Sample records for pteridium aquilinum bracken

  1. The role of bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) in forest dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den J.


    Bracken fern ( Pteridium aquilinum ) causes stagnation in forest succession in many parts of the world. The mechanisms by which bracken affects the establishment and growth of plant species are studied, focusing on the regeneration of tree species in forest habitats.Bracken is well adapted to the fo

  2. Super-resolution image analysis as a means of monitoring bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) distributions (United States)

    Holland, Jennie; Aplin, Paul


    The bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) fern is environmentally significant due to its great abundance and swift colonisation, and its perception as a problem plant in degrading agricultural or ecologically sensitive land. Various attempts have been made to map bracken using remote sensing, but these have proved relatively unsuccessful, often apparently constrained by the lack of spatial detail associated with medium spatial resolution satellite sensors such as the Landsat series. In this study, bracken was characterised using a combination of 30 m Landsat sensor imagery and 4 m IKONOS imagery. Different classification techniques were compared, including hard maximum likelihood classification and a super-resolution approach comprising soft classification and sub-pixel contouring. These techniques were applied to a range of image dates, including summer, winter and multitemporal images. Image analysis was supported by extensive field data collection, comprising both a land cover survey and stakeholder interviews. For the hard classified Landsat sensor imagery, the summer image proved least able to characterise bracken, due largely to the spectral similarity between (green) growing bracken and grasses and other vegetation. The winter images were more successful for identifying bracken due to the strong contrast between dead (brown/red) bracken and other vegetation. However, the multitemporal Landsat image was considerably more accurate than any of the single date images. The hard classified IKONOS image was more accurate overall than the Landsat sensor images for classifying land cover. Surprisingly, though, it was not comprehensively more accurate for mapping the bracken class. Notably, the producers accuracy of bracken was lower for the IKONOS image than the Landsat sensor images. This suggests image spatial resolution, although influential on the success of bracken characterisation, is not necessarily the sole or main determinant of classification accuracy. Also

  3. Clastogenic effect of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum v. arachnoideum) diet in peripheral lymphocytes of human consumers: preliminary data. (United States)

    Recouso, R C; Stocco dos Santos, R C; Freitas, R; Santos, R C; de Freitas, A C; Brunner, O; Beçak, W; Lindsey, C J


    Ingestion of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum v. arachnoideum) is associated with digestive tract cancer in different regions of Japan, Venezuela and Brazil. In view of reports that dietary bracken fern causes chromosomal instability in cattle, the clastogenic effect of bracken fern was investigated, in a preliminary study, in peripheral lymphocytes obtained from habitual consumers and a control group of non-consumers, which were carefully investigated about cancer history or family cancer history, negative in both cases, using protocols comparable to those previously described in studies in cattle raised on bracken pastures. Cytogenetic analysis showed significant increased levels of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromatid breaks, in cultured peripheral lymphocytes of the consumer group. There was no correlation with subjects, gender, smoking habits or alcohol consumption, and the only correlation was with prolonged exposure to dietary bracken.

  4. Isolation and characterisation of 13 pterosins and pterosides from bracken (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) rhizome. (United States)

    Mohammad, Rizgar Hassan; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Lahmann, Martina; Parveen, Ifat; Tizzard, Graham J; Coles, Simon J; Fowler, Mark; Drake, Alex F; Heyes, Derren; Thoss, Vera


    Systematic phytochemical investigations of the underground rhizome of Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn (Dennstaedtiaceae) afforded thirty-five pterosins and pterosides. By detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and high-resolution mass spectrometric data, thirteen previously undescribed pterosins and pterosides have been identified. Interestingly, for the first time 12-O-β-D-glucopyranoside substituted pterosins, rhedynosides C and D, and the sulfate-containing pterosin, rhedynosin H, alongside the two known compounds, histiopterosin A and (2S)-pteroside A2, were isolated from the rhizomes of subsp. aquilinum of bracken. In addition, six-membered cyclic ether pterosins and pterosides, rhedynosin A and rhedynoside A, are the first examples of this type of pterosin-sesquiterpenoid. Additionally, the three previously reported compounds (rhedynosin I, (2S)-2-hydroxymethylpterosin E and (2S)-12-hydroxypterosin A) were obtained for the first time from plants as opposed to mammalian metabolic products. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis was applied to the previously undescribed compounds (2R)-rhedynoside B, (2R)-pteroside B and (2S)-pteroside K, yielding the first crystal structures for pterosides, and three known pterosins, (2S)-pterosin A, trans-pterosin C and cis-pterosin C. Rhedynosin C is the only example of the cyclic lactone pterosins with a keto group at position C-14. Six selected pterosins ((2S)-pterosin A, (2R)-pterosin B and trans-pterosin C) and associated glycosides ((2S)-pteroside A, (2R)-pteroside B and pteroside Z) were assessed for their anti-diabetic activity using an intestinal glucose uptake assay; all were found to be inactive at 300 μM.

  5. Effects of solutions to simulate acidic precipitation on fertilization of the Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Bozzone, D.M.


    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate in buffered solutions on sperm motility and fertilization in gametophytes of Pteridium aquilinum. Buffered solutions with various anions simulated exposures to acidic precipitation up to 3.5 hr. The presence of each anion decreased both sperm motility and fertilization.

  6. Detection of Ptaquilosides in different phenologic stages of Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and analysis of milk samples in farms with hematuria in Tolima, Colombia (United States)

    Bracken fern or “Helecho Macho” (Pteridium aquilinum) is one of the most common weeds in the meadows of the mountain ranges of Colombia. Consumption of this palatable plant by bovines causes a disease known as bovine enzootic hematuria and esophageal neoplasia. The toxic effect of the plant in bovin...

  7. Intoxicação experimental aguda por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos Experimental acute poisoning by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum in cattle

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    Bruno L. Anjos


    conflitantes, não permitindo concluir se a coagulação intravascular disseminada tem participação na patogênese das hemorragias nessa intoxicação. A citopatologia e histopatologia da medula óssea dos quatro bovinos intoxicados revelaram acentuada diminuição no número de células hematopoéticas das três linhagens medulares, caracterizando insuficiência medular por aplasia; conclui-se que apenas eventos da hemostasia primária devidos a trombocitopenia são responsáveis pelas hemorragias. Na hemocultura de três dos bovinos intoxicados houve crescimento de Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus hyicus e Staphylococcus aureus, indicando que a septicemia, facilitada pela neutropenia, pode ter participação na causa da morte de bovinos na intoxicação aguda pela ingestão de P. aquilinum. Aspectos adicionais de interesse na reprodução da intoxicação aguda por samambaia em bovinos deste relato incluem o desenvolvimento de hematúria na doença aguda e a apresentação da chamada forma laríngea da doença.This experiment was design to address the following points in relation to the acute poisoning by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum in cattle: 1 the severity of the thrombocytopenia in different stages of the intoxication and its relationship to possible deficits in the secondary hemostasis, 2 the relationship between neutropenia and the morphological signs of septicemia occasionally found at necropsy, and 3 the mechanism of anemia and its relationship with blood loss, medium life of erythrocytes and the progress of the disease. The fresh green upper parts of P. aquilinum were fed to four mixed breed calves with average age of 18 months and weights ranging from 190 to 215 kg. A calf of similar age and weight was kept together with the other four under the same conditions, except for the ingestion of P. aquilinum. The four fern-fed calves died with typical features of acute bracken fern poisoning after being fed with the plant for 53-58 days daily doses of 8.0, 8

  8. Studies on phytoremediation of copper using Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern) in the presence of biostimulants and bioassay using Clarias gariepinus juveniles. (United States)

    Olaifa, Flora Eyibio; Omekam, Anamese Jennifer


    A study was carried out to evaluate the uptake of copper from water containing 10 mg/L copper by Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern) and Clarias gariepinus in the presence of five plant growth stimulants: Nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium (15-15-15: an inorganic fertilizer), pig, cattle, poultry, and a mixture of pig/cattle manures. A plant growth stimulant differentiated each treatment. A 96-hour bioassay using C. gariepinus was carried out at the end of the experiment to test the efficacy of the clean up by P. aquilinum. The control experiment contained no copper or plant growth stimulant. Fish survival, uptake of copper by P. aquilinum, C. gariepinus, concentration of copper in water, hematology and histopathology of the fish were assessed. Higher concentrations of copper were reported in P. aquilinum than in water or C. gariepinus. Low fish mortality was reported with the highest being 20% in the cattle manure-containing treatment.

  9. Distribution of the carcinogenic terpene ptaquiloside in Bracken fronds, rhizomes (Pteridium aquilinum) and litter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Jensen, Lasse Sander; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun


    The distribution of ptaquiloside (PTA) was studied in four Danish bracken populations in order to evaluate the transfer of PTA from ferns to soil. Populations showed statistically significant differences in PTAcontents of fronds and rhizomes despite large in-site variations. The highest concentra...

  10. Intoxicação aguda por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos na Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul Acute poisoning by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum in cattle in central Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Bruno L. Anjos


    Full Text Available Foram revisados casos de intoxicação por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos de 10 pequenas propriedades rurais de sete municípios da Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul. O estudo abrangeu 6.256 necrospias de bovinos realizadas num período de 43 anos e incluiu 15 necropsias de bovinos que morreram em conseqüência da intoxicação aguda por samambaia. As taxas de morbidade e mortalidade foram 17,9% e a letalidade era virtualmente de 100%. Em 40% das propriedades a doença ocorreu em pequenos surtos afetando vários bovinos; em 60% das propriedades apenas um bovino era afetado. Os principais sinais clínicos incluíam febre (40-42ºC, apatia, salivação e hemorragias, principalmente pelas gengivas, pela cavidade nasal e pelo trato gastrintestinal. Múltiplas petéquias eram observadas nas mucosas e na pele. Ocasionalmente observou-se hematúria e sangue no leite. A doença era invariavelmente fatal após um curso clínico de dois dias. Alterações hematológicas consistiam de leucopenia por neutropenia, anemia normocítica normocrômica e trombocitopenia arregenerativa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam hemorragias de intensidade variável em vários órgãos e infartos no fígado. Tanto as hemorragias quanto os infartos foram confirmados histologicamente; agregados de bacilos e vasos trombosados foram observados em associação com os infartos. Aplasia da medula óssea era um achado consistente nos quatro casos em que esse órgão foi examinado.Cases of acute poisoning by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum in cattle from 10 small farms of seven municipalities of the Central Region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were reviewed. The study encompassed 6,256 necropsies of cattle considering a 43-year period and included 15 necropsies of cattle dying from acute bracken poisoning. Morbidity and mortality were 17.9% and lethality was virtually 100%. In 40% of the farms the disease occurred in small outbreaks affecting several cattle

  11. Determination of ptaquiloside and pterosin B derived from bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) in cattle plasma, urine and milk. (United States)

    Aranha, Paulo César Reis; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Strobel, Bjarne W; Friis, Christian


    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a toxin from bracken fern (Pteridium sp.) with genotoxic effects. Hydrolysis of PTA leads to the non-toxic and aromatised indanone, pterosin B (PTB). Here we present a sensitive, fast, simple and direct method, using SPE cartridges to clean and pre-concentrate PTA and PTB in plasma, urine and milk followed by LC-MS quantification. The average recovery of PTA in plasma, urine, and milk was 71, 88 and 77%, respectively, whereas recovery of PTB was 75, 82 and 63%. The method LOQ for PTA and PTB in plasma was 1.2 and 3.7ngmL(-1), 52 and 33ngmL(-1) for undiluted urine and 5.8 and 5.3ngmL(-1) for milk. The method is repeatable within and between days, with RSD values lower than 15% (PTA) and 20% (PTB). When PTA and PTB spiked samples were stored at -18°C for 14 days both compounds remained stable. In contrast, the PTA concentration was reduced by 15% when PTA spiked plasma was left for 5h at room temperature before SPE clean-up, whereas PTB remained stable. The method is the first to allow simultaneous quantification of PTA and PTB in biological fluids in a relevant concentration range. After intravenous administration of 0.092mg PTA per kgbw in a heifer, the plasma concentration was more than 300ngmL(-1) PTA and declined to 9.8ngmL(-1) after 6h, PTB was determined after 10min at 50ngmL(-1.)

  12. Neoplasias do trato alimentar superior de bovinos associadas ao consumo espontâneo de samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum Neoplasms of the upper digestive tract of cattle associated with spontaneous ingestion of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum

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    Marione A. Moreira Souto


    /orofaringe, epiglote, média (terços cranial, médio e caudal do esôfago e caudal (entrada do rúmen e rúmen do TAS, observou-se que a localização era cranial em 39% dos casos, média em 16%, e caudal em 45%. Utilizando-se esse mesmo critério de agrupamento, porém considerando o número total de vezes em que CCEs (de tamanhos variados foram diagnosticados nas regiões cranial, média e caudal, os números alteraram-se para 34, 26 e 40%, respectivamente. As evidências epidemiológicas e histomorfológicas relatadas neste estudo reforçam as observações de uma estreita correlação entre a infecção pelo papiloma-vírus bovino tipo 4, causador da papilomatose digestiva, e a co-carcinogênese química dos princípios tóxicos da samambaia na patogênese dos CCEs do TAS de bovinos. Entretanto, a presença de alterações pré-neoplásicas (áreas de displasia, áreas de CCE in situ ou CCEs em estágios iniciais de desenvolvimento, independentemente da presença de papilomas no local, mostram claramente ser possível o desenvolvimento de CCEs diretamente do epitélio normal, possivelmente por uma ação direta dos carcinó-genos químicos da samambaia.Thirty bovine with neoplasms of the upper digestive tract (UDT associated with spontaneous ingestion of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum were studied. They were from 27 farms, located in the municipalities of Jaguari (23 and Nova Esperança do Sul (4, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The total cattle population in those farms was 1,090 and large amounts of bracken fern were found in the pastures. Twenty-six of the affected cattle were cows and four were castrated males, 3-13 years of age; most of them were 7-8 years old (46,6%. Clinical signs observed in the affected animals were progressive weight loss, absence of ruminal movements, cough, dysphagia, regurgitation, halitosis, diarrhea, and bloat. Less frequent signs were selective appetite, dyspnea, and salivation. Two bovine died and 28 were submitted to euthanasia in advanced stage

  13. Sobre os efeitos nocivos do Pteridium Aquilinum (Samambaia) em diferentes espécies animais


    Gerenutti, Marli; SPINOSA, Helenice de Souza; BERNARDI, Maria Martha


    Pteridium aquilinum, popularly known as Bracken fern, is a widely distributed plant which is usually consumed as food by many species. In this article, the toxic principles and some aspects of toxicology related to disturbances of development, which occur when P. aquilinum is used as food by animals (cows, sheeps, horses, pigs, rats, etc.) and humans, were analyzed. It has been concluded that P. aquilinum is an important plant and that its harmful effects could be investigated in future inves...

  14. Glycophenotypic alterations induced by Pteridium aquilinum in mice gastric mucosa: synergistic effect with Helicobacter pylori infection.

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    Joana Gomes

    Full Text Available The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewis(x. These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process.

  15. Phosphorus speciation by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy in bracken (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) and bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta (L.) Chouard ex Rothm.) dominated semi-natural upland soil

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    Ebuele, Victor O.; Santoro, Anna; Thoss, Vera, E-mail:


    Access to P species is a driver for plant community composition based on nutrient acquisition. Here we investigated the distribution and accumulation of soil inorganic P (Pi) and organic P (Po) forms in a bracken and bluebell dominated upland soil for the period between bluebell above ground dominance until biomass is formed from half bluebells and half bracken. Chemical characterisation and {sup 31}P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy was used to determine the organic and inorganic P species. Total P concentration in soils was 0.87 g kg{sup −1}, while in plants (above- and below-ground parts) total P ranged between 0.84–4.0 g kg{sup −1} and 0.14–2.0 g kg{sup −1} for bluebell and bracken, respectively. The P speciation in the plant samples was reflected in the surrounding soil. The main forms of inorganic P detected in the NaOH-EDTA soil extracts were orthophosphate (20.0–31.5%), pyrophosphate (0.6–2.5%) and polyphosphate (0.4–7.0%). Phytate (myo-IP{sub 6}) was the most dominant organic P form (23.6–40.0%). Other major peaks were scyllo-IP{sub 6} and α- and β- glycerophosphate (glyP). In bluebells and bracken the main P form detected was orthophosphate ranging from (21.7–80.4%) and 68.5–81.1%, in above-ground and below-ground biomass, respectively. Other detected forms include α-glyP (4.5–14.4%) and β-glyP (0.9–7.7%) in bluebell, while in bracken they were detected only in stripe and blade in ranges of 2.5–5.5% and 4.4–9.6%, respectively. Pyrophosphate, polyphosphate, scyllo-IP{sub 6}, phosphonates, found in soil samples, were not detected in any plant parts. In particular, the high abundance of phytate in the soil and in bluebell bulbs, may be related to a mechanism through which bluebells create a recalcitrant phosphorus store which form a key part of their adaptation to nutrient poor conditions. - Highlights: • Organic P forms were the dominant P species detected in the bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and bluebell

  16. Bracken fern poisoning (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  17. A Novel Bihomoflavanonol with an Unprecedented Skeleton from Pteridium aquilinum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Nai-dong; CHEN Nai-fu; CHEN Cun-wu; ZHANG Li


    Objective To seek the flavonoids with the unique structure and to investigate the chemical ingredients in the flavonoid-rich plant-Pteridium aquilinum.Methods The 80% EthOH extract from the degreased powder of P.aquilinum was partitioned by petroleum ether,CHCl3,EtOAc,n-butanol,and water,respectively.The EtOAc fraction was sequentially subjected to silica gel column,repeated Sephadex LH-20 column,and preparative TLC to give a new compound.The antitumor activity of the novel flavonoid was primarily evaluated by MTT.Results Compound 1,a biflavonoid with the unique structure named as pteridium Ⅲ with an unprecedented bihomoflavanonol skeleton,was isolated from P.aquilinum.Compound 1 showed the in vitro antitumor activity against lung cancer cell NCI-H46,melanoma cell A375,and glioma cell U-7MG corresponding to the IC50 values of 22.9,106.7,and 1540.5 μmol/L,respectively.No inhibition on gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 and prostatic carcinoma PC-3 was observed in the experiment.Conclusion A rare bihomoflavononol derivative,pteridium Ⅲ,is obtained from the plant,which could enrich our knowedge on the chemical structures of flavonoids and bioactive constituents in P.aquilinum.

  18. Mensuration of sialic acid seric level in nelore cattle exposed and nonexposed to bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum / Aferição da concentração sérica de ácido siálico em novilhas da raça nelore expostas e não expostas à samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum

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    Wilmar Sachetin Marçal


    Full Text Available The Pteridium aquilinum is one toxic plant present in several countries of the world. The chronic ingestion causes diseases to livestock with negative economics repercussion. In Paraná state the Pteridium aquilinum is present in 105 out 399 municipal districts existents. The high occurrence of the plant in many areas of the Paraná state and the wrong utilization of these areas for cattle breed increase the importance of research that look for means that epidemic control of intoxication. Because that research institutions in the Paraná state have looking for means to advance in diagnosis methods, especially to cattle suffering from Bovine Enzootic Hematuria. The biomarkers have been used in the diagnosis and postoperative follow-up of tumor in the human beings in a routinely bases for years. Researches about this subject were crescent in the medicine of companion animals, however still incipient about cattle. Specifically in the Bovine Enzootic Hematuria were verified that mucin, a substance present in the mucus from the mucosal surface of bladder, is produced by tumoral cells in reasonable accounts. Previous reports verified one relationship between the excessive mucus protein production by the bladder with hemangioma and high plasmatic concentration of the sialic acid. This suggests that sialic acid is associated with inflammatory response of the tumoral growth, and might be used such as tumoral biomarker.A Pteridium aquilinum é uma planta tóxica, disseminada em vários paises do mundo, cuja ingestão continua resulta em doenças com impacto negativo à pecuária bovina. No Paraná, esta presente em 105 dos 399 municípios do Estado. Por essa razão tem-se buscado por meios de controle epidemiológico da intoxicação, já que em algumas localidades do Paraná a planta está disseminada em muitas áreas utilizadas para cria e recria de bovinos. Assim sendo, as instituições de pesquisa do Estado têm buscado meios de diagnóstico precoce

  19. Uma comunidade sucessional dominada por Pteridium aquilinum ( L. Kuhn. no município de Lavras, estado de Minas Gerais A successional stage community dominated by Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn. in Lavras County, MG, Brazil

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    G. de Martins


    Full Text Available Numa área situada no município de Lavras, MG, o desmatamento realizado há cerca de dez anos propiciou a formação de uma comunidade infestante dominada por Pteridium aquilium (L. Khun., te ndo como codominantes Imperara brasiliensis Trin. e Andropogon bicornis L.. Como fatores que mantém esta comu nidade devem ser considerados: a as queimadas intermiten te s; b a acidez do solo; c a alta percentagem de saturação de aluminio ; d a ação fitotóxica do próprio P. aquilinum; e a falta de palatabilidade das espécies dominantes.A forest was clearcutted about 10 years ago in Lavras county, MG, Brazil and today a natural successional stage community can be found. The dominant weed, in fitomass, coverage an hcight is the bracken-fern Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn. The West Indian foxta il (Andropogon bicornis L. and the brazilian cogon grass (Imperata brasiliensis Trin. are the co-dominats weeds. Periodic burnings, soil acidity, high aluminium saturation and the phytotoxicity of the P. aquilinum itself are probably the factors which could explain the present community successional stage.

  20. Ptaquiloside in Pteridium aquilinum subsp. aquilinum and corresponding soils from the South of Italy: influence of physical and chemical features of soils on its occurrence. (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Cavoski, Ivana; Costi, Roberta; Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Traversa, Andreina; Miano, Teodoro M


    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, one of the most common plant species on Earth, produces a wide range of secondary metabolites including the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA). Several studies are present in literature about eco-toxicological aspects related to PTA, whereas results about the effect of growth conditions and soil properties on the production and mobility of PTA are sometimes conflicting and further investigations are needed. The aim of the present work is to investigate the occurrence and possible fate of PTA in soils showing different physical and chemical features, and collected in several areas of the South of Italy. The PTA content was determined in both soil and fern samples by GC-MS; both the extraction protocol and recovery were previously tested through incubation studies. Soils samples were also characterized from the physical and chemical points of view in order to correlate the possible influence of soil parameters on PTA production and occurrence. PTA concentration in P. aquilinum fern seemed to be significantly affected by the availability of nutrients (mainly P) and soil pH. At the same time, PTA concentration in soil samples was always undetectable, independent of the PTA concentration in the corresponding Pteridium samples and pedo-climatic conditions. This seems to suggest the degradation of the PTA by indigenous soil microbial community, whereas incubation studies underlined a certain affinity of PTA for both organic colloids and clay/silt particles.

  1. Natural regeneration of deforested areas dominated by Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn located in the serra da mantiqueira mountain range

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    Selma Cristina Ribeiro


    Full Text Available This study was set out with the objective of analyzing successional process in areas which are deforested and dominated by Pteridium aquilinum in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range, by researching the natural regeneration of shrub and tree species and evaluating both disturbance history and the edaphic conditions on the natural regeneration community. This research investigated two abandoned pasture areas in Bocaina de Minas county exposed to natural regeneration intervals ranging from six years (area named 6A to twenty years (area named 20A. The inventory occurred from sixty plots of 10 m², where all samples surveyed were between 0.15 m and 3 m high. All samples were identified and both the diameter in ground level and total height of the specimens were measured. The survey totaled 1,159 samples and 53 species. Melastomataceae was registered with the highest species richness and the highest specimen abundance. The two sampled areas showed species composition differences, with Jaccard similarity coefficient equal to 3.7%. The canonical correspondence analysis showed the correlations between natural regeneration stratum and non-labile phosphorus and clay in the 6A area. On the other hand, the 20A area showed correlations between plant regeneration and the K, P, Ca²+, Al³+ levels, with higher pH levels, and with the sum of exchangeable bases. In addition, the vegetation surveyed in area 20A was correlated with higher Pteridium population density. The results showed that the dominance of Pteridium aquilinum leads to successional process under inhibition, in which the ferns act negatively on the richness and abundance of shrub populations. It was also confirmed the Pteridium's affinity to steep areas, mainly in higher altitudes, where the soil is acid, as well as its preference to disturbed areas. Moreover, we highlight the fragilities of the mountain environments and the importance of preserving natural vegetation, as well as the bracken

  2. Lesiones anatomo-patologicas en cuyes intoxicados experimentalmente con Pteridium aquilinum como modelo animal para bovinos con hematuria vesical enzootica bovina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramos G., Mariella; Chavera C., Alfonso; Tabacchi N., Luis; Huaman U., Hector; Sandoval C., Nieves; Rodriguez G., Jose


    ...) intoxicados experimentalmente por via oral con pellets conteniendo Pteridium aquilinum (Pa) por 135 dias. El cuy se empleo como modelo experimental para bovinos con Hematuria Vesical Enzootica Bovina...

  3. Thiaminase activities and thiamine content of Pteridium aquilinum, Equisetum ramosissimum, Malva parviflora, Pennisetum clandestinum and Medicago sativa. (United States)

    Meyer, P


    Thiaminase type 1 and 2 activities and thiamine content of five plants were determined. Of these Pteridium aquilinum and Equisetum ramosissimum were found to have considerably more thiaminase activity and lower thiamine content than Malva parviflora, Pennisetum clandestinum and Medicago sativa.

  4. Enfermidades determinadas pelo princípio radiomimético de Pteridium aquilinum (Polypodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    França Ticiana do Nascimento


    Full Text Available Por meio de revisão da literatura pertinente foram coligidos e são apresentados os principais dados relativos aos aspectos epidemiológicos, toxicológicos, clínicos, anátomo e histopatológicos observados nos casos de intoxicação pelo princípio radiomimético de Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn. São abordados a Hematúria Enzoótica Bovina (HEB, os Carcinomas das Vias Digestivas Superiores (CVDS, a Diátese Hemorrágica (DH, os Tumores Intestinais (TI e a Degeneração Progressiva da Retina (DPR, com ênfase proporcional à importância de cada entidade. Esse estudo objetiva chamar a atenção para o especial significado dessa planta para a pecuária, em função dos prejuízos econômicos por ela determinados e, também, pelo provável risco que ela representa para a saúde humana.

