4 microM) had no effect on the rate of spontaneous quantal ACh release but increased the number of quanta of ACh released per impulse during 50 Hz stimulation. The DMPP-induced increase in evoked ACh release was dependent on the frequency of stimulation, being absent when it was reduced to 0.5 Hz, but was not Ca2+ dependent, being unaffected at 50 Hz by a 4-fold decrease in the extracellular Ca2+ concentration. 3. The facilitation of evoked ACh release at 50 Hz by 2 microM DMPP was abolished by 10 microM of the calmodulin antagonist W7 (N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide hydrochloride) and, in the presence of W7, 2 microM DMPP depressed evoked ACh release at 0.5 Hz. The ability of the nicotinic ACh receptor antagonist vecuronium (1 microM) to depress evoked ACh release at 50 Hz was also abolished by 10 microM W7. 4. The present findings demonstrate, using an electrophysiological technique, that DMPP can produce changes in the evoked ACh release from rat motor nerve terminals that are consistent with the existence of facilitatory nicotinic ACh receptors on the motor nerve endings. Further, they indicate a role for calmodulin-dependent systems in this facilitatory effect of the compound.

  14. Electrostatic levitation facility optimized for neutron diffraction studies of high temperature liquids at a spallation neutron source (United States)

    Mauro, N. A.; Vogt, A. J.; Derendorf, K. S.; Johnson, M. L.; Rustan, G. E.; Quirinale, D. G.; Kreyssig, A.; Lokshin, K. A.; Neuefeind, J. C.; An, Ke; Wang, Xun-Li; Goldman, A. I.; Egami, T.; Kelton, K. F.


    Neutron diffraction studies of metallic liquids provide valuable information about inherent topological and chemical ordering on multiple length scales as well as insight into dynamical processes at the level of a few atoms. However, there exist very few facilities in the world that allow such studies to be made of reactive metallic liquids in a containerless environment, and these are designed for use at reactor-based neutron sources. We present an electrostatic levitation facility, NESL (for Neutron ElectroStatic Levitator), which takes advantage of the enhanced capabilities and increased neutron flux available at spallation neutron sources (SNSs). NESL enables high quality elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments to be made of reactive metallic and other liquids in the equilibrium and supercooled temperature regime. The apparatus is comprised of a high vacuum chamber, external and internal neutron collimation optics, and a sample exchange mechanism that allows up to 30 samples to be processed between chamber openings. Two heating lasers allow excellent sample temperature homogeneity, even for samples approaching 500 mg, and an automated temperature control system allows isothermal measurements to be conducted for times approaching 2 h in the liquid state, with variations in the average sample temperature of less than 0.5%. To demonstrate the capabilities of the facility for elastic scattering studies of liquids, a high quality total structure factor for Zr64Ni36 measured slightly above the liquidus temperature is presented from experiments conducted on the nanoscale-ordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) beam line at the SNS after only 30 min of acquisition time for a small sample (˜100 mg).

  15. Electrostatic levitation facility optimized for neutron diffraction studies of high temperature liquids at a spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, N. A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, North Central College, Naperville, Illinois 60540 (United States); Vogt, A. J. [Instrument and Source Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Derendorf, K. S. [Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Johnson, M. L.; Kelton, K. F. [Department of Physics and Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Washington University, 1 Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Rustan, G. E.; Quirinale, D. G.; Goldman, A. I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Kreyssig, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Lokshin, K. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Neuefeind, J. C.; An, Ke [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Wang, Xun-Li [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Ave., Kowloon (Hong Kong); Egami, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)


    Neutron diffraction studies of metallic liquids provide valuable information about inherent topological and chemical ordering on multiple length scales as well as insight into dynamical processes at the level of a few atoms. However, there exist very few facilities in the world that allow such studies to be made of reactive metallic liquids in a containerless environment, and these are designed for use at reactor-based neutron sources. We present an electrostatic levitation facility, NESL (for Neutron ElectroStatic Levitator), which takes advantage of the enhanced capabilities and increased neutron flux available at spallation neutron sources (SNSs). NESL enables high quality elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments to be made of reactive metallic and other liquids in the equilibrium and supercooled temperature regime. The apparatus is comprised of a high vacuum chamber, external and internal neutron collimation optics, and a sample exchange mechanism that allows up to 30 samples to be processed between chamber openings. Two heating lasers allow excellent sample temperature homogeneity, even for samples approaching 500 mg, and an automated temperature control system allows isothermal measurements to be conducted for times approaching 2 h in the liquid state, with variations in the average sample temperature of less than 0.5%. To demonstrate the capabilities of the facility for elastic scattering studies of liquids, a high quality total structure factor for Zr{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} measured slightly above the liquidus temperature is presented from experiments conducted on the nanoscale-ordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) beam line at the SNS after only 30 min of acquisition time for a small sample (∼100 mg)

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Seven Approaches to Map Vegetation Communities — A Case Study from Northern Australia’s Tropical Savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Phinn


    Full Text Available Vegetation communities are traditionally mapped from aerial photography interpretation. Other semi-automated methods include pixel- and object-based image analysis. While these methods have been used for decades, there is a lack of comparative research. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of seven approaches to map vegetation communities in a northern Australia’s tropical savanna environment. The seven approaches included: (1. aerial photography interpretation, (2. pixel-based image-only classification (Maximum Likelihood Classifier, (3. pixel-based integrated classification (Maximum Likelihood Classifier, (4. object-based image-only classification (nearest neighbor classifier, (5. object-based integrated classification (nearest neighbor classifier, (6. object-based image-only classification (step-wise ruleset, and (7. object-based integrated classification (step-wise ruleset. Approach 1 was applied to 1:50,000 aerial photography and approaches 2–7 were applied to SPOT5 and Landsat5 TM multispectral data. The integrated approaches (3, 5 and 7 included ancillary data (a digital elevation model, slope model, normalized difference vegetation index and hydrology information. The cost-effectiveness was assessed taking into consideration the accuracy and costs associated with each classification approach and image dataset. Accuracy was assessed in terms of overall accuracy and the costs were evaluated using four main components: field data acquisition and preparation, image data acquisition and preparation, image classification and accuracy assessment. Overall accuracy ranged from 28%, for the image-only pixel-based approach, to 67% for the aerial photography interpretation, while total costs ranged from AU$338,000 to AU$388,180 (Australian dollars, for the pixel-based image-only classification and aerial photography interpretation respectively. The most labor-intensive component was field data acquisition and preparation, followed by image data

  17. Full Dimensional Vibrational Calculations for Methane Using AN Accurate New AB Initio Based Potential Energy Surface (United States)

    Majumder, Moumita; Dawes, Richard; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua; Manzhos, Sergei


    New potential energy surfaces for methane were constructed, represented as analytic fits to about 100,000 individual high-level ab initio data. Explicitly-correlated multireference data (MRCI-F12(AE)/CVQZ-F12) were computed using Molpro [1] and fit using multiple strategies. Fits with small to negligible errors were obtained using adaptations of the permutation-invariant-polynomials (PIP) approach [2,3] based on neural-networks (PIP-NN) [4,5] and the interpolative moving least squares (IMLS) fitting method [6] (PIP-IMLS). The PESs were used in full-dimensional vibrational calculations with an exact kinetic energy operator by representing the Hamiltonian in a basis of products of contracted bend and stretch functions and using a symmetry adapted Lanczos method to obtain eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Very close agreement with experiment was produced from the purely ab initio PESs. References 1- H.-J. Werner, P. J. Knowles, G. Knizia, 2012.1 ed. 2012, MOLPRO, a package of ab initio programs. see 2- Z. Xie and J. M. Bowman, J. Chem. Theory Comput 6, 26, 2010. 3- B. J. Braams and J. M. Bowman, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 28, 577, 2009. 4- J. Li, B. Jiang and Hua Guo, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 204103 (2013). 5- S Manzhos, X Wang, R Dawes and T Carrington, JPC A 110, 5295 (2006). 6- R. Dawes, X-G Wang, A.W. Jasper and T. Carrington Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 134304 (2010).

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution of ambient nitric acid and ammonia in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Monthly average ambient concentrations of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3 and ammonia (NH3 were monitored at the Athabasca Oils Sands Region (AOSR, Alberta, Canada, between May 2005 and September 2008. Generally, concentrations of both pollutants were elevated and highly variable in space and time. The highest atmospheric concentrations occurred in the vicinity of the major mining and oil extraction activities of Fort Murray and Fort McKay. Maximum monthly average concentrations of HNO3 decreased from >6 μg m–3 2005 and 2006 to <4 μg m–3 in 2007 and 2008. While the HNO3 summer seasonal averages in 2005 and 2006 approached ~2 μg m–3 at some sites, in the subsequent summers and during winter seasons it rarely exceeded 1 μg m–3 and no clear differences between summer and winter occurred. Concentrations of NH3 were elevated during the entire study and frequently reached 6 μg m–3. Generally, NH3 stayed higher in summer than in winter; the summer seasonal averages often exceeded 4 μg m–3 while those for winter only on two occasions were above 3 μg m–3. In summer 2008, an expansion of the area with elevated NH3 levels was observed extending to remote locations. Ammonia is of a much higher concern from a perspective of possible biological effects, because of its potential for direct toxic effect on lichens and its contribution to the elevated N dry deposition with possible negative consequences for forests and other ecosystems.

  19. Network-Guided GWAS Improves Identification of Genes Affecting Free Amino Acids1[OPEN (United States)

    Deason, Nicholas; DellaPenna, Dean


    Amino acids are essential for proper growth and development in plants. Amino acids serve as building blocks for proteins but also are important for responses to stress and the biosynthesis of numerous essential compounds. In seed, the pool of free amino acids (FAAs) also contributes to alternative energy, desiccation, and seed vigor; thus, manipulating FAA levels can significantly impact a seed’s nutritional qualities. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on branched-chain amino acids have identified some regulatory genes controlling seed FAAs, the genetic regulation of FAA levels, composition, and homeostasis in seeds remains mostly unresolved. Hence, we performed GWAS on 18 FAAs from a 313-ecotype Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) association panel. Specifically, GWAS was performed on 98 traits derived from known amino acid metabolic pathways (approach 1) and then on 92 traits generated from an unbiased correlation-based metabolic network analysis (approach 2), and the results were compared. The latter approach facilitated the discovery of additional novel metabolic interactions and single-nucleotide polymorphism-trait associations not identified by the former approach. The most prominent network-guided GWAS signal was for a histidine (His)-related trait in a region containing two genes: a cationic amino acid transporter (CAT4) and a polynucleotide phosphorylase resistant to inhibition with fosmidomycin. A reverse genetics approach confirmed CAT4 to be responsible for the natural variation of His-related traits across the association panel. Given that His is a semiessential amino acid and a potent metal chelator, CAT4 orthologs could be considered as candidate genes for seed quality biofortification in crop plants. PMID:27872244

  20. Health in the urban environment: a qualitative review of the Brighton and Hove WHO Healthy City Program. (United States)

    Hall, Caroline; Davies, John Kenneth; Sherriff, Nigel


    Phase IV of the WHO European Region's Healthy Cities Program ended in December 2008. This article presents the findings from a recently completed review of Brighton and Hove's Healthy City Program which aimed to scope whether added value had accrued from the city's role as a WHO Healthy City during phase IV. In contrast to most other evaluations of healthy cities, this review adopted a qualitative approach representing an appraisal of the Brighton and Hove Healthy City Program from the internal viewpoint of its local stakeholders. In addition to documentary analysis and a facilitated workshop, a series of in-depth interviews (N = 27) were conducted with stakeholders from the Brighton and Hove Healthy City Partnership representing each of the sectors reflected in the Local Strategic Partnership (public, statutory, elected, community and voluntary, neighborhood and communities, business). The key findings of the review are presented in a way which reflects the three key areas of the review including (1) the healthy cities approach, (2) participation in phase IV of the WHO Healthy Cities Program, and (3) the Brighton and Hove Healthy City Partnership. These findings are discussed, and recommendations for action at local, national, and European levels are proposed. In particular, we argue that there is an urgent need to develop a suitable monitoring and evaluation system for the WHO Healthy Cities Program with appropriate indicators that are meaningful and relevant to local stakeholders. Moreover, it would be important for any such system to capitalize on the benefits that qualitative methodologies can offer alongside more traditional quantitative indicators.

  1. Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images (United States)

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca


    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r2=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance. PMID:24146963

  2. Commercializing government-sponsored innovations: Twelve successful buildings case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Goel, R.K.


