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Sample records for ptba-mediated renal progenitor

  1. Renal blood flow and oxygenation drive nephron progenitor differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, Christopher; Paredes, Jose; Halt, Kimmo; Schaefer, Caitlin; Wiersch, John; Zhang, Guangfeng; Potoka, Douglas; Vainio, Seppo; Gittes, George K; Bates, Carlton M; Sims-Lucas, Sunder

    2014-08-01

    During kidney development, the vasculature develops via both angiogenesis (branching from major vessels) and vasculogenesis (de novo vessel formation). The formation and perfusion of renal blood vessels are vastly understudied. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory role of renal blood flow and O2 concentration on nephron progenitor differentiation during ontogeny. To elucidate the presence of blood flow, ultrasound-guided intracardiac microinjection was performed, and FITC-tagged tomato lectin was perfused through the embryo. Kidneys were costained for the vasculature, ureteric epithelium, nephron progenitors, and nephron structures. We also analyzed nephron differentiation in normoxia compared with hypoxia. At embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), the major vascular branches were perfused; however, smaller-caliber peripheral vessels remained unperfused. By E15.5, peripheral vessels started to be perfused as well as glomeruli. While the interior kidney vessels were perfused, the peripheral vessels (nephrogenic zone) remained unperfused. Directly adjacent and internal to the nephrogenic zone, we found differentiated nephron structures surrounded and infiltrated by perfused vessels. Furthermore, we determined that at low O2 concentration, little nephron progenitor differentiation was observed; at higher O2 concentrations, more differentiation of the nephron progenitors was induced. The formation of the developing renal vessels occurs before the onset of blood flow. Furthermore, renal blood flow and oxygenation are critical for nephron progenitor differentiation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Lin28 sustains early renal progenitors and induces Wilms tumor

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    Urbach, Achia; Yermalovich, Alena; Zhang, Jin; Spina, Catherine S.; Zhu, Hao; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R.; Shukrun, Rachel; Charlton, Jocelyn; Sebire, Neil; Mifsud, William; Dekel, Benjamin; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Daley, George Q.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms Tumor, the most common pediatric kidney cancer, evolves from the failure of terminal differentiation of the embryonic kidney. Here we show that overexpression of the heterochronic regulator Lin28 during kidney development in mice markedly expands nephrogenic progenitors by blocking their final wave of differentiation, ultimately resulting in a pathology highly reminiscent of Wilms tumor. Using lineage-specific promoters to target Lin28 to specific cell types, we observed Wilms tumor only when Lin28 is aberrantly expressed in multiple derivatives of the intermediate mesoderm, implicating the cell of origin as a multipotential renal progenitor. We show that withdrawal of Lin28 expression reverts tumorigenesis and markedly expands the numbers of glomerulus-like structures and that tumor formation is suppressed by enforced expression of Let-7 microRNA. Finally, we demonstrate overexpression of the LIN28B paralog in a significant percentage of human Wilms tumor. Our data thus implicate the Lin28/Let-7 pathway in kidney development and tumorigenesis. PMID:24732380

  3. Renal progenitor cells contribute to hyperplastic lesions of podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Angelotti, M.L.; Rizzo, P.; Dijkman, H.; Lazzeri, E.; Mooren, F.; Ballerini, L.; Parente, E.; Sagrinati, C.; Mazzinghi, B.; Ronconi, E.; Becherucci, F.; Benigni, A.; Steenbergen, E.; Lasagni, L.; Remuzzi, G.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Romagnani, P.

    2009-01-01

    Glomerular injury can involve excessive proliferation of glomerular epithelial cells, resulting in crescent formation and obliteration of Bowman's space. The origin of these hyperplastic epithelial cells in different glomerular disorders is controversial. Renal progenitors localized to the inner

  4. A bioartificial renal tubule device embedding human renal stem/progenitor cells.

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    Anna Giovanna Sciancalepore

    Full Text Available We present a bio-inspired renal microdevice that resembles the in vivo structure of a kidney proximal tubule. For the first time, a population of tubular adult renal stem/progenitor cells (ARPCs was embedded into a microsystem to create a bioengineered renal tubule. These cells have both multipotent differentiation abilities and an extraordinary capacity for injured renal cell regeneration. Therefore, ARPCs may be considered a promising tool for promoting regenerative processes in the kidney to treat acute and chronic renal injury. Here ARPCs were grown to confluence and exposed to a laminar fluid shear stress into the chip, in order to induce a functional cell polarization. Exposing ARPCs to fluid shear stress in the chip led the aquaporin-2 transporter to localize at their apical region and the Na(+K(+ATPase pump at their basolateral portion, in contrast to statically cultured ARPCs. A recovery of urea and creatinine of (20±5% and (13±5%, respectively, was obtained by the device. The microengineered biochip here-proposed might be an innovative "lab-on-a-chip" platform to investigate in vitro ARPCs behaviour or to test drugs for therapeutic and toxicological responses.

  5. Culture and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.

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    Gu, Wenyu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Changcheng; Yan, Yang; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    Although emerging evidence demonstrates increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with solid tumors, to our knowledge it is still unknown whether such cells can be cultured from patients with highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma. We cultured and characterized circulating endothelial progenitor cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (percent of CD45(-)CD34(+) VEGF-R2(+) cells in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was quantified in 47 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 40 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated from 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 30 healthy controls to culture and characterize circulating endothelial progenitor cells. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level was significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma than in healthy controls (0.276% vs 0.086%, p cells first emerged significantly earlier in patient than in control preparations (6.72 vs 14.67 days, p culture success rate (87.8% vs 40.0% of participants) and the number of colonies (10.06 vs 1.83) were significantly greater for patients than for controls (each p cell level correlated positively with the number of patient colonies (r = 0.762, p Cells cultured from patients and controls showed a similar growth pattern, immunophenotype, ability to uptake Ac-LDL and bind lectin, and form capillary tubes in vitro. However, significantly more VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitor cells were found in preparations from patients with renal cell carcinoma than from healthy controls (21.1% vs 13.4%, p cell colonies, a higher cell culture success rate and more colonies were found for patients with renal cell carcinoma than for healthy controls. Results indicate the important significance of VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitors in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  6. Human Urine-Derived Renal Progenitors for Personalized Modeling of Genetic Kidney Disorders.

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    Lazzeri, Elena; Ronconi, Elisa; Angelotti, Maria Lucia; Peired, Anna; Mazzinghi, Benedetta; Becherucci, Francesca; Conti, Sara; Sansavini, Giulia; Sisti, Alessandro; Ravaglia, Fiammetta; Lombardi, Duccio; Provenzano, Aldesia; Manonelles, Anna; Cruzado, Josep M; Giglio, Sabrina; Roperto, Rosa Maria; Materassi, Marco; Lasagni, Laura; Romagnani, Paola

    2015-08-01

    The critical role of genetic and epigenetic factors in the pathogenesis of kidney disorders is gradually becoming clear, and the need for disease models that recapitulate human kidney disorders in a personalized manner is paramount. In this study, we describe a method to select and amplify renal progenitor cultures from the urine of patients with kidney disorders. Urine-derived human renal progenitors exhibited phenotype and functional properties identical to those purified from kidney tissue, including the capacity to differentiate into tubular cells and podocytes, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy, Western blot analysis of podocyte-specific proteins, and scanning electron microscopy. Lineage tracing studies performed with conditional transgenic mice, in which podocytes are irreversibly tagged upon tamoxifen treatment (NPHS2.iCreER;mT/mG), that were subjected to doxorubicin nephropathy demonstrated that renal progenitors are the only urinary cell population that can be amplified in long-term culture. To validate the use of these cells for personalized modeling of kidney disorders, renal progenitors were obtained from (1) the urine of children with nephrotic syndrome and carrying potentially pathogenic mutations in genes encoding for podocyte proteins and (2) the urine of children without genetic alterations, as validated by next-generation sequencing. Renal progenitors obtained from patients carrying pathogenic mutations generated podocytes that exhibited an abnormal cytoskeleton structure and functional abnormalities compared with those obtained from patients with proteinuria but without genetic mutations. The results of this study demonstrate that urine-derived patient-specific renal progenitor cultures may be an innovative research tool for modeling of genetic kidney disorders. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Renal progenitor cells contribute to hyperplastic lesions of podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Bart; Angelotti, Maria Lucia; Rizzo, Paola; Dijkman, Henry; Lazzeri, Elena; Mooren, Fieke; Ballerini, Lara; Parente, Eliana; Sagrinati, Costanza; Mazzinghi, Benedetta; Ronconi, Elisa; Becherucci, Francesca; Benigni, Ariela; Steenbergen, Eric; Lasagni, Laura; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Wetzels, Jack; Romagnani, Paola

    2009-12-01

    Glomerular injury can involve excessive proliferation of glomerular epithelial cells, resulting in crescent formation and obliteration of Bowman's space. The origin of these hyperplastic epithelial cells in different glomerular disorders is controversial. Renal progenitors localized to the inner surface of Bowman's capsule can regenerate podocytes, but whether dysregulated proliferation of these progenitors contributes to crescent formation is unknown. In this study, we used confocal microscopy, laser capture microdissection, and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR to demonstrate that hypercellular lesions of different podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis consist of three distinct populations: CD133(+)CD24(+)podocalyxin (PDX)(-)nestin(-) renal progenitors, CD133(+)CD24(+)PDX(+)nestin(+) transitional cells, and CD133(-)CD24(-)PDX(+)nestin(+) differentiated podocytes. In addition, TGF-beta induced CD133(+)CD24(+) progenitors to produce extracellular matrix, and these were the only cells to express the proliferation marker Ki67. Taken together, these results suggest that glomerular hyperplastic lesions derive from the proliferation of renal progenitors at different stages of their differentiation toward mature podocytes, providing an explanation for the pathogenesis of hyperplastic lesions in podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

  8. Illustration of extensive extracellular matrix at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minuth Will W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates to treat diseased renal parenchyma. However, implanted stem/progenitor cells are exposed to a harmful atmosphere of degenerating parenchyma. To minimize hampering effects after an implantation investigations are in progress to administer these cells within an artificial polyester interstitum supporting survival. Learning from nature the renal stem/progenitor cell niche appears as a valuable model. At this site epithelial stem/progenitor cells within the collecting duct ampulla face mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Both cell types do not have close contact but are separated by a wide interstitium. Methods To analyze extracellular matrix in this particular interstitium, special contrasting for transmission electron microscopy was performed. Kidneys of neonatal rabbits were fixed in solutions containing glutaraldehyde (GA or in combination with cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red and tannic acid. Results GA revealed a basal lamina at the ampulla and a bright but inconspicuously looking interstitial space. In contrast, GA containing cupromeronic blue exhibits numerous proteoglycan braces lining from the ampulla towards the interstitial space. GA containing ruthenium red or tannic acid demonstrates clouds of extracellular matrix protruding from the basal lamina of the ampulla to the surface of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Conclusions The actual data show that the interstitium between epithelial and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells contains much more and up to date unknown extracellular matrix than earlier observed by classical GA fixation.

  9. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and stem cell factor in chronic renal allograft nephropathy

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    Hayam Abdel Meguid El Aggan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN is a poorly understood clinico-pathological entity associated with chronic allograft loss due to immunologic and non-immunologic causes. It remains the leading cause of late allograft loss. Bone marrow derived stem cells are undifferentiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple differentiated cellular population, including hematopoietic (HSCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Characterization of HSCs includes their multipotency, expression of typical surface markers such as CD34 and CD45, while characterization of MSC includes their multipotency, expression of typical surface markers such as CD90 and CD105, and the absence of hemopoietic lineage markers. Aim & methods: The aim of the present work was to study the role of bone marrow-derived HSCs and MSCs, renal progenitor cells and SCF in chronic renal allograft nephropathy in relation to renal hemodynamics and histopathological changes. We studied 30 patients with kidney transplantation for more than 6 months, divided into 15 patients with stable serum creatinine and 15 patients who developed CAN. Detection of HSCs and MSCs in the peripheral blood using flow cytometry via detection of CD34, CD45, CD117 and CD106, as well as immunohistochemical detection of CD34, CD133, VEGF and αSMA in transplanted kidney biopsies of patients with CAN were done. Results: There was a significant increase in the levels of SCF, number of peripheral blood HSCs and MSCs in both transplanted patient groups than the controls and they were higher in patients of group Ia than patients of group Ib, (F = 39.73, P < 0.001, (F = 13.28, P < 0.001, (F = 11.94, P < 0.001, respectively and this was accompanied by evident expression of markers of renal repair. Conclusion: Stem cells might have a role in renal regeneration in CAN and this may pave the way toward the use of stem cells in correction of CAN. KEYWORDS

  10. Erythropoietin-enhanced endothelial progenitor cell recruitment in peripheral blood and renal vessels during experimental acute kidney injury in rats.

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    Cakiroglu, Figen; Enders-Comberg, Sora Maria; Pagel, Horst; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Kramer, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Beneficial effects of erythropoietin (EPO) have been reported in acute kidney injury (AKI) when administered prior to induction of AKI. We studied the effects of EPO administration on renal function shortly after ischemic AKI. For this purpose, rats were subjected to renal ischemia for 30 min and EPO was administered at a concentration of 500 U/kg either i.v. as a single shot directly after ischemia or with an additional i.p. dose until 3 days after surgery. The results were compared with AKI rats without EPO application and a sham-operated group. Renal function was assessed by measurement of serum biochemical markers, histological grading, and using an isolated perfused kidney (IPK) model. Furthermore, we performed flow cytometry to analyze the concentration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the peripheral blood and renal vessels. Following EPO application, there was only a statistically non-significant tendency of serum creatinine and urea to improve, particularly after daily EPO application. Renal vascular resistance and the renal perfusion rate were not significantly altered. In the histological analysis, acute tubular necrosis was only marginally ameliorated following EPO administration. In summary, we could not demonstrate a significant improvement in renal function when EPO was applied after AKI. Interestingly, however, EPO treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in CD133- and CD34-positive EPC both in the peripheral blood and renal vessels. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. Ret and Etv4 Promote Directed Movements of Progenitor Cells during Renal Branching Morphogenesis.

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    Paul Riccio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud forms the renal collecting duct system and is critical for normal nephron number, while low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease. Ureteric bud growth and branching requires GDNF signaling from the surrounding mesenchyme to cells at the ureteric bud tips, via the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and coreceptor Gfrα1; Ret signaling up-regulates transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5, which are also critical for branching. Despite extensive knowledge of the genetic control of these events, it is not understood, at the cellular level, how renal branching morphogenesis is achieved or how Ret signaling influences epithelial cell behaviors to promote this process. Analysis of chimeric embryos previously suggested a role for Ret signaling in promoting cell rearrangements in the nephric duct, but this method was unsuited to study individual cell behaviors during ureteric bud branching. Here, we use Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM, combined with organ culture and time-lapse imaging, to trace the movements and divisions of individual ureteric bud tip cells. We first examine wild-type clones and then Ret or Etv4 mutant/wild-type clones in which the mutant and wild-type sister cells are differentially and heritably marked by green and red fluorescent proteins. We find that, in normal kidneys, most individual tip cells behave as self-renewing progenitors, some of whose progeny remain at the tips while others populate the growing UB trunks. In Ret or Etv4 MADM clones, the wild-type cells generated at a UB tip are much more likely to remain at, or move to, the new tips during branching and elongation, while their Ret-/- or Etv4-/- sister cells tend to lag behind and contribute only to the trunks. By tracking successive mitoses in a cell lineage, we find that Ret signaling has little effect on proliferation, in contrast to its effects on cell movement. Our results show that Ret

  12. Bmi-1 plays a critical role in the protection from acute tubular necrosis by mobilizing renal stem/progenitor cells.

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    Lv, Xianhui; Yu, Zhenzhen; Xie, Chunfeng; Dai, Xiuliang; Li, Qing; Miao, Dengshun; Jin, Jianliang

    2017-01-22

    The regeneration of injured tubular cell occurs primarily from intrinsic renal stem/progenitor cells (RSCs) labeled with CD24 and CD133 after acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Bmi-1 plays a crucial role in regulating self-renewal, differentiation and aging of multiple adult stem cells and progenitor cells. Bmi-1 was rapidly elevated in the induction of adult kidney regeneration by renal injury. To determine whether Bmi-1 maintained mobilization of RSCs in the protection from ATN, glycerol-rhabdomyolysis-induced ATN were performed in wild type (WT) and Bmi-1-deficient (Bmi-1 -/- ) mice. Their ATN phenotypes were analyzed; CD24 and CD133 double positive (CD24 + CD133 + ) cells were measured; and the levels of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) were detected. We found that CD24 + CD133 + RSCs were mobilized in WT ATN mice with the increased expression of Bmi-1; Bmi-1 deficiency led to increased tubular cast formation and necrosis, elevated levels of SUN and SCr, decreased tubular proliferation, and immobilized ratio of RSCs in ATN. These findings indicated that Bmi-1 played a critical role in the protection from ATN by maintaining mobilization of RSCs and would be a novel therapeutic target for preventing the progression of ATN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bmi-1 plays a critical role in the protection from acute tubular necrosis by mobilizing renal stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Xianhui; Yu, Zhenzhen; Xie, Chunfeng; Dai, Xiuliang; Li, Qing; Miao, Dengshun; Jin, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    The regeneration of injured tubular cell occurs primarily from intrinsic renal stem/progenitor cells (RSCs) labeled with CD24 and CD133 after acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Bmi-1 plays a crucial role in regulating self-renewal, differentiation and aging of multiple adult stem cells and progenitor cells. Bmi-1 was rapidly elevated in the induction of adult kidney regeneration by renal injury. To determine whether Bmi-1 maintained mobilization of RSCs in the protection from ATN, glycerol-rhabdomyolysis-induced ATN were performed in wild type (WT) and Bmi-1-deficient (Bmi-1 −/− ) mice. Their ATN phenotypes were analyzed; CD24 and CD133 double positive (CD24 + CD133 + ) cells were measured; and the levels of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) were detected. We found that CD24 + CD133 + RSCs were mobilized in WT ATN mice with the increased expression of Bmi-1; Bmi-1 deficiency led to increased tubular cast formation and necrosis, elevated levels of SUN and SCr, decreased tubular proliferation, and immobilized ratio of RSCs in ATN. These findings indicated that Bmi-1 played a critical role in the protection from ATN by maintaining mobilization of RSCs and would be a novel therapeutic target for preventing the progression of ATN.

  14. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hayam Abdel Meguid El Aggan

    2013-04-06

    Apr 6, 2013 ... renal blood flow; MoAbs, monoclonal antibodies; PE, phycoerythrin;. FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate. ... Detection of HSCs and MSCs in the peripheral blood using flow cytometry via detection of CD34, CD45, CD117 and ..... the peripheral capillary loops in 25–50% (cg2). Six biopsies showed an increase ...

  15. Levels of circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells correlate with outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, F; Gross-Goupil, M; Tournay, E; Taylor, M; Vimond, N; Jacques, N; Billiot, F; Mauguen, A; Hill, C; Escudier, B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Predicting the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy would be of clinical value in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tested the hypothesis that circulating endothelial cell (CEC), bone marrow-derived CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cell or plasma angiogenic factor levels are associated with clinical outcome in mRCC pts undergoing treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Methods: Fifty-five mRCC pts were prospectively monitored at baseline (day 1) and day 14 during treatment (46 pts received sunitinib and 9 pts received sorafenib). Circulating endothelial cells (CD45−CD31+CD146+7-amino-actinomycin (7AAD)− cells) were measured in 1 ml whole blood using four-color flow cytometry (FCM). Circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cells were measured in progenitor-enriched fractions by four-color FCM. Plasma VEGF, sVEGFR2, SDF-1α and sVCAM-1 levels were determined by ELISA. Correlations between baseline CEC, CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cells, plasma factors, as well as day 1–day 14 changes in CEC, CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor, plasma factor levels, and response to TKI, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: No significant correlation between markers and response to TKI was observed. No association between baseline CEC, plasma VEGF, sVEGFR-2, SDF-1α, sVCAM-1 levels with PFS and OS was observed. However, baseline CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cell levels were associated with PFS (P=0.01) and OS (P=0.006). Changes in this population and in SDF-1α levels between day 1 and day 14 were associated with PFS (P=0.03, P=0.002). Changes in VEGF and SDF-1α levels were associated with OS (P=0.02, P=0.007). Conclusion: Monitoring CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells, plasma VEGF and SDF-1α levels could be of clinical interest in TKI-treated mRCC pts to predict outcome. PMID:21386843

  16. What is the functional background of filigree extracellular matrix and cell-cell connections at the interface of the renal stem/progenitor cell niche?

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    Will W. Minuth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of a nephron is induced by a reciprocal exchange of morphogenetic proteins between epithelial and mesenchymal cells within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche. For sustaining concentration of diffusing proteins high, it is believed that an intimate contact exists between involved cells. However, actual morphological data show that both types of stem/progenitor cell bodies are separated by an interface. To analyze details of this arrangement, neonatal rabbit kidneys were fixed in traditional glutaraldehyde (GA solution for transmission electron microscopy. For an enhanced contrast fixation of samples was performed in GA solution including either cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid. To record always the same perspective, embedded blocks of parenchyma were cut in orientated vertical and transverse planes to the lumen of lining collecting duct tubules. Screening of samples fixed by GA solution demonstrates a constant separation of stem/progenitor cell bodies by an unobstrusively looking interface. In contrast, improved fixation of specimens in GA solution including cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid unveils between them earlier not visible filigree extracellular matrix. Further projections of mesenchymal cells covered by this matrix cross the interface to contact epithelial cells. The end of a projection does not dangle but is mounted by a special plug connection. At this site the plasma membranes of mesenchymal and epithelial cells are connected via tunneling nanotubes. Regarding this unique arrangement the principal question is to what extent illustrated extracellular matrix and cell-cell connections are involved in the exchange of morphogenetic proteins during induction of a nephron. Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future

  17. Progenitor Epithelium

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    Marty-Santos, Leilani

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-producing β cells within the vertebrate fetal pancreas acquire their fate in a step-wise manner. Whereas the intrinsic factors dictating the transcriptional or epigenetic status of pancreatic lineages have been intensely examined, less is known about cell–cell interactions that might constitute a niche for the developing β cell lineage. It is becoming increasingly clear that understanding and recapitulating these steps may instruct in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells and/or therapeutic regeneration. Indeed, directed differentiation techniques have improved since transitioning from 2D to 3D cultures, suggesting that the 3D microenvironment in which β cells are born is critical. However, to date, it remains unknown whether the changing architecture of the pancreatic epithelium impacts the fate of cells therein. An emerging challenge in the field is to elucidate how progenitors are allocated during key events, such as the stratification and subsequent resolution of the pre-pancreatic epithelium, as well as the formation of lumens and branches. Here, we assess the progenitor epithelium and examine how it might influence the emergence of pancreatic multipotent progenitors (MPCs), which give rise to β cells and other pancreatic lineages. PMID:26216134

  18. Acellular Mouse Kidney ECM can be Used as a Three-Dimensional Substrate to Test the Differentiation Potential of Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Renal Progenitors.

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    Sambi, Manpreet; Chow, Theresa; Whiteley, Jennifer; Li, Mira; Chua, Shawn; Raileanu, Vanessa; Rogers, Ian M

    2017-08-01

    The development of strategies for tissue regeneration and bio-artificial organ development is based on our understanding of embryogenesis. Differentiation protocols attempt to recapitulate the signaling modalities of gastrulation and organogenesis, coupled with cell selection regimens to isolate the cells of choice. This strategy is impeded by the lack of optimal in vitro culture systems since traditional culture systems do not allow for the three-dimensional interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix. While artificial three-dimensional scaffolds are available, using the natural extracellular matrix scaffold is advantageous because it has a distinct architecture that is difficult to replicate. The adult extracellular matrix is predicted to mediate signaling related to tissue repair not embryogenesis but existing similarities between the two argues that the extracellular matrix will influence the differentiation of stem and progenitor cells. Previous studies using undifferentiated embryonic stem cells grown directly on acellular kidney ECM demonstrated that the acellular kidney supported cell growth but limited differentiation occurred. Using mouse kidney extracellular matrix and mouse embryonic stem cells we report that the extracellular matrix can support the development of kidney structures if the stem cells are first differentiated to kidney progenitor cells before being applied to the acellular organ.

  19. Origin of hemopoietic stromal progenitor cells in chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, J.L.; Drize, N.J.; Gurevitch, O.A.; Samoylova, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    Intravenously injected bone marrow cells do not participate in the regeneration of hemopoietic stromal progenitors in irradiated mice, nor in the curetted parts of the recipient's marrow. The hemopoietic stromal progenitors in allogeneic chimeras are of recipient origin. The adherent cell layer (ACL) of long-term cultures of allogeneic chimera bone marrow contains only recipient hemopoietic stromal progenitors. However, in ectopic hemopoietic foci produced by marrow implantation under the renal capsule and repopulated by the recipient hemopoietic cells after irradiation and reconstitution by syngeneic hemopoietic cells, the stromal progenitors were of implant donor origin, as were stromal progenitors of the ACL in long-term cultures of hemopoietic cells from ectopic foci. Our results confirm that the stromal and hemopoietic progenitors differ in origin and that hemopoietic stromal progenitors are not transplantable by the intravenous route in mice

  20. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

    1985-01-01

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  1. Masses of supernova progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    The possible nature and masses of supernovae progenitors, and the bearing of empirical results on some unsolved theoretical problems concerning the origin of supernovae, are discussed. The author concentrates on two main questions: what is the lower mass limit for stars to die explosively and what stars initiate type I supernovae. The evidence considered includes local supernova rates, empirical estimates of msub(w) (the upper mass limit for death as a white dwarf), the distributions of supernovae among stellar populations in galaxies and the colors of supernova producing galaxies. (B.D.)

  2. Selective In Vitro Propagation of Nephron Progenitors Derived from Embryos and Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Shunsuke Tanigawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nephron progenitors in the embryonic kidney propagate while generating differentiated nephrons. However, in mice, the progenitors terminally differentiate shortly after birth. Here, we report a method for selectively expanding nephron progenitors in vitro in an undifferentiated state. Combinatorial and concentration-dependent stimulation with LIF, FGF2/9, BMP7, and a WNT agonist is critical for expansion. The purified progenitors proliferated beyond the physiological limits observed in vivo, both for cell numbers and lifespan. Neonatal progenitors were maintained for a week, while progenitors from embryonic day 11.5 expanded 1,800-fold for nearly 20 days and still reconstituted 3D nephrons containing glomeruli and renal tubules. Furthermore, progenitors generated from mouse embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent cells could be expanded with retained nephron-forming potential. Thus, we have established in vitro conditions for promoting the propagation of nephron progenitors, which will be essential for dissecting the mechanisms of kidney organogenesis and for regenerative medicine.

  3. Selective In Vitro Propagation of Nephron Progenitors Derived from Embryos and Pluripotent Stem Cells.

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    Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Taguchi, Atsuhiro; Sharma, Nirmala; Perantoni, Alan O; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2016-04-26

    Nephron progenitors in the embryonic kidney propagate while generating differentiated nephrons. However, in mice, the progenitors terminally differentiate shortly after birth. Here, we report a method for selectively expanding nephron progenitors in vitro in an undifferentiated state. Combinatorial and concentration-dependent stimulation with LIF, FGF2/9, BMP7, and a WNT agonist is critical for expansion. The purified progenitors proliferated beyond the physiological limits observed in vivo, both for cell numbers and lifespan. Neonatal progenitors were maintained for a week, while progenitors from embryonic day 11.5 expanded 1,800-fold for nearly 20 days and still reconstituted 3D nephrons containing glomeruli and renal tubules. Furthermore, progenitors generated from mouse embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent cells could be expanded with retained nephron-forming potential. Thus, we have established in vitro conditions for promoting the propagation of nephron progenitors, which will be essential for dissecting the mechanisms of kidney organogenesis and for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in patients with progressive chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krenning, Guido; Dankers, Patricia Y. W.; Drouven, Johannes W.; Waanders, Femke; Franssen, Casper F. M.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Popa, Eliane R.

    Krenning G, Dankers PY, Drouven JW, Waanders F, Franssen CF, van Luyn MJ, Harmsen MC, Popa ER. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in patients with progressive chronic kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1314-F1322, 2009. First published April 1, 2009; doi:

  5. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  6. Mesenchymal progenitor cells for the osteogenic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitors of the osteogenic lineage provide the flexibility for bone to grow, maintain its function and homeostasis. Traditionally, colony-forming-unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) have been regarded as surrogates for mesenchymal progenitors; however, this definition cannot address the function of these progenitors in their native setting. Transgenic murine models including lineage-tracing technologies based on the cre-lox system have proven to be useful in delineating mesenchymal progenitors in their native environment. Although heterogeneity of cell populations of interest marked by a promoter-based approach complicates overall interpretation, an emerging complexity of mesenchymal progenitors has been revealed. Current literatures suggest two distinct types of bone progenitor cells; growth-associated mesenchymal progenitors contribute to explosive growth of bone in early life, whereas bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors contribute to the much slower remodeling process and response to injury that occurs mainly in adulthood. More detailed relationships of these progenitors need to be studied through further experimentation.

  7. Renal venogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be black. Other structures will be shades of gray. Veins are not normally seen in an x- ... Venogram - kidney; Renal vein thrombosis - venogram Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Renal veins References ...

  8. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Intravenous pyelogram References Rottenberg G, Andi AC. Renal ...

  9. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  10. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  11. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  12. Engineering kidney cells: reprogramming and directed differentiation to renal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael M; Tosic, Jelena; Pichler, Roman; Arnold, Sebastian J; Lienkamp, Soeren S

    2017-07-01

    Growing knowledge of how cell identity is determined at the molecular level has enabled the generation of diverse tissue types, including renal cells from pluripotent or somatic cells. Recently, several in vitro protocols involving either directed differentiation or transcription-factor-based reprogramming to kidney cells have been established. Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells can be guided towards a kidney fate by exposing them to combinations of growth factors or small molecules. Here, renal development is recapitulated in vitro resulting in kidney cells or organoids that show striking similarities to mammalian embryonic nephrons. In addition, culture conditions are also defined that allow the expansion of renal progenitor cells in vitro. Another route towards the generation of kidney cells is direct reprogramming. Key transcription factors are used to directly impose renal cell identity on somatic cells, thus circumventing the pluripotent stage. This complementary approach to stem-cell-based differentiation has been demonstrated to generate renal tubule cells and nephron progenitors. In-vitro-generated renal cells offer new opportunities for modelling inherited and acquired renal diseases on a patient-specific genetic background. These cells represent a potential source for developing novel models for kidney diseases, drug screening and nephrotoxicity testing and might represent the first steps towards kidney cell replacement therapies. In this review, we summarize current approaches for the generation of renal cells in vitro and discuss the advantages of each approach and their potential applications.

  13. Isolation and characterization of multipotent progenitor cells from the Bowman's capsule of adult human kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrinati, Costanza; Netti, Giuseppe Stefano; Mazzinghi, Benedetta; Lazzeri, Elena; Liotta, Francesco; Frosali, Francesca; Ronconi, Elisa; Meini, Claudia; Gacci, Mauro; Squecco, Roberta; Carini, Marco; Gesualdo, Loreto; Francini, Fabio; Maggi, Enrico; Annunziato, Francesco; Lasagni, Laura; Serio, Mario; Romagnani, Sergio; Romagnani, Paola

    2006-09-01

    Regenerative medicine represents a critical clinical goal for patients with ESRD, but the identification of renal adult multipotent progenitor cells has remained elusive. It is demonstrated that in human adult kidneys, a subset of parietal epithelial cells (PEC) in the Bowman's capsule exhibit coexpression of the stem cell markers CD24 and CD133 and of the stem cell-specific transcription factors Oct-4 and BmI-1, in the absence of lineage-specific markers. This CD24+CD133+ PEC population, which could be purified from cultured capsulated glomeruli, revealed self-renewal potential and a high cloning efficiency. Under appropriate culture conditions, individual clones of CD24+CD133+ PEC could be induced to generate mature, functional, tubular cells with phenotypic features of proximal and/or distal tubules, osteogenic cells, adipocytes, and cells that exhibited phenotypic and functional features of neuronal cells. The injection of CD24+CD133+ PEC but not of CD24-CD133- renal cells into SCID mice that had acute renal failure resulted in the regeneration of tubular structures of different portions of the nephron. More important, treatment of acute renal failure with CD24+CD133+ PEC significantly ameliorated the morphologic and functional kidney damage. This study demonstrates the existence and provides the characterization of a population of resident multipotent progenitor cells in adult human glomeruli, potentially opening new avenues for the development of regenerative medicine in patients who have renal diseases.

  14. The poster as modernist progenitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Hauser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruth E. Iskin’s The Poster: Art, Advertising. Design, and Collecting, 1860s-1900s positions the late-nineteenth-century advertising poster as the progenitor of valued modernist practices typically attached solely to photography and film. Modernist biases separating high art from mass culture account for scholars ignoring posters, however the poster ushered in an innovative reductive graphic style as well as pioneered the notion of multiple originals.

  15. PROGENITORS OF RECOMBINING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Takashi J., E-mail: takashi.moriya@ipmu.jp [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

  16. Postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in bioengineered amelogenesis and dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Schiff, Michael D; Lee, Chang H; Kong, Kimi; Embree, Mildred C; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J

    2014-02-01

    Rodent incisors provide a classic model for studying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development. However, postnatal stem/progenitor cells in rodent incisors have not been exploited for tooth regeneration. Here, we characterized postnatal rat incisor epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells and found that they formed enamel- and dentin-like tissues in vivo. Epithelium and mesenchyme cells were harvested separately from the apical region of postnatal 4-5 day rat incisors. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were confirmed by immunocytochemistry, CFU assay and/or multi-lineage differentiation. CK14+, Sox2+ and Lgr5+ epithelium stem cells from the cervical loop enhanced amelogenin and ameloblastin expression upon BMP4 or FGF3 stimulation, signifying their differentiation towards ameloblast-like cells, whereas mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells upon BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a treatment robustly expressed Dspp, a hallmark of odontoblastic differentiation. We then control-released microencapsulated BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a in transplants of epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in the renal capsule of athymic mice in vivo. Enamel and dentin-like tissues were generated in two integrated layers with specific expression of amelogenin and ameloblastin in the newly formed, de novo enamel-like tissue, and DSP in dentin-like tissue. These findings suggest that postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells can be primed towards bioengineered tooth regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  18. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  19. Progenitor's Signatures in Type Ia Supernova Remnants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiotellis, A.; Kosenko, D.; Schure, K.M.; Vink, J.

    2013-01-01

    The remnants of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can provide important clues about their progenitor histories. We discuss two well-observed supernova remnants (SNRs) that are believed to have resulted from SNe Ia, and use various tools to shed light on the possible progenitor histories. We find that

  20. Pulpal progenitors and dentin repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harichane, Y; Hirata, A; Dimitrova-Nakov, S; Granja, I; Goldberg, A; Kellermann, O; Poliard, A

    2011-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are present in the dental pulp. They have been shown to contribute to dentin-like tissue formation in vitro and to participate in bone repair after a mandibular lesion. However, their capacity to contribute efficiently to reparative dentin formation after pulp lesion has never been explored. After pulp exposure, we have identified proliferative cells within 3 zones. In the crown, zone I is near the cavity, and zone II corresponds to the isthmus between the mesial and central pulp. In the root, zone III, near the apex, at a distance from the inflammatory site, contains mitotic stromal cells which may represent a source of progenitor cells. Stem-cell-based strategies are promising treatments for tissue injury in dentistry. Our experiments focused on (1) location of stem cells induced to leave their quiescent state early after pulp injury and (2) implantation of pulp progenitors, a substitute for classic endodontic treatments, paving the way for pulp stem-cell-based therapies.

  1. Transplanting oligodendrocyte progenitors into the adult CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R.J.M.; Blakemore, W.F.; Cambridge Univ.

    1997-01-01

    This review covers a number of aspects of the behaviour of oligodendrocyte progenitors following transplantation into the adult CNS. First, an account is given of the ability of transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitors, grown in tissue culture in the presence of PDGF and bFGF, to extensively remyelinate focal areas of persistent demyelination. Secondly, we describe how transplanted clonal cell lines of oligodendrocyte progenitors will differentiate in to astrocytes as will oligodendrocytes following transplantation into pathological environments in which both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are absent, thereby manifesting the bipotentially demonstrable in vitro but not during development. Finally, a series of studies examining the migratory behaviour of transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitors (modelled using the oligodendrocyte progenitor cell line CG4) are described. (author)

  2. Fractalkine expression induces endothelial progenitor cell lysis by natural killer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyana Todorova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating CD34(+ cells, a population that includes endothelial progenitors, participate in the maintenance of endothelial integrity. Better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate their survival is crucial to improve their regenerative activity in cardiovascular and renal diseases. Chemokine-receptor cross talk is critical in regulating cell homeostasis. We hypothesized that cell surface expression of the chemokine fractalkine (FKN could target progenitor cell injury by Natural Killer (NK cells, thereby limiting their availability for vascular repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that CD34(+-derived Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFC can express FKN in response to TNF-α and IFN-γ inflammatory cytokines and that FKN expression by ECFC stimulates NK cell adhesion, NK cell-mediated ECFC lysis and microparticles release in vitro. The specific involvement of membrane FKN in these processes was demonstrated using FKN-transfected ECFC and anti-FKN blocking antibody. FKN expression was also evidenced on circulating CD34(+ progenitor cells and was detected at higher frequency in kidney transplant recipients, when compared to healthy controls. The proportion of CD34(+ cells expressing FKN was identified as an independent variable inversely correlated to CD34(+ progenitor cell count. We further showed that treatment of CD34(+ circulating cells isolated from adult blood donors with transplant serum or TNF-α/IFN-γ can induce FKN expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlights a novel mechanism by which FKN expression on CD34(+ progenitor cells may target their NK cell mediated killing and participate to their immune depletion in transplant recipients. Considering the numerous diseased contexts shown to promote FKN expression, our data identify FKN as a hallmark of altered progenitor cell homeostasis with potential implications in better evaluation of vascular repair in patients.

  3. Renal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, S.; Malik, N.; Khandelwal, N.

    1990-01-01

    Most fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like saprophytic fungus which may become apathogen under various conditions which lower the host resistance. The use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of renal fungus balls is the subject of this communication with emphasis on the radiologists role in the recognition of this entity. (H.W.). 6 refs.; 2 figs

  4. Species diversity regarding the presence of proximal tubular progenitor cells of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hansson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cellular source for tubular regeneration following kidney injury is a matter of dispute, with reports suggesting a stem or progenitor cells as the regeneration source while linage tracing studies in mice seemingly favor the classical theory, where regeneration is performed by randomly surviving cells. We, and others have previously described a scattered cell population localized to the tubules of human kidney, which increases in number following injury. Here we have characterized the species distribution of these proximal tubular progenitor cells (PTPCs in kidney tissue from chimpanzee, pig, rat and mouse using a set of human PTPC markers. We detected PTPCs in chimpanzee and pig kidneys, but not in mouse tissue. Also, subjecting mice to the unilateral urethral obstruction model, caused clear signs of tubular injury, but failed to induce the PTPC phenotype in renal tubules.