  5. Allelopathy of Bracken Fern (Pteridium arachnoideum): New Evidence from Green Fronds, Litter, and Soil (United States)

    Juliano Gualtieri, Sonia Cristina; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Macías, Francisco Antonio


    The neotropical bracken fern Pteridium arachnoideum (Kaulf.) Maxon. (Dennstaedtiaceae) is described as an aggressive pioneer plant species. It invades abandoned or newly burned areas and represents a management challenge at these invaded sites. Native to the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado (Tropical Savanna) Brazilian biomes, P. arachnoideum has nevertheless become very problematic in these conservation hotspots. Despite some reports suggesting a possible role of allelopathy in this plant’s dominance, until now there has been little evidence of isolated and individually identified compounds with phytotoxic activities present in its tissues or in the surrounding environment. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the allelopathic potential of P. arachnoideum by isolating and identifying any secondary metabolites with phytotoxic activity in its tissues, litter, and soil. Bioguided phytochemical investigation led to the isolation and identification of the proanthocyanidin selligueain A as the major secondary compound in the green fronds and litter of this fern. It is produced by P. arachnoideum in its green fronds, remains unaltered during the senescence process, and is the major secondary compound present in litter. Selligueain A showed phytotoxic activity against the selected target species sesame (Sesamum indicum) early development. In particular, the compound inhibited root and stem growth, and root metaxylem cell size but did not affect chlorophyll content. This compound can be considered as an allelochemical because it is present in the soil under P. arachnoideum patches as one of the major compounds in the soil solution. This is the first report of the presence of selligueain A in any member of the Dennstaedtiaceae family and the first time an isolated and identified allelochemical produced by members of the Pteridium species complex has been described. This evidence of selligueain A as a putative allelochemical of P. arachnoideum reinforces the role of

  6. Allelopathy of Bracken Fern (Pteridium arachnoideum): New Evidence from Green Fronds, Litter, and Soil. (United States)

    de Jesus Jatoba, Luciana; Varela, Rosa Maria; Molinillo, José Maria Gonzalez; Ud Din, Zia; Juliano Gualtieri, Sonia Cristina; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Macías, Francisco Antonio


    The neotropical bracken fern Pteridium arachnoideum (Kaulf.) Maxon. (Dennstaedtiaceae) is described as an aggressive pioneer plant species. It invades abandoned or newly burned areas and represents a management challenge at these invaded sites. Native to the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado (Tropical Savanna) Brazilian biomes, P. arachnoideum has nevertheless become very problematic in these conservation hotspots. Despite some reports suggesting a possible role of allelopathy in this plant's dominance, until now there has been little evidence of isolated and individually identified compounds with phytotoxic activities present in its tissues or in the surrounding environment. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the allelopathic potential of P. arachnoideum by isolating and identifying any secondary metabolites with phytotoxic activity in its tissues, litter, and soil. Bioguided phytochemical investigation led to the isolation and identification of the proanthocyanidin selligueain A as the major secondary compound in the green fronds and litter of this fern. It is produced by P. arachnoideum in its green fronds, remains unaltered during the senescence process, and is the major secondary compound present in litter. Selligueain A showed phytotoxic activity against the selected target species sesame (Sesamum indicum) early development. In particular, the compound inhibited root and stem growth, and root metaxylem cell size but did not affect chlorophyll content. This compound can be considered as an allelochemical because it is present in the soil under P. arachnoideum patches as one of the major compounds in the soil solution. This is the first report of the presence of selligueain A in any member of the Dennstaedtiaceae family and the first time an isolated and identified allelochemical produced by members of the Pteridium species complex has been described. This evidence of selligueain A as a putative allelochemical of P. arachnoideum reinforces the role of

  7. Microbial degradation and impact of Bracken toxin ptaquiloside on microbial communities in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Pernille; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Rasmussen, Lars Holm


    The carcinogenic and toxic ptaquiloside (PTA) is a major secondary metabolite in Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) and was hypothesized to influence microbial communities in soil below Bracken stands. Soil and Bracken tissue were sampled at field sites in Denmark (DK) and New Zealand (......-level physiological profiles. Our results demonstrate that PTA stimulates microbial activity and that microorganisms play a predominant role for rapid PTA degradation in Bracken-impacted soils.......The carcinogenic and toxic ptaquiloside (PTA) is a major secondary metabolite in Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) and was hypothesized to influence microbial communities in soil below Bracken stands. Soil and Bracken tissue were sampled at field sites in Denmark (DK) and New Zealand (NZ......). PTA contents of 2.1 ± 0.5 mg g1 and 37.0 ± 8.7 mg g1 tissue were measured in Bracken fronds from DK and NZ, respectively. In the two soils the PTA levels were similar (0–5 lg g1 soil); a decrease with depth could be discerned in the deeper B and C horizons of the DK soil (weak acid sandy Spodosol...



    Eduardo Kenji Masuda


    Aspectos morfológicos, incluindo proliferação celular, e imunoistoquímicos de 40 carcinomas de células escamosas (CCEs) do trato alimentar superior de bovinos que consumiram samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum) espontaneamente foram estudados, visando principalmente determinar os fatores que influenciam o comportamento biológico destes neoplamas. Os aspectos analisados incluíram localização anatômica dos CCEs, grau de diferenciação celular, ocorrência e distribuição de metástases, padr...

  9. Sorption, degradation and mobility of ptaquiloside, a carcinogenic Bracken (Pteridium sp.) constituent, in the soil environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Lauren, Denis; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun


    very low sorption affinity with distribution coefficients in the range 0.01–0.22 l kg1 at a solution concentration of 1 mg l1 except for the most acid soil; Freundlich affinity coefficients increased linearly with clay and organic matter contents. Negligible sorption was also observed in column studies......Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a carcinogenic norsesquiterpene glucoside produced by Bracken in amounts up to at least 13 500 mg m2. The toxin is transferred from Bracken to the underlying soil from where it may leach to surface and groundwaters impairing the quality of drinking water. The objectives...

  10. Extraction and determination of flavonoids from Pteridium aquilinum var.latiusculum%蕨菜中黄酮类化合物的提取与测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽平; 李向


    用乙醇提取蕨菜中黄酮类化合物,得到粗黄酮。利用分光光度法测定了蕨菜粗黄酮含量,用颜色反应做定性分析并与标准品芦丁作比较实验。结果表明:蕨菜干粉中总黄酮含量为7.21%,粗黄铜中黄酮含量为13.66%,蕨菜黄酮类化合物主要有黄酮和黄酮醇两类。%Extract rough flavonoid from Pteridium aquilinum var.latiusculum by using alcohol,analyze rough flavonoid contents in the Pteridium aquilinum var.latiusculum by spectrophotometryic methods,and then make qualitative analysis by coloration and compare the results with the results of rutin standard sampling.Results show that the total flavonoid content in the dry weight of Pteridiurn aquilium var.latiusculum is 7.21%,pure flavonoid in rough flavonoid is 13.66%,flavonoids of Pteridiurn aquilinurn var.tiusculum are mainly flavonoids and flavonols.

  11. Ptaquiloside in bracken spores from Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Schmidt, Bjørn; Sheffield, Elizabeth


    Secondary metabolites from bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) are suspected of causing cancer in humans. The main carcinogen is the highly water-soluble norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside, which may be ingested by humans through food, e.g. via contaminated water, meat or milk. It has...... in a collection of spores from Britain. Ptaquiloside was present in all samples, with a maximum of 29μgg−1, which is very low compared to other parts of the fern. Considering the low abundance of spores in breathing air under normal conditions, this exposure route is likely to be secondary to milk or drinking...

  12. Cyanogenic polimorphysm in brackens, Pteridium arachnoideum and P. caudatum, from the northern Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de J. Oliveros-Bastidas


    Full Text Available Cyanogenesis in Pteridium caudatum and P. arachnoideum has been examined. Samples of the Andes of South America furnished from 0 to 4.63 mg of prunasin g-1 of frond dry weight (dw in P. caudatum and from 0 to 103 mg of g-1 dw in P. arachnoideum. In both fern species the continuous distribution of prunasin suggested cyanogenic polymorphism. The frequency of cyanogenic morphs was 84.7% for P. caudatum and 98.6% for P. arachnoideum. Cyanogenic activity was highest in the young crozier and waned rapidly with frond growth. The crozier head was found to yield HCN much more than the stipe.

  13. Determination of ptaquiloside and pterosin B derived from bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) in cattle plasma, urine and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aranha, Paulo Cesar Reis; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun; Rasmussen, Lars Holm


    in plasma, urine andmilk followed by LC–MS quantification. The average recovery of PTA in plasma, urine, and milk was 71,88 and 77%, respectively, whereas recovery of PTB was 75, 82 and 63%. The method LOQ for PTA andPTB in plasma was 1.2 and 3.7 ng mL−1, 52 and 33 ng mL−1for undiluted urine and 5.8 and 5.......3 ng mL−1for milk. The method is repeatable within and between days, with RSD values lower than 15% (PTA)and 20% (PTB). When PTA and PTB spiked samples were stored at −18◦C for 14 days both compoundsremained stable. In contrast, the PTA concentration was reduced by 15% when PTA spiked plasma wasleft...... for 5 h at room temperature before SPE clean-up, whereas PTB remained stable. The method is thefirst to allow simultaneous quantification of PTA and PTB in biological fluids in a relevant concentrationrange. After intravenous administration of 0.092 mg PTA per kg bw in a heifer, the plasma...

  14. Rapid response of leaf photosynthesis in two fern species Pteridium aquilinum and Thelypteris dentata to changes in CO2 measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Nishida, Keisuke; Kodama, Naomi; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Hanba, Yuko T


    We investigated stomatal conductance (g(s)) and mesophyll conductance (g(m)) in response to atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] in two primitive land plants, the fern species Pteridium aquilinum and Thelypteris dentata, using the concurrent measurement of leaf gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination. [CO2] was initially decreased from 400 to 200 μmol mol(-1), and then increased from 200 to 700 μmol mol(-1), and finally decreased from 700 to 400 μmol mol(-1). Analysis by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) revealed a rapid and continuous response in g m within a few minutes. In most cases, both ferns showed rapid and significant responses of g m to changes in [CO2]. The largest changes (quote % decrease) were obtained when [CO2] was decreased from 400 to 200 μmol mol(-1). This is in contrast to angiosperms where an increase in g(m) is commonly observed at low [CO2]. Similarly, fern species observed little or no response of g(s) to changes in [CO2] whereas, a concomitant decline of g(m) and g(s) with [CO2] is often reported in angiosperms. Together, these results suggest that regulation of g(m) to [CO2] may differ between angiosperms and ferns.

  15. 激素和蔗糖浓度组合对蕨菜愈伤组织诱导的影响%Effects of Hormones and Sucrose Concentration on Callus Inducement of Pteridium aquilinum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华智锐; 李小玲


    The tender petioles of fern [Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn] were used as explants, and they were respectively pretreated with two kinds of browning inhibitors ( citric acid and ascorbic acid ) .The media for the callus inducement of the explants were designed to contain different kinds of hormones , adsorbent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and different concentrations of su-crose, and the effects of different treatments on the explant browning and callus inducement of Pteridium aquilinum were studied. The results demonstrated that ascorbic acid had better anti -browning effect than citric acid , and adding PVP into the medium could strengthen the anti-browning effect of these two browning inhibitors .The best medium for the callus inducement of Pteridium aquil-inum was 2.2 g/L PVP +30 g/L sucrose +1/2MS +NAA 0.4 mg/L +6-BA 0.2 mg/L, and the rate of callus inducement reached 48.3%.%以蕨菜[ Pteridium aquilinum ( L.) Kuhn]的幼嫩叶柄为外植体,分别用两种褐变抑制剂(柠檬酸和抗坏血酸)对外植体进行预处理,并在其愈伤组织诱导培养基中设置不同的激素、吸附剂聚乙烯吡咯烷酮( PVP)和蔗糖浓度,研究了不同处理对蕨菜外植体褐变及愈伤组织诱导的影响。结果表明:抗坏血酸的抗褐变效果优于柠檬酸,在培养基中添加PVP可以增强这两种褐变抑制剂的抗褐变作用;2.2 g/L PVP+30 g/L蔗糖+1/2MS+NAA 0.4 mg/L+6-BA 0.2mg/L为诱导蕨菜愈伤组织的最佳培养基,愈伤组织诱导率为48.3%。

  16. Fern-synthesized nanoparticles in the fight against malaria: LC/MS analysis of Pteridium aquilinum leaf extract and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with high mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity. (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Roni, Mathath; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni


    Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains resistant to chloroquine. There is an urgent need to investigate new and effective sources of antimalarial drugs. This research proposed a novel method of fern-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap plant extract of Pteridium aquilinum, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Phytochemical analysis of P. aquilinum leaf extract revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and triterpenoids. LC/MS analysis identified at least 19 compounds, namely pterosin, hydroquinone, hydroxy-acetophenone, hydroxy-cinnamic acid, 5, 7-dihydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, trans-cinnamic acid, apiole, quercetin 3-glucoside, hydroxy-L-proline, hypaphorine, khellol glucoside, umbelliferose, violaxanthin, ergotamine tartrate, palmatine chloride, deacylgymnemic acid, methyl laurate, and palmitoyl acetate. In DPPH scavenging assays, the IC50 value of the P. aquilinum leaf extract was 10.04 μg/ml, while IC50 of BHT and rutin were 7.93 and 6.35 μg/ml. In mosquitocidal assays, LC50 of P. aquilinum leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae were 220.44 ppm (larva I), 254.12 ppm (II), 302.32 ppm (III), 395.12 ppm (IV), and 502.20 ppm (pupa). LC50 of P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP were 7.48 ppm (I), 10.68 ppm (II), 13.77 ppm (III), 18.45 ppm (IV), and 31.51 ppm (pupa). In the field, the application of P. aquilinum extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. Both the P. aquilinum extract and AgNP reduced longevity and fecundity of An. stephensi adults. Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against An. stephensi adults showed that P. aquilinum leaf-, stem-, and root-based coils

  17. 蕨菜总蛋白质双向电泳技术体系的建立%Research on Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Conditions for Proteomic Analysis of Pteridium aquilinum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄劲松; 姜丽; 石韵; 宦晨; 郁志芳


    为了建立蕨菜中总蛋白质的双向电泳技术体系,作者以新鲜蕨菜为实验材料,分别比较了不同蛋白提取方法,不同上样量以及不同pH范围IPG胶条对2-DE图谱的影响.结果表明,采用TCA-丙酮结合酚抽法提取蕨菜中的蛋白质,采用IPG胶条pH5-8、蛋白质的上样量为1200μg、考马斯亮蓝G-250胶体考染法进行染色.在此条件下进行蕨菜全蛋白质的双向电泳所得到的图谱蛋白质点多达719个,且蛋白质点分布均匀、背景清晰、分辨率较高.%In order to establish two-dimensional electrophoresis technology system of total proteins of Pteridium aquilinum,2-DE maps was compared with protein extraction method,loading amount and pH ranges of IPG strips The results showed that phenol extraction protocol combined with TCA/ acetone was more favorable for total protein extraction from fresh Pteridium aquilinum.A high quality 2-DE map with more protein spots,better dispersion,clearer background and higher protein point resolution were acquired by using the following optimized parameters:loading 1200μg protein sample on 17cm IPG strip with pH 5-8,and finally detecting proteins with Coomassie brilliant blue G250 staining.Under above experimental conditions,the total number of protein spots is 719,this experimental results provides a basis for further study of post-harvested Pteridium aquilinum proteomics.

  18. Effects of Hormones on Callus Induction and Propagation of Pteridium aquilinum (L.) kuhn%不同浓度激素对蕨菜愈伤组织诱导与增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方利娟; 苏仕林; 蒲仕明


    Using tender rhizomes of fern as explants, different concentration of 6-BA and IBA were added in callus induction and propagation mediums in order to study their effects on callus induction and propagation. The results indicated that 1/2 MS+0.2mg/L 6-BA+0.4 mg/L IBA was the best callus induction medium with an induction rate of 82%; 1/2 MS+0.2 mg/L IBA+0.2 mg/L 6-BA was the best callus proliferation medium as the callus was proliferated by 8.07 times.The results of this study could provide references for reasonable use of 6-BA and IBA in callus culture of Pteridium aquilinum.%以蕨菜[ Pteridium aquilinum(L.)kuhn]幼嫩根状茎为外植体,在愈伤组织诱导和增殖培养基中设置不同的6-BA和IBA浓度,研究6-BA和IBA对蕨菜愈伤组织诱导及增殖的影响.结果表明,1/2MS+0.2mg/L 6-BA+0.4 mg/L IBA为愈伤组织的最佳诱导培养基,诱导率为82%;1/2MS+0.2 mg/L IBA+0.2mg/L 6-BA为愈伤组织的最佳增殖培养基,增殖倍数为8.07.该研究结果为6-BA和IBA在蕨菜愈伤组织培养中的合理使用提供了参考.

  19. Genotoxic activity and inhibition of soil respiration by ptaquiloside, a bracken fern carcinogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjørn; Rasmussen, L.H.; Svendsen, Gitte Winkel


    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a natural toxin produced by bracken (Pteridium aquilinum [L.] Kuhn). Assessment of PTA toxicity is needed because PTA deposited from bracken to soil may leach to surface and groundwater. Inhibition of soil respiration and genotoxic activity of PTA was determined by a soil...... microbial carbon transformation test and an umu test, respectively. In the carbon transformation test, sandy loam soil was incubated at five different initial concentrations of PTA for a period of 28 d, after which glucose was added and respiration measured for 12 consecutive hours. The tests were performed...... at 20 degrees C and Soil moisture content of approximately 15%. For soil material sampled in the autumn, initial PTA concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 40.6 mu g PTA/g dry soil were tested. From fitting of data by a sigmoidal function, a 10% effect dose (ED10) was estimated to 13 jig PTA/g dry soil...

  20. Aspectos clínico-hematológicos e lesões vesicais na intoxicação crônica espontânea por Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos Clinical and hematological aspects and urinary bladder lesions in chronic spontaneous poisoning by Pteridium aquilinum in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane L. Gabriel


    Full Text Available Foram estudados casos espontâneos de intoxicação crônica por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos nas formas clinicopatológicas de carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE no trato alimentar superior (TAS e de hematúria enzoótica bovina (HEB, provenientes da Mesorregião Centro Ocidental Rio-Grandense e encaminhados ao Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Para o estudo clínico foram avaliados os sinais clínicos de bovinos com CCEs no TAS e com HEB e realizados hemogramas na fase terminal da doença. Os principais sinais clínicos nos bovinos com CCEs no TAS foram emagrecimento progressivo, atonia ruminal, tosse, disfagia, timpanismo e regurgitação. Nos bovinos com HEB, hematúria foi o principal sinal, observado em todos os casos, seguido de emagrecimento progressivo. No exame hematológico, 33,33% dos bovinos com CCEs no TAS e 66,67% dos bovinos com HEB apresentaram anemia arregenerativa. Alterações no leucograma ocorreram em alguns casos, mas linfopenia foi um achado infreqüente em ambas as formas de intoxicação. Para o estudo morfológico, foram avaliadas as bexigas de 46 bovinos com CCEs no TAS e de 11 bovinos com HEB. Macroscopicamente, 16/46 bexigas dos casos de CCEs no TAS apresentaram alterações macroscópicas, que consistiam nódulos vermelhos ou pálidos, hemorragia e papilomas; urina vermelha foi observada na necropsia de apenas três casos. Nos casos de HEB, os achados macroscópicos vesicais foram nódulos vermelhos, massas neoplásicas focalmente extensas, urina vermelha, papilomas, hemorragias e ruptura de bexiga; pielonefrite e hidronefrose foram observados em poucos casos. Histologicamente, 44/46 (95,65% bexigas de bovinos com CCEs no TAS apresentaram 22 tipos diferentes de alterações morfológicas, que foram classificadas em alterações neoplásicas (5/22 e alterações não-neoplásicas (17/22; essas últimas foram divididas em alterações epiteliais n

  1. Relação entre a linfopenia e a persistência da papilomatose alimentar em bovinos intoxicados crônica e espontaneamente por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo K Masuda


    Full Text Available Papilomavírus bovino tipo 4 (BPV-4 é responsável pelo desenvolvimento de papilomas no trato alimentar superior (TAS de bovinos. Os passos necessários para o crescimento, o desenvolvimento e a regressão dos papilomas estão intimamente relacionados com o estado imunológico do animal. A ingestão de samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum tem sido relacionada como o principal fator envolvido na persistência da infecção pelo BPV-4 no TAS. A teoria que estabelece a relação entre papilomatose alimentar e a formação de CCEs sugere a produção de um estado imunossupressivo crônico pela planta, permitindo a persistência dos papilomas no TAS. Os papilomas serviriam então como sítios de desenvolvimento dos CCEs através da interação entre as proteínas do BPV-4 e os carcinógenos da samambaia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação entre a quantidade de linfócitos circulantes e a papilomatose alimentar em casos de intoxicação espontânea crônica por P. aquilinum em bovinos com CCE no TAS. Quarenta bovinos com CCEs no TAS foram avaliados quanto à idade, à intensidade da papilomatose alimentar no TAS e ao leucograma. Três bovinos tinham leucopenia e um apresentava neutrofilia. A média de linfócitos foi de 5.395 (±1.696 na papilomatose leve, 4.560 (±1.561 na moderada e 5.007 (±1.786 na acentuada. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o grau de papilomatose, a idade e a quantidade de linfócitos circulantes. Imunossupressão por linfopenia foi um achado esporádico (três casos neste estudo. Os resultados indicam que a persistência da papilomatose alimentar em casos espontâneos de intoxicação crônica por samambaia em bovinos não tem relação com a quantidade de linfócitos circulantes e que talvez esteja relacionada a outros fatores imunológicos.

  2. 三种野菜水提液对高脂小鼠血脂代谢的影响%Effects of Water Extract from Scorzonera sinensis Lipsch, Pteridium aquilinum and Sonchus oleraceus L. on Plasma-lipids Metabolism in Mice Fed High Fats Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉; 曾春萍


    比较桃叶鸦葱、蕨菜、苦菜3种野菜水提液对高血脂小鼠血脂代谢的影响。制备高血脂小鼠模型,采用试剂盒方法测定血浆中血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)和丙二醛(MDA)的水平以及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力。桃叶鸦葱、蕨菜、苦菜3种野菜水提液均能降低高血脂小鼠TC、LDL-C和MDA的水平,提高HDL-C水平和SOD酶活力。与高血脂模型组相比,处理各组有显著差异,并呈现剂量依赖性。桃叶鸦葱、蕨菜、苦菜3种野菜水提液都具有良好的降血脂作用,其机制可能与阻断脂质过氧化有相关,并且桃叶鸦葱水提液降低TG水平,提高HDL-C水平和SOD酶活力的效果优于蕨菜、苦菜水提液,苦菜水提液降低TC的作用优于桃叶鸦葱、蕨菜水提液。%To compare the effects of water extract from Scorzonera sinensis Lipsch , Pteridium aquilinum and Sonchus oleraceus L. on plasma-lipids metabolism in mice fed high fats diet.Experimental hyperlipidemia mice were formed after feeding fatty diet. Plasma total cholesterol (TC),triglycerides (TG),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were assayed.Water extract from Scorzonera sinensis Lipsch, Pteridium aquilinum and Sonchus oleraceus L. could decrease the level of TC,LDL-C and MDA,while increasing HDL-C and SOD activity in mice fed high fats diet.Compared with the hyperlipidemia group,there were significant differences among each treatment group with dose-dependent relationship. Water extract from Scorzonera sinensis Lipsch , Pteridium aquilinum and Sonchus oleraceus L. whose mechanism may relate to block lipid peroxidation all have a better lipid-lowering effect. The effect of water extract from Scorzonera sinensis Lipsch is better than that of water extract from Pteridium

  3. Comparison between WorldView-2 and SPOT-5 images in mapping the bracken fern using the random forest algorithm (United States)

    Odindi, John; Adam, Elhadi; Ngubane, Zinhle; Mutanga, Onisimo; Slotow, Rob


    Plant species invasion is known to be a major threat to socioeconomic and ecological systems. Due to high cost and limited extents of urban green spaces, high mapping accuracy is necessary to optimize the management of such spaces. We compare the performance of the new-generation WorldView-2 (WV-2) and SPOT-5 images in mapping the bracken fern [Pteridium aquilinum (L) kuhn] in a conserved urban landscape. Using the random forest algorithm, grid-search approaches based on out-of-bag estimate error were used to determine the optimal ntree and mtry combinations. The variable importance and backward feature elimination techniques were further used to determine the influence of the image bands on mapping accuracy. Additionally, the value of the commonly used vegetation indices in enhancing the classification accuracy was tested on the better performing image data. Results show that the performance of the new WV-2 bands was better than that of the traditional bands. Overall classification accuracies of 84.72 and 72.22% were achieved for the WV-2 and SPOT images, respectively. Use of selected indices from the WV-2 bands increased the overall classification accuracy to 91.67%. The findings in this study show the suitability of the new generation in mapping the bracken fern within the often vulnerable urban natural vegetation cover types.

  4. Environmental Fate and Analysis of Ptaquiloside from the Bracken Fern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauson-Kaas, Frederik

    The naturally occurring phytotoxin ptaquiloside (PTA) has long been known to be both acute toxic and carcinogenic. Contents of more than 1% ptaquiloside on dry weight has been detected in bracken (Pteridium spp.), a fern distributed across the globe in often dense populations. This work focused...... fronds (the leaves of ferns) in concentrations up to 169 µ/L during rainfall events. Rainfall further determined the concentration in a stream that drained a bracken-covered catchment, suggesting that this is a potent driver of ptaquiloside exposure in the environment. In both pure and natural waters, p...

  5. Assessment of the Contribution of WorldView-2 Strategically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Positioned Bands in Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn). Mapping. Zinhle Ngubane1, John Odindi1,Onisimo Mutanga1, Rob Slotow2 ..... Holland, J & Aplin, P 2013, 'Super-resolution image analysis as a means of monitoring bracken.

  6. Ptéridium aquilinum, une ptéridophyte envahissante des cultures pérennes du sud de la Côte d'Ivoire: quelques notes ethnobotaniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipou Ipou, J.


    Full Text Available Pteridium aquilinum, a Pteridophyte of the Perennial Fields of the South of the Ivory Coast: some Ethnobotanic Notes. Pteridium aquilinum is a cosmopolitan plant which invades the degraded grounds of the fallow and the perennial cultures of the south of the Ivory Coast. Though vermin with the cultures, it should not be suppressed because of its many uses by the men. In fact, it serves in the traditional medicine to treat sicknesses such as rhumatism, absence of menstruation, fontanel, etc. This plant can also be used in various spheres as human feeding, confectionning beds, etc.

  7. Human gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori and bracken carcinogens: A connecting hypothesis. (United States)

    Oliveros-Bastidas, Alberto; Calcagno-Pissarelli, María Pía; Naya, Marlene; Ávila-Núñez, Jorge Luis; Alonso-Amelot, Miguel E


    Long term infection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) virulent strains is a key factor in the genesis of human gastric cancer, and so are certain dietary proinflammatory and genotoxic compounds. Carcinogenic bracken fern (Pteridium spp.) is one of these. Toxins from this plant are consumed as bracken culinary preparations, through milk and meat of bracken-exposed livestock, and drain waters from bracken swards. Bracken toxin ptaquiloside (PtQ), a suspected human carcinogen, elicits complex responses in animals leading to death. PtQ and Hp might cooperate in gastric pathologies. This paper presents an hypothesis on PtQ-Hp association leading to the enhancement of carcinogenesis in the human gastric environment that might explain the high gastric cancer incidence and death rates among Hp-infected people living in bracken zones at two levels: (1) The macroscopic scale comprising the flow of PtQ in the human diet. (2) the microscopic scale encompassing (A) gastric luminal medium; (B) gastric mucus structure and mucin degradation elicited by Hp; (C) bacterial pH gradient modification of the gastric mucosa that favors PtQ survival and its penetration into epithelial tissue; (D) combined PtQ/Hp effects on gastric immune and inflammatory responses; (E) PtQ-Hp complementary activity at selected cell signaling cascades and genome disturbance.

  8. Ptaquiloside from bracken in stream water at base flow and during storm events. (United States)

    Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Ramwell, Carmel; Hansen, Hans Chr B; Strobel, Bjarne W


    The bracken fern (Pteridium spp.) densely populates both open and woodland vegetation types around the globe. Bracken is toxic to livestock when consumed, and a group of potent illudane-type carcinogens have been identified, of which the compound ptaquiloside (PTA) is the most abundant. The highly water soluble PTA has been shown to be leachable from bracken fronds, and present in the soil and water below bracken stands. This has raised concerns over whether the compound might pose a risk to drinking water sources. We investigated PTA concentrations in a small stream draining a bracken-infested catchment at base flow and in response to storm events during a growth season, and included sampling of the bracken canopy throughfall. Streams in other bracken-dominated areas were also sampled at base flow for comparison, and a controlled pulse experiment was conducted in the field to study the in-stream dynamics of PTA. Ptaquiloside concentrations in the stream never exceeded 61 ng L(-1) in the base flow samples, but peaked at 2.2 μg L(-1) during the studied storm events. The mass of PTA in the stream, per storm event, was 7.5-93 mg from this catchment. A clear temporal connection was observed between rainfall and PTA concentration in the stream, with a reproducible time lag of approx. 1 h from onset of rain to elevated concentrations, and returning rather quickly (about 2 h) to base flow concentration levels. The concentration of PTA behaved similar to an inert tracer (Cl(-)) in the pulse experiment over a relative short time scale (minutes-hours) reflecting no PTA sorption, and dispersion and dilution considerably lowered the observed PTA concentrations downstream. Bracken throughfall revealed a potent and lasting source of PTA during rainfall, with concentrations up to 169 μg L(-1), that did not decrease over the course of the event. In the stream, the throughfall contribution to PTA cannot be separated from a possible below-ground input from litter, rhizomes

  9. Kinetics of ptaquiloside hydrolysis in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala-Luis, Karina B.; Bildsøe Hansen, Pernille; Rasmussen, Lars Holm;


    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a well-known toxin produced by the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn). It is proposed that PTA from bracken stands can leach through soil and sediments into drinking-water reservoirs, thus representing a concern for human health. To predict the persistence of the t......Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a well-known toxin produced by the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn). It is proposed that PTA from bracken stands can leach through soil and sediments into drinking-water reservoirs, thus representing a concern for human health. To predict the persistence...