    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies. 27 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Different Phenotyping Approaches Lead to Dissimilar Biologic Profiles in Men With Chronic Fatigue After Radiation Therapy. (United States)

    Feng, Li Rebekah; Dickinson, Kristin; Kline, Neila; Saligan, Leorey N


    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) persists months after treatment completion. Although a CRF biomarker has not yet been identified, validated self-report questionnaires are used to define and phenotype CRF in the discovery of potential biomarkers. The purposes of this study are to identify CRF subjects using three well-known CRF phenotyping approaches using validated self-report questionnaires and to compare the biologic profiles that are associated with each CRF phenotype. Fatigue in men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer receiving external beam radiation therapy was measured at baseline (T1), midpoint (T2), end point (T3), and one-year post-external beam radiation therapy (T4) using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-Fatigue. Chronic fatigue (CF) and nonfatigue subjects were grouped based on three commonly used phenotyping approaches: 1) T4 FACT-F 50. Differential gene expressions using whole-genome microarray analysis were compared in each of the phenotyping criterion. The study enrolled 43 men, where 34%-38% had CF based on the three phenotyping approaches. Distinct gene expression patterns were observed between CF and nonfatigue subjects in each of the three CRF phenotyping approaches: 1) Approach 1 had the largest number of differentially expressed genes and 2) Approaches 2 and 3 had 40 and 21 differentially expressed genes between the fatigue groups, respectively. The variation in genetic profiles for CRF suggests that phenotypic profiling for CRF should be carefully considered because it directly influences biomarker discovery investigations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Best practice principles for management of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): results of a scoping review. (United States)

    Camden, C; Wilson, B; Kirby, A; Sugden, D; Missiuna, C


    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a prevalent health condition that is frequently unrecognized despite the substantial evidence that has accumulated regarding how it affects children's health, education and skills. Most literature focuses on measurement of impairment and description of intervention approaches for individual children; little is known about the principles that should guide best practice and service delivery for children with DCD as a population. The purpose of this study was to identify these principles. A scoping review was used to 'map' the information available to inform intervention and service delivery. Scholarly and grey literature written in English was identified in six databases, using a combination of keywords (e.g. guidelines, management, models and DCD); a 'snow-balling' technique was also used in Canada and the UK to access clinical protocols used in publicly funded health care systems. Over 500 documents were screened: 31 met inclusion criteria as they outlined practice principles for children with DCD as a population. Data regarding best practices were independently extracted by two reviewers and then compared with achieve consistency and consensus. Two over-arching themes emerged, with five principles: (1) Organizing services to efficiently meet the comprehensive needs of children (e.g. Increasing awareness of DCD and coordination; Implementing clearly defined pathways; Using a graduated/staged approach); (2) Working collaboratively to offer evidence-based services (e.g. Integration of child and family views; Evidence-based interventions fostering function, participation and prevention). Numerous documents support each of the principles, reflecting agreement across studies about recommended organization of services. While these principles may apply to many populations of children with disabilities, this review highlights how essential these principles are in DCD. Researchers, managers, clinicians, community partners and

  5. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  6. Unraveling the sperm proteome and post-genomic pathways associated with sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation. (United States)

    Intasqui, Paula; Camargo, Mariana; Del Giudice, Paula T; Spaine, Deborah M; Carvalho, Valdemir M; Cardozo, Karina H M; Cedenho, Agnaldo P; Bertolla, Ricardo P


    Sperm DNA fragmentation has been suggested as a marker for infertility diagnosis and prognosis. Hence, understanding its impact on male physiology and post-genomic pathways would be clinically important. We performed the proteomics and functional enrichment analyses of viable spermatozoa from ejaculates with low and high sperm DNA fragmentation to identify protein expression and pathways altered in association with sperm DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA fragmentation using the Comet assay and the Komet 6.0.1 software was assessed in raw samples from 89 subjects from a human reproduction service. The Low and High sperm DNA fragmentation groups were formed according to the Olive Tail Moment variable. Spermatozoa proteins from these groups were pooled and analyzed by a shotgun proteomic approach (2D nanoUPLC-ESI-MS(E)). Differentially expressed proteins were used for a functional enrichment study. Two hundred and fifty-seven proteins were identified or quantified in sperm from the Low and High sperm DNA fragmentation groups. Of these, seventy-one proteins were exclusively or overexpressed in the Low group, whereas twenty-three proteins were exclusively or overexpressed in the High group. One hundred and sixty-three proteins were conserved between these groups. We also functionally related the differentially expressed proteins in viable spermatozoa from the groups. Processes such as triacylglycerol metabolism, energy production, protein folding, response to unfolded proteins, and cellular detoxification were found to be altered in these cells. Sperm DNA fragmentation is associated with differential protein expression in viable spermatozoa. These proteins may potentially be used as biomarkers for sperm DNA integrity.

  7. Upper-limb kinematic reconstruction during stroke robot-aided therapy. (United States)

    Papaleo, E; Zollo, L; Garcia-Aracil, N; Badesa, F J; Morales, R; Mazzoleni, S; Sterzi, S; Guglielmelli, E


    The paper proposes a novel method for an accurate and unobtrusive reconstruction of the upper-limb kinematics of stroke patients during robot-aided rehabilitation tasks with end-effector machines. The method is based on a robust analytic procedure for inverse kinematics that simply uses, in addition to hand pose data provided by the robot, upper arm acceleration measurements for computing a constraint on elbow position; it is exploited for task space augmentation. The proposed method can enable in-depth comprehension of planning strategy of stroke patients in the joint space and, consequently, allow developing therapies tailored for their residual motor capabilities. The experimental validation has a twofold purpose: (1) a comparative analysis with an optoelectronic motion capturing system is used to assess the method capability to reconstruct joint motion; (2) the application of the method to healthy and stroke subjects during circle-drawing tasks with InMotion2 robot is used to evaluate its efficacy in discriminating stroke from healthy behavior. The experimental results have shown that arm angles are reconstructed with a RMSE of 8.3 × 10(-3) rad. Moreover, the comparison between healthy and stroke subjects has revealed different features in the joint space in terms of mean values and standard deviations, which also allow assessing inter- and intra-subject variability. The findings of this study contribute to the investigation of motor performance in the joint space and Cartesian space of stroke patients undergoing robot-aided therapy, thus allowing: (1) evaluating the outcomes of the therapeutic approach, (2) re-planning the robotic treatment based on patient needs, and (3) understanding pathology-related motor strategies.

  8. Quest for novel cardiovascular biomarkers by proteomic analysis. (United States)

    Vivanco, Fernando; Martín-Ventura, Jose L; Duran, Mari Carmen; Barderas, Maria G; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Dardé, Verónica M; Mas, Sebastián; Meilhac, Olivier; Michel, Jean B; Tuñón, Jose; Egido, Jesús


    Atherosclerosis, and the resulting coronary heart disease and stroke, is the most common cause of death in developed countries. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process that results in the development of complex lesions or plaques that protrude into the arterial lumen. Plaque rupture and thrombosis result in the acute clinical complications of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Although certain risk factors (dyslipidemias, diabetes, hypertension) and humoral markers of plaque vulnerability (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, 10 and 18, CD40L) have been identified, a highly sensitive and specific biomarker or protein profile, which could provide information on the stability/vulnerability of atherosclerotic lesions, remains to be identified. In this review, we report several proteomic approaches which have been applied to circulating or resident cells, atherosclerotic plaques or plasma, in the search for new proteins that could be used as cardiovascular biomarkers. First, an example using a differential proteomic approach (2-DE and MS) comparing the secretome from control mammary arteries and atherosclerotic plaques is displayed. Among the different proteins identified, we showed that low levels of HSP-27 could be a potential marker of atherosclerosis. Second, we have revised several studies performed in cells involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (foam cells and smooth muscle cells). Another approach consists of performing proteomic analysis on circulating cells or plasma, which will provide a global view of the whole body response to atherosclerotic aggression. Circulating cells can bear information reflecting directly an inflammatory or pro-coagulant state related to the pathology. As an illustration, we report that circulating monocytes and plasma in patients with acute coronary syndromes has disclosed that mature Cathepsin D is increased both in the plasma and monocytes of these patients. Finally, the problems of applying proteomic approach

  9. The role of community engagement in the adoption of new agricultural biotechnologies by farmers: the case of the Africa harvest tissue-culture banana in Kenya. (United States)

    Bandewar, Sunita V S; Wambugu, Florence; Richardson, Emma; Lavery, James V


    The tissue culture banana (TCB) is a biotechnological agricultural innovation that has been adopted widely in commercial banana production. In 2003, Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International (AH) initiated a TCB program that was explicitly developed for smallholder farmers in Kenya to help them adopt the TCB as a scalable agricultural business opportunity. At the heart of the challenge of encouraging more widespread adoption of the TCB is the question: what is the best way to introduce the TCB technology, and all its attendant practices and opportunities, to smallholder farmers. In essence, a challenge of community or stakeholder engagement (CE). In this paper, we report the results of a case study of the CE strategies employed by AH to introduce TCB agricultural practices to small-hold farmers in Kenya, and their impact on the uptake of the TCB, and on the nature of the relationship between AH and the relevant community of farmers and other stakeholders. We identified six specific features of CE in the AH TCB project that were critical to its effectiveness: (1) adopting an empirical, "evidence-based" approach; (2) building on existing social networks; (3) facilitating farmer-to-farmer engagement; (4) focusing engagement on farmer groups; (5) strengthening relationships of trust through collaborative experiential learning; and (6) helping farmers to "learn the marketing game". We discuss the implications of AH's "values-based" approach to engagement, and how these guiding values functioned as "design constraints" for the key features of their CE strategy. And we highlight the importance of attention to the human dimensions of complex partnerships as a key determinant of successful CE. Our findings suggest new ways of conceptualizing the relationship between CE and the design and delivery of new technologies for global health and global development.

  10. Characterization of interploid hybrids from crosses between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea and the production of yellow-seeded B. napus. (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zhu, Lixia; Qi, Liping; Ke, Hongmei; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong


    Yellow-seeded Brassica napus was for the first time developed from interspecific crosses using yellow-seeded B. juncea (AABB), yellow-seeded B. oleracea (CC), and black-seeded artificial B. napus (AACC). Three different mating approaches were undertaken to eliminate B-genome chromosomes after trigenomic hexaploids (AABBCC) were generated. Hybrids (AABCC, ABCC) from crosses AABBCC × AACC, AABBCC × CC and ABCC × AACC were advanced by continuous selfing in approach 1, 2 and 3, respectively. To provide more insight into Brassica genome evolution and the cytological basis for B. napus resynthesis in each approach, B-genome chromosome pairing and segregation were intensively analyzed in AABCC and ABCC plants using genomic in situ hybridization methods. The frequencies at which B-genome chromosomes underwent autosyndesis and allosyndesis were generally higher in ABCC than in AABCC plants. The difference was statistically significant for allosyndesis but not autosyndesis. Abnormal distributions of B-genome chromosomes were encountered at anaphase I, including chromosome lagging and precocious sister centromere separation of univalents. These abnormalities were observed at a significantly higher frequency in AABCC than in ABCC plants, which resulted in more rapid B-genome chromosome elimination in the AABCC derivatives. Yellow or yellow-brown seeds were obtained in all approaches, although true-breeding yellow-seeded B. napus was developed only in approaches 2 and 3. The efficiency of the B. napus construction approaches was in the order 1 > 3 > 2 whereas this order was 3 > 2 > 1 with respect to the construction of yellow-seeded B. napus. The results are discussed in relation to Brassica genome evolution and the development and utilization of the yellow-seeded B. napus obtained here.

  11. Complementary Constrains on Component based Multiphase Flow Problems, Should It Be Implemented Locally or Globally? (United States)

    Shao, H.; Huang, Y.; Kolditz, O.


    Multiphase flow problems are numerically difficult to solve, as it often contains nonlinear Phase transition phenomena A conventional technique is to introduce the complementarity constraints where fluid properties such as liquid saturations are confined within a physically reasonable range. Based on such constraints, the mathematical model can be reformulated into a system of nonlinear partial differential equations coupled with variational inequalities. They can be then numerically handled by optimization algorithms. In this work, two different approaches utilizing the complementarity constraints based on persistent primary variables formulation[4] are implemented and investigated. The first approach proposed by Marchand[1] is using "local complementary constraints", i.e. coupling the constraints with the local constitutive equations. The second approach[2],[3] , namely the "global complementary constrains", applies the constraints globally with the mass conservation equation. We will discuss how these two approaches are applied to solve non-isothermal componential multiphase flow problem with the phase change phenomenon. Several benchmarks will be presented for investigating the overall numerical performance of different approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of different models will also be concluded. References[1] E.Marchand, T.Mueller and P.Knabner. Fully coupled generalized hybrid-mixed finite element approximation of two-phase two-component flow in porous media. Part I: formulation and properties of the mathematical model, Computational Geosciences 17(2): 431-442, (2013). [2] A. Lauser, C. Hager, R. Helmig, B. Wohlmuth. A new approach for phase transitions in miscible multi-phase flow in porous media. Water Resour., 34,(2011), 957-966. [3] J. Jaffré, and A. Sboui. Henry's Law and Gas Phase Disappearance. Transp. Porous Media. 82, (2010), 521-526. [4] A. Bourgeat, M. Jurak and F. Smaï. Two-phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in

  12. Insights into the secondary fraction of the organic aerosol in a Mediterranean urban area: Marseille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. El Haddad


    -based approach, the aggregate contribution from traditional BSOC was estimated at only 4.2% of total OC and was dominated by α-pinene SOC accounting on average for 3.4% of OC. As a result, these estimates underpredict the inexplicably high loading of OC. This underestimation can be associated with (1 uncertainties underlying the marker-based approach, (2 presence of other SOC precursors and (3 further processing of fresh SOC, as indicated by organosulfates (RSO4 and HUmic LIke Substances (HULIS measurements.

  13. WE-EF-207-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION and BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): Task-Driven Imaging for Cone-Beam CT in Interventional Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, G; Stayman, J; Ouadah, S; Siewerdsen, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ehtiati, T [Siemens Healthcare AX Division, Erlangen, DE (Germany)


    a patient-specific anatomical model to optimize image acquisition and reconstruction techniques, thereby improving imaging performance beyond that achievable with conventional approaches. 2R01-CA-112163; R01-EB-017226; U01-EB-018758; Siemens Healthcare (Forcheim, Germany)

  14. Efektivitas Layanan Informasi dengan Pendekatan Contextual Teaching And Learning dalam Meningkatkan Arah Perencanaan Karier Siswa SMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramtia Darma Putri


    Full Text Available Direction of career planning become very important because it can guidelines students in decisions making of his career in the future.  Direction of career planning should be prepared and improved considering that not all students have a mature direction of career planning. Central Statistics Agency (BPS of West Sumatera in August 2014 recorded the open unemployment of about 6.99%  or reach 150 thousand people are more dominated by graduates SMK as much as 11.15%. In addition, the results of AUM umum in one of the SMK was indicated problems in careers and jobs as much to 33.56%. This demonstrates that students do not have a clear understanding about direction of career planning that will be chosen. One of the efforts to improve the students direction of career planning is the information service.  This research was intended to find out the effectiveness of information service with contextual teaching and learning approach to improve the direction of career planning student of SMK.This study uses quantitative methods. This type of research is Quasi Experiment with Nonrandomized Control Group Pretest-posttest Design. The subjects were students of SMK Padang Nusatama as an experimental group and the SMK Nasional Padang as a control group. The research instrument used Likert Scale models, and then analyzed using Paired Samples t-test and Independent Sample t-test with SPSS version 17.00.In general the study's findings that information service with contextual teaching and learning approach is effective in improving direction of career planning student of SMK. Specifically: (1 there was a significant differences between direction of career planning in the experimental group before and after the given information service with contextual teaching and learning approach, (2 there was a significant differences between direction of career planning in the control group before and after the given conventional information service, and (3 there was a

  15. Geothermal investigations in Idaho, Part 2, An evaluation of thermal water in the Bruneau-Grand View area, southwest Idaho - with a section on a reconnaissance audio-magnetotelluric survey (United States)

    Young, H.W.; Whitehead, R.L.; Hoover, Donald B.; Tippens, C.L.