  5. Progenitor cells in pulmonary vascular remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Michael E.; Frid, Maria G.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Intimal thickening and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy and fibroproliferative changes in the adventitia are commonly observed, as is the extension of smooth muscle into the previously non-muscularized vessels. A majority of these changes are associated with the enhanced presence of α-SM-actin+ cells and inflammatory cells. Atypical abundances of functionally distinct endothelial cells, particularly in the intima (plexiform lesions), and also in the perivascular regions, are also described. At present, neither the origin(s) of these cells nor the molecular mechanisms responsible for their accumulation, in any of the three compartments of the vessel wall, have been fully elucidated. The possibility that they arise from either resident vascular progenitors or bone marrow–derived progenitor cells is now well established. Resident vascular progenitor cells have been demonstrated to exist within the vessel wall, and in response to certain stimuli, to expand and express myofibroblastic, endothelial or even hematopoietic markers. Bone marrow–derived or circulating progenitor cells have also been shown to be recruited to sites of vascular injury and to assume both endothelial and SM-like phenotypes. Here, we review the data supporting the contributory role of vascular progenitors (including endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and fibrocytes) in vascular remodeling. A more complete understanding of the processes by which progenitor cells modulate pulmonary vascular remodeling will undoubtedly herald a renaissance of therapies extending beyond the control of vascular tonicity and reduction of pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:22034593

  6. Renal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorico F. da Costa Neto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal hemangioma is a relatively rare benign tumor, seldom diagnosed as a cause of hematuria. CASE REPORT: A female 40-year old patient presented with continuous gross hematuria, anemia and episodic right lumbar pain, with onset about 3 months previously. The patient underwent multiple blood transfusions during her hospital stay and extensive imaging propedeutics was performed. Semi-rigid ureterorenoscopy evidenced a bleeding focus in the upper calix of the right kidney, with endoscopic treatment being unfeasible. The patient underwent right upper pole nephrectomy and presented a favorable outcome. Histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen showed that it was a renal hemangioma. COMMENTS: Imaging methods usually employed for diagnostic investigation of hematuria do not have good sensitivity for renal hemangioma. However, they are important to exclude the most frequent differential diagnoses. The ureterorenoscopy is the diagnostic method of choice and endoscopic treatment can be feasible when the lesion is accessible and electrocautery or laser are available. We emphasize the open surgical treatment as a therapeutic option upon failure of less invasive methods.

  7. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  8. Radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, Silvia

    1994-01-01

    Between the diagnostic techniques using radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine it find renal studies.A brief description about renal glomerular filtration(GFR) and reliability renal plasma flux (ERPF),renal blood flux measurement agents (RBF),renal scintillation agents and radiation dose estimates by organ physiology was given in this study.tabs

  9. Proliferative capacity of stem/progenitor-like cells in the kidney may associate with the outcome of patients with acute tubular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Youxin; Wang, Bingyin; Jiang, Xinxin; Hu, Weiming; Feng, Jian; Li, Hua; Jin, Mei; Ying, Yingjuan; Wang, Wenjuan; Mao, Xiaoou; Jin, Kunlin

    2011-08-01

    Animal studies indicate that adult renal stem/progenitor cells can undergo rapid proliferation in response to renal injury, but whether the same is true in humans is largely unknown. To examine the profile of renal stem/progenitor cells responsible for acute tubular necrosis in human kidney, double and triple immunostaining was performed using proliferative marker and stem/progenitor protein markers on sections from 10 kidneys with acute tubular necrosis and 4 normal adult kidneys. The immunopositive cells were recorded using 2-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found that dividing cells were present in the tubules of the cortex and medulla, as well as the glomerulus in normal human kidney. Proliferative cells in the parietal layer of Bowman capsule expressed CD133, and dividing cells in the tubules expressed immature cell protein markers paired box gene 2, vimentin, and nestin. After acute tubular necrosis, Ki67-positive cells in the cortex tubules significantly increased compared with normal adult kidney. These Ki67-positive cells expressed CD133 and paired box gene 2, but not the cell death marker, activated caspase-3. In addition, the number of dividing cells increased significantly in patients with acute tubular necrosis who subsequently recovered, compared with patients with acute tubular necrosis who consequently developed protracted acute tubular necrosis or died. Our data suggest that renal stem/progenitor cells may reside not only in the parietal layer of Bowman capsule but also in the cortex and medulla in normal human kidney, and the proliferative capacity of renal stem/progenitor cells after acute tubular necrosis may be an important determinant of a patient's outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2014-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  11. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  12. Renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal denervation (RDN) has, within recent years, been suggested as a novel treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge on this procedure as well as limitations and questions that remain to be answered. RECENT FINDINGS...... selection, anatomical and physiological effects of RDN as well as possible beneficial effects on other diseases with increased sympathetic activity. The long awaited Symplicity HTN-3 (2014) results illustrated that the RDN group and the sham-group had similar reductions in BP. SUMMARY: Initial studies...

  13. Renal papillary necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asking your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bushinsky DA, Monk RD. Nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. ...

  14. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  15. Heterogeneity of limbal basal epithelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Yasutaka; Li, Wei; Chen, Ying-Ting; He, Hua; Chen, Szu-yu; Kheirkah, Ahmad; Zhu, Ying-Tien; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2010-11-01

    Although corneal epithelial stem cells (SCs) are located at the limbus between the cornea and the conjunctiva, not all limbal basal epithelial cells are SCs. Using 2 dispase digestions to remove different amounts of limbal basal epithelial cells for cross-sections, flat mounts, and cytospin preparations, double immunostaining to pancytokeratins (PCK) and vimentin (Vim) identified 3 p63+ epithelial progenitors such as PCK-/Vim+, PCK/Vim, and PCK-/Vim+ and 1 p63+ mesenchymal cell, PCK-/Vim+. PCK-/Vim- progenitors had the smallest cell size were 10-20 times more enriched on collagen I-coated dishes in the 5-minute rapid adherent fraction that contained the highest percentage of p63+ cells but the lowest percentage of cytokeratin12+ cells, and gave rise to high Ki67 labeling and vivid clonal growth. In contrast, PCK+/Vim+ and PCK+/Vim- progenitors were found more in the slow-adherent fraction and yielded poor clonal growth. PCK/Vim progenitors and clusters of PCK-/Vim+ mesenchymal cells, which were neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells, were located in the limbal basal region. Therefore, differential expression of PCK and Vim helps identify small PCK-/Vim- cells as the most likely candidate for SCs among a hierarchy of heterogeneous limbal basal progenitors, and their close association with PCK-/Vim+ presumed "niche" cells.

  16. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  17. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  18. X Inactivation and Progenitor Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Agrelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes is necessary to achieve dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding RNA called Xist triggers X inactivation. Gene silencing by Xist can only be achieved in certain contexts such as in cells of the early embryo and in certain hematopoietic progenitors where silencing factors are present. Moreover, these epigenetic contexts are maintained in cancer progenitors in which SATB1 has been identified as a factor related to Xist-mediated chromosome silencing.

  19. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  20. Hydrogel-embedded endothelial progenitor cells evade LPS and mitigate endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Tammer; Rabadi, May M; Weber, Mia; Rabadi, Seham M; Bank, Michael; Grom, John M; Fallon, John T; Goligorsky, Michael S; Ratliff, Brian B

    2011-10-01

    Sepsis and its complications are associated with poor clinical outcomes. The circulatory system is a well-known target of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Recently, several clinical studies documented mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) during endotoxemia, with the probability of patients' survival correlating with the rise in circulating EPCs. This fact combined with endotoxemia-induced vascular injury led us to hypothesize that the developing functional EPC incompetence could impede vascular repair and that adoptive transfer of EPCs could improve hemodynamics in endotoxemia. We used LPS injection to model endotoxemia. EPCs isolated from endotoxemic mice exhibited impaired clonogenic potential and LPS exerted Toll-like receptor 4-mediated cytotoxic effects toward EPCs, which was mitigated by embedding them in hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels. Therefore, intact EPCs were either delivered intravenously or embedded within pronectin-coated HA hydrogels. Adoptive transfer of EPCs in LPS-injected mice improved control of blood pressure and reduced hepatocellular and renal dysfunction. Specifically, EPC treatment was associated with the restoration of renal microcirculation and improved renal function. EPC therapy was most efficient when cells were delivered embedded in HA hydrogel. These findings establish major therapeutic benefits of adoptive transfer of EPCs, especially when embedded in HA hydrogels, in mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia, and they argue that hemodynamic and renal abnormalities of endotoxemia are in significant part due to developing incompetence of endogenous EPCs.

  1. Cataclysmic Variables as Supernova Ia Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Kafka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the identification of the progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa remains controversial, it is generally accepted that they originate from binary star systems in which at least one component is a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD; those systems are grouped under the wide umbrella of cataclysmic variables. Current theories for SNeIa progenitors hold that, either via Roche lobe overflow of the companion or via a wind, the WD accumulates hydrogen or helium rich material which is then burned to C and O onto the WD’s surface. However, the specifics of this scenario are far from being understood or defined, allowing for a wealth of theories fighting for attention and a dearth of observations to support them. I discuss the latest attempts to identify and study those controversial SNeIa progenitors. I also introduce the most promising progenitor in hand and I present observational diagnostics that can reveal more members of the category.

  2. Cardiac Progenitor Cell Extraction from Human Auricles

    KAUST Repository

    Di Nardo, Paolo; Pagliari, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    by precursor cells mostly embedded into the heart apex and in the atria. We have shown that an elective region of progenitor cell embedding is represented by the auricles, non-contractile atria appendages that can be easily sampled without harming the patient

  3. SUPERNOVA REMNANT PROGENITOR MASSES IN M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Zachary G.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington Seattle, Box 351580, WA 98195 (United States); Murphy, Jeremiah W. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: zachjenn@uw.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main-sequence masses (M{sub ZAMS}) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and employ CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star, then assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the M{sub ZAMS} from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on identification or precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNRs. We identify significant young star formation around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of {approx}2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining six SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped their birth sites. In general, the distribution of recovered progenitor masses is bottom-heavy, showing a paucity of the most massive stars. If we assume a single power-law distribution, dN/dM{proportional_to}M{sup {alpha}}, then we find a distribution that is steeper than a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) ({alpha} = -2.35). In particular, we find values of {alpha} outside the range -2.7 {>=} {alpha} {>=} -4.4 to be inconsistent with our measured distribution at 95% confidence. If instead we assume a distribution that follows a Salpeter IMF up to some maximum mass, then we find that values of M{sub Max} > 26 are inconsistent with the measured distribution at 95% confidence. In either scenario, the data suggest that some fraction of massive stars may not explode. The result is preliminary and requires more SNRs and further analysis. In addition, we use our distribution to estimate a

  4. Characterization of Hemagglutinin Negative Botulinum Progenitor Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Kalb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a disease involving intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, toxic proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia. The 150 kDa neurotoxin is produced in conjunction with other proteins to form the botulinum progenitor toxin complex (PTC, alternating in size from 300 kDa to 500 kDa. These progenitor complexes can be classified into hemagglutinin positive or hemagglutinin negative, depending on the ability of some of the neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs to cause hemagglutination. The hemagglutinin positive progenitor toxin complex consists of BoNT, nontoxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNH, and three hemagglutinin proteins; HA-70, HA-33, and HA-17. Hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes contain BoNT and NTNH as the minimally functional PTC (M-PTC, but not the three hemagglutinin proteins. Interestingly, the genome of hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes comprises open reading frames (orfs which encode for three proteins, but the existence of these proteins has not yet been extensively demonstrated. In this work, we demonstrate that these three proteins exist and form part of the PTC for hemagglutinin negative complexes. Several hemagglutinin negative strains producing BoNT/A, /E, and /F were found to contain the three open reading frame proteins. Additionally, several BoNT/A-containing bivalent strains were examined, and NAPs from both genes, including the open reading frame proteins, were associated with BoNT/A. The open reading frame encoded proteins are more easily removed from the botulinum complex than the hemagglutinin proteins, but are present in several BoNT/A and /F toxin preparations. These are not easily removed from the BoNT/E complex, however, and are present even in commercially-available purified BoNT/E complex.

  5. Regulation of Prostate Development and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Autocrine Cholinergic Signaling via Maintaining the Epithelial Progenitor Cells in Proliferating Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naitao Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of prostate epithelial progenitor cells is important in prostate development and prostate diseases. Our previous study demonstrated a function of autocrine cholinergic signaling (ACS in promoting prostate cancer growth and castration resistance. However, whether or not such ACS also plays a role in prostate development is unknown. Here, we report that ACS promoted the proliferation and inhibited the differentiation of prostate epithelial progenitor cells in organotypic cultures. These results were confirmed by ex vivo lineage tracing assays and in vivo renal capsule recombination assays. Moreover, we found that M3 cholinergic receptor (CHRM3 was upregulated in a large subset of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH tissues compared with normal tissues. Activation of CHRM3 also promoted the proliferation of BPH cells. Together, our findings identify a role of ACS in maintaining prostate epithelial progenitor cells in the proliferating state, and blockade of ACS may have clinical implications for the management of BPH.

  6. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  7. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this disorder. Alternative Names Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney ...

  8. THE AGES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Aubourg, Eric; Strauss, Michael A.; Tojeiro, Rita; Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Using light curves and host galaxy spectra of 101 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with redshift z ∼ 2.4 Gyr. We find that each channel contributes roughly half of the Type Ia rate in our reference sample. We also construct the average spectra of high-stretch and low-stretch SN Ia host galaxies, and find that the difference of these spectra looks like a main-sequence B star with nebular emission lines indicative of star formation. This supports our finding that there are two populations of SNe Ia, and indicates that the progenitors of high-stretch supernovae are at the least associated with very recent star formation in the last few tens of Myr. Our results provide valuable constraints for models of Type Ia progenitors and may help improve the calibration of SNe Ia as standard candles.

  9. Interneuron progenitor transplantation to treat CNS dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad O Chohan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the inadequacy of endogenous repair mechanisms diseases of the nervous system remain a major challenge to scientists and clinicians. Stem cell based therapy is an exciting and viable strategy that has been shown to ameliorate or even reverse symptoms of CNS dysfunction in preclinical animal models. Of particular importance has been the use of GABAergic interneuron progenitors as a therapeutic strategy. Born in the neurogenic niches of the ventral telencephalon, interneuron progenitors retain their unique capacity to disperse, integrate and induce plasticity in adult host circuitries following transplantation. Here we discuss the potential of interneuron based transplantation strategies as it relates to CNS disease therapeutics. We also discuss mechanisms underlying their therapeutic efficacy and some of the challenges that face the field.

  10. Cardio-renal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome.

  11. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  12. Neural Progenitors Adopt Specific Identities by Directly Repressing All Alternative Progenitor Transcriptional Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutejova, Eva; Sasai, Noriaki; Shah, Ankita; Gouti, Mina; Briscoe, James

    2016-03-21

    In the vertebrate neural tube, a morphogen-induced transcriptional network produces multiple molecularly distinct progenitor domains, each generating different neuronal subtypes. Using an in vitro differentiation system, we defined gene expression signatures of distinct progenitor populations and identified direct gene-regulatory inputs corresponding to locations of specific transcription factor binding. Combined with targeted perturbations of the network, this revealed a mechanism in which a progenitor identity is installed by active repression of the entire transcriptional programs of other neural progenitor fates. In the ventral neural tube, sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, together with broadly expressed transcriptional activators, concurrently activates the gene expression programs of several domains. The specific outcome is selected by repressive input provided by Shh-induced transcription factors that act as the key nodes in the network, enabling progenitors to adopt a single definitive identity from several initially permitted options. Together, the data suggest design principles relevant to many developing tissues. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Observational Investigations of the Progenitors of Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, J. D.

    2014-03-01

    Supernovae (SNe) are the spectacular deaths of stars and have shaped the universe we see today. Their far-reaching influence affects the chemical and dynamical evolution of galaxies, star formation, neutron star and black hole formation, and they are largely responsible for most of the heavy elements that make up the universe, including around 90 per cent of the reader. They also provide laboratories of nuclear and particle physics far beyond what we can construct on Earth and act as probes of extreme density and energy. This thesis presents new research into understanding the nature of the progenitor systems of various types of SNe, as well as presenting results that will allow their study to be more productive in the future, through use of automated pipelines and methods to increase the science value of discovered SNe. An environmental study of two peculiar types of transients ('Calcium-rich' and '2002cx-like'), which may not be true SNe, reveals extremely different ages of the exploding systems that will constrain the current theoretical effort into discovering the progenitor systems. The GRB-SN 120422A/2012bz is investigated and found to be an extremely luminous and energetic SN, even amongst the infamously bright GRB-SNe. A method is presented that allows an accurate reconstruction of the bolometric light curve of a core-collapse SN, which relies on only two optical filter observations - this will hugely reduce the observational cost of constructing bolometric light curves, a tool of great importance when hoping to constrain the nature of a SN explosion and hence its progenitor. Finally, this method is utilised to construct the largest bolometric CCSN bolometric light curve sample to date, and these are analytically modelled to reveal population statistics of the explosions, thus informing on the nature of the progenitors.

  14. pacientes con insuficiencia renal terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Herrera Herrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación fundamenta en la clínica psicoanalítica el estudio de dos casos de tres personas diagnosticadas con IRT que reciben tratamiento de hemodiálisis, en razón a que dadas las características y el aumento de los reportes que se presentan, ya esto se considera un problema de salud pública. El objetivo principal es describir las características dinámicas del proceso de duelo en pacientes con IRT en un centro de terapia renal de la ciudad de Cartagena. El procedimiento metodológico empleó un diseño de tipo cualitativo; la investigación se desarrolló con un diseño clínico mediante el estudio de casos, y fundamentada en la hermenéutica psicoanalítica. Todo esto respaldado en la historia clínica, la entrevista semiestructurada individual y familiar, los test proyectivos, test del dibujo de la figura humana Machover y TAT de Murray, para la debida integración de los análisis. Se concluye que predominan funciones fallidas de los progenitores y que son individuos provenientes de familias psicosomáticas, que utilizan la enfermedad para obtener un beneficio secundario.

  15. EVOLUTION OF PROGENITORS FOR ELECTRON CAPTURE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We provide progenitor models for electron capture supernovae (ECSNe) with detailed evolutionary calculation. We include minor electron capture nuclei using a large nuclear reaction network with updated reaction rates. For electron capture, the Coulomb correction of rates is treated and the contribution from neutron-rich isotopes is taken into account in each nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) composition. We calculate the evolution of the most massive super asymptotic giant branch stars and show that these stars undergo off-center carbon burning and form ONe cores at the center. These cores become heavier up to the critical mass of 1.367 M ☉ and keep contracting even after the initiation of O+Ne deflagration. Inclusion of minor electron capture nuclei causes convective URCA cooling during the contraction phase, but the effect on the progenitor evolution is small. On the other hand, electron capture by neutron-rich isotopes in the NSE region has a more significant effect. We discuss the uniqueness of the critical core mass for ECSNe and the effect of wind mass loss on the plausibility of our models for ECSN progenitors.

  16. Traumatic renal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Naobumi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kokubo, Takashi; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of traumatic renal artery occlusion were described and illustrated. In two cases, direct blows to the abdomen compressed the renal artery against the vertebral column. Clinically, they were severely injured with macroscopic hematuria. Aortograms showed abrupt truncation of renal arteries. In the other two, rapid deceleration caused sudden displacement of the kidney producing an intimal tear with resultant thrombosis. Although they showed little injury without macrohematuria, aortograms revealed tapered occlusion of renal arteries. One of them developed hypertension. ''Rim sign'' of post-contrast CT and hypertension resulted from traumatic renal artery occlusion were reviewed. (author)

  17. Icariin protects rats against 5/6 nephrectomy-induced chronic kidney failure by increasing the number of renal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongdi; He, Liqun; Huang, Di; Lei, Shi; Gao, Jiandong

    2015-10-21

    Chronic kidney disease poses a serious health problem worldwide with increasing prevalence and lack of effective treatment. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of icariin in alleviating chronic renal failure induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in rats. The chronic renal failure model was established by a two-phased 5/6 nephrectomy procedure. The model rats were given daily doses of water or icariin for 8 weeks. The kidney morphology was checked by HE staining. The levels of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid were measured by colometric methods. The expression of specified genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The number of renal stem/progenitor cells was analyzed by CD133 and CD24 immunohistochemical staining. Icariin protected against CDK-caused damages to kidney histology and improved renal function, significantly reduced levels of BUN, creatinine, and uric acid. Icariin inhibited the expression level of TGF-β1 whereas upregulated HGF, BMP-7, WT-1, and Pax2 expression. Moreover, ccariin significantly increased the expression of CD24, CD133, Osr1, and Nanog in remnant kidney and the numbers of CD133(+)/CD24(+) renal stem/progenitor cells. These data demonstrated that icariin effectively alleviated 5/6 nephrectomy induced chronic renal failure through increasing renal stem/progenitor cells.

  18. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S; Daijo, K; Okabe, T; Kawamura, J; Hara, A [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1979-08-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1.

  19. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shin-ichi; Daijo, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Tatsushiro; Kawamura, Juichi; Hara, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1. (author)

  20. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  1. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevtic, V.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination

  2. Renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desberg, A.; Paushter, D.M.; Lammert, G.K.; Hale, J.; Troy, R.; Novic, A.; Nally, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Renal artery disease is a potentially correctable cause of hypertension. Previous studies have suggested the utility of duplex sonography in accurately detecting and grading the severity of renal artery stenosis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate color flow Doppler for this use. Forty-three kidneys were examined by color-flow Doppler and conventional duplex sampling in patients with suspected renovascular hypertension or those undergoing aortography for unrelated reasons. Doppler tracings were obtained from the renal arteries and aorta with calculation of the renal aortic ratio (RAR) and resistive index (RI). Results of Doppler sampling with color flow guidance were compared with aortograms in a blinded fashion

  3. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  4. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Lavik, Erin B

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the survival, integration, and differentiation of mouse retinal progenitor cells after transplantation to the subretinal space of adult pigs.......To investigate the survival, integration, and differentiation of mouse retinal progenitor cells after transplantation to the subretinal space of adult pigs....

  5. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vasculature is essential for preservation of the uninvolved renal units.

  6. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  7. Bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossios, K.; Vazakas, P.; Argyropoulou, M.; Stefanaki, S.; Stavropoulos, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. We report the clinical and imaging findings of a case with multifocal and bilateral renal cell carcinoma which are nonspecific. (orig.)

  8. Selective uptake of boronophenylalanine by glioma stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ting; Zhou, Youxin; Xie, Xueshun; Chen, Guilin; Li, Bin; Wei, Yongxin; Chen, Jinming; Huang, Qiang; Du, Ziwei

    2012-01-01

    The success of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the amount of boron in cells and the tumor/blood and tumor/(normal tissue) boron concentration ratios. For the first time, measurements of boron uptake in both stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells were performed along with measurements of boron biodistribution in suitable animal models. In glioma stem/progenitor cells, the selective accumulation of boronophenylalanine (BPA) was lower, and retention of boron after BPA removal was longer than in differentiated glioma cells in vitro. However, boron biodistribution was not statistically significantly different in mice with xenografts. - Highlights: ► Uptake of BPA was analyzed in stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells. ► Selective accumulation of BPA was lower in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Retention of boron after BPA removal was longer in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Boron biodistribution was not statistically different in mice with xenografts.

  9. Impairment of circulating endothelial progenitors in Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Valerio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological angiogenesis represents a critical issue in the progression of many diseases. Down syndrome is postulated to be a systemic anti-angiogenesis disease model, possibly due to increased expression of anti-angiogenic regulators on chromosome 21. The aim of our study was to elucidate some features of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in the context of this syndrome. Methods Circulating endothelial progenitors of Down syndrome affected individuals were isolated, in vitro cultured and analyzed by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. ELISA was performed to measure SDF-1α plasma levels in Down syndrome and euploid individuals. Moreover, qRT-PCR was used to quantify expression levels of CXCL12 gene and of its receptor in progenitor cells. The functional impairment of Down progenitors was evaluated through their susceptibility to hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress with BODIPY assay and the major vulnerability to the infection with human pathogens. The differential expression of crucial genes in Down progenitor cells was evaluated by microarray analysis. Results We detected a marked decrease of progenitors' number in young Down individuals compared to euploid, cell size increase and some major detrimental morphological changes. Moreover, Down syndrome patients also exhibited decreased SDF-1α plasma levels and their progenitors had a reduced expression of SDF-1α encoding gene and of its membrane receptor. We further demonstrated that their progenitor cells are more susceptible to hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress and infection with Bartonella henselae. Further, we observed that most of the differentially expressed genes belong to angiogenesis, immune response and inflammation pathways, and that infected progenitors with trisomy 21 have a more pronounced perturbation of immune response genes than infected euploid cells. Conclusions Our data provide evidences for a reduced number and altered

  10. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Khalid, M; Elfaki, M.; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatremia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective Renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status; the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and Patients In 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result In hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR Increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels (> 1.1mg/dl) compared to control group (p value .000). In patients mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value= .002).

  11. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. S; Ahmed, M.I; Elfaki, H.M; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Background hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatraemia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and patients in 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result in hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels(>1.1 mg/d1) compared to control group (p value= 000). In patients mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value=.002).Conclusion thus the kidney, in addition to the brain, heart and muscle, is an important target of the action of thyroid hormones.(Author)

  12. Disappearing renal calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomas, Johanna; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-04-10

    We present a case of a renal calculus treated solely with antibiotics which has not been previously reported in the literature. A man with a 17 mm lower pole renal calculus and concurrent Escherichia coli urine infection was being worked up to undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. However, after a course of preoperative antibiotics the stone was no longer seen on retrograde pyelography or CT imaging.

  13. Bilateral triple renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestemalci, Turan; Yildiz, Yusuf Zeki; Yildirim, Mehmet; Mavi, Ayfer; Gumusburun, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing numbers of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radio logic techniques being performed in recent years. We report the presence of bilateral triple renal arteries, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver. On the right side, one additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta (distributed to superior pole of the kidney) and one other originated from the right common iliac artery (distributed to lower pole of the kidney). On the left side, both additional renal arteries originated from the abdominal aorta. Our observation has been compared with variations described in the literature and their clinical importance has been emphasized. (author)

  14. Radiology of renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers most aspects of imaging studies in patients with renal failure. The initial chapter provides basic information on contrast agents, intravenous urography, and imaging findings in the urinary tract disorders responsible for renal failure and in patients who have undergone transplantation. It illustrates common gastro-intestinal abnormalities seen on barium studies in patients with renal failure. It illustrates the cardiopulmonary complications of renal failure and offers advice for radiologic differentiation. It details different aspects of skeletal changes in renal failure, including a basic description of the pathophysiology of the changes; many excellent illustrations of classic bone changes, arthritis, avascular necrosis, and soft-tissue calcifications; and details of bone mineral analysis

  15. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6/15...

  16. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and stem cell factor in chronic renal allograft nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hayam Abdel Meguid El Aggan; Mona Abdel Kader Salem; Nahla Mohamed Gamal Farahat; Ahmad Fathy El-Koraie; Ghaly Abd Al-Rahim Mohammed Kotb

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is a poorly understood clinico-pathological entity associated with chronic allograft loss due to immunologic and non-immunologic causes. It remains the leading cause of late allograft loss. Bone marrow derived stem cells are undifferentiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple differentiated cellular population, including hematopoietic (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Char...

  17. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-01-01

    The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive 'tracking' of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to stem cell imaging

  18. Cardiac Progenitor Cell Extraction from Human Auricles

    KAUST Repository

    Di Nardo, Paolo

    2017-02-22

    For many years, myocardial tissue has been considered terminally differentiated and, thus, incapable of regenerating. Recent studies have shown, instead, that cardiomyocytes, at least in part, are slowly substituted by new cells originating by precursor cells mostly embedded into the heart apex and in the atria. We have shown that an elective region of progenitor cell embedding is represented by the auricles, non-contractile atria appendages that can be easily sampled without harming the patient. The protocol here reported describes how from auricles a population of multipotent, cardiogenic cells can be isolated, cultured, and differentiated. Further studies are needed to fully exploit this cell population, but, sampling auricles, it could be possible to treat cardiac patients using their own cells circumventing rejection or organ shortage limitations.

  19. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-05-13

    Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to

  20. Cytokinetics and Regulation of Progenitor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajtha, L. G. [Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1967-07-15

    Full text: In spite of great differences in the life-span of fully differentiated haemic cells, the cellular kinetics of their production appears to be similar. Recent evidence indicates a common ultimate stem cell for most of the cells in the peripheral blood. The various pathways of differentiation, however, result in transient dividing and differentiating cell populations which differ from each other not only in their specific biochemical processes but also in the manner of control and kinetic pattern of their proliferation. The population best understood is the erythroid progenitor series of cells, primarily because it has the greatest number of experimentally measurable parameters at the present. This will be discussed in detail and comparisons will be made with the myeloid and lymphoid progenitor populations. The fine structure of the bone-marrow stem cell population will be examined in particular, with regard to the suitability or otherwise of the current stem cell models to explain the kinetic pattern of all the peripheral blood elements after perturbations of their steady-state values. Four different assay methods of bone-marrow stem cells have been examined with regard to the kinetic pattern following perturbation of the steady-state system, e.g. by irradiation. Basically, the stem cell assays fall into two categories: those depending on grafting haemopoietic cells into suitably treated recipients, and those in which recovery of the population is allowed in the animal in which the perturbation was produced, without handling the cells. Evidence is accumulating which indicates that in the grafting techniques, a selective loss of stem cells may occur, . especially stem cells in cell cycle, hence in early stages of recovery of the population unduly low numerical values might be noted. In view of this observation, the concept of the colony-forming cell may have to be revised and instead the colony-forming property of the stem cell introduced. (author)

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE PROGENITOR MODEL FOR SNe Ia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X.; Yang, W.

    2010-01-01

    Although the nature of the progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unclear, the single-degenerate (SD) channel for the progenitor is currently accepted, in which a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) accretes hydrogen-rich material from its companion, increases its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass limit, and then explodes as an SN Ia. The companion may be a main sequence or a slightly evolved star (WD + MS), or a red giant star (WD + RG). Incorporating the effect of mass stripping and accretion-disk instability on the evolution of the WD binary, we carried out binary stellar evolution calculations for more than 1600 close WD binaries. As a result, the initial parameter spaces for SNe Ia are presented in an orbital period-secondary mass (log P i , M i 2 ) plane. We confirmed that in a WD + MS system, the initial companion leading to SNe Ia may have mass from 1 M sun to 5 M sun . The initial WD mass for SNe Ia from WD + MS channel is as low as 0.565 M sun , while the lowest WD mass from the WD + RG channel is 1.0 M sun . Adopting the above results, we studied the birth rate of SNe Ia via a binary population synthesis approach. We found that the Galactic SNe Ia birth rate from SD model is (2.55-2.9) x 10 -3 yr -1 (including WD + He star channel), which is slightly smaller than that from observation. If a single starburst is assumed, the distribution of the delay time of SNe Ia from the SD model may be a weak bimodality, where WD + He channel contributes to SNe Ia with delay time shorter than 10 8 yr and WD + RG channel to those with age longer than 6 Gyr.

  2. Cytokinetics and Regulation of Progenitor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajtha, L.G.

    1967-01-01

    Full text: In spite of great differences in the life-span of fully differentiated haemic cells, the cellular kinetics of their production appears to be similar. Recent evidence indicates a common ultimate stem cell for most of the cells in the peripheral blood. The various pathways of differentiation, however, result in transient dividing and differentiating cell populations which differ from each other not only in their specific biochemical processes but also in the manner of control and kinetic pattern of their proliferation. The population best understood is the erythroid progenitor series of cells, primarily because it has the greatest number of experimentally measurable parameters at the present. This will be discussed in detail and comparisons will be made with the myeloid and lymphoid progenitor populations. The fine structure of the bone-marrow stem cell population will be examined in particular, with regard to the suitability or otherwise of the current stem cell models to explain the kinetic pattern of all the peripheral blood elements after perturbations of their steady-state values. Four different assay methods of bone-marrow stem cells have been examined with regard to the kinetic pattern following perturbation of the steady-state system, e.g. by irradiation. Basically, the stem cell assays fall into two categories: those depending on grafting haemopoietic cells into suitably treated recipients, and those in which recovery of the population is allowed in the animal in which the perturbation was produced, without handling the cells. Evidence is accumulating which indicates that in the grafting techniques, a selective loss of stem cells may occur, . especially stem cells in cell cycle, hence in early stages of recovery of the population unduly low numerical values might be noted. In view of this observation, the concept of the colony-forming cell may have to be revised and instead the colony-forming property of the stem cell introduced. (author)

  3. THE PROGENITOR OF THE TYPE IIb SN 2008ax REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folatelli, Gastón; Bersten, Melina C.; Benvenuto, Omar G. [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (Argentina); Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken’ichi, E-mail: gaston@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of the site of the supernova (SN) SN 2008ax obtained in 2011 and 2013 reveal that the possible progenitor object detected in pre-explosion images was in fact multiple. Four point sources are resolved in the new, higher-resolution images. We identify one of the sources with the fading SN. The other three objects are consistent with single supergiant stars. We conclude that their light contaminated the previously identified progenitor candidate. After subtraction of these stars, the progenitor appears to be significantly fainter and bluer than previously measured. Post-explosion photometry at the SN location indicates that the progenitor object has disappeared. If single, the progenitor is compatible with a supergiant star of B to mid-A spectral type, while a Wolf–Rayet (W-R) star would be too luminous in the ultraviolet to account for the observations. Moreover, our hydrodynamical modeling shows that the pre-explosion mass was 4–5 M{sub ⊙} and the radius was 30–50 R{sub ⊙}, which is incompatible with a W-R progenitor. We present a possible interacting binary progenitor computed with our evolutionary models that reproduces all the observational evidence. A companion star as luminous as an O9–B0 main-sequence star may have remained after the explosion.

  4. Ionizing radiation induces apoptosis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, A.; Zhou, D.; Geiger, H.; Zant, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study was to determine if ionizing radiation (IR) induces apoptosis in hematopoietic stem (HSC) and progenitor cells. Lin-cells were isolated from mouse bone marrow (BM) and pretreated with vehicle or 100 μM z-VAD 1 h prior to exposure to 4 Gy IR. The apoptotic and/or necrotic responses of these cells to IR were analyzed by measuring the annexin V and/or 7-AAD staining in HSC and progenitor populations using flow cytometry, and hematopoietic function of these cells was determined by CAFC assay. Exposure of Lin-cells to IR selectively decreased the numbers of HSC and progenitors in association with an increase in apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment of Lin- cells with z-VAD significantly inhibited IR-induced apoptosis and the decrease in the numbers of HSC and progenitors. However, IR alone or in combination with z-VAD did not lead to a significant increase in necrotic cell death in either HSC or progenitors. In addition, pretreatment of BM cells with z-VAD significantly attenuated IR-induced reduction in the frequencies of day-7, -28 and -35 CAFC. Exposure of HSC and progenitors to IR induces apoptosis. The induction of HSC and progenitor apoptosis contributes to IR-induced suppression of their hematopoietic function

  5. THE PROGENITOR OF THE TYPE IIb SN 2008ax REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folatelli, Gastón; Bersten, Melina C.; Benvenuto, Omar G.; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken’ichi

    2015-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of the site of the supernova (SN) SN 2008ax obtained in 2011 and 2013 reveal that the possible progenitor object detected in pre-explosion images was in fact multiple. Four point sources are resolved in the new, higher-resolution images. We identify one of the sources with the fading SN. The other three objects are consistent with single supergiant stars. We conclude that their light contaminated the previously identified progenitor candidate. After subtraction of these stars, the progenitor appears to be significantly fainter and bluer than previously measured. Post-explosion photometry at the SN location indicates that the progenitor object has disappeared. If single, the progenitor is compatible with a supergiant star of B to mid-A spectral type, while a Wolf–Rayet (W-R) star would be too luminous in the ultraviolet to account for the observations. Moreover, our hydrodynamical modeling shows that the pre-explosion mass was 4–5 M ⊙ and the radius was 30–50 R ⊙ , which is incompatible with a W-R progenitor. We present a possible interacting binary progenitor computed with our evolutionary models that reproduces all the observational evidence. A companion star as luminous as an O9–B0 main-sequence star may have remained after the explosion

  6. Renal imaging in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porn, U.; Hahn, K.; Fischer, S.

    2003-01-01

    The most frequent renal diseases in paediatrics include urinary tract infections, hydronephrosis, kidney anomalies and reflux. The main reason for performing DMSA scintigraphy in paediatrics is the detection of cortical abnormalities related to urinary tract infection. Because the amount of tracer retained in the tubular cells is associated with the distribution of functioning renal parenchyma in the kidney, it is possible, to evaluate the split renal function. In comparison to ultrasound and intravenous urography the sensitivity in the detection of acute as well as chronic inflammatory changes is very high, however less specific. An indication for a renography in neonates and children is beside an estimation of the total renal function and the calculation of the split renal function, the assessment of renal drainage in patients with unclear dilatation of the collecting system in ultrasound. The analysis of the time activity curve provides, especially for follow-up studies, a reproducible method to assess the urinary outflow. The diuretic scintigraphy allows the detection of urinary obstruction. Subsequently it is possible to image the micturition phase to detect vesico-ureteric reflux (indirect MCU) after drainage of tracer from the renal pelvis. An reflux in the ureters or the pelvicalyceal system is visible on the scintigraphic images and can be confirmed by time activity curves. A more invasive technique is the direct isotope cystography with bladder catheterization. The present paper should give an overview about the role of nuclear medicine in paediatric urology. (orig.) [de

  7. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  8. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  9. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  10. Renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafur-Soto, Jose David; White, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the single largest cause of secondary hypertension; it is associated with progressive renal insufficiency and causes cardiovascular complications such as refractory heart failure and flash pulmonary edema. Medical therapy, including risk factor modification, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, lipid-lowering agents, and antiplatelet therapy, is advised in all patients. Patients with uncontrolled renovascular hypertension despite optimal medical therapy, ischemic nephropathy, and cardiac destabilization syndromes who have severe RAS are likely to benefit from renal artery revascularization. Screening for RAS can be done with Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cryoablation of Renal Angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makki, Ahmad; Graumann, Ole; Hoyer, Soren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small series have reported that cryoablation (CA) is a safe and feasible minimally invasive nephron-sparing alternative for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas (renal AMLs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CA in patients with renal AML......-guided CA. The mean patient age was 46 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30] and the mean tumor volume was 50.1 cm(3) (IQR 53.3). In all cases, the procedure was effectively conducted with no conversion to open surgery, and no major complications were experienced. The mean follow-up time was 25 months (IQR...

  12. Acute renal failure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergesslich, K.A.; Balzar, E.; Weninger, M.; Ponhold, W.; Sommer, G.; Wittich, G.R.; Vienna Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) may be due to obstructive uropathy or renal parenchymal disease. Twenty-five children with acute renal failure secondary to renal parenchymal disease underwent ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys. Changes of renal size and cortical echogenicity were correlated with renal function. All patients presented with bilaterally enlarged kidneys with the exception in renal function resulted in normalization of renal size. With regard to cortical echogenicity two groups were formed. Group A comprised 11 patients whose kidneys had the same echogenicity as the liver, while in group B the kidneys were more echogenic (14 patients). Cortical echogenicity was always increased. Determination of creatinine levels showed a statistically significant difference between group A (3.32 mg% ± 1.40 S.D.) and group B (5.95 mg% ± 1.96 S.D.), p < 0.001. Changes in renal function were paralleled by rapid changes in renal size and cortical echogenicity. (orig.)

  13. Luminal progenitors restrict their lineage potential during mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Veronica; Dasti, Alessandro; Huyghe, Mathilde; Lafkas, Daniel; Laurent, Cécile; Reyal, Fabien; Fre, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The hierarchical relationships between stem cells and progenitors that guide mammary gland morphogenesis are still poorly defined. While multipotent basal stem cells have been found within the myoepithelial compartment, the in vivo lineage potential of luminal progenitors is unclear. Here we used the expression of the Notch1 receptor, previously implicated in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis, to elucidate the hierarchical organization of mammary stem/progenitor cells by lineage tracing. We found that Notch1 expression identifies multipotent stem cells in the embryonic mammary bud, which progressively restrict their lineage potential during mammary ductal morphogenesis to exclusively generate an ERαneg luminal lineage postnatally. Importantly, our results show that Notch1-labelled cells represent the alveolar progenitors that expand during pregnancy and survive multiple successive involutions. This study reveals that postnatal luminal epithelial cells derive from distinct self-sustained lineages that may represent the cells of origin of different breast cancer subtypes.

  14. Reporter-Based Isolation of Developmental Myogenic Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyemen Kheir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation and activity of mammalian tissues entail finely regulated processes, involving the concerted organization and interaction of multiple cell types. In recent years the prospective isolation of distinct progenitor and stem cell populations has become a powerful tool in the hands of developmental biologists and has rendered the investigation of their intrinsic properties possible. In this protocol, we describe how to purify progenitors with different lineage history and degree of differentiation from embryonic and fetal skeletal muscle by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. The approach takes advantage of a panel of murine strains expressing fluorescent reporter genes specifically in the myogenic progenitors. We provide a detailed description of the dissection procedures and of the enzymatic dissociation required to maximize the yield of mononucleated cells for subsequent FACS-based purification. The procedure takes ~6–7 h to complete and allows for the isolation and the subsequent molecular and phenotypic characterization of developmental myogenic progenitors.