  10. A comparative study of resource allocation in Pteridium in different Brazilian ecosystems and its relationship with European studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Silva Matos

    Full Text Available Pteridium is a cosmopolitan genus that acts as an invasive species in many parts of the world. Most research on this genus has occurred in Europe, and there is a lack of data on it from South America, in spite of causing considerable conservation problems. We compared the biomass allocation of P. esculentum subsp. arachnoideum in two ecosystems in Brazil - Atlantic forest and Brazilian savanna. We measured the biomass of fronds, rhizomes and above-ground litter. We also compared the density, length and biomass of fronds from this Brazilian study with similar data of P. esculentumsubsp. arachnoideum derived from Venezuela and P. aquilinum from Europe. P. esculentum subsp. arachnoideum showed a wide response range. We found a negative relationship between frond and necromass, indicating a negative feedback effect, while a positive relationship was observed between frond and rhizome biomass. The continental comparison of relationships showed that Pteridium responds in a different way in both Brazil and Europe, and that in Brazil fronds tend to be longer and heavier, presumably as a result of the continuous growing season in South America while is shortened in Europe by frost. The paper shows the ability of Pteridium to adapt to different ecosystems.

  11. Variation in ptaquiloside content in bracken (Pteridium esculentum (Forst. f) Cockayne) in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Lauren, Denis; Smith, Barry L.


    /AHS had been investigated previously, and 186 were from a national survey of the North and South Islands. Sampling sites were from a mixture of grazed paddocks, roadsides, and forest and bush areas. Samples comprised whole young fronds, the tops of unfurling young fronds, or, for the Regional Survey...

  12. Land management of bracken needs to account for bracken carcinogens - a case study from Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Donnelly, Eric; Strobel, Bjarne W.


    in bracken stands at any given time is difficult to predict and did not show any correlations with edaphic growth factors. The content of ptaquiloside turned out to be higher in fronds emerging after cutting compared to uncut fronds. Environmental risk assessment and bracken management must therefore...... with ptaquiloside may be the cause. The aim of this study was to monitor the content of ptaquiloside in 20 bracken stands from Britain to obtain a better understanding of the ptaquiloside dynamics and to evaluate the environmental implications of using different cutting regimes in bracken management...

  13. Environmental Fate and Analysis of Ptaquiloside from the Bracken Fern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauson-Kaas, Frederik

    fronds (the leaves of ferns) in concentrations up to 169 µ/L during rainfall events. Rainfall further determined the concentration in a stream that drained a bracken-covered catchment, suggesting that this is a potent driver of ptaquiloside exposure in the environment. In both pure and natural waters, p...

  14. The effect of nitrogen additions on bracken fern and its insect herbivores at sites with high and low atmospheric pollution (United States)

    M.E. Jones; M.E. Fenn; T.D. Paine


    The impact of atmospheric pollution, including nitrogen deposition, on bracken fern herbivores has never been studied. Bracken fern is globally distributed and has a high potential to accumulate nitrogen in plant tissue. We examined the response of bracken fern and its herbivores to N fertilization at a high and low pollution site in forests downwind of Los Angeles,...

  15. Relationship of the Gesell Developmental Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale to Academic Achievement. (United States)

    Sterner, Anne G.; McCallum, R. Steve


    Administered the Gesell Development Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) to kindergarten graduates (N=80). Found the BBCS may be a better predictor of achievement from a current state of readiness. (Author/ABL)

  16. PRIMER REGISTRO DE Pteridium caudatum (DENNSTAEDTIACEAE EN LA ISLA DE PROVIDENCIA, COLOMBIA First Record of Pteridium caudatum (DENNSTAEDTIACEAE in Old Providence Island, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Se registra la presencia del helecho invasor Pteridium caudatum (L. Maxon en la isla de Providencia, Colombia. La especie ha sido encontrada como planta decorativa en jardines y patios, así como naturalizada en El Pico, la localidad boscosa con mejor estado de conservación de la isla. Se discuten las implicaciones ecológicas relativas a la presencia de esta especie.We report for the first time the presence of the invasive fern Pteridium caudatum (L. Maxon Old Providence Island, Colombia. The species was found as an ornamental plant in house backyards, as well as in the wild in the locality The Peak, the best preserved area of the island. We discuss the ecological implications associated to the presence of this species.

  17. Intoxicação aguda por Pteridium arachnoideum e Pteridium caudatum em bovinos e distribuição das plantas em Mato Grosso

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    Fernando Henrique Furlan


    Full Text Available São descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos de um surto de intoxicação por Pteridium arachnoideum e Pteridium caudatum em bovinos no Estado de Mato Grosso. A distribuição dessas plantas no Estado, a intensidade de invasão de pastagens e alguns fatores associados à invasão das pastagens por Pteridium spp. são também descritos. Pteridium spp. foi observada em 83 propriedades de nove municípios de Mato Grosso e deste total, amostras de 22 propriedades foram coletadas para identificação taxonômica. Em 22 propriedades identifica-se P. arachnoideum e em duas dessas havia também P. caudatum. O desmatamento e a realização de queimadas parecem estar relacionados com a invasão de Pteridium spp. nas pastagens. Na propriedade em que ocorreu a doença, 306 bovinos foram introduzidos em uma pastagem formada por Brachiaria brizantha intensamente invadida por P. arachnoideum e P. caudatum e desses 22 bovinos adoeceram e morreram. Os principais sinais clínicos foram febre alta, apatia, fadiga, fraqueza e decúbito. Na necropsia havia graus variáveis de hemorragias em vários órgãos e cavidades e infartos ocasionais. Microscopicamente, a alteração mais importante consistiu em aplasia severa da medula óssea vermelha. Os achados epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos associados à identoificação taxonômica da planta fundamentam o diagnóstico de intoxicação aguda por P. arachnoideum e P. caudatum em bovinos. O crescente desmatamento e a frequente utilização de queimadas em Mato Grosso podem contribuir para que esta doença venha a ser uma importante fonte de prejuízos para a pecuária do Estado.

  18. Ptaquiloside from bracken in stream water at base flow and during storm events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Ramwell, Carmel; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun


    water soluble PTA has been shown to be leachable from bracken fronds, and present in the soil and water below bracken stands. This has raised concerns over whether the compound might pose a risk to drinking water sources. We investigated PTA concentrations in a small stream draining a bracken......-infested catchment at base flow and in response to storm events during a growth season, and included sampling of the bracken canopy throughfall. Streams in other bracken-dominated areas were also sampled at base flow for comparison, and a controlled pulse experiment was conducted in the field to study the in......-stream dynamics of PTA. Ptaquiloside concentrations in the stream never exceeded 61 ng L(-1) in the base flow samples, but peaked at 2.2 μg L(-1) during the studied storm events. The mass of PTA in the stream, per storm event, was 7.5-93 mg from this catchment. A clear temporal connection was observed between...

  19. Ptaquiloside in Irish Bracken Ferns and Receiving Waters, with Implications for Land Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie O’Driscoll


    Full Text Available Ptaquiloside, along with other natural phytotoxins, is receiving increased attention from scientists and land use managers. There is an urgent need to increase empirical evidence to understand the scale of phytotoxin mobilisation and potential to enter into the environment. In this study the risk of ptaquiloside to drinking water was assessed by quantifying ptaquiloside in the receiving waters at three drinking water abstraction sites across Ireland and in bracken fronds surrounding the abstraction sites. We also investigated the impact of different management regimes (spraying, cutting and rolling on ptaquiloside concentrations at plot-scale in six locations in Northern Ireland, UK. Ptaquiloside concentrations were determined using recent advances in the use of LC-MS for the detection and quantification of ptaquiloside. The results indicate that ptaquiloside is present in bracken stands surrounding drinking water abstractions in Ireland, and ptaquiloside concentrations were also observed in the receiving waters. Furthermore, spraying was found to be the most effective bracken management regime observed in terms of reducing ptaquiloside load. Increased awareness is vital on the implications of managing land with extensive bracken stands.

  20. Reliability of Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition Scores with Young Children in Mumbai, India (United States)

    Shah, Mira B.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Clark, Teresa P.


    To effectively provide early interventions to children, identifying those who are in need of these interventions is essential. In India, several problems hinder the process of early identification, including a lack of standardized measures for assessment. This study investigates the utility of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition…

  1. Occurrence of the carcinogenic Bracken constituent ptaquiloside in fronds, topsoils and organic soil layers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L.H.; Kroghsbo, S.; Frisvad, Jens Christian


    ). The ptaquiloside-content in the standing biomass, which could be transferred to the soil by the end of the growing season, ranged between 10 and 260 mg m(-2), with nine sites having ptaquiloside loads over 100 mg m(-2). The carbon-content in the O-horizon, the precipitation, the amount of Bracken-litter...

  2. Сhanges in consumer properties of bracken using different storage methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shalisko


    Full Text Available The article compares the changes in consumer properties of bracken ordinary young shoots at different storage methods. Bracken is a source of vitamins, minerals, it is eaten in some countries -Japan, China, Korea, and also in Russia Shows some advantages in frozen storage. The structural and mechanical changes at themacro and micro levels. Compares elasticity raw samples at different storage methods. Data on the content of amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, salt, water activity. From the obtained results revealed that the amino acid content in the composition of the frozen bracken decreased significantly as compared to fresh and salt fern (except aspartic acid, isoleucine, and leucine, whose number is close to their number in the salty fern. When storing the fern frozen there is a considerable amount of lipids. Also a significant presence of fat-tion of acids (as % of value, ±10% palmitic (24,86%, hexadecanoate (2,33%, stearic (1,06%, oleic (4,71%, linoleic (26,02%, α-linolenic (11,88%, γ-linolenic (3,13%, dihomo-γ-linolenic (2,28%, arahidonova (0,78%, arachidonic (14,83%, timonova (0,92%, Baganova (0,96%. There is the presence of essential fatty acids. Myristic, berestyeneva, palmitoleate, zonvakantie, andonova acids are present in smaller amount benefits. The results of determination of vitamins in the frozen samples showed that, despite significant losses in storage, they manage to keep the vitamins. It proposed the introduction of the freeze as an effective method of storage bracken. Storage method shoots bracken almost not been studied in frozen form, and it may be that innovation, which will expand the practical use of this type of native raw materials.

  3. Possible association between gastric cancer and bracken fern in Venezuela: an epidemiologic study. (United States)

    Alonso-Amelot, M E; Avendaño, M


    To explore a possible connection between specific environmental factors that might explain the high rates of stomach cancer in people living in the highlands of western Venezuela, an epidemiologic study was conducted in 2 regions of contrasting topography. The regions embrace 3 Andean states, Mérida, Táchira and Trujillo, and the vicinal lowland surrounding the Maracaibo lake basin of Zulia State. Statistical sanitary records from 1986 to 1996 comprising 5.5 million people in the study area indicated that age-sex-adjusted gastric cancer death rate per 100,000 people (DR) was up to 3.64 times higher in highland than lowland areas, although total cancer-related DRs were comparable in both regions. DRs of other less frequent cancers from the upper alimentary tract [esophagous (1.18/0.99) and mouth-throat (1.39/2.64)] showed comparable values in both regions as well as colorectal, breast, and uterus-cervix cancers, suggesting that the stomach cancer DRs were related to geographically determined factors. Comparison of some nutrition issues, incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in selected areas, the discovery of the bracken carcinogen ptaquiloside in milk from bracken-fed cows, the prevalence of this plant in mountain cattle households and pasturelands and the rates of bracken-evoked bovine enzootic hematuria led us to conclude that consumption of ptaquiloside-contaminated milk may contribute to human gastric cancer in the Andean states of Venezuela.

  4. Spatial Characteristics of Edible Wild Fern Harvesting in Mountainous Villages in Northeastern Japan Using GPS Tracks

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    Toshiya Matsuura


    Full Text Available Wild plants in forests provide valuable living resources for rural communities. The location where local people harvest various species is important to the wise use of forest ecosystem services. Using global positioning system (GPS tracking of harvesters’ activities as well as geographic information system (GIS and a generalized linear model (GLM, this study analyzed the spatial differences among harvesting sites of three popular edible ferns, i.e., ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris, bracken (Pteridium aquilinum, and royal fern (Osmunda japonica, in mountainous villages of Northeastern Japan. The explanatory variables used were vegetation classes, terrain features, and proximity to roadways. The GLM yielded clear differences in harvesting sites among species that were affected by both the species’ ecological characteristics and human behavior. Ostrich fern was harvested mainly in canopy openings along valley floors, whereas royal fern harvest sites were frequently located in snow avalanche scrublands. Bracken was mainly harvested in deforested areas or young conifer plantations. Whereas ostrich fern and bracken harvest sites were restricted by the accessibility from roadways, this was not the case for royal fern. Potential harvest sites of ferns were estimated with the highest value for bracken. Our results suggest that local harvesters seriously consider various natural and anthropogenic factors to maintain effective and sustainable harvesting.

  5. Physicochemical characterisation of the ubiquitous bracken fern as useful biomaterial for preconcentration of heavy metals. (United States)

    Barriada, Jose L; Caridad, Sergio; Lodeiro, Pablo; Herrero, Roberto; Sastre de Vicente, Manuel E


    Batch experiments with dry bracken fern have been done to determine cadmium and lead sequestering capacity of this biomaterial. Biomass characterisation was done by infrared spectroscopy and potentiometric analysis. The effect of pH of the metal containing solution, contact time and initial metal concentration has been studied, together with the acid-base properties of the biomaterial. Results obtained have been analysed using mathematical and modelling techniques. Effect of pH on metal sequestration has been correlated with observed acid-base properties of the natural substrate. Kinetic data analysis provided relevant information about metal sequestration rate, showing important differences between lead and cadmium. Maximum uptake was found to be the same for both metals 0.410 mmol/g. This value was also clearly correlated to the number of acidic groups determined for this material which was found to be 0.432 mmol of acidic groups per gram of fern. Results obtained indicate that acidic groups are the functional groups responsible of the sequestration of metal ions and that bracken fern is a promising material for metal preconcentration.

  6. Neoplasmas da bexiga associados à hematúria enzoótica bovina Urinary bladder neoplasms associated with bovine enzootic hematuria

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    Marione de Albuquerque Moreira Souto


    Full Text Available Relatam-se três casos de hematúria enzoótica bovina (HEB em animais provenientes do município de Jaguari, RS, Brasil. As pastagens de todas as propriedades de origem estavam altamente infestadas por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. Três bovinos, com idades entre 4 e 7 anos, apresentaram sinais clínicos que incluíam emagrecimento progressivo, hematúria intermitente e palidez das mucosas. As principais lesões foram observadas na bexiga e consistiam de três tipos de neoplasmas: hemangioma capilar, hemangiossarcoma e carcinoma de células escamosas. A epidemiologia, os sinais clínicos e as lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas observadas nos três bovinos são consistentes com o diagnóstico de HEB.Three cases of bovine enzootic hematuria (BHE are described in cattle from the municipality of Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The pastures of all affected farms were highly infested with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum. Three 4-7-year-old bovine had clinical signs of progressive weight loss, intermittent hematuria, and mucosal pallor. The main lesions were observed in the urinary bladder and consisted of three types of neoplasms: capillary hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. The epidemiology, the clinical signs, and the gross and microscopic lesions observed in all three bovine were of BHE.

  7. Detection and mapping the spatial distribution of bracken fern weeds using the Landsat 8 OLI new generation sensor (United States)

    Matongera, Trylee Nyasha; Mutanga, Onisimo; Dube, Timothy; Sibanda, Mbulisi


    Bracken fern is an invasive plant that presents serious environmental, ecological and economic problems around the world. An understanding of the spatial distribution of bracken fern weeds is therefore essential for providing appropriate management strategies at both local and regional scales. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the freely available medium resolution Landsat 8 OLI sensor in the detection and mapping of bracken fern at the Cathedral Peak, South Africa. To achieve this objective, the results obtained from Landsat 8 OLI were compared with those derived using the costly, high spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery. Since previous studies have already successfully mapped bracken fern using high spatial resolution WorldView-2 image, the comparison was done to investigate the magnitude of difference in accuracy between the two sensors in relation to their acquisition costs. To evaluate the performance of Landsat 8 OLI in discriminating bracken fern compared to that of Worldview-2, we tested the utility of (i) spectral bands; (ii) derived vegetation indices as well as (iii) the combination of spectral bands and vegetation indices based on discriminant analysis classification algorithm. After resampling the training and testing data and reclassifying several times (n = 100) based on the combined data sets, the overall accuracies for both Landsat 8 and WorldView-2 were tested for significant differences based on Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed that the integration of the spectral bands and derived vegetation indices yielded the best overall classification accuracy (80.08% and 87.80% for Landsat 8 OLI and WorldView-2 respectively). Additionally, the use of derived vegetation indices as a standalone data set produced the weakest overall accuracy results of 62.14% and 82.11% for both the Landsat 8 OLI and WorldView-2 images. There were significant differences {U (100) = 569.5, z = -10.8242, p < 0.01} between the classification accuracies

  8. Pb, Cu botanogeochemical anomalies and toxic effects on plant cells in Pb-Zn (Sn) ore fields, Northeast Guangxi Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ci'an; LEI Liangqi; YANG Qijun


    In the Lingchuan-Daoping and Xinglu Pb-Zn ore fields in northern and eastern Guangxi Autonomous Region, Pb, Cu botanogeochemical anomalies may be ascribed to the excessive amounts of Pb and Cu taken up by the root system of plants, such as China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Lamb. Hook), mason pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum). Under transmission electron microscope (TEM), the excess Pb, Cu in the leaf cells of the plants are present as high electron-density substances, which were precipitated in the leaf cells, causing phytotoxic effects by deforming and injuring cellular tissues. The sorts of toxic elements accumulating in the leaf cells are consistent with those of the botanogeochemically anomalous elements in the polluted soil where the plants grow. In addition, the plants may also be capable of resisting the invasion of excess Cu (and Pb) .

  9. Palynological analysis of Dennstaedtiaceae taxa from the Paranaense Phytogeographic Province that produce Trilete spores II: Microlepia speluncae and Pteridium arachnoideum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Yañez


    Full Text Available The spore morphology and wall ultrastructure of Microlepia speluncae and Pteridium arachnoideum from the Paranaense Province were analyzed with LM, SEM and TEM and a comparative analysis was carried out. In both species the spores are covered by a three-dimensional network of threads branched and fused, tangentially arranged to the surface, and some free-end threads are also seen. The species were differentiated by morphology and the frequency of threads fusion and the networks distribution on the surface of the spores. In both species the exospore is two-layered in section, both layers are traversed by single or branched channels. The perispore is three-layered in section: the inner layer is adhered to the exospore, the middle layer is formed of a three-dimensional network of threads and the outer layer is discontinuous. The perispore ultrastructure of Microlepia speluncae was interpreted as formed of helical subunits displayed around a central channel. The spore morphology and perispore ultrastructure allow differentiating Microlepia from Pteridium but also to the other Dennstaedtiaceae genera that grow in the Paranaense Province. The results obtained allow establishing relationships that let us recognize different groups and gave a new reference to get a better knowledge of the family.

  10. Habitat Characteristics of Bracken-Covered Areas Intended for Afforestation in Ličko Sredogorje

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    Zvonko Seletković


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Forest cultures in continental part of Croatia are mainly based on bracken-covered areas and moors on deserted agriculture soils and pastures. Successful afforestation i.e. establishment of forest cultures depends among other things on the understanding of habitats and ecology of forest trees. The choice of best species of forest trees for afforestation needs to be based on the research in soil and climate characteristics of target habitats. The aims of this research were to show mesoclimatic characteristics of Ličko sredogorje and microclimatic and pedological characteristics of Ličko polje. Also, based on habitat characteristics and ecology of forest trees, the aim was to determine species of forest trees suitable for afforestation of bracken-covered areas. Materials and Methods: Climate, microclimate, pedological and plant nutrition researches were done at the area of Lika highlands. Climate analysis was done according to air temperatures, amount of precipitation, relative air humidity and other climate elements and appearances. Composite soil samples were taken from the depth of 0-30 cm in order to determine plant nutrition potential. Samples were prepared for further analysis in the laboratory. Results: The highest average annual air temperature of 9.6 °C was found at weather station Gračac and the lowest at Korenica station (8.1 °C. Average amount of precipitation for this region was around 1500 mm. Monthly rain factors were ranging from arid to perhumid. Considering thermal character of the climate, the area has moderately warm climate. Average volumetric soil humidity is 14.2 %. Soil has strong acid reaction, is very humus, good to richly supplied with total nitrogen, content of physiologically active phosphorus and potassium is low, and C/N ration normal. Conclusions: According to habitat characteristics in the area of Ličko sredogorje and ecological demands of forest tree species, forest cultures of Common


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    Full Text Available Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern is one of the most concerning toxic vegetables in many countries in the world. Therefore, science aims to find ways for the epidemiological control of bovine intoxication with the purpose of making early diagnoses of Bovine Enzootic Hematuriae. Researches have shown a high correlation between the excessive production of mucoprotein by animals with Bovine Enzootic Hematuriae and sialic acid, proving that this acid acts as an inflammatorybiochemical marker associated to bladder tumor development. Based on this information, serum sialic acid levels of clinically healthy Nellore heifers (control group were statistically compared to Nellore heifers raised in bracken fern endemic properties (experimental group. The average level of serum sialic acid of the control groups was not different from the sialic acid level of the affected group (0.611 ± 0.225 g/L and 0.615 ± 0.258 g/L, respectively. Results obtained in the present study demonstrate no differences of the sialic acid average levels between the groups. Therefore, measurement ofsialic acid serum levels was not effective as a neoplasic biochemical marker in Nellore heifers continuously fed with bracken fern.

  12. Occurrence and fate of the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA) in soils (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Cavoski, Ivana; Costi, Roberta; Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Miano, Teodoro M.; Lattanzio, Vincenzo


    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, one of the most common plant species on Earth, produces a wide range of secondary metabolites including the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA). This bracken constituent causes acute poisoning, blindness and cancer in animals, and can be transferred to man when bracken is utilized as food. Also milk from cows eating bracken is thought to be the vector for the transfer of PTA to humans, as well as PTA-contaminated drinking waters. Although some studies on the effect of growth conditions and soil properties on the production and mobility of PTA have been carried out (mainly in the North of Europe), results are sometimes conflicting and further investigations are needed. The aim of the present work is to study the occurrence and the fate of PTA in soils showing different physico-chemical features, collected in different pedoclimatic areas (from the South of Italy), but having the extensive ("wild") livestock farming as common denominator. The PTA content was determined in both soil and fern samples by GC-MS; both the extraction protocol and recovery were previously tested through incubation studies. Soils samples were also characterizes from the physical and chemical point of view (pH, EC, texture, total carbonates, cation exchange capacity, organic C, total N, available nutrients and heavy metal concentration) in order to correlate the possible influence of soil parameters on PTA production, occurrence and mobility. PTA concentration in soil samples was always Pteridium samples (2-780 µg/g), ii) the soil organic matter content (ranging from 3.4 to 22.8%), iii) the soil pH (ranging from 5.9 to 6.6), iv) the soil texture, v) the depth (0-10 cm; 10-20 cm), and vi) precipitations (ranging from 780 to 960 mm/a). This seems to suggest the degradation of the PTA by indigenous microbial community

  13. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in enzootic haematuria aetiology/ Papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 na etiologia da hematúria enzoótica bovina

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    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri


    Full Text Available Bovine enzootic haematuria (EH occurs worldwide and is endemic in regions with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum infested grassland. EH is chronic disease that is characterized by clinical signs of intermitent haematuria, anemia and progressive emaciation and haemorragic, hyperplasic and neoplasic lesions of urinary bladder. Although bracken fern intoxication has been related to EH, most recent bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 infection has been also assessed. Some researches has shown that the presence of BPV-2 in association with bracken fern carcinogenic compound leads to the malignant progression of urinary bladder lesions that cause the clinical signs of EH. In this review the major evidence of BPV-2 involviment in the aetiology of EH is presented along with diagnostic methods and prophylaxis of this disease that causes considerable economic losses in brazilian cattle breeding.A hematúria enzoótica (HE bovina é de ocorrência mundial e apresenta caráter endêmico em regiões com pastagens infestadas com samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. A HE é uma doença crônica caracterizada por sinais clínicos de hematúria intermitente, anemia e emagrecimento progressivo e por lesões hemorrágicas, hiperplásicas e neoplásicas da mucosa da bexiga. Apesar da intoxicação pela samambaia estar relacionada à etiologia da HE, mais recentemente a infecção pelo papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 (BPV-2 também tem sido avaliada. Estudos demonstram que a presença do BPV-2, associada à ação dos compostos carcinogênicos da samambaia, leva à progressão maligna das lesões na mucosa vesical responsáveis pelos quadros clínicos observados na HE. Nesta revisão são apresentadas as principais evidências do envolvimento do BPV-2 na etiologia da HE, bem como métodos de diagnóstico e profilaxia desta doença que ocasiona prejuízos econômicos consideráveis à pecuária bovina brasileira.

  14. Knowledge-Based Estimation of Edible Fern Harvesting Sites in Mountainous Communities of Northeastern Japan

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    Toshiya Matsuura


    Full Text Available Once local expert knowledge regarding the harvesting of various non-timber forest products (NTFPs is lost, it is difficult to recover. We investigated whether the knowledge of expert forest harvesters can be used to determine the habitat distribution and harvesting sites of three popular edible wild ferns, i.e., ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris, bracken (Pteridium aquilinum, and royal fern (Osmunda japonica, in mountainous communities of western Fukushima, Japan. Using multi-criteria evaluation (MCE based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and geographic information system (GIS, we found that harvesters were easily able to recognize differences in the spatial characteristics of the habitat distribution of fern species due to both natural and anthropogenic factors. These factors were described by various GIS layers, such as vegetation and terrain features (e.g., gradient, aspect, and slope position derived from a 20-m digital elevation model (DEM. Harvesting sites were limited by their distance from a roadway, which differed among species. By comparison with the GPS records of actual harvesting sites, we estimated the potential harvesting sites of each fern species with reasonable accuracy, particularly for bracken. Our results show that the knowledge of expert forest harvesters can be quantified using MCE and GIS, which is useful for determining the spatial characteristics of NTFP harvesting and ensuring sustainable management practices.

  15. 野生蕨菜人工栽培生态地域筛选研究%A Research for Ecoclistrict Selection of Wild Bracken Domescication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田明英; 许淑桂; 刘倩; 王直朋; 王洪章


    研究了野生蕨菜人工栽培的部分技术问题。通过试验,筛选出了比较适宜蕨菜栽培生长的自然生态环境地域—河滩疏林地;初步解决了孢子育苗的技术问题,找出了适宜蕨菜生长的最佳温、湿度、光强度及pH值等。试验结果证明,运用孢子育苗进行人工栽培蕨菜是切实可行的。%This article has done a research to partial technical problems of wild bracken d omestication. By experiments,at first,the more proper nataral ecoenvironment dis trict has been selected out,that is sparse woods flood land. And second, the t echnical problem of growing spore seedlings artificially has been tentatively so lved, and found out some optimal guidelines about temperature,humidity,light in t ensity, pH and so on. Which are proper for the growth of wild bracken. The resul t of experiment attests that it is feasible for applying spore breeding to artifi cial cultivation.

  16. A survey of arsenic and other heavy metals in vegetation from markets or mine tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This research includes two investigations. The first one is a market basket survey of the levels of arsenic (As) and trace elements in bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) originated from three countries: South Korea, China and North Korea. The results showed that the mean As concentrations in stems of samples were significantly higher than those in leaves. As concentrations in all samples did not exceed food safety limits for vegetables. Generally, concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in leaves were higher than those in stems. The second investigation is a survey on the levels of As and other heavy metals in vegetation in the vicinity of Myoungbong mine tailings. The results demonstrated that As, Pb and Cu concentrations and bioaccumulation factors (BCF) in seedlings of the fern(Asplenium achilleifolium) were the highest, whereas Marsh horsetail(Equisetum palustre) accumulated the highest levels of Zn. Concentrations of As, Pb, Zn and Cu in vegetable-cress (Lepidium sativum) and the edible herb-aromatic madder(Elasholtzia splendens) were higher than food safety limits. Therefore, a risk assessment of As and other heavy metals in vegetables and herbs on local human health should be conducted in the future.

  17. Acid rain research program. Annual progress report, July 1976--September 1977. [Effects on plants and soil microbiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Francis, A.J.; Raynor, G.S.


    Experiments were carried out and chemical aspects of ambient precipitation were determined using a sequential precipitation collector for the period July 1976 through September 1977. A related report provides experimental details. In experiments with plants, experiments were aimed to document: the foliar response of six clones of hybrid poplar to simulated acid rain; effects of buffered solutions and various anions on vegetative and sexual development of gametophytes of the fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and the acid-sensitive steps of symbiotic nitrogen fixation of the garden pea (Pisum sativum). After five 6 min daily exposures to simulated rain of pH 2.7, up to 10 percent of the leaf area of some poplar clones was injured. Lesions developed mostly near stomata and vascular tissue as shown with other plant species. Acidic solutions have a marked effect on sperm motility and fertilization (sexual reproduction) of bracken fern. Since sexual reproduction of ferns is very sensitive to mildly acidic conditions under laboratory conditions, experiments are planned to view the response of sexual stages of other plant species. Nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Pisum is very sensitive to nutrient solution acidity. Specific isolates of Rhizobium bacteria are used and the medium pH can be maintained rigidly. In experiments to determine the effects of excess acidity on soil microbiological processes, the rate of denitrification may be slowed so drastically that increases of N/sub 2/O in the atmosphere may result with a subsequent reduction in soil nitrogen levels.