    The Bruneau-Grand View area occupies about 1,100 square miles in southwest Idaho and is on the southern flank of the large depression (possibly a graben) in which lies the western Snake River Plain. The igneous and sedimentary rocks in the area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. They are transected by a prominent system of northwest-trending faults. For discussion purposes, the aquifers in the area have been separated into two broad units: (1) the volcanic-rock aquifers, and (2) the overlying sedimentary-rock aquifers. The Idavada Volcanics or underlying rock units probably constitute the reservoir that contains thermal water. An audio-magnetotelluric survey indicates that a large conductive zone having apparent resistivities approaching 2 ohm-metres underlies a part of the area at a relatively shallow depth. Chemical analysis of 94 water samples collected in 1973 show that the thermal waters in the area are of a sodium bicarbonate type. Although dissolved-solids concentrations of water ranged from 181 to 1,100 milligrams per litre (mg/l) in the volcanic-rock aquifers, they were generally less than 500 mg/l. Measured chloride concentrations of water in the volcanic-rock aquifers were less than 20 mg/l. Temperatures of water from wells and springs ranged from 9.5 to 83.0 degrees C. Temperatures of water from the volcanic-rock aquifers ranged from 40.0 to 83.0 degrees C, whereas temperatures of water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers seldom exceeded 35 degrees C. Aquifer temperatures at depth, as estimated by silica and sodium-potassium-calcium geochemical thermometers, probably do not exceed 150 degrees C. However, a mixed-water geochemical thermometer indicates that temperatures at depth may exceed 180 degrees C. The gas in water from the volcanic-rock aquifers is composed chiefly of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. Methane gas (probably derived from organic material) was also found in some water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers. The thermal waters

  16. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Anti-Cancer Mechanism by Periplocin Treatment in Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Lu


    Full Text Available Background: Periplocin is used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, reinforcement of bones and tendons, palpitations or shortness of breath and lower extremity edema in traditional medicine. Our previous findings suggested that periplocin could inhibit the growth of lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. But the biological processes and molecular pathways by which periplocin induces these beneficial effects remain largely undefined. Methods: To explore the molecular mechanisms of periplocin involved in anti-cancer activity, in the present study the protein profile changes of human lung cancer cell lines A549 in response to periplocin treatment were investigated using the proteomics approaches (2-DE combined with MS/MS. Western blot was employed to verify the changed proteins. Interactions between changed proteins were analyzed by STRING. Results: 29 down-regulated protein species named GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran (RAN, Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 (EIF5A and Profilin-1(PFN1, and 10 up-regulated protein species named Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSPA8,10 kDa heat shock protein (HSPE1, and Cofilin-1(CFL-1 were identified. Among them, GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran (RAN and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA were the most significantly changed (over tenfold. The proteasome subunit beta type-6 (PSMB6, ATP synthase ecto-α-subunit (ATP5A1, Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 and EIF5A were verified by immunoblot assays to be dramatically down-regulated. By STRING bioinformatics analysis revealing interactions and signaling networks it became apparent that the proteins changed they are primarily involved in transcription and proteolysis. Conclusion: Periplocin inhibited growth of lung cancer by down-regulating proteins, such as ATP5A1, EIF5A, ALDH1 and PSMB6. These findings may improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of

  17. Mollusc and brachiopod skeletal hardparts: Problematic archives of past seawater properties (Invited) (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.


    incomplete and in many cases based on descriptive rather than mechanistic approaches; (2) in analogy to all metazoans, biomineralization processes of molluscs and brachiopods are complex and involve different mechanisms for different elements. The combined uptake of specific elements both from inorganic and metabolic sources represents a major problem. Despite all of these problems, field experiments document that these biominerals respond to the aquatic geochemistry and the physical properties (temperature, salinity, pH etc.) of their environment, albeit in a more complex manner than conventionally assumed. Significant advances in multi-proxy research, however, require a more holistic view of the physico-chemical and biological processes involved. The present contribution represents a first tentative step towards this goal.

  18. Biogenic hardparts: Difficult archives of the geological past (Invited) (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.


    endocytosis and vesicle transport, precursor mineralogies etc.) is surprisingly incomplete and in many cases based on descriptive rather than mechanistic approaches; (2) in analogy to all metazoans, biomineralization processes of mollusks and brachiopods are complex and involve different mechanisms for different elements. The combined uptake of specific elements both from inorganic and metabolic sources represents a major problem. Despite all of these problems, field experiments document that these biominerals respond to the aquatic geochemistry and the physical properties (temperature, salinity, pH etc.) of their environment, albeit in a more complex manner than conventionally assumed. Significant advances in multi-proxy research, however, require a more holistic view of the physico-chemical and biological processes involved. The present contribution represents a first tentative step towards this goal.

  19. 显微手术不同术式治疗嗅沟脑膜瘤%Treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas through various operative approaches for microsurgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄从刚; 陈谦学; 田道锋; 吴立权; 许州; 郭振涛


    目的 探讨嗅沟脑膜瘤的手术入路选择.方法 应用显微外科手术治疗嗅沟脑膜瘤39例,分别采用经双(单)侧额下入路21例,经翼点(改良)入路10例,经眶额入路6例,经前纵裂半球间入路2例共四种术式切除.结果 据脑膜瘤Simpson分级切除标准,Simpson Ⅰ级切除28例,SimpsonⅡ级切除10例,Simpson Ⅳ级切除1例,无手术死亡.结论 全切除(SimpsonⅠ~Ⅱ级)肿瘤是嗅沟脑膜瘤根治的有效途径.恰当合适的手术入路是肿瘤根除重要保证.术式的选择应结合肿瘤的实际,以肿瘤全切除,减少复发并利于颅底修补重建为目的.%Objective To explore several operative approaches for microsurgical treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas. Methods The olfactory groove meningiomas in 39 cases were removed microsurgically through various approaches, among which 21 cases were performed through the bilateral subfrontal approach or unilateral subfrontal approach, 10 cases were performed through modified derome approach, 6 cases were performed through orbital frontal approach, 2 cases were performed through interhemisperic approach. Results Simpson grade I removal was accomplished in 28 cases, grade II in 10 cases and grade IV in one case. These was no death in surgery. Conclusion Total tumor removal( Simpson I ~ II )should be the surgical goal for treatment of olfactory groove meningiorrms, An appropriate approach is fundamental in the effort to remove an OGM totally. The choice of the operative approach is tightly relative to the tu-morous reality. The purpose should be to reduce the recurrence, achieve subtotal resection and reconstruction for the repair.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy H. Istanto


    Full Text Available During the uncertain situation of politics%2C social%2C economic and culture in Indonesia recently%2C there is a new phenomenon%2C that is the existence of thousands ads of A-Mild cigarette%2C which brings various questions. The ads of this cigarette do not show a relationship between the underlying messages with the products. It is%2C indeed a strange mode in the advertisement world. The performance of A-Mild ads in this article is analyzed by the linguistic approach%2C namely semiotic theory; a theory which comes from the language theory. The message of this ads (both text and images can be read as a sign or group of signs. Between signifier and the signified of A-Mild ads there is no ideologic and stable relationship%2C but in fact they look ironic and represent "what I please idea". The performance of A-Mild ads show the growing aspects of life at that time%2C so the text (the postmodern work does not only produce a single meaning%2C but also a multidimensional space in which various problems interact and get mixed with each other. The ads also indicate the use of one of postmodern aesthetic language%2C namely parody. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Didalam situasi politik%2C ekonomi%2C sosial dan budaya yang tidak menentu di Indonesia saat ini%2C hadir fenomena baru yakni munculnya ribuan iklan rokok A-Mild; yang dalam penampilannya mengundang beragam pertanyaan. Sajian iklan yang dihadirkan%2C tidak memperlihatkan adanya hubungan antara pesan-pesan yang disampaikan dengan produk yang dipasarkan%2C sesuatu yang terlihat janggal dalam dunia iklan pada umumnya. Tampilan iklan A-Mild%2C dalam kertas kerja ini dikaji dengan pendekatan linguistik%2C yaitu teori semiotik%2C suatu teori yang berasal dari teori kebahasaan. Pesan dalam iklan (baik teks maupun gambar dapat dibaca sebagai tanda atau sekumpulan tanda. Antara penanda (bentuk dan petanda (makna dalam tampilan iklan A-Mild terlihat tidak terlihat hubungan yang ideologis dan mapan%2C namun

  1. Investigating the shifts in Thai teachers' views of learning and pedagogical practices while adopting an argument-based inquiry approach (United States)

    Promyod, Nattida

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shift of Thai teachers' views of learning and their pedagogical practices from the traditional approach to be more centered on an argument-based inquiry approach (ABI) in Thai classrooms, where teachers and learners have long been familiar with the lecture-based tradition. Other than examining the changes, the study further explored the relationship throughout the ABI implementation phase with a specific focus on driving questions, problem solving and reasoning, and establishing a supportive learning environment. The study was conducted in Thailand with five physics teachers. Data collection involved classroom observations and teacher interviews. The constant comparative method was employed throughout the data analysis process. The research questions that guided this study were: (1) What changes occurred in teachers' pedagogical practices and views of learning throughout the implementation phase of the argument-based inquiry approach? (2) If change did occur, what was the relationship of the change among the observed criteria (questioning, problem solving, and the establishing of a supportive learning environment)? The results revealed that after fourteen weeks, the three teachers who expressed a positive attitude toward the ABI approach and expressed their willingness to practice started to shift their practices and views of learning toward a student-centered model. Although each teacher exhibited a different starting point within the three observed criteria, they all began to shift their practices first, before reflecting on their beliefs. In contrast to these teachers, the other two teachers were impeded by several barriers and therefore failed to implement the approach. These positive attitude, willingness, and shift of practice appear to be connected and necessary for change. The study highlights that in order to support the implementation of the ABI approach, especially in a large class size cultural setting

  2. High resolution mapping of the tropospheric NO2 distribution in three Belgian cities based on airborne APEX remote sensing (United States)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Fayt, Caroline; Danckaert, Thomas; Iordache, Daniel; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel


    An approach is presented to retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) and to map the NO2 two dimensional distribution at high resolution, based on Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with a high spatial (approximately 3 m at 5000 m ASL), spectral (413 to 2421 nm in 533 narrow, contiguous spectral bands) and radiometric (14-bit) resolution. VCDs are derived, following a similar approach as described in the pioneering work of Popp et al. (2012), based on (1) spectral calibration and spatial binning of the observed radiance spectra in order to improve the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of the pre-processed spectra in the visible wavelength region, with a reference spectrum containing low NO2 absorption, in order to quantify the abundance of NO2 along the light path, based on its molecular absorption structures and (3) radiative transfer modeling for air mass factor calculation in order to convert slant to vertical columns. This study will be done in the framework of the BUMBA (Belgian Urban NO2 Monitoring Based on APEX hyperspectral data) project. Dedicated flights with APEX mounted in a Dornier DO-228 airplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), are planned to be performed in Spring 2015 above the three largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Brussels, Antwerp and Liège. The retrieved VCDs will be validated by comparison with correlative ground-based and car-based DOAS observations. Main objectives are (1) to assess the operational capabilities of APEX to map the NO2 field over an urban area at high spatial and spectral resolution in a relatively short time and cost-effective way, and to characterise all aspects of the retrieval approach; (2) to use the APEX NO2 measurements

  3. Kinematics and thermodynamics across a propagating non-stoichiometric oxidation phase front in spent fuel grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, R.B.; Kansa, E.J.; Wijesinghe, A.M.


    Spent fuel contains mixtures, alloy and compound, but are dominated by U and O except for some UO{sub 2} fuels with burnable poisons (gadolinia in BWR rods), the other elements evolve during reactor operation from neutron reaction and fission + fission decay events. Due to decay, chemical composition and activity of spent fuel will continue to evolve after removal from reactors. During the time interval with significant radioactivity levels relevant for a geological repository, it is important to develop models for potential chemical responses in spent fuel and potential degradation of repository. One such potential impact is the oxidation of spent fuel, which results in initial phase change of UO{sub 2} lattice to U{sub 4}O{sub 9} and the next phase change is probably to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} although it has not been observed yet below 200C. The U{sub 4}O{sub 9} lattice is nonstoichiometric with a O/U weight ratio at 2.4. Preliminary indications are that the UO{sub 2} has a O/U of 2. 4 at the time just before it transforms into the U{sub 4}O{sub 9} phase. In the oxygen weight gain versus time response, a plateau appears as the O/U approaches 2.4. Part of this plateau is due to geometrical effects of a U{sub 4}O{sub 9} phase change front propagating into UO{sub 2} grain volumes; however, this may indicate a metastable phase change delay kinetics or a diffusional related delay time until the oxygen density can satisfy stoichiometry and energy conditions for phase changes. Experimental data show a front of U{sub 4}O{sub 9} lattice structure propagating into grains of the UO{sub 2} lattice. To describe this spatially inhomogenous oxidation phase transition, as well as the expected U{sub 3}O{sub 8} phase transition from the U{sub 4}O{sub 9} lattice, lattice models are developed and spatially discontinuous kinematic and energetic expressions are derived. 9 refs.