  15. Renal tumors in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaya, J.; Garcia, P.

    1997-01-01

    The classification of childhood renal masses in updated, including the clinical signs and imaging techniques currently employed to confirm their presence and type them. Several bening and malignant childhood tumors are described in substantial detail. (Author) 24 refs

  16. Renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney tumor - CT scan Kidney metastases, CT scan Kidney - blood and urine flow References Campbell SC, Lane BR. Malignant renal tumors. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, ...

  17. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  18. [Small renal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  19. Common paediatric renal conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few children in South Africa have access to dialysis or renal transplantation, so it is important to .... the chronic administration of antibiotics increases the risk of a UTI with a resistant .... factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in young women.

  20. Renal and perirenal abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.E.; Andriole, V.T.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge of the spectrum of renal abscesses has increased as a result of more sensitive radiologic techniques. The classification of intrarenal abscess now includes acute focal bacterial nephritis and acute multifocal bacterial nephritis, as well as the previously recognized renal cortical abscess, renal corticomedullary abscess, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. In general, the clinical presentation of these entities does not differentiate them; various radiographic studies can distinguish them, however. The intrarenal abscess is usually treated successfully with antibiotic therapy alone. Antistaphylococcal therapy is indicated for the renal cortical abscess, whereas therapy directed against the common gram-negative uropathogens is indicated for most of the other entities. The perinephric abscess is often an elusive diagnosis, has a more serious prognosis, and is more difficult to treat. Drainage of the abscess and sometimes partial or complete nephrectomy are required for resolution. 73 references

  1. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  2. Renal dynamic scintigraphy in renal graft evaluation; Cintilografia renal dinamica na avaliacao do transplante renal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervo, Marco Antonio Cadorna; Amarante Junior, Jose Luiz de Medeiros; Souza, Ricardo Alberto Manhaes de; Evangelista, Maria Gardenia; Cavalcante, Carlos Alberto Provasi; Neder, Jacqueline de Roure e; Espinola, Ircania Jorge [Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1996-12-31

    The goal of this was to describe the use of the dynamic renal scintigraphy in patients grafted. The authors described the scintigraphy method utilised and results were discussed 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Endothelial progenitors encapsulated in bioartificial niches are insulated from systemic cytotoxicity and are angiogenesis competent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, B B; Ghaly, T; Brudnicki, P; Yasuda, K; Rajdev, M; Bank, M; Mares, J; Hatzopoulos, A K; Goligorsky, M S

    2010-07-01

    Intrinsic stem cells (SC) participate in tissue remodeling and regeneration in various diseases and following toxic insults. Failure of tissue regeneration is in part attributed to lack of SC protection from toxic stress of noxious stimuli, thus prompting intense research efforts to develop strategies for SC protection and functional preservation for in vivo delivery. One strategy is creation of artificial SC niches in an attempt to mimic the requirements of endogenous SC niches by generating scaffolds with properties of extracellular matrix. Here, we investigated the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels as an artificial SC niche and examined regenerative capabilities of encapsulated embryonic endothelial progenitor cells (eEPC) in three different in vivo models. Hydrogel-encapsulated eEPC demonstrated improved resistance to toxic insult (adriamycin) in vitro, thus prompting in vivo studies. Implantation of HA hydrogels containing eEPC to mice with adriamycin nephropathy or renal ischemia resulted in eEPC mobilization to injured kidneys (and to a lesser extent to the spleen) and improvement of renal function, which was equal or superior to adoptively transferred EPC by intravenous infusion. In mice with hindlimb ischemia, EPC encapsulated in HA hydrogels dramatically accelerated the recovery of collateral circulation with the efficacy superior to intravenous infusion of EPC. In conclusion, HA hydrogels protect eEPC against adriamycin cytotoxicity and implantation of eEPC encapsulated in HA hydrogels supports renal regeneration in ischemic and cytotoxic (adriamycin) nephropathy and neovascularization of ischemic hindlimb, thus establishing their functional competence and superior capabilities to deliver stem cells stored in and released from this bioartificial niche.

  4. OBSTETRIC RENAL FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure in obstetrics is rare but important complication, associated with significant mortality and long term morbidity.1,2 It includes acute renal failure due to obstetrical complications or due to deterioration of existing renal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiology and outcome of renal failure in obstetric patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 30 pregnant and puerperal women with acute renal failure or pre-existing renal disease developing renal failure during pregnancy between November 2007 to sep-2009. Patients who presented/developed ARF during the hospital stay were included in this study. RESULTS: Among 30 patients, mean age was 23 years and 33 years age group. 12 cases (40% patients were primigravidae and 9(30% patients were multigravidae and 9 cases (30% presented in post-partum period. Eighteen cases (60% with ARF were seen in third trimester, followed by in postpartum period 9 cases (30%. Most common contributing factors to ARF were Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome 60%, sepsis 56.6%, post abortal ARF 10%. DIC 40%. Haemorrhage as the aetiology for ARF was present 46%, APH in 20% and PPH in 26.6%. The type of ARF was renal in (63% and prerenal (36%; Oliguric seen in 10 patients (33% and high mortality (30%. Among the 20 pregnant patients with ARF, The average period of gestation was 33±2 weeks (30 -36 weeks, 5 cases (25% presented with intrauterine fetal demise and 18 cases (66% had preterm vaginal delivery and 2 cases (10% had induced abortion. And the average birth weight was 2±0.5 kg (1.5 kg. Eight cases (26% required dialysis. 80% of patients recovered completely of renal functions. 63% patients recovered without renal replacement therapy whereas 17% required dialysis. the maternal mortality was 20%, the main reason for mortality was septic shock and multi organ dysfunction (66%. CONCLUSION: ARF related pregnancy was seen commonly in the primigravidae and in the third trimester, the most

  5. Endothelial progenitor cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Russell P.; Parikh, Megha A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Austin, John H. M.; Smith, Benjamin M.; Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lima, Joao; Gomes, Antoinette; Watson, Karol; Kawut, Steven; Barr, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cell populations (CD34+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells) and circulating endothelial cells (CD45dimCD31+CD146+CD133-) were measured by flow cytometry. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria. Emphysema was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on CT. Full pulmonary function testing and expiratory CTs were measured in a subset. Among 257 participants, both endothelial progenitor cell populations, and particularly CD34+KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells, were reduced in COPD. The CD34+KDR+CD133+ endothelial progenitor cells were associated inversely with emphysema extent. Both endothelial progenitor cell populations were associated inversely with extent of panlobular emphysema and positively with diffusing capacity. Circulating endothelial cells were not significantly altered in COPD but were inversely associated with pulmonary microvascular blood flow on MRI. There was no consistent association of endothelial progenitor cells or circulating endothelial cells with measures of gas trapping. These data provide evidence that endothelial repair is impaired in COPD and suggest that this pathological process is specific to emphysema. PMID:28291826

  6. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It remains the leading cause of late allograft loss. Bone marrow derived stem cells are undifferentiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple differentiated cellular population, including hematopoietic (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Characterization of HSCs ...

  7. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies.

  8. Biology and flow cytometry of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jonathan A; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2015-01-01

    During development, hematopoiesis and neovascularization are closely linked to each other via a common bipotent stem cell called the hemangioblast that gives rise to both hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. In postnatal life, this functional connection between the vasculature and hematopoiesis is maintained by a subset of hematopoietic progenitor cells endowed with the capacity to differentiate into potent proangiogenic cells. These proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors comprise a specific subset of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells that homes to sites of neovascularization and possess potent paracrine angiogenic activity. There is emerging evidence that this subpopulation of hematopoietic progenitors plays a critical role in vascular health and disease. Their angiogenic activity is distinct from putative "endothelial progenitor cells" that become structural cells of the endothelium by differentiation into endothelial cells. Proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell research requires multidisciplinary expertise in flow cytometry, hematology, and vascular biology. This review provides a comprehensive overview of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell biology and flow cytometric methods to detect these cells in the peripheral blood circulation and BM. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  9. LINKING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS AND THEIR RESULTING EXPLOSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Simon, Joshua D.; Burns, Christopher R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M.; Shields, Gregory A.; Sternberg, Assaf

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the ejecta velocities at maximum brightness and narrow circumstellar/interstellar Na D absorption line profiles of a sample of 23 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), we determine that the properties of SN Ia progenitor systems and explosions are intimately connected. As demonstrated by Sternberg et al., half of all SNe Ia with detectable Na D absorption at the host-galaxy redshift in high-resolution spectroscopy have Na D line profiles with significant blueshifted absorption relative to the strongest absorption component, which indicates that a large fraction of SN Ia progenitor systems have strong outflows. In this study, we find that SNe Ia with blueshifted circumstellar/interstellar absorption systematically have higher ejecta velocities and redder colors at maximum brightness relative to the rest of the SN Ia population. This result is robust at a 98.9%-99.8% confidence level, providing the first link between the progenitor systems and properties of the explosion. This finding is further evidence that the outflow scenario is the correct interpretation of the blueshifted Na D absorption, adding additional confirmation that some SNe Ia are produced from a single-degenerate progenitor channel. An additional implication is that either SN Ia progenitor systems have highly asymmetric outflows that are also aligned with the SN explosion or SNe Ia come from a variety of progenitor systems where SNe Ia from systems with strong outflows tend to have more kinetic energy per unit mass than those from systems with weak or no outflows.

  10. Renal artery pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Inácio Roman

    Full Text Available Abstract The renal artery pseudoaneurysm embody a rare vascular complication coming of percutaneous procedures, renal biopsy, nephrectomy, penetrating traumas and more rarely blunt traumas. The clinical can be vary according the patient, the haematuria is the symptom more commom. Is necessary a high level of clinical suspicion for your diagnosis, this can be elucidated by through complementary exams as the eco-color Doppler and the computed tomography scan (CT. This report is a case of a patient submitted a right percutaneous renal biopsy and that, after the procedure started with macroscopic haematuria, urinary tenesmus and hypogastric pain. The diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm was given after one week of evolution when the patient was hospitalized because gross haematuria, tachycardia, hypotension and hypochondrium pain. In the angiotomography revealed a focal dilation of the accessory right renal inferior polar artery, dilation of renal pelvis and all the ureteral course with presence hyperdenso material (clots inside the middle third of the ureter. The treatment for the majority of this cases are conservative, through arterial embolization, indicated for thouse of smaller dimensions in patients who are hemodynamically stable. However, it was decided by clinical treatment with aminocaproic acid 1 g, according to previous studies for therapy of haematuria. The patient received discharge without evidence of macroscopic haematuria and with normal renal ultrasound, following ambulatory care.

  11. RENAL MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS: RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Giachini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of malignant kidney tumors, to contribute to identifying factors which the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas. Through this study, we understand that kidney disease over the years had higher incidence rates, especially in adults in the sixth decade of life. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. There are numerous ways of diagnosis; however, the most important are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In general most of the patients affected by the CCR, have a good prognosis when diagnosed early and subjected to an effective treatment. This study conducted a literature review about the CCR, through this it was possible to understand the development needs of the imaging methods used for precise diagnosis and classification of RCC through the TNM system.

  12. Clues on Type Ia Supernovae Progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piersanti, Luciano; Tornambe, Amedeo

    2005-01-01

    We show that in the framework of canonical stellar evolution it is hard, if not impossible, to determine the growth in mass of a CO White Dwarf, up to the Chandrasekhar limit by means of mass transfer from its companion in a binary system. This is the case either if matter is accreted from a normal companion with an H-rich envelope or if direct CO accretion occurs from a CO WD companion. At variance, we show that if the effects of rotation are taken into account in modeling the accretion process, a CO WD can increase its mass at the expenses of the degenerate CO companion up and beyond 1.4 M· , so that an explosive event of the type Ia class is naturally produced. This theoretical finding revives the Double Degenerate scenario for type Ia SNe progenitors. In such a case the internal spread in the observational properties of type Ia SNe may be interpreted as a consequence of different total masses; hence differences between SNe Ia in nearby elliptical galaxies and the majority of those in spirals should be expected and the current use of type Ia SNe as cosmological distance indicators should be justified

  13. TWEAK induces liver progenitor cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Aniela; Ambrose, Christine; Parr, Michael; Lincecum, John M.; Wang, Monica Z.; Zheng, Timothy S.; Browning, Beth; Michaelson, Jennifer S.; Baestcher, Manfred; Wang, Bruce; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Burkly, Linda C.

    2005-01-01

    Progenitor (“oval”) cell expansion accompanies many forms of liver injury, including alcohol toxicity and submassive parenchymal necrosis as well as experimental injury models featuring blocked hepatocyte replication. Oval cells can potentially become either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells and may be critical to liver regeneration, particularly when hepatocyte replication is impaired. The regulation of oval cell proliferation is incompletely understood. Herein we present evidence that a TNF family member called TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) stimulates oval cell proliferation in mouse liver through its receptor Fn14. TWEAK has no effect on mature hepatocytes and thus appears to be selective for oval cells. Transgenic mice overexpressing TWEAK in hepatocytes exhibit periportal oval cell hyperplasia. A similar phenotype was obtained in adult wild-type mice, but not Fn14-null mice, by administering TWEAK-expressing adenovirus. Oval cell expansion induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) was significantly reduced in Fn14-null mice as well as in adult wild-type mice with a blocking anti-TWEAK mAb. Importantly, TWEAK stimulated the proliferation of an oval cell culture model. Finally, we show increased Fn14 expression in chronic hepatitis C and other human liver diseases relative to its expression in normal liver, which suggests a role for the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in human liver injury. We conclude that TWEAK has a selective mitogenic effect for liver oval cells that distinguishes it from other previously described growth factors. PMID:16110324

  14. Harmine stimulates proliferation of human neural progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Dakic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Harmine is the β-carboline alkaloid with the highest concentration in the psychotropic plant decoction Ayahuasca. In rodents, classical antidepressants reverse the symptoms of depression by stimulating neuronal proliferation. It has been shown that Ayahuasca presents antidepressant effects in patients with depressive disorder. In the present study, we investigated the effects of harmine in cell cultures containing human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs, 97% nestin-positive derived from pluripotent stem cells. After 4 days of treatment, the pool of proliferating hNPCs increased by 71.5%. Harmine has been reported as a potent inhibitor of the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK1A, which regulates cell proliferation and brain development. We tested the effect of analogs of harmine, an inhibitor of DYRK1A (INDY, and an irreversible selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO but not DYRK1A (pargyline. INDY but not pargyline induced proliferation of hNPCs similarly to harmine, suggesting that inhibition of DYRK1A is a possible mechanism to explain harmine effects upon the proliferation of hNPCs. Our findings show that harmine enhances proliferation of hNPCs and suggest that inhibition of DYRK1A may explain its effects upon proliferation in vitro and antidepressant effects in vivo.

  15. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A; Canbay, Ali

    2015-02-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs.

  16. Hepatic progenitors for liver disease: current position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Conigliaro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alice Conigliaro1, David A Brenner2, Tatiana Kisseleva21University “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Cellulari ed Ematologia Policlinico Umberto I, V Clinica Medica, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USAAbstract: Liver regeneration restores the original functionality of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in response to injury. It is regulated on several levels, with different cellular populations contributing to this process, eg, hepatocytes, liver precursor cells, intrahepatic stem cells. In response to injury, mature hepatocytes have the capability to proliferate and give rise to new hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Meanwhile, liver precursor cells (oval cells have become the most recognized bipotential precursor cells in the damaged liver. They rapidly proliferate, change their cellular composition, and differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes to compensate for the cellular loss and maintain liver homeostasis. There is a growing body of evidence that oval cells originate from the intrahepatic stem cell(s, which in turn give(s rise to epithelial, including oval cells, and/or other hepatic cells of nonepithelial origin. Since there is a close relationship between the liver and hematopoiesis, bone marrow derived cells can also contribute to liver regeneration by the fusion of myeloid cells with damaged hepatocytes, or differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells. The current review discusses the contribution of different cells to liver regeneration and their characteristics.Keywords: hepatic progenitor, liver disease, liver precursor cells, oval cells, hepatocytes, intrahepatic stem cells, cholangiocytes

  17. Renal PTA stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a common condition that may lead to hypertension, progressive renal dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. Catheter-based therapy for symptomatic, haemodynamically significant, RAS has become the preferred method of revascularization. Balloon angioplasty has been the traditional treatment of choice for fibromuscular dysplasia, however stents are increasingly used for the treatment of atheromatous lesions; in many cases-such as in ostial lesions-, direct stenting is strongly indicated. Despite the increased use of endovascular therapy for renal artery stenosis, there is still controversy regarding the optimal management and the net benefit of this treatment. Several randomized trials of balloon angioplasty or stenting for renal artery stenosis compared with medical therapy alone have been conducted, however these could not show definite advantage of endovascular therapy. Problems encountered with those trials include enrollment of small number of patients, frequent crossover from medical to interventional therapy compromising the intention-to-treat results, or selection of patients that are not expected to show clear benefit. The Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) is the most important of these trials; however, it,s study design was faulty and therefore did not provide conclusive evidence to answer the question of whether angioplasty and stenting or medical therapy is the best treatment for haemodynamically significant RAS. All expectations are now focused on the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial which was designed to answer the same question, and its methodologies took into consideration the weaknesses of the ASTRAL trial. Regarding stent device itself, it seems that the optimal design is probably a stainless steel, laser cut, open-cells stent mounted on a rapid exchange delivery balloon catheter compatible with 0.014-in and 0.018-in guidewire. As a future

  18. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient......, this has important therapeutic implications. The pathological sequence in renal stone formers with dRTA is discussed....

  19. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D

    2013-08-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  20. Imaging chronic renal disease and renal transplant in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Jim; Easty, Marina

    2010-01-01

    At Great Ormond Street Hospital we have the highest number of paediatric renal transplant patients in Europe, taking cases from across the United Kingdom and abroad. Our caseload includes many children with rare complicating medical problems and chronic renal failure related morbidity. This review aims to provide an overview of our experience of imaging children with chronic renal failure and transplants. (orig.)

  1. Eligibility for renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    -resistant hypertension (ENCOReD). The analysis included 731 patients. Age averaged 61.6 years, office blood pressure at screening was 177/96 mm Hg, and the number of blood pressure-lowering drugs taken was 4.1. Specialists referred 75.6% of patients. The proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation according...... undetected secondary causes of hypertension (11.1%). In conclusion, after careful screening and treatment adjustment at hypertension expert centers, only ≈40% of patients referred for renal denervation, mostly by specialists, were eligible for the procedure. The most frequent cause of ineligibility...... (approximately half of cases) was blood pressure normalization after treatment adjustment by a hypertension specialist. Our findings highlight that hypertension centers with a record in clinical experience and research should remain the gatekeepers before renal denervation is considered....

  2. [Renal colic in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negru, Irina; Pricop, C; Costăchescu, Gh

    2010-01-01

    Renal colic in pregnant women is a serious condition, mainly when is associated with fever. Our retro-prospective study analyzes 111 cases managed conservatively or with endourological procedures for renal colic--insertion of JJ stents and percutaneous nephrostomy. Clinical evolution determined the insertion of JJ stents in 60 cases and the failure of this procedure imposed percutaneous nephrostomy in 5 cases. In 56 cases urinary tract infection was associated and in 2 cases, despite all efforts, the patients deceased due to sever sepsis. The immediate drainage of the upper urinary tract for renal colic in pregnancy is the recommended treatment, especially when the pain is associated with fever. JJ stens were well tolerated, even when they were replaced after 3 months. Pregnant women with a history of UTI or stone disease should be carefully followed-up.

  3. Renal cell karcinoma trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werf-Messing, B. van der; Heul, R.O. van der; Ledeboer, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 174 patients underwent simple nephrectomy in case of clinically operable kidney cancer without demonstrable metastases. Of these 85 received preoperative irradiation to the kidney and the regional lymph nodes (3000-4000 rad in 3-4 weeks). Prognosis was not influenced by preoperative irradiation. The preoperatively assessable prognostic criteria were sex and sedimentation rate: ESR >= 30 and being male worsened prognosis. The clinical T-categories of the UICC were not related to prognosis. Of the microscopic examination of the nephrectomy specimen, renal vein invasion and to a lesser extent a low degree of differentiation appeared to worsen prognosis. The prognostic influence of the P-categories was caused by a higher incidence of renal vein involvement in case of higher P-category. The most important prognostic factors - ESR, renal vein involvement, and sex - were not interrelated. Elective chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy could be considered in certain high-risk groups. (orig.)

  4. Scintigraphy of renal transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramackers, J.M.; Marrast, A.C.; Touraine, J.L.; Peyrin, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Scintigraphy is useful for monitoring perfusion and function of renal transplant, as well as for diagnosing miscellaneous surgical. This non-invasive imaging technique, which uses no deleterious products, is an attractive alternative for patients. This is especially true for those patients in early post-transplant course, with immunity depression and often impairment of renal function. Otherwise, multiple indices with a large range of inter-patient values has not favoured a methodological and interpretative consensus. Furthermore, the poor specificity of renogram patterns does not allow for discrimination of all etiologies with only one scintigraphy. Nevertheless, follow-up with iterative scintigraphy may be helpful due to the high intra-patient reproducibility and to the early appreciate change of parameters, according to clinical and histological renal post-transplant outcome. (authors). 43 refs., 8 figs

  5. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kidney receives a rich blood flow of 25% of resting cardiac output ... Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or .... tubular epithelial cells causing cell swelling ... the dose as required or prescribe alternative drugs.

  6. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhamne Sagar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcomas are rare malignant tumors of the kidney. They may arise from the renal capsule, renal vein, renal pelvic musculature or renal parenchyma. Renal pelvis is an uncommon site of occurrence, with around 10 cases reported in the literature so far. Here we present a 60-year-old male who presented with increased urinary frequency, lower limb weakness, anorexia and weight loss. Imaging showed a right renal mass. A renal cell carcinoma was suspected clinically. A right nephrectomy was performed, which showed a large circumscribed mass in the hilar region. Histology revealed a tumor mass arising from the renal pelvis. The tumor was composed of spindle cells arranged in fascicles. Immunohistochemistry showed tumor cells to be positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA and desmin (Des and negative for cytokeratin (CK, HMB 45, CD117 (C-kit, and CD34. That confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma.

  7. THE TYPE IIb SUPERNOVA 2011dh FROM A SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersten, Melina C.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Folatelli, Gastón; Maeda, Keiichi; Benvenuto, Omar G.; Ergon, Mattias; Sollerman, Jesper; Benetti, Stefano; Ochner, Paolo; Tomasella, Lina; Botticella, Maria Teresa; Fraser, Morgan; Kotak, Rubina

    2012-01-01

    A set of hydrodynamical models based on stellar evolutionary progenitors is used to study the nature of SN 2011dh. Our modeling suggests that a large progenitor star—with R ∼ 200 R ☉ —is needed to reproduce the early light curve (LC) of SN 2011dh. This is consistent with the suggestion that the yellow super-giant star detected at the location of the supernova (SN) in deep pre-explosion images is the progenitor star. From the main peak of the bolometric LC and expansion velocities, we constrain the mass of the ejecta to be ≈2 M ☉ , the explosion energy to be E = (6-10) × 10 50 erg, and the 56 Ni mass to be approximately 0.06 M ☉ . The progenitor star was composed of a helium core of 3-4 M ☉ and a thin hydrogen-rich envelope of ≈0.1M ☉ with a main-sequence mass estimated to be in the range of 12-15 M ☉ . Our models rule out progenitors with helium-core masses larger than 8 M ☉ , which correspond to M ZAMS ∼> 25M ☉ . This suggests that a single star evolutionary scenario for SN 2011dh is unlikely.

  8. NFIX Regulates Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation During Hippocampal Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Yee Hsieh Evelyn; McLeay, Robert C.; Harvey, Tracey J.; Smith, Aaron G.; Barry, Guy; Cato, Kathleen; Plachez, Céline; Little, Erica; Mason, Sharon; Dixon, Chantelle; Gronostajski, Richard M.; Bailey, Timothy L.; Richards, Linda J.; Piper, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells have the ability to give rise to neurons and glia in the embryonic, postnatal and adult brain. During development, the program regulating whether these cells divide and self-renew or exit the cell cycle and differentiate is tightly controlled, and imbalances to the normal trajectory of this process can lead to severe functional consequences. However, our understanding of the molecular regulation of these fundamental events remains limited. Moreover, processes underpinning development of the postnatal neurogenic niches within the cortex remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Nuclear factor one X (NFIX) is expressed by neural progenitor cells within the embryonic hippocampus, and that progenitor cell differentiation is delayed within Nfix−/− mice. Moreover, we reveal that the morphology of the dentate gyrus in postnatal Nfix−/− mice is abnormal, with fewer subgranular zone neural progenitor cells being generated in the absence of this transcription factor. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the progenitor cell maintenance factor Sry-related HMG box 9 (SOX9) is upregulated in the hippocampus of Nfix−/− mice and demonstrate that NFIX can repress Sox9 promoter-driven transcription. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that NFIX plays a central role in hippocampal morphogenesis, regulating the formation of neuronal and glial populations within this structure. PMID:23042739

  9. Strategies to reverse endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Alessandra; Di Fenza, Raffaele; Carvello, Michele; Gatti, Francesca; Secchi, Antonio; Fiorina, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Bone-marrow-derived cells-mediated postnatal vasculogenesis has been reported as the main responsible for the regulation of vascular homeostasis in adults. Since their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells have been depicted as mediators of postnatal vasculogenesis for their peculiar phenotype (partially staminal and partially endothelial), their ability to differentiate in endothelial cell line and to be incorporated into the vessels wall during ischemia/damage. Diabetes mellitus, a condition characterized by cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and micro- and macroangiopathy, showed a dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms involved in diabetes-related dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells, highlighting how hyperglycemia affects the different steps of endothelial progenitor cells lifetime (i.e., bone marrow mobilization, trafficking into the bloodstream, differentiation in endothelial cells, and homing in damaged tissues/organs). Finally, we review preclinical and clinical strategies that aim to revert diabetes-induced dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells as a means of finding new strategies to prevent diabetic complications.

  10. Strategies to Reverse Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Petrelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow-derived cells-mediated postnatal vasculogenesis has been reported as the main responsible for the regulation of vascular homeostasis in adults. Since their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells have been depicted as mediators of postnatal vasculogenesis for their peculiar phenotype (partially staminal and partially endothelial, their ability to differentiate in endothelial cell line and to be incorporated into the vessels wall during ischemia/damage. Diabetes mellitus, a condition characterized by cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and micro- and macroangiopathy, showed a dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms involved in diabetes-related dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells, highlighting how hyperglycemia affects the different steps of endothelial progenitor cells lifetime (i.e., bone marrow mobilization, trafficking into the bloodstream, differentiation in endothelial cells, and homing in damaged tissues/organs. Finally, we review preclinical and clinical strategies that aim to revert diabetes-induced dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells as a means of finding new strategies to prevent diabetic complications.

  11. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  12. Imaging of Renal Leiomyomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derchi, L. E.; Grenier, N.; Heinz-Peer, G.; Dogra, V.; Franco, F.; Rollandi, G. A.; Deminiere, C. (Radiologia - DICMI, Univ. di Genova, Genova (Italy))

    2008-09-15

    Background: Renal leiomyomas are rare benign tumors of the kidney which can be found at autopsy as small capsular nodules in about 5% of cases. The clinical incidence of such lesions is much smaller, and only case reports or small series have been reported in the imaging literature. Purpose: To describe the imaging characteristics observed in a series of eight patients with pathology-proven asymptomatic leiomyomas of the kidney. Material and Methods: We reviewed the imaging findings observed in eight patients with pathologically proven asymptomatic renal leiomyomas discovered during studies performed for reasons unrelated to the kidney. All patients had undergone computed tomography (CT), two ultrasonography, and one magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Lesions ranged in size from 1.2 to 13 cm. Six were at the periphery of the kidney, compressed its outer surface, but did not cause disruption of the cortex; two involved the renal cortex. All had regular outer margins. A cleavage plane between the tumor and the kidney was revealed at CT and/or ultrasonography in three of the cases located at the periphery. At ultrasonography, leiomyomas appeared hypoechogenic. At CT, they were slightly hyperdense before contrast medium injection; all were hypodense to the renal cortex after contrast medium. Four were homogeneous, two were slightly heterogeneous, and the remaining two were frankly heterogeneous. The lesion studied by MRI, which was homogeneous at the postcontrast CT study, had a heterogeneous structure on both T1- and T2-weighted images, with internal areas of hypointensity on T1. Conclusion: There are some imaging findings that can help to suggest the diagnosis of renal leiomyomas. First, their density: all tumors examined before contrast were hyperdense to the kidney, with density similar to that of muscles, and all had lower enhancement than the adjacent renal parenchyma. Second, the location and margins of the tumors: most were peripheral, without

  13. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  14. Management of chronic renal failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, D.; Apperloo, AJ; de Jong, P.

    1992-01-01

    There is growing evidence that treatment of patients with renal function impairment will undergo a major shift within the next few years. Along with more or less successful attempts to alleviate the signs and symptoms of reduced renal function, new insights into renal pathophysiology as well as new

  15. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  16. Development and molecular composition of the hepatic progenitor cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestentoft, Peter Siig

    2013-05-01

    End-stage liver diseases represent major health problems that are currently treated by liver transplantation. However, given the world-wide shortage of donor livers novel strategies are needed for therapeutic treatment. Adult stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into the more specialized cell types of a given organ and are found in tissues throughout the body. These cells, whose progeny are termed progenitor cells in human liver and oval cells in rodents, have the potential to treat patients through the generation of hepatic parenchymal cells, even from the patient's own tissue. Little is known regarding the nature of the hepatic progenitor cells. Though they are suggested to reside in the most distal part of the biliary tree, the canal of Hering, the lack of unique surface markers for these cells has hindered their isolation and characterization. Upon activation, they proliferate and form ductular structures, termed "ductular reactions", which radiate into the hepatic parenchyma. The ductular reactions contain activated progenitor cells that not only acquire a phenotype resembling that observed in developing liver but also display markers of differentiation shared with the cholangiocytic or hepatocytic lineages, the two parenchymal hepatic cell types. Interactions between the putative progenitor cells, the surrounding support cells and the extracellular matrix scaffold, all constituting the progenitor cell niche, are likely to be important for regulating progenitor cell activity and differentiation. Therefore, identifying novel progenitor cell markers and deciphering their microenvironment could facilitate clinical use. The aims of the present PhD thesis were to expand knowledge of the hepatic progenitor cell niche and characterize it both during development and in disease. Several animal models of hepatic injury are known to induce activation of the progenitor cells. In order to identify possible progenitor cell markers and niche components

  17. Omega 3 fatty acids reduce myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow of mice and promote progenitor cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollars Vincent E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega 3 fatty acids have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote differentiation in various cell types. The processes of cell survival, expansion, and differentiation are of key importance in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in controlling the frequency of various myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Increased progenitor cell frequency and blocked differentiation are characteristics of hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage, such as myeloproliferative diseases and myeloid leukemias. Results We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Furthermore, this had no adverse effect on peripheral white blood cell counts. Conclusion Our results indicate that omega 3 fatty acids impact hematopoietic differentiation by reducing myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow and promoting progenitor cell differentiation. Further exploration of this discovery could lead to the use of omega 3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option for patients that have various disorders of hematopoiesis.

  18. Establishment of bipotent progenitor cell clone from rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yousuke; Yada, Erica; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Hosoyama, Tohru; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2011-12-01

    The present study describes the isolation, cloning and characterization of adipogenic progenitor cells from rat skeletal muscle. Among the obtained 10 clones, the most highly adipogenic progenitor, 2G11 cells, were further characterized. In addition to their adipogenicity, 2G11 cells retain myogenic potential as revealed by formation of multinucleated myotubes when co-cultured with myoblasts. 2G11 cells were resistant to an inhibitory effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on adipogenesis, while adipogenesis of widely used preadipogenic cell line, 3T3-L1 cells, was suppressed almost completely by the same treatment. In vivo transplantation experiments revealed that 2G11 cells are able to possess both adipogenicity and myogenicity in vivo. These results indicate the presence of bipotent progenitor cells in rat skeletal muscle, and suggest that such cells may contribute to ectopic fat formation in skeletal muscle. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    analyzing the true sensitivity of a multi-epoch supernova search and finds a Type Ia supernova rate from z ~ 0.01-0.1 of rV = 4.26$+1.39 +0.10\\atop{-1.93 -0.10}$h3 x 10-4 SNe Ia/yr/Mpc3 from a preliminary analysis of a subsample of the SNfactory prototype search. Several unusual supernovae were found in the course of the SNfactory prototype search. One in particular, SN 2002ic, was the first SN Ia to exhibit convincing evidence for a circumstellar medium and offers valuable insight into the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

  20. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael

    2004-01-01

    analyzing the true sensitivity of a multi-epoch supernova search and finds a Type Ia supernova rate from z ∼ 0.01-0.1 of r V = 4.26 -1.93 -0.10 +1.39 +0.10 h 3 x 10 -4 SNe Ia/yr/Mpc 3 from a preliminary analysis of a subsample of the SNfactory prototype search. Several unusual supernovae were found in the course of the SNfactory prototype search. One in particular, SN 2002ic, was the first SN Ia to exhibit convincing evidence for a circumstellar medium and offers valuable insight into the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea and endothelial progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Qing Wang,1,* Qi Wu,2,* Jing Feng,3,4 Xin Sun5 1The Second Respiratory Department of the First People's Hospital of Kunming, Yunnan, People's Republic of China; 2Tianjin Haihe Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 3Respiratory Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 5Respiratory Department of Tianjin Haihe Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA occurs in 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women in the general population, and the prevalence is even higher in specific patient groups. OSA is an independent risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial injury could be the pivotal determinant in the development of cardiovascular pathology in OSA. Endothelial damage ultimately represents a dynamic balance between the magnitude of injury and the capacity for repair. Bone marrow–derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs within adult peripheral blood present a possible means of vascular maintenance that could home to sites of injury and restore endothelial integrity and normal function. Methods: We summarized pathogenetic mechanisms of OSA and searched for available studies on numbers and functions of EPCs in patients with OSA to explore the potential links between the numbers and functions of EPCs and OSA. In particular, we tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the effects of OSA on EPCs. Conclusion: Intermittent hypoxia cycles and sleep fragmentation are major pathophysiologic characters of OSA. Intermittent hypoxia acts as a trigger of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and sympathetic activation. Sleep fragmentation is associated with a burst of sympathetic activation and systemic inflammation. In most studies, a reduction in circulating EPCs has

  2. Angiography for renal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, V.P.; Ernst, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    As angioplasty and operative techniques have become more precise and successful, so have evaluation techniques. Preoperative arteriography is indispensible for deciding on the appropriate treatment modality and the specifics of the procedure. Arteriography, therefore, remains the cornerstone in managing renovascular hypertension and renal arterial disease

  3. Dopamins renale virkninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1990-01-01

    is frequently employed in cases of acute oliguric renal failure but the results available concerning the therapeutic effect are frequently retrospective and uncontrolled. The results suggest that early treatment with 1-3 micrograms/kg/min dopamine combined with furosemide can postpone or possibly render...

  4. Primary renal graft thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, N; Sluiter, WJ; Ploeg, RJ; van Son, WJ; Tegzess, Adam

    Background. Renal allograft thrombosis is a serious complication of kidney transplantation that ultimately leads to graft loss. Its association with acute and hyperacute rejection is well documented; however, in a large proportion of patients the precise cause remains obscure. The exact incidence

  5. File list: ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. Regulation of Mammary Progenitor Cells by p53 and Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    quantitative PCR system (Stratagene). To knockdown Notch1 in TM40A cells, siRNA (s70698 and s70700) were purchased from Ambion. s70698 siRNA sense sequence: 5...hours after transfect ion and real-tim e quantitative P CR was used to confirm the knockdown efficiency. Results Label and chase progenitor cells...cells contained 0.8% o f DsRed positiv e (DsR +) progenitor cells (Fig. 1B). The mammosphere-forming capacity of DsR+ cells is 3.8-fold greater

  9. Regulation of Prostate Development and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Autocrine Cholinergic Signaling via Maintaining the Epithelial Progenitor Cells in Proliferating Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Naitao; Dong, Bai-Jun; Quan, Yizhou; Chen, Qianqian; Chu, Mingliang; Xu, Jin; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yi-Ran; Yang, Ru; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2016-05-10

    Regulation of prostate epithelial progenitor cells is important in prostate development and prostate diseases. Our previous study demonstrated a function of autocrine cholinergic signaling (ACS) in promoting prostate cancer growth and castration resistance. However, whether or not such ACS also plays a role in prostate development is unknown. Here, we report that ACS promoted the proliferation and inhibited the differentiation of prostate epithelial progenitor cells in organotypic cultures. These results were confirmed by ex vivo lineage tracing assays and in vivo renal capsule recombination assays. Moreover, we found that M3 cholinergic receptor (CHRM3) was upregulated in a large subset of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues compared with normal tissues. Activation of CHRM3 also promoted the proliferation of BPH cells. Together, our findings identify a role of ACS in maintaining prostate epithelial progenitor cells in the proliferating state, and blockade of ACS may have clinical implications for the management of BPH. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  14. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Oth.Oth.10.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Adipose progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 DNase-seq Neural Induced neural pro...genitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  3. Acute renal dysfunction in liver diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Betrosian, Alex P; Agarwal, Banwari; Douzinas, Emmanuel E

    2007-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is common in liver diseases, either as part of multiorgan involvement in acute illness or secondary to advanced liver disease. The presence of renal impairment in both groups is a poor prognostic indicator. Renal failure is often multifactorial and can present as pre-renal or intrinsic renal dysfunction. Obstructive or post renal dysfunction only rarely complicates liver disease. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a unique form of renal failure associated with advanced liver dise...

  4. Chronic renal failure due to unilateral renal agenesis and total renal dysplasia (=aplasia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroepelin, T.; Ziupa, J.; Wimmer, B.

    1983-01-01

    Three adult patients with unilateral renal agenesis/total dysplasia (= aplasia) and with an early chronic renal failure are presented. One patient had renal agenesis without ureter bud and ureteric ostium on one side, and reflux pyelonephritis on the other; one had small compact total renal dysplasia (= aplasia) on one side, while chronic uric acid nephropathy (chronic renal disease as a cause of gout) was diagnosed on the other; the third patient had a total large multicystic dysplasia on one side, and on the other a segmental large multicystic dysplasia. Radiological steps and radiodiagnostic criteria are discussed and the combination of urogenital and extraurogenital anomalies is referred to. (orig.)

  5. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Guadix

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 promoted expression of the mesodermal marker PDGFRα, upregulated characteristic (proepicardial progenitor cell genes, and downregulated transcription of myocardial genes. We confirmed the (proepicardial-like properties of these cells using in vitro co-culture assays and in ovo grafting of hPSC-epicardial cells into chick embryos. Our data show that RA + BMP4-treated hPSCs differentiate into (proepicardial-like cells displaying functional properties (adhesion and spreading over the myocardium of their in vivo counterpart. The results extend evidence that hPSCs are an excellent model to study (proepicardial differentiation into cardiovascular cells in human development and evaluate their potential for cardiac regeneration. : The authors have shown that hPSCs can be instructed in vitro to differentiate into a specific cardiac embryonic progenitor cell population called the proepicardium. Proepicardial cells are required for normal formation of the heart during development and might contribute to the development of cell-based therapies for heart repair. Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells, proepicardium, progenitor cells, cardiovascular, differentiation

  6. Cellular therapy after spinal cord injury using neural progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroemen, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities and limitations of cell-based therapies after spinal cord injury are explored. Particularly, the potential of adult derived neural progenitor cell (NPC) grafts to function as a permissive substrate for axonal regeneration was investigated. It was found that syngenic

  7. Progenitor cells in the kidney: biology and therapeutic perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, M.B.; Verhaar, M.C.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Rabelink, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Progenitor cells in the kidney: Biology and therapeutic perspectives. The stem cell may be viewed as an engineer who can read the blue print and become the building. The role of this fascinating cell in physiology and pathophysiology has recently attracted a great deal of interest. The archetype of

  8. Long GRBs from binary stars: runaway, Wolf-Rayet progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantiello, M.; Yoon, S.C.; Langer, N.; Livio, M.

