WorldWideScience

Sample records for ptb began retained

  1. Robot goniophotometry at PTB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, M.; Maass, R.; Sauter, G.

    2015-04-01

    The total luminous flux of a light source is the complete integration of its spectral radiance distribution weighted with the photopic observer and taken over all parts of its surface and over the full solid angle of emittance. The spatial distributions are measured with various types of goniophotometers and the PTB robot goniophotometer is a new type with many unique features. It is built as an arrangement of three robots with arms of more than 6 m in length and with 7 degrees of freedom each. The extreme flexibility of the robots allows computer controlled tracks with variable radii and speeds up to 3 m and 1 m s-1, respectively. One robot aligns the light source and the two other robots move photometers and array spectrometers in their hemispheres simultaneously measuring planar illuminance and the related relative spectral distribution. The robot goniophotometer is optimized for the realisation of the luminous flux unit, the lumen and it is completely characterized in this report. The relevant properties and correction factors are explained, as well as the implementation of techniques for synchronisation and stabilisation of spatially resolved or integrated photometric and colorimetric quantities. Finally, all contributions are combined in the model of evaluation for the (total) luminous flux value and the measurement uncertainty associated with that value is evaluated in the presented uncertainty budget. The goniophotometric determination of the values for colorimetric quantities is explained for the total luminous flux and the spatially distributed radiant power.

  2. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  3. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

    2013-05-01

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Système international d'unités, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed by

  4. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 10, 381160 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-05-10

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Systeme international d'unites, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties

  5. The PTB electromagnetic undulator for BESSY II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R; Bahrdt, J; Herzog, D; Ulm, G

    1998-05-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) will operate an electromagnetic undulator designed for radiometry at the BESSY II storage ring. The undulator has a period length of 180 mm, 21 full periods and a maximum magnetic induction of 0.46 T, resulting in a tuning range of the first harmonic from 5 to 150 eV at 1.7 GeV electron energy. Moreover, the electromagnetic design allows the undulator to be operated in a special mode with the period length doubled to 360 mm, thus accordingly shifting the tuning range to lower energies. The main design parameters of the undulator for radiometric applications, as well as measured magnetic field data, are presented.

  6. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Annual report 2015; Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Jahresbericht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-15

    ''PTB's central mission and the demands it places on itself are to make available an innovative metrological infrastructure at the highest international level in Germany to promote Germany's export-oriented high-tech economy, to meet the demands of a complex society and to support science that is operating at the cutting edge worldwide.'' This is what is stated in the ''Agreement on Objectives'' for the years from 2015 to 2019 between the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Energie - BMWi) and PTB, which was signed on 12 January 2016 by State Secretary Machnig and me. Both this agreement and the newly developed ''Work and research program 2015 to 2017'' thus clearly define PTB's medium-term guidelines focusing on ''Innovation and industry'', ''Energy and the environment'', ''Humans and health'', ''Legal and international metrology'' as well as ''The new System of Units''.

  7. Clear retainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyakorn Chaimongkol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear retainer is a removable retainer that is popular in the present day. Compared with conventional fixed and removable orthodontic retainers, it is a more esthetic, comfortable, and inexpensive appliance. Although several studies have been published about clear retainers, it could be difficult to interpret the results because of the variety of study designs, sample sizes, and research methods. This article is intended to compile the content from previous studies and discuss advantages, disadvantages, fabrication, insertion, and adjustment. Moreover, the effectiveness in maintaining dental position, occlusion, retention protocols, thickness, and survival rate of clear retainers is discussed.

  8. Environmental stability of PTB7:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Elhadi A. A.; Taleatu, Bidini; Mola, Genene T.

    2014-12-01

    The short life span of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell in an ambient laboratory condition is one of the challenges hindering the realization of organic-based devices. The presence of moisture and oxygen in conjugated polymer matrix is the major factors responsible for the degradation of organic molecules. The chemical degradation of OPV cell generally depends on the nature of the semiconductor polymer used in the preparation of the devices. However, the lifespan of unprotected OPV cells often ranges in the order of few hours in simple laboratory environment. We are reporting here the lifetime of organic photovoltaic cell in ambient laboratory condition whose active layer is composed of PTB7:PCBM blend.

  9. Interferometry at the PTB Nanometer Comparator: design, status and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flügge, J.; Weichert, Ch.; Hu, H.; Köning, R.; Bosse, H.; Wiegmann, A.; Schulz, M.; Elster, C.; Geckeler, R. D.

    2008-10-01

    To minimize the measurement uncertainty of one dimensional length measurements on line scales, linear encoders and interferometers the PTB in cooperation with the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH had built up a new length comparator. The Nanometer Comparator [1,2] has already proven its performance during the measurements of incremental encoders and line scales with an expanded measurement uncertainty of below 5 nm [3,4,5]. Due to the introduction of double and multiple exposure in advanced lithography techniques the overlay and registration metrology requirements will drastically increase so that reference metrology tools need to be developed further to be able to follow the resulting decrease of the specifications. Therefore, the PTB further develops the new 1D vacuum comparator to add a measurement possibility for straightness and to reach a measurement accuracy in the sub nanometer range [6]. One key development will be the interferometric measurement of all six degrees of freedom of the measurement slide of the comparator. A new multi axis heterodyne interferometer electronics and optical interferometer designs minimizing nonlinearities by spatially separated beams are under development.

  10. New PTB thermal neutron calibration facility: first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Reginatto, M; Wershofen, H; Wiegel, B; Zimbal, A

    2014-10-01

    A new thermal neutron calibration facility based on a moderator assembly has been set up at PTB. It consists of 16 (241)Am-Be radionuclide sources mounted in a graphite block, 1.5 m wide, 1.5 m high and 1.8 m deep. The sources are distributed to eight different positions, at a mean distance of ∼1.25 m from the front face of the moderator. The neutron field at the reference position, 30 cm in front of the moderator device and 75 cm above the floor, has been characterised using calculations, Bonner sphere measurements and gold foil activation. First results are shown. The field is highly thermalised: 99 % in terms of fluence. It is quite homogenous within a 20 cm×20 cm area, but the absolute value of the thermal neutron fluence rate is small and yields an ambient dose equivalent rate of 3 µSv h(-1).

  11. Effects of ptb knockout on butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yali; Yu, Mingrui; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacterium that produces butyrate, acetate, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide from various saccharides, including glucose and xylose. Phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) is a key enzyme in the butyric acid synthesis pathway. In this work, effects of ptb knockout by homologous recombination on metabolic flux and product distribution were investigated. When compared with the wild type, the activities of PTB and butyrate kinase in ptb knockout mutant decreased 76 and 42%, respectively; meanwhile, phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase increased 7 and 29%, respectively. However, ptb knockout did not significantly reduce butyric acid production from glucose or xylose in batch fermentations. Instead, it increased acetic acid and hydrogen production 33.3-53.8% and ≈ 11%, respectively. Thus, the ptb knockout did increase the carbon flux toward acetate synthesis, resulting in a significant decrease (28-35% reduction) in the butyrate/acetate ratio in ptb mutant fermentations. In addition, the mutant displayed a higher specific growth rate (0.20 h(-1) vs. 0.15 h(-1) on glucose and 0.14 h(-1) vs. 0.10 h(-1) on xylose) and tolerance to butyric acid. Consequently, batch fermentation with the mutant gave higher fermentation rate and productivities (26-48% increase for butyrate, 81-100% increase for acetate, and 38-46% increase for hydrogen). This mutant thus can be used more efficiently than the parental strain in fermentations to produce butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen from glucose and xylose.

  12. The origin of high PCE in PTB7 based photovoltaics: proper charge neutrality level and free energy of charge separation at PTB7/PC71BM interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyung; Jeong, Junkyeong; Hyun, Gyeongho; Kim, Minju; Lee, Hyunbok; Yi, Yeonjin

    2016-10-01

    The energy level alignments at donor/acceptor interfaces in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) play a decisive role in device performance. However, little is known about the interfacial energetics in polymer OPVs due to technical issues of the solution process. Here, the frontier ortbial line-ups at the donor/acceptor interface in high performance polymer OPVs, PTB7/PC71BM, were investigated using in situ UPS, XPS and IPES. The evolution of energy levels during PTB7/PC71BM interface formation was investigated using vacuum electrospray deposition, and was compared with that of P3HT/PC61BM. At the PTB7/PC71BM interface, the interface dipole and the band bending were absent due to their identical charge neutrality levels. In contrast, a large interfacial dipole was observed at the P3HT/PC61BM interface. The measured photovoltaic energy gap (EPVG) was 1.10 eV for PTB7/PC71BM and 0.90 eV for P3HT/PC61BM. This difference in the EPVG leads to a larger open-circuit voltage of PTB7/PC71BM than that of P3HT/PC61BM.

  13. Optical simulation of the new PTB sphere interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Torsten; Nicolaus, Arnold

    2017-08-01

    For the redefinition of the SI-unit kilogram the Avogadro constant needs to be determined with lowest possible uncertainty. The approach which is followed by an international group including the PTB is the XRCD-method (Azuma et al 2015 Metrologia 52 360). Currently the uncertainty of the silicon sphere volume determination is the main contribution to the uncertainty of the Avogadro constant and therefore critical for reaching the self-set goal of underrunning a relative uncertainty of 1.5×10-8 . The volume uncertainty itself is dominated by the wave-front deformation uncertainty which occurs due to optical imperfections in the measurement system. Up to now this type of uncertainty was only roughly estimated. This paper presents results from a self developed optical raytracing software which allows the main deviations of the real optical system from the ideal optical design to be investigated. With this software a complete sphere measurement can be simulated which helps to determine the influence of the system imperfections. In result the relative uncertainty contribution of the wave-front uncertainties to the volume measurement can be reduced to 4.5 × 10-9 .

  14. Mercury-induced crystallization and SAD phasing of the human Fe65-PTB1 domain

    OpenAIRE

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Beyreuther, Konrad; Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of the phosphotyrosine-binding domain 1 (PTB1) of the neuronal adaptor protein Fe65 grown in the presence of a mercury derivative show a dramatic improvement in resolution, permitting SAD phasing.

  15. Solution and crystal structures of a C-terminal fragment of the neuronal isoform of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (nPTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Joshi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB serves primarily as a regulator of alternative splicing of messenger RNA, but is also co-opted to other roles such as RNA localisation and translation initiation from internal ribosome entry sites. The neuronal paralogue of PTB (nPTB is 75% identical in amino acid sequence with PTB. Although the two proteins have broadly similar RNA binding specificities and effects on RNA splicing, differential expression of PTB and nPTB can lead to the generation of alternatively spliced mRNAs. RNA binding by PTB and nPTB is mediated by four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs. We present here the crystal and solution structures of the C-terminal domain of nPTB (nPTB34 which contains RRMs 3 and 4. As expected the structures are similar to each other and to the solution structure of the equivalent fragment from PTB (PTB34. The result confirms that, as found for PTB, RRMs 3 and 4 of nPTB interact with one another to form a stable unit that presents the RNA-binding surfaces of the component RRMs on opposite sides that face away from each other. The major differences between PTB34 and nPTB34 arise from amino acid side chain substitutions on the exposed β-sheet surfaces and adjoining loops of each RRM, which are likely to modulate interactions with RNA.

  16. PTB’s Time and Frequency Activities in 2008 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    A. Bauch, 2005, “The PTB primary clocks CS1 and CS2,” Metrologia , 42, S43-S54. [2] R. Wynands and S. Weyers, 2005, “Atomic fountain clocks... Metrologia , 42, S64-S79. [3] V. Gerginov, N. Nemitz, S. Weyers, R. Schröder, D. Griebsch, and R. Wynands, 2010, “Uncertainty evaluation of the caesium...fountain clock PTB-CSF2,” Metrologia , 47, 65-79. [4] W. Lewandowski, G. Panfilo, A Harmegnies, and F. Arias, 2010, “BIPM time section update,” in

  17. Distributed cavity phase frequency shifts of the caesium fountain PTB-CSF2

    CERN Document Server

    Weyers, S; Nemitz, N; Li, R; Gibble, K

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the frequency error from distributed cavity phase in the caesium fountain clock PTB-CSF2 at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt with a combination of frequency measurements and ab initio calculations. The associated uncertainty is 1.3E-16, with a frequency bias of 0.4E-16. The agreement between the measurements and calculations explains the previously observed frequency shifts at elevated microwave amplitude. We also evaluate the frequency bias and uncertainty due to the microwave lensing of the atomic wavepackets. We report a total PTB-CSF2 systematic uncertainty of 4.1E-16.

  18. Analysis of Triplet Exciton Loss Pathways in PTB7:PC71BM Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Hannes; Heiber, Michael C.; Väth, Stefan; Kern, Julia; Deibel, Carsten; Sperlich, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    A strategy for increasing the conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaics has been to increase the VOC by tuning the energy levels of donor and acceptor components. However, this opens up a new loss pathway from an interfacial charge transfer state to a triplet exciton (TE) state called electron back transfer (EBT), which is detrimental to device performance. To test this hypothesis, we study triplet formation in the high performing PTB7:PC71BM blend system and determine the impact of the morphology-optimizing additive 1,8-diiodoctane (DIO). Using photoluminescence and spin-sensitive optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) measurements at low temperature, we find that TEs form on PC71BM via intersystem crossing from singlet excitons and on PTB7 via EBT mechanism. For DIO blends with smaller fullerene domains, an increased density of PTB7 TEs is observed. The EBT process is found to be significant only at very low temperature. At 300 K, no triplets are detected via ODMR, and electrically detected magnetic resonance on optimized solar cells indicates that TEs are only present on the fullerenes. We conclude that in PTB7:PC71BM devices, TE formation via EBT is impacted by fullerene domain size at low temperature, but at room temperature, EBT does not represent a dominant loss pathway.