  18. 昆虫幼虫对凤尾蕨属植物孢子囊群的拟态%Soral crypsis of insect larvea on bracken ferns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商辉; 严岳鸿


    蕨类植物和昆虫共同进化了三亿多年,但是两者的协同进化一直很少得到关注。对湖南省桑植县的凤尾蕨属植物上的昆虫幼虫进行调查,结果表明42棵4种凤尾蕨属植株上有夜蛾科幼虫89条,叶蜂科幼虫21条。叶蜂科幼虫通过形态和体色拟态凤尾蕨属植物的孢子囊群盖,取食凤尾蕨属植物的叶片;而夜蛾科幼虫隐藏在凤尾蕨属植物成熟的囊群盖中取食孢子,幼时乳白色,成熟时转变为淡黄色,有些会出现褐色斑点,同样与凤尾蕨属的孢子囊群盖具有拟态现象。进一步的调查还在凤尾蕨植物上发现猎食性的跳蛛,同时在其体表发现携带的孢子。首次在凤尾蕨属植物上发现拟态昆虫幼虫、特别是寄生性昆虫及其天敌跳蛛的发现,对研究蕨类植物、昆虫幼虫及其天敌之间存在的食物链关系和协同进化现象具有重要意义。%Ferns and insects live on the earth together more than 300 million years, but the interaction is rare known. A field surveys was hold in Sangzhi County of Hunan province about the insect larvae on Pteris spp. We found 89 Noctuidae larvae and 21 Tenthredinidae larvae on 42 bracken ferns belong to four species. The larvea of Tenthredinidae mimiced the indusium through appearance and color, and feeded on immature leaves. By contrast, the larvea of Noctuidae feeded on spores hiding under the indusium, whose color turns white to buff, with brown spot sometime, as another kind of soral crypsis. Meanwhile, a jump spider of prey was observed, which may be attracted by the larvea. The spider acts on the mature sporophyl, carrying several spores. These discoveries give us a good insight into the interaction and co-evolution among ferns, insect larvea and spider.

  19. Carcinogenic ptaquiloside in stream water at base flow and during storm events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Bjarne W.; Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun


    The globally occurring bracken fern (Pteridium sp.) is widespread in the broadleaf forests of Denmark, and densely populates several vegetation types in the Americas, Australia and on the British Isles. Bracken is toxic to livestock when consumed, and a group of potent carcinogens have been...... are crucial to measure these 1-2 hours pulses of natural toxins in the stream. Collected canopy through fall showed high amounts of PTA (up to 169 µg/L) leached from bracken fronds during rainfall, with no apparent deterioration of this source throughout the storm event. The results are important...

  20. The use of sustainable 'biochar compost' for remediation of contaminated land (United States)

    Ryan, Aoife; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Eastwood, Daniel; Brackenbury, Sion


    South Wales (UK) has a long industrial history which, since the collapse of the coal-mining industry, has left a large number of contaminated former colliery sites. Bio-remediation of these areas by re-vegetation with native grasses aims to prevent erosion and leaching of pollutants into drainage waters. However, acid pH, low organic-matter content and unsuitable soil structure have limited the success of re-vegetation and prompted research into the development of artificial soils. This study aims to assess the value of creating an artificial soil cover by adding "biochar compost" to the top 10cm of a large volume of contaminated colliery spoil (high in As and Cu) to be moved during construction of a flood-alleviation barrage in Cwm Dulais (Swansea). It is proposed to use biochar, manufactured from chipped biomass sourced from a local stand of invasive Rhododendron ponticum using a BiGchar 1000 fast pyrolysis-gasification unit, in combination with locally produced BSI PAS100-certified Pteridium aquilinum (bracken) compost, to remediate a large area (2.3ha) of landscaped colliery waste and re-establish a cover of native grasses suitable for sheep grazing. Pot and field trials are being used to determine the most appropriate biochar:compost mix. In a 90-day outdoor pot trial, a commercial acid-grassland seed mix was grown in screened (grass samples are being analysed for nutrients, heavy metals and metalloids by elemental analysis (EA) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). These results will be compared with grass samples collected from Cwm Dulais. Initial findings suggest that addition of biochar compost improved grass growth compared with unamended colliery spoil.

  1. Comparison of thiaminase activity in fish using the radiometric and 4-nitrothiophenol colorimetric methods (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Hanes, J.W.; Brown, L.; Kraft, C.E.; Begley, T.P.


    Thiaminase induced thiamine deficiency occurs in fish, humans, livestock and wild animals. A non-radioactive thiaminase assay was described in 2007, but a direct comparison with the radioactive 14C-thiamine method which has been in use for more than 30years has not been reported. The objective was to measure thiaminase activity in forage fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus) consumed by predators that manifest thiamine deficiency using both methods. Modifications were made to the colorimetric assay to improve repeatability. Modification included a change in assay pH, enhanced sample clean-up, constant assay temperature (37??C), increase in the concentration of 4-nitrothiophenol (4NTP) and use of a spectrophotometer fitted with a 0.2cm cell. A strong relationship between the two assays was found for 51 alewife (R2=0.85), 36 smelt (R2=0.87) and 20 sculpin (R2=0.82). Thiaminase activity in the colorimetric assay was about 1000 times higher than activity measured by the radioactive method. Application of the assay to fish species from which no thiaminase activity has previously been reported resulted in no 4NTP thiaminase activity being found in bloater Coregonus hoyi, lake trout Salvelinus namaycusch, steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In species previously reported to contain thiaminase, 4NTP thiaminase activity was measured in bacteria Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum, quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis and zebra mussels D. polymorpha. ?? 2010.

  2. Biochar as a biosecurity tool for the management of invasive and/or infected plants. (United States)

    Harries, Philip J. E.; Fielding, J. James; Alayne Street-Perrott, F.; Doerr, Stefan H.; Brackenbury, Sion


    Control of invasive alien/native plants and diseased trees is often achieved using labour-intensive mechanical methods, incurring high costs and significant carbon debt. Disposal of cleared biomass may be heavily regulated. The commonly used method, burning, wastes a potentially valuable resource. Biochar may offer a safe, cost-effective solution to the problem of disposal. Large areas of Wales are covered by bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) (37x103 ha) or invasive Rhododendron ponticum (area not yet quantified). Clearance of these plants is often necessary for agriculture or maintenance of biodiversity (bracken), or to curb the rapid dispersal of the fungus-like pathogen Phytophthora ramorum from rhododendron (the principal host) into commercial timber stands, notably Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi). In addition, ash dieback (the fungal disease Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus aka Chalara fraxinea) is now spreading aggressively in common ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior) in the UK. Pilot-scale experiments are being conducted using a BiGchar 1000 mobile, fast pyrolysis -gasification unit, focussing on chipped rhododendron, Japanese larch and common ash feedstocks. Preliminary results of these experiments will be presented. The biochars produced are being subjected to a range of physical and chemical analyses. Levels of micro- and macro-nutrients retained from the original feedstocks are being evaluated. Organic and inorganic contaminants are also being compared with those in the respective feedstocks. Biochar produced from R. ponticum comprised C 63.7-85.9%, H 0.4-0.8%, N 0.4-0.8%, S 0.27-1.79% and O 4.1-27.4%, with most of the mineral nutrients being retained from the original feedstock, especially Mn. Larch biochar comprised C 84.1-91.7%, H 1.8-3.1%, N 0.3-0.8%, S 0.42-0.69% and O 4.1-10.7%. Heavy-metal concentrations were below recommended limits (International Biochar Initiative, 2012), although R. ponticum growing on highly acidified soils showed some tendency to bio

  3. Histopathological aspects of Bovine Enzootic Hematuria in Brazil Aspectos histopatológicos da Hematúria Enzoótica Bovina no Brasil

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    Paulo Vargas Peixoto


    Full Text Available The bladder lesions of 59 cattle, from the States of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and Amazon, affected by Bovine Enzootic Haematuria (BEH, were studied histologically. The objective of this study was to describe and reclassify neoplastic and non-neoplastic alterations not yet reported, according to the more complete current nomenclature used in human medicine. There was an almost complete identity with alterations observed in the bladder of man. Due to the occurrence of two or more neoplasms in the same animal, differences in the methodology and in the concept of classification, a more precise comparison was not possible. Coexistence of different types of epithelial and/or mesenchymal tumour growth was frequently seen. Rare neoplasms or differentiations not previously described were found in the bladder of some animals affected by BEH. These were trabecular carcinoma with Paneth cells differentiation, mesonephroid adenoma, mesonephroid adenocarcinoma, "signet ring" cell carcinoma, plasmocytoid carcinoma, chromophobe cell carcinoma and nested type of transitional cell carcinoma. Haemangiosarcomas originating from haemangiomas were also observed. This study also revealed the occurrence of many tumors with anaplasia and pronounced infiltrative features, but which did not metastasize. The elucidation of the cause of this "barrier against metastases" and its relationship with chemical carcinogenesis induced by the ptaquiloside, the active principle of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum, could be of interest to future research on the control ofneoplasia in man and animals.Com o objetivo de descrever alterações neoplásicas e não-neoplásicas ainda não relatadas e, paralelamente, reclassificá-las de acordo com nomenclatura mais completa e atual utilizada em medicina humana, foram estudadas, histologicamente, lesões da bexiga de 59 bovinos com Hematúria Enzoótica (HEB

  4. Nutrient values and bioactivities of the extracts from three fern species in China: a comparative assessment. (United States)

    Qi, Guoyuan; Yang, Liuqing; Xiao, Chunxia; Shi, Jing; Mi, Yashi; Liu, Xuebo


    Pteridium aquilinum, Osmunda cinnamomea Linn, and Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching are three fern species widely consumed as potherbs and traditional medicinal herbs in China. Nevertheless, no detailed comparative assessments of their nutrient values and bioactivities have been reported. In this paper, we examined the nutrient content of these ferns and the bioactivities of their extracts with a comparative method. The results indicated that they were nutrient dense for proteins, carbohydrates, fat and minerals. Compared with Pteridium aquilinum and Osmunda cinnamomea Linn, the extract from Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching was found to possess the strongest antioxidant activity, protective effects on biomolecules, cellular antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative effects owing to its highest total phenolic (476.52 ± 11.26 mg GAE per g extract) and total flavonoid (924.81 ± 4.25 mg RNE per g extract) contents. Further, Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching can lead to caspase-3 activation, poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction and inhibition of wound-healing in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrate the remarkable potential of Pteridium aquilinum, Osmunda cinnamomea Linn, and Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching as valuable sources of nutrients and natural antioxidants, and among which Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching has potential anticancer properties.

  5. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

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    S. Y. Milevskaya


    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  6. Comparação fitossociológica entre duas amostragens numa área de clareira em anos consecutivos, Estação Biológica de Caratinga, MG Phytosociology comparing between two gaps in the Caratinga Biologic Station, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Vianna da Costa e Silva


    Full Text Available A Estação Biológica de Caratinga encontra-se dentro do domínio Atlântico, sob um clima sazonal com uma estação úmida e quente (outubro-março e outra seca e fria (abril-setembro. O solo é do tipo Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico. A clareira em estudo localiza-se em topo de morro, possuindo pequenas árvores esparsas, grande quantidade de "touceiras" mortas de Pteridium aquilinum, plantas herbáceas, jovens e plântulas de espécies arbóreas. Esta área foi alterada por fogo e plantio de café há pouco mais de 30 anos. Foram amostrados 500 m² mapeando-se e anotando-se altura e circunferência de todos os indivíduos. Realizaram-se 2 amostragens com o mesmo método, a primeira em outubro de 1989 e a segunda em outubro de 1990. Verificou-se pouca variação na densidade (657 e 668 indivíduos, respectivamente e na composição em espécies. Mabea fistulifera (maior densidade em ambas as amostragens, Bauhinia fusco-nervis, Inga sp e uma espécie não identificada de gramínea tiveram a densidade aumentada, enquanto Pteridium aquilinum (a segunda de maior densidade, Ferdinandusa cf. ruggeoides e Vismia sp, tiveram-na reduzida. A presença de "touceiras" mortas de P. aquilinum, de indivíduos jovens de espécie arbóreas comuns às matas ao redor e a existência de áreas vizinhas ocupadas exclusivamente por populações de P. aquilinum sugerem que a clareira em estudo encontra-se em estágio intermediário entre o declínio da população de P. aquilinum e a ocupação da área pelas espécies de mata.The Estação Biológica de Caratinga is located in the Atlantic dominium, The climate is seasonal with a humid hot season (October-March and a dry cold season (April-September. The soil is alic Yelowish-Red Latosol. The gap studied is located on the top of a hill, where there are small scattered trees, a large amount of dead bunches of Pteridium aquilinum, herbs, and saplings of tree species. The position of each individual was mapped, and

  7. Evaluación de extractos vegetales para manejo de hongos patógenos en banano y fresa almacenados


    López, Angélica; Vélez, Mónica; Sánchez O., Manuel Salvador; Bonilla Correa, Carmen Rosa; Gallo, Pablo Ivan


    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Palmira, se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos (1.000 ml), macerados (100 g) de llantén (Plantago major L), ruda (Ruta graveolens L), pronto alivio [Lippia alba (Mill) NE BROS] y helecho marranero [Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf) Maxon]. Para la evaluación del control de C. musae y B. cinerea se utilizaron dieciséis tratamientos (cuatro extractos de plantas, dos medios de extracción, dos diluciones y tres repeticiones).Se adicionaron tres testigos: absolu...

  8. Pteridófitas da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridophytes of the North-western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil: Dennstaedtiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R Siqueira


    Full Text Available O trabalho faz parte de uma série de estudos sobre pteridófitas da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Os representantes da família Dennstaedtiaceae são encontrados principalmente nas margens das matas ciliares e em barrancos úmidos e sombreados, com exceção de Pteridium que geralmente ocorre em lugares abertos e ensolarados. Ocorrem na região os gêneros Dennstaedtia com duas espécies (D. cicutaria (Sw. Moore e D. globulifera (Poir. Hieroni, Lindsaea com três espécies (L. lancea (L. Bedd., L. quadratigularis Raddi e L. striata (Sw. Dryand. e Pteridium com uma espécie e variedade (P aquilinum (L. Kuhn var. arachnoideum (Kaulf. Brade. Descrições, ilustrações, chaves de identificação, bem como distribuição geográfica e habitats de cada espécie são apresentados.This work is part of a series of studies on pteridophytes of the North-western region of the State of São Paulo. The representatives of the family Dennstaedtiaceae are found mainly at the margins of the ciliary forests as well as in humid and shaded ravines, except for Pteridium which, generally occurs in open and sunny places. The genera Dennstaedtia with two species (D. cicutaria (Sw. Moore and D. globulifera (Poir. Hieroni, Lindsaea with three species (L. lancea (L. Bedd., L. quadrangular is Raddi and L. stricta (Sw. Dryand., and Pteridium with a species and variety (P aquilinum (L. Kuhn var. arachnoideum (Kaulf. Brade, have been found in this region. Descriptions, illustrations, identification keys, geographical distribution, and habitats of each species are presented.

  9. Insecticidal effects of extracts of seven plant species on larval development, alpha-amylase activity and offspring production of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). (United States)

    Jbilou, R; Amri, H; Bouayad, N; Ghailani, N; Ennabili, A; Sayah, F


    Bioinsecticidal effects of methanol extracts from seven plant species on Tribolium castaneum were investigated. Centaurium erythraea, Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Aristolochia baetica, Pteridium aquilinum and Raphanus raphanistrum extracts inhibit growth of larvae. C. erythraea was the most toxic with 63% mortality 10 days after treatment, followed by P. harmala with 58%. C. erythraea and P. aquilinum reduce the emergence rate respectively of 66% and 19%. The duration of larval period was shortened by Launaea arborescens, P. aquilinum and A. iva extracts, whereas R. raphanistrum and P. harmala extracts extend the larval period when compared to the control. Extracts of C. erythraea, P. harmala, A. iva and A. baetica inhibited F1 progeny production. Larvae possess three alpha-amylase isoforms as determined by SDS-PAGE. Larvae fed on treated diet had lower alpha-amylase activity than larvae feed on untreated diet. C. erythraea and P. harmala are the most potent extracts. These plant extracts could be useful to reduce seed damage caused by this pest species.

  10. Food uses of ferns in China: a review

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    Yujing Liu


    Full Text Available Edible ferns are some of the most important wild vegetables in China. This paper reviews their food uses. The history of eating ferns in China may go back as far as 3000 years. An ethnobotanical inventory of edible ferns was created, with 52 species (including 4 varieties, which were traditionally used. The potential species number of edible ferns was estimated as 144 species (including 4 varieties. The cuisines, products and chemical components of ferns were also summarized. The most commonly eaten fern, Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, was discussed in terms of its toxicity, massive productivity and development strategies. Suggestions and recommendations were proposed for the future development of edible ferns in China.

  11. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

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    Favas P. J. C.


    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  12. Plantas tóxicas para ruminantes do Sudoeste de Goiás

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    Fabiano José Ferreira de Sant'Ana


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar quais são as plantas incriminadas como tóxicas para ruminantes do Sudoeste de Goiás, foram realizadas 108 entrevistas com produtores rurais, médicos veterinários, zootecnistas e agrônomos de 18 municípios da região. Foram apontadas como tóxicas para ruminantes: Brachiaria spp., Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Dimorphandra mollis, Palicourea marcgravii, Pteridium aquilinum e Sorghum vulgare. Adicionalmente, foram informadas intoxicações menos frequentes por Senna occidentalis, Stryphnodendrum obovatum e Manihot esculenta. Casos isolados de intoxicação em bovinos por Asclepias curassavica e Pterodon emarginatus foram descritos por alguns entrevistados. Este trabalho demonstra que intoxicações por plantas tóxicas são frequentes na região avaliada e representam importante causa de prejuízos econômicos aos pecuaristas locais.

  13. Influence of amendments and aided phytostabilization on metal availability and mobility in Pb/Zn mine tailings. (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hwan; Ji, WonHyun; Lee, Won-Seok; Koo, Namin; Koh, Il Ha; Kim, Min-Suk; Park, Jeong-Sik


    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of four different amendments, bone mill, bottom ash, furnace slag, and red mud, as immobilizing agents and the plant species Miscanthus sinensis and Pteridium aquilinum in aided phytostabilization of Pb/Zn mine tailings. The effects of amendments and plants on the availability and mobility of heavy metals were evaluated using single extraction, sequential extraction, pore-water analysis, and determination of heavy metal concentrations in plants. The application of Fe-rich amendments significantly reduced the amount of soluble and extractable heavy metals in the tailings (p tailings. M. sinensis accumulated heavy metals mainly in the root, and had lower translocation factors compared with P. aquilinum. The results of this study suggest that M. sinensis can be used in aided phytostabilization for these types of mine tailings and Fe-rich amendments are effective for the in situ immobilization of metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The physiological implications of primary xylem organization in two ferns. (United States)

    Brodersen, Craig R; Roark, Lindsey C; Pittermann, Jarmila


    Xylem structure and function are well described in woody plants, but the implications of xylem organization in less-derived plants such as ferns are poorly understood. Here, two ferns with contrasting phenology and xylem organization were selected to investigate how xylem dysfunction affects hydraulic conductivity and stomatal conductance (g(s)). The drought-deciduous pioneer species, Pteridium aquilinum, exhibits fronds composed of 25 to 37 highly integrated vascular bundles with many connections, high g(s) and moderate cavitation resistance (P50 = -2.23 MPa). By contrast, the evergreen Woodwardia fimbriata exhibits sectored fronds with 3 to 5 vascular bundles and infrequent connections, low g(s) and high resistance to cavitation (P50 = -5.21 MPa). Xylem-specific conductivity was significantly higher in P. aqulinium in part due to its wide, efficient conduits that supply its rapidly transpiring pinnae. These trade-offs imply that the contrasting xylem organization of these ferns mirrors their divergent life history strategies. Greater hydraulic connectivity and g(s) promote rapid seasonal growth, but come with the risk of increased vulnerability to cavitation in P. aquilinum, while the conservative xylem organization of W. fimbriata leads to slower growth but greater drought tolerance and frond longevity.

  15. Modelling and monitoring vegetation and evapotranspiration on an anthropogenic grassland succession in the Andes of Ecuador (United States)

    Silva, B.; Bendix, J.


    In the eastern Andes of southern Ecuador the infestation of pasture (mostly C4-grass Setaria sphacelata) by the aggressive bracken fern (Pteridium sp.) still is an unsolved problem. Environmental and exogenous factors and direct plant competition have been hypothesized to drive bracken occurrence. Special attention is given to pasture burning, which stimulates bracken growth, and is common in the relative dry season (Oct-Dec). However, no knowledge is available for a quantitative hypothesis investigation on bracken occurrence under current and future local climate. In this work a modeling approach is presented, in which initial investigations support the application of a two-big-leaf model, and parameterization and model forcing are made with extensive data on physiological traits and on the physical environment. Our main aims here are (i) to show field investigations on a plant scale, which are the basis for a proper model parameterization; and (ii) to provide initialization data, which is based on estimation of green leaf area index from very-high and high resolution optical remote sensing (air-photos and Quickbird images); (iii) to simulate vegetation succession after burn on an experimental site, using in situ climate data and future climate-change scenarios. The modeling approach is based in the main on the vegetation dynamic model called Southern Bracken Competition Model (SoBraCoMo), which has been coupled to a hydrological model written on the catchment model framework (CMF), to simulate soil-vegetation dynamics. Main initialization variables are biochemical parameters (quantum and carboxylation efficiency) and the green leaf area index (green-LAI). Forcing data include soil, leaf and air temperature, soil and air humidity and radiation. The model has been developed and tested on the experimental site (2100 m asl) in the Rio San Francisco Valley, Ecuador. Simulation results on the burn experiment of 2009 showed that stimulation by fire could not boost fern

  16. Dissipation of pterosin B in acid soils - tracking the fate of the bracken fern carcinogen ptaquiloside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourti-Stathaki, Eirini; Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed


    -free areas. Soil samples were incubated with pterosin B at 3 and 8 μg g(-1) for 10 days, whereas sterile (autoclaved) samples were incubated for 23 days. Pterosin B showed unexpected fast degradation in soils with full degradation in topsoils in 2-5 days. Pterosin B dissipation followed the sum of two...

  17. Ptaquiloside in irish bracken ferns and receiving waters, with implications for land managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Driscoll, Connie; Ramwell, Carmel; Harhen, Brendan


    Ptaquiloside, along with other natural phytotoxins, is receiving increased attention from scientists and land use managers. There is an urgent need to increase empirical evidence to understand the scale of phytotoxin mobilisation and potential to enter into the environment. In this study the risk...

  18. Evaluation of vegetable extracts for control of the pathogenic fungi in banana and strawberry in post harvest storage Evaluación de extractos vegetales para manejo de hongos patógenos en banano y fresa almacenados

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    Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa


    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out get knowledge about fungicidal properties of vegetable extracts to the control of the pathogenyc fungi (Colletotrichum musae and Botrytis cinerea in banana (Musa sapientum and strawberry (Fragaria sp during the pos harvest storage, at the National University of Colombia headquarters in Palmira. Ethanolics extracts of the following vegetable species were evaluated: Plantago major L, Ruta graveolens L, Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS, Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon. The extracts were obtained by the percolation method starting from the macerated material (100 g and 1000 ml of solvent. The fungi was isolated from the strawberry (Fragaria sp affected by B. cinerea and banana Gross mitchel affected by C. musae. To evaluate the control of the fungi C. musae and B. cinerea sixteen treatments were used (four extracts of plants, two extraction media, two dilutions and three repetitions. Three control treatments were added: absolute (PDA; solvent (PDA + ethanol or water; and chemical (PDA + chemical fungicide. The dilutions were prepared with the solvent used to obtain the extract. The evaluation in vitro was maid with ethanolics extracts diluted at 25%, because these presented the best results in the previous tests. The results indicate that the ethanolic solvent decreased the development of the fungi in 68%. The fruits in which the etanolic extract of ruda and pronto alivio was applied presented bigger incidence and grade of severity.

    Keys words: Vegetable extract; patogenic fungi; Colletotrichum musae; Botrytis cinérea; post harvest

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Palmira, se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos (1.000 ml, macerados (100 g de llantén (Plantago major L, ruda (Ruta graveolens L, pronto alivio [Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS] y helecho marranero [Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon]. Para la evaluación del control

  19. Avaliação de biofertilizantes, extratos vegetais e diferentes substâncias alternativas no manejo de tripes em cebola em sistema orgânico Evaluation of biofertilizers, plant extracts, and some alternative substances to manage onion thrips in organic agriculture system

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    Paulo A.S. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se substâncias alternativas no manejo de tripes (Thrips tabaci Lind., em cebola, cv, Crioula, no sistema orgânico. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na EPAGRI, Ituporanga (SC. Os períodos entre transplante e colheita foram de 11/09/1996 a 10/01/1997 e 13/08/1997 a 11/12/1997. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso com 8 tratamentos em 1996 e 12 tratamentos em 1997 e quatro repetições. Em 1996 os tratamentos incluíram o biofertilizante anaeróbico 50%, biofertilizante aeróbico 5%, sulfato de manganês 1%, extrato hidroalcoólico de própolis 0,2%, macerado de ervas ("fersoral" 2% e 4%, extrato de fumo (Nicotiana tabacum 2 L ha-1 + 1% detergente neutro, testemunha sem aplicação. Em 1997 os tratamentos incluíram o macerado de ervas ("fersoral" 5% 10%, enxofre pó molhável 0,25% + extrato hidroalcoólico de própolis 0,2% + extrato de samambaia 3%, biofertilizante anaeróbico 50%, biofertilizante aeróbico 5%, extrato de losna (Artemisia verlotorum 3%, extrato de timbó (Ateleia glazioviana 0,5%, extrato de samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum 10%, extrato de erva-de-santa-maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides 10%, extrato de cinamomo (Melia azedarach 10%, extrato de camomila (Matricaria chamomilla 5%, testemunha sem aplicação. Para aplicação dos produtos empregou-se pulverizador de pressão constante a base de CO2. Os tratamentos não causaram redução significativa na incidência de tripes e aumentos significativos na produtividade.Alternative substances to manage thrips population (Thrips tabaci Lind. on onion, in an organic agriculture system were evaluated. The experiments were carried out in Ituporanga, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Plants of onion cv. Crioula were transplanted into two fields on 9th September/96 and 13th August/97 and harvested respectively on 10th January/97 and 11th December/97. A randomized blocks with four replicates were used in both experiments. In 1996 the treatments included the anaerobic liquid

  20. Holocene vegetation history and fire regimes of Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, southwestern British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer D.; Lacourse, Terri


    Pollen analysis of a 9.03-m-long lake sediment core from Pender Island on the south coast of British Columbia was used to reconstruct the island's vegetation history over the last 10,000 years. The early Holocene was characterized by open mixed woodlands with abundant Pseudotsuga menziesii and a diverse understory including Salix and Rosaceae shrubs and Pteridium aquilinum ferns. The establishment of Quercus garryana savanna-woodland with P. menziesii and Acer macrophyllum followed deposition of the Mazama tephra until ~ 5500 cal yr BP, when these communities gave way to modern mixed P. menziesii forest. Charcoal analyses of the uppermost sediments revealed low charcoal accumulation over the last 1300 years with a mean fire return interval (mFRI) of 88 years. Fires were more frequent (mFRI = 50 yr) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) with warm, dry conditions facilitating a higher fire frequency than during the Little Ice Age, when fires were infrequent. Given the projected warming for the next 50-100 years, land managers considering the reintroduction of fire to the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve may want to consider using the mFRI of the MCA as a baseline reference in prescribed burning strategies.