    2007-01-01

    The collapsar model for long gamma-ray bursts requires a rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet star as progenitor. We test the idea of producing rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet stars in massive close binaries through mass accretion and consecutive quasi-chemically homogeneous evolution — the latter had previously

  9. Long GRBs from Binary Stars: Runaway, Wolf-Rayet Progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantiello, M.; Yoon, S.C.; Langer, N.; Livio, M.

    2007-01-01

    The collapsar model for long gamma-ray bursts requires a rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet star as progenitor. We test the idea of producing rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet stars in massive close binaries through mass accretion and consecutive quasi-chemically homogeneous evolution - the latter had previously

  10. Transcriptional Heterogeneity and Lineage Commitment in Myeloid Progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Franziska; Arkin, Ya'ara; Giladi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Within the bone marrow, stem cells differentiate and give rise to diverse blood cell types and functions. Currently, hematopoietic progenitors are defined using surface markers combined with functional assays that are not directly linked with in vivo differentiation potential or gene regulatory m...

  11. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  12. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadix, Juan Antonio; Orlova, Valeria V.; Giacomelli, Elisa; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Mummery, Christine L.; Pérez-Pomares, José M.; Passier, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced) to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA)

  13. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Simon N; van Os, Ronald P; Bunting, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Animal models have added significantly to our understanding of the mechanism(s) of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization. Such models suggest that changes in the interaction between the HSPC and the hematopoietic microenvironmental 'niche' (cellular and extracellular components)

  14. Endothelial progenitor cell-based neovascularization : implications for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krenning, Guido; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    Ischemic cardiovascular events are a major cause of death globally. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-based approaches can result in improvement of vascular perfusion and might offer clinical benefit. However, although functional improvement is observed, the lack of long-term engraftment of EPCs

  15. The progenitor of Nova Cygni 2006 (=V2362 Cyg)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeghs, D.; Greimel, R.; Drew, J.; Irwin, M.; Gaensicke, B.; Groot, P.J.; Knigge, C.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the detection of the likely progenitor to Nova Cygni 2006 = V2362 Cyg (IAUC #8697, #8698, ATel #792) using images from the INT Photometric H-Alpha Survey (IPHAS; http://www.iphas.org). The field containing the classical nova was observed as part of our galactic plane survey on Aug. 3rd

  16. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Klassen, Henry

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the host response to murine retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) following transplantation to the subretinal space (SRS) of the pig. RPCs from GFP mice were transplanted subretinally in 18 nonimmunosuppressed normal or laser-treated pigs. Evaluation of the SRS was performed on hematoxylin-eosin...

  17. Mass ejection in failed supernovae: variation with stellar progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rodrigo; Quataert, Eliot; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Coughlin, Eric R.

    2018-05-01

    We study the ejection of mass during stellar core-collapse when the stalled shock does not revive and a black hole forms. Neutrino emission during the protoneutron star phase causes a decrease in the gravitational mass of the core, resulting in an outward going sound pulse that steepens into a shock as it travels out through the star. We explore the properties of this mass ejection mechanism over a range of stellar progenitors using spherically symmetric, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations that treat neutrino mass-loss parametrically and follow the shock propagation over the entire star. We find that all types of stellar progenitor can eject mass through this mechanism. The ejected mass is a decreasing function of the surface gravity of the star, ranging from several M⊙ for red supergiants to ˜0.1 M⊙ for blue supergiants and ˜10-3 M⊙ for Wolf-Rayet stars. We find that the final shock energy at the surface is a decreasing function of the core-compactness, and is ≲ 1047-1048 erg in all cases. In progenitors with a sufficiently large envelope, high core-compactness, or a combination of both, the sound pulse fails to unbind mass. Successful mass ejection is accompanied by significant fallback accretion that can last from hours to years. We predict the properties of shock breakout and thermal plateau emission produced by the ejection of the outer envelope of blue supergiant and Wolf-Rayet progenitors in otherwise failed supernovae.

  18. Hmga2 regulates self-renewal of retinal progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Sowmya; Xia, Xiaohuan; Hegde, Ganapati; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2014-11-01

    In vertebrate retina, histogenesis occurs over an extended period. To sustain the temporal generation of diverse cell types, retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) must self-renew. However, self-renewal and regulation of RPCs remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that cell-extrinsic factors coordinate with the epigenetic regulator high-mobility group AT-hook 2 (Hmga2) to regulate self-renewal of late retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). We observed that a small subset of RPCs was capable of clonal propagation and retained multipotentiality of parents in the presence of endothelial cells (ECs), known self-renewal regulators in various stem cell niches. The self-renewing effects, also observed in vivo, involve multiple intercellular signaling pathways, engaging Hmga2. As progenitors exhaust during retinal development, expression of Hmga2 progressively decreases. Analyses of Hmga2-expression perturbation, in vitro and in vivo, revealed that Hmga2 functionally helps to mediate cell-extrinsic influences on late-retinal progenitor self-renewal. Our results provide a framework for integrating the diverse intercellular influences elicited by epigenetic regulators for self-renewal in a dynamic stem cell niche: the developing vertebrate retina. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  20. Characteristics of meniscus progenitor cells migrated from injured meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Dongrim; Zhou, Cheng; Brouillette, Marc J; Song, Ino; Yu, Yin; Choe, Hyeong Hun; Lehman, Abigail D; Jang, Kee W; Fredericks, Douglas C; Laughlin, Barbara J; Martin, James A

    2017-09-01

    Serious meniscus injuries seldom heal and increase the risk for knee osteoarthritis; thus, there is a need to develop new reparative therapies. In that regard, stimulating tissue regeneration by autologous stem/progenitor cells has emerged as a promising new strategy. We showed previously that migratory chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) were recruited to injured cartilage, where they showed a capability in situ tissue repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the meniscus contains a similar population of regenerative cells. Explant studies revealed that migrating cells were mainly confined to the red zone in normal menisci: However, these cells were capable of repopulating defects made in the white zone. In vivo, migrating cell numbers increased dramatically in damaged meniscus. Relative to non-migrating meniscus cells, migrating cells were more clonogenic, overexpressed progenitor cell markers, and included a larger side population. Gene expression profiling showed that the migrating population was more similar to CPCs than other meniscus cells. Finally, migrating cells equaled CPCs in chondrogenic potential, indicating a capacity for repair of the cartilaginous white zone of the meniscus. These findings demonstrate that, much as in articular cartilage, injuries to the meniscus mobilize an intrinsic progenitor cell population with strong reparative potential. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1966-1972, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. TYPE IIb SUPERNOVAE WITH COMPACT AND EXTENDED PROGENITORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Roger A.; Soderberg, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    The classic example of a Type IIb supernova is SN 1993J, which had a cool extended progenitor surrounded by a dense wind. There is evidence for another category of Type IIb supernova that has a more compact progenitor with a lower density, probably fast, wind. Distinguishing features of the compact category are weak optical emission from the shock heated envelope at early times, nonexistent or very weak H emission in the late nebular phase, rapidly evolving radio emission, rapid expansion of the radio shell, and expected nonthermal as opposed to thermal X-ray emission. Type IIb supernovae that have one or more of these features include SNe 1996cb, 2001ig, 2003bg, 2008ax, and 2008bo. All of these with sufficient radio data (the last four) show evidence for presupernova wind variability. We estimate a progenitor envelope radius ∼1 x 10 11 cm for SN 2008ax, a value consistent with a compact Wolf-Rayet progenitor. Supernovae in the SN 1993J extended category include SN 2001gd and probably the Cas A supernova. We suggest that the compact Type IIb events be designated Type cIIb and the extended ones Type eIIb. The H envelope mass dividing these categories is ∼0.1 M sun .

  2. Cardiac stem/progenitor cells, secreted proteins, and proteomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastná, Miroslava; Abraham, M.R.; Van Eyk, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 583, č. 11 (2009), s. 1800-1807 ISSN 0014-5793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : Cardiac stem/progenitor cell * paracrine factor * secretome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.541, year: 2009

  3. CT findings of renal abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Jun; Kim, Mi Young; Woo, Jung Ju; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Won Hong; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jeon, Woo Ki; Han, Chang Yul

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine characteristic CT findings in renal abscess. Twenty cases of renal abscess were retrospectively analyzed for CT findings relating to the shape and extent of the abscess, change of nephrogram, peripheral rim enhancement, wedge-shaped enhancement on delayed scans, enlargement of the kidney involved and associated findings. Seven patients had a renal abscess at the right kidney, nine at the lift kidney and two bilaterally. The abscesses were round in 18 cases and finger-like in two. Rim enhancement around renal abscess was seen in four cases (20%). Changes in the nephrogram around the abscess were seen in 12 cases (60%). In all six patients who had undergone delayed postcontrast scans, wedge-shaped enhancement was shown around the abscess (100%). In the observation of the extent of renal abscesses, 14 cases were within the kidney, six cases extended the beyond renal capsule, and two were loculated in the renal fascia itself. Renal enlargement was seen in nine cases (45%). These results suggest that CT findings such as delayed wedge-shaped enhancement, change of nephrogram, peripheral rim enhancement, renal enlargement, and associated findings are valuable for diagnosis, and that CT also gives information concerning the extent, evolution and complication of a renal abscess

  4. Bilateral renal calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenevasan, G

    1974-01-01

    Bilateral renal calculi were present in 114 (10.7%) of 1,070 cases of proved urinary calculus admitted to the Urological Department of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, during the period November 1968—May 1973. The management of bilateral renal calculi is discussed with reference to the first 100 cases in this series. The introduction of renography has greatly facilitated the decision as to which kidney should be operated on first. The management of patients with and without uraemia is discussed and the use of the modified V and V—Y incisions for the removal of staghorn calculi is described. Complications and results are briefly reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:4845653

  5. Renal protection in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The combination of diabetes and hypertension increases the chances of progressive renal disorder and, ultimately, renal failure. Roughly 40% of all diabetics, whether insulin-dependent or not, develop diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the single most important cause of end...... function in diabetic patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. There are still no long-term trials using the new long-acting dihydropyridine calcium antagonists to treat patients with incipient nephropathy. A recent, 1-year, randomized, double-blind study in hypertensive insulin-dependent diabetic...... identical in both treatment groups, at 103 (SD 9) and 101 (SD 11) mmHg, respectively. Furthermore, a recent 5-year randomized open study in hypertensive non-insulin-dependent patients with diabetic nephropathy has revealed the same beneficial effect of a calcium antagonist and of ACE inhibition...

  6. Renal computed angiography. Part I: Renal CT arteriography in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Amin, M.; Hadjidekov, V.

    2012-01-01

    Visualization of renal vasculature is needed in several clinical condition among which hypertension is dominant. CT angiography now day replaces catheter angiography as non-invasive method. The goal of this study is to present initial authors experience in visualization of renal arteries using 64 MDCT and to evaluated the utility in hypertensive patients. MDCT assures excellent assessment of renal arteries conditions. Multiplanar reconstruction and allow better delineation in tortuous vessels course and anatomic variants. (authors)

  7. α-Ketoglutarate Promotes Pancreatic Progenitor-Like Cell Proliferation

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    Jing Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A major source of β cell generation is pancreatic progenitor-like cell differentiation. Multiple studies have confirmed that stem cell metabolism plays important roles in self-renewal and proliferation. In the absence of glucose, glutamine provides the energy for cell division and growth. Furthermore, α-ketoglutarate (αKG, a precursor for glutamine synthesis, is sufficient for enabling glutamine-independent cell proliferation. We have demonstrated that αKG contributes to the large-scale proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells that can provide an ample amount of clinically relevant β cells. We compared the mRNA expression of a subset of genes, the abundance of ATP, reactive oxide species, mitochondrial number, and the colony-forming frequency between mouse pancreatic CD133+ and CD133− cells. We employed Real-Time PCR, immunostaining and passage assays to investigate self-renewal and proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells in a 3D culture system in the presence and absence of αKG. The energy metabolism of CD133+ cells was more prone to oxidative phosphorylation. However, in the 3D culture system, when αKG was supplemented to the culture medium, the proliferation of the pancreatic progenitor-like cells was significantly elevated. We confirmed that the presence of αKG correlated with the up-regulation of Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet. αKG can promote the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells via the up-regulation of Tet.

  8. α-Ketoglutarate Promotes Pancreatic Progenitor-Like Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing; Ma, Dongshen; Xing, Yun; Tang, Shanshan; Alahdal, Murad; Guo, Jiamin; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Yanfeng; Shen, Yumeng; Wu, Qiong; Lu, Zhou; Jin, Liang

    2018-03-22

    A major source of β cell generation is pancreatic progenitor-like cell differentiation. Multiple studies have confirmed that stem cell metabolism plays important roles in self-renewal and proliferation. In the absence of glucose, glutamine provides the energy for cell division and growth. Furthermore, α-ketoglutarate (αKG), a precursor for glutamine synthesis, is sufficient for enabling glutamine-independent cell proliferation. We have demonstrated that αKG contributes to the large-scale proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells that can provide an ample amount of clinically relevant β cells. We compared the mRNA expression of a subset of genes, the abundance of ATP, reactive oxide species, mitochondrial number, and the colony-forming frequency between mouse pancreatic CD133⁺ and CD133 - cells. We employed Real-Time PCR, immunostaining and passage assays to investigate self-renewal and proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells in a 3D culture system in the presence and absence of αKG. The energy metabolism of CD133⁺ cells was more prone to oxidative phosphorylation. However, in the 3D culture system, when αKG was supplemented to the culture medium, the proliferation of the pancreatic progenitor-like cells was significantly elevated. We confirmed that the presence of αKG correlated with the up-regulation of Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet). αKG can promote the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells via the up-regulation of Tet.

  9. [Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta, Krzysztof; Kupczyk, Piotr; Skóra, Jan; Pupka, Artur; Zejler, Paweł; Hołysz, Marcin; Gajda, Mariusz; Nowakowska, Beata; Barć, Piotr; Dorobisz, Andrzej T; Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Szyber, Piotr; Bar, Julia

    2013-09-18

    Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, "anchored" in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC). Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as "subendothelial or vasculogenic zones". Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  10. Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, “anchored” in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC. Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as “subendothelial or vasculogenic zones”. Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  11. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  12. Efficacy of ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy for the evaluation of renal dysfunction following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Min, Seon Jeong; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and complications of renal biopsy under ultrasonography-guidance in renal dysfunction after renal transplantation. Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy was done in 47 patients with the transplanted kidney. The subjects consisted of 30 males and 17 females, age ranged from 16 to 66 years (average age=38 years). Biopsies were done once in 27 patients, twice in 17 patients, three times in 3 patients, a total of 70 biopsies. The success rate of renal biopsy for the accurate pathologic diagnosis and the incidence and types of complications following biopsy were evaluated. The success rate of renal biopsy for the accurate pathologic diagnosis was 96%(67/70). Pathologic diagnosis included 27 cases of acute rejection (39%), 8 cases of acute tubular necrosis (11%), 4 cases of acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis (6%), 4 cases of cyclosporin toxicity (6%), 4 cases of primary disease recurrence (6%), 4 cases of infection (6%) and others. Complications after renal biopsy included 15 cases of microscopic hematuria (21%), 1 case of gross hematuria with spontaneous cessation and 1 case of life threatening hemorrhage. Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy is a safe and effective diagnostic method for the evaluation of renal dysfunction following renal transplantation.

  13. Uncovering the Number and Clonal Dynamics of Mesp1 Progenitors during Heart Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Chabab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heart arises from distinct sources of cardiac progenitors that independently express Mesp1 during gastrulation. The precise number of Mesp1 progenitors that are specified during the early stage of gastrulation, and their clonal behavior during heart morphogenesis, is currently unknown. Here, we used clonal and mosaic tracing of Mesp1-expressing cells combined with quantitative biophysical analysis of the clonal data to define the number of cardiac progenitors and their mode of growth during heart development. Our data indicate that the myocardial layer of the heart derive from ∼250 Mesp1-expressing cardiac progenitors born during gastrulation. Despite arising at different time points and contributing to different heart regions, the temporally distinct cardiac progenitors present very similar clonal dynamics. These results provide insights into the number of cardiac progenitors and their mode of growth and open up avenues to decipher the clonal dynamics of progenitors in other organs and tissues.

  14. Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour: Imaging features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, V. Anik; Hirsch, Michelle S.; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2012-01-01

    Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour is a rare, recently described neoplasm with a distinctive histological appearance. Although reported in the pathology literature, to our knowledge, no prior reports have described its imaging appearance. We describe the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of an incidentally detected renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour that appeared as a well-marginated, solid T2-hypointense enhancing mass, in a 50-year-old woman. It is indistinguishable from a variety of benign and malignant renal neoplasms. PMID:23093565

  15. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma

  16. PROGENITOR-EXPLOSION CONNECTION AND REMNANT BIRTH MASSES FOR NEUTRINO-DRIVEN SUPERNOVAE OF IRON-CORE PROGENITORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugliano, Marcella; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Arcones, Almudena [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 2, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-09-20

    We perform hydrodynamic supernova (SN) simulations in spherical symmetry for over 100 single stars of solar metallicity to explore the progenitor-explosion and progenitor-remnant connections established by the neutrino-driven mechanism. We use an approximative treatment of neutrino transport and replace the high-density interior of the neutron star (NS) by an inner boundary condition based on an analytic proto-NS core-cooling model, whose free parameters are chosen such that explosion energy, nickel production, and energy release by the compact remnant of progenitors around 20 M{sub Sun} are compatible with SN 1987A. Thus, we are able to simulate the accretion phase, initiation of the explosion, subsequent neutrino-driven wind phase for 15-20 s, and the further evolution of the blast wave for hours to days until fallback is completed. Our results challenge long-standing paradigms. We find that remnant mass, launch time, and properties of the explosion depend strongly on the stellar structure and exhibit large variability even in narrow intervals of the progenitors' zero-age main-sequence mass. While all progenitors with masses below {approx}15 M{sub Sun} yield NSs, black hole (BH) as well as NS formation is possible for more massive stars, where partial loss of the hydrogen envelope leads to weak reverse shocks and weak fallback. Our NS baryonic masses of {approx}1.2-2.0 M{sub Sun} and BH masses >6 M{sub Sun} are compatible with a possible lack of low-mass BHs in the empirical distribution. Neutrino heating accounts for SN energies between some 10{sup 50} erg and {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg but can hardly explain more energetic explosions and nickel masses higher than 0.1-0.2 M{sub Sun }. These seem to require an alternative SN mechanism.

  17. In Vivo Clonal Analysis Reveals Lineage-Restricted Progenitor Characteristics in Mammalian Kidney Development, Maintenance, and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Rinkevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism and magnitude by which the mammalian kidney generates and maintains its proximal tubules, distal tubules, and collecting ducts remain controversial. Here, we use long-term in vivo genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis of individual cells from kidneys undergoing development, maintenance, and regeneration. We show that the adult mammalian kidney undergoes continuous tubulogenesis via expansions of fate-restricted clones. Kidneys recovering from damage undergo tubulogenesis through expansions of clones with segment-specific borders, and renal spheres developing in vitro from individual cells maintain distinct, segment-specific fates. Analysis of mice derived by transfer of color-marked embryonic stem cells (ESCs into uncolored blastocysts demonstrates that nephrons are polyclonal, developing from expansions of singly fated clones. Finally, we show that adult renal clones are derived from Wnt-responsive precursors, and their tracing in vivo generates tubules that are segment specific. Collectively, these analyses demonstrate that fate-restricted precursors functioning as unipotent progenitors continuously maintain and self-preserve the mouse kidney throughout life.

  18. CT features of renal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzer, Okan; Shirkhoda, Ali; Jafri, S. Zafar; Madrazo, Beatrice L.; Bis, Kostaki G.; Mastromatteo, James F.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the different patterns of renal infarction to avoid pitfalls. To present 'flip-flop enhancement' pattern in renal infarction. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of a total of 41 renal infarction in 37 patients were done. These patients underwent initial CT and the diagnosis of renal infarction was confirmed with either follow up CT or at surgery. Results: Twenty-three patients had wedge-shaped focal infarcts, nine patients had global and five patients had multifocal infarcts of the kidneys. Cortical rim sign was seen predominantly with global infarcts. In five patients, a 'flip-flop enhancement' pattern was observed. In two patients, planned renal biopsies due to tumefactive renal lesions were cancelled because of 'flip-flop enhancement' pattern on follow up CTs. Conclusion: Although most of our cases were straightforward for the diagnosis of renal infarction, cases with tumefactive lesions and global infarctions without the well-known cortical rim sign were particularly challenging. We describe a new sign, flip-flop enhancement pattern, which we believe solidified the diagnosis of renal infarction in five of our cases. The authors recommend further investigations for association of flip-flop enhancement and renal infarction

  19. Sporotrichosis in Renal Transplant Patients

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    Paulo Gewehr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current report describes two renal transplant recipients who presented with sporotrichosis. In addition, the authors review the general aspects of sporotrichosis in renal transplant recipients reported in the literature. Sporotrichosis is a rare fungal infection in transplant patients and has been reported primarily in renal transplant recipients not treated with antifungal prophylaxis. Extracutaneous forms of sporotrichosis without skin manifestations and no previous history of traumatic injuries have been described in such patients and are difficult to diagnose. Renal transplant recipients with sporotrichosis described in the present report were successfully treated with antifungal therapy including amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid amphotericin B formulations, fluconazole and itraconazole.

  20. Renal myxoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique C Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are rare tumors that can appear in many anatomical locations. There are only 14 cases of renal involvement documented in the literature. This article reports a case of renal myxoma in an elderly woman with recurrent cystitis. After five years of follow-up, the computed tomography (CT revealed a large solid tumor mass in the left kidney. Tumor resection was performed preserving the affected kidney with histopathological diagnosis of renal myxoma. The objective of this study is to report a rare case of renal myxoma, emphasizing the importance of the differential diagnosis from other benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors.

  1. Renal computed angiography. Part I: Renal CT phlebography. Renal veins variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Amin, M.; Krupev, M.; Hadjidekov, V.; Plachkov, I.

    2012-01-01

    The changing trend in renal surgery, transplantation and minimal invasive urology implies preprocedure evaluation of renal veins. Development of imaging methods offers new possibilities for venographic visualization. The goal of this study is to present authors experience in visualization of renal veins using 64 MDCT and to evaluate the utility in assessments of their variants. 128 patients (68 females and 60 males, mean age 53,3) with urological complaints underwent 64MDCT examination including CT angiography. Contrast enhancement includes 3-4ml/sec injection flow of 90 ml contrast medium followed by 20 ml saline at the same rate. In 23 out of 128 examined patients some of the common variants of the renal vein is found. 64 MDCT angiography visualize very well renal veins and becomes method of choice in preoperative assessment of renal vein anatomy. (authors)

  2. Single progenitor model for GW150914 and GW170104

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Daniel J.; Loeb, Abraham

    2018-04-01

    The merger of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) is not expected to generate detectable electromagnetic (EM) emission. However, the gravitational wave (GW) events GW150914 and GW170104, detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory to be the result of merging, ˜60 M⊙ binary black holes (BBHs), each have claimed coincident gamma-ray emission. Motivated by the intriguing possibility of an EM counterpart to BBH mergers, we construct a model that can reproduce the observed EM and GW signals for GW150914- and GW170104-like events, from a single-star progenitor. Following Loeb [Astrophys. J. Lett. 819, L21 (2016), 10.3847/2041-8205/819/2/L21], we envision a massive, rapidly rotating star within which a rotating-bar instability fractures the core into two overdensities that fragment into clumps which merge to form BHs in a tight binary with arbitrary spin-orbit alignment. Once formed, the BBH inspirals due to gas and gravitational-wave drag until tidal forces trigger strong feeding of the BHs with the surrounding stellar-density gas about 10 sec before merger. The resulting giga-Eddington accretion peak launches a jet that breaks out of the progenitor star and drives a powerful outflow that clears the gas from the orbit of the binary within 1 sec, preserving the vacuum GW waveform in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory band. The single-progenitor scenario predicts the existence of variability of the gamma-ray burst, modulated at the ˜0.2 sec chirping period of the BBH due to relativistic Doppler boost. The jet breakout should be accompanied by a low-luminosity supernova. Finally, because the BBHs of the single-progenitor model do not exist at large separations, they will not be detectable in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. Hence, the single-progenitor BBHs will be unambiguously discernible from BBHs formed through alternate, double-progenitor evolution scenarios.

  3. General Information about Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Renal Cell Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  5. The renal scan in pregnant renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts

  6. La violencia de hijos adolescentes contra sus progenitores La violencia de hijos adolescentes contra sus progenitores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Aroca Montolío

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available According to Prosecutor’s Office of the Minor, the accusation interposed by mothers and/or fathers victims by theirs children, along 2007 were 2603, in 2008 amounted 4.211, in 2009 there were 5.209 and in 2010 there were 8.000 accusations. Suede this worrying increase, the principal aim of our article is to check the scientific international and national documentation, from 1957 until the year 2010 that analyses the phenomenon of the adolescent violence against parents, to achieve an approximation to its keys that there allows us the comprehension and analysis of this serious familiar problem. For it we will analyse: (a the importance of this crime by means of criminological mediators: prevalence and incidence; (b the age and sex variables’ aggressors to be able to establish a basic profile about theirs and, (c the violence types that the teenagers wield to damage, prejudice and suffering against their progenitors, with the aim to obtain what they want. The information obtained in this research review and qualitative analysis, change in base to the methodology used and the type of sample under study to obtain conclusions. Even though, we wantto do research into needs to investigate this type of familiar violence, and from there, to do researches with rigorous scientific methodologies, unifying criteria and variables to be investigating, to be able to anticipate in this increasing problem that the parents have. Según la Fiscalía del Menor en el año 2007, las denuncias interpuestas por madres y/o padres, víctimas de malos tratos por sus hijos e hijas menores de edad, fueron 2.683. En 2008 ascendieron a 4.211, en 2009 se presentaron 5.209 y en el año 2010 se registraron 8.000 denuncias. Ante éste preocupante incremento, el objetivo principal de nuestro artículo es revisar la documentación científica que analiza la violencia filio-parental,  desde 1957 hasta el año 2011, para lograr una aproximación a sus claves que nos permita la

  7. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  8. Citrato y litiasis renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa E. Del Valle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El citrato es un potente inhibidor de la cristalización de sales de calcio. La hipocitraturia es una alteración bioquímica frecuente en la formación de cálculos de calcio en adultos y especialmente en niños. El pH ácido (sistémico, tubular e intracelular es el principal determinante de la excreción de citrato en la orina. Si bien la mayoría de los pacientes con litiasis renal presentan hipocitraturia idiopática, hay un número de causas para esta anormalidad que incluyen acidosis tubular renal distal, hipokalemia, dietas ricas en proteínas de origen animal y/o dietas bajas en álcalis y ciertas drogas, como la acetazolamida, topiramato, IECA y tiazidas. Las modificaciones dietéticas que benefician a estos pacientes incluyen: alta ingesta de líquidos y frutas, especialmente cítricos, restricción de sodio y proteínas, con consumo normal de calcio. El tratamiento con citrato de potasio es efectivo en pacientes con hipocitraturia primaria o secundaria y en aquellos desordenes en la acidificación, que provocan un pH urinario persistentemente ácido. Los efectos adversos son bajos y están referidos al tracto gastrointestinal. Si bien hay diferentes preparaciones de citrato (citrato de potasio, citrato de sodio, citrato de potasio-magnesio en nuestro país solo está disponible el citrato de potasio en polvo que es muy útil para corregir la hipocitraturia y el pH urinario bajo, y reducir marcadamente la recurrencia de la litiasis renal.

  9. Automatic quantitative renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeyre, J.; Deltour, G.; Delisle, M.J.; Bouchard, A.

    1976-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy data may be analyzed automatically by the use of a processing system coupled to an Anger camera (TRIDAC-MULTI 8 or CINE 200). The computing sequence is as follows: normalization of the images; background noise subtraction on both images; evaluation of mercury 197 uptake by the liver and spleen; calculation of the activity fractions on each kidney with respect to the injected dose, taking into account the kidney depth and the results referred to normal values; edition of the results. Automation minimizes the scattering parameters and by its simplification is a great asset in routine work [fr

  10. Imaging of renal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.; Normand, F.; Balu-Maestro, C.; Rogopoulos, A.; Drouillard, J.; Laurent, F.

    1988-01-01

    Metastases are the most frequent malignant tumors of the kidney, but these lesions are of late onset in neoplastic disease. The 19 cases reported here were all investigated with various imaging techniques (CT 12 cases, ultrasonography 12 cases, urography 8 cases, angiography 2 cases, MRI 1 case). The most common primary malignancies were lung cancer, melanoma and cancer of the controlateral kidney. In this series, 8 of the lesions were solitary, and 9 were unilateral. Tumor vascularity was evaluated in 15 cases: 14 of these lesions were hypovascular. The differential diagnosis includes small cysts, lymphoma, bilateral renal cancer, multiple small abscesses and multiple small infarcts [fr

  11. Progenitors of type Ia supernovae in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilfanov, M.; Bogdan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a nearly universal agreement that type Ia supernovae are associated with the thermonuclear disruption of a CO white dwarf, the exact nature of their progenitors is still unknown. The single degenerate scenario envisages a white dwarf accreting matter from a non-degenerate companion in a binary system. Nuclear energy of the accreted matter is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation or gives rise to numerous classical nova explosions prior to the supernova event. We show that combined X-ray output of supernova progenitors and statistics of classical novae predicted in the single degenerate scenario are inconsistent with X-ray and optical observations of nearby early type galaxies and galaxy bulges. White dwarfs accreting from a donor star in a binary system and detonating at the Chandrasekhar mass limit can account for no more than ∼5% of type Ia supernovae observed in old stellar populations.

  12. Epigenetic Reprogramming of Muscle Progenitors: Inspiration for Clinical Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Consalvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of regenerative medicine, based on the potential of stem cells to restore diseased tissues, epigenetics is becoming a pivotal area of interest. Therapeutic interventions that promote tissue and organ regeneration have as primary objective the selective control of gene expression in adult stem cells. This requires a deep understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms controlling transcriptional programs in tissue progenitors. This review attempts to elucidate the principle epigenetic regulations responsible of stem cells differentiation. In particular we focus on the current understanding of the epigenetic networks that regulate differentiation of muscle progenitors by the concerted action of chromatin-modifying enzymes and noncoding RNAs. The novel exciting role of exosome-bound microRNA in mediating epigenetic information transfer is also discussed. Finally we show an overview of the epigenetic strategies and therapies that aim to potentiate muscle regeneration and counteract the progression of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD.

  13. Glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood leukodystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osório, M. Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    stem cell-derived human neural or glial progenitor cells may comprise a promising strategy for both structural remyelination and metabolic rescue. A broad variety of pediatric white matter disorders, including the primary hypomyelinating disorders, the lysosomal storage disorders, and the broader group...... genetic editing of pluripotent stem cells. Yet these challenges notwithstanding, the promise of glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood myelin disorders offers hope to the many victims of this otherwise largely untreatable class of disease....... and astrocytes are the major affected cell populations, and are either structurally impaired or metabolically compromised through cell-intrinsic pathology, or are the victims of mis-accumulated toxic byproducts of metabolic derangement. In either case, glial cell replacement using implanted tissue or pluripotent...

  14. Pericytes Stimulate Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Differentiation during CNS Remyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alerie Guzman De La Fuente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the neurovascular niche in CNS myelin regeneration is incompletely understood. Here, we show that, upon demyelination, CNS-resident pericytes (PCs proliferate, and parenchymal non-vessel-associated PC-like cells (PLCs rapidly develop. During remyelination, mature oligodendrocytes were found in close proximity to PCs. In Pdgfbret/ret mice, which have reduced PC numbers, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC differentiation was delayed, although remyelination proceeded to completion. PC-conditioned medium accelerated and enhanced OPC differentiation in vitro and increased the rate of remyelination in an ex vivo cerebellar slice model of demyelination. We identified Lama2 as a PC-derived factor that promotes OPC differentiation. Thus, the functional role of PCs is not restricted to vascular homeostasis but includes the modulation of adult CNS progenitor cells involved in regeneration.

  15. Is black-hole ringdown a memory of its progenitor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaretsos, Ioannis; Hannam, Mark; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2012-10-05

    We perform an extensive numerical study of coalescing black-hole binaries to understand the gravitational-wave spectrum of quasinormal modes excited in the merged black hole. Remarkably, we find that the masses and spins of the progenitor are clearly encoded in the mode spectrum of the ringdown signal. Some of the mode amplitudes carry the signature of the binary's mass ratio, while others depend critically on the spins. Simulations of precessing binaries suggest that our results carry over to generic systems. Using Bayesian inference, we demonstrate that it is possible to accurately measure the mass ratio and a proper combination of spins even when the binary is itself invisible to a detector. Using a mapping of the binary masses and spins to the final black-hole spin allows us to further extract the spin components of the progenitor. Our results could have tremendous implications for gravitational astronomy by facilitating novel tests of general relativity using merging black holes.

  16. THE POPULATION OF HELIUM-MERGER PROGENITORS: OBSERVATIONAL PREDICTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Berger, Edo; Thöne, Christina; Ellinger, Carola

    2013-01-01

    The helium-merger gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitor is produced by the rapid accretion onto a compact remnant (neutron star or black hole) when it undergoes a common envelope inspiral with its companion's helium core. This merger phase produces a very distinct environment around these outbursts and recent observations suggest that, in some cases, we are detecting the signatures of the past merger in the GRB afterglow. These observations allow us, for the first time, to study the specific features of the helium-merger progenitor. In this paper, we couple population synthesis calculations to our current understanding of GRB engines and common envelope evolution to make observational predictions for the helium-merger GRB population. Many mergers do not produce GRB outbursts and we discuss the implications of these mergers with the broader population of astrophysical transients.

  17. Progenitor cell populations in the periodontal ligament of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Stem cells in a variety of renewal tissues exhibit a slow rate of cell proliferation. The periodontal ligament of mouse molars was examined for the presence of slowly cycling progenitor cells to provide evidence for the existence of stem cells in this tissue. A pulse injection of 3 H-thymidine was administered and mice were sacrificed between 1 hour and 14 days after injection. Analysis of radioautographs using percentage of labeled cells and grain counts demonstrated that a population of label-retaining cells within 10 micron of blood vessels traversed the cell cycle more slowly than proliferating cells located greater than 10 micron from blood vessels. These data suggest that there is a slowly dividing population of progenitor cells in paravascular sites in mouse molar periodontal ligament which may be stem cells

  18. In vitro pancreas organogenesis from dispersed mouse embryonic progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggio, Chiara; De Franceschi, Filippo; Figueiredo-Larsen, Evan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is an essential organ that regulates glucose homeostasis and secretes digestive enzymes. Research on pancreas embryogenesis has led to the development of protocols to produce pancreatic cells from stem cells (1). The whole embryonic organ can be cultured at multiple stages...... expanding progenitors and differentiate into endocrine, acinar and ductal cells and which spontaneously self-organize to resemble the embryonic pancreas. We show here that the in vitro process recapitulates many aspects of natural pancreas development. This culture system is suitable to investigate how...... cells cooperate to form an organ by reducing its initial complexity to few progenitors. It is a model that reproduces the 3D architecture of the pancreas and that is therefore useful to study morphogenesis, including polarization of epithelial structures and branching. It is also appropriate to assess...

  19. The Progenitor Dependence of Core-collapse Supernovae from Three-dimensional Simulations with Progenitor Models of 12–40 M ⊙

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Christian D.; Roberts, Luke F.; da Silva Schneider, André; Fedrow, Joseph M.; Haas, Roland; Schnetter, Erik

    2018-03-01

    We present a first study of the progenitor star dependence of the three-dimensional (3D) neutrino mechanism of core-collapse supernovae. We employ full 3D general-relativistic multi-group neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics and simulate the postbounce evolutions of progenitors with zero-age main sequence masses of 12, 15, 20, 27, and 40 M ⊙. All progenitors, with the exception of the 12 M ⊙ star, experience shock runaway by the end of their simulations. In most cases, a strongly asymmetric explosion will result. We find three qualitatively distinct evolutions that suggest a complex dependence of explosion dynamics on progenitor density structure, neutrino heating, and 3D flow. (1) Progenitors with massive cores, shallow density profiles, and high post-core-bounce accretion rates experience very strong neutrino heating and neutrino-driven turbulent convection, leading to early shock runaway. Accretion continues at a high rate, likely leading to black hole formation. (2) Intermediate progenitors experience neutrino-driven, turbulence-aided explosions triggered by the arrival of density discontinuities at the shock. These occur typically at the silicon/silicon–oxygen shell boundary. (3) Progenitors with small cores and density profiles without strong discontinuities experience shock recession and develop the 3D standing-accretion shock instability (SASI). Shock runaway ensues late, once declining accretion rate, SASI, and neutrino-driven convection create favorable conditions. These differences in explosion times and dynamics result in a non-monotonic relationship between progenitor and compact remnant mass.

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Human Retinal Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semo, Ma'ayan; Haamedi, Nasrin; Stevanato, Lara; Carter, David; Brooke, Gary; Young, Michael; Coffey, Peter; Sinden, John; Patel, Sara; Vugler, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of human retinal progenitor cells (hRPC) using established rodent models. Methods Efficacy of hRPC was tested initially in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) dystrophic rats immunosuppressed with cyclosporine/dexamethasone. Due to adverse effects of dexamethasone, this drug was omitted from a subsequent dose-ranging study, where different hRPC doses were tested for their ability to preserve visual function (measured by optokinetic head tracking) and retinal structure in RCS rats at 3 to 6 months after grafting. Safety of hRPC was assessed by subretinal transplantation into wild type (WT) rats and NIH-III nude mice, with analysis at 3 to 6 and 9 months after grafting, respectively. Results The optimal dose of hRPC for preserving visual function/retinal structure in dystrophic rats was 50,000 to 100,000 cells. Human retinal progenitor cells integrated/survived in dystrophic and WT rat retina up to 6 months after grafting and expressed nestin, vimentin, GFAP, and βIII tubulin. Vision and retinal structure remained normal in WT rats injected with hRPC and there was no evidence of tumors. A comparison between dexamethasone-treated and untreated dystrophic rats at 3 months after grafting revealed an unexpected reduction in the baseline visual acuity of dexamethasone-treated animals. Conclusions Human retinal progenitor cells appear safe and efficacious in the preclinical models used here. Translational Relevance Human retinal progenitor cells could be deployed during early stages of retinal degeneration or in regions of intact retina, without adverse effects on visual function. The ability of dexamethasone to reduce baseline visual acuity in RCS dystrophic rats has important implications for the interpretation of preclinical and clinical cell transplant studies. PMID:27486556

  1. Renal involvement in behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardalan, Mohammad Reza; Noshad, Hamid; Sadreddini, Shahram; Ebrahimi, Aliasghar; Molaeefard, Mahsheed; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Shoja, Mohammadali Mohajel

    2009-01-01

    There are conflicting reports about the renal involvement in Behcet's disease (BD). In this study we aimed to study the frequency and type of renal involvement in a group of patients with BD in Azerbaijan province that is one of the prevalent areas of BD in Iran. All cases of BD were prospectively followed between June 2004 and January 2007, and evaluated for renal dys-function (serum creatinine > 1.7 mg/dL), glomerular hematuria and proteinuria. Those patients with proteinuria > 500 mg/day and serum creatinine level > 2 mg/dL, underwent renal biopsy. From a total number of 100 patients, six patients (6%) had obvious renal involvements. Four patients had glomerular hematuria and proteinuria. Renal biopsy in two of them revealed measangial proliferative glumerulonephritis with IgA deposit in one of them and membranoproliferative glumerolonephritis in another one. Two remaining patients had serum creatinine > 2 mg/dL without any hematuria or proteinuria. Serologic study for viral agents and collagen vascular disease were negative in all patients with renal involvements. In conclusion, renal involvement in BD is not infrequent, although in most cases it is mild in nature and may be missed. (author)

  2. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Gustavo C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein is a rare tumor of complex diagnosis. We presented a case of renal vein leiomyosarcoma detected in a routine study. The primary treatment was complete surgical removal of the mass. In cases where surgical removal is not possible the prognosis is poor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant spread.