  19. PTB Binds to the 3’ Untranslated Region of the Human Astrovirus Type 8: A Possible Role in Viral Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Hernández, Wendy; Velez-Uriza, Dora; Valdés, Jesús; Vélez-Del Valle, Cristina; Salas-Benito, Juan; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca; García-Espítia, Matilde; Salas-Benito, Mariana; Vega-Almeida, Tania; De Nova-Ocampo, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of human astroviruses (HAstV) consists of two hairpin structures (helix I and II) joined by a linker harboring a conserved PTB/hnRNP1 binding site. The identification and characterization of cellular proteins that interact with the 3′UTR of HAstV-8 virus will help to uncover cellular requirements for viral functions. To this end, mobility shift assays and UV cross-linking were performed with uninfected and HAstV-8-infected cell extracts and HAstV-8 3′UTR probes. Two RNA-protein complexes (CI and CII) were recruited into the 3′UTR. Complex CII formation was compromised with cold homologous RNA, and seven proteins of 35, 40, 45, 50, 52, 57/60 and 75 kDa were cross-linked to the 3′UTR. Supermobility shift assays indicated that PTB/hnRNP1 is part of this complex, and 3′UTR-crosslinked PTB/hnRNP1 was immunoprecipitated from HAstV-8 infected cell-membrane extracts. Also, immunofluorescence analyses revealed that PTB/hnRNP1 is distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of uninfected cells, but it is mainly localized perinuclearly in the cytoplasm of HAstV-8 infected cells. Furthermore, the minimal 3′UTR sequences recognized by recombinant PTB are those conforming helix I, and an intact PTB/hnRNP1-binding site. Finally, small interfering RNA-mediated PTB/hnRNP1 silencing reduced synthesis viral genome and virus yield in CaCo2 cells, suggesting that PTB/hnRNP1 is required for HAstV replication. In conclusion, PTB/hnRNP1 binds to the 3′UTR HAstV-8 and is required or participates in viral replication. PMID:25406089

  20. Crystal Structures of the BAR-PH and PTB Domains of Human APPL1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li,J.; Mao, X.; Dong, L.; Liu, F.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    APPL1 interacts with adiponectin receptors and other important signaling molecules. It contains a BAR and a PH domain near its N terminus, and the two domains may function as a unit (BAR-PH domain). We report here the crystal structures of the BAR-PH and PTB domains of human APPL1. The structures reveal novel features for BAR domain dimerization and for the interactions between the BAR and PH domains. The BAR domain dimer of APPL1 contains two four-helical bundles, whereas other BAR domain dimers have only three helices in each bundle. The PH domain is located at the opposite ends of the BAR domain dimer. Yeast two-hybrid assays confirm the interactions between the BAR and PH domains. Lipid binding assays show that the BAR, PH, and PTB domains can bind phospholipids. The ability of APPL1 to interact with multiple signaling molecules and phospholipids supports an important role for this adaptor in cell signaling.

  1. Electron counting capacitance standard and quantum metrology triangle experiments at PTB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, H.; Schurr, J.; Ahlers, F. J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper summarizes the final results of the electron counting capacitance standard experiment at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) achieved since the publication of a preliminary result in 2012. All systematic uncertainty contributions were experimentally quantified and are discussed. Frequency-dependent measurements on the 1 pF cryogenic capacitor were performed using a high-precision transformer-based capacitance bridge with a relative uncertainty of 0.03 µF F-1. The results revealed a crucial problem related to the capacitor, which hampered realizing the quantum metrology triangle with an accuracy corresponding to a combined total uncertainty of better than a few parts per million and eventually caused the discontinuation of the experiment at PTB. This paper provides a conclusion on the implications for future quantum metrology triangle experiments from the latest CODATA adjustment of fundamental constants, and summarizes perspectives and outlooks on future quantum metrology triangle experiments based on topical developments in small-current metrology.

  2. Modeling the Free Carrier Recombination Kinetics in PTB7:PCBM Organic Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhout, Stefan D.; Ferguson, Andrew J.; Larson, Bryon W.; Olson, Dana C.; Kopidakis, Nikos

    2016-11-03

    Currently the exact recombination mechanism of free carriers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is poorly understood. Often a reduced Langevin model is used to describe the decay behavior of electrons and holes. Here we propose a novel, simple kinetic model that accurately describes the decay behavior of free carriers in the PTB7:PCBM organic photovoltaic blend. This model needs to only take into account free and trapped holes in the polymer, and free electrons in the fullerene, to accurately describe the recombination behavior of free carriers as measured by time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC). The model is consistent for different PTB7:PCBM blend ratios and spans a light intensity range of over 3 orders of magnitude. The model demonstrates that dark carriers exist in the polymer and interact with photoinduced charge carriers, and that the trapping and detrapping rates of the holes are of high importance to the overall carrier lifetime.

  3. Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubert, D. R.; Hollandt, J.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Hoepe, A.; Hauer, K.-O. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Gege, P.; Schwarzmaier, T.; Lenhard, K.; Baumgartner, A. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut fuer Methodik der Fernerkundung, 82234 Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    2013-05-10

    A dedicated calibration technique was applied for the calibration of the spectral radiance transfer standard (RASTA) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), consisting of two independent but complementing calibration procedures to provide redundancy and smallest possible calibration uncertainties. Procedure I included two calibration steps: In a first step the optical radiation source of RASTA, an FEL lamp, was calibrated in terms of its spectral irradiance E{sub {lambda}}({lambda}) in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 2400 nm using the PTB Spectral Irradiance Calibration Equipment (SPICE), while in a second step the spectral radiance factor {beta}{sub 0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign }({lambda}) of the RASTA reflection standard was calibrated in a 0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign -viewing geometry in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 1700 nm at the robot-based gonioreflectometer facility of PTB. The achieved relative standard uncertainties (k= 1) range from 0.6 % to 3.2 % and 0.1 % to 0.6 % respectively. Procedure II was completely independent from procedure I and allowed to cover the entire spectral range of RASTA from 350 nm to 2500 nm. In the second procedure, the 0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign -viewing geometry spectral radiance L{sub {lambda},0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign }({lambda}) of RASTA was directly calibrated at the Spectral Radiance Comparator Facility (SRCF) of PTB. The relative uncertainties for this calibration procedure range from 0.8 % in the visible up to 7.5 % at 2500 nm (k= 1). In the overlapping spectral range of both calibration procedures the calculated spectral radiance L{sub {lambda},0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign ,calc}({lambda}) from procedure I is in good agreement with the direct measurement of procedure II, i.e. well within the combined expanded uncertainties (k= 2) of both procedures.

  4. Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, D. R.; Hollandt, J.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Höpe, A.; Hauer, K.-O.; Gege, P.; Schwarzmaier, T.; Lenhard, K.; Baumgartner, A.

    2013-05-01

    A dedicated calibration technique was applied for the calibration of the spectral radiance transfer standard (RASTA) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), consisting of two independent but complementing calibration procedures to provide redundancy and smallest possible calibration uncertainties. Procedure I included two calibration steps: In a first step the optical radiation source of RASTA, an FEL lamp, was calibrated in terms of its spectral irradiance Eλ(λ) in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 2400 nm using the PTB Spectral Irradiance Calibration Equipment (SPICE), while in a second step the spectral radiance factor β0°:45°(λ) of the RASTA reflection standard was calibrated in a 0°:45°-viewing geometry in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 1700 nm at the robot-based gonioreflectometer facility of PTB. The achieved relative standard uncertainties (k = 1) range from 0.6 % to 3.2 % and 0.1 % to 0.6 % respectively. Procedure II was completely independent from procedure I and allowed to cover the entire spectral range of RASTA from 350 nm to 2500 nm. In the second procedure, the 0°:45°-viewing geometry spectral radiance Lλ,0°:45°(λ) of RASTA was directly calibrated at the Spectral Radiance Comparator Facility (SRCF) of PTB. The relative uncertainties for this calibration procedure range from 0.8 % in the visible up to 7.5 % at 2500 nm (k = 1). In the overlapping spectral range of both calibration procedures the calculated spectral radiance Lλ,0°:45°,calc(λ) from procedure I is in good agreement with the direct measurement of procedure II, i.e. well within the combined expanded uncertainties (k = 2) of both procedures.

  5. Toward Efficient Thick Active PTB7 Photovoltaic Layers Using Diphenyl Ether as a Solvent Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yifan; Goh, Tenghooi; Fan, Pu; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng; Taylor, André D

    2016-06-22

    The development of thick organic photovoltaics (OPV) could increase absorption in the active layer and ease manufacturing constraints in large-scale solar panel production. However, the efficiencies of most low-bandgap OPVs decrease substantially when the active layers exceed ∼100 nm in thickness (because of low crystallinity and a short exciton diffusion length). Herein, we report the use of solvent additive diphenyl ether (DPE) that facilitates the fabrication of thick (180 nm) active layers and triples the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of conventional thienothiophene-co-benzodithiophene polymer (PTB7)-based OPVs from 1.75 to 6.19%. These results demonstrate a PCE 20% higher than those of conventional (PTB7)-based OPV devices using 1,8-diiodooctane. Morphology studies reveal that DPE promotes the formation of nanofibrillar networks and ordered packing of PTB7 in the active layer that facilitate charge transport over longer distances. We further demonstrate that DPE improves the fill factor and photocurrent collection by enhancing the overall optical absorption, reducing the series resistance, and suppressing bimolecular recombination.

  6. Progress Report on the Cooperation Between NMIJ and PTB on Zinc Point Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiatmo, J. V.; Rudtsch, S.; Yamazawa, K.

    2017-05-01

    The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have agreed to conduct a collaborative study on zinc point cells. An open-type zinc cell was prepared to act as a transfer cell in this collaboration, and cells were prepared for both institutes to perform experiments using a common cell during the collaboration. The experiments reflect concerns that both institutes have been studying independently over the past several years using an open-type cell. The concerns include the impurity effect, stability of the realized temperature, and the difference in the heat flux due to a change in the filling gas. A part of the zinc sample extracted during the fabrication of this cell was analyzed, and for the purpose of confirmation, the initial sample taken from the same lot as that used in the transfer cell was also analyzed. The stability of the transfer was evaluated from cell comparisons performed by NMIJ before and after the air transportation between PTB and NMIJ. PTB and NMIJ demonstrated an increase in temperature at the zinc point due to a change in the filling gas from argon to helium. The improvement using helium gas was found strongly to depend on the construction of the cell and the fixed-point furnace design. The analysis of the zinc sample confirmed a strong inhomogeneity of Pb and a contamination by some elements. Careful analysis for estimating the impurity effect on the temperature realized using the transfer cell was also conducted based on the latest studies to avoid an improper application of fixed-point correction.

  7. Ever Since the World Began: A Reading & Interview with Masha Tupitsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Tupitsyn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Writer and cultural critic Masha Tupitsyn is interviewed on her audio recording of her reading Ever Since This World Began, produced specially for this issue of continent. and adapted from her recently published Love Dog (Success and Failure out from Penny-Ante Editions.

  8. Man creation had began since the creation of the first biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Man creation had began since the creation of the first biological material very likely in ... of holy Qur'an verses related to the topic of man creation, the man creation had ... paper I will show that this conclusion is not in discordance with science.

  9. Liquid eutectic GaIn as an alternative electrode for PTB7:PCBM organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Hau Pham, Viet; Kieu Trinh, Thanh; Tam Nguyen Truong, Nguyen; Park, Chinho

    2017-04-01

    Conventional vacuum deposition process of aluminum (Al) is costly, time-consuming and difficult to apply to the large-scale production of organic photovoltaic devices (OPV). This paper reports a vacuum-free fabrication process of poly[[4,8-bis(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thienophenediyl]:[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PTB7:PCBM) bulk heterojunction organic solar cell with liquid eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) electrode as an alternative to the common Al electrode. The insertion of a thin poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layer after depositing organic photoactive layer could help prevent the diffusion of liquid EGaIn into the active layer and allow the deposition of the EGaIn electrode. The PEO interfacial layer was formed by spin-coating from a mixed solvent of alcohol and water. Among different alcohol+water (methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, n-propanol, isopropanol, and isobutanol) mixed solvent tested, the n-propanol+water mixed solvent showed the greatest enhancement to the performance of OPVs. The improved device performance was attributed to the reactivity of mixed solvent n-propanol+water toward the surface of PTB7:PCBM active layer, which could help optimize surface morphology.

  10. Degradation mechanism of a low band gap polymer PTB7 by oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyung; Jeong, Junkyeong; Lee, Hyunbok; Yi, Yeonjin

    Recently, the PCE of OPVs is at the 10% mark by using donor materials having a low band gap, such as poly(4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-4,6-diyl) (PTB7) and its analogues. In spite of the significant PCE improvement, the lifetime issue still remains open problem. To solve these technical limitations fundamentally, the degradation mechanism should be understood. It can be revealed by investigating the electronic structures of polymers with controlled exposure of oxygen, moisture and light. In this study, ultraviolet, X-ray and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed with step-by-step exposure of controlled oxygen, moisture and light to investigate the degradation mechanism of each polymer film. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) were also performed to understand detailed degradation process. From the experimental results, we demonstrate that push-pull polymers are more sensitive to environmental conditions, compared with non-push-pull (conventional) polymers such as poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT). In addition, we show high photo-oxidation of PTB7 is originated from the structural reason.

  11. Improved GPS-based time link calibration involving ROA and PTB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Héctor; Palacio, Juan; Galindo, Francisco Javier; Feldmann, Thorsten; Bauch, Andreas; Piester, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    The calibration of time transfer links is mandatory in the context of international collaboration for the realization of International Atomic Time. In this paper, we present the results of the calibration of the GPS time transfer link between the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) by means of a traveling geodetic-type GPS receiver and an evaluation of the achieved type A and B uncertainty. The time transfer results were achieved by using CA, P3, and also carrier phase PPP comparison techniques. We finally use these results to re-calibrate the two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) link between ROA and PTB, using one month of data. We show that a TWSTFT link can be calibrated by means of GPS time comparisons with an uncertainty below 2 ns, and that potentially even sub-nanosecond uncertainty can be achieved. This is a novel and cost-effective approach compared with the more common calibration using a traveling TWSTFT station.

  12. New PTB Setup for the Absolute Calibration of the Spectral Responsivity of Radiation Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt, K.; Zelenjuk, A.; Taubert, D. R.; Keawprasert, T.; Hartmann, J.