  1. Comparison of mineral element content in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains%秦岭产9种野菜中矿质元素含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟君; 张九东; 陶贵荣; 杜喜春


    Contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in Cardamine macrophylla var. macrophylla Willd., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum ( Desv.) Underw. ex Heller, Aralia chinensis L., Osmunda japonica Thunb., Vitex trifolia L., Chenopodium album L., Lycium chinense Miller and Cichorium intybus L. from Qinling Mountains were determined, and compared to average contents of those mineral elements in cultivation foliage vegetables. The results show that contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in nine wild vegetables are 2. 90-14.20,0.5-3.6, 2.7-14.3,4.5-50.6, 141.9-4 646.0,106.3-643.9, 2 029.8-8 583.5, 295.3-1 136.0 and 3 870.0-14 011. 9 μg · g-1 , respectively. In which, Fe content in C. intybus, Ca content in V. trifolia, Mg and K contents in C. album, Zn and Mn contents in A. chinensis and Cu, N and P contents in 0. japonica all are the highest. Average contents of Ca, N, Fe and K in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains all have very obvious difference with those in cultivation foliage vegetables, but differences in average contents of Cu, Mg and P among them are relatively small.

  2. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of the northwest (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, Edward E.


    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  3. Acid rain research program. Annual progress report, September 1975--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Raynor, G.S.


    The aims of the research program are: (a) to observe the minimum threshold dose of simulated acid rain to produce visual and histological effects on plant foliage, (b) approach threshold limits of simulated sulfate acid rain that affect plant growth and reproduction, and (c) to measure chemical and meteorological parameters of incident rain. Acute leaf injury to several plant species resulted from exposure of foliage to simulated sulfate acid rain of pH level 2.3 to 2.9. Only slight injury occurred at 3.1. Scanning electron micrographs showed that injury to upper leaf surfaces occurred mostly at the base of trichomes (leaf hairs) and near stomata. An association of lesion development near vascular tissue was also noted. Histologically, lesions are characterized by an initial collapse of the epidermis with eventual lysis and collapse of more internal leaf tissues on the upper leaf surface of pinto beans which complemented detailed descriptions of visual lesion development after daily exposures to simulated rain. Initial experiments with gametophytes of Pteridium aquilinum show that reproduction of this fern species is very sensitive to solutions of pH 5.2 while vegetative development is not affected at pH levels of 2.2. Initial rain samples from the sequential sampler have been obtained. Initial portions of rain events exhibit a pH near 3.0 in some cases. More complete chemical analyses are anticipated.

  4. Inventory of Invasive Plant Species along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi, East Java

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    Lia Hapsari


    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted in November 2013 to inventory invasive plant species present along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park exploratively. Result showed that there were 11 plant species found abundantly along the corridor. Typical native species were dominated by Cyathea contaminans, Casuarina junghuhniana and Vaccinium varingiaefolium. Three species were determined as invasive alien species i.e. Chromolaena odorata, Acacia decurrens and Blumea lacera whereas five species were determined as native species but potential invaders i.e. Rubus moluccanus, Melastoma malabatrichum, Polygonum barbatum, Debregeasia longifolia and Pteridium aquilinum. In term of tourism particularly on nature-based destinations enable moving in and out of invasive alien species due to opening the access of some natural protected areas. The environmental impact of an alien species whether it becomes invasive at its destination depends on its biological key point,  what ecological role the species may play, and on additional factors such as its tolerance of the gross features of the environment in the new range. Keyword: invasive plants, corridor, Kawah Ijen, Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi

  5. Leaf-litter microfungal community on poor fen plant debris in Torfy Lake area (Central Poland

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    Mateusz Wilk


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to initially evaluate the species diversity of microfungi growing on litter of 15 plant species occurring on the poor fen and neighbouring area of the Torfy Lake, Masovian voivodeship, Poland. The lake is located near the planned road investment (construction of the Warsaw southern express ring road S2. The place is biologically valuable as there are rare plant communities from Rhynchosporion albae alliance protected under the Habitats Directive adopted by the European Union. On the examined plant debris 73 taxa of fungi were recorded (3 basidiomycetes, 13 ascomycetes, 2 zygomycetes, 43 anamorphic ascomycetes, 12 unidentified. Two of them, Dicranidion sp. and Wentiomyces sp. are presented here as new to Poland. Among the plant species examined, the litter of Rhododendron tomentosum harbored the highest number of fungal taxa (16. The highest percents of substrate-specific microfungi (i.e. recorded only on one plant species was noted on R. tomentosum (81.3 %, and Pteridium aquilinum (75%. It is emphasized that the lake area should be protected not only because of rare plant community but also because of the uniqueness and diversity of mycobiota.

  6. Test Reviews: Bracken, B. A., & Howell, K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Depression." Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources (United States)

    Aghakhani, Anoosha; Chan, Eric K.


    In this article, the authors review the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD), a 50-item self-report measure of depressive symptoms designed for children, adolescents, adults, and elderly adults from 8 to 79 years of age. Purporting to be sensitive to depressive symptomatology across the lifespan, the test items were written to reflect the…

  7. Dissipation of pterosin B in acid soils – Tracking the fate of the bracken fern carcinogen ptaquiloside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourti-Stathaki, Erini; Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Koefoed Brandt, Kristian


    -free areas. Soil samples were incubated with pterosin B at 3 and 8 μg g−1 for 10 days, whereas sterile (autoclaved) samples were incubated for 23 days. Pterosin B showed unexpected fast degradation in soils with full degradation in topsoils in 2–5 days. Pterosin B dissipation followed the sum of two...

  8. Ferns and lycopods--a potential treasury of anticancer agents but also a carcinogenic hazard. (United States)

    Tomšík, Pavel


    Many species of seedless vascular plants-ferns and lycopods-have been used as food and folk medicine since ancient times. Some of them have become the focus of intensive research concerning their anticancer properties. Studies on the anticancer effect of crude extracts are being increasingly replaced by bioactivity-guided fractionation, as well as detailed assessment of the mechanism of action. Numerous compounds-especially flavonoids such as amentoflavone and protoapigenone, and also simpler phenolic compounds, steroids, alkaloids and terpenoids-were isolated and found to be cytotoxic, particularly pro-apoptotic, or to induce cell cycle arrest in cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo experiments, some fern-derived compounds inhibited tumour growth with little toxicity. On the other hand, many ferns-not only the well-known Bracken (Pteridium)-may pose a significant hazard to human health due to the fact that they contain carcinogenic sesquiterpenoids and their analogues. The objective of this review is to summarise the recent state of research on the anticancer properties of ferns and lycopods, with a focus on their characteristic bioactive constituents. The carcinogenic hazard posed by ferns is also mentioned.

  9. Pollen core assemblages as indicator of Polynesian and European impact on the vegetation cover of Auckland Isthmus catchment, New Zealand (United States)

    Abrahim, Ghada M. S.; Parker, Robin J.; Horrocks, Mark


    Tamaki Estuary is an arm of the Hauraki Gulf situated on the eastern side of central Auckland. Over the last 100 years, Tamaki catchment has evolved from a nearly rural landscape to an urbanised and industrialised area. Pollen, 14C and glass shards analyses, were carried out on three cores collected along the estuary with the aim to reconstruct the estuary's history over the last ˜8000 years and trace natural and anthropogenic effects recorded in the sediments. Glass shard analysis was used to establish key tephra time markers such as the peralkaline eruption of Mayor Island, ˜6000 years BP. During the pre-Polynesian period (since at least 8000 years BP), regional vegetation was podocarp/hardwood forest dominated by Dacrydium cupressinun, Prumnopits taxifolia, and Metrosideros. Major Polynesian settler impact (commencing ˜700 yr BP) was associated with forest clearance as indicated by a sharp decline in forest pollen types. This coincided with an increase in bracken (Pteridium esculentum) spores and grass pollen. Continuing landscape disturbance during European settlement (commencing after 1840 AD) was accompanied by the distinctive appearance of exotic pollen taxa such as Pinus.

  10. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential of four fern species from China intended for use as food supplements. (United States)

    Dion, Carine; Haug, Christian; Guan, Haifeng; Ripoll, Christophe; Spiteller, Peter; Coussaert, Aurelie; Boulet, Elodie; Schmidt, Daniel; Wei, Jianbing; Zhou, Yijun; Lamottke, Kai


    Inflammation plays a major role in many diseases, for instance in arteriosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disorders and cancer. Since many plants contain compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, their consumption may be able to prevent the development of inflammatory-based diseases. Edible ferns are some of the most important wild vegetables in China and have traditionally been used both for dietary and therapeutic purposes. In this study we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of fern extracts from Matteuccia struthiopteris, Osmundajaponica, Matteuccia orientalis and Pteridium aquilinum intended for use as nutraceuticals. Two modes of action were investigated: the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory gene expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL1-β) and interleukin-6 (IL6), and the gene expression of iNOS by LPS-elicited macrophages. The results showed a decrease of IL1-β gene expression for the five fern extracts. This effect was more pronounced for the extracts prepared from the roots of O. japonica (IC50 of 17.8 µg/mL) and the young fronds of M orientalis (50.0 µg/mL). Regarding the indirect measurement of NO, via iNOS gene expression, an interesting decrease of 50% was obtained with the extract of M. orientalis fronds at a low concentration (20 µg/mL) compared with P. aquilinum fronds (160 µg/mL) and leaves of O. japonica. The latter showed a higher decrease but at a high concentration of extract (160 µg/mL). The five fern extracts were also evaluated for their ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). All fern extracts exhibited antioxidant effects but the roots of O. japonica and the fronds of M orientalis were most efficient. The HPLC-MS analysis of the constituents of the fern extracts confirmed the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol and apigenin, molecules known to exhibit

  11. Differences on post-fire regeneration of the pioneer trees Cecropia glazioui and Trema micrantha in a lowland Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Dalva M Silva-Matos


    Full Text Available A study of natural post-fire succession was carried out in a disturbed vegetation around fragments of the Atlantic Rain Forest (National Biological Reserve of Poço das Antas (22 °30 ’-22 °33 ’S,42 °15 ’-42 °19 ’W, Rio de Janeiro State.All the pre-fire individuals of Cecropia and Trema in the area were numbered with plastic labels.In order to check for the presence of new sprouts and mortality,two other censuses were carried out,at 3 and 12 months after the fire.The dominant species were:Pteridium aquilinum,Panicum maximum,Trema micrantha and Cecropia glazioui. Few days after the passage of fire, grasses and ferns spread their area,while the stands of Trema and Cecropia were completely burned. Most of individuals of Cecropia produced some sprouts while most of individuals of Trema died.However,a great number of seedlings of Trema were recruited while only one single seedling of Cecropia were observed during a period of one year.Most of these seedlings died through the year while the sprouts were already reproducing.The uses of Cecropia in places where fire is recurrent could be more appropriate because of its higher chance of survival and faster recovering ability after fire.Rev.Biol.Trop.53(1-2:1-4.Epub 2005 Jun 24Se realizó un estudio sobre la sucesión natural después del fuego en una vegetación alrededor de fragmentos de la selva lluviosa atlántica (Reserva Biológica Nacional de Poço das Antas (22° 30 ’-22° 33 ’ S, 42° 15’- 42° 19’ W, Estado de Río de Janeiro.Todos los individuos de Cecropia y Trema previos del fuego en el área fueron numerados con marcas plásticas. Se realizaron otros dos censos, 3 y 12 meses después del fuego con el objetivo de detectar mortalidad y buscar la presencia de nuevos brotes. Las especies dominantes fueron: Pteridium aquilinum, Panicum maximum, Trema micrantha y Cecropia glazioui. Pocos días después del paso del fuego,los pastos y helechos se dispersaron por el área, mientras

  12. Intoxicações por plantas e micotoxinas associadas a plantas em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul: 461 casos Plant and plant-associated mycotoxins poisoning in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 461 cases

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    Daniel R. Rissi


    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento nos arquivos do Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM e revisados os laudos de necropsias de bovinos realizadas entre 1990 e 2005. Foram revisados 2.912 casos referentes a necropsias realizadas por membros do LPV ou a materiais de necropsias realizadas por veterinários de campo que enviaram amostras para avaliação histológica no LPV. Em 461 (15,83% das necropsias, a causa da morte foi atribuída à ingestão de plantas tóxicas. Em ordem decrescente de freqüência, intoxicações pelas seguintes plantas foram diagnosticadas: Senecio spp (56,14%, Pteridium aquilinum (12,06%, Ateleia glazioviana (10,31%, Solanum fastigiatum (5,04%, Baccharis coridifolia (3,29%, Xanthium cavanillesii (3,07%, Senna occidentalis (2,63%, Ramaria flavo-brunnescens (2,41%, Amaranthus spp (2,19%, Vicia villosa (1,54%, Ipomoea batatas, Prunus sellowii e polpa cítrica (0,44% cada, Cestrum parqui, Claviceps paspali, Claviceps purpurea, Brachiaria spp e Lantana sp (0.22% cada. Em um determinado surto o número de bovinos afetados era substancialmente maior que o número de necropsias realizadas. São discutidos os aspectos relacionados à distribuição geográfica, fatores que induziram a ingestão, índices de morbidade, mortalidade e letalidade, sinais clínicos, achados de necropsia e histopatológicos para cada intoxicação. Quando conhecidos, foram incluídos na discussão aspectos relacionados ao princípio ativo e a patogenia da intoxicação.From 1990 to 2005, tissues from 2,912 cattle necropsies were examined at the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology (LPV of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM, Brazil. These tissues came from necropsies performed by faculty members of the LPV or were mailed-in samples from necropsy performed by veterinarian practitioners. In 461 (15.83% of these necropsies the cause of death was attributed to the ingestion of poisonous plants. In

  13. [Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by the dominant plants growing in Huayuan manganese and lead/zinc mineland, Xiangxi]. (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Tian, Qi-Jian; Liang, Shi-Chu; Zhou, Yao-Yu; Zou, Hui-Cheng


    Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem of mine wasteland. Finding out the tolerant plants, which can adapt to the local climate and the soil conditions, is the premise of vegetation restoration. An extensive vegetation survey and sampling were conducted in Huayuan Mn and Pb/Zn mineland, 76 species belonging to 69 genera and 39 families were recorded. The main dominant species and their associated soils were determined for heavy metal concentrations. The results showed that soil Pb, Zn and Cd levels exceeded the threshold levels of Class II of China Environmental Quality Standard for Soils, which suggested minesoils might be polluted by the three elements. The main dominant plants can adapt to the unfavorable edaphic conditions of mineland and were tolerant to heavy metals. There were great variations of metal uptake and accumulation among different plant species. They were classified into three types according to the metal concentrations in the plant shoots and roots: the accumulator, e. g. Camellia oleifera and Dicranopteris dichotoma, absorbed a large amount of heavy metals by the roots and transported to the shoots, which can be used to clean up the soils containing light to moderate toxic metal concentration and with high-value; the root compartment, e. g. Rubus tephrodes, R. corchorifolius, R. chroosepalus, Artemisia princeps and Pteridium aquilinum also absorbed a large amount of heavy metals but held in the roots; and the excluder, e. g. Miscanthus sinensis, Imperata cylindrica, Indocalamus tessellatus and Toddalia asiatica, absorbed less heavy metals than the accumulators. The root compartment and the excluder were more suitable for remediation of the mine wastelands with high heavy metal concentration, low-value and extensive area.

  14. Ultrastructure of Oogenesis in Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Mei BAO; Qun HE; Quan-Xi WANG; Guo-Wei TIAN; Jian-Guo CAO


    The ultrastructure of oogenesis in Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The nucleus in the young egg is rounded with an uneven outline. As it develops, it becomes amoeboid and extends nuclear protrusions that are not only sac-like nuclear evaginations like those often seen in the oogenesis of other ferns, but also mushroom-like and finger-like, with an opening at their end allowing the nucleolus material to flow out from the openings. This has not been observed previously. The nuclear protrusions differ from Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott. in the absence of sheets of nuclear membrane in the form of a closed ring. As the egg matures, the nucleus transforms into a tuber-like structure with a smooth surface, lying transversely in the egg cell. In the immature egg, vesicles almost encircle the nucleus twice and are most remarkable. In the maturing egg, the vesicles are distributed at the periphery, except for at the top of the egg, and affect the formation of the separation cavity and extra egg membrane. Simultaneously, vesicles from the venter canal cell move to the egg and take part in the formation of separation cavity and extra egg membrane. In the mature egg, a large number of small vesicles containing fragments of lamellae or osmiophilic material emerge from the cytoplasm. The origin of these vesicles is obscure. Irregular plastids containing a cylindrical starch grain dedifferentiated progressively.Mitochondria seem to have been undeveloped during the process, but return to normal at later stages of oogenesis. There is a high frequency of ribosomes in the mature egg. Microtubules, rarely seen in the eggs ofD. filix-mas (L.) Schott. and Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, have been observed inside the plasmalemma of the maturing egg in D. crassirhizoma.

  15. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA Activated Monocytes

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    Ange Mouithys-Mickalad


    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae, Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N′-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD. The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  16. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi of Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, central China: herbophilia and indifference to fruits and mushrooms

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    Yongxiang Kang


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants and fungi in Han (i.e. Chinese nationality villages in central China, including famine plants used in the respondents' childhood. A valley adjacent to the extremely species-rich temperate forest vegetation of the Taibai Nature Reserve was chosen. Eighty-two people from 5 villages took part in the study. Altogether, 159 wild food plant species and 13 fungi folk taxa were mentioned by informants. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high (24.8; median – 21.5. An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables (mean – 17, me- dian – 14.5, a few wild fruits (mean – 5.9 and median – 6 and very few fungi (mean – 1.9, median – 1, which they had eaten. Over 50% of respondents mentioned gathering the young shoots or leaves of Celastrus orbiculatus, Staphylea bumalda and S. holocapra, Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pimpinella sp., Amaranthus spp., Matteucia struthiopteris, Allium spp., Cardamine macrophylla and Chenopodium album. Only one species of fruits (Schisandra sphenanthera and none of the mushrooms were mentioned by over half of the respondents. Although very diverse, it can be noted that the use of wild vegetables has decreased compared to the second half of the 20th century, as informants listed several plants which they had stopped using (e.g. Abelia engleriana due to the availability of cultivated vegetables and other foodstuffs. On the other hand, the collection of the most well-known wild vegetables is maintained by selling them to tourists visiting agritourist farms, and restaurants.

  17. Effects of grazing on natural regeneration of tree and herb species of Kheyroud forest in northern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohsen Javanmiri Pour; Mohmmad Reza Marvie Mohadjer; Vahid Etemad; Mahmoud Zobeiri


    We investigated the effects of grazing on natural regeneration,quantity,and diversity of woody species and dominant herb species in Kheyroud forest in northern Iran.We sampled vegetation in 5m2 plots in custom units,which are demarcated resource areas traditionally used by local livestock producers.The authors quantified number of species,height of seedlings,and diameter of seedlings.Height classes were 0-30 cm,30-130 cm,and >130 cm,and diameter classes were 0-2.5 cm,2.5-5 cm and 5-7.5 cm.The density of seedlings declined with distance from corral until reaching the custom unit boundary.Most seedlings had diameters of 0-2.5 cm and heights of 0-30 cm.Predominant species,Carpinus betulus and Acer capadocicum,were in plots near the centers of custom units,Fagus orientalis,Acer velutinum,Quercus castanifolia species were dominant in plots near the custom unit boundary.Plant species such as Oplismenus undulatifolius,Euphorbia amygdaloides,Rubus fruticos and Pteridium aquilinum were dominant in plots nearer to forest corral.Healthy seedlings were more numerous in plots nearest the corral,while defective and deformed seedlings were more abundant away from the corral.We conclude that grazing had negative effects on the quantity and quality of vegetative regeneration.Continuation of overgrazing will not only endanger the sustainability of forest ecosystems,but also will increase the challenge of sustainable forest management.

  18. Vegetation composition and ²²⁶Ra uptake by native plant species at a uranium mill tailings impoundment in South China. (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Ding, Dexin; Li, Guangyue; Zheng, Jifang; Li, Le; Zhao, Weichao; Wang, Yongdong


    A field investigation was conducted for the vegetation composition and (226)Ra uptake by native plant species at a uranium mill tailings impoundment in South China. 80 species belonging to 67 genera in 32 families were recorded in the sampling sites. The Poaceae and Asteraceae were the dominant families colonizing the impoundment. The number of the plant species and vegetation community composition in the sampling sites seemed most closely related to the activities of (226)Ra and the pH value of the uranium tailings. The plant species in the sampling sites with relatively low activities of (226)Ra and relatively high pH value formed a relatively stable vegetation community. The plant species in the sampling sites with medium activities of (226)Ra and medium pH value formed the transitional vegetation community. The plant species in the sampling sites with relatively high activities of (226)Ra and relatively low pH value formed a simple unstable vegetation community that was similar to that on the unused grassland. The activities of (226)Ra and transfer factors (TFs) varied greatly with the plant species. The high activities of (226)Ra and TFs were found in the leaves of Pteris multifida (150.6 Bq/g of AW; 9.131), Pteridium aquilinum (122.2 Bq/g of AW; 7.409), and Dryopteris scottii (105.7 Bq/g of AW; 6.408). They satisfied the criteria for a hyperaccumulator for (226)Ra. They may be the candidates for phytoremediation of (226)Ra in the uranium mill tailings impoundment areas and the contaminated soils around.

  19. Polyphenol Content and Modulatory Activities of Some Tropical Dietary Plant Extracts on the Oxidant Activities of Neutrophils and Myeloperoxidase

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    Thierry Franck


    Full Text Available Young leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae, Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae, Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae are currently consumed as green vegetables by peoples in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Asia and their migrants living in Western Europe. Sub-Saharan peoples use Manihot, Abelmoschus and Hibiscus also in the folk medicine to alleviate fever and pain, in the treatment of conjunctivitis, rheumatism, hemorrhoid, abscesses, ... The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extracts of those plants on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO by equine neutrophils activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. The ROS production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL, and the release of total MPO by an ELISA method. The study also investigates the effect of the extracts on the activity of MPO by studying its nitration activity on tyrosine and by using a new technique called SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection that allows studying the direct interaction of compounds with the enzyme. In all experiments, the aqueous extracts of the plants developed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. A moderate heat treatment did not significantly modify the inhibitory capacity of the extracts in comparison to not heated ones. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were determined with an HPLC-UV/DAD analysis and a spectroscopic method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Some polyphenols with well-known antioxidant activities (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rosmarinic acid and rutin were found in the extracts and may partly explain the inhibitory activities observed. The role of those dietary and medicinal plants in the treatment of ROS-dependent inflammatory diseases could have new considerations for health.

  20. Land-use induced dynamics of C, N and P in mountain soils of South Ecuador (United States)

    Hamer, U.; Potthast, K.; Makeschin, F.


    The mountain rainforest region in South Ecuador is characterised by sites subjected to forest clearing by slash burn for pasture production. Repeated burning of pastures is a common management practice in South Ecuador. With ongoing pasture age bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum) outcompetes the pasture grass (Setaria sphacelata), pastures are abandoned and a vegetation succession develops. Along a land-use gradient (natural forest, young and old pasture, abandoned pasture with successional vegetation) the dynamics of C, N and P in the mountain soils were investigated. The study sites were located close to the "Estacion Científica San Francisco", about halfway between the province capitals Loja and Zamora, in the Cordillera Real, an eastern range of the South Ecuadorian Andes at about 2000 m above sea level. The mean annual air temperature is 15.3°C with an average annual rainfall of 2176 mm. The land-use change induced an increase of total P in the top soil (0-30 cm) of young and old pastures. An increase in SOC stocks in the top soil of the old pasture was combined with an increase in the proportion of NaOH extractable organic P. In the young pasture soil the mineralization of SOC and the amounts of microbial biomass C, N and P were highest. In 0-5 cm depth gross N mineralization and gross NH4 consumption rates were significantly higher in the young pasture compared to forest and abandoned pasture. Thus, the initial increase in microbial activity after forest to pasture conversion seems to slow down with increasing pasture age. Burning on the abandoned pasture site induced a short-term and short-lived increase in gross N mineralization rates. First results indicate that the land-use induced changes in mineralization rates were connected with changes in the microbial community structure.

  1. Plant Community and Ecological Environment in Truffle Producing Area of Miyi, Panzhihua, Sichuan%四川攀枝花米易县块菌产区植物群落及生态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小林; 柳成益; 唐平; 杨梅; 清源; 贾定洪; 郑林用


    调查了四川省攀枝花市米易县块菌产区的植物群落及生态环境情况.结果表明,米易县块菌产区的优势物种共有蕨类植物3科3属3种及种子植物29科52属64种,其中裸子植物2科3属3种,双子叶植物25科41属51种,单子叶植物4科11属13种,.该区域植物群落结构表现一定多样性,主要优势植物为云南松(Pinusyunnanensis)、云南油杉(Keteleeria evelyniana)、青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glauca)、桤木(Alnus cremastogyne)等乔木,马桑(Coriaria nepalensis)、杜鹃(Rhododendron simsii、南烛(Vaccinium bracteatum)、羊耳菊(Inula cappa)、紫茎泽兰(Ageratina adenophora)、地果(Ficus tikoua)等灌木及草本,蕨萁(Botrychium virginianum)、蕨(Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var.latiusculum)及翠云草(Selaginella uncinata)等蕨类植物.该区域块菌的寄主主要为栓皮栎(Quercus variabilis、青冈、云南松、槲栎(Quercus aliena、白栎(Quercus fabri)、厚皮香(Ternstroemia gymnanthera)及刺叶高山栎(Quercus spinosa等.影响样地分布的植物种类主要为云南油杉、青冈、小叶青冈(Cyclobalanopsis gracilis)、桤木、黄果悬钩子(Rubus xanthocarpus)、凉山悬钩子(Rubus fockeanus)、厚皮香、羊耳菊、紫茎泽兰、地果、蕨萁及蕨等植物;影响样地分布的主要生态因子依次为坡度、乔灌木盖度、郁闭度及植被盖度.

  2. Importância econômica, epidemiologia e controle das intoxicações por plantas no Brasil

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    Clarice R.M. Pessoa


    Full Text Available A importância econômica, epidemiologia e controle das intoxicações por plantas em animais domésticos no Brasil são revisadas. Com os dados dos laboratórios de diagnóstico de diferentes regiões do país, as perdas anuais por mortes de animais foram estimadas em 820.761 a 1.755.763 bovinos, 399.800 a 445.309 ovinos, 52.675 a 63.292 caprinos e 38.559 equinos. No Brasil, atualmente, o número de plantas tóxicas é de 131 espécies e 79 gêneros e aumenta permanentemente. No entanto, a maioria das perdas são causadas por poucas plantas, incluindo Palicourea marcgravii, Amorimia spp., Senecio spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Ateleia glazioviana e Cestrum laevigatum em bovinos, Brachiaria spp em bovinos e ovinos, Nierembergia veitchii, Mimosa tenuiflora e Ipomoea asarifolia em ovinos, plantas que contêm swainsonina (Ipomoea carnea, Turbina cordata e Sida carpinifolia em caprinos e Brachiaria humidicola e Crotalaria retusa em equinos. Os principais fatores epidemiológicos relacionados às intoxicações por plantas incluem palatabilidade, fome, sede, facilitação social, desconhecimento da planta, acesso a plantas tóxicas, dose tóxica, período de ingestão, variações de toxicidade e resistência/susceptibilidade dos animais às intoxicações. Quanto aos métodos de controle e profilaxia descrevem-se os resultados obtidos no Brasil com métodos recentemente desenvolvidos, incluindo controle biológico, aversão alimentar condicionada, utilização de variedades não tóxicas de forrageiras, utilização de animais resistentes às intoxicações e técnicas de indução de resistência.