  3. Ultrasonography in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Visnar-Perovic, Alenka

    2003-01-01

    Many chronic renal diseases lead to the final common state of decrease in renal size, parenchymal atrophy, sclerosis and fibrosis. The ultrasound image show a smaller kidney, thinning of the parenchyma and its hyperechogenicity (reflecting sclerosis and fibrosis). The frequency of renal cysts increases with the progression of the disease. Ultrasound generally does not allow for the exact diagnosis of an underlying chronic disease (renal biopsy is usually required), but it can help to determine an irreversible disease, assess prognosis and avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The main exception in which the ultrasound image does not show a smaller kidney with parenchymal atrophy is diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of chronic and end-stage renal failure in developed countries in recent years. In this case, both renal size and parenchymal thickness are preserved until end-stage renal failure. Doppler study of intrarenal vessels can provide additional information about microvascular and parenchymal lesions, which is helpful in deciding for or against therapeutic intervention and timely planning for optimal renal replacement therapy option

  4. Constraints on the Progenitor System of SN 2016gkg from a Comprehensive Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sravan, Niharika; Marchant, Pablo; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Margutti, Raffaella

    2018-01-01

    Type IIb supernovae (SNe) present a unique opportunity for understanding the progenitors of stripped-envelope SNe because the stellar progenitor of several SNe IIb have been identified in pre-explosion images. In this paper, we use Bayesian inference and a large grid of non-rotating solar-metallicity single and binary stellar models to derive the associated probability distributions of single and binary progenitors of the SN IIb 2016gkg using existing observational constraints. We find that potential binary star progenitors have smaller pre-SN hydrogen-envelope and helium-core masses than potential single-star progenitors typically by 0.1 M ⊙ and 2 M ⊙, respectively. We find that, a binary companion, if present, is a main-sequence or red-giant star. Apart from this, we do not find strong constraints on the nature of the companion star. We demonstrate that the range of progenitor helium-core mass inferred from observations could help improve constraints on the progenitor. We find that the probability that the progenitor of SN 2016gkg was a binary is 22% when we use constraints only on the progenitor luminosity and effective temperature. Imposing the range of pre-SN progenitor hydrogen-envelope mass and radius inferred from SN light curves, the probability that the progenitor is a binary increases to 44%. However, there is no clear preference for a binary progenitor. This is in contrast to binaries being the currently favored formation channel for SNe IIb. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of statistical inference methods to constrain progenitor channels.

  5. Endothelial Progenitor Cells as Shuttle of Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzana, Anna; Margheri, Francesca; Chillà, Anastasia; Biagioni, Alessio; Margheri, Giancarlo; Calorini, Lido; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Cell therapies are treatments in which stem or progenitor cells are stimulated to differentiate into specialized cells able to home to and repair damaged tissues. After their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) stimulated worldwide interest as possible vehicles to perform autologous cell therapy of tumors. Taking into account the tumor-homing properties of EPCs, two different approaches to control cancer progression have been pursued by combining cell-based therapy with gene therapy or with nanomedicine. The first approach is based on the possibility of engineering EPCs to express different transgenes, and the second is based on the capacity of EPCs to take up nanomaterials. Here we review the most important progress covering the following issues: the characterization of bona fide endothelial progenitor cells, their role in tumor vascularization and metastasis, and preclinical data about their use in cell-based tumor therapy, considering antiangiogenic, suicide, immune-stimulating, and oncolytic virus gene therapy. The mixed approach of EPC cell therapy and nanomedicine is discussed in terms of plasmonic-dependent thermoablation and molecular imaging.

  6. NEUTRONIZATION DURING CARBON SIMMERING IN TYPE IA SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Piro, Anthony L. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Schwab, Josiah, E-mail: hector.mr@pitt.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    When a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitor first ignites carbon in its core, it undergoes ∼10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} years of convective burning prior to the onset of thermonuclear runaway. This carbon simmering phase is important for setting the thermal profile and composition of the white dwarf. Using the MESA stellar evolution code, we follow this convective burning and examine the production of neutron-rich isotopes. The neutron content of the SN fuel has important consequences for the ensuing nucleosynthesis, and in particular, for the production of secondary Fe-peak nuclei like Mn and stable Ni. These elements have been observed in the X-ray spectra of SN remnants like Tycho, Kepler, and 3C 397, and their yields can provide valuable insights into the physics of SNe Ia and the properties of their progenitors. We find that weak reactions during simmering can at most generate a neutron excess of ≈ 3 × 10{sup −4}. This is ≈ 70% lower than that found in previous studies that do not take the full density and temperature profile of the simmering region into account. Our results imply that the progenitor metallicity is the main contributor to the neutron excess in SN Ia fuel for Z ≳ 1/3 Z {sub ⊙}. Alternatively, at lower metallicities, this neutron excess provides a floor that should be present in any centrally-ignited SN Ia scenario.

  7. Epigenome profiling and editing of neocortical progenitor cells during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mareike; Kalebic, Nereo; Florio, Marta; Lakshmanaperumal, Naharajan; Haffner, Christiane; Brandl, Holger; Henry, Ian; Huttner, Wieland B

    2017-09-01

    The generation of neocortical neurons from neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is primarily controlled by transcription factors binding to DNA in the context of chromatin. To understand the complex layer of regulation that orchestrates different NPC types from the same DNA sequence, epigenome maps with cell type resolution are required. Here, we present genomewide histone methylation maps for distinct neural cell populations in the developing mouse neocortex. Using different chromatin features, we identify potential novel regulators of cortical NPCs. Moreover, we identify extensive H3K27me3 changes between NPC subtypes coinciding with major developmental and cell biological transitions. Interestingly, we detect dynamic H3K27me3 changes on promoters of several crucial transcription factors, including the basal progenitor regulator Eomes We use catalytically inactive Cas9 fused with the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 to edit H3K27me3 at the Eomes locus in vivo , which results in reduced Tbr2 expression and lower basal progenitor abundance, underscoring the relevance of dynamic H3K27me3 changes during neocortex development. Taken together, we provide a rich resource of neocortical histone methylation data and outline an approach to investigate its contribution to the regulation of selected genes during neocortical development. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Chlorpyrifos induces oxidative stress in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulsbury, Marilyn D.; Heyliger, Simone O.; Wang, Kaiyu; Johnson, Deadre J.

    2009-01-01

    There are increasing concerns regarding the relative safety of chlorpyrifos (CPF) to various facets of the environment. Although published works suggest that CPF is relatively safe in adult animals, recent evidence indicates that juveniles, both animals and humans, may be more sensitive to CPF toxicity than adults. In young animals, CPF is neurotoxic and mechanistically interferes with cellular replication and cellular differentiation, which culminates in the alteration of synaptic neurotransmission in neurons. However, the effects of CPF on glial cells are not fully elucidated. Here we report that chlorpyrifos is toxic to oligodendrocyte progenitors. In addition, CPF produced dose-dependent increases in 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H 2 DCF-DA) and dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence intensities relative to the vehicle control. Moreover, CPF toxicity is associated with nuclear condensation and elevation of caspase 3/7 activity and Heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression. Pan-caspase inhibitor QVDOPh and cholinergic receptor antagonists' atropine and mecamylamine failed to protect oligodendrocyte progenitors from CPF-induced injury. Finally, glutathione (GSH) depletion enhanced CPF-induced toxicity whereas nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor L-NAME partially protected progenitors and the non-specific antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) completely spared cells from injury. Collectively, this data suggests that CPF induced toxicity is independent of cholinergic stimulation and is most likely caused by the induction of oxidative stress.

  9. Dendritic Cell Lineage Potential in Human Early Hematopoietic Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Helft

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs are thought to descend from a DC precursor downstream of the common myeloid progenitor (CMP. However, a mouse lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor has been shown to generate cDCs following a DC-specific developmental pathway independent of monocyte and granulocyte poiesis. Similarly, here we show that, in humans, a large fraction of multipotent lymphoid early progenitors (MLPs gives rise to cDCs, in particular the subset known as cDC1, identified by co-expression of DNGR-1 (CLEC9A and CD141 (BDCA-3. Single-cell analysis indicates that over one-third of MLPs have the potential to efficiently generate cDCs. cDC1s generated from CMPs or MLPs do not exhibit differences in transcriptome or phenotype. These results demonstrate an early imprinting of the cDC lineage in human hematopoiesis and highlight the plasticity of developmental pathways giving rise to human DCs.

  10. Towards the therapeutic use of vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova-Rainon, Tatyana; Broquères-You, Dong; Kubis, Nathalie; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Lévy, Bernard I

    2012-07-15

    Recent advances in the development of alternative proangiogenic and revascularization processes, including recombinant protein delivery, gene therapy, and cell therapy, hold the promise of greater efficacy in the management of cardiovascular disease in the coming years. In particular, vascular progenitor cell-based strategies have emerged as an efficient treatment approach to promote vessel formation and repair and to improve tissue perfusion. During the past decade, considerable progress has been achieved in understanding therapeutic properties of endothelial progenitor cells, while the therapeutic potential of vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPC) has only recently been explored; the number of the circulating SMPC being correlated with cardiovascular health. Several endogenous SMPC populations with varying phenotypes have been identified and characterized in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and vascular wall. While the phenotypic entity of vascular SMPC is not fully defined and remains an evolving area of research, SMPC are increasingly recognized to play a special role in cardiovascular biology. In this review, we describe the current approaches used to define vascular SMPC. We further summarize the data on phenotype and functional properties of SMPC from various sources in adults. Finally, we discuss the role of SMPC in cardiovascular disease, including the contribution of SMPC to intimal proliferation, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque instability as well as the benefits resulting from the therapeutic use of SMPC.

  11. NEUTRONIZATION DURING CARBON SIMMERING IN TYPE IA SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles; Piro, Anthony L.; Schwab, Josiah

    2016-01-01

    When a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitor first ignites carbon in its core, it undergoes ∼10 3 –10 4 years of convective burning prior to the onset of thermonuclear runaway. This carbon simmering phase is important for setting the thermal profile and composition of the white dwarf. Using the MESA stellar evolution code, we follow this convective burning and examine the production of neutron-rich isotopes. The neutron content of the SN fuel has important consequences for the ensuing nucleosynthesis, and in particular, for the production of secondary Fe-peak nuclei like Mn and stable Ni. These elements have been observed in the X-ray spectra of SN remnants like Tycho, Kepler, and 3C 397, and their yields can provide valuable insights into the physics of SNe Ia and the properties of their progenitors. We find that weak reactions during simmering can at most generate a neutron excess of ≈ 3 × 10 −4 . This is ≈ 70% lower than that found in previous studies that do not take the full density and temperature profile of the simmering region into account. Our results imply that the progenitor metallicity is the main contributor to the neutron excess in SN Ia fuel for Z ≳ 1/3 Z ⊙ . Alternatively, at lower metallicities, this neutron excess provides a floor that should be present in any centrally-ignited SN Ia scenario.

  12. Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Oriana Aragona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify, evaluate, and synthesize evidence on the predictive power of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in cardiovascular disease, through a systematic review of quantitative studies. Data Sources. MEDLINE was searched using keywords related to “endothelial progenitor cells” and “endothelium” and, for the different categories, respectively, “smoking”; “blood pressure”; “diabetes mellitus” or “insulin resistance”; “dyslipidemia”; “aging” or “elderly”; “angina pectoris” or “myocardial infarction”; “stroke” or “cerebrovascular disease”; “homocysteine”; “C-reactive protein”; “vitamin D”. Study Selection. Database hits were evaluated against explicit inclusion criteria. From 927 database hits, 43 quantitative studies were included. Data Syntheses. EPC count has been suggested for cardiovascular risk estimation in the clinical practice, since it is currently accepted that EPCs can work as proangiogenic support cells, maintaining their importance as regenerative/reparative potential, and also as prognostic markers. Conclusions. EPCs showed an important role in identifying cardiovascular risk conditions, and to suggest their evaluation as predictor of outcomes appears to be reasonable in different defined clinical settings. Due to their capability of proliferation, circulation, and the development of functional progeny, great interest has been directed to therapeutic use of progenitor cells in atherosclerotic diseases. This trial is registered with registration number: Prospero CRD42015023717.

  13. Requirement of mouse BCCIP for neural development and progenitor proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yuan Huang

    Full Text Available Multiple DNA repair pathways are involved in the orderly development of neural systems at distinct stages. The homologous recombination (HR pathway is required to resolve stalled replication forks and critical for the proliferation of progenitor cells during neural development. BCCIP is a BRCA2 and CDKN1A interacting protein implicated in HR and inhibition of DNA replication stress. In this study, we determined the role of BCCIP in neural development using a conditional BCCIP knock-down mouse model. BCCIP deficiency impaired embryonic and postnatal neural development, causing severe ataxia, cerebral and cerebellar defects, and microcephaly. These development defects are associated with spontaneous DNA damage and subsequent cell death in the proliferative cell populations of the neural system during embryogenesis. With in vitro neural spheroid cultures, BCCIP deficiency impaired neural progenitor's self-renewal capability, and spontaneously activated p53. These data suggest that BCCIP and its anti-replication stress functions are essential for normal neural development by maintaining an orderly proliferation of neural progenitors.

  14. Acute renal failure after rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Weinberg

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A patient with miliary tuberculosis and a chronic urogenital focus is described, who had a borderline renal function at diagnosis and developed overt renal failure upon daily treatment with rifampin (RMP, isoniazid (INH and ethambutol (EMB. This is the first Brazilian report of BMP induced renal damage. A renal biopsy taken on the third day of oliguria showed recent tubular necrosis with acute interstitial inflammation and granuloma formation. The aspect of the granulomatous lesion hightly suggested drug etiology because of the lack of palisading, high incidence of neutrophils and absence of facid-fast bacilli. This is the first presentation of an acute granulomatous interstitial nephritis probably due to RMP. Furthermore the pathogenesis of the renal damage caused by tuberculosis and RMP are discussed.

  15. Fetal programming of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, Jörg; Plank, Christian; Amann, Kerstin

    2012-04-01

    Results from large epidemiological studies suggest a clear relation between low birth weight and adverse renal outcome evident as early as during childhood. Such adverse outcomes may include glomerular disease, hypertension, and renal failure and contribute to a phenomenon called fetal programming. Other factors potentially leading to an adverse renal outcome following fetal programming are maternal diabetes mellitus, smoking, salt overload, and use of glucocorticoids during pregnancy. However, clinical data on the latter are scarce. Here, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms of fetal programming, including reduced nephron number via diminished nephrogenesis and other renal (e.g., via the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) and non-renal (e.g., changes in endothelial function) alterations. It appears likely that the outcomes of fetal programming may be influenced or modified postnatally, for example, by the amount of nutrients given at critical times.

  16. Renal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Ranjan Lila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is associated with nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Hypercalciuria is one of the multiple factors that is implicated in the complex pathophysiology of stone formation. The presence of a renal stone (symptomatic or asymptomatic categorizes PHPT as symptomatic and is an indication for parathyroid adenomectomy. Progression of nephrocalcinosis is largely reversible after successful surgery, but the residual risk persists. PHPT is also associated with declining renal function. In case of asymptomatic mild PHPT, annual renal functional assessment is advised. Guidelines suggest that an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR < 60 ml / minute / 1.73 m 2 is an indication for parathyroid adenomectomy. This article discusses how to monitor and manage renal stones and other related renal parameters in case of PHPT.

  17. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S; Abad Diez, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article summarizes the 2012 European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org) with a specific focus on older patients (defined as ≥65 years). METHODS: Data provided by 45 national or regional renal...... disease (ESRD) receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) and renal transplantation rates for 2012 are presented. RESULTS: In 2012, the overall unadjusted incidence rate of patients with ESRD receiving RRT was 109.6 per million population (pmp) (n = 69 035), ranging from 219.9 pmp in Portugal to 24.2 pmp...... to 32% between countries. The overall renal transplantation rate in 2012 was 28.3 pmp (n = 15 673), with the highest rate seen in the Spanish region of Catalonia. The proportion of patients ≥65 years receiving a transplant ranged from 0 to 35%. Five-year adjusted survival for all RRT patients was 59...

  18. Magnification renal arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, D.; Davidson, J.K.; McMillan, M.; Davison, M.

    1979-01-01

    Magnification selective renal arteriograms were performed on 24 patients, 12 of whom were hypertensive, and compared with non-magnification arteriograms by two observers independently. The magnification angiograms were performed on a Siemens Microfocus Bi 125/3/50 RG tube with a 0.1 mm focal spot. Of the 24 patients examined, information crucial to the diagnosis was found only on the magnification films in three patients (12.5%). Extra information compared with the non-magnification films was found in the magnification films in 12 patients (50%). No additional information was discovered in the remaining nine patients (37.5%). The magnification angiograms enabled the interlobular vessels to be visualised - this was not possible on the non-magnification films. Against the additional information gained must be weighed the disadvantages of magnification arteriography which include increased radiation dose and lengthening of procedure time plus additional injections of contrast. In conclusion, there is a place for magnification renal arteriography and the advantages seem to outweigh the disadvantages. (author)

  19. Renal complications of anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, J; Tyson, E; Forni, L G

    2018-01-01

    Peri-operative acute kidney injury is common, accounting for 30-40% of all in-hospital cases of acute kidney injury. It is associated with clinically significant morbidity and mortality even with what was hitherto regarded as relatively trivial increases in serum creatinine, and carries over a 12-fold relative risk of death following major abdominal surgery. Comorbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, liver disease and particularly pre-existing chronic kidney disease, as well as the type and urgency of surgery, are major risk factors for the development of postoperative acute kidney injury. As yet, there are no specific treatment options for the injured kidney, although there are several modifiable risk factors of which the anaesthetist should be aware. As well as the avoidance of potential nephrotoxins and appropriate volume balance, optimal anaesthetic management should aim to reduce the risk of postoperative renal complications. This may include careful ventilatory management and blood pressure control, as well as appropriate analgesic strategies. The choice of anaesthetic agent may also influence renal outcomes. Rather than concentrate on the classical management of acute kidney injury, this review focuses on the potential development of acute kidney injury peri-operatively, and the means by which this may be ameliorated. © 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Angiography in renal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Angiographies on forty cases of renal tuberculosis performed at the National Medical Center during a period 1960 through 1970 were reviewed. Abdominal angiography was performed via the femoral route. Some were followed by selective nephroangiography. All patients were subjected to urographyior to angiography. The results of X-ray findings in the forty cases with renal tuberculosis were follows. 1. The age varied 18 to 57 years, average 30.5 years. Twenty one patients were male, and nineteen were female. 2. The right kidney was involved in 17 cases and the left in 15 cases. Both kidneys were involved in 8 cases. 3. Urographic examination revealed pathologic changes in all patients. 4. Focal destruction in the collecting system was the most common finding in the urography of 16 patients. 5. A varying degree of hydronephrosis was present in 15 patients, of whom nine had complained of palpable mass due to hydronephrosis. 6. In the 7 patients with extensive destruction there was no observable excretion contrast medium from the diseased kidney. 7. Angiographic examination was normal in 6 of the 40 patients. 8. Decreased vascularity in the subsegmental or smaller arteries of the affected kidney was the most frequent finding, being found in 34 patients. 9. Occlusion or abrupt termination of the subsegmental arteries was present in 4 patients. 10. Eighteen of the patients had signs of an expansive process within the cavity, the vessels being displaced and stretched around the lesions.

  1. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  2. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... of renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  3. Cólica renal

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, JC

    1999-01-01

    Os aspectos práticos de actuação na cólica renal são abordados nesta apresentação, que o médico de família, a quem os doentes primeiro recorrem, deve conhecer em pormenor.É referida a incidência da afecção num serviço de urgência dum grande hospital e descreve-se, ainda que sumariamente, a fisiopatologia da dor, o quadro clínico mais frequente e a conveniente actuação terapêutica para o imediato alívio da dor intensa que estes doentes apresentam. Nas conclusões sublinha-se que a cólica ...

  4. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Akkaya, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  5. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Since the 1990s, improving medical management with vitamin D analogs, phosphate binders, and calcimimetic drugs has expanded the treatment options for patients with rHPT, but some patients still require a parathyroidectomy to mitigate the sequelae of this challenging disease.

  6. Lung and renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Caetano Mota

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the most common type of solid organ transplantation and kidney transplant recipients are susceptible to pulmonary complications of immunosuppressive therapy, which are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Aim: To evaluate patients admitted to the Renal Transplant Unit (RTU of Hospital de S. João with respiratory disease. Subject and methods: We performed a retrospective study of all patients admitted to RTU with respiratory disease during a period of 12 months. Results: Thirty-six patients were included. Mean age 55.2 ( ± 13.4 years; 61.1% male. Immunosuppressive agents most frequently used were prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil associated with ciclosporin (38.9% or tacrolimus (22.2% or rapamycin (13.9%. Thirty-one patients (86.1% presented infectious respiratory disease. In this group the main diagnoses were 23 (74.2% pneumonias, 5 (16.1% opportunistic infections, 2 (6.5% tracheobronchitis, and 1 case (3.2% of lung abscesses. Microbiological agent was identified in 7 cases (22.6%. Five patients (13.9% presented rapamycin-induced lung disease. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 15 patients (41.7%, diagnostic in 10 cases (66.7%. Mean hospital stay was 17.1 ( ± 18.5 days and no related death was observed. Conclusion: Respiratory infections were the main complications in these patients. Drug-induced lung disease implies recognition of its features and a rigorous monitoring of drug serum levels. A more invasive diagnostic approach was determinant in the choice of an early and more specific therapy. Resumo: O transplante renal é o transplante de órgãos sólidos mais frequente, sendo os transplantados renais alvo de complicações pulmonares inerentes à própria terapêutica imunossupressora, as quais constituem, por vezes, um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico. Objectivo: Avaliar os doentes admitidos na Unidade de Transplante Renal (UTR do Hospital de S. João com o diagnóstico de patologia respirat

  7. Characterization of complex renal cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Osther, Palle Jörn Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Complex renal cysts represent a major clinical problem, since it is often difficult to exclude malignancy. The Bosniak classification system, based on computed tomography (CT), is widely used to categorize cystic renal lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate critically...... available data on the Bosniak classification. Material and methods. All publications from an Entrez Pubmed search were reviewed, focusing on clinical applicability and the use of imaging modalities other than CT to categorize complex renal cysts. Results. Fifteen retrospective studies were found. Most...

  8. Renal rickets-practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Rickets/osteomalacia is an important problem in a tropical country. Many cases are due to poor vitamin D intake or calcium deficient diets and can be corrected by administration of calcium and vitamin D. However, some cases are refractory to vitamin D therapy and are related to renal defects. These include rickets of renal tubular acidosis (RTA), hypophosphatemic rickets, and vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR). The latter is due to impaired action of 1α-hydroxylase in renal tubule. These varieties need proper diagnosis and specific treatment. PMID:24251212

  9. Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma presenting clinically as renal cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.S. Johnson

    a Detroit Medical Center, Michigan State University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA .... Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells stained strongly positive .... [10] Cao Q, Liu F, Xiao P, Tian X, Li B, Li Z. Coexistence of renal.

  10. Diagnosis of renal disease in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in renal anatomy and physiology between rabbits and other domestic species. Neurogenic renal ischemia occurs readily. Reversible prerenal azotemia may be seen in conjunction with gut stasis. Potentially fatal acute renal failure may be due to structural kidney damage or post-renal disease. Chronic renal failure is often associated with encephalitozoonosis. Affected rabbits cannot vomit and often eat well. Weight loss, lethargy, and cachexia are common clinical signs. Polydypsia/polyuria may be present. Derangements in calcium and phosphorus metabolism are features of renal disease. Radiography is always indicated. Urolithiasis, osteosclerosis, aortic and renal calcification are easily seen on radiographs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Conditional ablation of the prorenin receptor in nephron progenitor cells results in developmental programming of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Renfang; Kidd, Laura; Janssen, Adam; Yosypiv, Ihor V

    2018-04-01

    Nephron induction during kidney development is driven by reciprocal interactions between progenitor cells (NPCs) of the cap mesenchyme (CM) and the ureteric bud (UB). The prorenin receptor (PRR) is a receptor for renin and prorenin, and an accessory subunit of the vacuolar proton pump V-ATPase. Previously, we demonstrated that conditional ablation of the PRR in Six2 + NPCs in mice (Six2 PRR -/- ) causes early neonatal death. Here, we identified genes that are regulated by PRR in Six2 + NPCs FACS-isolated from Six2 PRR -/- and control kidneys on embryonic day E15.5 using whole-genome expression analysis. Seven genes with expression in CM cells previously shown to direct kidney development, including Notch1, β-catenin, Lef1, Lhx1, Jag1, and p53, were downregulated. The functional groups within the downregulated gene set included genes involved in embryonic and cellular development, renal regeneration, cellular assembly and organization, cell morphology, death and survival. Double-transgenic Six2 PRR -/- /BatGal + mice, a reporter strain for β-catenin transcriptional activity, showed decreased β-catenin activity in the UB in vivo. Reduced PRR gene dosage in heterozygous Six2 PRR +/- mice was associated with decreased glomerular number, segmental thickening of the glomerular basement membrane with focal podocyte foot process effacement, development of hypertension and increased soluble PRR (sPRR) levels in the urine at 2 months of age. Together, these data demonstrate that NPC PRR performs essential functions during nephrogenesis via control of hierarchy of genes that regulate critical cellular processes. Both reduced nephron endowment and augmented urine sPRR likely contribute to programming of hypertension in Six2 PRR +/- mice. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...... than its blood flow. This is probably due to decreased filtration fraction and filtered sodium with subsequent reduction in absolute tubular re-absorption of sodium ions....

  13. CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE AND RENAL TRANSPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    R. Suganya Gnanadeepam; S. Kayalvizhi Money

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The kidney and the skin are the two large networks of the body with abundant blood supply associated with various cutaneous manifestations. This study aims to detect the various cutaneous manifestations and its incidence in patients with chronic renal failure and renal transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was done for a period of 1 year from January 2016 to December 2016 at Nephrology OPD ward and Medicine wards, Government KAPV Medical College Hos...

  14. Changes in compartments of hemospoietic and stromal marrow progenitor cells after continuous low dose gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, E.; Starostin, V.

    The low dose continuous gamma-irradiation chosen corresponded with that affected the organisms onboard a spacecraft (Mitrikas, Tsetlin, 2000). F1 (CBAxC57Bl/6) male and female mice were used at 3 4 months of age. Experimental mice were- irradiated during 10 days to a total dose of 15 mGy (Co60 gamma-sources, mean dose rate of 1.5-2.0 mGy/day). Another group of intact mice served as control. Younger and advanced hemopoietic progenitors measured at day 11 (i.e. CFU -S-11) and day 7 (i.e. CFU-S-7), respectively, after transplantation of test donor cells were assayed by the method of Till and McCulloch (1961). Stromal changes were evaluated by estimation of in vitro fibroblastic colony-forming units (CFU -F ) content and by the ability of ectopically grafted (under renal capsule) stroma to regenerate the new bone marrow organ. CFU-S-11 number increased of 40% as compared with control and almost 2-fold higher than that of CFU-S-7. The CFU-F content increased almost of 3-fold. Size of ectopic marrow transplants was estimated at day 70 following grafting by counting myelokariocyte and CFU -S number that repopulated the newly formed bone marrow organ. It was found more than 2-fold increase of myelokariocytes in transplants produced by marrow stroma of irradiated donors. CFU -S contents in transplants increased strikingly in comparison to control level. CFU-S-7 and CFU-S-11 increased of 7.5- and of 3.7-fold, respectively, i.e. the rate of advanced CFU - S predominated. It should be noted a good correlation between number of stromal progenitor cells (CFU-F) and ectopic transplant sizes evaluated as myelokaryocyte counts when irradiated donors used. In the same time, if sizes of transplants was measured as CFU-S-7 and CFU - S-11 numbers, their increases were more pronounced. Therefore, continuous low dose gamma- irradiation augments significantly both hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cell number in bone marrow. Additionally, the ratio of distinct CFU -S subpopulations

  15. Relationship between renal cortex and parenchyma thickness and renal function: study with CT measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yufeng; Tang Guangjian; Jiang Xuexiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between renal morphology and renal function, and to assess the value of CT as a criterion to grade renal function. Methods: Enhancement CT were performed in 89 patients with no local renal disease whose split renal glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were measured by renal dynamic imaging with 99 Tc m -DTPA. The 178 kidneys were divided into normal renal function, mild and severe renal impairment groups according to renal function. Differences between three groups respect to the mean thickness of renal cortex and parenchyma were assessed by ANOVA. Using Pearson's correlation test, the correlation between the renal cortex, parenchyma thicknesses and renal GFR were examined. The value of CT in predicting renal function was assessed by using ROC analysis. Results: The renal cortex thicknesses of normal renal function, mild and severe renal impairment groups were (5.9±1.1), (4.6± 1.1), and (3.3±1.0) mm respectively, and the renal parenchyma thicknesses were (26.3±4.2), (21.3±4.6), (16.2±4.6) mm. There were significant differences of renal cortex, parenchyma thicknesses between 3 groups (cortex F=54.78, P<0.01; parenehyma F=43.90, P<0.01). The thicknesses of renal cortex (r=0.752, P<0.01), parenchyma (r=0.738, P<0.01) had positive linear correlation with renal function. ROC analysis of the renal cortex thicknesses measured by CT in predicting mild and severe renal impairment showed that the Az was 0.860 and 0.905 respectively, whereas that of parenchyma was 0.868 and 0.884. Conclusion: The thicknesses of renal cortex, parenchyma measured by CT can reflect renal function. CT was a supplementary method to assess renal function. (authors)

  16. The Effects of Renal Denervation on Renal Hemodynamics and Renal Vasculature in a Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien L Verloop

    Full Text Available Recently, the efficacy of renal denervation (RDN has been debated. It is discussed whether RDN is able to adequately target the renal nerves.We aimed to investigate how effective RDN was by means of functional hemodynamic measurements and nerve damage on histology.We performed hemodynamic measurements in both renal arteries of healthy pigs using a Doppler flow and pressure wire. Subsequently unilateral denervation was performed, followed by repeated bilateral hemodynamic measurements. Pigs were terminated directly after RDN or were followed for 3 weeks or 3 months after the procedure. After termination, both treated and control arteries were prepared for histology to evaluate vascular damage and nerve damage. Directly after RDN, resting renal blood flow tended to increase by 29±67% (P = 0.01. In contrast, renal resistance reserve increased from 1.74 (1.28 to 1.88 (1.17 (P = 0.02 during follow-up. Vascular histopathology showed that most nerves around the treated arteries were located outside the lesion areas (8±7 out of 55±25 (14% nerves per pig were observed within a lesion area. Subsequently, a correlation was noted between a more impaired adventitia and a reduction in renal resistance reserve (β: -0.33; P = 0.05 at three weeks of follow-up.Only a small minority of renal nerves was targeted after RDN. Furthermore, more severe adventitial damage was related to a reduction in renal resistance in the treated arteries at follow-up. These hemodynamic and histological observations may indicate that RDN did not sufficiently target the renal nerves. Potentially, this may explain the significant spread in the response after RDN.

  17. The Effects of Renal Denervation on Renal Hemodynamics and Renal Vasculature in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Willemien L.; Hubens, Lisette E. G.; Spiering, Wilko; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Bleys, Ronald L. A. W.; Voskuil, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Recently, the efficacy of renal denervation (RDN) has been debated. It is discussed whether RDN is able to adequately target the renal nerves. Objective We aimed to investigate how effective RDN was by means of functional hemodynamic measurements and nerve damage on histology. Methods and Results We performed hemodynamic measurements in both renal arteries of healthy pigs using a Doppler flow and pressure wire. Subsequently unilateral denervation was performed, followed by repeated bilateral hemodynamic measurements. Pigs were terminated directly after RDN or were followed for 3 weeks or 3 months after the procedure. After termination, both treated and control arteries were prepared for histology to evaluate vascular damage and nerve damage. Directly after RDN, resting renal blood flow tended to increase by 29±67% (P = 0.01). In contrast, renal resistance reserve increased from 1.74 (1.28) to 1.88 (1.17) (P = 0.02) during follow-up. Vascular histopathology showed that most nerves around the treated arteries were located outside the lesion areas (8±7 out of 55±25 (14%) nerves per pig were observed within a lesion area). Subsequently, a correlation was noted between a more impaired adventitia and a reduction in renal resistance reserve (β: -0.33; P = 0.05) at three weeks of follow-up. Conclusion Only a small minority of renal nerves was targeted after RDN. Furthermore, more severe adventitial damage was related to a reduction in renal resistance in the treated arteries at follow-up. These hemodynamic and histological observations may indicate that RDN did not sufficiently target the renal nerves. Potentially, this may explain the significant spread in the response after RDN. PMID:26587981

  18. Observational properties of SNe Ia progenitors close to the explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornambé, A.; Piersanti, L.; Raimondo, G.; Delgrande, R.

    2018-04-01

    We determine the expected signal in various observational bands of supernovae Ia progenitors just before the explosion by assuming the rotating double-degenerate scenario. Our results are valid also for all the evolutionary scenarios invoking rotation as the driving mechanism of the accretion process as well as the evolution up to the explosion. We find that the observational properties depend mainly on the mass of the exploding object, even if the angular momentum evolution after the end of the mass accretion phase and before the onset of C-burning plays a non-negligible role. Just before the explosion, the magnitude MV ranges between 9 and 11 mag, while the colour (F225W - F555W) is about -1.64 mag. The photometric properties remain constant for a few decades before the explosion. During the last few months, the luminosity decreases very rapidly. The corresponding decline in the optical bands varies from a few hundredths up to one magnitude, the exact value depending on both the white dwarf total mass and the braking efficiency at the end of the mass transfer. This feature is related to the exponentially increasing energy production, which drives the formation of a convective core rapidly extending over a large part of the exploding object. Also, a drop in the angular velocity occurs. We find that observations in the soft X band (0.5-2 keV) may be used to check if the evolution of the SNe Ia progenitors up to the explosion is driven by rotation and, hence, to discriminate among different progenitor scenarios.

  19. Transcatheter embolisation of renal angiomyolipoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, S

    2010-06-01

    Angiomyolipomas (AML) are rare benign renal tumours which are associated with aneurysms that can cause haemorrhage. Embolisation of AML greater than 4 cm with a variety of embolic agents is now the first-line treatment in these cases.

  20. Renal cell carcinoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanier, J.F.C.; Ramos, C.O.P.; Pereira, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present five cases of renal cell carcinoma in children, describing its aspects on excretory urography, ultra-sonography and computerized tomography. The clinical, pathological and radiological features are compared with those of the literature. (author)

  1. Antibiotic managment in renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, R E

    1976-06-01

    This is a brief compilation of the work of many investigators. It includes facts about toxicity and recommendations about antibiotic management in patients with renal failure. As new data are accrued, changes in these recommendations will be necessary.

  2. Bone scintigraphy in renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Graaf, P.; Schicht, I.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; te Velde, J.; de Graeff, J.

    1978-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m HEDP was performed in 30 patients on maintenance hemodialysis, and the results of quantitative analysis were compared wth those of a normal group. To permit this comparison, elevated background activity due to the absence of renal radiotracer excretion was reduced by hemodialysis to levels found in the normals. Histologic proof of renal osteodystrophy had been obtained in all patients. the incidence of radiographic abnormalities was 46%, whereas abnormal scans were found in 25 patients (83%); skeletal lesions were also more pronounced and detected earlier. However, even when the scans appeared normal, the quantitative analysis showed increased skeletal activity in all patients. The total skeletal activity proved to be a good index of the severity of renal osteodystrophy and appeared dependent on both osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. These findings show that bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method to detect skeletal involvement in renal osteodystrophy

  3. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) of renal allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Krishan L.; Joshi, Kusum; Kohli, Harbir S.; Jha, Vivekanand; Sakhuja, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infection is relatively common among renal transplant recipients from developing countries. Mucormycosis, also known as zygomycosis, is one of the most serious fungal infections in these patients. The most common of presentation is rhino-cerebral. Isolated involvement of a renal allograft is very rare. A thorough search of literature and our medical records yielded a total of 24 cases with mucormycosis of the transplanted kidney. There was an association with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and anti-rejection treatment in these patients and most of these transplants were performed in the developing countries from unrelated donors. The outcome was very poor with an early mortality in 13 (54.5%) patients. Renal allograft mucormycosis is a relatively rare and potentially fatal complication following renal transplantation. Early diagnosis, graft nephrectomy and appropriate antifungal therapy may result in an improved prognosis for these patients. PMID:26069793

  5. Fibromuscular dysplasia of renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Ahmed, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    This case reports a young child having uncontrolled hypertension, resulting from bilateral renal artery stenosis due to fibromuscular dysplasia presenting with abdominal pain, headache and visual disturbance. Diagnostic features and management is discussed. (author)

  6. Cancer - renal pelvis or ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer Images Kidney anatomy References National Cancer Institute website. Transitional cell cancer (kidney/ureter) treatment (PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer. ...

  7. Radiological evaluation of renal transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorph, S [Herlev University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Briefly discussed the nephrologic complications, episodes of rejection, acute tubular necrosis, cyclosporine, urologic complications, perirenal fluid collections, small asymptomatic hematomas, urinomas, abscesses, lymphocele, ureteral obstruction, cascular complications, imaging of the renal allograft, radionuclide imaging, ultrasonography, conventional radiography, cystograhy (8 refs.).

  8. Radiological evaluation of renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorph, S.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed the nephrologic complications, episodes of rejection, acute tubular necrosis, cyclosporine, urologic complications, perirenal fluid collections, small asymptomatic hematomas, urinomas, abscesses, lymphocele, ureteral obstruction, cascular complications, imaging of the renal allograft, radionuclide imaging, ultrasonography, conventional radiography, cystograhy (8 refs.)

  9. Inflammation in renal atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Suneel M; Dieter, Robert S

    2008-07-01

    The study of renal atherosclerotic disease has conventionally focused on the diagnosis and management of renal artery stenosis. With the increased understanding of atherosclerosis as a systemic inflammatory process, there has been increased interest in vascular biology at the microvasculature level. While different organ beds share some features, the inflammation and injury in the microvasculature of the kidney has unique elements as well. Understanding of the pathogenesis yields a better understanding of the clinical manifestations of renal atherosclerotic disease, which can be very subtle. Furthermore, identifying the molecular mechanisms responsible for the progression of kidney damage can also direct clinicians and scientists toward targeted therapies. Existing therapies used to treat atherosclerotic disease in other vascular beds may also play a role in the treatment of renal atherosclerotic disease.

  10. Enrichment of rat oligodendrocyte progenitor cells by magnetic cell sorting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, D.; Čížek, M.; Nagyová, M.; Slovinská, L.; Novotná, I.; Jergová, S.; Radoňák, J.; Hlučilová, Jana; Vanický, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 184, č. 1 (2009), s. 88-94 ISSN 0165-0270 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB0808108 Grant - others:Agentúra na podporu výskumu a vývoja(SK) APVV-51002105; Agentúra na podporu výskumu a vývoja(SK) APVV SK-CZ-0045-07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Oligodendrocytes progenitors Lineage * Magnetic separation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.295, year: 2009

  11. Renal Ammonia Metabolism and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I. David; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism and transport mediates a central role in acid-base homeostasis. In contrast to most renal solutes, the majority of renal ammonia excretion derives from intrarenal production, not from glomerular filtration. Renal ammoniagenesis predominantly results from glutamine metabolism, which produces 2 NH4+ and 2 HCO3− for each glutamine metabolized. The proximal tubule is the primary site for ammoniagenesis, but there is evidence for ammoniagenesis by most renal epithelial cells. Ammonia produced in the kidney is either excreted into the urine or returned to the systemic circulation through the renal veins. Ammonia excreted in the urine promotes acid excretion; ammonia returned to the systemic circulation is metabolized in the liver in a HCO3−-consuming process, resulting in no net benefit to acid-base homeostasis. Highly regulated ammonia transport by renal epithelial cells determines the proportion of ammonia excreted in the urine versus returned to the systemic circulation. The traditional paradigm of ammonia transport involving passive NH3 diffusion, protonation in the lumen and NH4+ trapping due to an inability to cross plasma membranes is being replaced by the recognition of limited plasma membrane NH3 permeability in combination with the presence of specific NH3-transporting and NH4+-transporting proteins in specific renal epithelial cells. Ammonia production and transport are regulated by a variety of factors, including extracellular pH and K+, and by several hormones, such as mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and angiotensin II. This coordinated process of regulated ammonia production and transport is critical for the effective maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. PMID:23720285

  12. Novel genes in renal aging

    OpenAIRE

    Noordmans, Gerda Anke

    2015-01-01

    Renal aging is characterized by structural changes and functional decline. These changes make the elderly more vulnerable to chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, they also make it more difficult to cope with stress factors, such as dehydration, toxicity, and obstruction. These stress factors can lead to acute kidney injury and reduced recovery from acute kidney injury and may result in chronic kidney disease or even end-stage renal disease. The rate o...