  4. Coupling of gel-based 2-DE and 1-DE shotgun proteomics approaches to dig deep into the leaf senescence proteome of Glycine max. (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Lee, Su Ji; Min, Cheol Woo; Kim, So Wun; Park, Ki-Hun; Bae, Dong-Won; Lee, Byong Won; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Sun Tae


    Leaf senescence is the last stage of leaf development that re-mobilizes nutrients from the source to sink. Here, we have utilized the soybean as a model system to unravel senescence-associated proteins (SAPs). A comparative proteomics approach was used at two contrasting stages of leaf development, namely mature (R3) and senescent (R7). Selection criteria for these two stages were the contrasting differences in their biochemical parameters - chlorophyll, carotenoids and malondialdehyde contents. Proteome analysis involved subjecting the total leaf proteins to 15% poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) pre-fractional method to enrich the low-abundance proteins (LAPs) and their analyses by gel-based 2-DE and 1-DE shotgun proteomics approaches. 2-DE profiling of PEG-supernatant and -pellet fractions detected 153 differential spots between R3 and R7 stages, of which 102 proteins were identified. In parallel, 1-DE shotgun proteomics approach identified 598 and 534 proteins in supernatant and pellet fractions of R3 and R7 stages, respectively. MapMan and Gene Ontology analyses showed increased abundance and/or specific accumulation of proteins related to jasmonic acid biosynthesis and defense, while proteins associated with photosynthesis and ROS-detoxification were decreased during leaf senescence. These findings and the generated datasets further our understanding on leaf senescence at protein level, providing a resource for the scientific community. Leaf senescence is a major biological event in the life cycle of plants that leads to the recycling of nutrients. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying leaf senescence still remain poorly understood. Here, we used a combination of gel-based 2-DE and 1-DE shotgun proteomics approaches to dig deeper into the leaf senescence proteome using soybean leaf as a model experimental material. For the identification of low-abundance proteins, polyethylene glycol (PEG) fractionation was employed and both PEG-supernatant and -pellet

  5. Microgravity Disturbance Predictions in the Combustion Integrated Rack (United States)

    Just, M.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.


    This paper will focus on the approach used to characterize microgravity disturbances in the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), currently scheduled for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2005. Microgravity experiments contained within the CIR are extremely sensitive to vibratory and transient disturbances originating on-board and off-board the rack. Therefore, several techniques are implemented to isolate the critical science locations from external vibration. A combined testing and analysis approach is utilized to predict the resulting microgravity levels at the critical science location. The major topics to be addressed are: 1) CIR Vibration Isolation Approaches, 2) Disturbance Sources and Characterization, 3) Microgravity Predictive Modeling, 4) Science Microgravity Requirements, 6) Microgravity Control, and 7) On-Orbit Disturbance Measurement. The CIR is using the Passive Rack Isolation System (PaRIS) to isolate the rack from offboard rack disturbances. By utilizing this system, CIR is connected to the U.S. Lab module structure by either 13 or 14 umbilical lines and 8 spring / damper isolators. Some on-board CIR disturbers are locally isolated by grommets or wire ropes. CIR's environmental and science on board support equipment such as air circulation fans, pumps, water flow, air flow, solenoid valves, and computer hard drives cause disturbances within the rack. These disturbers along with the rack structure must be characterized to predict whether the on-orbit vibration levels during experimentation exceed the specified science microgravity vibration level requirements. Both vibratory and transient disturbance conditions are addressed. Disturbance levels/analytical inputs are obtained for each individual disturber in a "free floating" condition in the Glenn Research Center (GRC) Microgravity Emissions Lab (MEL). Flight spare hardware is tested on an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) basis. Based on test and analysis, maximum disturbance level

  6. Using Rubrics to Collect Evidence for Decision-Making: What do Librarians Need to Learn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Oakleaf


    Full Text Available Objective ‐ Every day librarians make decisions that impact on the provision of library products and services. To formulate good decisions librarians must be equipped with reliable and valid data. Unfortunately, many library processes generate vast quantities ofunwieldy information that is ill suited for the evidence based decision‐making (EBDM practices librarians strive to employ. Librarians require tools to facilitate the translation of unmanageable facts and figures into data that can be used to support decision‐making. One such tool is a rubric. Rubrics provide benefits to librarians seeking to use EBDM strategies. This study examined librarians’ abilities to use rubrics as a decision facilitation tool,explored barriers that might prevent effective rubric usage, and suggested training topics that address potential barriers.Methods ‐ The data for the study came from student responses to open‐ended questions embedded in an online information literacy tutorial, LOBO, used by first‐year students in English 101 at North Carolina State University (NCSU. Fifteen academic librarians, fiveinstructors, and five students applied rubrics to transform students’ textual responses into quantitative data; this data was statistically analyzed for reliability and validity using Cohen’s Kappa. Participant comment sheets were also examined to reveal potential hurdles to effective rubric use.Results ‐ Statistical analysis revealed that a subset of participants included in this study were able to use a rubric to achieve substantially valid results. On the other hand, some participants were unable to achieve an expert level of validity and alluded to roadblocks that interfered with their ability to provide quality data using rubrics.Conclusion ‐ Participant feedback can be categorized into six barriers that may explain why some participants could not attain expert status: 1 difficulty understanding an outcomes based approach, 2 tension

  7. A novel fermentation strategy for removing the key inhibitor acetic acid and efficiently utilizing the mixed sugars from lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Eiteman PHD; Elliot Altman Phd


    As part of preliminary research efforts, we have completed several experiments which demonstrate 'proof of concept.' These experiments addressed the following three questions: (1) Can a synthetic mixed sugar solution of glucose and xylose be efficiently consumed using the multi-organism approach? (2) Can this approach be used to accumulate a model product? (3) Can this approach be applied to the removal of an inhibitor, acetate, selectively from mixtures of xylose and glucose? To answer the question of whether this multi-organism approach can effectively consume synthetic mixed sugar solutions, we first tested substrate-selective uptake using two strains, one unable to consume glucose and one unable to consume xylose. The xylose-selective strain ALS998 has mutations in the three genes involved in glucose uptake, rendering it unable to consume glucose: ptsG codes for the Enzyme IICB{sup Glc} of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for carbohydrate transport (Postma et al., 1993), manZ codes for the IID{sup Man} domain of the mannose PTS permease (Huber, 1996), glk codes for glucokinase (Curtis and Epstein 1975) We also constructed strain ALS1008 which has a knockout in the xylA gene encoding for xylose isomerase, rendering ALS1008 unable to consume xylose. Two batch experiments and one continuous bioprocess were completed. In the first experiment, each strain was grown separately in a defined medium of 8 g/L xylose and 15 g/L glucose which represented xylose and glucose concentrations that can be generated by actual biomass. In the second experiment, the two strains were grown together in batch in the same defined, mixed-sugar medium. In a third experiment, we grew the strains continuously in a 'chemostat', except that we shifted the concentrations of glucose and xylose periodically to observe how the system would respond. (For example, we shifted the glucose concentration suddenly from 15 g/L to 30 g/L in the feed).

  8. Modelling seasonality in Australian building approvals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry M Karamujic


    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of seasonal influences on Australian housing approvals, represented by the State of Victoria[1] building approvals for new houses (BANHs. The prime objective of BANHs is to provide timely estimates of future residential building work. Due to the relevance of the residential property sector to the property sector as whole, BANHs are viewed by economic analysts and commentators as a leading indicator of property sector investment and as such the general level of economic activity and employment. The generic objective of the study is to enhance the practice of modelling housing variables. In particular, the study seeks to cast some additional light on modelling the seasonal behaviour of BANHs by: (i establishing the presence, or otherwise, of seasonality in Victorian BANHs; (ii if present, ascertaining is it deterministic or stochastic; (iii determining out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications; and (iv speculating on possible interpretation of the results. To do so the study utilises a structural time series model of Harwey (1989. The modelling results confirm that the modelling specification allowing for stochastic trend and deterministic seasonality performs best in terms of diagnostic tests and goodness of fit measures. This is corroborated with the analysis of out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications, which showed that the models with deterministic seasonal specification exhibit superior forecasting capabilities. The paper also demonstrates that if time series are characterized by either stochastic trend or seasonality, the conventional modelling approach[2] is bound to be mis-specified i.e. would not be able to identify statistically significant seasonality in time series.According to the selected modeling specification, factors corresponding to June, April, December and November are found to be significant at five per cent level

  9. Biological properties of extremely acidic cyanide-laced mining waste. (United States)

    Feketeová, Zuzana; Hulejová Sládkovičová, Veronika; Mangová, Barbara; Pogányová, Andrea; Šimkovic, Ivan; Krumpál, Miroslav


    With respect to acidic, cyanide-laced tailings, the data about in situ toxicity and biological activity in highly polluted environment are often lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the microbial characteristics, composition of oribatid mite species, and level of genotoxic impact on plants in the area of inactive tailings pond (Horná Ves, Kremnica region). Sampling of the tailings, soils and selected plant species was carried out in spring of 2012. Trace element analysis (inductively coupled plasma emission and mass spectrometry) showed that concentration of Pb, Zn, and Cu in the tailings is approximately in thousands of ppm (mg kg(-1)). Amount of lead exceeded 16,000 mg kg(-1), which is perceived as the biggest threat with respect to possible toxicity. The risk is accentuated by extremely acidic pH of the tailings material which approached 2. In such conditions great mobility of (divalent) heavy metal cations is expected. The total cyanide concentration in the tailings was 472 mg kg(-1). Results of performed tests and measurements suggest that microbial activity at the tailings site (and its close environment) is hampered markedly. In the sludge material we detected low abundance of soil bacteria (2.08 × 10(4) CFU) and predominance of slowly growing K-strategists. On the other hand, the content of microbial C in the sludge sample was not too low, considering its extreme acidity and high amount of risk elements. In the same sample, just one mite species, Oppiella (O.) uliginosa (Willmann 1919), was identified. Also in case of the dam site the abundance of mites was considerably lower in comparison to reference sample. Values of Oribatida abundance were in positive correlation with values of microbial biomass carbon. Results of the pollen grain abortivity test, applied in situ on chosen plant species, indicated substantial presence of genotoxicity in the environment. Total induction index of tailings pond reached 3.59(±2.4) which expresses also

  10. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason S. Lewis


    , versatile, and multi-functional platform to enhance in vivo detection sensitivity and non-invasively assay receptor expression/status of tumor cellular targets, including those of low abundance, using nuclear-NIR fluorescence imaging approaches [2]. Improvements in molecular diagnostics, refined by the availability of nanotechnology platforms, will be a key determinant in driving early-stage disease detection and prevention, ultimately leading to decreases in mortality.

  11. Systematic metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for high-yield production of fuel bio-chemical 2,3-butanediol. (United States)

    Xu, Youqiang; Chu, Haipei; Gao, Chao; Tao, Fei; Zhou, Zikang; Li, Kun; Li, Lixiang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping


    The production of biofuels by recombinant Escherichia coli is restricted by the toxicity of the products. 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD), a platform and fuel bio-chemical with low toxicity to microbes, could be a promising alternative for biofuel production. However, the yield and productivity of 2,3-BD produced by recombinant E. coli strains are not sufficient for industrial scale fermentation. In this work, the production of 2,3-BD by recombinant E. coli strains was optimized by applying a systematic approach. 2,3-BD biosynthesis gene clusters were cloned from several native 2,3-BD producers, including Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter cloacae, inserted into the expression vector pET28a, and compared for 2,3-BD synthesis. The recombinant strain E. coli BL21/pETPT7-EcABC, carrying the 2,3-BD pathway gene cluster from Enterobacter cloacae, showed the best ability to synthesize 2,3-BD. Thereafter, expression of the most efficient gene cluster was optimized by using different promoters, including PT7, Ptac, Pc, and Pabc. E. coli BL21/pET-RABC with Pabc as promoter was superior in 2,3-BD synthesis. On the basis of the results of biomass and extracellular metabolite profiling analyses, fermentation conditions, including pH, agitation speed, and aeration rate, were optimized for the efficient production of 2,3-BD. After fed-batch fermentation under the optimized conditions, 73.8g/L of 2,3-BD was produced by using E. coli BL21/pET-RABC within 62h. The values of both yield and productivity of 2,3-BD obtained with the optimized biological system are the highest ever achieved with an engineered E. coli strain. In addition to the 2,3-BD production, the systematic approach might also be used in the production of other important chemicals through recombinant E. coli strains.

  12. Imperialist times and its implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Estrada M


    Full Text Available This articles studies the period called by historians as the Big or Long x i x century. Besides the x i x century by itself, it encompasses the decades that preceded it and the decades of the First World War. All of them belong to the consolidation of imperialism. From the perspective of public health, the Big x i x Century is important because of the transition from hygiene to public health, and the beginning of the bacteriologic theory in 1880, influencing sanitary control measures of the State. Before 1900, medicine was characterized by: 1 predominance of military and of imperial approaches, 2 prevention principles were imported and concentrated in sanitary practices; 3 colonial medicine was not separated from imperial medicine; 4 interest focused on colonies as productive forces or as sources of political instability; 5 the main concern went from general sanitary measurements to the search for specific disease agents and their control measurements; and 6 tropical medicine becomes a postgraduate specialty. North-American imperialism shares the main characteristics of European imperialism, but the difference was centered in the sanitary measurements because Americans feared the introduction of prevalent diseases from the tropics to their territory either through Mexico or through the ports in the Atlantic or the Pacific oceans. In order to avoid this, Americans designed and implemented rigorous inspection and control measurements in the countries where they had commercial interests and in the ports where passengers and merchandise were headed to the United States. The appearance of state medicine in Latin American is a logical consequence of the implementation of the capitalistic mode of production, provided social and economic relationships between the people and the State were hardly affected and transformed by the incipient industrialization and consolidation of such a production model. This implied the consolidation of a bureaucratic mass

  13. Research in karst aquifers developed in high-mountain areas combining KARSYS models with springs discharge records. Picos de Europa, Spain (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Meléndez, Mónica; Malard, Arnauld; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Heredia, Nemesio; Jeannin, Pierre-Yves; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín


    The study of karst aquifers developed in high-mountain areas is quite complex since the application of many techniques of hydrogeology in these areas is difficult, expensive, and requires many hours of field work. In addition, the access to the study area is usually conditioned by the orography and the meteorological conditions. A pragmatic approach to study these aquifers can be the combination of geometric models of the aquifer with the monitoring of the discharge rate of springs and the meteorological records. KARSYS approach (Jeannin et al. 2013) allows us to elaborate a geometric model of karst aquifers establishing the boundaries of the groundwater bodies, the main drainage axes and providing evidences of the catchment delineation of the springs. The aim of this work is to analyse the functioning of the karst aquifer from the western and central part of the Picos de Europa Mountains (Spain) combining the KARSYS approach, the discharge record from two springs and the meteorological records (rain, snow and temperature). The Picos de Europa (North Spain) is a high-mountains area up to 2.6 km altitude with 2,500 mm/year of precipitations. The highest part of these mountains is covered by snow four to seven months a year. The karst aquifer is developed in Carboniferous limestone which is strongly compartmentalized in, at least, 17 groundwater bodies. The method of work includes: 1) the elaboration of a hydrogeological 3D model of the geometry of the karst aquifers by KARSYS approach, 2) the definition of the springs catchment areas based on the hydrogeological 3D model, 3) the selection of two representative springs emerging from the aquifers to study it, 4) the continuous monitoring of water levels in two karst springs since October 2013, 5) the transformation of the water level values to flow values using height-stream relation curves constructed by measures of the spring discharge, and 5) the comparison of the spring discharge rate records and meteorological

  14. The Integration and Abstracyion of EBS Models in Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.D. Sevougian; V. Jain; A.V. Luik


    ). A systematic approach to EBS model development and performance assessment should include as key elements: (1) implementation of a systematic FEPs approach, (2) quantification of uncertainty and variability, (3) sensitivity analyses, and (4) model validation and limitations. The approaches used for these key elements in the Yucca Mountain repository program are described in Section 2 of this paper. A specific example of Yucca Mountain EBS model development and integration, related to the modeling of localized corrosion of Alloy 22, is discussed in Sections 3 and 4.