  3. Flora and vegetation of Rio Torto area in Brasimone ENEA Centre, Bologna; Flora e vegetazione dell'area Rio Torto nel centro ENEA del Brasimone, Bologna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mei, M.; Varriale, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente


    The Rio Torto area, on the northern slope of the Tosco-Emiliano Apennine, in the C.R. Enea Brasimone property, has been the object of a research study on flora and vegetation to delineate the vegetal coverage and to evaluate the vegetal population changes. The study on vegetation has been carried out using the Braun-Blanquet method, a flora-statistical approach based on an accurate analysis of the flora and on statistical sampling of the studied object. Data has been analysed using the SYN-TAX-Multivariate Data Analysis software package, in order to get out a classification and, therefore, some syn-taxonomic levels in vegetation. Result is a dendogram with clusters connected by transverse lines and organised in a Hierarchical Clustering system. The dominant species in the Rio Torto area is beech; elements of the Arrhenatheretalia association are well-represented at the lower edge of the wood, while a broad glade characterised by Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, by Prunus spinosa L. and by Crataegus monogyna Jacq is at the upper edge. Grassy undergrowth is dominated by Eurasian and boreal elements and, from a physiognomic-structural point of view, is quite rich. The biological spectrum analysis points up the particularly high value of the hemicryptophytes: this result couldn't be justified by the mountainous nature of the zone but it could be considered a sign of stress. From the vegetation and phytosociological study, a classification of the beech population on the basis of the complex of characteristics is gained; in this classification, the beech population is fitted in the order Fagetalia Pawl, 1928 (Ubaldi and Speranza, 1985) and in the alliance Fagion Sylvaticae medioeuropeo (Luquet 1926) Tx and Diemont 1936. No particular association has been identified within the alliance, because is not possible to detect a species well-defined contingent. Ecologically more demanding species absence and non-characteristic entities intrusion is linked to the general state

  4. Flora and vegetation of Rio Torto area in Brasimone ENEA Centre, Bologna; Flora e vegetazione dell'area Rio Torto nel centro ENEA del Brasimone, Bologna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mei, M.; Varriale, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente


    The Rio Torto area, on the northern slope of the Tosco-Emiliano Apennine, in the C.R. Enea Brasimone property, has been the object of a research study on flora and vegetation to delineate the vegetal coverage and to evaluate the vegetal population changes. The study on vegetation has been carried out using the Braun-Blanquet method, a flora-statistical approach based on an accurate analysis of the flora and on statistical sampling of the studied object. Data has been analysed using the SYN-TAX-Multivariate Data Analysis software package, in order to get out a classification and, therefore, some syn-taxonomic levels in vegetation. Result is a dendogram with clusters connected by transverse lines and organised in a Hierarchical Clustering system. The dominant species in the Rio Torto area is beech; elements of the Arrhenatheretalia association are well-represented at the lower edge of the wood, while a broad glade characterised by Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, by Prunus spinosa L. and by Crataegus monogyna Jacq is at the upper edge. Grassy undergrowth is dominated by Eurasian and boreal elements and, from a physiognomic-structural point of view, is quite rich. The biological spectrum analysis points up the particularly high value of the hemicryptophytes: this result couldn't be justified by the mountainous nature of the zone but it could be considered a sign of stress. From the vegetation and phytosociological study, a classification of the beech population on the basis of the complex of characteristics is gained; in this classification, the beech population is fitted in the order Fagetalia Pawl, 1928 (Ubaldi and Speranza, 1985) and in the alliance Fagion Sylvaticae medioeuropeo (Luquet 1926) Tx and Diemont 1936. No particular association has been identified within the alliance, because is not possible to detect a species well-defined contingent. Ecologically more demanding species absence and non-characteristic entities intrusion is linked to the general state

  5. Doenças de bovinos no Sul do Brasil: 6.706 casos Diseases of cattle in southern Brazil: 6.706 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Lucena


    Full Text Available As doenças que acometem bovinos na região Sul do Brasil foram analisadas através de um estudo dos protocolos de necropsia de 6.706 bovinos examinados pelo Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Santa (LPV-UFSM, Rio Grande do Sul, de 1964-2008. Desses, 20,9% foram necropsias realizadas no LPV-UFSM e 79,1% foram amostras de tecidos submetidos por veterinários de campo. Dos 6.706 exames, 62,9% tinham diagnóstico conclusivo. A autólise ou material insuficiente foram as principais razões para a ocorrência de casos com diagnóstico inconclusivo. A intoxicação por Senecio spp. foi a principal causa de morte de bovinos neste estudo. As plantas tóxicas e as toxiinfecções juntas, responderam por 22,8% dos casos com diagnóstico conclusivo. As doenças inflamatórias e as parasitoses juntas contribuíram com mais de 30% das doenças de bovinos e a tristeza parasitária bovina foi a principal doença nessa categoria. As demais categorias distribuíram-se na seguinte ordem: neoplasmas e lesões tumoriformes (13,87%, doenças causadas por agentes físicos (2,7%, doenças metabólicas e nutricionais (2,46%, distúrbios circulatórios (1,4%, doenças degenerativas (1,1%, distúrbios do desenvolvimento (0,54%, distúrbios iatrogênicos (0,16%, distúrbios imunogênicos (0,19% e, outros distúrbios (0,21%. A alta prevalência de tumores em bovinos foi atribuída a ingestão crônica de Pteridium aquilinum, uma toxicose comum na região. As principais doenças de bovinos na região estudada estão relacionadas a fatores ambientais resultante do manejo característico de criação predominantemente extensiva adotado na região.The diseases affecting cattle in southern Brazil were studied through a review of the necropsy reports filed at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (LPV-UFSM, Rio Grande do Sul, and pertaining to the examination of 6.076 cattle during 1964-2008. Of those

  6. Cáncer gástrico en Costa Rica: ¿existe o no relación con la cloración del agua para consumo humano?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darner A Mora Alvarado


    Full Text Available El cáncer gástrico (CG es el tumor maligno con mayor mortalidad en hombres en Costa Rica. En el caso de las mujeres ocupa el segundo lugar, después del cáncer de mama. Desde el punto de vista histológico, el CG se divide en dos tipos: el primero es el "difuso" y su etiología ha sido relacionada con factores genéticos. El segundo tipo es el "intestinal", vinculado con la exposición a cancerígenos ambientales como sustancias químicas tóxicas, altitud geográfica, edad, etc. En este sentido, algunos investigadores han estudiado las posibles relaciones de factores epidemiológicos y ecológicos, como las características físicoquímicas de las aguas para consumo humano (ACH, los suelos, los plaguicidas usados en los cultivos, y la ingesta de cancerígenos en la leche como el Pteridium aquilinum (helecho macho. Con respecto al ACH, a partir de 1974, se ha relacionado la cloración del agua con la formación de subproductos de la desinfección como el cloroformo y el bromoformo, llamados trihalometanos, con potencial cancerígeno para favorecer la incidencia de CG en la población. Estos hechos, aunados al sensacionalismo periodísticohan provocado inseguridad e incertidumbre entre la población consumidora de aguas sometidas a cloración. En razón de esto, se realizó un estudio exploratorio-epidemiológicoecológico, con el objetivo de analizar si existe o no relación estadísticamente significativa entre la incidencia de CG y el consumo de agua clorada en Costa Rica. Para cumplir con este objetivo, se utilizaron los resultados de mortalidad por CG en 458 distritos (trienio 1999-2001 y los datos aportados por el Laboratorio Nacional de Aguas sobre el tipo de ACH (clorada o no, la antigüedad de la desinfección y el origen de la fuente de agua (subterránea, superficial o mixta. En el análisis estadístico se usó el Índice de Mortalidad Estandarizado (IME y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Los resultados demostraron

  7. 77 FR 15798 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    .... History and Description of the Cultural Items At an unknown date, a basket (item 1-3-42/86) was donated to... bracken fern root. There are no records at the Treganza Museum concerning acquisition of this item. Based... of 44 cm and is made of deer grass, saw grass, redbud and bracken fern root. A tag attached to...

  8. Occurrence of the carcinogenic compound ptaquiloside in the soil environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Kroghsbo, Stine; Frisvad, Jens Christian


    -content in the standing biomass, which could be transferred to the soil by the end of the growing season, ranged between 10 and 260 mgm2, with nine sites having ptaquiloside loads over 100 mgm2. The carbon-content in the O-horizon, the precipitation, the amount of Bracken-litter, the turnover rate and the size of Bracken...

  9. Fungal Planet description sheets: 469-557. (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Hardy, G E St J; Crane, C; Barrett, S; Cano-Lira, J F; Le Roux, J J; Thangavel, R; Guarro, J; Stchigel, A M; Martín, M P; Alfredo, D S; Barber, P A; Barreto, R W; Baseia, I G; Cano-Canals, J; Cheewangkoon, R; Ferreira, R J; Gené, J; Lechat, C; Moreno, G; Roets, F; Shivas, R G; Sousa, J O; Tan, Y P; Wiederhold, N P; Abell, S E; Accioly, T; Albizu, J L; Alves, J L; Antoniolli, Z I; Aplin, N; Araújo, J; Arzanlou, M; Bezerra, J D P; Bouchara, J-P; Carlavilla, J R; Castillo, A; Castroagudín, V L; Ceresini, P C; Claridge, G F; Coelho, G; Coimbra, V R M; Costa, L A; da Cunha, K C; da Silva, S S; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; Dueñas, M; Edwards, J; Enwistle, P; Fiuza, P O; Fournier, J; García, D; Gibertoni, T B; Giraud, S; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Haituk, S; Heykoop, M; Hirooka, Y; Hofmann, T A; Houbraken, J; Hughes, D P; Kautmanová, I; Koppel, O; Koukol, O; Larsson, E; Latha, K P D; Lee, D H; Lisboa, D O; Lisboa, W S; López-Villalba, Á; Maciel, J L N; Manimohan, P; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Marney, T S; Meijer, M; Miller, A N; Olariaga, I; Paiva, L M; Piepenbring, M; Poveda-Molero, J C; Raj, K N A; Raja, H A; Rougeron, A; Salcedo, I; Samadi, R; Santos, T A B; Scarlett, K; Seifert, K A; Shuttleworth, L A; Silva, G A; Silva, M; Siqueira, J P Z; Souza-Motta, C M; Stephenson, S L; Sutton, D A; Tamakeaw, N; Telleria, M T; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Viljoen, A; Visagie, C M; Vizzini, A; Wartchow, F; Wingfield, B D; Yurchenko, E; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z


    exuvialis, Paracladophialophora carceris (incl. Paracladophialophora gen. nov.) on Aloe sp., and Umthunziomyces hagahagensis (incl. Umthunziomyces gen. nov.) on Mimusops caffra.Spain: Clavaria griseobrunnea on bare ground in Pteridium aquilinum field, Cyathus ibericus on small fallen branches of Pinus halepensis, Gyroporus pseudolacteus in humus of Pinus pinaster, and Pseudoascochyta pratensis (incl. Pseudoascochyta gen. nov.) from soil. Thailand: Neoascochyta adenii on Adenium obesum, and Ochroconis capsici on Capsicum annuum. UK: Fusicolla melogrammae from dead stromata of Melogramma campylosporum on bark of Carpinus betulus. Uruguay: Myrmecridium pulvericola from house dust. USA: Neoscolecobasidium agapanthi (incl. Neoscolecobasidium gen. nov.) on Agapanthus sp., Polyscytalum purgamentum on leaf litter, Pseudopithomyces diversisporus from human toenail, Saksenaea trapezispora from knee wound of a soldier, and Sirococcus quercus from Quercus sp. Morphological and culture characteristics along with DNA barcodes are provided.

  10. Laboratory Infrastructure Capabilities Study. Phase 1. Part 1: Introduction and Summary. (United States)


    David R. Graham Paul H. Richanbach Edwin S. Townsley Richard J. Bergemann Harold E. Bertrand H. Jerome Bracken Al E. Brenner Robert J. Bontz Joan...David R. Graham Paul H. Richanbach Edwin S. Townsley Richard J. Bergemann Harold E. Bertrand H. Jerome Bracken Al E. Brenner Robert J. Bontz Joan...34outsource" performers. On July 19, 1994, the panels briefed Dr. Anita Jones, the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, on their findings, and

  11. Strategic Material Shortfall Risk Mitigation Optimization Model (OPTIM-SM) (United States)


    contracts, could be added to the existing mix . Market 40 responses to supply and demand shocks could be modeled more explicitly as could...Model (OPTIM-SM) James S. Thomason, Project Leader D. Sean Barnett James P. Bell Jerome Bracken Eleanor L. Schwartz INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850...Risk Mitigation Optimization Model (OPTIM-SM) James S. Thomason, Project Leader D. Sean Barnett James P. Bell Jerome Bracken Eleanor L. Schwartz iii

  12. Developments in Theater Level War Games. Materials for the C-5 Working Group ’Gaming and Simulation, of the 35th Session of the Military Operations Research Society (United States)


    SHIFT TOWARDS COMMONALITY. MUST GIVE SAME IMPROVEMENT PRIORITY AS PROCESS OF MODELING AND SIMULATION. THEATER FORCE EVALUATION SYSTEM by J. A. Bruner P. E...Theater-level; Conventional combat 3037 0o A SUMMARY OF IDA GROUND-AIR MODEL I (IDAGAM I) Lowell Bruce Anderson Jerome Bracken James G. Healy Mary J... Jerome Bracken, James G. Healy, Mary J. Hutzler, and Edward P. Kerlin, IDA Ground-Air Model I (IDAGAM I), Vol. Z: Comprehensive Description; Vol. 2

  13. Speciation of organic matter in sandy soil size fractions as revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and FT-IR spectroscopy (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; de la Rosa, José M.; González-Pérez, José A.


    This research deals with the assessment of organic matter structural differences in soil physical fractions before and after lipid extractions. Soil samples were collected in sandy soils, Arenosols (WRB 2006) from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) under different vegetation cover: cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Two size fractions; coarse (C: 1-2 mm) and fine (F: 0.05-0.25 mm) were studied from each soil. . In addition, the two fractions from each soil were exhaustively Soxhlet extracted with a Dichlorometane-Methanol (3:1) mixture to obtain the lipid-free fractions (LF) from each size fraction (LFC and LFF). The composition of the organic matter at a molecular level in the different soil fractions was approached by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and FT-IR spectroscopy. These techniques are complementary and have been found suitable for the structural characterization of complex organic matrices (Moldoveanu, 1998; Piccolo and Stevenson, 1982); whereas Py-GC/MS provides detailed structural information of individual compounds present and a finger-printing of soil organic matter, FT-IR is informative about major functional groups present. The advantages of these techniques are well known: no need for pretreatment are fast to perform, highly reproducible and only small amount of samples are needed. Soil size fractions show contrasting differences in organic matter content (C 4-7 % and F > 40 %) and conspicuous differences were found in the pyrolysis products released by the fractions studied. The main families of pyrolysis compounds have well defined macromolecular precursors, such as lignin, polypeptides, polysaccharides and lipids (González-Vila et al., 2001). The C fractions yield higher relative abundance of lignin and polysaccharide derived pyrolysis compounds. Regarding the differences in the soil organic matter as affected by the different vegetation covers

  14. What is the role played by organic matter fractions from different sieve-size particles in the development of soil water repellency? A case study using analytical pyrolysis. (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio; Jiménez-González, Marco A.


    1. INTRODUCTION It is known that soil water repellency (WR) is induced by organic substances covering the surface of minerals particles and aggregates or present as interstitial substances in the soil matrix. It has also been suggested that the persistence of WR is largely conditioned by specific chemical characteristics of soil organic matter (SOM). Most of these substances are abundant in ecosystems and are released into soils as exudates of roots, organic residues in decomposition, or secretions by fungi and other microorganisms. Soil free lipids correspond to a diverse collection of hydrophobic substances including complex substances as sterols, terpenes, polynuclear hydrocarbons, chlorophylls, fatty acids, waxes, and resins. Some of these organic substances, responsible of soil water repellency may be studied using analytical pyrolisis (de la Rosa et al., 2011; González-Pérez et al., 2011). This research aims to study the relation between soil WR and SOM quantity and quality, assessing the impact of organic fractions and its distribution in soil particles of different size on soil WR from sandy soils. 2. METHODS Soil samples were collected under selected species growing in sandy soils from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain), cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Soil WR and physical chemical characteristics including SOM content were assessed in fine earth soil samples (PA>PP>HH. A positive correlation was observed between WR from each sieve size fraction and SOM content. The most severe WR was detected in QS for all sieve size fractions, followed by the finer fractions form PA, PP and HH samples, which that also shows the highest SOM content, ranging between 20.9% (PP) and 46.9% (QS). Coarser soil fractions (1-2 mm) under PA, PP and HH showed the highest long-chain-even C numbered fatty acids (LCE-FA) in the order PP>PA>HH. No fatty acids were detected neither

  15. Pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis (δ13C and δD Py-CSIA) of soil organic matter size fractions under four vegetation covers. (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Almendros, Gonzalo; De la Rosa, José M.; González-Pérez, José A.


    A chemical characterization of soil organic matter (SOM) under different ground cover from a Mediterranean climate (Doñana National Park, Andalusia, Spain) is approached using bulk δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and δD isotopic analysis (C/TC-IRMS) and δ13C and δD pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis (Py-CSIA: Py-GC-C/TC-IRMS). Soil samples were collected in sandy soils, Arenosols (WRB 2006) from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) under different vegetation cover: cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Two size fractions; coarse (C: 1-2 mm) and fine (F: <0.05 mm) were studied from each soil. A complete conventional analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) of these samples have been studied in detail (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2015). Bulk isotopic analysis of stable light elements (δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and δD) revealed particular isotopic signatures showing differences related with the main vegetation cover and the different soil size fraction. All samples had a carbon isotopic signature between -26 and -29 ‰, which indicated that the organic matter in the two fractions of each soil sample derived from C3-type plants. The bulk δD isotopic signature in whole soil sample indicate a lower deuterium fractionation occurs in SOM under arboreal than under no-arboreal vegetation, this can be caused by the occurrence of a higher water evaporation rate under bush vegetation and/or to differences due to leaf morphology as previously described (Leaney et al., 1985). A δ15N vs. δ18O chart may provide some clues about N origin in the soil and particularly about the original source of nitrates (Kendall et al., 1996). In in all sample and size fractions our values are in the chart area corresponding to NO3 in precipitation, with lighter δ18O (c. 20 ‰) values compatible with fertilizers may be from adjacent crops. In addition we were able to assign δ13C and δD values for a number of

  16. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ptaquiloside and pterosin B in preserved natural water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun; Strobel, Bjarne W.


    The naturally occurring carcinogen ptaquiloside and its degradation product pterosin B are found in water leaching from bracken stands. The objective of this work is to present a new sample preservation method and a fast UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of ptaquiloside and pterosin B...... at realistic transportation and storing conditions prior to extraction. Groundwater samples collected in November 2015 at the shallow water table below a Danish bracken stand were preserved and analyzed using the above methods, and PTA concentrations of 3.8 ± 0.24 μg/L (±sd, n = 3) were found, much higher than...

  17. Effects of thermo-chemical pre-treatment on anaerobic biodegradability and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, T.; Klaasse Bos, G.J.; Zeeman, G.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Lier, van J.B.


    The effects of different thermo-chemical pre-treatment methods were determined on the biodegradability and hydrolysis rate of lignocellulosic biomass. Three plant species, hay, straw and bracken were thermo-chemically pre-treated with calcium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate and maleic acid. After pre-

  18. Mount St. Helens, Washington Feasibility Report & Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1: Main Report (United States)


    bracken fern, Oregon grape, fireweed, pearly everlasting, thimbleberry and false dandelion (in decreasing order) had the greatest relative frequencies in...Green River. WDF and Weyerhaeuser have already initiated revegetation of Elk Creek, another Green River tributary, with flowering dogwood, wild rose

  19. Crowding and Cognitive Development: The Mediating Role of Maternal Responsiveness among 36-Month-Old Children (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Ricciuti, Henry N.; Hope, Steven; Schoon, Ingrid; Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Hazan, Cindy


    Residential crowding in both U.S. and U.K. samples of 36-month-old children is related concurrently to the Bracken scale, a standard index of early cognitive development skills including letter and color identification, shape recognition, and elementary numeric comprehension. In the U.S. sample, these effects also replicate prospectively.…

  20. Crowding and Cognitive Development: The Mediating Role of Maternal Responsiveness among 36-Month-Old Children (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Ricciuti, Henry N.; Hope, Steven; Schoon, Ingrid; Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Hazan, Cindy


    Residential crowding in both U.S. and U.K. samples of 36-month-old children is related concurrently to the Bracken scale, a standard index of early cognitive development skills including letter and color identification, shape recognition, and elementary numeric comprehension. In the U.S. sample, these effects also replicate prospectively.…

  1. Concurrent Validity of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (United States)

    Hooper, V. Scott; Bell, Sherry Mee


    One hundred elementary- and middle-school students were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; B.A. Bracken & R.S. McCallum, 1998) and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R; G.H. Roid & L.J. Miller, 1997). Correlations between UNIT and Leiter-R scores were statistically significant ( p less than…

  2. Effects of thermo-chemical pre-treatment on anaerobic biodegradability and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, T.; Klaasse Bos, G.J.; Zeeman, G.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Lier, van J.B.


    The effects of different thermo-chemical pre-treatment methods were determined on the biodegradability and hydrolysis rate of lignocellulosic biomass. Three plant species, hay, straw and bracken were thermo-chemically pre-treated with calcium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate and maleic acid. After

  3. Molecular phylogenetics of American snapping shrimps allied to Alpheus floridanus Kingsley, 1878 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae). (United States)

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Robles, Rafael; Felder, Darryl L


    Widely distributed populations of the snapping shrimp, Alpheus floridanus Kinglsey, 1878, from the eastern Pacific and western and eastern Atlantic Ocean have long been suspected to represent different species due to extreme morphological variation among conspecifics. A companion study (Bracken-Grissom & Felder 2014) contains redescriptions of two western Atlantic species (A. floridanus Kingsley 1878 sensu stricto and A. platycheirus Boone, 1927), assignments of the original syntypes for A. floridanus, descriptions of three new species from the Atlantic and eastern Pacific (A. hephaestus Bracken-Grissom & Felder, 2014; A. roblesi Bracken-Grissom & Felder, 2014; A. ulalae Bracken-Grissom & Felder, 2014), and discussion of the relationship of the eastern Atlantic A. floridanus africanus Balss, 1916. The present study underpins all these findings by application of molecular phylogenetic techniques. Analysis of partial sequences of the 16S, 12S, and COI mitochondrial genes separate species throughout the eastern Pacific and the eastern and western Atlantic. Morphological comparisons suggested that the two syntypes of A. floridanus belong to different species, and molecular results in this study confirm this separation. Genetic data suggest a strong affinity between the western Atlantic A. platycheirus and the eastern Pacific A. hephaestus. Close relationships are evident between trans-Atlantic species, A. floridanus africanus and A. floridanus, a pattern also seen for other cryptic and pseudocryptic species of Alpheus. Alpheus roblesi and A. ulalae represent early-branching lineages within the complex. In some cases, molecular phylogenetic relationships between members of the A. floridanus complex can be reconciled with postulated biogeographic history.

  4. Cultural-Linguistic Test Adaptations: Guidelines for Selection, Alteration, Use, and Review (United States)

    Krach, S. Kathleen; McCreery, Michael P.; Guerard, Jessika


    In 1991, Bracken and Barona wrote an article for "School Psychology International" focusing on state of the art procedures for translating and using tests across multiple languages. Considerable progress has been achieved in this area over the 25 years between that publication and today. This article seeks to provide a more current set…

  5. On the CONAF Evaluation Model (United States)


    author is indebted to Lowell Bruce Anderson and Jerome Bracken of the Institute for Defense Analyses for many helpful conversations during the...set straight the author’s thinking on a number of points. Joseph Bruner of the Institute for Defense Analyses and Philip Lowry of the General

  6. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications Program: Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation Literature Evaluation and Assessment, 1986-1987 Literature Review. (United States)


    and electric fields downwind of HVDC transmission lines. Vernon Chartier of the Bonneville Power Administration presented their work measuring the...phase-advances. Torpor remained essentially unaffected. Dr. Walter R. Rogers of the Department of Bioengineering, Southwest Research Institute...Bracken, Inc. (Portland, OR ) and V.L. Chartier (Bonneville Power Administration, Vancouver, WA) reported preliminary data on the measurements of

  7. Sporopollen and algae research of core B106 in the northern South China Sea and its paleoenvironmental evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the high-resolution sporopollen and algae research of the sediments from core B106 in the northem South China Sea,three sporopollen assemblage zones have been distinguished in ascending order:Zone 1 (294-194 cm):pinus-Quercus (evergreen)-Gramineae-Polypodia-ceae- Pterdium-Dicranopteris.Zone 2 (194-94 cm):Pinus-Quercus (evergreen)-Polypodiaceae-Pteridium- Dicranopteris.Zone 3 (94-4 cm):Pinus-Polypodiaceae-Pteridium-Quercus(evergreen)-Dicranopteris.The three sporopollen zones correspond to three stages of vegetation,climate and paleoenvironment evolution of the northern part of the South China Sea since 11 000 years ago.Combined with AMS 14C dating,the sporopollen and algae data can be a scientific basis for stratigraphic division and reconstruction of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in the South China Sea.

  8. Mississippi River Headwaters Reservoirs. Minnesota Master Plan for Public Use Development and Resource Management. (United States)


    single entrance to the site. The success of that plan is contingent upon upgrading the existing road over the dam. The Waterways Experiment Station has...Severe weather conditions during the winter months curtail much of the mineral extraction and harvesting work. During spring and fall, forestry and...Honeysuckle Mourning Dove Raspberry Woodpecker HERBS Crow Lily of the Valley Warblers Bracken Fern Wood Thrush Goldenrod REPTILES & AMPHIBIANS Frog

  9. Understanding Commanders’ Information Needs for Influence Operations (United States)


    Michaelis, “Winning the Peace: The Requirement for Full-Spectrum Operations,” Military Review, July–August 2005, pp. 4–17. Cialdini , Robert B., and Noah James P. Kahan, D. Robert Worley, and Cath- leen Stasz, Understanding Commanders’ Information Needs, R-3761-1, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND...Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 2006; and Walter L. Perry, Robert W. Button, Jerome Bracken, Thomas Sullivan, and Jonathan Mitchell, Mea- sures

  10. Supply Chain Modeling for Fluorspar and Hydrofluoric Acid and Implications for Further Analyses (United States)


    analysis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS supply chain , model, fluorspar, hydrofluoric acid, shortfall, substitution, Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense...unlimited. IDA Document D-5379 Log: H 15-000099 INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1882 Supply Chain ...E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5379 D. Sean Barnett Jerome Bracken Supply Chain Modeling for Fluorspar and Hydrofluoric Acid and

  11. Sub-Saharan Africa Report (United States)


    patrol the streets night and day, playing military music and blaring put propaganda saying they are there to stabilise and protect and give blacks a...recognition of Bophutha- tswana citizenship for Mrs Y, enabling her to work in Johannesburg. • Mr C, a teenager , was ar- rested by the police after...Kinross’ results re- flected the mine fire losses, with production and earnings down no- ticeably. Bracken, rap - idly nearing the end of its

  12. Land Cover Change in the Andes of Southern Ecuador—Patterns and Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia F. Curatola Fernández


    Full Text Available In the megadiverse tropical mountain forest in the Andes of southern Ecuador, a global biodiversity hotspot, the use of fire to clear land for cattle ranching is leading to the invasion of an aggressive weed, the bracken fern, which is threatening diversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services. To find sustainable land use options adapted to the local situation, a profound knowledge of the long-term spatiotemporal patterns of land cover change and its drivers is necessary, but hitherto lacking. The complex topography and the high cloud frequency make the use of remote sensing in this area a challenge. To deal with these conditions, we pursued specific pre-processing steps before classifying five Landsat scenes from 1975 to 2001. Then, we quantified land cover changes and habitat fragmentation, and we investigated landscape changes in relation to key spatial elements (altitude, slope, and distance from roads. Good classification results were obtained with overall accuracies ranging from 94.5% to 98.5% and Kappa statistics between 0.75 and 0.98. Forest was strongly fragmented due to the rapid expansion of the arable frontier and the even more rapid invasion by bracken. Unexpectedly, more bracken-infested areas were converted to pastures than vice versa, a practice that could alleviate pressure on forests if promoted. Road proximity was the most important spatial element determining forest loss, while for bracken the altitudinal range conditioned the degree of invasion in deforested areas. The annual deforestation rate changed notably between periods: ~1.5% from 1975 to 1987, ~0.8% from 1987 to 2000, and finally a very high rate of ~7.5% between 2000 and 2001. We explained these inconstant rates through some specific interrelated local and national political and socioeconomic drivers, namely land use policies, credit and tenure incentives, demography, and in particular, a severe national economic and bank crisis.