    2009-02-01

    The paper describes the new experimental setup assembled at the PTB for the absolute spectral responsivity measurement of radiation thermometers. The concept of this setup is to measure the relative spectral responsivity of the radiation thermometer using the conventional monochromator-based spectral comparator facility also used for the calibration of filter radiometers. The absolute spectral responsivity is subsequently measured at one wavelength, supplied by the radiation of a diode laser, using the new setup. The radiation of the diode laser is guided with an optical fiber into an integrating sphere source that is equipped with an aperture of absolutely known area. The spectral radiance of this integrating sphere source is determined via the spectral irradiance measured by a trap detector with an absolutely calibrated spectral responsivity traceable to the primary detector standard of the PTB, the cryogenic radiometer. First results of the spectral responsivity calibration of the radiation thermometer LP3 are presented, and a provisional uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity is given.

  13. Solution structure and peptide binding of the PTB domain from the AIDA1 postsynaptic signaling scaffolding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Smirnova

    Full Text Available AIDA1 links persistent chemical signaling events occurring at the neuronal synapse with global changes in gene expression. Consistent with its role as a scaffolding protein, AIDA1 is composed of several protein-protein interaction domains. Here we report the NMR structure of the carboxy terminally located phosphotyrosine binding domain (PTB that is common to all AIDA1 splice variants. A comprehensive survey of peptides identified a consensus sequence around an NxxY motif that is shared by a number of related neuronal signaling proteins. Using peptide arrays and fluorescence based assays, we determined that the AIDA1 PTB domain binds amyloid protein precursor (APP in a similar manner to the X11/Mint PTB domain, albeit at reduced affinity (∼10 µM that may allow AIDA1 to effectively sample APP, as well as other protein partners in a variety of cellular contexts.

  14. Amplitude-Mode Spectroscopy of Charge Excitations in PTB7 π -Conjugated Donor-Acceptor Copolymer for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniya, Sangita; Vardeny, Shai R.; Lafalce, Evan; Peygambarian, Nasser; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2017-06-01

    We measure the spectra of resonant Raman scattering and doping-induced absorption of pristine films of the π -conjugated donor-acceptor (D -A ) copolymer, namely, thieno[3,4 b]thiophene-alt-benzodithiophene (PTB7), as well as photoinduced absorption spectrum in a blend of PTB7 with fullerene phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester molecules used for organic photovoltaic (OPV) applications. We find that the D -A copolymer contains six strongly coupled vibrational modes having relatively strong Raman-scattering intensity, which are renormalized upon adding charge polarons onto the copolymer chains either by doping or photogeneration. Since the lower-energy charge-polaron absorption band overlaps with the renormalized vibrational modes, they appear as antiresonance lines superposed onto the induced polaron absorption band in the photoinduced absorption spectrum but less so in the doping-induced absorption spectrum. We show that the Raman-scattering, doping-, and photoinduced absorption spectra of PTB7 are well explained by the amplitude mode model, where a single vibrational propagator describes the renormalized modes and their related intensities in detail. From the relative strengths of the induced infrared activity of the polaron-related vibrations and electronic transitions, we obtain the polaron effective kinetic mass in PTB7 using the amplitude mode model to be approximately 3.8 m* , where m* is the electron effective mass. The enhanced polaronic mass in PTB7 may limit the charge mobility, which, in turn, reduces the OPV solar-cell efficiency based on the PTB7-fullerene blend.

  15. Final results of bilateral comparison between NIST and PTB for flows of high pressure natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickan, B.; Toebben, H.; Johnson, A.; Kegel, T.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 NIST developed a US national flow standard to provide traceability for flow meters used for custody transfer of pipeline quality natural gas. NIST disseminates the SI unit of flow by calibrating a customer flow meter against a parallel array of turbine meter working standards, which in turn are traceable to a pressure-volume-temperature-time (PVTt) primary standard. The calibration flow range extends from 0.125 actual m3/s to 9 actual m3/s with an expanded uncertainty as low as 0.22% at high flows, and increasing to almost 0.40% at the lowest flows. Details regarding the traceability chain and uncertainty analysis are documented in prior publications. The current manuscript verifies NIST's calibration uncertainty via a bilateral comparison with the German National Metrology Institute PTB. The results of the bilateral are linked to the 2006 key comparison results between three EURAMET national metrology institutes (i.e., PTB, VSL and LNE). Linkage is accomplished in spite of using a different transfer standard in the bilateral versus the key comparison. A mathematical proof is included that demonstrates that the relative difference between a laboratory's measured flow and the key comparison reference value is independent of the transfer package for most flow measurement applications. The bilateral results demonstrate that NIST's natural gas flow measurements are within their specified uncertainties and are equivalent to those of the EURAMET National Metrology Institutes. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Precise time and frequency intercomparison between NPL, India and PTB, Federal Republic of Germany via satellite symphonie-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, B. S.; Banerjee, P.; Sood, P. C.; Saxena, M.; Kumar, N.; Suri, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    A time and frequency intercomparison experiment conducted using Earth stations in New Delhi, India and Raisting, FRG is described. The NPL clock was placed at New Delhi Earth Station and the Raisting Clock was calibrated with PTB/Primary standard via LORAN-C and travelling clocks. The random uncertainity of time comparisons, represented by two sample Allan Variance sigma (30 seconds), was less than 10 nanoseconds. The relative frequency difference between the NPL and Raisting Clocks, SNPL, RAIS, as measured over the 44 days period was found to be -15.7 x 10 to the -13th power. The relative frequency difference between PTB Primary Standard and Raisting Clock, SPTB, RAIS, during this period, was measured to be -22.8 x 10 to the -13th power. The relative frequency difference between NPL clock and PTB Primary Standard, SNPL, PTB, thus, is +7.1 x 10 to the -13th power. The clock rate (UTC, India) of +7.1 + or - 0.5 x 10 to the -13th power, agrees well with that obtained via VLF phase measurements over one year period and with USNO travelling clock time comparisons made in September, 1980.

  17. NEMUS--the PTB Neutron Multisphere Spectrometer Bonner spheres and more

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegel, B

    2002-01-01

    The original Bonner sphere spectrometer as it is used and characterized by PTB consists of 12 polyethylene spheres with diameters from 7.62 cm (3'') to 45.72 cm (18'') and a sup 3 He-filled spherical proportional counter used as a central thermal-neutron-sensitive detector and as a bare or cadmium-shielded bare detector. In this paper, a set of four new spheres made of polyethylene with copper or lead inlets is introduced. All spheres are less than 18 kg in mass and their responses to high energy neutrons increase with energy as a result of the increasing (n,xn) cross-sections of copper and lead. The fluence response matrix was calculated up to 10 GeV using an extended neutron cross-section library (LA150) and the MCNP(X) Monte Carlo code. Calibration measurements with neutron energies up to 60 MeV were used to compare the calculated response functions to measured values. For measurements outside the laboratory, a miniaturized, battery-powered electronic set-up was developed. This system with the additional, ...

  18. Nanoscale Morphology of PTB7 Based Organic Photovoltaics as a Function of Fullerene Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehling, John D; Baran, Derya; Sit, Joseph; Kassar, Thaer; Ameri, Tayebeh; Unruh, Tobias; Brabec, Christoph J; Moulé, Adam J

    2016-08-08

    High efficiency polymer:fullerene photovoltaic device layers self-assemble with hierarchical features from ångströms to 100's of nanometers. The feature size, shape, composition, orientation, and order all contribute to device efficiency and are simultaneously difficult to study due to poor contrast between carbon based materials. This study seeks to increase device efficiency and simplify morphology measurements by replacing the typical fullerene acceptor with endohedral fullerene Lu3N@PC80BEH. The metal atoms give excellent scattering contrast for electron beam and x-ray experiments. Additionally, Lu3N@PC80BEH has a lower electron affinity than standard fullerenes, which can raise the open circuit voltage of photovoltaic devices. Electron microscopy techniques are used to produce a detailed account of morphology evolution in mixtures of Lu3N@PC80BEH with the record breaking donor polymer, PTB7 and coated using solvent mixtures. We demonstrate that common solvent additives like 1,8-diiodooctane or chloronapthalene do not improve the morphology of endohedral fullerene devices as expected. The poor device performance is attributed to the lack of mutual miscibility between this particular polymer:fullerene combination and to co-crystallization of Lu3N@PC80BEH with 1,8-diiodooctane. This negative result explains why solvent additives mixtures are not necessarily a morphology cure-all.

  19. Nanoscale Morphology of PTB7 Based Organic Photovoltaics as a Function of Fullerene Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehling, John D.; Baran, Derya; Sit, Joseph; Kassar, Thaer; Ameri, Tayebeh; Unruh, Tobias; Brabec, Christoph J.; Moulé, Adam J.

    2016-08-01

    High efficiency polymer:fullerene photovoltaic device layers self-assemble with hierarchical features from ångströms to 100’s of nanometers. The feature size, shape, composition, orientation, and order all contribute to device efficiency and are simultaneously difficult to study due to poor contrast between carbon based materials. This study seeks to increase device efficiency and simplify morphology measurements by replacing the typical fullerene acceptor with endohedral fullerene Lu3N@PC80BEH. The metal atoms give excellent scattering contrast for electron beam and x-ray experiments. Additionally, Lu3N@PC80BEH has a lower electron affinity than standard fullerenes, which can raise the open circuit voltage of photovoltaic devices. Electron microscopy techniques are used to produce a detailed account of morphology evolution in mixtures of Lu3N@PC80BEH with the record breaking donor polymer, PTB7 and coated using solvent mixtures. We demonstrate that common solvent additives like 1,8-diiodooctane or chloronapthalene do not improve the morphology of endohedral fullerene devices as expected. The poor device performance is attributed to the lack of mutual miscibility between this particular polymer:fullerene combination and to co-crystallization of Lu3N@PC80BEH with 1,8-diiodooctane. This negative result explains why solvent additives mixtures are not necessarily a morphology cure-all.

  20. Calibration of tissue-equivalent proportional counters with the PTB neutron reference fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm, Johannes [Institut fuer medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz, Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Wiesenstrasse 14, 35390 Giessen (Germany); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Breckow, Joachim [Institut fuer medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz, Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Wiesenstrasse 14, 35390 Giessen (Germany); Burda, Oleksiy; Klages, Thorsten; Langner, Frank; Wissmann, Frank [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Dose determination in microdosimetric dimensions is essential for radiation protection, as well as for radiation biology and radiation therapy. Especially in mixed radiation fields with a large neutron component a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) is an excellent instrument for dose measurement. The TEPC response to neutrons was measured using the PTB neutron reference fields at energies of 0.606 MeV, 1.2 MeV, 8 MeV and 19 MeV. To determine dose and dose-equivalent microdosimetric spectra, a system with three gain stages was set up to cover a linear energy range from 10{sup -2} keV/{mu}m up to 10{sup 4} keV/{mu}m. Two spherical TEPCs with a diameter of 2.24 were filled with a propane based tissue-equivalent gas mixture to simulate a tissue diameter of 2 {mu}m and 4 {mu}m, respectively. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of different gas fillings and to obtain the response function of the TEPC with regard to monoenergetic neutron reference fields.

  1. Frequency comparison of ${}^{171}$Yb${}^+$ ion optical clocks at PTB and NPL via GPS PPP

    CERN Document Server

    Leute, J; Lipphardt, B; Tamm, Chr; Nisbet-Jones, P B R; King, S A; Godun, R M; Jones, J M; Margolis, H S; Whibberley, P B; Wallin, A; Merimaa, M; Gill, P; Peik, E

    2015-01-01

    We used Precise Point Positioning, a well-established GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer method to perform a direct remote comparison of two optical frequency standards based on single laser-cooled $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ions operated at NPL, UK and PTB, Germany. At both institutes an active hydrogen maser serves as a flywheel oscillator; it is connected to a GPS receiver as an external frequency reference and compared simultaneously to a realization of the unperturbed frequency of the ${{}^2S_{1/2}(F=0)-{}^2D_{3/2}(F=2)}$ electric quadrupole transition in ${}^{171}$Yb${}^+$ via an optical femtosecond frequency comb. To profit from long coherent GPS link measurements we extrapolate over the various data gaps in the optical clock to maser comparisons which introduces maser noise to the frequency comparison but improves the uncertainty from the GPS link. We determined the total statistical uncertainty consisting of the GPS link uncertainty and the extrapolation uncertainties for several extrapolation schemes. Using t...

  2. Comparison of line width calibration using critical dimension atomic force microscopes between PTB and NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Hahm, Kai; Bosse, Harald; Dixson, Ronald G.

    2017-06-01

    International comparisons between National Metrology Institutes are important to verify measurement results and the associated uncertainties. In this paper, we report a comparison of the line width calibration of a crystalline silicon line width standard, referred to as IVPS100-PTB standard, between the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany and the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the United States. Critical dimension atomic force microscopy was the measurement method used for this comparison. Both institutes applied generally the same but independently developed traceability pathways: the scaling factor of the atomic force microscope (AFM) scanner was calibrated by a set of step height and lateral standards certified by metrological AFMs, while the effective tip width was ultimately traceable to the lattice parameter of silicon via high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Good agreement has been achieved in the comparison: For two groups of line features with nominal critical dimensions (CDs) of 50 nm, 70 nm, 90 nm, 110 nm and 130 nm that were compared, the observed deviations of CD results were between  -1.5 nm and 0.3 nm. The deviations are well within the associated measurement uncertainty.

  3. Gossypiboma—Retained Surgical Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Shun Sun

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-abdominal retained surgical sponge is an uncommon surgical error. Herein, we report a 92-year-old woman who was brought to the emergency room for acute urinary retention. She had a history of vaginal hysterectomy for uterine prolapse 18 years previously, performed at our hospital. Retained surgical sponge in the pelvic cavity was suspected by abdominal computed tomography. The surgical gauze was removed by laparotomy excision and the final diagnosis was gossypiboma.