  13. Parasites and chronic renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi Manesh, Reza; Hosseini Safa, Ahmad; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Jafari, Rasool; Bahadoran, Mehran; Yousefi, Morteza; Nasri, Hamid; Yousofi Darani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Suppression of the human immune system results in an increase in susceptibility to infection by various infectious agents. Conditions such as AIDS, organ transplantation and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) are the most important cause of insufficient immune response against infections. Long term renal disorders result in uremia, which can suppress human immune system. Parasitic infections are one of the most important factors indicating the public health problems of the societies. These inf...

  14. MR Imaging of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremo, L.; Avataneo, T.; Potenzoni, F.; Colla, L.; Segoloni, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report their experience in the study of renal transplant recipients by MR, in order to determine its clinical potentials. The main purpose of this work is to focus on MR patterns in relation to clinical findings of rejector or normally fuctioning kidney. Twenty-four patients were examined with a 0.5 T superconductive magnete, body coil, spin-echo pulse sequence (SE) and inversion-recovery (IR). MRI patterns could be seen in normally functioning kidneys and transplant rejections, while variable MRI findings were observed in transplants with acute tubular necrosis (ATN). In the normally functioning transplanted kidney there is a clear corticomedullary differentiation (CMD), and the extent of vascular penetration into the renal parenchyma is clearly seen. In transplant rejection, CMD is either diminished or absent, and there is no vascular penetration into the parenchyma; to differentiate acute from chronic rejections, the increase/decrease in renal size and the change in renal shape (spherical shape in acute transplant rejection) respectively must be observed. MRI proves thus to be useful in the study of renal transplants, even in case of questionable clinical findings, and in patients in whom renal biopsy is contraindicated

  15. Renal transplant scintigraphy (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, Ghee

    2005-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the most effective mode of renal replacement therapy for correction of renal failure. Renal donors can either be: a. a deceased person - the kidneys being removed when brain death or absence of cerebral cortical function / perfusion is confirmed - the cadaveric kidney is packed in ice and nutrient solution and transplanted within 24 hours of removal ('cold ischemia') ob. a living donor - the donor may or may not be related to the recipient. Due to the limited length of the renal vessels and ureter of the donor kidney, it is implanted close to the bladder of the recipient. The donor vessels are anastomosed to the iliac artery and vein of the recipient. Transplant variants: a. 2 kidneys maybe transplanted because: - an old donor with less kidney reserve from atrophy due to age or disease (e.g. hypertension) - an infant donor when both kidneys are removed en bloc, b. Donor kidneys with more than 1 artery, vein or ureter. c. Donor horse shoe kidney d. Combined renal and pancreas transplant for type I diabetics -a short segment of duodenum transplanted with the pancreas maybe implanted into the bladder. Copyright (2005) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine

  16. Technical aspects of renal denervation in end-stage renal disease patients with challenging anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Alessio; Da Ros, Valerio; Morosetti, Daniele; Onofrio, Silvia D; Rovella, Valentina; Di Daniele, Nicola; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We describe our preliminary experience with percutaneous renal denervation in end-stage renal disease patients with resistant hypertension and challenging anatomy, in terms of the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of this procedure. Four patients with end-stage renal disease patients with resistant hypertension (mean hemodialysis time, 2.3 years) who had been taking at least four antihypertensive medications underwent percutaneous renal denervation. Renal artery eligibility included the absence of prior renal artery interventions, vessel stenosis renal denervation is a feasible approach for end-stage renal disease patients with resistant hypertension with encouraging short-term preliminary results in terms of procedural efficacy and safety.

  17. Continuous renal replacement therapy improves renal recovery from acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Michael J; Ivancinova, Xenia; Gibney, R T Noel

    2005-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs in up to 10% of critically ill patients, with significant associated morbidity and mortality. The optimal mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT) remains controversial. This retrospective study compared continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) for RRT in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality, and renal recovery. We reviewed the records of all patients undergoing RRT for the treatment of ARF over a 12-month period. Patients were compared according to mode of RRT, demographics, physiologic characteristics, and outcomes of ICU and hospital mortality and renal recovery using the Chi square, Student's t test, and multiple logistic regression as appropriate. 116 patients with renal insufficiency underwent RRT during the study period. Of these, 93 had ARF. The severity of illness of CRRT patients was similar to that of IHD patients using APACHE II (25.1 vs 23.5, P = 0.37), but they required significantly more intensive nursing (therapeutic intervention scale 47.8 vs 37.6, P = 0.0001). Mortality was associated with lower pH at presentation (P = 0.003) and increasing age (P = 0.03). Renal recovery was significantly more frequent among patients initially treated with CRRT (21/24 vs 5/14, P = 0.0003). Further investigation to define optimal timing, dose, and duration of RRT may be beneficial. Although further study is needed, this study suggests that renal recovery may be better after CRRT than IHD for ARF. Mortality was not affected significantly by RRT mode.

  18. Renal manifestations in children with Alagille syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pinto, Diana; Adragna, Marta

    2018-04-01

    Alagille syndrome (AS) is a cholestatic disease secondary to scarcity of interlobular bile ducts. It is associated with extrahepatic manifestations, and renal involvement is frequent. To describe the prevalence, type and outcome of renal pathology in children with AS. The presence and outcome of renal pathology was retrospectively studied in 21 children who met AS criteria. Renal pathology was observed in 18 patients (85.7%): (1) ultrasound variations in 7 patients (6 cases of bilateral renal dysplasia and 1 case of renal agenesis); (2) distal renal tubular acidosis in 2 patients; (3) a drop in glomerular filtration and/or proteinuria in 16 patients. The frequency of a drop in glomerular filtration was similar between patients with and without pathological kidney ultrasound findings. Our study confirms a high prevalence of renal involvement, which enhances the importance of diagnosis and renal function follow-up in children with AS. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  19. Renal failure in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almueilo, Samir H

    2015-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is encountered in 20-25% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) at the time of diagnosis. There is often a precipitating event. Several biochemical and clinical correlations with renal failure in MM have been reported. Renal failure in MM is associated with worse outcome of the disease. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 64 patients with MM admitted to our institution during the period January 1992 to December 2012. Abnormal renal function was observed in 24 (37.5%) patients and 17 (26.6%) of them had renal failure; 14 of the 17 (82.4%) of patients with renal failure had Stage III MM. Urine Bence- Jones protein was positive in ten (58.8%) patients with renal failure versus ten (21.3%) patients without renal failure (P = 0.004). Potential precipitating factors of renal failure were determined in nine patients. Renal function normalized in 11 patients with simple measures, while six patients required hemodialysis; one remained dialysis dependent till time of death. Early mortality occurred in five (29.4%) patients with renal failure as compared with two (4.3%) patients in the group without renal failure (P = 0.005). In conclusion, renal failure is associated with a higher tumor burden and Bence-Jones proteinuria in patients with MM. It is reversible in the majority of patients; however, early mortality tends to be higher in patients with persistent renal failure.

  20. Renal vasculitis presenting with acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorta, Javier; Diaz-Crespo, Francisco; Acevedo, Mercedes; Cavero, Teresa; Guerrero, Carmen; Praga, Manuel; Fernandez-Juarez, Gema

    2017-06-01

    Renal failure secondary to ANCA-associated vasculitis represents a clinical and therapeutic challenge. In this study, we aimed to assess the treatment response rates and long-term outcomes of vasculitis patients presenting with renal failure. This retrospective study included 151 patients with renal vasculitis from three hospitals who underwent a renal biopsy between 1997 and 2014. Patients with renal failure which required dialysis at the onset were compared to those presenting with more preserved renal function. The primary end point was treatment response and patient surivival. Patients with severe renal involvement had a lower response to treatment compared to those having preserved renal function (26.6 versus 93.4%; p renal recovery (41.6 versus 12.5%; p = 0.05). A higher incidence of severe infections was observed among patients with severe renal involvement (38.4 versus 18.1%, p = 0.01). The mortality rate was significantly higher among vasculitis patients presenting with renal failure (53.8 versus 22.2%, p = 0.001). Global survival at 1 and 5 years was 60 and 47% in patients requiring dialysis compared with 90 and 80% among those with more preserved renal function (p renal dysfunction represents an independent risk factor for patient survival in renal vasculitis. Patients requiring dialysis associate a lower response rate to immunosuppressive therapy and a higher incidence of severe infections.

  1. Inter-progenitor pool wiring: An evolutionarily conserved strategy that expands neural circuit diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takumi; Sato, Makoto

    2017-11-15

    Diversification of neuronal types is key to establishing functional variations in neural circuits. The first critical step to generate neuronal diversity is to organize the compartmental domains of developing brains into spatially distinct neural progenitor pools. Neural progenitors in each pool then generate a unique set of diverse neurons through specific spatiotemporal specification processes. In this review article, we focus on an additional mechanism, 'inter-progenitor pool wiring', that further expands the diversity of neural circuits. After diverse types of neurons are generated in one progenitor pool, a fraction of these neurons start migrating toward a remote brain region containing neurons that originate from another progenitor pool. Finally, neurons of different origins are intermingled and eventually form complex but precise neural circuits. The developing cerebral cortex of mammalian brains is one of the best examples of inter-progenitor pool wiring. However, Drosophila visual system development has revealed similar mechanisms in invertebrate brains, suggesting that inter-progenitor pool wiring is an evolutionarily conserved strategy that expands neural circuit diversity. Here, we will discuss how inter-progenitor pool wiring is accomplished in mammalian and fly brain systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Progress of stem/progenitor cell-based therapy for retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhimin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yuyao; Zhang, Dandan; Shen, Bingqiao; Luo, Min; Gu, Ping

    2017-05-10

    Retinal degeneration (RD), such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa, is one of the leading causes of blindness. Presently, no satisfactory therapeutic options are available for these diseases principally because the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) do not regenerate, although wet AMD can be prevented from further progression by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Nevertheless, stem/progenitor cell approaches exhibit enormous potential for RD treatment using strategies mainly aimed at the rescue and replacement of photoreceptors and RPE. The sources of stem/progenitor cells are classified into two broad categories in this review, which are (1) ocular-derived progenitor cells, such as retinal progenitor cells, and (2) non-ocular-derived stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and mesenchymal stromal cells. Here, we discuss in detail the progress in the study of four predominant stem/progenitor cell types used in animal models of RD. A short overview of clinical trials involving the stem/progenitor cells is also presented. Currently, stem/progenitor cell therapies for RD still have some drawbacks such as inhibited proliferation and/or differentiation in vitro (with the exception of the RPE) and limited long-term survival and function of grafts in vivo. Despite these challenges, stem/progenitor cells represent the most promising strategy for RD treatment in the near future.

  3. Proof of region-specific multipotent progenitors in human breast epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J; Villadsen, René; Morsing, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    in luminal progenitors to interrogate the differentiation repertoire of candidate stem cells in TDLUs. We show that stem-like activity in serial passage culture and in vivo breast morphogenesis relies on the preservation of a myoepithelial phenotype. By enrichment for region-specific progenitors, we identify...

  4. Effects of hematopoietic growth factors on purified bone marrow progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Bot (Freek)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe have used highly enriched hematopoietic progenitor cells and in-vitro culture to examine the following questions: 1. The effects of recombinant lL-3 and GM-CSF on proliferation and differentiation of enriched hematopoietic progenitor cells have not been clearly defined: - how do IL~3

  5. Delta-like 1 participates in the specification of ventral midbrain progenitor derived dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Matthias; Szulc, Jolanta; Meyer, Morten

    2008-01-01

    function of Dlk1 in VM neuron development, we investigated the effect of soluble Dlk1 protein as well as the intrinsic Dlk1 function in the course of VM progenitor expansion and dopaminergic (DA) neuron differentiation in vitro. Dlk1 treatment during expansion increased DA progenitor proliferation...

  6. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression.

  7. Direct observation of hematopoietic progenitor chimerism in fetal freemartin cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taponen Juhani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle twins are well known as blood chimeras. However, chimerism in the actual hematopoietic progenitor compartment has not been directly investigated. Here, we analyzed fetal liver of chimeric freemartin cattle by combining a new anti-bovine CD34 antibody and Y-chromosome specific in situ hybridization. Results Bull-derived CD34+ cells were detected in the liver of the female sibling (freemartin at 60 days gestation. The level of bull-derived CD34+ cells was lower in the freemartin than in its male siblings. Bull (Y+ and cow hematopoietic cells often occurred in separate clusters. Around clusters of Y+CD34+ cells, Y+CD34- cells were typically observed. The thymi were also strongly chimeric at 60 days of gestation. Conclusion The fetal freemartin liver contains clusters of bull-derived hematopoietic progenitors, suggesting clonal expansion and differentiation. Even the roots of the hematopoietic system in cattle twins are thus strongly chimeric from the early stages of fetal development. However, the hematopoietic seeding of fetal liver apparently started already before the onset of functional vascular anastomosis.

  8. Selection of progenitors for increase in oil content in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low genetic diversity brings limitation to breeding, because genetically similar genotypes share alleles in common, causing little complementarity and low vigor due to the low levels of heterozygosity in crosses. The objective of this work was to analyze the oil content and genetic diversity of soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill based on QTL regions of this trait for choice of progenitors for increase in oil content. Twenty-two genotypes with wide variation in oil content, including cultivars with high oil contents, were cultivated in different Brazilian conditions and the oil content of the grains was quantified by infrared spectrometry. Microsatellite markers selected based on QTL regions for oil content in soybean were analyzed to estimate the genetic diversity. In these studies, a wide variation in oil content (17.28-23.01% and a reasonable diversity among the genotypes were observed, being PI181544 the most divergent genotype, followed by Suprema. The genotypes PI371610/Suprema and Suprema/CD01RR8384 showed genetic distance and higher oil contents in the grains, while the cultivars Suprema and CD01RR8384 had the highest oil contents and proved to be little genetically related. These genotypes are promising progenitors for selection of high oil content in soybean.

  9. Metallicity gradient of the thick disc progenitor at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Brook, Chris B.; Casagrande, Luca; Ciucă, Ioana; Gibson, Brad K.; Grand, Robert J. J.; Hayden, Michael R.; Hunt, Jason A. S.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo chemical 'painting' technique to explore possible radial and vertical metallicity gradients for the thick disc progenitor. In our analysis, we match an N-body simulation to the data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey. We assume that the thick disc has a constant scaleheight and has completed its formation at an early epoch, after which time radial mixing of its stars has taken place. Under these assumptions, we find that the initial radial metallicity gradient of the thick disc progenitor should not be negative, but either flat or even positive, to explain the current negative vertical metallicity gradient of the thick disc. Our study suggests that the thick disc was built-up in an inside-out and upside-down fashion, and older, smaller and thicker populations are more metal poor. In this case, star-forming discs at different epochs of the thick disc formation are allowed to have different radial metallicity gradients, including a negative one, which helps to explain a variety of slopes observed in high-redshift disc galaxies. This scenario helps to explain the positive slope of the metallicity-rotation velocity relation observed for the Galactic thick disc. On the other hand, radial mixing flattens the slope of an existing gradient.

  10. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Ryohichi; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Han, Areum; Soria-Valles, Clara; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Lu, Yi-Fen; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Serrao, Erik; Rowe, R. Grant; Malleshaiah, Mohan; Wong, Irene; Sousa, Patricia; Zhu, Ted N.; Ditadi, Andrea; Keller, Gordon; Engelman, Alan N.; Snapper, Scott B.; Doulatov, Sergei; Daley, George Q.

    2018-01-01

    A variety of tissue lineages can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking embryonic development through stepwise exposure to morphogens, or by conversion of one differentiated cell type into another by enforced expression of master transcription factors. Here, to yield functional human haematopoietic stem cells, we perform morphogen-directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into haemogenic endothelium followed by screening of 26 candidate haematopoietic stem-cell-specifying transcription factors for their capacity to promote multi-lineage haematopoietic engraftment in mouse hosts. We recover seven transcription factors (ERG, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10, LCOR, RUNX1 and SPI1) that are sufficient to convert haemogenic endothelium into haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that engraft myeloid, B and T cells in primary and secondary mouse recipients. Our combined approach of morphogen-driven differentiation and transcription-factor-mediated cell fate conversion produces haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells and holds promise for modelling haematopoietic disease in humanized mice and for therapeutic strategies in genetic blood disorders. PMID:28514439

  11. Cancer Progenitor Cells: The Result of an Epigenetic Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinska, Karolina; Faria, Gabriela; McGonagle, Sandra; Macumber, Kate Morgan; Heerboth, Sarah; Sarkar, Sibaji

    2018-01-01

    The concept of cancer stem cells was proposed in the late 1990s. Although initially the idea seemed controversial, the existence of cancer stem cells is now well established. However, the process leading to the formation of cancer stem cells is still not clear and thus requires further research. This article discusses epigenetic events that possibly produce cancer progenitor cells from predisposed cells by the influence of their environment. Every somatic cell possesses an epigenetic signature in terms of histone modifications and DNA methylation, which are obtained during lineage-specific differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, which is specific to that particular tissue. We call this signature an epigenetic switch. The epigenetic switch is not fixed. Our epigenome alters with aging. However, depending on the predisposition of the cells of a particular tissue and their microenvironment, the balance of the switch (histone modifications and the DNA methylation) may be tilted to immortality in a few cells, which generates cancer progenitor cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Using Strong Gravitational Lensing to Identify Fossil Group Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lucas E.; Irwin, Jimmy A.; White, Raymond E., III; Wong, Ka-Wah; Maksym, W. Peter; Dupke, Renato A.; Miller, Eric D.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2018-04-01

    Fossil galaxy systems are classically thought to be the end result of galaxy group/cluster evolution, as galaxies experiencing dynamical friction sink to the center of the group potential and merge into a single, giant elliptical that dominates the rest of the members in both mass and luminosity. Most fossil systems discovered lie within z fossil criteria within the look forward time. Since strong gravitational lensing preferentially selects groups merging along the line of sight, or systems with a high mass concentration like fossil systems, we searched the CASSOWARY survey of strong-lensing events with the goal of determining whether lensing systems have any predisposition to being fossil systems or progenitors. We find that ∼13% of lensing groups are identified as traditional fossils while only ∼3% of nonlensing control groups are. We also find that ∼23% of lensing systems are traditional fossil progenitors compared to ∼17% for the control sample. Our findings show that strong-lensing systems are more likely to be fossil/pre-fossil systems than comparable nonlensing systems. Cumulative galaxy luminosity functions of the lensing and nonlensing groups also indicate a possible, fundamental difference between strong-lensing and nonlensing systems’ galaxy populations, with lensing systems housing a greater number of bright galaxies even in the outskirts of groups.

  13. Human neonatal cardiovascular progenitors: unlocking the secret to regenerative ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I Fuentes

    Full Text Available Although clinical benefit can be achieved after cardiac transplantation of adult c-kit+ or cardiosphere-derived cells for myocardial repair, these stem cells lack the regenerative capacity unique to neonatal cardiovascular stem cells. Unraveling the molecular basis for this age-related discrepancy in function could potentially transform cardiovascular stem cell transplantation. In this report, clonal populations of human neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitor cells were isolated and characterized, revealing the existence of a novel subpopulation of endogenous cardiovascular stem cells that persist throughout life and co-express both c-kit and isl1. Epigenetic profiling identified 41 microRNAs whose expression was significantly altered with age in phenotypically-matched clones. These differences were correlated with reduced proliferation and a limited capacity to invade in response to growth factor stimulation, despite high levels of growth factor receptor on progenitors isolated from adults. Further understanding of these differences may provide novel therapeutic targets to enhance cardiovascular regenerative capacity.

  14. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Fre, Silvia

    2013-10-14

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive "triple negative" human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2(SAT) transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells.

  15. Pancreatic β-cell regeneration: Facultative or dedicated progenitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afelik, Solomon; Rovira, Meritxell

    2017-04-15

    The adult pancreas is only capable of limited regeneration. Unlike highly regenerative tissues such as the skin, intestinal crypts and hematopoietic system, no dedicated adult stem cells or stem cell niche have so far been identified within the adult pancreas. New β cells have been shown to form in the adult pancreas, in response to high physiological demand or experimental β-cell ablation, mostly by replication of existing β cells. The possibility that new β cells are formed from other sources is currently a point of major controversy. Under particular injury conditions, fully differentiated pancreatic duct and acinar cells have been shown to dedifferentiate into a progenitor-like state, however the extent, to which ductal, acinar or other endocrine cells contribute to restoring pancreatic β-cell mass remains to be resolved. In this review we focus on regenerative events in the pancreas with emphasis on the restoration of β-cell mass. We present an overview of regenerative responses noted within the different pancreatic lineages, following injury. We also highlight the intrinsic plasticity of the adult pancreas that allows for inter-conversion of fully differentiated pancreatic lineages through manipulation of few genes or growth factors. Taken together, evidence from a number of studies suggest that differentiated pancreatic lineages could act as facultative progenitor cells, but the extent to which these contribute to β-cell regeneration in vivo is still a matter of contention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of adenosine infusion into renal interstitium on renal hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowska, D.; Granger, J.P.; Knox, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of exogenous adenosine in the interstitium of the rat kidney. Adenosine or its analogues were infused into the renal interstitium by means of chronically implanted capsules. In fusion of adenosine decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 0.81 +/- 0.06 to 0.37 +/- 0.06 ml/min while having no effect on renal blood flow (RBF). The metabolically stable analogue, 2-chloradenosine (2-ClAdo), decreased GFR from 0.73 +/- 0.07 to 021 +/- 0.06 ml/min. Interstitial infusion of theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely abolished the effects of adenosine and 2-ClAdo on GFR. The distribution of adenosine, when infused into the renal interstitium, was determined using radiolabeled 5'-(N-ethyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a metabolically stable adenosine agonist. After continuous infusion, [ 3 H]NECA was distributed throughout the kidney. The effects of NECA to reduce GFR were similar to those of adenosine and 2-ClAdo. They conclude that increased levels of adenosine in the renal interstitium markedly decrease GFR without affecting RBF in steady-state conditions. The marked effects of adenosine agonists during their infusion into the renal interstitium and the complete blockade of these effects by theophylline suggest an extracellular action of adenosine

  17. Progenitor outgrowth from the niche in Drosophila trachea is guided by FGF from decaying branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Krasnow, Mark A

    2014-01-10

    Although there has been progress identifying adult stem and progenitor cells and the signals that control their proliferation and differentiation, little is known about the substrates and signals that guide them out of their niche. By examining Drosophila tracheal outgrowth during metamorphosis, we show that progenitors follow a stereotyped path out of the niche, tracking along a subset of tracheal branches destined for destruction. The embryonic tracheal inducer branchless FGF (fibroblast growth factor) is expressed dynamically just ahead of progenitor outgrowth in decaying branches. Knockdown of branchless abrogates progenitor outgrowth, whereas misexpression redirects it. Thus, reactivation of an embryonic tracheal inducer in decaying branches directs outgrowth of progenitors that replace them. This explains how the structure of a newly generated tissue is coordinated with that of the old.

  18. Adaptive remodeling of the biliary tree: the essence of liver progenitor cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Cindy Yuet-Yin; Miyajima, Atsushi; Itoh, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    The liver progenitor cell population has long been thought to exist within the liver. However, there are no standardized criteria for defining the liver progenitor cells, and there has been intense debate about the origin of these cells in the adult liver. The characteristics of such cells vary depending on the disease model used and also on the method of analysis. Visualization of three-dimensional biliary structures has revealed that the emergence of liver progenitor cells essentially reflects the adaptive remodeling of the hepatic biliary network in response to liver injury. We propose that the progenitor cell exists as a subpopulation in the biliary tree and show that the appearance of liver progenitor cells in injured parenchyma is reflective of extensive remodeling of the biliary structure. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  19. Nf2-Yap signaling controls the expansion of DRG progenitors and glia during DRG development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinagaoglu, Yelda; Paré, Joshua; Giovannini, Marco; Cao, Xinwei

    2015-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms governing the maintenance and proliferation of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) progenitors are largely unknown. Here we reveal that the Hippo pathway regulates the expansion of DRG progenitors and glia during mammalian DRG development. The key effectors of this pathway, transcriptional coactivators Yap and Taz, are expressed in DRG progenitors and glia during DRG development but are at least partially inhibited from activating transcription. Aberrant YAP activation leads to overexpansion of DRG progenitor and glial populations. We further show that the Neurofibromatosis 2 (Nf2) tumor suppressor inhibits Yap during DRG development. Loss of Nf2 leads to similar phenotypes as does YAP hyperactivation, and deleting Yap suppresses these phenotypes. Our study demonstrates that Nf2-Yap signaling plays important roles in controlling the expansion of DRG progenitors and glia during DRG development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Crisis de esclerodermia renal normotensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Villaverde

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de sexo masculino de 60 años con esclerosis sistémica que evolucionó con crisis de esclerodermia renal normotensiva. Tenía compromiso poliarticular, esofágico, pulmonar y cutáneo. Antes de internarse en nuestro hospital recibió tratamiento con altas dosis de corticoides, lo que probablemente precipitó el daño renal que presentó en su evolución, caracterizado por falla renal, anemia hemolítica microangiopática sin elevación de la presión arterial. La ausencia de hipertensión se observa sólo en el 10% de los casos de esclerodermia renal. Recibió tratamiento con enalapril y hemodiálisis. Evolucionó en forma desfavorable, sin respuesta a la terapeútica y falleció a los siete días de internado.A 60 year old male patient having systemic scleroderma and normotensive scleroderma renal crisis was admitted in our hospital. He presented polyarticular, esophagic, lung and skin compromise. Before admission he had been treated with high doses of corticosteroids. We believe corticosteroids led to the worsening of renal damage with renal failure, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia without high blood pressure. The 10% of these cases have normal blood pressure. The patient was treated with enalapril and hemodyalisis. There was no favourable response to this treatment and he died seven days after admission.

  1. Dynamic CT of the renal parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Yukio; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Ishikawa, Tohru; Fujii, Masamichi; Uji, Teruyuki

    1985-01-01

    Normal renal dynamic CT findings of 57 cases were analysed in termes of sequential change of renal parenchymal CT image. Cortex, outer medulla and inner medulla were delineated and their sequential CT image was well correlated with the anatomicophysiological character of the kidney. Dynamic CT of 32 abnormal cases showed abnormal sequential CT findings explaining the mechanism of the abnormalities. Especially, delayed enhancement of renal cortex was noted in 17 of 19 kidneys with arterial obstruction and delayed enhancement of renal medulla in 22 of 25 cases with renal dysfunction. Compaired with excretory urography in 11 cases with renal dysfunction, advantage of dynamic CT were noted. (author)

  2. CT imaging spectrum of infiltrative renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David H; De Alba, Luis; Migliaro, Matias; Previgliano, Carlos H; Sangster, Guillermo P

    2017-11-01

    Most renal lesions replace the renal parenchyma as a focal space-occupying mass with borders distinguishing the mass from normal parenchyma. However, some renal lesions exhibit interstitial infiltration-a process that permeates the renal parenchyma by using the normal renal architecture for growth. These infiltrative lesions frequently show nonspecific patterns that lead to little or no contour deformity and have ill-defined borders on CT, making detection and diagnosis challenging. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the CT imaging findings of various conditions that may manifest as infiltrative renal lesions.

  3. CT differentiation of infiltrating renal cell carcinoma and renal urothelial tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyo Kyeong; Goo, Dong Erk; Bang, Sun Woo; Lee, Moon Gyu; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Auh, Yong Ho

    1994-01-01

    It may be difficult to differentiate renal cell carcinoma involving collecting system from renal urothelial tumor invading into renal parenchyma. The purpose of this study was to assess the differences of CT findings between two conditions. CT findings of 5 cases of renal cell carcinoma involving the renal collecting systems and 10 cases of renal urothelial tumors invading the renal parenchyma were compared, and analyzed about the presence or absence of hydronephrosis, normal or abnormal CT nephrogram, renal contour changes due to mass and tentative diagnosis. The diagnoses were confirmed at surgery. Renal cell carcinoma showed hydronephrosis in only 20% and normal CT nephrogram and outward contour bulging in all cases. In contrast, renal urothelial tumor showed hydronephrosis(70%), abnormal CT nephrogram(60%), and preservation of reinform shape(100%). Renal contour changes and CT nephrogram may be useful in distinguishing both disease entities

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  1. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. Not all renal stem cell niches are the same: anatomy of an evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gerosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The renal stem cell niche represents the most important structure of the developing kidney, responsible for nephrogenesis. Recently, some Authors have reported, at ultrastructural level, a previously unknown complexity of the architecture of renal stem cell niche in experimental models. This study was aimed at studying, at histological level, the anatomy of renal stem cell niches in the human fetal kidney. To this end, ten fetal kidneys, whose gestational ages ranged from 11 up to 24 weeks, were studied. H&E-stained sections were observed at high power. The study of the anatomy of renal stem cell niches in the human kidney revealed a previously unreported complexity: some niches appeared as a roundish arrangement of mesenchymal cells; others showed the initial phases of induction by ureteric buds; in other niches the process of mesenchymal epithelial transition was more evident; finally, in other stem cell niches the first signs of nephron origin were detectable. These findings suggest the existence of niches with different anatomy in the same kidney, indicating different stages of evolution even in adjacent niches. All stem cell niches were in strict contact with the capsular cells, suggesting a major role of the renal capsule in nephrogenesis. Finally, our study confirms the existence of a strict contact between the bud tip cells and the surrounding mesenchyme in the human developing kidney, giving a morphological support to the theory of intercellular channels allowing the passage of transcription factors from the epithelial to the mesenchymal stem/progenitors cells.Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  6. Hyperdense renal masses: a CT manifestation of hemorrhagic renal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussman, S.; Cochran, S.T.; Pagani, J.J.; McArdle, C.; Wong, W.; Austin, R.; Curry, N.; Kelly, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven patients with sharply circumscribed round to ovoid renal cysts measuring 70-90 H on CT are reported. The cysts were hyperdense on unenhanced scans, measuring 30-60 H greater than the adjacent parenchyma, and either hypodense, isodense, or hyperdense on enhanced scans. Four patients had polycystic kidney disease; of the other 7 patients, the cysts were cortical in 6 and parapelvic in 1. Eight patients had a solitary cyst and 3 had multiple cysts. Sonography demonstrated internal echoes and/or lack of increased through-transmission in 6 patients. Pathological analysis was available in 6 cases and indicated a benign, hemorrhagic renal cyst. This hyperdense CT appearance is characteristic of some hemorrhagic renal cysts, though differentiation between benign and malignant cysts requires cyst puncture and/or surgery

  7. [Renal hemorrhage after ESWL: From small hematoma to renal blowout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panach-Navarrete, Jorge; Palmero Martí, Jose Luis; Ganau Ituren, Amparo; Pastor Lence, Juan Carlos; Benedicto Redón, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    To report two cases of renal hemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and their therapeutic management. Description of the clinical cases, together with the diagnosis and therapeutic management of these complications. We present two cases of patients with renal hemorrhage after ESWL, which were performed without immediate complications. One of the cases, after detecting an important laceration of the renal parenchyma, needed two embolization sessions for its short-term resolution; however, the patient finally passed away due to the complications derived from hemorrhage. The other case was solved through conservative management. Even though hemorrhage is an infrequent complication after ESWL, it should be suspected when the patient presents compatible clinical symptoms, since even though most cases are resolved in a conservative manner, on some occasions specific treatments for the hemorrhage are necessary. Old age and the presence of vascular comorbidities seem to be related to a higher risk of hemorrhage after ESWL.

  8. Erythropoietin Receptor Positive Circulating Progenitor Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Different Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-mei Hu; Guo-xu Xu; Guo-tong XU; Wei-ye Li; Xia Lei; Bo Ma; Yu Zhang; Yan Yan; Ya-lan Wu; Ge-zhi Xu; Wen Ye; Ling Wang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible involvement of erythropoietin (EPO)/erythropoietin receptor(EPOR) system in neovascularization and vascular regeneration in diabetic retinopathy (DR).Methods EPOR positive circulating progenitor cells (CPCs: CD34+) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs: CD34+KDR+) were assessed by flow cytometry in type 2 diabetic patients with different stages of DR. The cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched control patients without diabetes (n=7), non-prolif-erative DR (NPDR, n=7), proliferative DR (PDR, n=8), and PDR complicated with diabetic nephropathy (PDR-DN, n=7). Results The numbers of EPOR+ CPCs and EPOR+ EPCs were reduced remarkably in NPDR compared with the control group (both P<0.01), whereas rebounded in PDR and PDR-DN groups in varying degrees. Similar changes were observed in respect of the proportion of EPOR+ CPCs in CPCs (NPDR vs.control, P< 0.01) and that of EPOR+ EPCs in EPCs (NPDR vs. control, P< 0.05). Conclusion Exogenous EPO, mediated via the EPO/EPOR system of EPCs, may alleviate the im-paired vascular regeneration in NPDR, whereas it might aggravate retinal neovascularization in PDR due to a rebound of EPOR+ EPCs associated with ischemia.

  9. Renal Blood Flow, Glomerular Filtration Rate, and Renal Oxygenation in Early Clinical Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte Larsson, Jenny; Krumbholz, Vitus; Enskog, Anders; Bragadottir, Gudrun; Redfors, Bengt; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2018-06-01

    Data on renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation in early clinical septic shock are lacking. We therefore measured renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen consumption, and oxygenation in patients with early septic shock. Prospective comparative study. General and cardiothoracic ICUs. Patients with norepinephrine-dependent early septic shock (n = 8) were studied within 24 hours after arrival in the ICU and compared with postcardiac surgery patients without acute kidney injury (comparator group, n = 58). None. Data on systemic hemodynamics and renal variables were obtained during two 30-minute periods. Renal blood flow was measured by the infusion clearance of para-aminohippuric acid, corrected for renal extraction of para-aminohippuric acid. Renal filtration fraction was measured by renal extraction of chromium-51 labeled EDTA. Renal oxygenation was estimated from renal oxygen extraction. Renal oxygen delivery (-24%; p = 0.037) and the renal blood flow-to-cardiac index ratio (-21%; p = 0.018) were lower, renal vascular resistance was higher (26%; p = 0.027), whereas renal blood flow tended to be lower (-19%; p = 0.068) in the septic group. Glomerular filtration rate (-32%; p = 0.006) and renal sodium reabsorption (-29%; p = 0.014) were both lower in the septic group. Neither renal filtration fraction nor renal oxygen consumption differed significantly between groups. Renal oxygen extraction was significantly higher in the septic group (28%; p = 0.022). In the septic group, markers of tubular injury were elevated. In early clinical septic shock, renal function was lower, which was accompanied by renal vasoconstriction, a lower renal oxygen delivery, impaired renal oxygenation, and tubular sodium reabsorption at a high oxygen cost compared with controls.

  10. Acute renal failure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederholm, C.; Almen, T.; Bergquist, D.; Golman, K.; Takolander, R.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1989-01-01

    It was demonstrated in rats that renal injury which follows transient renal hypoxia is potentiated by the contrast media metrizoate, ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. Intravenous injection of 1 g I/kg of all four media alone to 82 rats caused no significant increase in serum urea 1, 3 and 7 days later. The percentage increase of serum urea is given in median values and interquartile range (in parentheses). Bilateral renal arterial occlusion alone for 40 minutes in 42 rats increased serum urea one day later by 40% (20-130). Intravenous injection of the media followed in one hour by bilateral renal arterial occlusion for 40 minutes in 104 rats caused serum urea to increase one day later by 130% (70-350) after metrizoate, by 220% (50-380) after ioxaglate, by 290 % (60-420) after iopamidol and by 160% (50-330) after iohexol. There were no significant differences between the potentiating effects of the various media on ischemic renal failure. (orig.)

  11. TRASTORNOS DEL ESPECTRO AUTISTA Y EXPOSICIONES OCUPACIONALES DE LOS PROGENITORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pino-López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Estudios con hermanos y gemelos sugieren un componente genético en el origen del autismo que no explica su crecimiento actual. El objetivo es investigar si factores ambientales como algunas exposiciones profesionales (trabajo nocturno, manejo de disolventes y/o campos electromagnéticos incrementan la probabilidad de trastornos del espectro autista (TEA en los hijos. Métodos: Estudio observacional de casos y controles mediante análisis de expedientes de 206 niños entre 16 y 36 meses de edad evaluados en el Servicio de Atención Temprana de Ciudad Real (70 con TEA y 136 no afectados. Para medir el riesgo de TEA asociado al trabajo nocturno, con disolventes y/o campos electromagnéticos se calculó la odds ratio (OR con un intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: El riesgo de TEA se multiplica por 2,22 cuando un progenitor trabaja en las ocupaciones estudiadas (OR=2,22, IC 95%=1,42-3,48, destacando trabajo con disolventes (OR=2,81, IC 95%=1,28-6,17 y nocturno (OR=2,18, IC 95%=1,21-3,93. El riesgo se multiplica por 3 si la madre trabaja en estas ocupaciones (OR=3, IC95%=1,44-6,26, destacando trabajo nocturno (OR=3,47, IC 95%=1,39-8,63 y con disolventes (OR=2,88, IC 95%=1,28-6,17. El riesgo se multiplica por 1,94 si el padre trabaja en estas ocupaciones(OR=1,94, IC 95%=1,07-3,53 y por 2,81 con disolventes (OR=2,81, IC 95%=1,01-7,86. Se encontró asociación positiva entre nivel educativo de los progenitores y TEA. Conclusiones: Encontramos relación significativa entre exposición de los progenitores a los riesgos estudiados y TEA en los hijos. Los resultados sugieren la participación de alteraciones genéticas ocasionadas por factores ambientales en el origen del trastorno.

  12. Functional evaluation of circulating hematopoietic progenitors in Noonan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIMEUS, FABIO; CRESCENZIO, NICOLETTA; BALDASSARRE, GIUSEPPINA; DORIA, ALESSANDRA; VALLERO, STEFANO; FOGLIA, LUISELDA; PAGLIANO, SARA; ROSSI, CESARE; SILENGO, MARGHERITA CIRILLO; RAMENGHI, UGO; FAGIOLI, FRANCA; DI MONTEZEMOLO, LUCA CORDERO; FERRERO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA

    2013-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by short stature, multiple dysmorphisms and congenital heart defects. A myeloproliferative disorder (NS/MPD), resembling juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), is occasionally diagnosed in infants with NS. In the present study, we performed a functional evaluation of the circulating hematopoietic progenitors in a series of NS, NS/MPD and JMML patients. The different functional patterns were compared with the aim to identify a possible NS subgroup worthy of stringent hematological follow-up for an increased risk of MPD development. We studied 27 NS and 5 JMML patients fulfilling EWOG-MDS criteria. The more frequent molecular defects observed in NS were mutations in the PTPN11 and SOS genes. The absolute count of monocytes, circulating CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, their apoptotic rate and the number of circulating CFU-GMs cultured in the presence of decreasing concentrations or in the absence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were evaluated. All JMML patients showed monocytosis >1,000/μl. Ten out of the 27 NS patients showed monocytosis >1,000/μl, which included the 3 NS/MPD patients. In JMML patients, circulating CD34+ cells were significantly increased (median, 109.8/μl; range, 44–232) with a low rate of apoptosis (median, 2.1%; range, 0.4–12.1%), and circulating CFU-GMs were hyper-responsive to GM-CSF. NS/MPD patients showed the same flow cytometric pattern as the JMML patients (median, CD34+ cells/μl, 205.7; range, 58–1374; median apoptotic rate, 1.4%; range, 0.2–2.4%) and their circulating CFU-GMs were hyper-responsive to GM-CSF. These functional alterations appeared 10 months before the typical clinical manifestations in 1 NS/MPD patient. In NS, the CD34+ absolute cell count and circulating CFU-GMs showed a normal pattern (median CD34+ cells/μl, 4.9; range, 1.3–17.5), whereas the CD34+ cell apoptotic rate was significantly decreased in

  13. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise alleviates inflammation and improves endothelial progenitor cell count and bone density in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Min-Tser; Liu, Wen-Chih; Lin, Fu-Huang; Huang, Ching-Feng; Chen, Shao-Yuan; Liu, Chuan-Chieh; Lin, Shih-Hua; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and mineral bone disease are critical factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Physical exercise alleviates inflammation and increases bone density. Here, we investigated the effects of intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise on HD patients. Forty end-stage renal disease patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The patients in the exercise group performed a cycling program consisting of a 5-minute warm-up, 20 minutes of cycling at the desired workload, and a 5-minute cool down during 3 HD sessions per week for 3 months. Biochemical markers, inflammatory cytokines, nutritional status, the serum endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) count, bone mineral density, and functional capacity were analyzed. After 3 months of exercise, the patients in the exercise group showed significant improvements in serum albumin levels, the body mass index, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the number of cells positive for CD133, CD34, and kinase insert domain-conjugating receptor. Compared with the exercise group, the patients in the control group showed a loss of bone density at the femoral neck and no increases in EPCs. The patients in the exercise group also had a significantly greater 6-minute walk distance after completing the exercise program. Furthermore, the number of EPCs significantly correlated with the 6-minute walk distance both before and after the 3-month program. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise programs can effectively alleviate inflammation and improve nutrition, bone mineral density, and exercise tolerance in HD patients.