  15. Topological and geometrical analysis of a low-dimensional chaotic model obtained for the dynamics of cereal crops cycles observed from satellite in semi-arid region (United States)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain


    A low-dimensional chaotic model was recently obtained for the dynamics of cereal crops cycles in semi-arid region [1]. This model was obtained from one single time series of vegetation index measured from space. The global modeling approach [2] was used based on powerful algorithms recently developed for this purpose [3]. The resulting model could be validated by comparing its predictability (a data assimilation scheme was used for this purpose) with a statistical prediction approach based on the search of analogous states in the phase space [4]. The cereal crops model exhibits a weakly dissipative chaos (DKY = 2.68) and a toroidal-like structure. At present, quite few cases of such chaos are known and these are exclusively theoretical. The first case was introduced by Lorenz in 1984 to model the global circulation dynamics [5], which attractor's structure is remained poorly understood. Indeed, one very powerful way to characterize low-dimensional chaos is based on the topological analysis of the attractors' flow [6]. Unfortunately, such approach does not apply to weakly dissipative chaos. In this work, a color tracer method is introduced and used to perform a complete topological analysis of both the Lorenz-84 system and the cereal crops model. The usual stretching and squeezing mechanisms are easily detected in the attractors' structure. A stretching taking place in the globally contracting direction of the flow is also found in both attractors. Such stretching is unexpected and was not reported previously. The analysis also confirms the toroidal type of chaos and allows producing both the skeleton and algebraic descriptions of the two attractors. Their comparison shows that the cereal crops attractor is a new attractor. References [1] Mangiarotti S., Drapreau L., Letellier C., 2014. Two chaotic global models for cereal crops cycles observed from satellite in Northern Morocco. revision submitted. [2] Letellier C., Aguirre L.A., Freitas U.S., 2009. Frequently

  16. Rapid rates of soil production in the western Southern Alps, New Zealand (United States)

    Larsen, I. J.; Almond, P. C.; Eger, A.; Stone, J. O.; Malcolm, B.; Montgomery, D. R.


    Quantifying rates of soil production is necessary for determining the relative magnitude of the processes that drive the evolution of mountain topography and for assessing proposed links among tectonic uplift, erosion, weathering, and global biogeochemical cycles. However, little is known about the role soil production plays in the denudation of rapidly uplifting mountains. We addressed this problem by sampling soil and river sediment from five catchments in the rapidly uplifting and high rainfall portion of the western Southern Alps, New Zealand. Soils were sampled from ridgetops with subalpine forest and dense alpine shrubland vegetation. Results from 11 measurements of in situ-produced 10Be in soils from three catchments show that rock is rapidly converted to soil, with the highest measured rate approaching 2 mm yr-1. Soil production rates at two of the ridgetops decline exponentially as soil depth increases, consistent with previously proposed soil production functions. The third site exhibits an ambiguous soil production rate-depth relationship. The y-intercepts, or maximum predicted soil production rate where the soil depth is equal to zero, at the sites with well-defined soil production functions are 7-9 times greater than those in other tectonically-active mountains and 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than values from drier and more tectonically-quiescent landscapes, indicating that rock can be converted to soil at substantially higher rates than previously recognized. The maximum predicted soil production rate values are 1.5 to 2.5 times lower than watershed-scale denudation rates inferred from in situ 10Be concentrations in stream sediment, indicating that soil production rates approach, but do not reach catchment-averaged values, which also reflect denudation by bedrock landslides. Ongoing work on additional samples will lead to a refinement of the soil production functions and provide rates for two additional sites. In-progress measurement of zirconium


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair


    Full Text Available Globalization is a relatively new idea in the social sciences, although people who work in and write about the mass media, transnational corporations and international business have been using it for some time. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ways in which sociologists and other social scientists use ideas of globalization and to evaluate the fruitfulness of these competing conceptions. The central feature of the idea of globalization is that many contemporary problems cannot be adequately studied at the level of nation-states, that is, in terms of each country and its inter-national relations. Instead, they need to be conceptualized in terms of global processes. Some have even gone so far as to predict that global forces, by which they usually mean transnational corporations and other global economic institutions, global culture or globalizing belief systems/ideologies of various types, or a combination of all of these, are becoming so powerful that the continuing existence of the nation-state is in serious doubt. This is not a necessary consequence of most theories of globalization. The argument of this paper is that much of the globalization literature is confused because not all those who use the term distinguish it clearly enough from internation-alization, and some writers appear to use the two terms interchangeably. I argue that a clear distinction must be drawn between the inter-national and the global. The hyphen in inter-national is to distinguish (inadequate conceptions of the global' founded on the existing even if changing system of nation-states, from (genuine conceptions of the global based on the emergence of global processes and a global system of social relations not founded on national characteristics or nation-states. This global system theory is the framework for my own research. Globalization studies can be categorized on the basis of four research clusters:1. The world-systems approach; 2. The global

  18. The new Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database algorithms for AMSR2 and GMI: exploitation of the GPM observational database for operational applications (United States)

    Cinzia Marra, Anna; Casella, Daniele; Martins Costa do Amaral, Lia; Sanò, Paolo; Dietrich, Stefano; Panegrossi, Giulia


    Two new precipitation retrieval algorithms for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and for the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) are presented. The algorithms are based on the Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database (CDRD) Bayesian approach and represent an evolution of the previous version applied to Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) observations, and used operationally within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF). These new products present as main innovation the use of an extended database entirely empirical, derived from coincident radar and radiometer observations from the NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory (GPM-CO) (Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar-DPR and GMI). The other new aspects are: 1) a new rain-no-rain screening approach; 2) the use of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) both in the screening approach, and in the Bayesian algorithm; 2) the use of new meteorological and environmental ancillary variables to categorize the database and mitigate the problem of non-uniqueness of the retrieval solution; 3) the development and implementations of specific modules for computational time minimization. The CDRD algorithms for AMSR2 and GMI are able to handle an extremely large observational database available from GPM-CO and provide the rainfall estimate with minimum latency, making them suitable for near-real time hydrological and operational applications. As far as CDRD for AMSR2, a verification study over Italy using ground-based radar data and over the MSG full disk area using coincident GPM-CO/AMSR2 observations has been carried out. Results show remarkable AMSR2 capabilities for rainfall rate (RR) retrieval over ocean (for RR > 0.25 mm/h), good capabilities over vegetated land (for RR > 1 mm/h), while for coastal areas the results are less certain. Comparisons with NASA GPM products, and with

  19. In-situ observations of water vapor isotopes in near surface air over Lakes Superior and Michigan (United States)

    Welp, L.; Meyer, A. L.; Griffis, T. J.


    The Laurentian Great Lakes play an important role in the climate of the midwestern to northeastern United States. Evaporation from the lakes is not well quantified, and the factors controlling lake evaporation are not fully understood. Two isotopic tracer methods have been used to study lake evaporation. The first is a lake water isotopic mass balance to solve for evaporation rates from precipitation and runoff inputs and the residual lake water. The second method is monitoring downwind precipitation and atmospheric water vapor for evidence of lake evaporation. Accurate estimates of the isotopic composition of evaporation from the lakes are critical inputs in both methods for modern and paleo studies. Traditionally, evaporation is assumed to follow the Craig-Gordon model of isotopic fractionation. To our knowledge, this model has not been tested on large lakes like the Great Lakes, whose evaporation flux strongly influences the moisture in the air above the lake. To test the Craig-Gordon model, we made measurements of the hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios above the surface of Lakes Superior and Michigan during June 2016 during a 4-day cruise on the R/V Blue Heron research vessel that traveled from Duluth, MN to Milwaukee, WI. Air was sampled at 2 intakes, approximately 5 m and 15 m above the lake surface, using an LGR triple water vapor isotope analyzer. The isotopic composition of lake water became more enriched in the heavy isotopes from Lake Superior to Lake Michigan. The timing of these measurements in late spring is not an optimal time to observe evaporation off the lakes, because often the lake temperature is cooler than the air temperature, thereby suppressing the evaporation flux. At times, vertical gradients of water vapor mixing in the near surface air approached 2,000-3,000 ppm, with higher moisture at the lower intake than the upper intake. At night, we observed times when this gradient reversed, and there was higher moisture aloft compared to the

  20. A framework and a set of tools called Nutting models to estimate retention capacities and loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in rivers at catchment and national level (France) (United States)

    Legeay, Pierre-Louis; Moatar, Florentina; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal


    The Nutting-N and Nutting-P models (Dupas et al., 2013, 2015) have been developed to estimate Nitrogen and Phosphorus nonpoint-source emissions to surface water, using readily available data. These models were inspired from US model SPARROW (Smith al., 1997) and European model GREEN (Grizzetti et al., 2008), i.e. statistical approaches consisting of linking nitrogen and phosphorus surplus to catchment's land and rivers characteristics to find the catchment relative retention capacities. The nutrient load (L) at the outlet of each catchment is expressed as: L=R*(B*DS+PS) [1] where DS is diffuse sources (i.e. surplus in kg.ha-1/yr-1 for N, P storage in soil for P), PS is point sources from domestic and industrial origin (kg.ha-1.yr-1), R and B are the river system and basin reduction factor, respectively and they combine observed variables and calibrated parameters. The model was calibrated on independent catchments for the 2005-2009 and 2008-2012 periods. Variables were selected according to Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in order to optimize the predictive performance of the models. From these basic models, different improvements have been realized to build a framework and a set of tools: 1) a routing module has been added in order to improve estimations on 4 or 5 stream order, i.e. upscaling the basic Nutting approach; 2) a territorial module, in order to test the models at local scale (from 500 to 5000 km²); 3) a seasonal estimation has been investigated. The basic approach as well territorial application will be illustrated. These tools allow water manager to identify areas at risk where high nutrients loads are estimated, as well areas where retention is potentially high and can buffer high nutrient sources. References Dupas R., Curie F., Gascuel-Odoux C., Moatar F., Delmas M., Parnaudeau, V., Durand P., 2013. Assessing N emissions in surface water at the national level: Comparison of country-wide vs. regionalized models. Science of the Total Environment

  1. Modelling forest carbon stock changes as affected by harvest and natural disturbances. I. Comparison with countries' estimates for forest management. (United States)

    Pilli, Roberto; Grassi, Giacomo; Kurz, Werner A; Viñas, Raúl Abad; Guerrero, Nuria Hue


    According to the post-2012 rules under the Kyoto protocol, developed countries that are signatories to the protocol have to estimate and report the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals from forest management (FM), with the option to exclude the emissions associated to natural disturbances, following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. To increase confidence in GHG estimates, the IPCC recommends performing verification activities, i.e. comparing country data with independent estimates. However, countries currently conduct relatively few verification efforts. The aim of this study is to implement a consistent methodological approach using the Carbon Budget Model (CBM) to estimate the net CO2 emissions from FM in 26 European Union (EU) countries for the period 2000-2012, including the impacts of natural disturbances. We validated our results against a totally independent case study and then we compared the CBM results with the data reported by countries in their 2014 Greenhouse Gas Inventories (GHGIs) submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The match between the CBM results and the GHGIs was good in nine countries (i.e. the average of our results is within ±25 % compared to the GHGI and the correlation between CBM and GHGI is significant at P stock-change approach; (2) different assumptions for non-biomass pools, and for CO2 emissions from fires and harvest residues. In few cases, further analysis will be needed to identify any possible inappropriate data used by the CBM or problems in the GHGI. Finally, the frequent updates to data and methods used by countries to prepare GHGI makes the implementation of a consistent modeling methodology challenging. This study indicates opportunities to use the CBM as tool to assist countries in estimating forest carbon dynamics, including the impact of natural disturbances, and to verify the country GHGIs at the EU level, consistent with the IPCC

  2. Interrill erosion, runoff and sediment size distribution as affected by slope steepness and antecedent moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Defersha


    than the rainfall intensity based model. The exponent term, b, values in (E=a Ib model did not approach 2.00 for all treatments. For the same slope steepness factor, both rainfall and rainfall-runoff based models provided different erodibility coefficients at different levels of slope and moisture contents.