  4. Interfacial energy level alignments between low-band-gap polymer PTB7 and indium zinc oxide anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongguen; Lee, Jeihyun; Park, Soohyung; Jeong, Junkyeong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Kim, Han-Ki; Choi, Min-Jun; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Yi, Yeonjin

    2015-09-01

    The interfacial energy level alignments between poly(thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene)-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) and indium zinc oxide (IZO) were investigated. In situ ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy measurements were conducted with the step-by-step deposition of PTB7 on IZO substrate. All spectral changes were analyzed between each deposition step, and interfacial energy level alignments were estimated. The hole barrier of standard ultraviolet-ozone treated IZO is 0.58 eV, which is lower than the value of 1.09 eV obtained for bare IZO. The effect of barrier reduction on the hole transport was also confirmed with electrical measurements of hole-dominated devices.

  5. Why is understanding when Plate Tectonics began important for understanding Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, J.

    2015-12-01

    Almost all kinds of geological activities on Earth depend critically on the operation of plate tectonics, but did plate tectonics initiate right after the solidification of a putative magma ocean, or did it start much later, e.g., sometime during the Archean? This problem of the initiation of plate tectonics in the Earth history presents us a unique combination of observational and theoretical challenges. Finding geological evidence for the onset of plate tectonics is difficult because plate tectonics is a dynamic process that continuously destroys a remnant of the past. We therefore need to rely on more secondary traces, the interpretation of which often involves theoretical considerations. At the same time, it is still hard to predict, on a firm theoretical ground, when plate tectonics should have prevailed, because there is no consensus on why plate tectonics currently takes place on Earth. Knowing when plate tectonics began is one thing, and understanding why it did so is another. The initiation of plate tectonics is one of the last frontiers in earth science, which encourages a concerted effort from both geologists and geophysicists to identify key geological evidence and distinguish between competing theories of early Earth evolution. Such an endeavor is essential to arrive at a self-contained theory for the evolution of terrestrial planets.

  6. Genesis How the Universe Began According to Standard Model Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tipler, F J

    2001-01-01

    I show that the mutual consistency of the Bekenstein Bound, the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, and general relativity implies that the universe began in a unique state. I solve the coupled EYM equations for this unique state, show how the horizon problem is solved, and how SM baryogenesis naturally results from the triangle anomoly. Since the SU(2) winding number state is thus non-zero, the universe is not in the QCD ground state, and this plausibly yields a (small) positive cosmological constant. Since the initial state is unique, it is necessarily homogeneous and isotropic, as required by the Bekenstein Bound. Wheeler-DeWitt quantization implies an $S^3$ cosmology must be very close to flat if the universe is to be classical today. I show that the spectrum of any classical gauge field (or interacting massless scalar field) in a FRW universe necessarily obeys the Wien displacement law and the corresponding quantized field the Planck distribution law with the reciprocal of the scale factor playing t...

  7. Biomarker evidence for shallow water marine euxinia through the PTB in the Panthalassic Ocean (Peace River Basin Embayment, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, L. E.; Beatty, T.; Henderson, C. M.; Summons, R. E.; Love, G. D.

    2007-12-01

    Protracted euxinic conditions in the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic oceans may have been an important paleoenvironmental factor in the Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) extinction. Release of hydrogen sulfide during upwelling or transgressive events from such an ocean (Kump et al. 2005; Riccardi et al. 2006) may have been a driver of the extinction in both marine and terrestrial environments. Worldwide marine PTB sections show evidence for a stratified water column and the presence of sulfidic deep water, at least episodically (Isozaki 1997; Grice et al. 2005). Taxa that are particularly characteristic of such an environment are the green sulfur bacteria, or Chlorobiaceae. These anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria utilize sulfide as an electron donor for photosynthesis and live in modern stratified water columns where euxinia extends into the photic zone. Indeed, biomarkers derived from these organisms have been identified at a number of the PTB sections. The Peace River embayment in western Canada has been identified as a section that spans the PTB based on conodont biostratigraphy (Henderson 1997). Samples from five drill cores in this section provide new insight into the state of the Panthalassic Ocean during this time of unprecedented turnover in Earth's biota. Using standard biomarker protocols, we identified aromatic hydrocarbons that are diagentic products of the carotenoids isorenieratene and chlorobactene, which are diagnostic for the brown and green strains, respectively, of the Chlorobiaceae. The occurrence of chlorobactane is especially notable since the green-pigmented varieties of the Chlorobiaceae require higher light intensities than the brown-pigmented forms and, in modern environments where they have been found, occur between 13 and 30 m of the surface. This is the first time that chlorobactane has been reported from a PTB section and it suggests a particularly shallow chemocline periodically at this location. The δ13C values for the aryl

  8. 7 CFR 1767.25 - Retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retained earnings. 1767.25 Section 1767.25....25 Retained earnings. The retained earnings accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Retained Earnings 433-439 Retained Earnings 433-439 ...

  9. Retained surgical sponge: An enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained surgical sponge in the body following a surgery is called "gossypiboma". A 27-year-old female who had undergone lower segment cesarean section 4 months earlier was admitted with complaints of pain abdomen with a palpable mass in left iliac fossa. X-ray, ultrasonography, and CT scan findings were suggestive of retained surgical sponge. Surgical sponge was removed following laparotomy. Surgeons must be aware of the risk factors that lead to gossypiboma, and measures should be taken to prevent it. Besides increasing morbidity and possible mortality, it may result in libel suit for compensation.

  10. Program Evaluation: Accelerating Retained Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneau, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to evaluate the first year of an acceleration program that allowed students who were retained a grade level for not performing on academic level in early elementary school an opportunity to rejoin their age appropriate class. The primary focus of the evaluation was to evaluate the effectiveness of an…

  11. Recruiting and Retaining Summer Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Brian; Yerkes, Rita

    1998-01-01

    Recruiting of camp staff is challenged by economic and workplace restructuring, including business downsizing, part-time and temporary employment patterns, and generational attitude changes. Strategies for hiring and retaining staff include knowing what college-age workers want, marketing benefits, adopting new business strategies, and empowering…

  12. Intercomparación bilateral entre LATU y PTB de calibración en puntos fijos (ITS-90 del Zn al Hg de un SPRT con PTB como laboratorio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Robatto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, LATU, es el Instituto Metrológico Nacional del Uruguay, miembro fi rmante del Acuerdo de Reconocimiento Mutuo (MRA entre Laboratorios Nacionales de Metrología del Comité Internacional de Pesas y Medidas (CIPM. Las capacidades de medida y calibración (CMCs del LATU fueron reconocidas en junio de 2004 y se encuentran publicadas en la BIPM- Key Comparison Data Base (BIPM, 2009. El LATU estuvo acreditado desde 2001 hasta junio de 2007 por el Deutscher Kalibrier Dienst (Servicio de Acreditación Alemán en las magnitudes Masa, Balanzas y Temperatura (Laboratorio DKD, DKD-K-25601. Se decidió a partir de ese momento probar el cumplimiento con los criterios establecidos por el CIPM MRA y los requisitos de la Norma ISO/IEC 17025 en el marco de una auditoría in situ llevada a cabo en el LATU en enero de 2008. Como parte de ese proceso de revisión de pares, se realizó una Intercomparación Bilateral entre el PTB y el LATU en los puntos fi jos de la Escala Internacional de Temperatura (ITS-90, desde el punto triple de Hg hasta el punto de congelación del Zn, con el PTB como laboratorio piloto. En este artículo los resultados son presentados y discutidos de manera de sostener ladeclaración de mejores capacidades de medida y calibración (CMCs en sustitución de las ya declaradas.AbstractLaboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, LATU, is the National Metrology Institute of Uruguay, signatory of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA, has Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs in temperature that were fi rst published in the BIPM Key Comparison Data Base (BIPM, 2009 in June 2004. LATU was a DKD Laboratory accredited in Mass, Balances and Temperature from 2001 until June 2007 when it was decided to adopt the CIPM criteria for proving compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 through a Peer Review process. The LATU on site Peer Review was carried out in January 2008, as part of the process. During the

  13. First performance results of PTB's atomic caesium fountain and a study of contributions to its frequency instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S; Bauch, A; Hubner, U; Schroder, R; Tamm, C

    2000-01-01

    At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), an atomic caesium fountain was constructed. Ramsey fringes with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.86 Hz were obtained by launching the atoms to a height of 83 cm above the cooling region (40 cm above the microwave cavity center). A first measurement of the homogeneity of the magnetic flux density yields 0.33 nT (rms), only 0.16% of the mean value of 0.205 muT used in normal operation. The inherent elementary noise contributions of the fountain and of a thermal beam atomic clock are compared in some detail.

  14. Loss of PTB or negative regulation of Notch mRNA reveals distinct zones of Notch and actin protein accumulation in Drosophila embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric S Wesley

    Full Text Available Polypyrimidine Tract Binding (PTB protein is a regulator of mRNA processing and translation. Genetic screens and studies of wing and bristle development during the post-embryonic stages of Drosophila suggest that it is a negative regulator of the Notch pathway. How PTB regulates the Notch pathway is unknown. Our studies of Drosophila embryogenesis indicate that (1 the Notch mRNA is a potential target of PTB, (2 PTB and Notch functions in the dorso-lateral regions of the Drosophila embryo are linked to actin regulation but not their functions in the ventral region, and (3 the actin-related Notch activity in the dorso-lateral regions might require a Notch activity at or near the cell surface that is different from the nuclear Notch activity involved in cell fate specification in the ventral region. These data raise the possibility that the Drosophila embryo is divided into zones of different PTB and Notch activities based on whether or not they are linked to actin regulation. They also provide clues to the almost forgotten role of Notch in cell adhesion and reveal a role for the Notch pathway in cell fusions.

  15. How nonimaging optics began

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Classical optics was traditionally the mapping of point sources by lenses, mirrors and occasionally holograms , i.e. making an image. The subject has had many famous scientists associated with it; Fermat, Huygens, Descartes, Hamilton just to name a few. By the mid 20th Century it was a well-developed field as exemplified by such luminaries as Walter T. Welford, Emil Wolf and many others. The theory of aberrations which addresses the imperfections of the mapping codified the state of the art. Then arose the need to collect energy, not just images. To the author's knowledge it can be traced back to WWII Germany with collection of infra-red radiation (the work by D. E. Williamson, was not published until 1952). The radiation collector, a simple right-circular cone, was a harbinger of things to come.

  16. Tomorrow Began Yesterday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the sixtiers was prepared by the previous historical period. The period after the World War II comprises a fundamental change of the world order – from a multipolar world to a confrontation of two superpowers and two ideological systems, and, at the same time, formation of a complex of international organizations on a global scale. In this context, the Soviet architecture made a sharp turn from Stalin’s Empire style to an extreme ascetism – the continuation of constructivism of the early XXth century. The Irkutsk architectural school, unlike the main flow of the 1960s, developed the style of Neo-Brutalism. The article draws parallels between Neo-Brutalism of the Irkutsk school and “a severe style” of the Soviet pictorial art of the same period.

  17. [Multiple retained deciduous teeth: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Lai, Wen-Li

    2009-06-01

    Retained deciduous teeth are defined as the succedaneous permanent teeth have erupted while the primary teeth were retained, or the permanent teeth unerupted while the primary teeth remained in the permanent dentition. One case of multiple retained deciduous teeth was reported.

  18. 12 CFR 1805.504 - Retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retained earnings. 1805.504 Section 1805.504... earnings. (a) An Applicant may use its retained earnings to match a request for a financial assistance... requirements by committing available earnings retained from its operations shall be subject to the restrictions...

  19. 47 CFR 32.4550 - Retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retained earnings. 32.4550 Section 32.4550... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4550 Retained earnings. (a) This account shall include the undistributed balance of retained earnings derived from the...

  20. Rebond strength of bonded lingual wire retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westing, K.; Algera, T.J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus in the literature concerning the rebonding procedure for orthodontic retainers. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond and rebond strength of retainers bonded to enamel surfaces with and without composite remnants. The retainers were bonded with Excite and

  1. Reduction of the uncertainty of the PTB vacuum pressure scale by a new large area non-rotating piston gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Th; Ahrendt, H.; Jousten, K.

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the metrological characterization of a new large area piston gauge (FRS5, Furness Rosenberg Standard) installed at the vacuum metrology laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The operational procedure and the uncertainty budget for pressures between 30 Pa and 11 kPa are given. Comparisons between the FRS5 and a mercury manometer, a rotary piston gauge and a force-balanced piston gauge are described. We show that the reproducibility of the calibration values of capacitance diaphragm gauges is enhanced by a factor of 6 compared with a static expansion primary standard (SE2). Improvements of the SE2 performance by reducing the number of expansions and smaller uncertainties of expansion ratios are discussed.

  2. PTB and TIAR binding to insulin mRNA 3′- and 5′UTRs; implications for insulin biosynthesis and messenger stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikard G. Fred

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: These experiments indicate that alterations in insulin mRNA stability and translation correlate with differential RBP binding. We propose that the balance between PTB on one hand and TIAR on the other participates in the control of insulin mRNA stability and utilization for insulin biosynthesis.