  13. Graffiti and Art Education: "They Don't Understand How I Feel about the FUNK" (United States)

    Hampton, Rosalind


    On the morning of October 31, 2010, three adolescents were killed by a rail Passenger train in Montreal, Canada, in a well-known area for Graffiti writers to paint. The engineer did not see five boys walking on the tracks and the children did not hear or see the train coming. 17-year-olds Dylan Ford, Ricardo Conesa, and Mitch Bracken-Guenet lost…

  14. Analysis to Inform Defense Planning Despite Austerity (United States)


    envisions going to policymakers (top yellow diamond ) to discuss what capabilities they wish to pursue further given results of the first-cut analysis...envisions going to policymakers to discuss what capabilities they wish to pursue further given results of the first-cut analysis (top yellow diamond ...2008; and related discussion from a larger workshop held by OSD (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics) ( Porter , Bracken, and Kneece, 2007). 89

  15. Improving NATO’s Military Posture. (United States)


    the French withdrew their forces from NAM1D control.1 This strategy is based on a triad consisting of US strategic nuclear forces, NAO’s theater...March 1983, pp. 30-31. 8. Paul Bracken, "Collateral Damage and Theatre Warfare," SurviyAv, September/October 1980, pp. 203-206. 9. Canby, p. 51. 10...Since NAM can no longer use French territory, it has many lines of communication running from north to south in what might become combat areas. Forces

  16. Workforce Planning in the Intelligence Community: A Retrospective (United States)


    individuals in one organization to serve in a different organization, and reward that behavior , I think we will get to this,” he told reporters...they are also the most time- and cost-intensive. Level 3 techniques are nor- mally reserved for processes that are important to the mission, consume ...Taylor, Richard Eisenman, William Fedorochko, Clifford M. Graf II, Mark Hoyer , Paul Bracken, Norman T. O’Meara, Jerry M. Sollinger, Judith Larson

  17. The new philosophy of psychiatry: its (recent) past, present and future: a review of the Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry (United States)

    Banner, Natalie F; Thornton, Tim


    There has been a recent growth in philosophy of psychiatry that draws heavily (although not exclusively) on analytic philosophy with the aim of a better understanding of psychiatry through an analysis of some of its fundamental concepts. This 'new philosophy of psychiatry' is an addition to both analytic philosophy and to the broader interpretation of mental health care. Nevertheless, it is already a flourishing philosophical field. One indication of this is the new Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry seven volumes of which (by Bolton and Hill; Bracken and Thomas; Fulford, Morris, Sadler, and Stanghellini; Hughes, Louw, and Sabat; Pickering; Sadler; and Stanghellini) are examined in this critical review.

  18. Academic underachievement, self-esteem and self-efficacy in decision making


    Pina Filippello; Luana Sorrenti; Rosalba Larcan; Amelia Rizzo


    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between decision making styles, self-esteem and self-beliefs about decision- making ability and the differences linked to academic performance. A sample of 100 students split into two groups aged 15-16 years and 17-18 years participated in the study. All subjects compiled the Multidimensional Self-esteem Test (T.M.A. – Bracken, 1993) for the evaluation of academic success and competence of environmental control and How I Make my Choices...

  19. Analytical examples, measurement models, and classical limit of quantum backflow (United States)

    Yearsley, J. M.; Halliwell, J. J.; Hartshorn, R.; Whitby, A.


    We investigate the backflow effect in elementary quantum mechanics—the phenomenon in which a state consisting entirely of positive momenta may have negative current and the probability flows in the opposite direction to the momentum. We compute the current and flux for states consisting of superpositions of Gaussian wave packets. These are experimentally realizable but the amount of backflow is small. Inspired by the numerical results of Penz [Penz, Grübl, Kreidl, and Wagner, J. Phys. AJPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/39/2/012 39, 423 (2006)], we find two nontrivial wave functions whose current at any time may be computed analytically and which have periods of significant backflow, in one case with a backward flux equal to about 70% of the maximum possible backflow, a dimensionless number cbm≈0.04, discovered by Bracken and Melloy [Bracken and Melloy, J. Phys. AJPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/27/6/040 27, 2197 (1994)]. This number has the unusual property of being independent of ℏ (and also of all other parameters of the model), despite corresponding to an obviously quantum-mechanical effect, and we shed some light on this surprising property by considering the classical limit of backflow. We discuss some specific measurement models in which backflow may be identified in certain measurable probabilities.

  20. A new conceptual framework for water and sediment connectivity (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi; Parsons, Tony; Nunes, Joao Pedro; Saco, Patricia


    For many years scientists have tried to understand, describe and quantify sediment transport on multiple scales; from the geomorphological work triggered by a single thunderstorm to the geological time scale land scape evolution, and from particles and soil aggregates up to the continental scale. In the last two decades, a new concept called connectivity (Baartman et al., 2013; Bracken et al., 2013, 2015; Parsons et al., 2015) has been used by the scientific community to describe the connection between the different scales at which the sediment redistribution research along the watershed are being studied: pedon, slope tram, slope, watersheds, and basins. This concept is seen as a means to describe and quantify the results of processes influencing the transport of sediment on all these scales. Therefore the concept of connectivity and the way scales are used in the design of a measurement and monitoring scheme are interconnected (Cerdà et al., 2012), which shows that connectivity is not only a tool for process understanding, but also a tool to measure processes on multiple scales. This research aims to describe catchment system dynamics from a connectivity point of view. This conceptual framework can be helpful to look at catchment systems and synthesize which data are necessary to take into account when measuring or modelling water and sediment transfer in catchment systems, Identifying common patterns and generalities will help discover physical reasons for differences in responses and interaction between these processes. We describe a conceptual framework which is meant to bring a better understanding of the system dynamics of a catchment in terms of water and sediment transfer by breaking apart the system dynamics in stocks (the system state at a given moment) and flows (the system fluxes). Breaking apart the internal system dynamics that determine the behaviour of the catchment system is in our opinion a way to bring a better insight into the concepts of

  1. Vegetation heterogeneity on a Late Pennsylvanian braided-river plain draining the Variscan Mountains, La Magdalena Coalfield, northwestern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashforth, Arden Roy; Falcon-Lang, Howard J; Gibling, Martin R


    The spatial heterogeneity and community ecology is reconstructed for Late Pennsylvanian (Stephanian B sensu lato) vegetation preserved in La Magdalena Coal¿eld, northwestern Spain. The ˜ 1500 m thick basin- ¿ll accumulated rapidly along the margin of the Variscan Mountains, and the principal...... pteridium, and Neuropteris ovata) accounting for ˜58% of all plant remains. Sphenopsids and lycopsids were less common but widespread, and cordaitaleans were rare. At the local scale, laterally exposed bedding planes reveal that communities comprised a complex and heterogeneous mosaic of species....... At the landscape scale, ecological gradients are evident from multivariate analyses of quadrats in a facies context. Pteridosperms dominated marginal wetlands adjacent to steep basin margins. A greater proportion of ferns occurred in or adjacent to braided channel belts, consistent with their opportunistic growth...

  2. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 detection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila R Wosiacki


    Full Text Available The bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 involvement in the aetiology of chronic enzootic haematuria associated to bracken fern ingestion has been suggested for a long time. However, a few reports have shown the presence of the BPV-2 in urinary bladder tumors of cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the BPV-2 infection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria in Brazilian cattle herds. Sixty-two urinary bladders were collected from adult cattle in beef herds from the north region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. According to clinical and pathological finds the specimens were distributed in three groups: the group A was constituted by 22 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected at necropsy of cattle with clinical signs of chronic enzootic haematuria; the group B by 30 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected in a slaughterhouse of cows coming from bracken fern-endemic geographical region; and the group C (control by 10 urinary bladders without macroscopic lesions collected from asymptomatic cattle in a bracken fern-free geographical region. By a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, with an internal control, a fragment of the BPV-2 L1 gene with 386 bp length was amplified in 36 (58% urinary bladder. The rate of BPV-2 positive urinary bladders was 50% (11/22 for group A, 80% (24/30 for group B, and 10% (1/10 for group C (control. The rate of the positive results found in groups A and B that included urinary bladder samples with macroscopic lesions was 67% (35/52 and the detection of the BPV-2 in both groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05 than in the control group. RFLP with Rsa I and Hae III enzymes evaluated the specificity of the BPV-2 amplicons. The PCR internal control that amplified a 626 bp fragment of the ND5 gene of the bovine mitochondrial genome was amplified in all analyzed samples and excluded false-negatives or invalid results in the semi


    Bütün Ayhan, Aynur; Aki, Esra; Mutlu, Burcu; Aral, Neriman


    Visual perception comprises established responses to visual stimuli. Conceptual development accompanies the development of visual perception skills. Both visual perception and sufficient conceptual development is vital to a child's academic skills and social participation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between conceptual development and visual perceptual skills of six-year-old children. 140 children were administered Bracken's (1998) Basic Concept Scale (BBCS-R) and the Frostig Developmental Visual Perception Test. BBCS-R scores were weakly correlated with FDVPT Discrimination of figure-ground, and had moderate and significant correlations with Constancy of the figures, Perception of position in space, Perception of spatial relation, and the Total score on visual perception. Also, a moderate correlation was found between the total scores of the FDVPT and the total score of the BBCS-R.

  4. Expression of gap junction protein connexin 43 in bovine urinary bladder tumours. (United States)

    Corteggio, A; Florio, J; Roperto, F; Borzacchiello, G


    The aetiopathogenesis of urinary bladder tumours in cattle involves prolonged ingestion of bracken fern and infection by bovine papillomavirus types 1 or 2 (BPV-1/2). The oncogenic activity of BPV is largely associated with the major oncoprotein E5. Gap junctions are the only communicating junctions found in animal tissues and are composed of proteins known as connexins. Alterations in connexin expression have been associated with oncogenesis. The present study investigated biochemically and immunohistochemically the expression of connexin 43 in samples of normal (n=2), dysplastic (n=3) and neoplastic (n=23) bovine urothelium. The tumours included 10 carcinomas in situ, five papillary urothelial carcinomas and eight invasive urothelial carcinomas. Normal and dysplastic urothelium had membrane expression of connexin 43, but this was reduced in samples of carcinoma in situ. Papillary urothelial carcinomas showed moderate cytoplasmic and membrane labelling, while invasive carcinoma showed loss of connexin 43 expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of urine dipstick and cystoscopy in bovine enzootic haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pavelski


    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine haematuria is mainly caused by the chronic ingestion of bracken fern and is still considered an important cause of economic losses in beef herds, particularly in large metropolitan areas of Brazil that are not suitable for agriculture (weak soil, steep hills.The aim of this paper was evaluate if there is a correlation between the degree of haematuria and the presence of lesions in the urinary bladder of cows with bovine enzootic haematuria (BEH.We evaluated the bladder of twenty Nelore cows with bracken fern intoxication using a flexible endoscope to describe the lesions present and we performed a rapid urine test with a chemical multiple-reagent commercial strips (Combur test Roche® – Swiss to check the degree of haematuria; then we correlated both results with the Spearman statistical test. All cows presented lesions in their bladder walls and the urine was visually reddish and positive for haematuria in the strips. Urine dipstick has shown to correlate with bladder lesion number. In the bladders of the euthanised animals, multiple sub-mucosal reddish nodules and multiple ecchymotic haemorrhages were seen macroscopically, and one bladder had a larger tumour with a 3cm diameter, which was determined to be a haemangioma by analysing the histopathology. We concluded that urine dipstick is a valuable device for bovine enzootic haematuria prognostic purposes and to evaluate the severity of lesions from the urinary bladder. Moreover, cystoscopy is an important diagnostic tool to assess bladder lesions in cattle. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the involvement of papillomaviruses and bladder tumour occurrence in these cows.

  6. Formation and Succession of Air-Seeded Pinus Tabulaerormis Forest in Zigui County%秭归飞播油松林的形成与演替

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳清; 卢斌; 潘家荣


    介绍了飞播油松林的形成与演替过程中群落的组成、成分消长以及群落结构变化的特征,并分析了影响飞播油松林的形成与演替的主要环境因素.%In the progress of forest 's formation and succession,an outstanding change of community is the increase of shading brought by the growth of Pinus tabulaeformis,which result in the changes of constitution and structure of communities.There are three successional communities in the investigated plot,the Pinus tabulaeformis-Lespedeza formosa - Spodiopogon cotulifer community,the Pinus tabulaeformis-Lespedeza formosa + Symplocos caudata-Spodiopogon cotulifer community and the Pinus tabulaeformi-Symplocos caudata-Pteridiu aquilinum community.The dynamics of component and the variation of community structure are studied.And factors affecting the progress of the forest' formation and succession are also discussed.

  7. Ecological recovery of affected areas by a forest fire in the Tintales watershed (Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Méndez


    Full Text Available The tintales watershed, located in the Santuario de Flora y Fauna (SFF of Iguaque, Boyaca, was affected by a wildfire. In that area, the natural regeneration was evaluated in 29 permanent plots. Two phyto-physiognomies, a rocky outcrop and oak were evaluated to compare their richness, diversity and dominance, with rocky outcrop yielding a greater richness and diversity. The Asteraceae family was the one that obtained greater representation, with a dominance of species such as Hypoxis decumbens, Pterídium aquilinum and Andropogon bicornis. The diversity in the whole sampling was low and uniform due to the repeated incidence of forest fires that have caused changes in the structure and composition of vegetation. The vegetation found did not differ substantially from other studies reported for this life zone and the region, where the dynamics of land use are similar, with high deforestation and fires. The vegetation established after the fire is dominated by colonizing and pioneering species. In the two phyto physiognomies studied after a year of the fire, two plant communities with statistically significant differences in wealth and homogeneity could be stablished. To start the restoration process, it is recommended to use as one of the inputs, the taxonomic differences found between oak  and rocky outcrop.

  8. Postglacial vegetation history of Orcas Island, northwestern Washington (United States)

    Leopold, Estella B.; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Whitlock, Cathy; Nickmann, Rudy; Watts, William A.


    The revegetation of islands following retreat of Pleistocene glaciers is of great biogeographical interest. The San Juan Islands, Washington, feature regionally distinctive xerophytic plant communities, yet their vegetation history, as it relates to past climate and sea level, is poorly known. We describe a 13,700-year-old pollen record from Killebrew Lake Fen and compare the vegetation reconstruction with others from the region. The data suggest that the narrow channels surrounding Orcas Island were not a barrier to early postglacial immigration of plants. Between 13,700 and 12,000 cal yr BP, Pinus, Tsuga, Picea, Alnus viridis, and possibly Juniperus maritima were present in a mosaic that supported Bison antiquus and Megalonyx. The rise of Alnus rubra-type pollen and Pteridium spores at ca. 12,000 cal yr BP suggests a warming trend and probably more fires. Temperate conifer taxa, including Cupressaceae, Pseudotsuga, Tsuga heterophylla, and Abies, increased after 11,000 cal yr BP and especially in the last 7000 cal yr BP. After 6000 cal yr BP, Pseudotsuga and Cupressaceae dominated the vegetation. The last 1500 yr were the wettest period of the record. Due to its rain shadow location, Orcas Island experienced drier conditions than on the mainland during most of the postglacial period.

  9. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Murray

    Full Text Available Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp., grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

  10. Wild flora of mine tailings: perspectives for use in phytoremediation of potentially toxic elements in a semi-arid region in Mexico. (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Ariadna S; Del Carmen A González-Chávez, Ma; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Díaz-Garduño, Margarita


    The aim of this research was to identify wild plant species applicable for remediation of mine tailings in arid soils. Plants growing on two mine tailings were identified and evaluated for their potential use in phytoremediation based on the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in roots and shoots, bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation factors (TF). Total, water-soluble and DTPA-extractable concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Co and Ni in rhizospheric and bulk soil were determined. Twelve species can grow on mine tailings, accumulate PTEs concentrations above the commonly accepted phytotoxicity levels, and are suitable for establishing a vegetation cover on barren mine tailings in the Zimapan region. Pteridium sp. is suitable for Zn and Cd phytostabilization. Aster gymnocephalus is a potential phytoextractor for Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu; Gnaphalium sp. for Cu and Crotalaria pumila for Zn. The species play different roles according to the specific conditions where they are growing at one site behaving as a PTEs accumulator and at another as a stabilizer. For this reason and due to the lack of a unified approach for calculation and interpretation of bioaccumulation factors, only considering BCF and TF may be not practical in all cases.

  11. Chemical constituents analysis and antidiabetic activity validation of four fern species from Taiwan. (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Chiu, Fu-Yu; Lin, Yenshou; Huang, Wei-Jan; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan; Hsu, Feng-Lin


    Pterosins are abundant in ferns, and pterosin A was considered a novel activator of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which is crucial for regulating blood glucose homeostasis. However, the distribution of pterosins in different species of ferns from various places in Taiwan is currently unclear. To address this question, the distribution of pterosins, glucose-uptake efficiency, and protective effects of pterosin A on β-cells were examined. Our results showed that three novel compounds, 13-chloro-spelosin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), (3R)-Pterosin D 3-O-β-d-(3'-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (2), and (2R,3R)-Pterosin L 3-O-β-d-(3'-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (3), were isolated for the first time from four fern species (Ceratopteris thalictroides, Hypolepis punctata, Nephrolepis multiflora, and Pteridium revolutum) along with 27 known compounds. We also examined the distribution of these pterosin compounds in the mentioned fern species (except N. multiflora). Although all pterosin analogs exhibited the same effects in glucose uptake assays, pterosin A prevented cell death and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This paper is the first report to provide new insights into the distribution of pterosins in ferns from Taiwan. The potential anti-diabetic activity of these novel phytocompounds warrants further functional studies.

  12. 江西九连山常绿阔叶林下蕨类植物的特征%Structural Characteristics on Pteridophytic Community of Evergreen Broad -leaved Forest in Jiulianshan Mountain of subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简敏菲; 刘琪璟; 涂洁; 罗淑琴


    基于线路调查与样地调查的基础上,分析了九连山国家级自然保护区常绿阔叶林下蕨类植物的组成、总优势度、环境梯度等结构特征与分布特点.结果表明:研究区群落内蕨类植物主要由17科20属26种组成,主要的优势科有乌毛蕨科Blechnaceae、里白科Gleicheniaceae、鳞毛蕨科Dryopteridaceae、水龙骨科Polypodiaceae、凤尾蕨科Pteridaeeae、卷柏科Selaginellaceae、莲座蕨科Angiopteridaceae等;主要的优势种群有狗脊蕨Woodwardia japonica、中华里白Diplopterygium chinense、贯众Cyrtomium fortunei、凤尾蕨Pteris neruosa、攀援星蕨Microsorium buergerianum、江南卷柏Selaginella moellendotfli、瓦韦Lepisorus thunbergianus、大芒萁Dicranopteris ampla、蕨Pteridium aquilinum、福建莲座蕨Angiogpteris fokiensis、里白Diplopterygium glaucum、胎生狗脊蕨Woodwardia prolifera等.环境梯度分析表明,九连山常绿阔叶林80%的蕨类植物分布在海拔600~800 m的黄红壤区域内.

  13. An Exploration into Fern Genome Space. (United States)

    Wolf, Paul G; Sessa, Emily B; Marchant, Daniel Blaine; Li, Fay-Wei; Rothfels, Carl J; Sigel, Erin M; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Visger, Clayton J; Banks, Jo Ann; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Pryer, Kathleen M; Der, Joshua P


    Ferns are one of the few remaining major clades of land plants for which a complete genome sequence is lacking. Knowledge of genome space in ferns will enable broad-scale comparative analyses of land plant genes and genomes, provide insights into genome evolution across green plants, and shed light on genetic and genomic features that characterize ferns, such as their high chromosome numbers and large genome sizes. As part of an initial exploration into fern genome space, we used a whole genome shotgun sequencing approach to obtain low-density coverage (∼0.4X to 2X) for six fern species from the Polypodiales (Ceratopteris, Pteridium, Polypodium, Cystopteris), Cyatheales (Plagiogyria), and Gleicheniales (Dipteris). We explore these data to characterize the proportion of the nuclear genome represented by repetitive sequences (including DNA transposons, retrotransposons, ribosomal DNA, and simple repeats) and protein-coding genes, and to extract chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences. Such initial sweeps of fern genomes can provide information useful for selecting a promising candidate fern species for whole genome sequencing. We also describe variation of genomic traits across our sample and highlight some differences and similarities in repeat structure between ferns and seed plants.

  14. Academic underachievement, self-esteem and self-efficacy in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Filippello


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between decision making styles, self-esteem and self-beliefs about decision- making ability and the differences linked to academic performance. A sample of 100 students split into two groups aged 15-16 years and 17-18 years participated in the study. All subjects compiled the Multidimensional Self-esteem Test (T.M.A. – Bracken, 1993 for the evaluation of academic success and competence of environmental control and How I Make my Choices (H.M.C. – Filippello et al., 2011, a structured interview, specifically designed to measure decision-making styles in two different contexts (school context vs. social context and decision-making self-efficacy (Low vs. High Self-efficacy in making decisions.The exploratory factor analysis reflects the theorized construction. Age and gender differences were found. Furthermore, as expected, low academic performance was associated with lower self-esteem, lower decision-making self-efficacy and more dysfunctional decision-making styles. Students with a high  academic performance, instead, showed higher self-esteem, higher decision-making self-efficacy and more functional decision-making styles.Data encourages the use of H.M.C., not only in the research of personality but also for educational and counseling purposes.

  15. Ecological legacies of Indigenous fire management in high-latitude coastal temperate rainforests, Canada (United States)

    Hoffman, K.; Lertzman, K. P.; Starzomski, B. M.


    Anthropogenic burning is considered to have little impact on coastal temperate rainforest fire regimes in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of North America, yet few long-term fire histories have been reconstructed in these forests. We use a multidisciplinary approach to reconstruct the ecological impact, scale, and legacies of historic fire regime variability in high-latitude coastal temperate rainforests located in British Columbia, Canada. We map seven centuries of fire activity with fire scars and records of stand establishment, and examine patterns in the distribution and composition of vegetation to assess whether fire was historically used as a tool for resource management. We conduct a paired study of 20 former Indigenous habitation and control sites across a 100 km2 island group to relate historic fire activity with long-term patterns of human land use and contemporary lightning strike densities. Fires were significantly associated with the locations of former Indigenous habitation sites, low and mixed in severity, and likely intentionally used to influence the composition and structure of vegetation, thus increasing the productivity of culturally important plants such as western redcedar, berry-producing shrubs, and bracken fern. Centuries of repeated anthropogenic burning have resulted in a mosaic of vegetation types in different stages of succession. These data are directly relevant to the management of contemporary forests as they do not support the widespread contention that old growth coastal temperate rainforests in this region are pristine landscapes where fire is rare, but more likely the result of long-term human land use practices.

  16. Does the effect of air pollution on pregnancy outcomes differ by gender? A systematic review. (United States)

    Ghosh, Rakesh; Rankin, Judith; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Glinianaia, Svetlana


    Gender is known to influence pregnancy outcomes. Recent studies have reported an association between air pollution exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes, but gender differences have not been considered. In order to assess the current evidence of the interactive effects between gender and air pollution on pregnancy outcomes we undertook a systematic literature review. Using a comprehensive list of keywords, English language articles published between 1966 and 2005 were retrieved from major databases. Additional information on gender was obtained from the study authors. Studies were included if they contained well-defined measurements of ambient air pollutants, investigated pregnancy outcomes and reported estimates by gender. In total 11 studies were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using the framework in Systematic Reviews in Health Care Meta-analysis in context and Bracken's Guidelines. Of the 11 studies, four evaluated low birth weight (LBW); one each evaluated very low birth weight and fetal growth and six examined preterm birth (PTB). Females were at higher risk of LBW: adjusted odds ratios (AOR) ranged from 1.07 to 1.62. Males were at higher risk for PTB: AORs ranged from 1.11 to 1.20. In addition, there was some evidence to suggest that the effect of air pollution on LBW is differential by gender; however, the evidence was available only from four studies. This is the first systematic review to consider gender effect. Further high quality studies are needed to establish whether these findings prevail.

  17. Ptaquiloside-induced cytotoxicity in Crandall feline kidney and HGC-27 cells. (United States)

    Yurdakok, Begum; Kismali, Gorkem; Ozen, Dogukan


    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a potent genotoxic carcinogenic compound, which is found in bracken ferns and predominantly causes gastric tumors in humans, as well as bladder tumors and chronic enzootic hematuria in cattle. The underlying molecular mechanisms of PTA remain a topic for interdisciplinary investigation. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible cytotoxic effect of 24 h of PTA exposure in Crandall feline kidney (CrFK) and human gastric cells (the HGC-27 cell line) using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) analysis. The cytotoxic effects of PTA (0.0005-500 μg/ml) were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner, whereby the half maximal inhibitory concentration values were 11.17 and 11.86 μg/ml in the CrFK cells, and 2.03 and 2.56 μg/ml in the HGC-27 cells, by LDH and MTT assay, respectively. The results of the present study are consistent with those of previous studies associated with the cytotoxicity of PTA; however, cytotoxicity was identified to occur at significantly lower doses. This cytotoxic effect in vitro at particularly high doses may be linked to the initiation of carcinogenesis as a result of oxidative stress.

  18. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection and Microscopic Patterns of Urothelial Tumors of the Urinary Bladder in Water Buffaloes

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    Paola Maiolino


    Full Text Available Microscopic patterns of thirty-four urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder of water buffaloes from the Marmara and Black Sea Regions of Turkey are here described. All the animals grazed on lands rich in bracken fern. Histological diagnosis was assessed using morphological parameters recently suggested for the urinary bladder tumors of cattle. Papillary carcinoma was the most common neoplastic lesion (22/34 observed in this study, and low-grade carcinoma was more common (seventeen cases than high-grade carcinoma (five cases. Papilloma, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP, and invasive carcinomas were less frequently seen. Carcinoma in situ (CIS was often detected associated with some papillary and invasive carcinomas. De novo (primary CIS was rare representing 3% of tumors of this series. A peculiar feature of the most urothelial tumors was the presence in the tumor stroma of immune cells anatomically organized in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs. Bovine papillomavirus type-2 (PV-2 E5 oncoprotein was detected by molecular and immunohistochemistry procedures. Early protein, E2, and late protein, L1, were also detected by immunohistochemical studies. Morphological and molecular findings show that BPV-2 infection contributes to the development of urothelial bladder carcinogenesis also in water buffaloes.

  19. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection and a Series of Mesenchymal Tumors of the Urinary Bladder in Cattle

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    Manuela Martano


    Full Text Available This report describes the histopathology of two hundred and fifty-three mesenchymal tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle grazing on lands rich in bracken fern. Approximately 80% were hemangiomas and angiosarcomas. Hemangioma (capillary, cavernous, and large vessels was the most frequent mesenchymal tumor and was more common than angiosarcoma. Although the appearance of endothelial cells can vary remarkably, epithelioid angiosarcomas, often containing multinucleated cells, were the most frequent malignant vascular tumors. Hemangiopericytoma and tumors of muscle and soft connective tissue origin, alone and/or in association with tumor-like lesions, were less frequently seen. Furthermore, forty-five cases of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH, a lesion not previously reported in the urinary bladder of cattle, were also described. Bovine papillomavirus type-2 DNA was amplified in tumor samples. Forty vascular tumors were investigated by dual-labeling immunofluorescence, and, for the first time, a coexpression of E5 and platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR was shown to occur. The results show that the BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein binds to the activated form of the PDGFβ receptor thus playing an important role in mesenchymal as well as epithelial carcinogenesis of the urinary bladder. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that BPV-2 infects both epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

  20. Investigations of Quantum Backflow

    CERN Document Server

    Yearsley, J M; Hartshorn, R; Whitby, A


    We investigate the backflow effect in elementary quantum mechanics -- the phenomenon in which a state consisting entirely of positive momenta may have negative current and the probability flows in the opposite direction to the momentum. We discuss various measurement models in which backflow may be seen in certain measurable probabilities. We compute the current and flux for states consisting of superpositions of gaussian wave packets. These are experimentally realizable but the amount of backflow is small. Inspired by the numerical results of Penz et al, we find two non-trivial wave functions whose current at any time may be computed analytically and which have periods of significant backflow, in one case with a backwards flux equal to about 70 percent of the maximum possible backflow, a dimensionless number $c_{bm} \\approx 0.04 $, discovered by Bracken and Melloy. This number has the unusual property of being independent of $\\hbar$ (and also of all other parameters of the model), despite corresponding to an...

  1. Generation of dose-response relationships to assess the effects of acidity in precipitation on growth and productivity of vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.


    Experiments were performed with several plant species in natural environments as well in a greenhouse and/or tissue culture facilities to establish dose-response functions of plant responses to simulated acidic rain in order to determine environmental risk assessments to ambient levels of acidic rain. Response functions of foliar injury, biomass of leaves and seed of soybean and pinto beans, root yields of radishes and garden beets, and reproduction of bracken fern are considered. The dose-response function of soybean seed yields with the hydrogen ion concentration of simulated acidic rainfalls was expressed by the equation y = 21.06-1.01 log x where y = seed yield in grams per plant and x = the hydrogen concentration if l/sup -1/. The correlation coefficient of this relationship was -0.90. A similar dose-response function was generated for percent fertilization of ferns in a forest understory. When percent fertilization is plotted on logarithmic scale with hydrogen ion concentration of the simulated rain solution, the Y intercept is 51.18, slope -0.041 with a correlation coefficient of -0.98. Other dose-response functions were generated that assist in a general knowledge as to which plant species and which physiological processes are most impacted by acidic precipitation. Some responses did not produce convenient dose-response relationships. In such cases the responses may be altered by other environmental factors or there may be no differences among treatment means.