  3. Genetic parameters for social effects on survival in cannibalistic layers: Combining survival analysis and a linear animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerkamp Roel F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality due to cannibalism in laying hens is a difficult trait to improve genetically, because censoring is high (animals still alive at the end of the testing period and it may depend on both the individual itself and the behaviour of its group members, so-called associative effects (social interactions. To analyse survival data, survival analysis can be used. However, it is not possible to include associative effects in the current software for survival analysis. A solution could be to combine survival analysis and a linear animal model including associative effects. This paper presents a two-step approach (2STEP, combining survival analysis and a linear animal model including associative effects (LAM. Methods Data of three purebred White Leghorn layer lines from Institut de Sélection Animale B.V., a Hendrix Genetics company, were used in this study. For the statistical analysis, survival data on 16,780 hens kept in four-bird cages with intact beaks were used. Genetic parameters for direct and associative effects on survival time were estimated using 2STEP. Cross validation was used to compare 2STEP with LAM. LAM was applied directly to estimate genetic parameters for social effects on observed survival days. Results Using 2STEP, total heritable variance, including both direct and associative genetic effects, expressed as the proportion of phenotypic variance, ranged from 32% to 64%. These results were substantially larger than when using LAM. However, cross validation showed that 2STEP gave approximately the same survival curves and rank correlations as LAM. Furthermore, cross validation showed that selection based on both direct and associative genetic effects, using either 2STEP or LAM, gave the best prediction of survival time. Conclusion It can be concluded that 2STEP can be used to estimate genetic parameters for direct and associative effects on survival time in laying hens. Using 2STEP increased the heritable

  4. Novel dual-mode immunomagnetic method for studying reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase. (United States)

    Abney, Carter W; Knaack, Jennifer L S; Ali, Ahmed A I; Johnson, Rudolph C


    A novel immunomagnetic method has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of organophosphorus nerve agent (OPNA) adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and free OPNAs in serum. This new approach, deemed dual-mode immunomagnetic analysis (Dual-Mode IMA), combines immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and immunomagnetic scavenging (IMSc) and has been used to measure the effectiveness of cholinesterase reactivators on OPNA-inhibited BuChE in serum. BuChE inhibited by the nerve agent VX, uninhibited BuChE, and unbound VX were measured up to 1 h after the addition of oxime reactivators pralidoxime (2-PAM) and obidoxime. IMS experiments consisted of extracting BuChE and VX-BuChE serum adducts using antibutyrylcholinesterase monoclonal antibodies conjugated to protein-G ferromagnetic particles. In a parallel set of experiments using IMSc, BuChE-coated magnetic beads were used to extract free VX from protein-depleted serum. Adducts from both IMS and IMSc were analyzed using a published IMS liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (IMS-LC-MS/MS) protocol, which has also been demonstrated with other OPNAs. By applying this Dual-Mode IMA approach, 2-PAM was observed to be more potent than obidoxime in reactivating VX-adducted BuChE. VX-BuChE peptide concentrations initially measured at 19.7 ± 0.7 ng/mL decreased over 1 h to 10.6 ± 0.6 ng/mL when reactivated with 2-PAM and 14.4 ± 1.2 ng/mL when reactivated with obidoxime. These experiments also show that previously published IMS-LC-MS/MS analyses are compatible with serum treated with oximes. Dual-Mode IMA is the first immunoaffinity method developed for the simultaneous measurement of OPNA adducted BuChE, unadducted BuChE, and free nerve agent in serum and is a promising new tool for studying reactivator effectiveness on cholinesterases inhibited by nerve agents.

  5. Cryogenic microcooling. A micromachined cold stage operating with a sorption compressor in a vapor compression cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, J.F.


    The development of a micromachined cryocooler was the initial project goal. To make this wide and ambitious goal more specific, the following four project goals were defined: (1) Investigate the opportunities and limitations of the miniaturization of common thermodynamic fluid cooling cycles ('top-down' approach); (2) Investigate how micromechanical techniques and components can be used to build a small cryocooler or cryocooler components ('bottom-up' approach); (3) Choose a cooling cycle that can be used to define specifications for the development of small cooler components; and (4) Develop the necessary components for this demonstrator cooling system and, if possible, combine the components into a working system. Chapter 2 presents an overview of a number of cooling cycles that can be applied in cryocoolers. Emphasis is put on thermodynamic theory, conceptual operation and possible loss mechanisms. This chapter serves as a conceptual framework on cryocooler theory which is referred to throughout this thesis. In chapter 2 also a new regenerative cooling cycle is proposed which appears particularly suitable to be applied on micro-scale. Miniaturization of cryocoolers is discussed in chapter 3. It is divided in three sub-topics: microfabrication, the influence of downscaling on the different fields that play a role in coolers, and the possible miniaturization of the cooling cycles that were discussed in chapter 2. Chapter 4 presents the operation and thermodynamic analysis of a sorption cooler, which consists of a sorption compressor and a Linde-Hampson cold stage. This cooling cycle was chosen for the development of small cooler elements because it appeared suitable to be applied on a small scale. The remainder of the thesis discusses the components that were developed; the requirements for the individual components are based on the specifications of the cooling cycle which are presented in section 4.7. Chapter 5 discusses the operation of a

  6. Enhanced Medical Rehabilitation increases therapy intensity and engagement and improves functional outcomes in post-acute rehabilitation of older adults: a randomized controlled trial (United States)

    Lenze, Eric J.; Host, Helen H.; Hildebrand, Mary W.; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Carpenter, Brian; Freedland, Kenneth E.; Baum, Carolyn A.; Dixon, David; Doré, Peter; Wendleton, Leah; Binder, Ellen F.


    Objectives For millions of disabled older adults each year, post-acute care in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) is a brief window of opportunity to regain enough function to return home and live independently. Too often this goal is not achieved, possibly due to therapy that is inadequately intense or engaging. This study tested Enhanced Medical Rehabilitation, an intervention designed to increase patient engagement in, and intensity of, daily physical and occupational therapy sessions in post-acute care rehabilitation. Design Randomized controlled trial of Enhanced Medical Rehabilitation versus standard-of-care rehabilitation. Setting Post-acute care unit of a skilled nursing facility in St Louis, MO. Participants 26 older adults admitted from a hospital for post-acute rehabilitation. Intervention Based on models of motivation and behavior change, Enhanced Medical Rehabilitation is a set of behavioral skills for physical and occupational therapists (PT/OT) that increase patient engagement and intensity, with the goal of improving functional outcome, through: (1) a patient-directed, interactive approach, (2) increased rehabilitation intensity, and (3) frequent feedback to patients on their effort and progress. Measurements Therapy intensity: assessment of patient active time in therapy sessions. Therapy engagement: Rehabilitation Participation Scale. Functional and performance outcomes: Barthel Index, gait speed, and six-minute walk. Results Participants randomized to Enhanced Medical Rehabilitation had higher intensity therapy and were more engaged in their rehabilitation sessions; they had more improvement in gait speed (improving from 0.08 to 0.38 meter/sec vs. 0.08 to 0.22 in standard of care,p=0.003) and six-minute walk (from 73 to 266 feet vs. 40 to 94 feet in standard of care, p=0.026), with a trend for better improvement of Barthel Index (+43 points vs. 26 points in standard of care, p=0.087), compared to participants randomized to standard

  7. Introduction to Global Urban Climatology (United States)

    Varquez, A. C. G.; Kanda, M.; Kawano, N.; Darmanto, N. S.; Dong, Y.


    Urban heat island (UHI) is a widely investigated phenomenon in the field of urban climate characterized by the warming of urban areas relative to its surrounding rural environs. Being able to understand the mechanism behind the UHI formation of a city and distinguish its impact from that of global climate change is indispensable when identifying adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, the lack of UHI studies many cities especially for developing countries makes it difficult to generalize the mechanism for UHI formation. Thus, there is an impending demand for studies that focus on the simultaneous analyses of UHI and its trends throughout the world. Hence, we propose a subfield of urban climatology, called "global urban climatology" (GUC), which mainly focuses on the uniform understanding of urban climates across all cities, globally. By using globally applicable methodologies to quantify and compare urban heat islands of cities with diverse backgrounds, including their geography, climate, socio-demography, and other factors, a universal understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation of the phenomenon can be established. The implementation of GUC involves the use of globally acquired historical observation networks, gridded meteorological parameters from climate models, global geographic information system datasets; the construction of a distributed urban parameter database; and the development of techniques necessary to model the urban climate. Research under GUC can be categorized into three approaches. The collaborative approach (1st) relies on the collection of data from micro-scale experiments conducted worldwide with the aid or development of professional social networking platforms; the analytical approach (2nd) relies on the use of global weather station datasets and their corresponding objectively analysed global outputs; and the numerical approach (3rd) relies on the global estimation of high-resolution urban-representative parameters as

  8. Ground-water resources of the Yucca Valley-Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California (United States)

    Lewis, R.E.


    The southeastern part of the Mojave Water Agency area included in this report comprises about 600 square miles. Recharge into the area is almost exclusively from precipitation in the San Bernardino and Little San Bernardino Mountains. About 500 acre-feet per year of recharge enters the western part of the area as underflow through Pipes Wash. Little direct recharge occurs as a result of precipitation directly on the unconsolidated deposits. Presently about 11,000 persons reside in the area and current gross pumpage is about 1,600 acre-feet annually. By the year 2000 the population is estimated to be 62,000 and annual gross pumpage is expected to be nearly 11,000 acre-feet. Although over 1,200,000 acre-feet of ground water are presently in storage, most of the population is centered in the southern part of the area around the towns of Yucca Valley and Joshua Tree. About 70 percent of the population resides in the vicinity of Yucca Valley and is supplied by ground water pumped from the Warren Valley basin. Of the 96,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage in that basin in 1969, about 80,000 acre-feet will be necessary to sustain projected growth there until 2000. Assuming negligible recharge and only about 50 percent recovery of the ground water in storage, if imported water from northern California is not available before about 1990, additional local supplies will have to be developed, possibly in the adjacent Pipes subbasin to the north. Ground water in the southern part of the study area generally contains less than 250 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids and 1.0 mg/l fluoride. A general degradation of ground-water quality occurs northward toward the dry lakes where the concentrations of dissolved solids and fluoride approach 2,000 and 5.0 mg/l, respectively. In Reche subbasin some isolated occurrences of fluoride exceeding 1.5 mg/l were noted. The chemical character of ground water in Johnson Valley and Morongo Valley basins differs from well to well

  9. Effects of 7-E, KWL and Conventional Instruction on Analytical Thinking, Learning Achievement and Attitudes toward Chemistry Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungrawee Siribunnam


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purposes of this research were to compare in analytical thinking, science learning achievement and attitudes toward chemistry learning of Matthayomsuksa 5 students who learned using the 7-E learning cycle, KWL learning method and conventional approach. Approach: The sample consisted of 154 Matthayomsuksa 5 students attending in the first semester of the academic year 2008, Phayakkhaphumwitthayakhan School, Phayakkhaphumphisai District, Mahasarakham Province, cluster random sampling technique was employed. The were divided into two experimental groups who learned using the 7-E learning cycle and KWL learning activities and one control group who learned using the conventional approach. Results: The research instruments were: (1 12 lesson plans for organization of 7-E learning cycle, 12 lesson plans for organization of KWL learning method and 12 lesson plans for organization of the conventional approach; (2 A 30-item analytical thinking test; (3 A 40-item achievement test of science learning achievement and (4 A 20-item of attitudes toward chemistry learning. The statistics used for analyzing the collected data were mean, standard deviation, F-test (one-way MANOVA, Hotelling’s T2 and Univariate t-test. The results of the study revealed that the students who learned using the 7-E learning cycle, KWL learning method and the conventional approach were differently showed analytical thinking, science learning achievement and attitudes toward chemistry learning at the 0.05 level of significance. The students who learned using the 7-E learning cycle showed more science learning achievement than did the students who learned using KWL learning method. Also the result and indicated than analytical thinking, science learning achievement and attitudes toward chemistry learning higher than did the students who learned using the conventional approach. In addition, the students who learned using KWL learning method showed higher analytical

  10. Imaging features of trigeminal schwannoma and the relationship between its classification and surgical approaches%三叉神经鞘瘤影像学特点和分型与手术入路的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡可明; 罗秋红; 苏凯; 李春宏; 李家志


    Objective To explore the imaging features of trigeminal schwannoma and the relationship between its classification and surgical approaches. Methods The imaging features and the classification and the surgical approaches of trigeminal schwannoma confirmed by pathology in 15 cases were analyzed retrospectively. Results In 15 cases, the tumors located in middle cranial fossa in 3 cases, in posterior cranial fossa in 2 cases, in middle and posterior cranial fossa in 7 cases, in infratemporal fossa in 1 case, in pterygopalatine fossa in 1 case and in orbita in 1 case. The imaging features were as following: ① The tumors located in petrous apex, Meckel's cave enlarged and petrous bone absorbed; ②The tumors located in the cistern of pontocerebellar trigone and connected with the root of trigeminal nerve; ③The tumors grew along trigeminal nerve and acrossed middle and posterior cranial fossa with dumbbell appearance; ④ The tumors of infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa grew up to middle cranial fossa, foramen ovale and foramen rotundum enlarged; ⑤ The tumor was between rectus superior and orbita, superior orbital fissure expended; ⑥ The tumors showed inhomogeneous e-qual and low density on CT, inhomogeneous hypo-intense and iso-intense signal on T1WI , inhomogeneous iso-intense and hyper-intense signal on T2WI and inhomogeneous enhancement with clear edge. These cases were divided into six types: type of middle cranial fossa in 3 cases, type of posterior cranial fossa in 2 cases, type of middle and posterior cranial fossa in 7 cases, type of infratemporal fossa in 1 case, type of pterygopalatine fossa in 1 case, and type of orbita in 1 case. The different approaches were used to remove the tumors according to the type of tumor. 3 cases were through frontotemporal with zygomatic osteomy approach, 2 cases through sigmoid sinus approach, 4 cases through extended middle cranial fossa approach, 2 cases through temproromandibular cerebelli tentorium approach

  11. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph H. Simmons; Tracie J. Bukowski


    This grant was a continuation of research conducted at the University of Florida under Grant No. DE-FG05-91ER45462 in which we investigated the energy bandgap shifts produced in semiconductor quantum dots of sizes between 1.5 and 40 nm. The investigated semiconductors consisted of a series of Column 2-6 compounds (CdS, CdSe, CdTe) and pure Column IV elements (Si and Ge). It is well-known of course that the 2-6 semiconductors possess a direct-gap electronic structure, while the Column IV elements possess an indirect-gap structure. The investigation showed a major difference in quantum confinement behavior between the two sets of semiconductors. This difference is essentially associated with the change in bandgap energy resulting from size confinement. In the direct-gap semiconductors, the change in energy (blue shift) saturates when the crystals approach 2-3 nm in diameter. This limits the observed shift in energy to less than 1 eV above the bulk value. In the indirect-gap semiconductors, the energy shift does not show any sign of saturation and in fact, we produced Si and Ge nanocrystals with absorption edges in the UV. The reason for this difference has not been determined and will require additional experimental and theoretical studies. In our work, we suggest, but do not prove that mixing of conduction band side valleys with the central valley under conditions of size confinement may be responsible for the saturation in the blue-shift of direct-gap semiconductors. The discovery of large bandgap energy shifts with crystal size prompted us to suggest that these materials may be used to form photovoltaic cells with multi-gap layers for high efficiency in a U.S. Patent issued in 1998. However, this possibility depends strongly on the ability to collect photoexcited carriers from energy-confined crystals. The research conducted at the University of Arizona under the subject grant had a major goal of testing an indirect gap semiconductor in size-confined structures to

  12. Current oil and gas production from North American Upper Cretaceous chalks (United States)

    Scholle, Peter A.


    porosity has been largely lost but secondary (fracture) porosity provides some storage capacity and greatly improves permeability (for example, Austin Group of the Pearsall field, Texas). 3. Areas with thick overburden in which marine pore fluids have been retained, or where hydrocarbons (including biogenically generated methane) were introduced early in the diagenetic history. In these settings, primary porosity is reduced to a lesser degree than in group two, and adequate reservoir properties can be maintained to depths approaching 2,000 m (6,600 ft) (for example, Scotian Shelf of Canada). Continued small-scale oil and gas discoveries can be expected from these types of reservoirs in North America. The prolific production of oil and gas from North Sea chalk reservoirs will not be matched in North America unless deeply buried, overpressured chalks can be located. It is the early formation of overpressures and (or) early oil input into North Sea chalks that have preserved porosities as high as 40 percent at 3,000- to 3,500-m (9,800- to 11,500-ft) depths and provided the outstanding reservoir capacity of those chalks.