  3. Effect of Solvent Additive on Generation, Recombination, and Extraction in PTB7:PCBM Solar Cells : A Conclusive Experimental and Numerical Simulation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kniepert, Juliane; Lange, Ilja; Heidbrink, Jan; Kurpiers, Jona; Brenner, Thomas J. K.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Neher, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Time-delayed collection field (TDCF), bias-assisted charge extraction (BACE), and space charge-limited current (SCLC) measurements are combined with complete numerical device simulations to unveil the effect of the solvent additive 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) on the performance of PTB7:PCBM bulk

  4. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein-1 (PTB1 is a determinant of the tissue and host tropism of a human rhinovirus/poliovirus chimera PV1(RIPO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    Full Text Available The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES of picornavirus genomes serves as the nucleation site of a highly structured ribonucleoprotein complex essential to the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit and initiation of viral protein translation. The transition from naked RNA to a functional "IRESome" complex are poorly understood, involving the folding of secondary and tertiary RNA structure, facilitated by a tightly concerted binding of various host cell proteins that are commonly referred to as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs. Here we have investigated the influence of one ITAF, the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTB1, on the tropism of PV1(RIPO, a chimeric poliovirus in which translation of the poliovirus polyprotein is under the control of a human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2 IRES element. We show that PV1(RIPO's growth defect in restrictive mouse cells is partly due to the inability of its IRES to interact with endogenous murine PTB. Over-expression of human PTB1 stimulated the HRV2 IRES-mediated translation, resulting in increased growth of PV1(RIPO in murine cells and human neuronal SK-N-MC cells. Mutations within the PV1(RIPO IRES, selected to grow in restrictive mouse cells, eliminated the human PTB1 supplementation requirement, by restoring the ability of the IRES to interact with endogenous murine PTB. In combination with our previous findings these results give a compelling insight into the thermodynamic behavior of IRES structures. We have uncovered three distinct thermodynamic aspects of IRES formation which may independently contribute to overcome the observed PV1(RIPO IRES block by lowering the free energy δG of the IRESome formation, and stabilizing the correct and functional structure: 1 lowering the growth temperature, 2 modifying the complement of ITAFs in restricted cells, or 3 selection of adaptive mutations. All three mechanisms can conceivably modulate the thermodynamics of RNA folding, and thus facilitate and stabilize

  5. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein-1 (PTB1) is a determinant of the tissue and host tropism of a human rhinovirus/poliovirus chimera PV1(RIPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Nusrat; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) of picornavirus genomes serves as the nucleation site of a highly structured ribonucleoprotein complex essential to the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit and initiation of viral protein translation. The transition from naked RNA to a functional "IRESome" complex are poorly understood, involving the folding of secondary and tertiary RNA structure, facilitated by a tightly concerted binding of various host cell proteins that are commonly referred to as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs). Here we have investigated the influence of one ITAF, the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTB1), on the tropism of PV1(RIPO), a chimeric poliovirus in which translation of the poliovirus polyprotein is under the control of a human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) IRES element. We show that PV1(RIPO)'s growth defect in restrictive mouse cells is partly due to the inability of its IRES to interact with endogenous murine PTB. Over-expression of human PTB1 stimulated the HRV2 IRES-mediated translation, resulting in increased growth of PV1(RIPO) in murine cells and human neuronal SK-N-MC cells. Mutations within the PV1(RIPO) IRES, selected to grow in restrictive mouse cells, eliminated the human PTB1 supplementation requirement, by restoring the ability of the IRES to interact with endogenous murine PTB. In combination with our previous findings these results give a compelling insight into the thermodynamic behavior of IRES structures. We have uncovered three distinct thermodynamic aspects of IRES formation which may independently contribute to overcome the observed PV1(RIPO) IRES block by lowering the free energy δG of the IRESome formation, and stabilizing the correct and functional structure: 1) lowering the growth temperature, 2) modifying the complement of ITAFs in restricted cells, or 3) selection of adaptive mutations. All three mechanisms can conceivably modulate the thermodynamics of RNA folding, and thus facilitate and stabilize the

  6. Why Understanding When and How Plate Tectonics Began Is Essential for a Robust Theory of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. J.; Gerya, T.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding when and how Plate Tectonics (PT) began and what came before has profound implications for understanding the Earth because the transition to PT from the previous tectonic regime - some variant of deformable lid tectonics (DLT)- resulted in faster cooling and enhanced recycling of surface materials to depth. The transition to PT also would have impacted ocean chemistry, climate and life evolution. There is no consensus about when PT began on Earth; estimates range from >4.2 Ga to ~0.85 Ga. Three pillars of a robust Theory of the Earth illustrate the importance of answering this question: (1) the solid Earth volatile cycle; (2) the Urey ratio; and (3) the kimberlite enigma. For (1), it is now clear that subduction injects more H2O (and probably CO2) into Earth's mantle- where it is stored - than is released to the surface by igneous activity. Presumably the volatile flux from the surface into the mantle was lower during DLT episodes, although delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor drippings would have sent some. Constraining PT H2O and CO2 fluxes requires knowing when PT began and interior soaking accelerated. Regarding (2), estimating Earth's Urey ratio (Ur; heat production/heat loss) evolution requires avoiding the "thermal catastrophe" implying that if Earth has been cooling off as fast as presently (Ur ~0.2) then it must have been totally molten 1-2 Ga; a transition from DLT (high Ur) to PT (low Ur) may resolve the paradox. Finally (3), why are the vast majority of kimberlites of Phaneozoic age? Is it because erosion has removed the evidence or because sufficient H2O-CO2 rich fluids that drive such eruptions have only been delivered below cratonic lithosphere since deep subduction associated with PT began? Determining when did PT start, what was Earth's DLT-regime before this, and how did the transition occur will require the insights of the entire geoscientific community, providing a worthy set of 21st Century geoscientific research priorities.

  7. Abnormal Retained Earnings Around The World

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Paulo; Silva,Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Using a firm-level survey database covering 50 countries we evaluate firms´ abnormal retained earnings. The results of our work indicate that firms located in emerging markets retain more earnings than firms from developed countries. On the other hand, firms located on common law based countries retain earnings above the expected and higher than firms placed on civil law based countries. A possible explanation, according to our results, can be seen in the economic growth that these countries ...

  8. Reoccurrence of retained placenta at vaginal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas; Nikolajsen, Sys

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery.......To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery....

  9. Unexpected complications of bonded mandibular lingual retainers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsaros, C.; Livas, C.; Renkema, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) retainer is the most frequently used type of fixed retainer bonded on all 6 anterior teeth. Our aim in this article was to demonstrate unexpected posttreatment changes in the labiolingual position of the mandibular anterior teeth associated with the use o

  10. Reoccurrence of retained placenta at vaginal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Sys; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery.......To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery....

  11. Stabilising springs for fixed lingual retainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, M K; Ramachandraprabhakar; Saravanan, R; Rajvikram, N; Kuppuchamy

    2013-11-01

    Most treated malocclusion needs fixed lingual retention. To stabilise fixed lingual retainer in the exact location needs proper stabilisation. Proper stabilization requires a holding spring. This Stabilising Spring should be easy to fabricate and help the clinician to stabilise the retainer quickly and save the chair side time. More over it should not irritate the mucosa and should be easy to insert and remove.

  12. Networking: A Method of Retaining Nursing Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rhonda; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the problem of turnover among nurses and proposes the use of networking as a means of retaining nursing staff. The plan relies on aspects of the nursing process--assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation--to retain quality nursing staff. (JOW)

  13. Irradiation-induced degradation of PTB7 investigated by valence band and S 2p photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlatt, Erik; Muhsin, Burhan; Roesch, Roland; Lupulescu, Cosmin; Roth, Friedrich; Kolbe, Michael; Gottwald, Alexander; Hoppe, Harald; Richter, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    Monochromatic radiation with known absolute radiant power from an undulator at the electron storage ring Metrology Light Source (MLS) was used to irradiate PTB7 (a thieno[3, 4-b]thiophene-alt-benzodithiophene polymer) thin films at wavelengths (photon energies) of 185 nm (6.70 eV), 220 nm (5.64 eV), 300 nm (4.13 eV), 320 nm (3.88 eV), 356 nm (3.48 eV) and 675 nm (1.84 eV) under ultra-high vacuum conditions for the investigation of radiation-induced degradation effects. The characterization of the thin films is focused at ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) of valence bands and is complemented by S 2p x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (S 2p XPS) before and after the irradiation procedure. The radiant exposure was determined for each irradiation by means of photodiodes traceably calibrated to the international system of units SI. The valence band spectra show the strongest changes for the shortest wavelengths and no degradation effect at 356 nm and 675 nm even with the highest radiant exposure applied. In the spectral range where the Sun appears bright on the Earth’s surface, no degradation effects are observed.

  14. Fullerene derivative-doped zinc oxide nanofilm as the cathode of inverted polymer solar cells with low-bandgap polymer (PTB7-Th) for high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sih-Hao; Jhuo, Hong-Jyun; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Chen, Show-An

    2013-09-14

    Modification of a ZnO cathode by doping it with a hydroxyl-containing derivative - giving a ZnO-C60 cathode - provides a fullerene-derivative-rich surface and enhanced electron conduction. Inverted polymer solar cells with the ZnO-C60 cathode display markedly improved power conversion efficiency compared to those with a pristine ZnO cathode, especially when the active layer includes the low-bandgap polymer PTB7-Th.

  15. The Parameter Setting Method of PTB220 Type Barometers%自动站气压传感器通用性参数设置方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞宝

    2010-01-01

    通过对自动气象站PTB220气压传感器输出信号方式的分析,利用超级终端技术及参数设置命令,实现了气压传感器数据输出格式的设置,解决了气压传感器不能通用的问题.

  16. Postpartum MR diagnosis of retained placenta accreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Itai, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8575, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shigemitsu, Sadahiko [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ryugasaki Saiseikai General Hospital, Ryagasaki (Japan); Ichikawa, Yoshihito; Sohda, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8575, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-06-01

    Retained placenta accreta can cause catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. This study aims to determine whether MR imaging can differentiate retained placenta accreta from postpartum hemorrhage caused by other conditions. Fourteen cases suspicious for retained placenta were examined with MR imaging. Signal intensity, the enhancing pattern of uterine contents, and flow voids within the myometrium were retrospectively studied. As hysterectomy was performed in only two cases, final diagnosis was based on clinical outcome and analysis of uterine contents. Final diagnoses were retained placenta accreta in seven cases, retained normally attached placenta in four, hematoma in two, and placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in one. All seven cases with placenta accreta had a very hyperintense area on T2-weighted images, showing transient early enhancement. None demonstrated delayed strong enhancement around the hyperintense area. In two cases with retained normally attached placenta and in both with hematomas, there were no hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images. Of these, only one showed transient early enhancement. Flow voids were observed in four cases with placenta accreta, one with normally attached placenta, and the case with PSTT. A markedly hyperintense area on T2-weighted images and transient early enhancement without delayed strong enhancement between the mass and the myometrium can indicate retained placenta accreta. (orig.)

  17. Inadvertent tooth movement with fixed lingual retainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Timothy G; Proffit, William R; Samara, Said A

    2016-02-01

    Fixed retainers are effective in maintaining the alignment of the anterior teeth more than 90% of the time, but they can produce inadvertent tooth movement that in the most severe instances requires orthodontic retreatment managed with a periodontist. This is different from relapse into crowding when a fixed retainer is lost. These problems arise when the retainer breaks but remains bonded to some or all teeth, or when an intact retainer is distorted by function or was not passive when bonded. In both instances, torque of the affected teeth is the predominant outcome. A fixed retainer made with dead soft wire is the least likely to create torque problems but is the most likely to break. Highly flexible twist wires bonded to all the teeth appear to be the most likely to produce inadvertent tooth movement, but this also can occur with stiffer wires bonded only to the canines. Orthodontists, general dentists, and patients should be aware of possible problems with fixed retainers, especially those with all teeth bonded, because the patient might not notice partial debonding. Regular observations of patients wearing fixed retainers by orthodontists in the short term and family dentists in the long term are needed.

  18. Correlating high power conversion efficiency of PTB7:PC71BM inverted organic solar cells with nanoscale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sanjib; Keum, Jong K.; Browning, James F.; Gu, Gong; Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Do, Changwoo; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jihua; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Hong, Kunlun; Rondinone, Adam J.; Joshi, Pooran C.; Geohegan, David B.; Duscher, Gerd; Xiao, Kai

    2015-09-01

    Advances in material design and device engineering led to inverted organic solar cells (i-OSCs) with superior power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) compared to their ``conventional'' counterparts, in addition to the well-known better ambient stability. Here, we report an in-depth morphology study of the i-OSC active and cathode modifying layers, employing a model system with a well-established bulk-heterojunction, PTB7:PC71BM as the active layer and poly-[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) as the cathode surface modifying layer. We have also identified the role of a processing additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), used in the spin-casting of the active layer to increase PCE. Using various characterization techniques, we demonstrate that the high PCEs of i-OSCs are due to the diffusion of electron-accepting PC71BM into the PFN layer, resulting in improved electron transport. The diffusion occurs when residual solvent molecules in the spun-cast film act as a plasticizer. Addition of DIO to the casting solution results in more PC71BM diffusion and therefore more efficient electron transport. This work provides important insight and guidance to further enhancement of i-OSC performance by materials and interface engineering.Advances in material design and device engineering led to inverted organic solar cells (i-OSCs) with superior power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) compared to their ``conventional'' counterparts, in addition to the well-known better ambient stability. Here, we report an in-depth morphology study of the i-OSC active and cathode modifying layers, employing a model system with a well-established bulk-heterojunction, PTB7:PC71BM as the active layer and poly-[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) as the cathode surface modifying layer. We have also identified the role of a processing additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), used in the spin-casting of the active

  19. Gait Measures and Dynamic Weight bearing in Young and Elder Trans-tibal Amputee using PTB Prosthesis with SACH foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna K. Lenka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the changes associated with age in gait characteristics and dynamic weight bearing pattern of sound and prosthetic limb of persons with unilateral amputation. Participant: two groups of seven young (24±3.8 years and seven elderly unilateral amputee (71±6 years were selected for this study. Setting: both groups walked at their self selected speed over a 20 second duration plane surface walk way in trans-tibial prosthesis with PTB socket and SACH foot. The raw data of force and EMG sensors of gait analyzer were filtered, processed and analyzed with help of ‘matlab 7.0. A blue tooth enabled heart rate telemetry system was used for calculating gait efficiency in terms of physiological cost index (PCI. Results: significant differences were found in stride duration, (p=0.003, step duration sound limb (p<0.002, stance duration sound limb (p=0.002, stance duration prosthetic limb (p=0.006 and cadence (p=0.001<0.05, however no difference was found in EMG pattern of vastus lateralis between the two groups. The dynamic weight distribution showed more normalized load on anterior parts of heel and minimum load at calcaneal max in elderly group. The results of vertical ground reaction force found the prosthetic side of elderly group takes more weight than young group during loading response. In comparison, PCI was observed to be greater in case of elderly group. Conclusion: most of difference between two groups could be explained by speed variations and biomechanical limitation of ankle joint due to natural aging process.

  20. The journey begins at 8am. Destination: unknown Time machine launches quest of discovery: how existence began 13.7 billion years ago.