  14. Massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiracofe, H L; Peterson, N

    1975-06-01

    All reported cases of massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage have involved healthy young primigravidas and blacks have predominated (4 of 7 women). Coagulopathies and underlying renal disease have been absent. Hematuria was painless in 5 of 8 cases. Hemorrhage began within 24 hours in 1 case, within 48 hours in 4 cases and 4 days post partum in 3 cases. Our first case is the only report in which hemorrhage has occurred in a primipara. Failure of closure or reopening of pyelovenous channels is suggested as the pathogenesis. The hemorrhage has been self-limiting, requiring no more than 1,500 cc whole blood replacement. Bleeding should stop spontaneously, and rapid renal pelvic clot lysis should follow with maintenance of adequate urine output and Foley catheter bladder decompression. To date surgical intervention has not been necessary.

  15. Renal Myxoma, an Incidental Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Thakker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are mesenchymal tumors commonly found in the heart and skin. Renal myxomas are rare, having only been documented 14 times. Our case is a 55-year-old woman who presented to our clinic after a right renal mass was incidentally found on CT. Evaluation with MRI showed a mass that appeared to arise from the supero-medial cortex of the right kidney. As the imaging was concerning for renal cell carcinoma, the patient underwent a partial nephrectomy. Microscopic examination showed a well-circumscribed mass with polygonal to spindle-shaped cells in a granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining for CD-10, Desmin, HMB-45, and Pankeratin were negative.

  16. Renal diseases in AIDS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Escobar, María del Carmen; Alfonso de León, José Alberto; Lima Gutiérrez, Héctor; Torres Álvarez, Armella; Torres Álvarez, Arling Yuliett

    2009-01-01

    La afectación renal en el SIDA es un tema poco abordado a pesar de su frecuencia, la misma depende de la acción directa e indirecta del virus, así como de las complicaciones y del tratamiento. La más frecuente de las complicaciones es la Insuficiencia Renal Aguda. La forma más típica de nefropatía asociada al VIH (NAVIH) se caracteriza por alto grado de proteinuria con progresión rápida a Insuficiencia Renal Terminal. En el SIDA se presentan diversas formas de glomerulopatías cuya expresión c...

  17. CT of the renal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazawa, Satoru; Ito, Hisao; Tange, Isamu

    1984-01-01

    We have five cases of the global renal infarction, four of which resulted from post-transarterial embolization(TAE) of the hypernephroma, the remaining one was probably caused by the cardiac disease. Generally speaking, CE-CT is useful for the diagnosis of the acute renal infarction, because the ''rim sign'' which represents viable subcapsular parenchyma is helpful for the diagnosis. It seems that band-like enhancement from the renal sinus to the periphery in the low-attenuation-parenchyma on CE-CT, named as ''band sign'', is useful for the diagnosis. ''Band sign'' may also be valuable for distinguishing the neoplastic area from the non-neoplastic one after TAE of the hypernephroma. (author)

  18. Radiologic observation of renal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. W.; Ra, Y. W.; Kim, Y. J.

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic findings of thirty eight cases of renal tuberculosis treated at this hospital during last 4 years were analysed with following results. The cases examined were 24 male and 14 female patients. Age distribution was broad and evenly distributed ranging from 2nd decades to 5th decades. Main symptoms complained were urinary frequency, hematuria, dysuria and flank pain. Findings of physical examination revealed tenderness of costovertebral angle, palpable mass on flank area and epididymal indutration. The simple chest films showed pulmonary tuberculosis in 22 cases including 6 cases of active military type. Thirty one cases showed increased ESR, 8 cases showed AFB positive in urine and 12 cases showed bilateral renal tuberculosis. Through urographic findings nonvisualization, cyceopelviectasis, motheaten appearance of minor calyx, contracted bladder, delayed visualization, ureteral stricture and beading were observed in order of frequency. Five cases with miliary tuberculosis showed advanced renal lesion on urogram

  19. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M

    2014-01-01

    the Mediterranean Sea were used. From 27 registries, individual patient data were received, whereas 17 registries contributed data in aggregated form. We present the incidence and prevalence of RRT, and renal transplant rates in 2011. In addition, survival probabilities and expected remaining lifetimes were....... The overall unadjusted prevalence of RRT for ESRD on 31 December 2011 was 692 pmp (n = 425 824). The highest prevalence was reported by Portugal (1662 pmp) and the lowest by Ukraine (131 pmp). Among all registries, a total of 22 814 renal transplantations were performed (37 pmp). The highest overall.......6-47.0], and on dialysis 39.3% (95% CI 39.2-39.4). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2002 and 2006 was 86.7% (95% CI 86.2-87.2) for kidneys from deceased donors and 94.3% (95% CI 93.6-95.0) for kidneys from living donors....

  20. CT diagnosis of simple renal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanakawa, Seito; Yasunaga, Tadamasa; Tsuchigame, Tadatoshi; Kawano, Shoji; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fukui, Koutaro.

    1987-01-01

    CT is indispensable in the evaluation of renal masses, providing noninvasive and clear transverse images. With wider clinical application of CT, renal cysts have been found more frequently. CT examinations on 500 patients, who underwent CT for the diagnosis of renal diseases except for renal cysts, have been reviewed and analysed. The incidence of renal cysts was 9.6 % without prediction for sexes, but the incidence and sizes of the cysts increased with the advancing age. The upper portion of the kidneys was more frequently involved, but there was no relationship between number, sex and age of the patients. Since renal cysts produce mass effect in the kidneys, understanding of the nature and incidence of the renal cysts is important in diagnosing renal mass lesions. (author)

  1. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... not listed here. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Afinitor (Everolimus) Aldesleukin Avastin (Bevacizumab) Axitinib Bevacizumab Cabometyx ( ...

  2. Radionuclide renal dynamic and function study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Liang

    1991-01-01

    The radionuclide dynamic and function study, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were reported in 14 cases of renal and ureteral calculi patients before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). In 12 cases with normal renal blood flow, within 3 months after ESWL, the GFR of shock and non-shock side decreased with different extent, while the individual ERPF had little change. In 5 cases followed up 1 year after ESWL, the individual GFR and ERPF were normal. In 2 cases of severe renal function insufficiency, there was no improvement in renal function in shock side, after 5 months and 1 year, the renal function was still at low level. Thereby it is considered that ESWL is not suitable for the renal calculi patients with severe renal function insufficiency

  3. Renal endothelial function and blood flow predict the individual susceptibility to adriamycin-induced renal damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Henning, Robert H.; Buikema, Hendrik; Kluppel, Alex C. A.; van Wattum, Marjolein; de Zeeuw, Dick; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility to renal injury varies among individuals. Previously, we found that individual endothelial function of healthy renal arteries in vitro predicted severity of renal damage after 5/6 nephrectomy. Here we hypothesized that individual differences in endothelial function in vitro and renal

  4. The renal arterial resistive index and stage of chronic kidney disease in patients with renal allograft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Stine O; Thiesson, Helle C; Poulsen, Lene N

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft.......The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft....

  5. Bumetanide kinetics in renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentikaeinen, P.J.P.; Pasternack, A.; Lampainen, E.; Neuvonen, P.J.; Penttilae, A.

    1985-01-01

    To study the effects of renal failure on bumetanide kinetics, the authors administered single intravenous doses of 1.0 mg/3.08 microCi 14 C-bumetanide to six healthy subjects and 22 patients with variable degrees of renal failure. The kinetics of 14 C-bumetanide and total 14 C were adequately described by a two-compartment open model in the control subjects and in the patients. The volume of the central compartment and the distribution t1/2 were of the same order in both groups, whereas the mean (+/- SE) volume at steady state was larger (22.1 +/- 1.6 and 16.9 +/- 1.0 L) and the elimination t1/2 was longer (1.9 +/- 0.2 and 1.4 +/- 0.1 hours) in patients with renal failure than in healthy controls. Bumetanide renal clearance was lower (10 +/- 3 and 90 +/- 13 ml/min) in patients than in subjects and correlated with creatinine clearance (r = 0.784) and log serum creatinine level (r = -0.843), whereas nonrenal clearance was significantly higher in the patients (153 +/- 14 and 99 +/- 6 ml/min). Bumetanide total plasma clearance did not significantly change. The non-protein-bound, free fraction of bumetanide was higher in patients and correlated with plasma albumin levels (r = -0.777). The kinetics of total 14 C showed similar but greater changes than those of 14C-bumetanide. Thus the most important changes in bumetanide kinetics in patients with renal failure are low renal clearance and a high free fraction, with a consequent increase in nonrenal clearance, volume of distribution, and elimination t1/2

  6. Molecular mechanisms of renal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Roland; Melk, Anette

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiologic, clinical, and molecular evidence suggest that aging is a major contributor to the increasing incidence of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. The aging kidney undergoes complex changes that predispose to renal pathology. The underlying molecular mechanisms could be the target of therapeutic strategies in the future. Here, we summarize recent insight into cellular and molecular processes that have been shown to contribute to the renal aging phenotype.The main clinical finding of renal aging is the decrease in glomerular filtration rate, and its structural correlate is the loss of functioning nephrons. Mechanistically, this has been linked to different processes, such as podocyte hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, and gradual microvascular rarefaction. Renal functional recovery after an episode of acute kidney injury is significantly worse in elderly patients. This decreased regenerative potential, which is a hallmark of the aging process, may be caused by cellular senescence. Accumulation of senescent cells could explain insufficient repair and functional loss, a view that has been strengthened by recent studies showing that removal of senescent cells results in attenuation of renal aging. Other potential mechanisms are alterations in autophagy as an important component of a disturbed renal stress response and functional differences in the inflammatory system. Promising therapeutic measures to counteract these age-related problems include mimetics of caloric restriction, pharmacologic renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition, and novel strategies of senotherapy with the goal of reducing the number of senescent cells to decrease aging-related disease in the kidney. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Acute lymphoblastic leukemia of T progenitors: from biology to clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genescà, Eulàlia; Ribera, Jordi; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2015-03-09

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children and the main cause of morbidity among childhood blood disorders. There are 2 subtypes according to the affected lymphoid progenitor: B-ALL and T-ALL. The T-ALL is the less common and, although historically was associated with poor prognosis in both adults and children, at present, treatment outcomes do not differ significantly between the 2 types of ALL. The T-ALL subtype is the most complex and heterogeneous at the genetic level and currently the one with less new therapeutic alternatives available. This trend is changing thanks to the remarkable progress upon understanding its biology. This review summarizes the most recent and important biological findings in T-ALL and their possible therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Fibro/Adipogenic Progenitors (FAPs): Isolation by FACS and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Marcela; Eisner, Christine; Rossi, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs ) are tissue-resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Current literature supports a role for these cells in the homeostasis and repair of multiple tissues suggesting that FAPs may have extensive therapeutic potential in the treatment of numerous diseases. In this context, it is crucial to establish efficient and reproducible procedures to purify FAP populations from various tissues. Here, we describe a protocol for the isolation and cell culture of FAPs from murine skeletal muscle using fluorescence -activated cell sorting (FACS), which is particularly useful for experiments where high cell purity is an essential requirement. Identification, isolation, and cell culture of FAPs represent powerful tools that will help us to understand the role of these cells in different conditions and facilitate the development of safe and effective new treatments for diseases.

  9. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) Signaling in Neural Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callihan, Phillip; Alqinyah, Mohammed; Hooks, Shelley B

    2018-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors are important in nervous system development. Reliable in vitro human model systems are needed to further define specific roles for S1P signaling in neural development. We have described S1P-regulated signaling, survival, and differentiation in a human embryonic stem cell-derived neuroepithelial progenitor cell line (hNP1) that expresses functional S1P receptors. These cells can be further differentiated to a neuronal cell type and therefore represent a good model system to study the role of S1P signaling in human neural development. The following sections describe in detail the culture and differentiation of hNP1 cells and two assays to measure S1P signaling in these cells.

  10. Imaging retinal progenitor lineages in developing zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusuf, Patricia; Harris, William A; Poggi, Lucia

    2013-03-01

    In this protocol, we describe how to make and analyze four dimensional (4D) movies of retinal lineage in the zebrafish embryo in vivo. 4D consists of three spatial dimensions (3D) reconstructed from stacks of confocal planes plus one time dimension. Our imaging is performed on transgenic cells that express fluorescent proteins under the control of cell-specific promoters or on cells that transiently express such reporters in specific retinal cell progenitors. An important aspect of lineage tracing is the ability to follow individual cells as they undergo multiple cell divisions, final migration, and differentiation. This may mean many hours of 4D imaging, requiring that cells be kept healthy and maintained under conditions suitable for normal development. The longest movies we have made are ∼50 h. By analyzing these movies, we can see when a specific cell was born and who its sister was, allowing us to reconstruct its retinal lineages in vivo.

  11. Renal dysplasia in a Rhodesian Ridgeback dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobetti, R.G.; Pearson, J.; Jimenez, M.

    1996-01-01

    A six-month-old Rhodesian ridgeback dog was presented for evaluation of facial swelling. Chronic renal failure was clinically diagnosed based on urinalysis, biochemical changes and ultrasonography. The facial swelling was due to fibrous osteodystrophy, which was evident on survey radiographs of the skull. On post mortem examination, chronic renal failure as a result of renal dysplasia was confirmed. This is the first reported case of renal dysplasia in this breed of dog

  12. Study of acute renal insufficiency and chronic renal insufficiency using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    Radioisotopic renal function tests are of assistance to diagnose and follow-up the course of renal insufficiency. The radioisotopic renogram is useful in assessing the response to therapy of child obstructive uropathies and evaluating renal transplant function. The renal scan is helpful, in an emergency service, to differenciate chronic renal insufficiency from acute renal insufficiency. Hg renal uptake test provides informations on physiopathological problems. Among them, the following problems are emphasized: evolution of a nonfunctioning kidney, control of the success of a reparative surgery and of bilateral obstructive uropathies with unilateral symptoms [fr

  13. Acute renal infarction Secondary to Atrial Fibrillation Mimicking Renal Stone Picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Salih Bin; Al-Durihim, H.; Al-Jizeeri, A.; Al-Maziad, G.

    2006-01-01

    Acute renal infarction presents in a similar clinical picture to that of a renal stone. We report a 55-year-old Saudi female, known to have atrial fibrillation secondary to mitral stenosis due to rheumatic heart disease. She presented with a two day history of right flank pain that was treated initially as renal stone. Further investigations confirmed her as a case of renal infarction. Renal infarction is under-diagnosed because the similarity of its presentation to renal stone. Renal infarction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of loin pain, particularly in a patient with atrial fibrillation. (author)

  14. Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation in Renal and Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Following transplantation (TX) of both renal and non-renal organs, a large proportion of patients have renal dysfunction. There are multiple causes for this. Chronic nephrotoxicity and high doses of calcineurin inhibitors are important factors. Preoperative and perioperative factors like...... or estimates of renal function in these patients, in order to accurately and safely dose immunosuppressive medication and perform and adjust the treatment and prophylaxis of renal dysfunction. This is a short overview and discussion of relevant studies and possible caveats of estimated glomerular filtration...... rate methods for use in renal and non-renal TX....

  15. Sonographic findings of renal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chong Hyun; Lee, Chang Joon; Kim, Seung Hyun

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine sonographic characteristic of renal tuberculosis, we retrospectively collected 27 cases during a 5 year period. Infected kidneys showed large size (52%) and lobulating contour (76%). In 19 cases of increased parenchymal echogenicity, most of them (16 cases) showed decreased parenchymal thickness. We divided hydronephrotic patterns into 4 categories; predominant calyceal dilatation with mild or no pelvic dilatation (67%), focal calyectasis without pelvic dilation (15%), parenchymal cavitation without hydronephrosis (11%) and proportional hydronephrosis with calyceal deformity (7%). Our findings suggest that disproportional hydronephrosis would be the characteristic finding of renal tuberculosis

  16. Detection of Quiescent Radioresistant Epithelial Progenitors in the Adult Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Dumont-Lagacé

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thymic aging precedes that of other organs and is initiated by the gradual loss of thymic epithelial cells (TECs. Based on in vitro culture and transplantation assays, recent studies have reported on the presence of thymic epithelial progenitor cells (TEPCs in young adult mice. However, the physiological role and properties of TEPC populations reported to date remain unclear. Using an in vivo label-retention assay, we previously identified a population of quiescent but non-senescent TECs. The goals of this study were therefore (i to evaluate the contribution of these quiescent TECs to thymic regeneration following irradiation-induced acute thymic injury and (ii to characterize their phenotypic and molecular profiles using flow cytometry, immunohistology, and transcriptome sequencing. We report that while UEA1+ cells cycle the most in steady state, they are greatly affected by irradiation, leading to cell loss and proliferative arrest following acute thymic involution. On the opposite, the UEA1– subset of quiescent TECs is radioresistant and proliferate in situ following acute thymic involution, thereby contributing to thymic regeneration in 28- to 30-week-old mice. UEA1– quiescent TECs display an undifferentiated phenotype (co-expression of K8 and K5 cytokeratins and express high levels of genes that regulate stem cell activity in different tissues (e.g., Podxl and Ptprz1. In addition, two features suggest that UEA1– quiescent TECs occupy discrete stromal niches: (i their preferential location in clusters adjacent to the cortico-medullary junction and (ii their high expression of genes involved in cross talk with mesenchymal cells. The ability of UEA1– quiescent TECs to participate to TEC regeneration qualifies them as in vivo progenitor cells particularly relevant in the context of regeneration following acute thymic injury.

  17. Presence of stem/progenitor cells in the rat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guiting; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianwen; Wang, Lin; Li, Huixi; Wang, Guifang; Ning, Hongxiu; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-15

    Tissue resident stem cells are believed to exist in every organ, and their identification is commonly done using a combination of immunostaining for putative stem cell markers and label-retaining cell (LRC) strategy. In this study, we employed these approaches to identify potential stem cells in the penis. Newborn rats were intraperitoneally injected with thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU), and their penis was harvested at 7 h, 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks. It was processed for EdU stains and immunofluorescence staining for stem cell markers A2B5, PCNA, and c-kit. EdU-positive cells were counted for each time point and co-localized with each stem cell marker, then isolated and cultured in vitro followed by their characterization using flowcytometry and immunofluorescence. At 7 h post-EdU injection, 410 ± 105.3 penile corporal cells were labeled in each cross-section (∼28%). The number of EdU-positive cells at 3 days increased to 536 ± 115.6, while their percentage dropped to 25%. Progressively fewer EdU-positive cells were present in the sacrificed rat penis at longer time points (1 and 4 weeks). They were mainly distributed in the subtunic and perisinusoidal spaces, and defined as subtunic penile progenitor cells (STPCs) and perisinusoidal penile progenitor cells (PPCs). These cells expressed c-kit, A2B5, and PCNA. After culturing in vitro, only ∼0.324% corporal cells were EdU-labeled LRCs and expressed A2B5/PCNA. Therefore, labeling of penis cells by EdU occurred randomly, and label retaining was not associated with expression of c-kit, A2B5, or PCNA. The penile LRCs are mainly distributed within the subtunic and perisinusoidal space.

  18. Progenitors of low-luminosity Type II-Plateau supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisakov, Sergey M.; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2018-01-01

    The progenitors of low-luminosity Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) are believed to be red supergiant (RSG) stars, but there is much disparity in the literature concerning their mass at core collapse and therefore on the main sequence. Here, we model the SN radiation arising from the low-energy explosion of RSG stars of 12, 25 and 27 M⊙ on the main sequence and formed through single star evolution. Despite the narrow range in ejecta kinetic energy (2.5-4.2 × 1050 erg) in our model set, the SN observables from our three models are significantly distinct, reflecting the differences in progenitor structure (e.g. surface radius, H-rich envelope mass and He-core mass). Our higher mass RSG stars give rise to Type II SNe that tend to have bluer colours at early times, a shorter photospheric phase, and a faster declining V-band light curve (LC) more typical of Type II-linear SNe, in conflict with the LC plateau observed for low-luminosity SNe II. The complete fallback of the CO core in the low-energy explosions of our high-mass RSG stars prevents the ejection of any 56Ni (nor any core O or Si), in contrast to low-luminosity SNe II-P, which eject at least 0.001 M⊙ of 56Ni. In contrast to observations, Type II SN models from higher mass RSGs tend to show an H α absorption that remains broad at late times (due to a larger velocity at the base of the H-rich envelope). In agreement with the analyses of pre-explosion photometry, we conclude that low-luminosity SNe II-P likely arise from low-mass rather than high-mass RSG stars.

  19. Two populations of progenitors for Type Ia supernovae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, F.; Della Valle, M.; Panagia, N.

    2006-08-01

    We use recent observations of the evolution of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate with redshift, the dependence of the SN Ia rate on the colours of the parent galaxies, and the enhancement of the SN Ia rate in radio-loud early-type galaxies to derive on robust empirical grounds, the delay time distribution (DTD) between the formation of the progenitor star and its explosion as an SN. Our analysis finds: (i) delay times as long as 3-4 Gyr, derived from observations of SNe Ia at high redshift, cannot reproduce the dependence of the SN Ia rate on the colours and on the radio-luminosity of the parent galaxies, as observed in the local Universe; (ii) the comparison between observed SN rates and a grid of theoretical `single-population' DTDs shows that only a few of them are possibly consistent with observations. The most successful models are all predicting a peak of SN explosions soon after star formation and an extended tail in the DTD, and can reproduce the data but only at a modest statistical confidence level; (iii) present data are best matched by a bimodal DTD, in which about 50 per cent of SNe Ia (dubbed `prompt' SNe Ia) explode soon after their stellar birth, in a time of the order of 108 yr, while the remaining 50 per cent (`tardy' SNe Ia) have a much wider distribution, well described by an exponential function with a decay time of about 3 Gyr. The presence in the DTD of both a strong peak at early times and a prolonged exponential tail, coupled with the well-established bimodal distribution of the decay rate (Δm15) and the systematic difference observed in the expansion velocities of the ejecta of SNe Ia in ellipticals and spirals, suggests the existence of two classes of progenitors. We discuss the cosmological implications of this result and make simple predictions, which are testable with future instrumentation.

  20. Characterization of vascular endothelial progenitor cells from chicken bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are a type of stem cell used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and regeneration. At present, most of the EPCs studied are from human and mouse, whereas the study of poultry-derived EPCs has rarely been reported. In the present study, chicken bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and studied at the cellular level using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Results We found that the majority of chicken EPCs were spindle shaped. The growth-curves of chicken EPCs at passages (P 1, -5 and -9 were typically “S”-shaped. The viability of chicken EPCs, before and after cryopreservation was 92.2% and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, cryopreservation had no obvious effects on the viability of chicken EPCs. Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UAE-1 uptake assays and immunofluorescent detection of the cell surface markers CD34, CD133, VEGFR-2 confirmed that the cells obtained in vitro were EPCs. Observation of endothelial-specific Weibel-Palade bodies using transmission electron microscopy further confirmed that the cells were of endothelial lineage. In addition, chicken EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells upon induction with VEGF and PDGF-BB, respectively, suggesting that the chicken EPCs retained multipotency in vitro. Conclusions These results suggest that chicken EPCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity, but also the potential to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This research provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application of endothelial progenitor cells in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and diabetic complications.

  1. Renal pelvis urothelial carcinoma of the upper moiety in complete right renal duplex: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Yu, Quanfeng; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Ranlu; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) originated from renal pelvis is the common tumor of the urinary system, however, neoplasia of the renal pelvis in duplex kidneys is extremely rare, especially in the complete renal and ureteral duplex cases. We present the first case of renal pelvis UC of the upper moiety in a complete right renal duplex. This male patient has bilateral complete renal and ureteral duplex. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of renal pelvis UC in a complete renal duplex system. After this experience we feel that the diagnosis of renal pelvis UC in duplex kidneys is not so easy, and once the diagnosis is determined, the whole renal duplex units and bladder cuff or ectopic orifice should be excised radically.

  2. PRMT5 is essential for the maintenance of chondrogenic progenitor cells in the limb bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Jacqueline L; Li, Qiang; Co, Swanie; Huang, Bau-Lin; Ding, Ding; Uy, Jann C; Ji, Zhicheng; Mackem, Susan; Bedford, Mark T; Galli, Antonella; Ji, Hongkai; Vokes, Steven A

    2016-12-15

    During embryonic development, undifferentiated progenitor cells balance the generation of additional progenitor cells with differentiation. Within the developing limb, cartilage cells differentiate from mesodermal progenitors in an ordered process that results in the specification of the correct number of appropriately sized skeletal elements. The internal pathways by which these cells maintain an undifferentiated state while preserving their capacity to differentiate is unknown. Here, we report that the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 has a crucial role in maintaining progenitor cells. Mouse embryonic buds lacking PRMT5 have severely truncated bones with wispy digits lacking joints. This novel phenotype is caused by widespread cell death that includes mesodermal progenitor cells that have begun to precociously differentiate into cartilage cells. We propose that PRMT5 maintains progenitor cells through its regulation of Bmp4 Intriguingly, adult and embryonic stem cells also require PRMT5 for maintaining pluripotency, suggesting that similar mechanisms might regulate lineage-restricted progenitor cells during organogenesis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Identification of Different Classes of Luminal Progenitor Cells within Prostate Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Agarwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary prostate cancer almost always has a luminal phenotype. However, little is known about the stem/progenitor properties of transformed cells within tumors. Using the aggressive Pten/Tp53-null mouse model of prostate cancer, we show that two classes of luminal progenitors exist within a tumor. Not only did tumors contain previously described multipotent progenitors, but also a major population of committed luminal progenitors. Luminal cells, sorted directly from tumors or grown as organoids, initiated tumors of adenocarcinoma or multilineage histological phenotypes, which is consistent with luminal and multipotent differentiation potentials, respectively. Moreover, using organoids we show that the ability of luminal-committed progenitors to self-renew is a tumor-specific property, absent in benign luminal cells. Finally, a significant fraction of luminal progenitors survived in vivo castration. In all, these data reveal two luminal tumor populations with different stem/progenitor cell capacities, providing insight into prostate cancer cells that initiate tumors and can influence treatment response.

  4. Characterization of Proliferating Neural Progenitors after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Prakash Hui

    Full Text Available Zebrafish can repair their injured brain and spinal cord after injury unlike adult mammalian central nervous system. Any injury to zebrafish spinal cord would lead to increased proliferation and neurogenesis. There are presences of proliferating progenitors from which both neuronal and glial loss can be reversed by appropriately generating new neurons and glia. We have demonstrated the presence of multiple progenitors, which are different types of proliferating populations like Sox2+ neural progenitor, A2B5+ astrocyte/ glial progenitor, NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor, radial glia and Schwann cell like progenitor. We analyzed the expression levels of two common markers of dedifferentiation like msx-b and vimentin during regeneration along with some of the pluripotency associated factors to explore the possible role of these two processes. Among the several key factors related to pluripotency, pou5f1 and sox2 are upregulated during regeneration and associated with activation of neural progenitor cells. Uncovering the molecular mechanism for endogenous regeneration of adult zebrafish spinal cord would give us more clues on important targets for future therapeutic approach in mammalian spinal cord repair and regeneration.

  5. Amplification of neural stem cell proliferation by intermediate progenitor cells in Drosophila brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Bruno C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mammalian brain, neural stem cells divide asymmetrically and often amplify the number of progeny they generate via symmetrically dividing intermediate progenitors. Here we investigate whether specific neural stem cell-like neuroblasts in the brain of Drosophila might also amplify neuronal proliferation by generating symmetrically dividing intermediate progenitors. Results Cell lineage-tracing and genetic marker analysis show that remarkably large neuroblast lineages exist in the dorsomedial larval brain of Drosophila. These lineages are generated by brain neuroblasts that divide asymmetrically to self renew but, unlike other brain neuroblasts, do not segregate the differentiating cell fate determinant Prospero to their smaller daughter cells. These daughter cells continue to express neuroblast-specific molecular markers and divide repeatedly to produce neural progeny, demonstrating that they are proliferating intermediate progenitors. The proliferative divisions of these intermediate progenitors have novel cellular and molecular features; they are morphologically symmetrical, but molecularly asymmetrical in that key differentiating cell fate determinants are segregated into only one of the two daughter cells. Conclusion Our findings provide cellular and molecular evidence for a new mode of neurogenesis in the larval brain of Drosophila that involves the amplification of neuroblast proliferation through intermediate progenitors. This type of neurogenesis bears remarkable similarities to neurogenesis in the mammalian brain, where neural stem cells as primary progenitors amplify the number of progeny they generate through generation of secondary progenitors. This suggests that key aspects of neural stem cell biology might be conserved in brain development of insects and mammals.

  6. Salvageability of renal function following renal revascularisation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reported on the outcome of hypertension in a cohort of patients with Takayasu's ... Against Rheumatism/Paediatric Rheumatology European Society ... Association guidelines for reporting of renal artery revascularisation .... reversing the dialysis dependence of 2 of the 3 patients who were .... Clinical Practice Guidelines.

  7. Maternal drugs and neonatal renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sahay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal use of drugs during pregnancy may cause irreversible renal failure in the newborn. This report highlights the adverse effect of telmisartan during the last trimester of pregnancy. The neonate presented with oliguric renal failure and the renal histology showed proximal tubular dysgenesis.

  8. Hypogonadism and renal failure: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumavalavan, Nannan; Wilken, Nathan A; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of both hypogonadism and renal failure is increasing. Hypogonadism in men with renal failure carries with it significant morbidity, including anemia and premature cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear whether testosterone therapy can affect the morbidity and mortality associated with renal failure. As such, in this review, we sought to evaluate the current literature addressing hypogonadism and testosterone replacement, specifically in men with renal failure. The articles chosen for this review were selected by performing a broad search using Pubmed, Embase and Scopus including the terms hypogonadism and renal failure from 1990 to the present. This review is based on both primary sources as well as review articles. Hypogonadism in renal failure has a multifactorial etiology, including co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, old age and obesity. Renal failure can lead to decreased luteinizing hormone production and decreased prolactin clearance that could impair testosterone production. Given the increasing prevalence of hypogonadism and the potential morbidity associated with hypogonadism in men with renal failure, careful evaluation of serum testosterone would be valuable. Testosterone replacement therapy should be considered in men with symptomatic hypogonadism and renal failure, and may ameliorate some of the morbidity associated with renal failure. Patients with all stages of renal disease are at an increased risk of hypogonadism that could be associated with significant morbidity. Testosterone replacement therapy may reduce some of the morbidity of renal failure, although it carries risk.

  9. Relationship Between Adult Renal Dimensions and Biometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We measured renal dimensions sonographically and correlated the values obtained with some anthropometric parameters in order to identify the best estimate of renal size in a clinical setting. The renal dimensions of 200 adult subjects referred for abdomino-pelvic scan at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu ...

  10. Protein restriction in chronic renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ECHTEN, JEKT; NAUTA, J; HOP, WCJ; de Jong, MCJ; REITSMABIERENS, WCC; VANAMSTEL, SLBP; VANACKER, KJ; NOORDZIJ, CM; WOLFF, ED

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a protein restricted diet on renal function and growth of children with chronic renal failure. In a multicentre prospective study 56 children (aged 2-18 years) with chronic renal failure were randomly assigned to the protein restricted (0.8-1.1

  11. Primary Renal Carcinoid - A Case Report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Sullivan, M

    2018-01-01

    Carcinoid tumours in the abdomen are uncommon, but typically occur in the gastrointestinal tract. Primary renal carcinoid is an extremely rare tumour, poorly described in the literature. We describe an unusual case where an atypical renal mass on imaging led to a preoperative diagnosis of renal carcinoid on imaging guiding biopsy.

  12. Dynamic renal scintigraphy in aortic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terae, Satoshi; Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nakada, Kunihiro; Fujimori, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masato; Tanabe, Tatsuzo; Furudate, Masayori; Irie, Goro

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic renal scintigraphy has been reviewed for evaluation of renal arterial involvement in aortic disorders such as arteriosclerosis obliterans, abdominal aortic aneurysm and dissecting aneurysm. As a diagnostic finding and parameters, we used blood perfusion images of both kidneys and relative split renal function index obtained with analysis of the time-activity curves which were generated using a renal region of interest. In the diagnosis of unilateral renal arterial involvement, sensitivity and specificity of blood perfusion images were 100 % (9/9) and 77 % (10/13) and those of relative split renal function index were 78 % (7/9) and 92 % (12/13), respectively. Dynamic renal scintigraphy was useful for evaluating unilateral renal arterial involvement in aortic diseases. However, scintigraphic diagnosis of bilateral renal arterial involvement were difficult. And in a severe case, we could not differentiate renal parenchymal damage due to renovascular involvement from senile renal dysfunction or hypertensive renal disease which is often a cause of aortic disorders. (author)

  13. Bone marrow niche-inspired, multi-phase expansion of megakaryocytic progenitors with high polyploidization potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuganti, Swapna; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.; Miller, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Megakaryopoiesis encompasses hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) commitment to the megakaryocytic cell (Mk) lineage, expansion of Mk progenitors and mature Mks, polyploidization, and platelet release. pH and pO2 increase from the endosteum to sinuses, and different cytokines are important for various stages of differentiation. We hypothesized that mimicking the changing conditions during Mk differentiation in the bone marrow would facilitate expansion of progenitors that could generate many high-ploidy Mks. Methods CD34+ HSPCs were cultured at pH 7.2 and 5% O2 with stem cell factor (SCF), thrombopoietin (Tpo), and all combinations of Interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6, IL-11, and Flt-3 ligand to promote Mk progenitor expansion. Cells cultured with selected cytokines were shifted to pH 7.4 and 20% O2 to generate mature Mks, and treated with nicotinamide to enhance polyploidization. Results Using Tpo+SCF+IL-3+IL-11, we obtained 3.5 CD34+CD41+ Mk progenitors per input HSPC, while increasing purity from 1% to 17%. Cytokine cocktails with IL-3 yielded more progenitors and mature Mks, although the purities were lower. Mk production was much greater at higher pH and pO2. Although fewer progenitors were present, shifting to 20% O2/pH 7.4 at day 5 (versus days 7 or 9) yielded the greatest mature Mk production, 14 per input HSPC. Nicotinamide more than doubled the percentage of high-ploidy Mks to 40%. Discussion We obtained extensive Mk progenitor expansion, while ensuring that the progenitors could produce high-ploidy Mks. We anticipate that subsequent optimization of cytokines for mature Mk production and delayed nicotinamide addition will greatly increase high-ploidy Mk production. PMID:20482285

  14. Bone marrow niche-inspired, multiphase expansion of megakaryocytic progenitors with high polyploidization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuganti, Swapna; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T; Miller, William M

    2010-10-01

    Megakaryopoiesis encompasses hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) commitment to the megakaryocytic cell (Mk) lineage, expansion of Mk progenitors and mature Mks, polyploidization and platelet release. pH and pO2 increase from the endosteum to sinuses, and different cytokines are important for various stages of differentiation. We hypothesized that mimicking the changing conditions during Mk differentiation in the bone marrow would facilitate expansion of progenitors that could generate many high-ploidy Mks. CD34+ HSPCs were cultured at pH 7.2 and 5% O2 with stem cell factor (SCF), thrombopoietin (Tpo) and all combinations of Interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6, IL-11 and Flt-3 ligand to promote Mk progenitor expansion. Cells cultured with selected cytokines were shifted to pH 7.4 and 20% O2 to generate mature Mks, and treated with nicotinamide (NIC) to enhance polyploidization. Using Tpo + SCF + IL-3 + IL-11, we obtained 3.5 CD34+ CD41+ Mk progenitors per input HSPC, while increasing purity from 1% to 17%. Cytokine cocktails with IL-3 yielded more progenitors and mature Mks, although the purities were lower. Mk production was much greater at higher pH and pO2. Although fewer progenitors were present, shifting to 20% O2 /pH 7.4 at day 5 (versus days 7 or 9) yielded the greatest mature Mk production, 14 per input HSPC. NIC more than doubled the percentage of high-ploidy Mks to 40%. We obtained extensive Mk progenitor expansion, while ensuring that the progenitors could produce high-ploidy Mks. We anticipate that subsequent optimization of cytokines for mature Mk production and delayed NIC addition will greatly increase high-ploidy Mk production.

  15. Renal rescue of dopamine D2 receptor function reverses renal injury and high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Asico, Laureano D.; Zhang, Yanrong; Yang, Yu; Drachenberg, Cinthia; Zheng, Xiaoxu; Han, Fei; Jose, Pedro A.; Armando, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) deficiency increases renal inflammation and blood pressure in mice. We show here that long-term renal-selective silencing of Drd2 using siRNA increases renal expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors and blood pressure in mice. To determine the effects of renal-selective rescue of Drd2 expression in mice, the renal expression of DRD2 was first silenced using siRNA and 14 days later rescued by retrograde renal infusion of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector with DRD2. Renal Drd2 siRNA treatment decreased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 55%, and DRD2 AAV treatment increased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 7.5- to 10-fold. Renal-selective DRD2 rescue reduced the expression of proinflammatory factors and kidney injury, preserved renal function, and normalized systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These results demonstrate that the deleterious effects of renal-selective Drd2 silencing on renal function and blood pressure were rescued by renal-selective overexpression of DRD2. Moreover, the deleterious effects of 45-minute bilateral ischemia/reperfusion on renal function and blood pressure in mice were ameliorated by a renal-selective increase in DRD2 expression by the retrograde ureteral infusion of DRD2 AAV immediately after the induction of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, 14 days after ischemia/reperfusion injury, the renal expression of profibrotic factors, serum creatinine, and blood pressure were lower in mice infused with DRD2 AAV than in those infused with control AAV. These results indicate an important role of renal DRD2 in limiting renal injury and preserving normal renal function and blood pressure. PMID:27358912

  16. Role of RENAL nephrometry scoring system in planning surgical intervention in patients with localized renal mas

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Samir Shaaban; Tamer Mohammed Abou Youssif; Ahmed Mostafa; Hossam Eldin Hegazy; Mohammed Adel Atta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study was designed to validate the value of preoperative planning using RENAL nephrometry scoring system in patients having organ confined renal tumors and undergoing surgical intervention and to assess its correlation with the surgical technique. Patient and methods: Forty patients with organ-confined renal masses underwent RENAL nephrometry scoring which was correlated with the surgical technique either radical or nephron-sparing surgery. Result: RENAL nephrometry scoring...

  17. Endothelial progenitor cells physiology and metabolic plasticity in brain angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Malinovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a considerable interest to the assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB development as a part of cerebral angiogenesis developmental program. Embryonic and adult angiogenesis in the brain is governed by the coordinated activity of endothelial progenitor cells, brain microvascular endothelial cells, and non-endothelial cells contributing to the establishment of the BBB (pericytes, astrocytes, neurons. Metabolic and functional plasticity of endothelial progenitor cells controls their timely recruitment, precise homing to the brain microvessels, and efficient support of brain angiogenesis. Deciphering endothelial progenitor cells physiology would provide novel engineering approaches to establish adequate microfluidically-supported BBB models and brain microphysiological systems for translational studies.