  13. Quaternary tectonic setting of South-Central coastal California (United States)

    Lettis, William R.; Hanson, Kathryn L.; Unruh, Jeffrey R.; McLaren, Marcia; Savage, William U.; Keller, Margaret A.


    Recent geodetic, geologic, and seismologic studies show that the south-central coast of California is a region of active Quaternary deformation. Northeast-directed crustal shortening is occurring in a triangular-shaped region between the Hosgri-San Simeon fault system on the west, the Southern Coast Ranges on the northeast, and the western Transverse Ranges on the south. We informally call this region the Los Osos domain. In this study, we conducted detailed geological, seismological, and geophysical investigations to characterize the nature and rates of deformation in the domain. Locations of active and potentially active faults and folds are compiled at a scale of 1:250,000 for the entire domain based primarily on onshore geologic data and offshore geophysical data. Crustal shortening in the domain is accommodated by a series of prominent northwest-trending reverse faults and localized folding. The reverse faults separate distinct structural blocks that have little or no internal deformation. Hangingwall blocks are being uplifted at rates of up to 0.2 mm/yr. Footwall blocks are either static or slowly subsiding at rates of 0.1 mm/yr or less, except for localized areas of concentrated subsidence directly adjacent to some faults. The cumulative rate of crustal shortening is about 1 to 2 mm/yr across the northern part of the domain based on observed geologic deformation. Cumulative shortening across the central and southern parts of the domain is poorly constrained by geologic data and may approach 2 to 3 mm/yr. Historical and instrumental seismicity generally are spatially associated with the uplifted blocks and bordering reverse faults to depths of about 10 km. Together with near-surface geological data and deeper crustal geophysical imaging that show high-angle faulting, the seismicity data indicate that the reverse faults probably extend to the base of the seismogenic crust. The base of the seismogenic crust may correspond with a mid-crustal detachment or

  14. The ESPAT tool: a general-purpose DSS shell for solving stochastic optimization problems in complex river-aquifer systems (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury


    Stochastic programming methods are better suited to deal with the inherent uncertainty of inflow time series in water resource management. However, one of the most important hurdles in their use in practical implementations is the lack of generalized Decision Support System (DSS) shells, usually based on a deterministic approach. The purpose of this contribution is to present a general-purpose DSS shell, named Explicit Stochastic Programming Advanced Tool (ESPAT), able to build and solve stochastic programming problems for most water resource systems. It implements a hydro-economic approach, optimizing the total system benefits as the sum of the benefits obtained by each user. It has been coded using GAMS, and implements a Microsoft Excel interface with a GAMS-Excel link that allows the user to introduce the required data and recover the results. Therefore, no GAMS skills are required to run the program. The tool is divided into four modules according to its capabilities: 1) the ESPATR module, which performs stochastic optimization procedures in surface water systems using a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach; 2) the ESPAT_RA module, which optimizes coupled surface-groundwater systems using a modified SDDP approach; 3) the ESPAT_SDP module, capable of performing stochastic optimization procedures in small-size surface systems using a standard SDP approach; and 4) the ESPAT_DET module, which implements a deterministic programming procedure using non-linear programming, able to solve deterministic optimization problems in complex surface-groundwater river basins. The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series, one aquifer and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIV century) rights, which give priority to the most traditional irrigation district over the XX century agricultural developments. Its size makes it possible to use either the SDP or

  15. Concept of a spatial data infrastructure for web-mapping, processing and service provision for geo-hazards (United States)

    Weinke, Elisabeth; Hölbling, Daniel; Albrecht, Florian; Friedl, Barbara


    for the possibility of rapid mapping. The server tier consists of java based web and GIS server. Sub and main services are part of the service tier. Sub services are for example map services, feature editing services, geometry services, geoprocessing services and metadata services. For (meta)data provision and to support data interoperability, web standards of the OGC and the rest-interface is used. Four central main services are designed and developed: (1) a mapping service (including image segmentation and classification approaches), (2) a monitoring service to monitor changes over time, (3) a validation service to analyze landslide delineations from different sources and (4) an infrastructure service to identify affected landslides. The main services use and combine parts of the sub services. Furthermore, a series of client applications based on new technology standards making use of the data and services offered by the spatial data infrastructure. Next steps include the design to extend the current spatial data infrastructure to other areas and geo-hazard types to develop a spatial data infrastructure that can assist targeted mapping and monitoring of geo-hazards on a global context.

  16. Comparison of different cartilage protein extraction strategies used by two-dimensional electrophorosis technique%应用于双向电泳技术的不同软骨蛋白提取方案对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖军; 尹若峰; 梁锦前; 史占军; 吴志宏; 邱贵兴


    目的 探索可兼顾双向电泳凝胶图像质量和结果保真性的软骨蛋白提取方案.方法 取股骨髁软骨(n=17).分别用软骨组织直接提取总蛋白(软骨组织组)、软骨组织提取总蛋白后CPC处理(软骨+CPC组)、直接分离软骨细胞提取总蛋白(直接软骨细胞组)或培养软骨细胞提取总蛋白(培养软骨细胞组)同步进行2-DE,对比不同方案产生凝胶图像质量和结果保真性的差异.结果 软骨组织组不能形成等电聚焦.软骨+CPC组可形成等电聚焦,但蛋白点数量偏少.直接软骨细胞组可获得与培养软骨细胞组媲美的高质量等电聚焦和凝胶图像,且在高分子量和偏碱区域分离出培养软骨细胞组缺如的部分蛋白点,质谱结果显示这些蛋白分别为Ⅵ型胶原、TGF-β2和annexin等骨关节炎病因学相关蛋白.结论 从软骨组织直接提取软骨细胞用于2-DE的方案在解决等电聚焦难题的同时,还避免了细胞培养对实验结果保真性的影响,是软骨相关疾病样本的2-DE研究优化处理方案.%Objective To explore an optimal cartilage protein extraction approach that can guarantee both the image quality and the result fidelity of the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) technique. Methods Knee cartilage samples were obtained from femoral condyles ( n = 17 ). Approaches used for protein samples of 2-DE were grouped: ( 1 ) Extracting protein directly from cartilage samples ( Cartialge approach); ( 2 ) Total protein was treat with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) after being extracted from cartilage samples (Cartilage plus CPC approach);(3) Extracting protein from chondrocytes directly isolated from cartilage samples (directly extracted chondrocytes approch). (4)Extracting protein from cultured chondrocytes (cultured chondrocyters approach). Image qualities generated by 2-DE with different protein extracting approaches were compared and the capabilities of these approaches in generating

  17. Multicentric performance analysis of HCV quantification assays and its potential relevance for HCV treatment. (United States)

    Wiesmann, F; Naeth, G; Berger, A; Hirsch, H H; Regenass, S; Ross, R S; Sarrazin, C; Wedemeyer, H; Knechten, H; Braun, P


    An accurate quantification of low viremic HCV RNA plasma samples has gained importance since the approval of direct acting antivirals and since only one single measurement predicts the necessity of a prolonged or shortened therapy. As reported previously, HCV quantification assays such as Abbott RealTime HCV and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV version 2 (CTM v2) may vary in sensitivity and precision particularly in low-level viremia. Importantly, substantial variations were previously demonstrated between some of these assays compared to the Roche High Pure System/COBAS TaqMan assay (HPS) reference assay, which was used to establish the clinical decision points in clinical studies. In this study, the reproducibility of assay performances across several laboratories was assessed by analysing quantification results generated by six independent laboratories (3× RealTime, 3× CTM v2) in comparison with one HPS reference laboratory. The 4th WHO Standard was diluted to 100, 25 and 10 IU/ml, and aliquots were tested in triplicates in 5 independent runs by each assay in the different laboratories to assess assay precision and detection rates. In a second approach, 2 clinical samples (GT 1a & GT 1b) were diluted to 100 and 25 IU/ml and tested as described above. While the result range for WHO 100 IU/ml replicates across all laboratories was similar in this analysis, the CVs of each laboratory ranged from 19.3 to 25.6 % for RealTime laboratories and were lower than CVs of CTM v2 laboratories with a range of 26.1-47.3 %, respectively, and also in comparison with the CV of the HPS reference laboratory (34.9 %). At WHO standard dilution of 25 IU/ml, 24 replicates were quantified by RealTime compared to 8 replicates with CTM v2. Results of clinical samples again revealed a higher variation of CTM v2 results as compared to RealTime values. (CVs at 100 IU/ml: RealTime: 13.1-21.0 % and CTM v2: 15.0-32.3 %; CVs at 25 IU/ml: RealTime 17.6-34.9 % and CTM v2 28

  18. Microsurgical management of large and giant petroclival meningiomas%大型、巨大型岩斜区脑膜瘤显微外科入路的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 于春江; 齐震; 许兴; 张宏伟; 任铭; 闫长祥; 孙炜


    Objective To investigate the surgery strategy for large and giant petroclival meningiomas and the choice of approach.Method 23 patients treated surgically for large and giant petroelival meningiomas were retrospectively reviewed to assess the choice of operative approach,the function applyment of advanced technique equipment,the exposure of the tumor,the resection of tumor and the before-and-after-surgery perioperative condition.9 cases were conducted with subtemporal transpetrosal-ridge approach,7 with presigmoid approach,2 with retrosigmoid approach,5 with Supra-infratentorial approach and 16 with the monitoring of cranial nerves and electrophysiology technique. Results Total resection was achieved in 15 cases(65%),and subtotal in 7 cases(31%),partia in 1 case(4%).New developed CNs dysfunction and deterioration of original symptom after the operation in were found in 16 cases(69%).There were no death and long-term coma. Conclusions The subtemporal transpetrosal-ridge approach has obvious advantage.First,the approach made the surgery easy to operate,safe,swift,less damaging;it has a good universality in application;Second,it is less influenced by anatomy variation:it would cut the blood supply from the tentorium of cerebellum edge at early stage:third,its operative sight is wide and the application of micro-equipment can show the relevant structure clearly.Therefore,the application of this approach is well promoting.A successful operation will be more guranfeed by using electrophysiologic monitoring of cranial nerves and brainstem during the surgery.%目的 探讨大型、巨大型岩斜区脑膜瘤的显微外科治疗策略及手术入路.方法 回顾分析经显微神经外科治疗的23例大型、巨大型岩斜区脑膜瘤患者手术入路的选择和肿瘤的显露状况、切除程度及手术前后神经功能状况的变化,其中采用颞下经小脑幕一岩骨尖入路9例、经乙状窦前入路7例、经乙状窦后入路2例,经幕上

  19. Grain size control and superplasticity in 6013-type aluminum alloys (United States)

    Troeger, Lillianne Plaster Whitelock

    grain diameter of ˜10 mum. The refined microstructure exhibits superplasticity above 500°C, where the strain rate sensitivity reaches a maximum of 0.5 (at 540°C for strain rates between 2 x 10-4 s-1 and 5 x 10-4 s-1). The maximum uniaxial elongation (375%) occurred in the regime of the maximum strain rate sensitivity. The corresponding flow stress was 680 psi (4.7 Mpa). Biaxial cone tests were performed in order to better evaluate the high-temperature forming characteristics of the material. During tests with back pressure, cone height-to-radius ratios near 1.2 were obtained with maximum strain approaching 2.0 for strain rates near 1 x 10-3 s-1 . The effect of superplastic deformation on the microstructure is described in terms of the effect of strain on grain size and porosity for a cone sample. The ultimate goal of the project is to advance the fundamental understanding of the complex interrelationships between processing, microstructure, and superplastic performance.