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A story that began 13.7 billion years ago will start a new chapter this morning. Since the big bang threw space and time into being, no living creature of which we know has been able to discern just what happened in the moments at which existence began. (2 pages)

  1. Retained laser fibre: insights and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekich, C; Hannah, P

    2014-06-01

    To describe a case of retained endovenous laser fibre. To review the literature and Food and Drug Administration device failure reports. To suggest protocols for avoiding this complication and a method of removal. A case of retained fibre removal is described. Fibre removal techniques in vivo and ex vivo in a bovine model on the laboratory bench are presented. Successful in vivo and ex vivo fibre removal was performed using duplex ultrasound scan guided phlebectomy techniques. Unexplained measured fibre-length discrepancies due to misleading manufacturer's packaging was discovered. Simple ultrasound-guided micro-phlebectomy techniques can be used to remove retained laser fibres in the office environment. Laser fibre length measurements before and after treatment are recommended. Some preventive guidelines are described to avoid, or at least diagnose immediately, this complication, such as the 'Laser Eclipse Sign'. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Treatment of complications related to bonded retainers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Godtfredsen; Rylev, Mette; Melsen, Birte

    enough to be neutralized by occlusion. Treatment alternatives with continuous arches were omitted due to unfavorable force systems. The displaced roots were repositioned into bone resulting in spontaneous periodontal improvement and improved prognosis for total root coverage with mucogingival surgery......Unintended activation of bonded retainers can lead to displacement of teeth out of alveolar bone and periodontal damage. A well defined force system is needed for correction without displacing adjacent teeth towards the bony boundary. In two adult patients active bonded retainers had caused...

  3. Retained crossbow bolt after penetrating facial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manan U; Sridhara, Shankar K; Wolf, Jeffrey S; Ambro, Bryan T

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a retained crossbow bolt in the maxillofacial area of a 31-year-old man. While crossbow injuries are rare, this case is of interest because otolaryngologists are often faced with treating retained foreign objects after penetrating facial trauma. These cases are difficult to manage because of the complexity and variety of injuries that can occur during both the initial trauma and the removal. We focus on the management of the bolt's removal and provide a brief discussion of the relevant literature on crossbow injuries to the head and neck.

  4. Indium-Free PTB7/PC71BM Polymer Solar Cells with Solution-Processed Al:ZnO Electrodes on PET Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fuchs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverted PTB7/PC71BM polymer solar cells are prepared on solution-processed Al:ZnO transparent contacts on PET substrates. Al:ZnO is deposited by a low temperature chemical bath deposition route (T < 100°C at any step to comply with the temperature sensitive substrate. A maximum conversion efficiency of 6.4% and 6.9% is achieved for the indium-free solar cells on PET and glass substrates, respectively. The devices are relatively stable in air whereby an initial efficiency loss in the order of 15% after storage for 15 days can be fully recovered by light soaking.

  5. Dynamic active earth pressure on retaining structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepankar Choudhury; Santiram Chatterjee

    2006-12-01

    Earth-retaining structures constitute an important topic of research in civil engineering, more so under earthquake conditions. For the analysis and design of retaining walls in earthquake-prone zones, accurate estimation of dynamic earth pressures is very important. Conventional methods either use pseudo-static approaches of analysis even for dynamic cases or a simple single-degree of freedom model for the retaining wall–soil system. In this paper, a simplified two-degree of freedom mass–spring–dashpot (2-DOF) dynamic model has been proposed to estimate the active earth pressure at the back of the retaining walls for translation modes of wall movement under seismic conditions. The horizontal zone of influence on dynamic earth force on the wall is estimated. Results in terms of displacement, velocity and acceleration-time history are presented for some typical cases, which show the final movement of the wall in terms of wall height, which is required for the design. The non-dimensional design chart proposed in the present study can be used to compute the total dynamic earth force on the wall under different input ground motion and backfill conditions. Finally, the results obtained have been compared with those of the available Scott model and the merits of the present results have been discussed.

  6. Retained gas sampler system acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, N.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-18

    Acceptance test results for the Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS) obtained in the 306E laboratory are reported. The RGSS will be utilized to retrieve and analyze samples from the Hanford flammable gas watch-list tanks to determine the quantity and chemistry of gases confined within the waste.

  7. 45 CFR 1611.9 - Retainer agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION FINANCIAL ELIGIBILITY § 1611.9 Retainer agreements. (a) When a recipient provides extended service to a client, the... practices in the recipient's service area and shall include, at a minimum, a statement identifying the legal...

  8. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  9. 76 FR 69126 - Graduated Retained Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... multiplying the periodic addition by the appropriate factor from Table K or J of Sec. 20.2031-7(d)(6) before... occurs. See paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section for the calculation of the base amount. (2) Periodic addition. The periodic addition in a graduated retained interest for each year after the year in...

  10. Retaining Excellent Teachers through Effective Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Connie

    2013-01-01

    School districts continue to face challenges in retaining talented teachers in their schools. There are many factors that contribute to teacher retention, including working conditions, a lack of leadership support, and poor leadership behavior. In a southeastern U.S. state, local school officials were seeking strategies to provide an excellent…

  11. Retained Gas Sampler Calibration and Simulant Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CRAWFORD, B.A.

    2000-01-05

    This test plan provides a method for calibration of the retained gas sampler (RGS) for ammonia gas analysis. Simulant solutions of ammonium hydroxide at known concentrations will be diluted with isotopically labeled 0.04 M ammonium hydroxide solution. Sea sand solids will also be mixed with ammonium hydroxide solution and diluent to determine the accuracy of the system for ammonia gas analysis.

  12. Comparison of air kerma measurements between the PTB and the IAEA for x-radiation qualities used in general diagnostic radiology and mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, István; Büermann, Ludwig; Gomola, Igor; Girzikowsky, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    A comparison of the air kerma standards for x-radiation qualities used in general diagnostic radiology and mammography, identified as EURAMET.RI(I)-S10 (EURAMET project #1221), was performed between the PTB and the IAEA. Two spherical and two parallel-plate reference-class ionization chambers of the IAEA and 12 beam qualities standardized in the IEC standard 61267:2005 plus 7 additional standard beam qualities established at both laboratories were selected for the comparison. The calibration coefficients were determined for the transfer chambers at the PTB in September 2012 and before and after this at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory. The results show the calibration coefficients of both laboratories to be in good agreement within the standard uncertainty of the comparison of about 0.47%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Management of retained subretinal perfluorocarbon liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Matthew; Sepah, Yasir J; Chang, Stanley; Abrams, Gary W; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2013-11-01

    Subretinal perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) is a rare but serious complication associated with retinal detachment repair primarily due to the potential for toxic effects of the liquid on various structures of the eye. While it is optimal to detect and remove subretinal PFCL intraoperatively, retained PFCL may be missed in 1% to 11% of cases and not detected until follow-up visits.3,26 In such cases, early intervention appears to be warranted particularly if central vision remains at risk with subfoveally located droplets. Restoration of the foveal contour and attenuation of scotoma size as indicated by optical coherence tomography and microperimetry imaging suggest a good prognosis based on the limited number of case reports reviewed. Prognosis of retained PFCL depends on the location, size, and duration of its contact with retinal structures.

  14. Retaining nursing faculty beyond retirement age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Marvel L; Cook, Linda; Salmeron, Lois; Burton, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The number of nursing faculty planning to retire by 2020 is alarming. To develop strategies for retaining faculty, researchers asked: What factors influence the decision by nursing faculty to stay in the workforce past retirement age? What barriers could be removed that would encourage faculty to stay longer? Using Giorgi's analysis method, findings from 6 faculty teaching past retirement age revealed key meaning units and grand themes that match Maslow's Hierarchy of Inborn Needs.

  15. Mushroom Processing Retaining Colour Without Losing Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Walshe, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Processed mushrooms must be blanched so that they will retain an acceptable white colour. However,. This can lead to a weight loss of between 20 and 30 per cent, which is bad economy for the processor. Research at Kinsealy Research Centre has come up with some solution for this problem. Breading of unblanched mushrooms prior to freezing is one. Another successful technique is to treat mushrooms with xanthan gum prior to blanching in the case of frozen or canned mushrooms.

  16. Tooth Retained Implant: No More an Oxymoron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bhat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontally af-fected teeth are treated in one of the two ways. (1 Tooth retention after periodontal surgery, in which the degree of regeneration achieved is unpredictable. (2 Tooth extrac-tion and implant placement. Implants have an osseointegrated surface which does not provide adequate shock absorption. Regeneration can be achieved by resecting the crown of the affected tooth and submerging the root. This technique has not had a clinical application so far as the tooth becomes difficult to restore. Placing an implant within the root can make the retained root restorable. At the same time, as the implant is placed within the root surface it achieves a periodontal integration which dampens occlusal forces better than osseointegration. Therefore, such a “tooth retained implant” may serve as an additional treatment option with significant benefits over tooth retention and implant placement alone. The hypothesis: Implants placed within retained roots have shown cementum deposition and attachment of periodontal ligament fibers over their surface. This periodontal attachment may be able to dam-pen forces better than in an osseointegrated implant. Moreover, since an implant is being placed, the crown of the tooth can be resected and submerged. This prevents epithelial migration, allows for the periodontal ligament cells to populate the wound and favors regeneration.Evaluation of the hypothesis: The technique of placing implants within cavities prepared in the root and then submerging them are simple for any practitioner placing implants routinely.

  17. Increasing trend in retained rectal foreign bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayantunde, Abraham A; Unluer, Zynep

    2016-01-01

    AIM To highlight the rising trend in hospital presentation of foreign bodies retained in the rectum over a 5-year period. METHODS Retrospective review of the cases of retained rectal foreign bodies between 2008 and 2012 was performed. Patients’ clinical data and yearly case presentation with data relating to hospital episodes were collected. Data analysis was by SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, United States. RESULTS Twenty-five patients presented over a 5-year period with a mean age of 39 (17-62) years and M: F ratio of 2:1. A progressive rise in cases was noted from 2008 to 2012 with 3, 4, 4, 6, 8 recorded patients per year respectively. The majority of the impacted rectal objects were used for self-/partner-eroticism. The commonest retained foreign bodies were sex vibrators and dildos. Ninty-six percent of the patients required extraction while one passed spontaneously. Two and three patients had retrieval in the Emergency Department and on the ward respectively while 19 patients needed examination under anaesthesia for extraction. The mean hospital stay was 19 (2-38) h. Associated psychosocial issues included depression, deliberate self-harm, illicit drug abuse, anxiety and alcoholism. There were no psychosocial problems identified in 15 patients. CONCLUSION There is a progressive rise in hospital presentation of impacted rectal foreign bodies with increasing use of different objects for sexual arousal. PMID:27830039

  18. Nitroglycerin for management of retained placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Abdel-Aleem, Mahmoud A; Shaaban, Omar M

    2015-11-12

    Retained placenta affects 0.5% to 3% of women following delivery, with considerable morbidity if left untreated. Use of nitroglycerin (NTG), either alone or in combination with uterotonics, may be of value to minimise the need for manual removal of the placenta in theatre under anaesthesia. To evaluate the benefits and harms of NTG as a tocolytic, either alone or in addition to uterotonics, in the management of retained placenta. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (14 January 2015), reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted experts in the field. Any adequately randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the use of NTG, either alone or in combination with uterotonics, with no intervention or with other interventions in the management of retained placenta. All women having a vaginal delivery with a retained placenta, regardless of the management of the third stage of labour (expectant or active). We included all trials with haemodynamically stable women in whom the placenta was not delivered at least within 15 minutes after delivery of the baby. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with 175 women. The three published RCTs compared NTG alone versus placebo. The detachment status of retained placenta was unknown in all three RCTs. Collectively, among the three included trials, two were judged to be at low risk of bias and the third trial was judged to be at high risk of bias for two domains: incomplete outcome data and selective reporting. The three trials reported seven out of 23 of the review's pre-specified outcomes.The primary outcome "manual removal of the placenta" was reported in all three studies. No differences were seen between NTG and placebo for manual removal of the placenta (average risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.46; women = 175; I

  19. Retained Surgical Foreign Bodies after Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valon A. Zejnullahu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of retained surgical bodies (RSB after surgery is an issue for surgeons, hospitals and the entire medical team. They have potentially harmful consequences for the patient as they can be life threatening and usually, a further operation is necessary. The incidence of RSB is between 0.3 to 1.0 per 1,000 abdominal operations, and they occur due to a lack of organisation and communication between surgical staff during the process. Typically, the RSB are surgical sponges and instruments located in the abdomen, retroperitoneum and pelvis.

  20. Position-optimization on retained entry and backfilling wall in gob-side entry retaining techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Feng; Nong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the stability problem of gob-side entry retaining (GER) and backfilling wall which located under the key block B. Based on the combined research of elastic–plastic mechanics, structure mechanics and modern theory of mining-induced pressure, the caving characteristic and roof structure over the GER were analyzed, and the vertical force and the torque on retained entry roof were also derived as the position for the retained entry varies. On the basis of the specific geology in Huainan mining area, the results indicate that a relatively more stable position for retained entry neighbors the hinge point of block A and B, and it also located at a scope ranging from this point to the one-third length of block B in horizontal direction. As to appropriate position for backfilling wall, this study recommends partial-road-in backfilling method for GER. Field trial conducted at panel face 12418 of Xieqiao Mine demonstrates that the recommended width for original entry is 3.6 m and the preferred width proportion between original retained entry and original entry is 75%or so whereas the avoidable one is 88%or so. These findings provide qualitative references to the mines which share similar geology as what Huainan mining area characterized.

  1. Enhanced Efficiency of PTB7 : PC61BM Organic Solar Cells by Adding a Low Efficient Polymer Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Farinhas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary blend polymer solar cells combining two electron-donor polymers, poly[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyloxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexylcarbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl] (PTB7 and poly[2,5-bis(3-dodecylthiophen-2-ylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene] (pBTTT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM, as electron-acceptor, were fabricated. The power conversion efficiency of the ternary cells was enhanced by 18%, with respect to the reference binary cells, for a blend composition with 25% (wt% of pBTTT in the polymers content. The optimized device performance was related to the blend morphology, nonrevealing pBTTT aggregates, and improved charge extraction within the device.