  2. Children born after unplanned pregnancies and cognitive development at 3 years: social differentials in the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort. (United States)

    de La Rochebrochard, Elise; Joshi, Heather


    Children born after an unplanned pregnancy have poorer developmental scores. This could arise from less favorable parenting but also could reflect confounding from the socioeconomic circumstances. In a large representative sample in the United Kingdom, the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2005), cognitive delay at 3 years was explored with the Bracken Assessment. Its association with unplanned pregnancy was studied in logistic models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the family, the child's characteristics, and parenting behavior. Stratification by the mother's educational level (grouped into 3 categories) was explored. Of 12,182 children included in the analysis, 41% were born after a pregnancy reported by the mother to have been a "surprise." Such unplanned pregnancies were associated in univariate analysis with more cognitive delay. Among mothers with a low or middle level of education, this association vanished when socioeconomic circumstances were controlled. Among mothers with a high level of education, the risk of cognitive delay remained significantly and unexplainedly raised after unplanned pregnancies, despite controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and parental behavior. In conclusion, for socially disadvantaged children, having resulted from an unplanned pregnancy does not seem to increase their already disproportionate risk of cognitive delay. Births after unplanned conceptions are mainly a symptom rather than a source of disadvantage.

  3. Dynamics of natural regeneration in Pinus laricio stands from southern Apennines (Italy

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    Albanesi E


    Full Text Available The seedlings establishment was studied in small (380 m2, medium (855 m2 and large (1520 m2 gaps created in calabrian pine (Pinus laricio Poiret stands (mean height 22 m in the Southern Apennine. After three growing seasons first results put in evidence: a no significant differences of water soil content were observed between gap sizes; b transmittance was higher in large and medium gaps than in small ones and in the centre and northern sides in both gap sizes; c calabrian pine seedling density was higher in large gaps than in medium and small ones and namely in the centre positions; silver fir seedlings appear after the second growing season in small and medium gaps; d seedling mortality of calabrian pine was relevant in small and medium gaps in the edge and silver fir seedling mortality in the centre of the large ones; e in these first years the ground vegetation (bramble and bracken represents a moderate detrimental effect on seedlings establishment that could be removed by partial cuttings.

  4. European medicinal and edible plants associated with subacute and chronic toxicity part I: Plants with carcinogenic, teratogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects. (United States)

    Kristanc, Luka; Kreft, Samo


    In recent decades, the use of herbal medicines and food products has been widely embraced in many developed countries. These products are generally highly accepted by consumers who often believe that "natural" equals "safe". This is, however, an oversimplification because several botanicals have been found to contain toxic compounds in concentrations harmful to human health. Acutely toxic plants are in most cases already recognised as dangerous as a result of their traditional use, but plants with subacute and chronic toxicity are difficult or even impossible to detect by traditional use or by clinical research studies. In this review, we systematically address major issues including the carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine-disrupting effects associated with the use of herbal preparations with a strong focus on plant species that either grow natively or are cultivated in Europe. The basic information regarding the molecular mechanisms of the individual subtypes of plant-induced non-acute toxicity is given, which is followed by a discussion of the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. We describe the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of alkenylbenzenes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and bracken fern ptaquiloside, the teratogenicity issues regarding anthraquinone glycosides and specific alkaloids, and discuss the human health concerns regarding the phytoestrogens and licorice consumption in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): Lethal brain concentrations (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Kroll, J.C.


    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  6. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soils of early stages of a secondary succession of Atlantic Forest in South Brazil Ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em solos de estádios iniciais de uma sucessão secundária da Floresta Atlântica no sul do Brasil

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    Sidney Luiz Stürmer


    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF species diversity and mycorrhizal inoculum potential were assessed in areas representative of stages of secondary succession in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest. Within each stage - pioneer, 'capoeirinha' and 'capoeirão'- four transects were established and three soil samples were taken along each transect. The plant community was dominated by Pteridium aquilinium in the pioneer stage, while Dodonaea viscosa and P. aquilinium were co-dominants in the 'capoeirinha' stage. In capoeirão, Miconia cinnamomifolia was dominant followed by Euterpe edulis. Total spore number per 100 g soil was significantly larger in the 'capoeirinha' stage than in the other stages, although the number of viable spores was similar among stages. Acaulosporaceae and Glomeraceae were the predominant families accounting for 83% of the total spores recovered. Of the 18 spore morphotypes, 10 were allocated to known species, with Acaulospora sp. and Glomus sp. being the dominants recovered in all samples. Simpson's index of diversity and evenness for AMF species were not significantly different among the successional stages and AMF species richness was negatively correlated with plant species richness. Soil from 'Capoeirinha" showed the highest inoculum potential (37%. Dominance of the mycorrhizal community by few sporulators and the relationship between plant and fungal diversity are discussed.A diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs e o potencial de inóculo micorrízico foram determinados em estádios de sucessão secundária da Floresta Atlântica. Dentro de cada estádio - pioneiro, capoeirinha e capoeirão - quatro transectos foram estabelecidos e três amostras de solo foram obtidas por transecto. A comunidade vegetal foi dominada por Pteridium aquilinium no estádio pioneiro e Dodonaea viscosa e P. aquilinium foram co-dominantes na capoeirinha. No capoeirão, Miconia cinnamomifolia foi dominante seguida por Euterpe

  7. What can we learn from sediment connectivitiy indicies regarding natural hazard processes in torrent catchments? (United States)

    Schmutz, Daria; Zimmermann, Markus; Keiler, Margreth


    Sediment connectivity is defined as the degree of coupling between sediment sources and sinks in a system and describes the effectiveness of the transfer of sediment from hillslopes into channels and within channels (Bracken et al. 2015). Borselli et al. (2008) developed a connectivity index (IC) based on digital terrain models (DTMs). Cavalli et al. (2013) adapted this index for mountainous catchments. These measures of connectivity provide overall information about connectivity pattern in the catchment, thus the understanding of sediment connectivity can help to improve the hazard analysis in these areas. Considering the location of settlements in the alpine regions, high sediment transfer can pose a threat to villages located nearby torrents or at the debris cones. However, there is still a lack of studies on the linkage between IC and hazardous events with high sediment yield in alpine catchments. In this study, the expressiveness and applicability of IC is tested in relation with hazardous events in several catchments of the Bernese and Pennine Alps (Switzerland). The IC is modelled based on DTMs (resolution 2 m or if available 0.5 m) indicating the surface from the time before and after a documented hazardous event and analysed with respect to changes in connectivity caused by the event. The spatial pattern of connectivity is compared with the observed sediment dynamic during the event using event documentations. In order to validate the IC, a semi-quantitative field connectivity index (FIC) is developed addressing characteristics of the channel, banks and slopes and applied in a selection of the case studies. First analysis shows that the IC is highly sensitive to the resolution and quality of the DTM. Connectivity calculated by the IC is highest along the channel. The general pattern of connectivity is comparable applying the IC for the DTM before and after the event. Range of the connectivity values gained from IC modelling is highly specific for each

  8. Superomniphobic and easily repairable coatings on copper substrates based on simple immersion or spray processes. (United States)

    Rangel, Thomaz C; Michels, Alexandre F; Horowitz, Flávio; Weibel, Daniel E


    Textures that resemble typical fern or bracken plant species (dendrite structures) were fabricated for liquid repellency by dipping copper substrates in a single-step process in solutions containing AgNO3 or by a simple spray liquid application. Superhydrophobic surfaces were produced using a solution containing AgNO3 and trimethoxypropylsilane (TMPSi), and superomniphobic surfaces were produced by a two-step procedure, immersing the copper substrate in a AgNO3 solution and, after that, in a solution containing 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTES). The simple functionalization processes can also be used when the superomniphobic surfaces were destroyed by mechanical stress. By immersion of the wrecked surfaces in the above solutions or by the spray method and soft heating, the copper substrates could be easily repaired, regenerating the surfaces' superrepellency to liquids. The micro- and nanoroughness structures generated on copper surfaces by the deposition of silver dendrites functionalized with TMPSi presented apparent contact angles greater than 150° with a contact angle hysteresis lower than 10° when water was used as the test liquid. To avoid total wettability with very low surface tension liquids, such as rapeseed oil and hexadecane, a thin perfluorinated coating of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), produced by physical vapor deposition, was used. A more efficient perfluorinated coating was obtained when PFDTES was used. The superomniphobic surfaces produced apparent contact angles above 150° with all of the tested liquids, including hexadecane, although the contact angle hysteresis with this liquid was above 10°. The coupling of dendritic structures with TMPSi/PTFE or directly by PFDTES coatings was responsible for the superrepellency of the as-prepared surfaces. These simple, fast, and reliable procedures allow the large area, and cost-effective scale fabrication of superrepellent surfaces on copper substrates for various industrial

  9. Analysis of six elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in several wild vegetables and evaluation of their intakes based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011. (United States)

    Bae, Yun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Choi, Mi-Kyeong


    Wild vegetables, those edible among naturally grown vegetables, have been reported to contain many bioactive substances, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. The purpose of this study is to examine the six elements of the wild vegetables frequently consumed by Koreans and assess the element intakes through them. Contents of six kinds of elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in 11 wild vegetables were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Using these analysis data, the 6-element intakes from the wild vegetables were evaluated in healthy Korean adults aged 19-64 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). Sedum and shepherd's purse contained over 100 mg of Ca in 100 g of their edible portion. The Mg content per 100 g of the 11 wild vegetables ranged from 12.1 mg to 43.4 mg. The wild vegetable with the highest mineral content per 100 g was sedum for Ca, spinach for Mg, shepherd's purse for Fe, spinach for Zn, bracken for Cu, and fragrant edible wild aster for Mn. The element intakes from the 11 wild vegetables compared with dietary reference intakes in the healthy Koreans were 1.0 % for Ca, 2.1 % for Mg, 5.3 % for Fe, 1.4 % for Zn, 0.3 % for Cu, and 1.8 % for Mn. Considering the low intake ratio (1.2 %) of the wild vegetable to total food intake, wild vegetables may contribute to some element intakes. Our results show the nutritional value of the wild vegetables in the aspect of mineral nutrition; however, further research is needed to evaluate the bioavailability of various elements in wild vegetables.

  10. Learning environment simulator for decision making in severe weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Dennis R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); LeClaire, Rene J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Severe Weather Planning Simulator (SWPS), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), is a computer-based learning environment of conditions and response options to potential severe weather conditions at the Macondo Well (MC252) during response and recovery operations. SWPS is a computer aid designed to expose users to uncertain hurricane conditions and allow them to make decisions at a high level about ship deployment and operations and be exposed to potential consequences in personnel and equipment safety and pollution prevention efforts. The goal is not to predict the future but rather to expose decision makers to potential scenarios and the tradeoffs that will need to be considered when making decisions about personnel and ship deployment. Although this work is focused solely on Macondo response operations, it is readily extensible to other recovery operations involving a range of conditions, geographic locations and exploration assets. Documented herein is a brief summary of the results of an initial trial of SWPS with four employees of BP involved with Macondo response operations. SWPS uses system level models to represent ship operations including movements to port under storm threat and the return to operations, ship fragility, personnel movements and vulnerability in storm conditions, pollution prevention results, a hurricane scenario generation model and a decision model. The models are wrapped in an interface enabling users to observe conditions, make decisions on ship and personnel movements and evaluate the results of their actions. A two hour workshop was conducted on August 18 at the BP Westlake offices in Houston to assess a preliminary version of the simulator. The workshop goal was to assess the potential utility of SWPS, evaluate its interface, and function and gather suggestions for further development. Four BP employees - Ed Bracken, Hugh Banon, Earnest Bush, and Troy Endicott - were introduced to the simulator and asked to run

  11. Using connectivity to assess soil erosion in the landscape; applications of a new paradigm in soil erosion modelling (United States)

    Borselli, Lorenzo; Vigiak, Olga; Ortiz Rodriguez, Azalea Judith


    Hydrologic and sedimentological connectivity concepts recently appeared as novel paradigms (Bracken and Croke , 2007) and tools to assess soil erosion at various scales. The landscape flow connectivity index IC (Borselli et al. 2007, 2008) is based on the ratio of hydrological distance to streams with the potential upstream runoff occurrence, hence allows mapping surface runoff connectivity and erosion across the landscape. After its first introduction, several studies applied the IC algorithm in very different geographic regions and territorial scale: 150 km2 watershed in Tuscany (Italy; Borselli et al. 2007, 2008); 20 small catchments (5 to 350 ha) in Murcia (Spain; Sougnez et al. 2011); 400 km2 watershed in Basilicata (South Italy; Borselli et al. 2011); 3300 km2 watershed in Victoria (Australia; Vigiak et al. 2012); 6 and 8 km2watersheds in the Italian Alps (Cavalli et al., in press); 74 ha catchment in Spanish Pre-Pyrenees (López-Vicente et al. 2013). Meanwhile, the IC index has been adapted for application to different erosion processes, i.e. hillslope erosion (Vigiak et al. 2012; López-Vicente et al. 2013), sediment remobilization by shallow landslides (Borselli et al. 2011), and debris flow (Cavalli et al. in press). Validation of IC index applications in spatially distributed erosion models has been conducted with field observations at hillslope scale, calibration against sediment yield estimates at several monitoring stations. These scientific results highlight the promising potential application of IC concept for erosion modelling. In this session, the IC model with all its proposed variants will be described. Future work perspectives, including potential developments of IC approach as an alternative method to classical soil erosion modelling, will be discussed. Acknowledgement: This study has been funded by CONACYT (Mexico); Proyecto CB-2012-01/184060

  12. Changes in Acceleration and Deceleration Capacity Throughout Professional Soccer Match-Play. (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Sparkes, William; Northeast, Jonny; Cook, Christian J; Love, Tom D; Bracken, Richard M; Kilduff, Liam P


    Russell, M, Sparkes, W, Northeast, J, Cook, CJ, Love, TD, Bracken, RM, and Kilduff, LP. Changes in acceleration and deceleration capacity throughout professional soccer match-play. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2839-2844, 2016-As the acceleration and deceleration demands of soccer are currently not well understood, this study aimed to profile markers of acceleration and deceleration capacity during professional soccer match-play. This within-player observational study required reserve team players from a Premier League club to wear 10-Hz Global Positioning System units throughout competitive matches played in the 2013-14 competitive season. Data are presented for players who completed 4 or more games during the season (n = 11), and variables are presented according to six 15-minute intervals (I1-6: 00:00-14:59 minutes, 15:00-29:59 minutes, 30:00-44:59 minutes, 45:00-59:59 minutes, 60:00-74:59 minutes, and 75:00-89:59 minutes, respectively). During I6, the distance covered (total, per minute, and at high intensity), number of sprints, accelerations (total and high intensity), decelerations (total and high intensity), and impacts were reduced compared with I1 (all p ≤ 0.05). The number of high-intensity impacts remained unchanged throughout match-play (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that high-intensity actions and markers of acceleration and deceleration capacity are reduced in the last 15 minutes of the normal duration of match-play. Such information can be used to increase the specificity of training programs designed for soccer players while also giving further insight in to the effects of 90 minutes of soccer-specific exercise. Interventions that seek to maintain the acceleration and deceleration capacity of players throughout the full duration of a soccer match warrant investigation.

  13. Los Pteridófitos de un bosque subandino en el municipio de Albán, Cundinamarca (Colombia

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    Triana Moreno Luz Amparo


    Full Text Available Se presenta el tratamiento taxonómico de los helechos y plantas afines de un bosque subandino localizado en el municipio de Albán, al occidente de Cundinamarca, entre 1.900 y 2.100 m de altitud. El área de estudio comprende una su erficie de 70 ha, de las cuales 22 corres-ponden a un relicto de bosque subandino. Allí se registran 107 especies distribuidas en
    45 géneros (38% de los géneros colombianos y 21 familias (60% de las familias del país,   resultados importantes teniendo en cuenta que el área muestreada es relativamente pequeña.  Para cada categoría taxonómica se presentan claves, descripciones y anotaciones de composición y distribución. También se presenta una guía ilustrada de las especies más frecuentes, que incluye descripciones cortas en un lenguaje sencillo para facilitar la comprensión por parte de cualquier lector; estas se acompañan de fotografías e íconos que permiten una mejor y rápida identificación. Las familias con mayor número de géneros son Polypodiaceae con siete,
    Dryopteridaceae con seis, Pteridaceae con cuatro y Cyatheaceae y Dennstaedtiaceae con tres cada una. Los géneros más diversos son Asplenium con ocho especies, Polypodium, Pteris y Elaphoglossum con siete, Blechnum, Thelypteris y Diplazium con seis, y Dennstaedtia, Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes,
    Selaginella y Huperzia con tres. De las especies encontradas Blechnum divergens, Blechnum lherminieri, Diplazium ambiguum, Elaphoglossum piloselloides, Huperzia amentacea, Hypolepis repens, Polybotrya caudata, Pteris altissima, Thelypteris grandis y Trichomanes reptans son nuevos registros para Cundinamarca. La mayoría de las especies (46% son exclusivamente terrestres y dentro de éstas las más abundantes son Asplenium flabellulatum en el bosque, Equisetum bogotense, Thelypteris rudis y Pityrogramma ebenea en el borde de las quebradas y Thelypteris rudis y Pteridium arachnoideum en los pastizales. En cuanto a las epífitas (20

  14. Lateglacial and Early Holocene vegetation history of the northern Wetterau and the Amöneburger Basin (Hessen), central-west Germany. (United States)

    Bos, J A.A.


    of the fluvial plains. At the end of the early Preboreal, there was an extension of Betula stands on the river floodplains. This is interpreted as a phase in which climate was temporarily wetter, perhaps a reflection of a short-term climatic oscillation, the so-called Preboreal oscillation. During the Preboreal biozone, ferns became more important in the local vegetation of the mires, and later during the Boreal they formed the undergrowth of swamp forests. During the Boreal biozone, a major expansion of hazel took place in both areas. On the hills and slopes of the northern Wetterau and the Amöneburger Basin, open pine forests and hazel scrub developed with grasses and Pteridium in the field layer. In the river valleys, pine forests were replaced by deciduous mixed forests with oak, elm and later also with lime.

  15. The Effects of a Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy Exposure on Physiological, Performance, and Perceptual Responses of Professional Academy Soccer Players After Repeated Sprint Exercise. (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Birch, Jack; Love, Thomas; Cook, Christian J; Bracken, Richard M; Taylor, Tom; Swift, Eamon; Cockburn, Emma; Finn, Charlie; Cunningham, Daniel; Wilson, Laura; Kilduff, Liam P


    Russell, M, Birch, J, Love, T, Cook, CJ, Bracken, RM, Taylor, T, Swift, E, Cockburn, E, Finn, C, Cunningham, D, Wilson, L, and Kilduff, LP. The effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy exposure on physiological, performance, and perceptual responses of professional academy soccer players after repeated sprint exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 415-421, 2017-In professional youth soccer players, the physiological, performance, and perceptual effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session performed shortly after repeated sprint exercise were investigated. In a randomized, counterbalanced, and crossover design, 14 habituated English Premier League academy soccer players performed 15 × 30 m sprints (each followed by a 10 m forced deceleration) on 2 occasions. Within 20 minutes of exercise cessation, players entered a WBC chamber (Cryo: 30 seconds at -60° C, 120 seconds at -135° C) or remained seated (Con) indoors in temperate conditions (∼25° C). Blood and saliva samples, peak power output (countermovement jump), and perceptual indices of recovery and soreness were assessed pre-exercise and immediately, 2-hour and 24-hour postexercise. When compared with Con, a greater testosterone response was observed at 2-hour (+32.5 ± 32.3 pg·ml, +21%) and 24-hour (+50.4 ± 48.9 pg·ml, +28%) postexercise (both P = 0.002) in Cryo (trial × treatment interaction: P = 0.001). No between-trial differences were observed for other salivary (cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio), blood (lactate and creatine kinase), performance (peak power output), or perceptual (recovery or soreness) markers (all trial × treatment interactions: P > 0.05); all of which were influenced by exercise (time effects: all P ≤ 0.05). A single session of WBC performed within 20 minutes of repeated sprint exercise elevated testosterone concentrations for 24 hours but did not affect any other performance, physiological, or perceptual measurements taken. Although unclear, WBC may be

  16. Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussaha Mekki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are known to induce chromosome fragility and may trigger cancer with the interplay of latent Papilloma virus. Results The bovine FHIT was characterized by assembling a contig of 78 BACs. Sequence tags were designed on human exons and introns and used directly to select bovine BACs, or compared with sequence data in the bovine genome database or in the trace archive of the bovine genome sequencing project, and adapted before use. FHIT is split in ten exons like in man, with exons 5 to 9 coding for a 149 amino acids protein. VISTA global alignments between bovine genomic contigs retrieved from the bovine genome database and the human FHIT region were performed. Conservation was extremely high over a 2 Mb region spanning the whole FHIT locus, including the size of introns. Thus, the bovine FHIT covers about 1.6 Mb compared to 1.5 Mb in man. Expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Northern blot, and was found to be ubiquitous. Four cDNA isoforms were isolated and sequenced, that originate from an alternative usage of three variants of exon 4, revealing a size very close to the major human FHIT cDNAs. Conclusion A comparative genomic approach allowed to assemble a contig of 78 BACs and to completely annotate a 1.6 Mb region spanning the bovine FHIT gene. The findings confirmed the very high level of conservation between human and bovine genomes and the importance of comparative mapping to speed the annotation process of the recently sequenced bovine genome. The detailed knowledge of the genomic FHIT region will allow to study the role of FHIT in bovine cancerogenesis

  17. Nutrient removal capacity of wood residues for the Agro-environmental safety of ground and surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Dumont


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of wood residues in the removal of nutrients (ammonium-N; NH4-N from nutrient-rich (NH4-N waters. The water holding capacity of the wood materials was also determined. Carried out at Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, UK, this controlled laboratory experiment tested two wood residues; in length, one being 1-2cm and the other from 150 µm (microns to 9.5mm. Although a wide range of studies have shown the effectiveness and performance of various absorbent materials as animal beddings, such as straw (cereal straw, woodchip (sawdust, bark or wood shavings, bracken and rushes, only few have focused on the NH4-N sorption/desorption capacity. The depuration capacity of wood residues from nutrient-rich effluents such as those from cattle bedded on woodchip or straw will be controlled by processes such as sorption (adsorption-absorption and desorption of nutrients. Studies have reported the nitrogen removal capacity of woodchip materials and biochar from woodchip as well as removal of NH4+-N from domestic and municipal wastewater, farm dirty water, landfill and industry effluents. These studies have observed that the mechanism of removal of nitrogen is by either increasing NO3--N removal form leachate by enhancing N2O losses via denitrification (biochar as carbon source for denitrifiers or by decreasing NH4+-N in leachate through adsorption to negatively charged sites. Results showed that although the cation exchange capacity (CEC and surface area (SA are both fundamental properties of adsorbent materials, no correlation was found with CEC and adsorption or desorption. Nor did changes in pH appear to be sufficiently important to cause changes in CEC. For this reason, osmotic pressure appeared to be a more predominant parameter controlling processes of adsorption and desorption of NH4+-N in both wood residues. Thus, wood residues high in NH4+-N should be avoided, as they could have an opposite effect

  18. Disturbance gradient shows logging affects plant functional groups more than fire. (United States)

    Blair, David P; McBurney, Lachlan M; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B


    Understanding the impacts of natural and human disturbances on forest biota is critical for improving forest management. Many studies have examined the separate impacts on fauna and flora of wildfire, conventional logging, and salvage logging, but empirical comparisons across a broad gradient of simultaneous disturbances are lacking. We quantified species richness and frequency of occurrence of vascular plants, and functional group responses, across a gradient of disturbances that occurred concurrently in 2009 in the mountain ash forests of southeastern Australia. Our study encompassed replicated sites in undisturbed forest (~70 yr post fire), forest burned at low severity, forest burned at high severity, unburned forest that was clearcut logged, and forest burned at high severity that was clearcut salvage logged post-fire. All sites were sampled 2 and 3 yr post fire. Mean species richness decreased across the disturbance gradient from 30.1 species/site on low-severity burned sites and 28.9 species/site on high-severity burned sites, to 25.1 species/site on clearcut sites and 21.7 species/site on salvage logged sites. Low-severity burned sites were significantly more species-rich than clearcut sites and salvage logged sites; high-severity burned sites supported greater species richness than salvage logged sites. Specific traits influenced species' sensitivity to disturbance. Resprouting species dominated undisturbed mountain ash forests, but declined significantly across the gradient. Fern and midstory trees decreased significantly in frequency of occurrence across the gradient. Ferns (excluding bracken) decreased from 34% of plants in undisturbed forest to 3% on salvage logged sites. High-severity burned sites supported a greater frequency of occurrence and species richness of midstory trees compared to clearcut and salvage logged sites. Salvage logging supported fewer midstory trees than any other disturbance category, and were distinctly different from

  19. Final report of the safety assessment of niacinamide and niacin. (United States)


    . Niacinamide and Niacin at 2 mg/ml were negative in a chromosome aberration test in Chinese hamster ovary cells, but did produce large structural chromosome aberrations at 3 mg/ml. Niacinamide induced sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells, but Niacin did not. Under certain circumstances, Niacinamide can cause an increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis in human lymphocytes treated with UV or a nitrosoguanidine compound. Niacinamide itself was not carcinogenic when administered (1%) in the drinking water of mice. No data on the carcinogenic effect of Niacin were available. Niacinamide can moderate the induction of tumors by established carcinogens. Niacinamide in combination with streptozotocin (a nitrosourea compound) or with heliotrine (a pyrrolizidine alkaloid), produced pancreatic islet tumors. On the other hand, Niacinamide reduced the renal adenomas produced by streptozotocin; and intestinal and bladder tumors induced by a preparation of bracken fern. Niacinamide evaluated in in vitro test systems did affect development, but Niacinamide reduced the reproductive/developmental toxicity of 2-aminonicotinamide-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole hydrochloride and urethane. Clinical testing of Niacinamide produced no stinging sensation at concentrations up to 10%, use tests produced no irritation at concentrations up to 5%, and a 21-day cumulative irritation test at concentrations up to 5% resulted in no irritancy. Niacinamide was not a sensitizer, nor was it a photosensitizer. The CIR Expert Panel considered that Niacinamide and Niacin are sufficiently similar from a toxicologic standpoint to combine the available data and reach a conclusion on the safety of both as cosmetic ingredients. Overall, these ingredients are non-toxic at levels considerably higher than would be experienced in cosmetic products. Clinical testing confirms that these ingredients are not significant skin irritants, sensitizers or photosensitizers. While certain formulations were marginal to slight

  20. 实验犬房间隔造口手术模型的方法学研究%Experimental Study on Establishment Canine Model of Septostomy Using Three Different Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海波; 唐跃; 罗勤; 徐仲英; 蒋世良; 段福建; 罗富良; 孟亮; 田毅; 袁卫民


    Objective To evaluate the advantage and disadvantage of three methods for septostomy in canine.Methods Total 8 dogs were attempted leptottomy procedure with three different methods.Two dogs were performed septnstomy by transvenous approach using the bracken brough needdle(Group A:interventional method);Two dogs were performed septostomy by surgical procedure without extracorporeal circulation and with temporarily cava venous blocking (Group B surgical method under direct vision):Four dogs were performed septostomy by surgical procedure with trans-right atrium approach and the guidance of transocsophageal cchocardiograph (TEE) without extracorporeal circulation and cava venous blocking ( Group C:surgical method under TEE guidance without blocking).Tbe rate of technical success.the rate of procedure-related death .and the repeatability of different methods were compared in study.Results In group A. Interventions procedure was failure in one dog ,and displace of scptostomy was found ia me other dog; In group dog died during the procedure because of armythmia,the other dog died 12 hours after procedure because of heart failure; In group C, septostomy procedure were successful in all procedure -related death occurred,Conclusion In three methods of septostomy,we thought that the surgical method under TEE guidance without blocking was the optimal procedure for sepostomy of canine model due to the better repeatability and lower rate of procedure-related death.%目的 采用三种不同方法进行实验犬房间隔造口,比较其优缺点,选择最实用的方法为进一步造口支架植入实验提供方法学保障.方法 共8只实验犬,其中2只采用透视引导下经股静脉穿刺介入性房间隔造口法(简称介入法),2只采用外科开胸阻断上下腔静脉直视下房间隔穿刺造口法(外科直视法),4只采用外科开胸经食管超声引导下非阻断循环下经右房穿剌房间隔造口法(简称非阻断超声引导法),