  18. The Progenitors of Local Ultra-massive Galaxies Across Cosmic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchesini, Danilo; Muzzin, Adam; Stefanon, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    in age of $z=0$ UMGs as derived from their fossil records. The progenitors of local UMGs, including the star-forming ones, never lived on the blue cloud since $z=3$. We propose an alternative path for the formation of local UMGs that refines previously proposed pictures and that is fully consistent......-forming galaxies progressively increases, with the progenitors at $2z 1$, whereas the remaining was assembled via merging from $z\\sim 1$ to the present. Most of the quenching of the star-forming progenitors happened between $z=2.75$ and $z=1.25$, in good agreement with the typical formation redshift and scatter...

  19. Violencia Filio Parental: Comparando lo que informan los adolescentes y sus progenitores

    OpenAIRE

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; González-Cabrera, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo principal del presente estudio fue examinar la consistencia de los informes de progenitores e hijos a la hora de informar sobre la violencia filio-parental en una muestra comunitaria. Como objetivo secundario, se exploraron las propiedades psicométricas de la versión para progenitores del Cuestionario de Violencia Filio-Parental (Calvete, Gámez-Guadix et al., 2013). Participaron en el estudio un total de 880 adolescentes (51.70% chicas, entre 13 y 19 años) y sus progenitores (76....

  20. An in vitro clonogenic assay to assess radiation damage in rat CNS glial progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Verhagen, I.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1990-01-01

    Normal glial progenitor cells can be isolated from the rat central nervous system (CNS) and cultured in vitro on a monolayer of type-1 astrocytes. These monolayers are able to support and stimulate explanted glial progenitor cells to proliferate. Employing these in vitro interactions of specific glial cell types, an in vivo-in vitro clonogenic assay has been developed. This method offers the possibility to study the intrinsic radiosensitivity, repair and regeneration of glial progenitor cells after in vitro or in vivo irradiation. (author)

  1. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consigny, Paul M., E-mail: paul.consigny@av.abbott.com; Davalian, Dariush, E-mail: dariush.davalian@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Innovation Incubator (United States); Donn, Rosy, E-mail: rosy.donn@av.abbott.com; Hu, Jie, E-mail: jie.hu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Bioanalytical and Material Characterization (United States); Rieser, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.j.rieser@abbvie.com; Stolarik, DeAnne, E-mail: deanne.f.stolarik@abbvie.com [Abbvie, Analytical Pharmacology (United States)

    2013-12-03

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10{sup −5} M through 10{sup −2} M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  2. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consigny, Paul M.; Davalian, Dariush; Donn, Rosy; Hu, Jie; Rieser, Matthew; Stolarik, DeAnne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10 −5  M through 10 −2  M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel

  3. Chemical renal denervation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consigny, Paul M; Davalian, Dariush; Donn, Rosy; Hu, Jie; Rieser, Matthew; Stolarik, Deanne

    2014-02-01

    The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose-response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10(-5) M through 10(-2) M paclitaxel. We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  4. Sequential Scintigraphy in Renal Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, K. zum; Harbst, H.; Schenck, P.; Franz, H. E.; Ritz, E.; Roehl, L.; Ziegler, M.; Ammann, W.; Maier-Borst, W. [Institut Fuer Nuklearmedizin, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-05-15

    Based on experience gained from more than 1600 patients with proved or suspected kidney diseases and on results on extended studies with dogs, sequential scintigraphy was performed after renal transplantation in dogs. After intravenous injection of 500 {mu}Ci. {sup 131}I-Hippuran scintiphotos were taken during the first minute with an exposure time of 15 sec each and thereafter with an exposure of 2 min up to at least 16 min.. Several examinations were evaluated digitally. 26 examinations were performed on 11 dogs with homotransplanted kidneys. Immediately after transplantation the renal function was almost normal arid the bladder was filled in due time. At the beginning of rejection the initial uptake of radioactive Hippuran was reduced. The intrarenal transport became delayed; probably the renal extraction rate decreased. Corresponding to the development of an oedema in the transplant the uptake area increased in size. In cases of thrombosis of the main artery there was no evidence of any uptake of radioactivity in the transplant. Similar results were obtained in 41 examinations on 15 persons. Patients with postoperative anuria due to acute tubular necrosis showed still some uptake of radioactivity contrary to those with thrombosis of the renal artery, where no uptake was found. In cases of rejection the most frequent signs were a reduced initial uptake and a delayed intrarenal transport of radioactive Hippuran. Infarction could be detected by a reduced uptake in distinct areas of the transplant. (author)

  5. Contemporary treatment of renal tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisen, Harry; Järvinen, Petrus; Fovaeus, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The five Nordic countries comprise 25 million people, and have similar treatment traditions and healthcare systems. To take advantage of these similarities, a collaborative group (Nordic Renal Cancer Group, NORENCA) was founded in 2015. Materials and methods: A questionnaire of 17...

  6. Novel genes in renal aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordmans, Gerda Anke

    2015-01-01

    Renal aging is characterized by structural changes and functional decline. These changes make the elderly more vulnerable to chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, they also make it more difficult to cope with stress factors, such as dehydration, toxicity, and

  7. Renal involvement in Gaucher's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, A.; Gutman, A.; Shapiro, M. S.; Griffel, B.

    1981-01-01

    A patient with chronic Gaucher's disease is described who developed glomerulopathy 24 years after splenectomy terminating in renal failure. The pathological changes of this very rare complication of Gaucher's disease are described. The few similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed and the possible pathogenetic pathways discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7301691

  8. The Radiology of Renal Trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-05-15

    May 15, 1974 ... Retrograde pyelography was performed in 3 patients and renal angio- graphy in 22. Of the 210 cases referred, abnormal radio- logical signs were observed in 112. All the radiological in- vestigations were reviewed to assess the frequency of the various findings. RESULTS. The Plain Film of the Abdomen.

  9. Renal sympathetic denervation in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Michael; Faselis, Charles; Papademetriou, Vasilios

    2011-11-01

    Despite the abundance of antihypertensive drugs, resistant hypertension remains a major clinical problem. Recent technological advances render interventional management of resistant hypertension one of the hottest topics in the hypertension field. The aim of this review is to present the pathophysiologic background and the mechanisms mediating blood pressure reduction after renal sympathetic denervation, to analyze recent findings with this fascinating approach and to critically suggest future research directions. Catheter-based, ablation-induced renal sympathetic denervation was initially studied in 45 patients with resistant hypertension in a proof-of-concept study. Impressive blood pressure reductions of about 30/15  mmHg were achieved at 6 months, without serious complications. A second, controlled, randomized (but not blinded) study confirmed the results, verifying the efficacy and safety of the procedure. A recent report revealed the 2-year durability of blood pressure reduction. Data published so far indicate that ablation-induced renal denervation is a feasible, effective, and well tolerated interventional approach for the management of resistant hypertension. The groundbreaking studies of renal denervation in drug-resistant hypertension pave the way for further research in other disease conditions in which sympathetic overactivity seems to play a critical role. This initial wave of enthusiasm needs to be followed by rigorous investigation, for the proper identification of the potential and the limitations, indications, and contraindications of this approach.

  10. More about... renal and urology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3,4]. Although the incidence of ESRD is high in the elderly, progression to renal failure tends to be low.[3[. The Kidney Disease .... to loosely it will fall off. • When ulceration occurs, the patient needs to stop using the urinary sheath .... If the patient has a history of retrograde ejaculation, it is necessary to prepare the bladder by ...

  11. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the current treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, focusing on medical treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The most important recent publications have been selected after a literature search employing PubMed using the search terms: advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, anti-angiogenesis drugs and systemic therapy; also significant meeting abstracts were consulted. RESULTS: Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, especially related to genetics and angiogenesis, has been achieved mainly through of the study of von Hippel-Lindau disease. A great variety of active agents have been developed and tested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. New specific molecular therapies in metastatic disease are discussed. Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Bevacizumab increase the progression-free survival when compared to therapy with cytokines. Temsirolimus increases overall survival in high-risk patients. Growth factors and regulatory enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase IX may be targets for future therapies. CONCLUSIONS: A broader knowledge of clear cell carcinoma molecular biology has permitted the beginning of a new era in mRCC therapy. Benefits of these novel agents in terms of progression-free and overall survival have been observed in patients with mRCC, and, in many cases, have become the standard of care. Sunitinib is now considered the new reference first-line treatment for mRCC. Despite all the progress in recent years, complete responses are still very rare. Currently, many important issues regarding the use of these agents in the management of metastatic renal cancer still need to be properly addressed.

  12. Live Donor Renal Anatomic Asymmetry and Posttransplant Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, Bekir; Fernandez, Sonalis; Campenot, Eric S; Newhouse, Jeffrey H; Oyfe, Irina; Mohan, Prince; Sandikci, Burhaneddin; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Wexler, Jennifer J; Carroll, Maureen A; Sharif, Sairah; Cohen, David J; Ratner, Lloyd E; Hardy, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Relationship between live donor renal anatomic asymmetry and posttransplant recipient function has not been studied extensively. We analyzed 96 live kidney donors, who had anatomical asymmetry (>10% renal length and/or volume difference calculated from computerized tomography angiograms) and their matching recipients. Split function differences (SFD) were quantified with technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid renography. Implantation biopsies at time 0 were semiquantitatively scored. A comprehensive model using donor renal volume adjusted to recipient weight (Vol/Wgt), SFD, and biopsy score was used to predict recipient estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 year. Primary analysis consisted of a logistic regression model of outcome (odds of developing eGFR>60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year), a linear regression model of outcome (predicting recipient eGFR at one-year, using the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration formula), and a Monte Carlo simulation based on the linear regression model (N=10,000 iterations). In the study cohort, the mean Vol/Wgt and eGFR at 1 year were 2.04 mL/kg and 60.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Volume and split ratios between 2 donor kidneys were strongly correlated (r = 0.79, P 10%) were not different (P = 0.190). On multivariate models, only Vol/Wgt was significantly associated with higher odds of having eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m (odds ratio, 8.94, 95% CI 2.47-32.25, P = 0.001) and had a strong discriminatory power in predicting the risk of eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year [receiver operating curve (ROC curve), 0.78, 95% CI, 0.68-0.89]. In the presence of donor renal anatomic asymmetry, Vol/Wgt appears to be a major determinant of recipient renal function at 1 year after transplantation. Renography can be replaced with CT volume calculation in estimating split renal function.

  13. Microwave treatment of renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yongyan; Liang, Ping; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, Jie; Cheng, Zhigang; Han, Zhiyu; Duan, Shaobo; Huang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study shows US-guided microwave ablation appears to be a promising method to treat renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year RCC-related survival were 100%, 93.3% and 93.3%, respectively. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival were 97.1%, 87.8%, 83.6%, respectively. • For patients with RCC ≤4 cm, initial ablation success was 100% (29/29) and the estimated 5-year disease-free survival were 81.5%. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) adjacent to renal sinus. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 41 patients who underwent US-guided percutaneous MWA of 41 RCCs adjacent to the renal sinus from April 2006 to December 2015. Contrast-enhanced images of US and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed at pre-ablation and 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and every 6 months after ablation. Initial ablation success (IAS), disease-free survival (DFS), RCC-related survival (RRS), and overall survival (OS) were recorded at the follow-up visits. Results: IAS was achieved in 92.7% (38/41) of the study subjects. The IAS significantly differed between patients with RCCs ≤4 cm (100%, 29/29) and RCCs >4 cm (75%, 9/12, p = 0.021). During the median follow-up of 37.6 (range, 3.0–97.3) months, the estimated 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of patients with an initial tumor of ≤4 cm were 100%, 89.7%, and 81.5%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RRS were 100%, 93.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 97.1%, 87.8%, and 83.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed no independent predictor of recurrence among all the variables. There were no MWA-related deaths among the study subjects. One patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after ablation. Conclusion: US-guided percutaneous MWA

  14. Microwave treatment of renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yongyan, E-mail: gaoyongyan7@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Department of Ultrasound, The General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, 69 Yongding Road, Beijing, 100039 (China); Liang, Ping, E-mail: liangping301@hotmail.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Yu, Xiaoling, E-mail: 784107477@qq.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Yu, Jie, E-mail: 1411495161@qq.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Cheng, Zhigang, E-mail: 13691367317@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Han, Zhiyu, E-mail: hanzhiyu122@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Duan, Shaobo, E-mail: Dustin2662@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Huang, Hui, E-mail: 309hh@sina.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • This study shows US-guided microwave ablation appears to be a promising method to treat renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year RCC-related survival were 100%, 93.3% and 93.3%, respectively. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival were 97.1%, 87.8%, 83.6%, respectively. • For patients with RCC ≤4 cm, initial ablation success was 100% (29/29) and the estimated 5-year disease-free survival were 81.5%. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) adjacent to renal sinus. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 41 patients who underwent US-guided percutaneous MWA of 41 RCCs adjacent to the renal sinus from April 2006 to December 2015. Contrast-enhanced images of US and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed at pre-ablation and 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and every 6 months after ablation. Initial ablation success (IAS), disease-free survival (DFS), RCC-related survival (RRS), and overall survival (OS) were recorded at the follow-up visits. Results: IAS was achieved in 92.7% (38/41) of the study subjects. The IAS significantly differed between patients with RCCs ≤4 cm (100%, 29/29) and RCCs >4 cm (75%, 9/12, p = 0.021). During the median follow-up of 37.6 (range, 3.0–97.3) months, the estimated 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of patients with an initial tumor of ≤4 cm were 100%, 89.7%, and 81.5%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RRS were 100%, 93.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 97.1%, 87.8%, and 83.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed no independent predictor of recurrence among all the variables. There were no MWA-related deaths among the study subjects. One patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after ablation. Conclusion: US-guided percutaneous MWA

  15. “Transcollateral” Renal Angioplasty for a Completely Occluded Renal Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Subash; Chadha, Davinder S.; Swamy, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stenting has been effective in the control of hypertension, renal function, and pulmonary edema caused by atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. However, the role of the procedure has not been fully established in the context of chronic total occlusion of renal artery. We report the successful use of this procedure in 57-year-old male patient who reported for evaluation of a recent episode of accelerated hypertension. A renal angiogram in this patient showed ostial stenosis of the right renal artery, which was filling by way of the collateral artery. Renal angioplasty for chronic total occlusion of right renal artery was successfully performed in a retrograde fashion through a collateral artery, thereby leading to improvement of renal function and blood pressure control.

  16. Hepatic progenitor cell resistance to TGF-β1's proliferative and apoptotic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J. Brian; Rice, Lisa; Sadiq, Tim; Brittain, Evan; Song, Lujun; Wang Jian; Gerber, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The success of hepatocellular therapies using stem or progenitor cell populations is dependent upon multiple factors including the donor cell, microenvironment, and etiology of the liver injury. The following experiments investigated the impact of TGF-β1 on a previously described population of hepatic progenitor cells (HPC). The majority of the hepatic progenitor cells were resistant to endogenously produced TGF-β1's proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects unlike more well-differentiated cellular populations (e.g., mature hepatocytes). Surprisingly, in vitro TGF-β1 supplementation significantly inhibited de novo hepatic progenitor cell colony formation possibly via an indirect mechanism(s). Therefore despite the HPC's direct resistance to supplemental TGF-β1, this cytokine's inhibitory effect on colony formation could have a potential negative impact on the use of these cells as a therapy for patients with liver disease

  17. In vitro studies on the radiosensitivity of multipotent hemopoietic progenitors in canine bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreja, L.; Weinsheimer, W.; Nothdurft, W.

    1991-01-01

    The in vitro radiation response to 280-kV x-rays (does rate 72 cGy/min) of multipotent hemopoietic progenitor cells, mixed colony-forming units (CFU-mix), from canine bone marrow was assayed and compared to the radiation response characteristics of early erythroid progenitors, erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E). To improve the colony-forming efficiency, the effect of various bone marrow cell separation techniques on colony formation of both progenitors was examined. The separation of bone marrow aspirates by discontinuous buoyant gradient centrifugation using the lymphocyte separation medium Lymphoprep with a density of 1.070 g/ml allowed the establishment of reproducible survival curves. The survival curves for both progenitors were strictly exponential, and CFU-mix were found to be more radiosensitive (D0 = 12 ± 2 cGy) than BFU-E (D0 = 16 ± 2 cGy)

  18. PLZF regulates fibroblast growth factor responsiveness and maintenance of neural progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Zachary B; Butler, Samantha J; Novitch, Bennett G

    2013-10-01

    Distinct classes of neurons and glial cells in the developing spinal cord arise at specific times and in specific quantities from spatially discrete neural progenitor domains. Thus, adjacent domains can exhibit marked differences in their proliferative potential and timing of differentiation. However, remarkably little is known about the mechanisms that account for this regional control. Here, we show that the transcription factor Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger (PLZF) plays a critical role shaping patterns of neuronal differentiation by gating the expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptor 3 and responsiveness of progenitors to FGFs. PLZF elevation increases FGFR3 expression and STAT3 pathway activity, suppresses neurogenesis, and biases progenitors towards glial cell production. In contrast, PLZF loss reduces FGFR3 levels, leading to premature neuronal differentiation. Together, these findings reveal a novel transcriptional strategy for spatially tuning the responsiveness of distinct neural progenitor groups to broadly distributed mitogenic signals in the embryonic environment.

  19. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 microm diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Behnan Sahin, M; Cressman, Erik N K; Steer, Clifford J

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 microm in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. EMMPRIN overexpression in SVZ neural progenitor cells increases their migration towards ischemic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemitsu, Michiko; Tsupykov, Oleg; Potter, Gaël; Boitard, Michael; Salmon, Patrick; Zgraggen, Eloisa; Gascon, Eduardo; Skibo, Galina; Dayer, Alexandre G; Kiss, Jozsef Z

    2017-11-01

    Stimulation of endogenous neurogenesis and recruitment of neural progenitors from the subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenic site may represent a useful strategy to improve regeneration in the ischemic cortex. Here, we tested whether transgenic overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), the regulator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression, in endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) could increase migration towards ischemic injury. For this purpose, we applied a lentivector-mediated gene transfer system. We found that EMMPRIN-transduced progenitors exhibited enhanced MMP-2 activity in vitro and showed improved motility in 3D collagen gel as well as in cortical slices. Using a rat model of neonatal ischemia, we showed that EMMPRIN overexpressing SVZ cells invade the injured cortical tissue more efficiently than controls. Our results suggest that EMMPRIN overexpression could be suitable approach to improve capacities of endogenous or transplanted progenitors to invade the injured cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of multipotent adult progenitor cells, a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M; Verfaillie, C M

    2001-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated and a subpopulation of cells--multipotent adult progenitor cells--were identified that have the potential for multilineage differentiation. Their ability to engraft and differentiate in vivo is under investigation.

  2. Transplantation of Expanded Fetal Intestinal Progenitors Contributes to Colon Regeneration after Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordham, Robert P; Yui, Shiro; Hannan, Nicholas R F

    2013-01-01

    Regeneration and homeostasis in the adult intestinal epithelium is driven by proliferative resident stem cells, whose functional properties during organismal development are largely unknown. Here, we show that human and mouse fetal intestine contains proliferative, immature progenitors, which can...... be expanded in vitro as Fetal Enterospheres (FEnS). A highly similar progenitor population can be established during intestinal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells. Established cultures of mouse fetal intestinal progenitors express lower levels of Lgr5 than mature progenitors and propagate...... in the presence of the Wnt antagonist Dkk1, and new cultures can be induced to form mature intestinal organoids by exposure to Wnt3a. Following transplantation in a colonic injury model, FEnS contribute to regeneration of colonic epithelium by forming epithelial crypt-like structures expressing region...

  3. ON THE PROGENITOR OF THE TYPE II-PLATEAU SN 2008cn in NGC 4603

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan J.; Smith, Nathan; Morrell, Nidia; Gonzalez, Sergio; Hamuy, Mario; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

    2009-01-01

    A trend is emerging regarding the progenitor stars that give rise to the most common core-collapse supernovae (SNe), those of Type II-Plateau (II-P): they generally appear to be red supergiants with a limited range of initial masses, ∼8-16 M sun . Here, we consider another example, SN 2008cn, in the nearly face-on spiral galaxy NGC 4603. Even with limited photometric data, it appears that SN 2008cn is not a normal SN II-P, but is of the high-luminosity subclass. Through comparison of pre- and post-explosion images obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have isolated a supergiant star prior to explosion at nearly the same position as the SN. We provide evidence that this supergiant may well be the progenitor of the SN, although this identification is not entirely unambiguous. This is exacerbated by the distance to the host galaxy, 33.3 Mpc, making SN 2008cn the most distant SN II-P yet for which an attempt has been made to identify a progenitor star in pre-SN images. The progenitor candidate has a more yellow color ([V - I] 0 = 0.98 mag and T eff = 5200 ± 300 K) than generally would be expected and, if a single star, would require that it exploded during a 'blue loop' evolutionary phase, which is theoretically not expected to occur. Nonetheless, we estimate an initial mass of M ini = 15 ± 2 M sun for this star, which is within the expected mass range for SN II-P progenitors. The yellower color could also arise from the blend of two or more stars, such as a red supergiant and a brighter, blue supergiant. Such a red supergiant hidden in this blend could instead be the progenitor and would also have an initial mass within the expected progenitor mass range. Furthermore, the yellow supergiant could be in a massive, interacting binary system, analogous to the possible yellow supergiant progenitor of the high-luminosity SN II-P 2004et. Finally, if the yellow supergiant is not the progenitor, or is not a stellar

  4. Superselective transcatheter renal arterial embolization for acute renal bleeding in patients with renal insufficiency: its clinical efficacy and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Tingyang; Zhou Bing; Yu Wenqiang; Luo Zuyan; Mao Yingmin; Chen Fanghong; Li Bo; Yuan Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical efficacy and complications of super selective renal arterial embolization in treating acute renal arterial bleeding in patients with renal insufficiency, and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on the renal function. Methods: During the period of January 2000 December 2009, super selective renal arterial embolization was performed in our institution for acute renal bleeding in 13 patients with renal insufficiency. The complete clinical and imaging materials of all patients were properly collected. The clinical effectiveness, the renal function, the extent of embolization and the complications were observed and the relationship between each other was analyzed. Results: The embolization procedure was successfully completed in all patients with a technical success rate of 100%. The mean embolized territory was 22% of a single kidney. Three days after the procedure, the hemoglobin level, hematocrit, blood pressure and heart rate were considerably improved in all patients. Compared to the corresponding preoperative data, all the differences were statistically significant (P 0.05), while the blood urea nitrogen was markedly decreased (P=0.011). Post embolization syndrome occurred in 5 patients and progressive aggravation of the renal function was observed in one patient, who had to receive hemodialysis finally. The embolized territory in patients occurring complications was larger than that in patients without occurring complications (U=1.500, P=0.006). Conclusion: Super selective renal arterial embolization is an effective and safe treatment for acute renal arterial bleeding in patients with renal insufficiency, the therapy will not significantly worsen the renal function. Appropriate and reasonable extent of embolization, as small as possible, is the key point for reducing the complications. (authors)

  5. Renal replacement therapy in sepsis-induced acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapakse Senaka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a common complication of sepsis and carries a high mortality. Renal replacement therapy (RRT during the acute stage is the mainstay of therapy. Va-rious modalities of RRT are available. Continuous RRT using convective methods are preferred in sepsis-induced ARF, especially in hemodynamically unstable patients, although clear evidence of benefit over intermittent hemodialysis is still not available. Peritoneal dialysis is clearly inferior, and is not recommended. Early initiation of RRT is probably advantageous, although the optimal timing of dialysis is yet unknown. Higher doses of RRT are more likely to be beneficial. Use of bio-compatible membranes and bicarbonate buffer in the dialysate are preferred. Anticoagulation during dialysis must be carefully adjusted and monitored.

  6. Regulated proliferation of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells in long-term human marrow cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, J.; Eaves, A.C.; Eaves, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the cycling status of various classes of erythroid and granulopoietic progenitor populations maintained for many weeks in standard normal long-term human marrow cultures. These were initiated with a single inoculum of marrow aspirate and were routinely fed by weekly removal of half of the nonadherent cells and replacement of half of the growth medium. Progenitors of large erythroid colonies (more than eight erythroblast clusters) present in the nonadherent fraction and progenitors of small granulocyte/macrophage colonies (fewer than 500 cells) present in both the nonadherent and adherent fractions were found to be actively cycling at all times examined (28% to 63% kill following a 20-minute exposure to 20 microCi/mL of high specific activity 3 H-thymidine). In contrast, progenitors of large granulocyte/macrophage colonies (more than 500 cells) and progenitors of large erythroid colonies (more than eight erythroblast clusters), present in the adherent layer, consistently alternated between a quiescent state at the time of each weekly medium change and a proliferating state two to three days later (0% to 13% kill and 21% to 49% kill, respectively). Additional experiments revealed that the activation of primitive progenitors in the adherent layer was not dependent on the addition of fresh glutamine or hydrocortisone, nor on the physical manipulations involved in changing the growth medium. These studies provide the first direct evidence that normal long-term human marrow cultures support the continued turnover of a variety of early hematopoietic progenitor cell types. Further, they indicate that the proliferative activity of the most primitive of these progenitors is regulated by stage-specific cell-cell interactions that are subject to manipulation

  7. Progenitor/stem cell transplantation for repair of myocardial infarction: Hype or hope?

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yuliang; Wang, Yuhua; Cao, Nan; Yang, Huangtian; Wang, Yigang

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant therapeutic advances, heart failure remains the predominant cause of mortality worldwide. Currently, progenitor/stem cell biology holds great promise for a new era of cell-based therapy for salvaging the failing heart. However, the translational arm of progenitor/stem cell science is in a relatively primitive state. For the time being, the clinical trials have been both encouraging and disappointing. How to improve the engraftment, long-term survival and appropriate differ...

  8. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanie-Jahromi Fatemeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells with amniotic fluid (AF, RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1 confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  9. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanie-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Davari, Maliheh; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Deezagi, Abdolkhalegh; Pakravesh, Jalil; Bagheri, Abouzar

    2012-04-10

    Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers) during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with amniotic fluid (AF), RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1) confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  10. Wnt5a and Wnt11 are essential for second heart field progenitor development

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Ethan David; Miller, Mayumi F.; Wang, Zichao; Moon, Randall T.; Morrisey, Edward E.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin has a biphasic effect on cardiogenesis, promoting the induction of cardiac progenitors but later inhibiting their differentiation. Second heart field progenitors and expression of the second heart field transcription factor Islet1 are inhibited by the loss of β-catenin, indicating that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for second heart field development. However, expressing a constitutively active β-catenin with Islet1-Cre also inhibits endogenous Islet1 expression, reflectin...

  11. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitors differentiate to cardiomyocytes and form biosynthetic tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Christoforou

    Full Text Available The mammalian heart has little capacity to regenerate, and following injury the myocardium is replaced by non-contractile scar tissue. Consequently, increased wall stress and workload on the remaining myocardium leads to chamber dilation, dysfunction, and heart failure. Cell-based therapy with an autologous, epigenetically reprogrammed, and cardiac-committed progenitor cell source could potentially reverse this process by replacing the damaged myocardium with functional tissue. However, it is unclear whether cardiac progenitor cell-derived cardiomyocytes are capable of attaining levels of structural and functional maturity comparable to that of terminally-fated cardiomyocytes. Here, we first describe the derivation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, which once differentiated allow for the enrichment of Nkx2-5(+ cardiac progenitors, and the cardiomyocyte-specific expression of the red fluorescent protein. We show that the cardiac progenitors are multipotent and capable of differentiating into endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Moreover, cardiac progenitor selection corresponds to cKit(+ cell enrichment, while cardiomyocyte cell-lineage commitment is concomitant with dual expression of either cKit/Flk1 or cKit/Sca-1. We proceed to show that the cardiac progenitor-derived cardiomyocytes are capable of forming electrically and mechanically coupled large-scale 2D cell cultures with mature electrophysiological properties. Finally, we examine the cell progenitors' ability to form electromechanically coherent macroscopic tissues, using a physiologically relevant 3D culture model and demonstrate that following long-term culture the cardiomyocytes align, and form robust electromechanical connections throughout the volume of the biosynthetic tissue construct. We conclude that the iPS cell-derived cardiac progenitors are a robust cell source for tissue engineering applications and a 3D culture platform for pharmacological

  12. DNMT1 Maintains Progenitor Function in Self-Renewing Somatic Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, George L.; Reuter, Jason A.; Webster, Daniel E.; Zhu, Lilly; Khavari, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Progenitor cells maintain self-renewing tissues throughout life by sustaining their capacity for proliferation while suppressing cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation1,2. DNA methylation3,4,5 provides a potential epigenetic mechanism for the cellular memory needed to preserve the somatic progenitor state through repeated cell divisions. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1)6,7 maintains DNA methylation patterns after cellular replication. Although dispensable for embryonic stem cell maintena...

  13. Characterization of stem/progenitor cell cycle using murine circumvallate papilla taste bud organoid

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, Eitaro; Mahe, Maxime M.; Schumacher, Michael A.; Matthis, Andrea L.; Feng, Rui; Ren, Wenwen; Noah, Taeko K.; Matsu-ura, Toru; Moore, Sean R.; Hong, Christian I.; Zavros, Yana; Herness, Scott; Shroyer, Noah F.; Iwatsuki, Ken; Jiang, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing (Lgr5+) cells have been identified as stem/progenitor cells in the circumvallate papillae, and single cultured Lgr5+ cells give rise to taste cells. Here we use circumvallate papilla tissue to establish a three-dimensional culture system (taste bud organoids) that develops phenotypic characteristics similar to native tissue, including a multilayered epithelium containing stem/progenitor in the outer layers and taste cells ...

  14. Renal and post-renal causes of acute renal failure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, A.; Ramzan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify the causes of acute renal failure (ARF) in pediatric population along with the identification of the age and gender most affected by the failure. Subjects and Methods: The study included children under the age of 12 years who presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of ARF (oliguria/anuria, vomiting, acidotic breathing etc.) along with raised blood urea nitrogen (BUN) serum creatinine and metabolic acidosis as shown by arterial blood gases (ABGs). Patients were divided into two group on the basis of age; group A consisting of 0-2 years and group B from >2 years. Patients presenting with transient pre-renal azotaemia were excluded from the study. After providing initial emergency cover, detailed history, physical examination and investigations were carried out according to a proforma specially designed to ascertain the cause of ARF. Patients were managed for ARF as per standard recommendations and investigations completed or repeated as and when required. Results: A total of 119 patients with ARF were admitted in the ward over a period of two years constituting 1.36% of the total admissions and 16.39% of the admissions due to renal pathology. Mean age of presentation was 4.5 years 16.7% of the patients under the age of 5 years. Male predominance was noted in all ages with an overall male to female ratio of 2.3:1. Most common cause leading to ARF in younger age group was found to be hemolytic uremic syndrome [25(54.34%)] followed by septicemia [7(15.21 %)]. In older patients renal calculus disease was the most common [22(30.13%)] underlying pathology followed by pre-existing, undiagnosed chronic renal failure [16(21.91 %)]. Conclusion: ARF is fairly cotton in children especially under the age of 5 years showing a male predominance. More than 90% of the cases can be prevented by improving primary health care and by early and prompt treatment of infections. (author)

  15. Microwave treatment of renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongyan; Liang, Ping; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, Jie; Cheng, Zhigang; Han, Zhiyu; Duan, Shaobo; Huang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) adjacent to renal sinus. This retrospective study included 41 patients who underwent US-guided percutaneous MWA of 41 RCCs adjacent to the renal sinus from April 2006 to December 2015. Contrast-enhanced images of US and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed at pre-ablation and 1day, 1 month, 3 months, and every 6 months after ablation. Initial ablation success (IAS), disease-free survival (DFS), RCC-related survival (RRS), and overall survival (OS) were recorded at the follow-up visits. IAS was achieved in 92.7% (38/41) of the study subjects. The IAS significantly differed between patients with RCCs ≤4cm (100%, 29/29) and RCCs >4cm (75%, 9/12, p=0.021). During the median follow-up of 37.6 (range, 3.0-97.3) months, the estimated 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of patients with an initial tumor of ≤4cm were 100%, 89.7%, and 81.5%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RRS were 100%, 93.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 97.1%, 87.8%, and 83.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed no independent predictor of recurrence among all the variables. There were no MWA-related deaths among the study subjects. One patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after ablation. US-guided percutaneous MWA appears to be a promising method for RCCs adjacent to renal sinus, especially for tumors ≤4cm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does Renal Artery Supply Indicate Treatment Success of Renal Denervation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Axel; Ditting, Tilmann; Sobotka, Paul A.; Veelken, Roland; Schmieder, Roland E.; Uder, Michael; Ott, Christian

    2013-01-01

    PurposeRenal denervation (RDN) emerged as an innovative interventional antihypertensive therapy. With the exception of pretreatment blood pressure (BP) level, no other clear predictor for treatment efficacy is yet known. We analyzed whether the presence of multiple renal arteries has an impact on BP reduction after RDN.MethodsFifty-three patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (office BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (≥130/80 mmHg) underwent bilateral catheter-based RDN. Patients were stratified into one-vessel (OV) (both sides) and at least multivessel (MV) supply at one side. Both groups were treated on one vessel at each side; in case of multiple arteries, only the dominant artery was treated on each side.ResultsBaseline clinical characteristics (including BP, age, and estimated glomerular filtration rate) did not differ between patients with OV (n = 32) and MV (n = 21). Office BP was significantly reduced in both groups at 3 months (systolic: OV −15 ± 23 vs. MV −16 ± 20 mmHg; diastolic: OV −10 ± 12 vs. MV −8 ± 11 mmHg, both p = NS) as well as 6 months (systolic: OV −18 ± 18 vs. MV −17 ± 22 mmHg; diastolic: OV −10 ± 10 vs. −10 ± 12 mmHg, both p = NS) after RDN. There was no difference in responder rate (rate of patients with office systolic BP reduction of at least 10 mmHg after 6 months) between the groups.ConclusionIn patients with multiple renal arteries, RDN of one renal artery—namely, the dominant one—is sufficient to induce BP reduction in treatment-resistant hypertension

  17. Does Renal Artery Supply Indicate Treatment Success of Renal Denervation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Axel, E-mail: axel.schmid@uk-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Ditting, Tilmann, E-mail: tilmann.ditting@uk-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension (Germany); Sobotka, Paul A., E-mail: sobotka@alumni.stanford.edu [Ohio State University (United States); Veelken, Roland, E-mail: roland.veelken@uk-erlangen.de; Schmieder, Roland E., E-mail: roland.schmieder@uk-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension (Germany); Uder, Michael, E-mail: michael.uder@uk-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Ott, Christian, E-mail: christian.ott@uk-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeRenal denervation (RDN) emerged as an innovative interventional antihypertensive therapy. With the exception of pretreatment blood pressure (BP) level, no other clear predictor for treatment efficacy is yet known. We analyzed whether the presence of multiple renal arteries has an impact on BP reduction after RDN.MethodsFifty-three patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (office BP {>=} 140/90 mmHg and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring ({>=}130/80 mmHg) underwent bilateral catheter-based RDN. Patients were stratified into one-vessel (OV) (both sides) and at least multivessel (MV) supply at one side. Both groups were treated on one vessel at each side; in case of multiple arteries, only the dominant artery was treated on each side.ResultsBaseline clinical characteristics (including BP, age, and estimated glomerular filtration rate) did not differ between patients with OV (n = 32) and MV (n = 21). Office BP was significantly reduced in both groups at 3 months (systolic: OV -15 {+-} 23 vs. MV -16 {+-} 20 mmHg; diastolic: OV -10 {+-} 12 vs. MV -8 {+-} 11 mmHg, both p = NS) as well as 6 months (systolic: OV -18 {+-} 18 vs. MV -17 {+-} 22 mmHg; diastolic: OV -10 {+-} 10 vs. -10 {+-} 12 mmHg, both p = NS) after RDN. There was no difference in responder rate (rate of patients with office systolic BP reduction of at least 10 mmHg after 6 months) between the groups.ConclusionIn patients with multiple renal arteries, RDN of one renal artery-namely, the dominant one-is sufficient to induce BP reduction in treatment-resistant hypertension.

  18. Renal oncocytoma in a cat with chronic renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Sora Lee; Hyun-Ji Choi; Han-Byul Lee; Sung-Min Jo; Ji-hye Mun; Woo-Chan Son

    2017-01-01

    Case summary A 9-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat presented with anorexia. Ultrasonography showed an irregularly shaped hypoechoic mass in the cranial pole of the right kidney. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the renal mass was performed. Cytology revealed moderate cellularity smears composed of epithelial cell clusters, which consisted of an exclusive population of oncocytic cells seen in sheets and papillary clusters along with abundant single cells. A moderate-to-a...

  19. [Orthotopic renal transplant: our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gracia, R; Jiménez, C; Gil, F; Escuin, F; Tabernero, A; Sanz, A; Hidalgo, L

    2007-01-01

    Orthotopic renal transplant (ORT) is useful in cases of severe atherosclerosis, heterotopic bilateral transplant, unsuitable pelvic vessels and in aortic thrombosis, but it is not available in all the institutions and it is only realized of exceptional form. To review the indication, surgical technique and outcome of the ORT at our hospital. The studied included five cases between January 1990 and December 2005. We analyzed several variables: demographic characteristics, characteristics of the donor, ischemia times, evolution of renal function and morbi-mortality associated. Left ORT was performed in three men and two women. Mean patient age was 52+/-5 years, all the patients received kidneys from cadaveric donors. Mean creatinine and urea one month postoperative were 2.2+/-0.72 mg/dl and 103+/-17.2 mg/dl and at 6 months postoperative were 1.8+/-0.59 mg/dl and 78+/-14 mg/dl respectively. Immediately all patients received prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin but it was indicated antiaggregation to two patients when they left the hospital, anticoagulation to two patients and to one of them was decided to anticoagulation nor antiagregation for history of bled digestive. A patient died for bleeding episode at level of the renal graft six months after the transplant, she was in treatment with dicumarinics, they were indicated by venous deep thrombosis in right leg. The survival a year is 80 % of the graft and the patient. Only two patients returned to hospital later, one of them for presenting an episode of diverticulitis and the other one for renal obstructive failure that needed laying of catheter pig-tail. Four patients presented stenosis of renal native vassels detected in control magnetic nuclear resonance, not symptomatic. There are two patients who take more than three years transplanted with renal stable function (creatinina 1.3 mg/dl and 1.4 mg/dl respectively). ORT is an excellent option in patients with co-morbidity increased for atherosclerosis and

  20. Canonical Wnt signaling transiently stimulates proliferation and enhances neurogenesis in neonatal neural progenitor cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Cordula; Campano, Louise M.; Woehrle, Simon; Hecht, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling triggers the formation of heterodimeric transcription factor complexes consisting of β-catenin and T cell factors, and thereby controls the execution of specific genetic programs. During the expansion and neurogenic phases of embryonic neural development canonical Wnt signaling initially controls proliferation of neural progenitor cells, and later neuronal differentiation. Whether Wnt growth factors affect neural progenitor cells postnatally is not known. Therefore, we have analyzed the impact of Wnt signaling on neural progenitors isolated from cerebral cortices of newborn mice. Expression profiling of pathway components revealed that these cells are fully equipped to respond to Wnt signals. However, Wnt pathway activation affected only a subset of neonatal progenitors and elicited a limited increase in proliferation and neuronal differentiation in distinct subsets of cells. Moreover, Wnt pathway activation only transiently stimulated S-phase entry but did not support long-term proliferation of progenitor cultures. The dampened nature of the Wnt response correlates with the predominant expression of inhibitory pathway components and the rapid actuation of negative feedback mechanisms. Interestingly, in differentiating cell cultures activation of canonical Wnt signaling reduced Hes1 and Hes5 expression suggesting that during postnatal neural development, Wnt/β-catenin signaling enhances neurogenesis from progenitor cells by interfering with Notch pathway activity