  2. Influence of Blend Ratio and Processing Additive on Free Carrier Yield and Mobility in PTB7:PC71BM Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Charge separation and extraction dynamics were investigated in high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells made from the polymer PTB7 and the soluble fullerene PC71BM on a broad time scale from subpicosecond to microseconds using ultrafast optical probing of carrier drift and the integral-mode photocurrent measurements. We show that the short circuit current is determined by the separation of charge pairs into free carriers, which is strongly influenced by blend composition. This separation is found to be efficient in fullerene-rich blends where a high electron mobility of >0.1 cm2 V–1 s–1 is observed in the first 10 ps after excitation. Morphology optimization using the solvent additive 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) doubles the charge pair separation efficiency and the short-circuit current. Carrier extraction at low internal electric field is slightly faster from the cells prepared with DIO, which can reduce recombination losses and enhance a fill factor. PMID:27293495

  3. RETAINING TALENTS ON THE SECRETARY PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Ferreira Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the corporate world too is invested in technology, specialized processes and techniques increasingly advanced as to achieve the planned growth targets. But there is one factor that is behind all the techniques and processes to be adopted, one item without which nothing would work: the human factor. In the current scenario, it is necessary to know the professional expectation of every employee and seek to meet them. Due to the passage of the Industrial Age to the Information Age, organizations look to service provider’s brain; need the skills with his hands, but the ability of the brain is more valued. Research shows that today, which attracts professionals secretariat is the Career Plan. Remuneration is fixed or variable, has become an item until the second or third priority. This is because the profile of these professionals is to seek personal and professional growth. These data are confirmed in the primary research developed in this work. Most respondents, especially young people, consider a career as a major priority. Based on what was analyzed and compared to academic studies discussed during the work, confirm that is correct there is a trend confirmed in primary and secondary research that the salary is out of the picture when it comes to retaining talent. More than that, to retain the talent it takes to study it, because as noted the priority will vary according to personal and professional phase in which the individual and meets.

  4. Reconstruction of endodontically treated teeth: intraradicular retainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Bonatelli Bispo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways of restoring endodontically treated teeth. The quantity and quality of the dental remainder after endodontic treatment is questionable in terms of clinical longevity, not because of the coronal opening and therapy in themselves, but because of the destruction inherent to teeth affected by fractures and invasive carious processes. There are many commercial brands of posts and marketing artifices with the goal of maximizing resistance to masticatory forces. However, the major complexity found with regard to the definitive restoration is the doubt whether to insert a prefabricated post, cast metal or porcelain core as filling core. However, nothing is feasible if the parameters said to be safe were not used and the minimum mechanical requirements were not demanded. Growing commercial demand leads to unrestrained confusion in professionals that end up forgetting about or ignoring the minimum criteria demandable for a favorable prognosis. Compliance with the biomechanical bases is the most important parameter for increasing the quality of the intraradicular retainer. The aim of this study is to present basic techniques for more reliable restorations, maximizing the quality of the dental remainder when making extensive restorations that use intraradicular retainers in endodontically treated teeth.

  5. Os partidos trabalhistas no sistema multipartidário: um estudo comparado das trajetórias do PTB (1945-1964 e do PT (1980-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geralda Luiza de Miranda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1806-5023.2008v4n2p37 O artigo discute a trajetória dos partidos trabalhistas, comparando o movimento, no espectro ideológico, do PTB (1945-64 e do PT (1980-2002. Argumenta-se que o posicionamento ideológico dos partidos é dado pelas suas metas e pelas estratégias elaboradas para sua implementação. A natureza das metas depende do equilíbrio de poder dentro da organização. A definição das estratégias, se moderadas ou radicalizadas, depende da dinâmica dos jogos que se desenvolvem nas arenas eleitoral e decisória. A proposição que orienta a análise é a de que quanto maior for a inserção dos partidos trabalhistas, na arena decisória, maior a possibilidade de que eles tracem metas situadas mais ao centro do espectro ideológico. Nesse sentido, o argumento é semelhante ao apresentado por Przeworski para explicar a moderação dos partidos socialistas. No entanto, esse movimento pode ser retardado, se houver alteração no equilíbrio de poder na organização a favor dos militantes, ou mesmo impedido, se houver radicalização do sistema político. Esses dois fatores explicam porque o PTB, apesar de fortemente inserido no Estado, deslocou-se da posição de centro-esquerda para a de esquerda radicalizada.

  6. World Cup: Brands Gamble Began

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ Among the 32 national teams,there are only seven sports brands sponsors.Of them,the famous three sports brands Nike,Adidas and Puma gather together the sponsorship with 28 teams in total.Each brand features themselves with technology innovation or branding promotion strategy.

  7. How newspapers began to blog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine how ‘old’ media organizations develop ‘new’ media technologies by analyzing processes of technological innovation in two Danish newspaper companies that integrated blogs into their websites in very different ways in 2007. Drawing on concepts from science and technology...... blogging ought to be in each organization and tried to shape the technology and pull the development work in different directions. On the basis of interviews with key participants, I show how the two newspaper organizations (equally ‘old’ media) came to develop nominally the same ‘new’ medium (blogs...

  8. ONGULUMBASHE: WHERE THE BUSHWAR BEGAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    intervention in the Angolan civil war in 1975/76 and subsequently served in the ... Having said all this, the book was obviously not written for a scholarly audience ... Lt Col (Prof) Deon Visser, Department of Military History, Faculty of Military.

  9. Glucose-induced binding of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) to the 3'-untranslated region of the insulin mRNA (ins-PRS) is inhibited by rapamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmar, Linda; Welsh, Nils

    2004-05-01

    Despite considerable knowledge on the regulation of insulin gene transcription, little is known about the post-transcriptional control mechanisms of this gene. We have recently reported glucose- and hypoxia-regulated binding of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) to the pyrimidine-rich sequence of the 3'-untranslated insulin mRNA (ins-PRS), an event which may control insulin mRNA stability. The present aim was to probe for the signaling pathways that control this binding activity. Rat islets were exposed to pharmacological inhibitors against several molecules, previously shown to be involved in glucose signaling. The inhibitors used were; LY 294002 (PI3 kinase), Rp-cAMP triatylamine (the cAMP-dependent protein kinase PKA), bisindolylmaleimide I hydrochloride (PKC), PD 098059 (ERK1/ERK2), SB 203580 (p38/SAPK2a), rapamycin (mTOR) and okadaic acid (PP1/2A). PTB-binding activity to the ins-PRS was then analyzed by elecrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The glucose-induced PTB-binding was only inhibited by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Rapamycin also reduced glucose-induced insulin mRNA expression. Thus, our results suggest an involvement of mTOR in glucose-induced PTB/ins-PRS binding and insulin mRNA stability.

  10. The effects of pregnancy spacing on infant and child mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh: how they vary by the type of pregnancy outcome that began the interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaVanzo, Julie; Hale, Lauren; Razzaque, Abdur; Rahman, Mizanur

    2008-07-01

    Using high-quality longitudinal data on 125,720 singleton live births in Matlab, Bangladesh, we assessed the effects of duration of intervals between pregnancy outcomes on infant and child mortality and how these effects vary over subperiods of infancy and childhood and by the type of outcome that began the interval. Controlling for other correlates of infant and child mortality, we find that shorter intervals are associated with higher mortality. Interval effects are greater if the interval began with a live birth than with another pregnancy outcome. In the first week of the child's life, the effects of short intervals are greater if the sibling born at the beginning of the interval died; after the first month, the effects are greater if that sibling was still alive. Many relationships found are consistent with the maternal depletion hypothesis, and some with sibling competition. Some appear to be due to correlated risks among births to the same mother.

  11. Retaining Literature in the Indonesian ELT Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Puadi Ilyas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents serious independent arguments why literature needs to be retained in the Indonesian ELT (English Language Teaching curriculum. In general, ELT curriculum nowadays seems to neglect the importance of literature since the introduction of the communicative approach. Three aspects are presented in connection with why the notion may need immediate application: (1 literature brings many advantages to Indonesian ELT learners; (2 literature can be used to teach critical thinking skills; and (3 critical thinking can be used to promote tolerance. This article is developed based on mainly the ideas of literature teaching proposed by Collie and Slater (1987, Lazar (1993, and Ghosn (2002. Hence, critical thinking and tolerance are values not getting serious attention in educational processes in this country even though these values have been included in the National educational objectives for Indonesia.

  12. Delayed inflammation associated with retained perfluorocarbon liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old woman, with history of cataract surgery 1 year back, presented with features of ocular inflammation for last 3 months. She had no history of any other intraocular surgery. On examination, anterior segment showed frothy material in the inferior angle with moderate anterior chamber reaction (cells+/flare+ and sulcus intraocular lens with large posterior capsule rent. Fundoscopy showed multiple, small to medium-sized transparent bubbles of perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL with membranes in the vitreous cavity. Ultrasonography confirmed the presence of PFCL in the vitreous cavity. Pars plana vitrectomy with anterior chamber wash was done which led to good visual recovery. To conclude, retained PFCL can cause late onset fibrinous inflammation after a quiescent period but surgical intervention may lead to good visual outcome.

  13. Transabdominal Migration of Retained Surgical Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Guner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained surgical sponge (RSS is a rare surgical complication. The RSSs are mostly located intra-abdominally but they can also be left in the thorax, spine, extremity, cranium, and breast. RSS is often difficult to diagnose because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms and radiologic findings. Clinically, RSS may present as an exudative reaction in the early postoperative period or may also cause an aseptic fibrous tissue response. A foreign body may remain asymptomatically silent for a long time, and it may later present with obstruction, fistulization, or mass formation. In this report, we present a case in which an RSS has migrated through the abdominal wall and caused an anterior abdominal wall abscess.

  14. Transabdominal migration of retained surgical sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Ali; Hos, Gultekin; Kahraman, Izzettin; Kece, Can

    2012-01-01

    Retained surgical sponge (RSS) is a rare surgical complication. The RSSs are mostly located intra-abdominally but they can also be left in the thorax, spine, extremity, cranium, and breast. RSS is often difficult to diagnose because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms and radiologic findings. Clinically, RSS may present as an exudative reaction in the early postoperative period or may also cause an aseptic fibrous tissue response. A foreign body may remain asymptomatically silent for a long time, and it may later present with obstruction, fistulization, or mass formation. In this report, we present a case in which an RSS has migrated through the abdominal wall and caused an anterior abdominal wall abscess.

  15. Begin the BEGAN (The Brown Educational Guide to the Analysis of Narrative) - a framework for enhancing educational impact of faculty feedback to students' reflective writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Shmuel P; Wald, Hedy S; Monroe, Alicia D; Borkan, Jeffrey M

    2010-08-01

    The study aim was the development of a method to further enhance the educational benefit of medical students' reflective writing. The setting is a Doctoring course at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, which includes reflective writing assignments, termed "field notes", combining students' reflective writing with ongoing individualized feedback from small group faculty. Three-year (2005-2008) iterative process with three stages of immersion, analysis, and revision that resulted in the analysis framework. An interdisciplinary team composed of the four authors with backgrounds in narrative medicine, qualitative research, psychology, and medical education analyzed 12 first and second year students' selected field notes in iterative cycles. In each cycle, consultations with small group faculty and content experts were conducted to further validate the emergent framework. This process culminated in the creation of the Brown Educational Guide to Analysis of Narrative (BEGAN) framework, a guide for crafting feedback to students' reflective writing, and the integration of the BEGAN framework into the faculty and student manuals for the Doctoring Course in 2008-2009. We propose the BEGAN framework as a useful innovative tool that can be incorporated in reflective writing curricula in the field of health professions education. It is tailored to support the educational impact of the course through additional scaffolding of student writing, and the robust process it delineates for crafting of faculty feedback. Providing systematic feedback to enhance reflective writing may represent the path forward in fostering professional development through reflection in health professions education. The BEGAN can be incorporated in reflective writing curricula in the field of health professions education. It is a springboard for the necessary next steps of development and research into the acquisition of reflective and narrative competence in the emerging professional

  16. Retained sponge after abdominal surgery: experience from a third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retained sponge after abdominal surgery: experience from a third world country. ... Abstract. Background: Retained abdominal sponge after surgery is a quite rare condition which can have heavy medico-legal consequences; ... Article Metrics.

  17. 24 CFR 266.210 - HUD-retained review functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HUD-retained review functions. 266.210 Section 266.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Program Requirements § 266.210 HUD-retained review functions. Certain functions are retained by...

  18. Soil Retaining Structures: Development of models for structural analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the development of models for the structural analysis of soil retaining structures. The soil retaining structures being looked at are; block revetments, flexible retaining walls and bored tunnels in soft soil. Within this context typical structural behavior of these struc

  19. 40 CFR 98.167 - Records that must be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.167 Records that must be retained. In... emissions, then you must retain under this subpart the records required for the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in § 98.37. (b) If a CEMS is not used to measure CO2 emissions, then you must retain records...

  20. 17 CFR 256.215 - Appropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appropriated retained earnings... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.215 Appropriated retained earnings. This account shall include the amount of retained earnings which has been appropriated or set...

  1. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  2. Bee sting keratopathy with retained stinger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott Pooi Wah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report aims to report an uncommon case of bee sting keratopathy with retained stinger. A 55-year-old man presented with left cornea bee sting while gardening two days prior to first visit. He complained of severe eye pain with redness, tearing and blurring of vision. On examination, his right eye visual acuity was 6/6 and in left eye was hand movement. There was generalized conjunctival hyperemia and cornea showing significant descemet striae. A bee stinger with surrounding infiltration noted at 2 o'clock was associated with striate keratitis. It was deeply seated at the posterior third of cornea stroma near to paracentral area. Pupil was mid-dilated with absence of relative afferent pupillary defect. There was neither hypopyon nor cataract. The posterior segment could not be visualized due to severe corneal edema. However, B-scan ultrasound was normal. Bee stinger was removed under local anaesthesia on the day of presentation. Post-operatively, patient was administered with topical moxifloxacin and topical non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three weeks later, there was resolution of cornea infiltrate with improvement of striate keratitis and his vision was improved to 1/60. However, cornea edema did not regress but ended up with bullous keratopathy. The patient has undergone descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty and his vision was improved to 6/9. We recommend early stinger removal to reduce the possible sequelae of bee sting toxicity for better visual outcome.