  20. Europlanet/IDIS: Combining Diverse Planetary Observations and Models (United States)

    Schmidt, Walter; Capria, Maria Teresa; Chanteur, Gerard


    Planetary research involves a diversity of research fields from astrophysics and plasma physics to atmospheric physics, climatology, spectroscopy and surface imaging. Data from all these disciplines are collected from various space-borne platforms or telescopes, supported by modelling teams and laboratory work. In order to interpret one set of data often supporting data from different disciplines and other missions are needed while the scientist does not always have the detailed expertise to access and utilize these observations. The Integrated and Distributed Information System (IDIS) [1], developed in the framework of the Europlanet-RI project, implements a Virtual Observatory approach ([2] and [3]), where different data sets, stored in archives around the world and in different formats, are accessed, re-formatted and combined to meet the user's requirements without the need of familiarizing oneself with the different technical details. While observational astrophysical data from different observatories could already earlier be accessed via Virtual Observatories, this concept is now extended to diverse planetary data and related model data sets, spectral data bases etc. A dedicated XML-based Europlanet Data Model (EPN-DM) [4] was developed based on data models from the planetary science community and the Virtual Observatory approach. A dedicated editor simplifies the registration of new resources. As the EPN-DM is a super-set of existing data models existing archives as well as new spectroscopic or chemical data bases for the interpretation of atmospheric or surface observations, or even modeling facilities at research institutes in Europe or Russia can be easily integrated and accessed via a Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) [5] adapted from the corresponding protocol of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance [6] (IVOA-TAP). EPN-TAP allows to search catalogues, retrieve data and make them available through standard IVOA tools if the access to the archive

  1. Trabalho da enfermagem e distúrbio musculoesquelético: revisão das pesquisas sobre o tema Trabajo de la enfermería y disturbio musculoesquelético: revisión de las investigaciones acerca del tema. The nursing work and musculoskeletal disorders: a review of the researches about the theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza Magnago


    Rio de Janeiro fueron los que se destacaron en producciones en la temática en discusión. Los trabajos señalan tanto para el hecho de adolecer musculoesquelético creciente de los trabajadores de enfermería cuanto para las inadecuadas condiciones de trabajo como factor de riesgo para ese adolecer.This study aimed to identify the Brazilian scientific production (thesis and dissertations about musculoskeletal disorders in nursing workers. The publications were searched in the Banco de Teses e Dissertações (thesis and dissertations collection of the Portal CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - (Brazilian Government Agency and the catalogues of the Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem ABEN (Brazilian Nursing Association. The period researched was 1978-2004. The criterion used to select the thesis and dissertations' abstract was the outcome "musculoskeletal" in nursing population. Eighteen studies matched the criterion. Regarding to the research approach, 2 of them presented a qualitative one, 1 quantitative qualitative one; and 15 quantitative one. The majority of them were from pos-graduated courses of Universidade de São Paulo and Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. The studies pointed out to the growing number of nursing workers who have became sick due to musculoskeletal disorders; as well as to the poor conditions of work as a risk factor for this.

  2. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Mode on Sugarcane Yield and Soil Nutrient Change%氮肥施用方式对甘蔗产量及土壤养分变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢金兰; 王维赞; 朱秋珍; 刘晓燕; 梁强; 李毅杰; 罗亚伟; 梁阗


    [Objective] The aim was to improve use ratio of N fertilizer in sugarcane production and reduce N pol ution in agricultural production. [Method] With ROC22 as materials, N fertilizer quantities were set, including 38, 276 and 414 kg N/hm2, according to three fertilization approaches (approach 1: N fertilizer at 10% as base fertilizer, 30% N fertilizer applied to soil dressing, 60% N fertilizer applied to big ridging; approach 2: 30% N fertilizer as base fertilizer, 70% N fertilizer applied to soil dressing; approach 3: 100% N fertilizer as base fertilizer). Some sugarcane in-dices, such as agronomic traits, yield and soil nutrients, were measured to research the relationship of N fertilizer with sugarcane growth and soil nutrients. [Result] Sug-arcane yield was increasing upon N fertilizer and reached the peak with N fertilizer at 276 kg N/hm2. In addition, early application of N fertilizer would promote sugar-cane jointing, growth and increase sugarcane yield. Nitrogen and available K con-tents were increasing upon N fertilizer, but excessive N fertilizer also caused soil acidification. N fertilizer applied early could help dissolve soil phosphate and improve phosphorus absorption and utilization. Applying N fertilizer completely as base fertil-izer was likely to cause N loss and low use efficiency. [Conclusion] The appropriate application mode for sugarcane is to apply N fertilizer twice at 138-276 kg N/hm2.%[目的]为提高氮肥在甘蔗生产中的利用率,减少农业生产中的氮污染提供参考。[方法]以 ROC22为材料,设3个不同氮肥施用量(38276和414 kg N/hm2)和3种不同施用方式(1:氮肥10%作基肥,30%小培土时施用,60%大培土时施用;2:氮肥30%作基肥,70%小培土时施用;3:氮肥全部作基肥施用)测定甘蔗农艺性状产量和土壤养分等指标,研究氮肥与甘蔗生长以及土壤养分变化的关系。[结果]甘蔗产量随着氮肥施用量增加而增加,以276 kg N/hm2

  3. Evaluating the protein coding potential of exonized transposable element sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodovsky Mark


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable element (TE sequences, once thought to be merely selfish or parasitic members of the genomic community, have been shown to contribute a wide variety of functional sequences to their host genomes. Analysis of complete genome sequences have turned up numerous cases where TE sequences have been incorporated as exons into mRNAs, and it is widely assumed that such 'exonized' TEs encode protein sequences. However, the extent to which TE-derived sequences actually encode proteins is unknown and a matter of some controversy. We have tried to address this outstanding issue from two perspectives: i-by evaluating ascertainment biases related to the search methods used to uncover TE-derived protein coding sequences (CDS and ii-through a probabilistic codon-frequency based analysis of the protein coding potential of TE-derived exons. Results We compared the ability of three classes of sequence similarity search methods to detect TE-derived sequences among data sets of experimentally characterized proteins: 1-a profile-based hidden Markov model (HMM approach, 2-BLAST methods and 3-RepeatMasker. Profile based methods are more sensitive and more selective than the other methods evaluated. However, the application of profile-based search methods to the detection of TE-derived sequences among well-curated experimentally characterized protein data sets did not turn up many more cases than had been previously detected and nowhere near as many cases as recent genome-wide searches have. We observed that the different search methods used were complementary in the sense that they yielded largely non-overlapping sets of hits and differed in their ability to recover known cases of TE-derived CDS. The probabilistic analysis of TE-derived exon sequences indicates that these sequences have low protein coding potential on average. In particular, non-autonomous TEs that do not encode protein sequences, such as Alu elements, are frequently

  4. Pengaruh Penggunaan Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik Berbasis Pendekatan Ilmiah Terhadap Aktivitas dan Hasil Belajar IPA Biologi Kelas VII Peserta Didik SMP Negeri 2 Watampone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsa Marsa


    tinggi.Kata kunci: LKPD berbasis pendekatan ilmiah, aktivitas belajar  dan hasil belajar.ABSTRACTEducational paradigm requires a change in the teacher-centered learning to a student-centered learning. Learning to use the Student Worksheet based learning scientific approach is learner-centered. Student Worksheet-based scientific approach is student work sheet that contains instructions for implementing the learning activities to be performed by the students by applying scientific approach through stages observe, ask, collect data, associate and communicate. This study aims to (1 determine the activities to learn science Biology of seventh grade students at SMP Negeri 2 Watampone taught using LKPD-based scientific approach, (2 determine learning outcomes IPA Biology of seventh grade students at SMP Negeri 2 Watampone taught by using LKPD-based scientific approach, and (3 the effect of the use of LKPD scientific approach based on learning outcomes of science Biology of seventh grade students at SMP Negeri 2 Watampone. This study is peneltian pre-experimental design with one group pretest-posttest design. Subjects were students of class VII second semester of academic year 2015/2016, ie a total of 24 students VIIa class as a class experiment without a control class. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that (1 the learning activities of students taught using a scientific approach based LKPD are in a very active category, (2 the learning outcomes of students after being taught to use a scientific approach based LKPD reach an average value of 83.13 with a standard deviation of 9.143 and (3 Increase the ability of students after being taught by learning to use a scientific approach based LKPD are at higher classification.Keywords: LKPD-based scientific approach, learning activities and learning outcomes.

  5. 埋伏阻生牙正畸治疗的临床研究%Clinical Study of Orthodontic Treatment for Impacted Teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文丹; 刘英志; 古育娣; 熊培颖; 蔡龙干; 冯洁妮


    Objective:To observe the effect of orthodontic treatment for impacted teeth,discuss the effective treatment for impacted teeth. Method:18 patients with impacted teeth in our hospital from August 2012 to December 2014,all the patients underwent surgical exposure,orthodontic aligning,orthodontic traction according to concrete conditions of the impacted teeth. After orthodontic treatment,the probing depth,bone level was detected and compared between the impacted teeth and contralateral teeth. Result:Among the 18 impacted teeth,7 teeth (38.89%)were treated by closed approach,2 teeth(11.11%)were treated by circular excision,and 9 teeth (50.00%)were treated by flap guided eruption. Among the 18 impacted teeth,16 impacted teeth were treated successfully,the successful rate was 88.89%,and 2 impacted teeth were treated effectively,the effective rate was 88.89%. Compared with the contralateral teeth,there was no statistically significant difference on the probing depth,bone level of impacted teeth(P>0.05). After orthodontic treatment,4 patients occurred wound infection, and the rate of wound infection was 22.22%. Conclusion:Orthodontic treatment for impacted teeth has better therapeutic effect,can establish a good gingival margin morphology,which can reduce periodontal damage.%目的:观察埋伏阻生牙正畸治疗的临床疗效,探讨埋伏阻生牙有效的治疗方法。方法:选取2012年8月-2014年12月本院收治的18例单侧埋伏阻生牙患者,均根据患者埋伏阻生牙的具体情况制定正畸治疗方案,分别进行手术暴露、正畸排齐、正畸牵引。于治疗后对治疗牙和对侧同名牙进行牙周检查和测量,拍摄全口根尖片,记录牙周探诊深度和牙槽骨水平,并进行比较。结果:18例18颗埋伏阻生牙中,行助萌术治疗7颗(38.89%),环切术治疗2颗(11.11%),翻瓣导萌术9颗(50.00%);18颗埋伏阻生牙治疗成功16例(88.89%),有效2例(11.11%);与对

  6. Sustaining professional development gains after the NSF-CCLI grant ends (United States)

    Grove, K.; Dekens, P. S.; Dempsey, D. P.


    . Participants read literature about managing small groups and discussed possible techniques to address the problem. Each GTA picked one technique, practiced applying it in subsequent lab sessions, and reported on the results, which were frequently positive. Other professional development activities of the TLC are: (1) providing lecture instructors with an extra teaching unit to meet each week with GTAs teaching the lab and to coordinate teaching approaches; (2) providing faculty teaching units for teaching "Our Dynamic Classroom"; (3) organizing occasional workshops around specific topics, such as scoring the Critical thinking Assessment Test (CAT) and how to teach about the nature of science; (4) including talks about teaching and learning in the department's speaker series. All of these activities have had a positive impact, particularly for GTAs and part-time instructors, who feel much better supported by the department and more confident in their abilities to be effective instructors. Regular faculty have also noticed changes in the department, such as hearing and participating in frequent hallway discussions about teaching pedagogy. With these changes, we anticipate a continuing higher level of attention to teaching effectiveness that benefits both instructors and our students.

  7. Project Kaleidoscope: Advancing What Works in Undergraduate STEM Education (United States)

    Elrod, S.


    In 1989, Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) published its first report, What Works: Building Natural Science Communities, on reforming undergraduate STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) education. Since then, PKAL has grown into a national organization comprised of a diverse group of over 6500 STEM educators who are committed to advancing "what works." The PKAL mission is to be a national leader in catalyzing the efforts of people, institutions, organizations and networks to move from analysis to action in significantly improving undergraduate student learning and achievement in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics). Specifically, PKAL's strategic goals are to: 1) Promote the development and wider use of evidence-based teaching, learning and assessment approaches, 2) Build individual and organizational capacity to lead change in STEM education, and 3) Engage the broader community of external stakeholders - professional and disciplinary societies, business and industry groups, accreditation organizations, educational associations, governmental agencies, philanthropic organizations - in achieving our mission. PKAL achieves these goals by serving as the nexus of an interconnected and multidisciplinary web of people, ideas, strategies, evidence and resources focused on systemic change in undergraduate STEM education. PKAL also provides resources on critical issues, such as teaching using pedagogies of engagement, and engages interested faculty, campuses and professional societies in national projects and programs focused on cutting edge issues in STEM education. One of these projects - Mobilizing Disciplinary Societies for a Sustainable Future - is engaging eleven disciplinary societies, including the National Association of Geoscience Teachers, in defining specific resources, faculty development programs and goals focused on promoting undergraduate STEM courses that: 1) provide more knowledge about real-world issues; 2) connect these real

  8. GIFFT: A Fast Solver for Modeling Sources in a Metamaterial Environment of Finite Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capolino, F; Basilio, L; Fasenfest, B J; Wilton, D R


    Due to the recent explosion of interest in studying the electromagnetic behavior of large (truncated) periodic structures such as phased arrays, frequency-selective surfaces, and metamaterials, there has been a renewed interest in efficiently modeling such structures. Since straightforward numerical analyses of large, finite structures (i.e., explicitly meshing and computing interactions between all mesh elements of the entire structure) involve significant memory storage and computation times, much effort is currently being expended on developing techniques that minimize the high demand on computer resources. One such technique that belongs to the class of fast solvers for large periodic structures is the GIFFT algorithm (Green's function interpolation and FFT), which is first discussed in [1]. This method is a modification of the adaptive integral method (AIM) [2], a technique based on the projection of subdomain basis functions onto a rectangular grid. Like the methods presented in [3]-[4], the GIFFT algorithm is an extension of the AIM method in that it uses basis-function projections onto a rectangular grid through Lagrange interpolating polynomials. The use of a rectangular grid results in a matrix-vector product that is convolutional in form and can thus be evaluated using FFTs. Although our method differs from [3]-[6] in various respects, the primary differences between the AIM approach [2] and the GIFFT method [1] is the latter's use of interpolation to represent the Green's function (GF) and its specialization to periodic structures by taking into account the reusability properties of matrices that arise from interactions between identical cell elements. The present work extends the GIFFT algorithm to allow for a complete numerical analysis of a periodic structure excited by dipole source, as shown in Fig 1. Although GIFFT [1] was originally developed to handle strictly periodic structures, the technique has now been extended to efficiently

  9. A review of analogue modelling of geodynamic processes: Approaches, scaling, materials and quantification, with an application to subduction experiments