  3. Dynamic response of flexible retaining walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younan, A.H.; Veletsos, A.S.; Bandyopadhyay, K.

    1997-01-01

    Making use of an extension of a recently proposed, relatively simple, approximate method of analysis, a critical evaluation is made of the response to horizontal ground shaking of flexible walls retaining a uniform, linear, viscoelastic stratum of constant thickness and semiinfinite extent in the horizontal direction. Both cantilever and top-supported walls are examined. Following a detailed description of the method and of its rate of convergence, comprehensive numerical solutions are presented that elucidate the action of the system and the effects of the various parameters involved. The parameters varied include the flexibility of the wall, the condition of top support, and the characteristics of the ground motion. The effects of both harmonic base motions and an actual earthquake record are examined. Special attention is paid to the effects of long-period, effectively static excitations. A maximum dynamic response is then expressed as the product of the corresponding static response and an appropriate amplification or deamplification factor. The response quantities examined include the displacements of the wall relative to the moving base, the dynamic wall pressures, and the total wall force, base shear and base moment.

  4. Bee sting keratopathy with retained stinger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lott Pooi Wah; Syed Shoeb Ahmad; Yew Yih Voon; Shuaibah Abdul Ghani; Visvaraja AL Subrayan

    2016-01-01

    This case report aims to report an uncommon case of bee sting keratopathy with retained stinger. A 55-year-old man presented with left cornea bee sting while gardening two days prior to first visit. He complained of severe eye pain with redness, tearing and blurring of vision. On examination, his right eye visual acuity was 6/6 and in left eye was hand movement. There was generalized conjunctival hyperemia and cornea showing significant descemet striae. A bee stinger with surrounding infiltration noted at 2 o'clock was associated with striate keratitis. It was deeply seated at the posterior third of cornea stroma near to paracentral area. Pupil was mid-dilated with absence of relative afferent pupillary defect. There was neither hypopyon nor cataract. The posterior segment could not be visualized due to severe corneal edema. However, B-scan ultrasound was normal. Bee stinger was removed under local anaesthesia on the day of presentation. Post-operatively, patient was administered with topical moxifloxacin and topical non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three weeks later, there was resolution of cornea infiltrate with improvement of striate keratitis and his vision was improved to 1/60. However, cornea edema did not regress but ended up with bullous keratopathy. The patient has undergone descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty and his vision was improved to 6/9. We recommend early stinger removal to reduce the possible sequelae of bee sting toxicity for better visual outcome.

  5. SARS面前Smile And Retain Smile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广森

    2003-01-01

    @@ 前言:本应是花繁叶茂、姹紫嫣红的春天,却因突如其来的灾难而失色;本应欢歌笑语、激情荡漾的大学生活,却被SARS的突袭而搅乱.从印象中的"抢购大米风"到现在处于"非典"的边缘;从处于流言的不安到现在必胜的信心;从每天徘徊于报栏和运动场之间到现在正常的工作和学习;我们走过了恐慌、焦虑、哀怨,到达了理智、冷静和勇敢的彼岸.5-17是最令人激动的日子,这一天,我们惊喜地看到山西"新增病例"出现了个位数"1",我喊出了报纸上的广告词--"Smile And Retain Smile"(微笑并保持微笑),我发现我们都变了.

  6. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  7. Comparison of the radiation temperature scales of the PTB and the NPL in the temperature range from -57 °C to 50 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschwager, B.; Theocharous, E.; Monte, C.; Adibekyan, A.; Reiniger, M.; Fox, N. P.; Hollandt, J.

    2013-06-01

    Blackbody sources at near-ambient temperature are routinely used to calibrate infrared instruments used in remote sensing and thermal imaging applications to measure radiance and radiation temperature. The measured temperature of the blackbody and its calculated effective emissivity determine its radiance and radiation temperature according to Planck's law. The temperature measurement is generally accomplished with a contact thermometer which is calibrated against the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90). The ammonia heat-pipe blackbody of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany is a primary source standard working over a wide spectral range with low uncertainties, i.e. less than 33 mK at 10 µm in the temperature range from -60 °C to 50 °C. A more direct method of absolute radiance measurement is to use an absolutely calibrated radiometer, calibrated against a primary detector standard, the cryogenic radiometer. AMBER (Absolute Measurements of Blackbody Emitted Radiance) is an absolutely calibrated radiometer of the Optical Measurement Group of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK which was specially designed to determine the radiance and hence the radiation temperature of near-ambient-temperature blackbodies. When AMBER is operated at short wavelengths, where photodetectors offering good long-term stability exist, it derives its traceability through the cryogenic radiometer. However, available photodetectors operating in the 8 µm to 12 µm wavelength range offer poor long-term stability so when AMBER is used in this wavelength range, the NPL radiance temperature scale is based on a gallium fixed-point blackbody operating at 29.7646 °C (ITS-90). At other radiance temperatures, the NPL scale also relies on the gallium fixed-point blackbody but requires the calibration of the relative spectral irradiance responsivity of the AMBER radiometer (done against NPL spectral responsivity standards), measurement of the radiometric zero

  8. Experiments in the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the PTB in the Asse II salt mine - summary highlighting work performed and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Neumaier, S; Zwiener, R

    2003-01-01

    Due to its extremely low area dose rate, the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the PTB at the 925 m level of the Asse II Salt Mine offers unique possibilities for the investigation and calibration of dosimetry systems of high sensitivity as are used, for example, in environmental monitoring. Due to its low area dose rate, this laboratory has an outstanding position worldwide. The low ambient dose equivalent rate in the UDO of approx. 1 nSv/h, that means of only approx. 1 percent of the ambient dose rate typically encountered at the Earth's surface, is mainly due to the following reasons: - At the depth at which the UDO is situated, the penetrating muon component of cosmic radiation which considerably contributes to the environmental equivalent dose rate at the Earth's surface (in Braunschweig, for example, approx. one third) is already attenuated by more than five orders of magnitude and is therefore completely negligible for dosimetric investigations; - The activity concentration...

  9. Tagging of Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in F2s of IR50 × Ptb33 of Rice by Using Bulked Segregant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkateswarlu YADAVALLI; Gajendra P. NARWANE; M. S. R. KRISHNA; Nagarajan POTHI; Bharathi MUTHUSAMY

    2012-01-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stǎl) is one of the most damaging pests causing hopper burn in rice,and thereby reducing the productivity and also the quality of the product.The effective management strategy to control this pest is the identification and transfer of desirable genes to local rice cultivars.The most important approach for developing resistant cultivars is the identification of markers,which can help in marker-assisted selection of more durable resistant genotype.The susceptible parent IR50 and the resistant parent Ptb33,and their F2 populations were used in bulked segregant analysis for identification of resistant genes with random amplified polymorphic DNA marker (RAPD) primers.The primers OPC7 and OPAG14 showed both dominant and susceptible specific banding pattern so called co-dominant markers.Moreover,OPC7697 and OPAG14660 showed resistant specific bands and thus being in coupling phase,whereas OPC7846 and OPAG14650 showed susceptible specific genotypic bands in bulked segregant analysis.Therefore,the coupling phase markers,OPC7697 and OPAG14680.are considered to be more useful in marker-assisted selection of rice genotypes in crop improvement.

  10. 30 CFR 47.55 - Retaining an MSDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retaining an MSDS. 47.55 Section 47.55 Mineral... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.55 Retaining an MSDS. The operator must— (a) Retain its MSDS for as long as the hazardous chemical is known to be at the mine, and (b) Notify miners...

  11. 武汉市汉阳区肺结核合并糖尿病流行病学特征分析%Epidemiological Features of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) Patients Complicated with Diabetes in the District of Hanyang Wuhan Ci ty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利; 张建群; 周美兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解汉阳区肺结核合并糖尿病(PTB-DM )流行病学情况,为制定相关的防治策略提供依据。方法:统计分析汉阳区结防所门诊登记2008-2012年肺结核登记的资料。结果:2008-2012年汉阳区结防门诊登记PTB-DM患者166例,占同期登记肺结核患者总数的比例5年平均9.1%。男性PTB-DM 占肺结核登记人数中男性患者的构成比11.1%,女性构成比5.2%(P<0.01)。PTB-DM患者以中老年为主,45岁后两病并发率大幅上升。在PTB-DM患者中,痰涂片阳性者82例(49.4%)、痰涂片阴性84例(50.6%)、出现空洞72例(43.4%)。PTB-DM患者的涂阳率和空洞率均高于无合并糖尿病的肺结核患者(P<0.01)。结论:PTB-DM 发生率较高,以中老年发病为主,涂阳率和空洞率均较高,给结核病控制带来一定的困难,要加强这一人群的防治工作。%Objective :To understand the epidemiological trends and features of PTB patients complicated with diabetes (PTB-DM ) in Hanyang in order to provide evidence base for TB control strategies formulation .Methods :Information of PTB patients registered from 2008 to 2012 in Hanyang district were analyzed .Results :The total number of PTB-DM in that was 1815 from 2008 to 2012 ,accounting for 9 .1% of total PTB patients over the same periods .Male and female PTB-DM accounted for 11 .1% and 5 .2% of PTB patients of same gender respectively (P<0 .01) .Majority was mid-dle-aged and elderly patients over 45 years old .Among PTB-DM patients ,82 (49 .4% ) cases were smear positive ,84 cases smear negative (50 .6% ) ,72 cases with cavity 72(43 .4% ) .The proportion of patients with smear positive result and cavity in PTB-DM cases were both significantly higher than tuberculosis cases without diabetes (P<0 .01) .Conclu-sion:The PTB-DM incidence is relatively high ,and mainly in middle-aged and elderly people ,proportions of both smear positive

  12. The GP retainer scheme: report of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Lesley; Young, Pat; Main, Paul Gn; Morison, Jim

    2014-11-01

    The current context of organisational change and new working patterns, together with the high cost of medical training, mean it is of vital importance that the NHS retains its trained workforce. The GP retainer scheme supports doctors who for reasons of personal circumstance are restricted in their ability to compete for employment in medicine, and aims to facilitate the retention of their skills and confidence. This national study evaluates the experiences and views of current and past GP retainers and provides a rigorous assessment of the retainer scheme. It is a mixed method study: an online questionnaire was completed by 318 current and ex-retainers across the UK; follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with 30 respondents. The study finds that the GP retainer scheme is effective in retaining GPs through times of transition and provides evidence to support the continuing funding of the scheme across the UK. The scheme is beneficial for doctors who also have a role in caring for young children and is also highly valued by a minority of GP retainers who are using it to return to work after illness, or to practice in a more limited role, due to chronic illness or disability. This study found variations in the implementation of the educational entitlement which is fundamental to the scheme. A minority of retainers experienced problems with the implementation of the scheme and recommendations are made for improvements.

  13. 49 CFR 240.215 - Retaining information supporting determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... administered. (e) The information concerning demonstrated performance skills that the railroad shall retain... permits reasonable access and retrieval of the information in usable format when requested to furnish data... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retaining information supporting...

  14. 49 CFR 379.3 - Records required to be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PRESERVATION OF RECORDS § 379.3 Records required to be retained. Companies subject to this part shall retain... the obligation of the subject company to maintain records that adequately support financial...

  15. 40 CFR 98.87 - Records that must be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.87 Records that must be retained. (a) If a CEMS is used to measure CO2 emissions, then you must retain under this subpart the records...-specific clinker CO2 emission factor. (2) Documentation of quarterly calculated kiln-specific CKD...

  16. 40 CFR 98.77 - Records that must be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.77 Records that must be retained... emissions, retain records of all feedstock purchases in addition to the requirements in § 98.37 for the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology. (b) If a CEMS is not used to measure process CO2 emissions, you must...

  17. Refining cast implant-retained restorations by electrical discharge machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, S M; Chance, D A; Cronin, R J

    1995-03-01

    The UCLA abutment was developed to create implant-retained restorations with ideal contours, excellent esthetics, and minimal vertical space requirements for restorative materials. A major drawback of this abutment is that casting inaccuracies in the lost-wax process are difficult to control. This article describes a method of refining cast implant-retained restorations by use of electrical discharge machining.

  18. Severe complication of a bonded mandibular lingual retainer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pazera, P.; Fudalej, P.S.; Katsaros, C.

    2012-01-01

    Bonding a flexible spiral wire retainer to the lingual surfaces of all 6 anterior mandibular teeth is a commonly used type of retention. Complications are rare but can be serious enough to produce biologic damage. This article presents a serious complication of a lingual flexible spiral wire retaine

  19. Gauze retained in mediastinum. Gasa retenida en el mediastino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Guirao, M.A.; Fernandez Cruz, J.; Soto Espinosa, B.; Calero Garcia, C. (Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio. Servicio Radiodiagnostico. Sevilla (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    We present a case of surgical gauze retained in mediastinum in a patient who underwent post infarction aneurysmectomy. The radiographic and CT findings are described, as is the clinical outcome of the patient. A diagnosis of retained gauze should be considered in all cases in which a well defined mass is located anywhere in patients who have undergone surgical treatment. (Author) 6 refs.

  20. The challenge of retaining customers acquired with free trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, H.; Foubert, B.; van Heerde, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Many service firms acquire customers by offering free-trial promotions. A crucial challenge is to retain customers acquired with these free trials. To address this challenge, firms need to understand how free-trial customers differ from regular customers in terms of their decision making to retain t

  1. The challenge of retaining customers acquired with free trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, H.; Foubert, B.; van Heerde, H.J.

    Many service firms acquire customers by offering free-trial promotions. A crucial challenge is to retain customers acquired with these free trials. To address this challenge, firms need to understand how free-trial customers differ from regular customers in terms of their decision making to retain

  2. Tools for Success in Recruiting and Retaining Hispanic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about strategies for success in recruiting and retaining Hispanic students. One strategy suggested by Raul Lorenzo, account director for Bauza & Associates, a Hispanic marketing agency that helps colleges and universities recruit and retain Hispanic students, is that institutions need to speak to the heart as well…

  3. 17 CFR 256.216 - Unappropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retained earnings. This account shall include the balance, either debit or credit, arising from earnings... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unappropriated retained earnings. 256.216 Section 256.216 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  4. Thermally activated retainer means utilizing shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Margaret E. (Inventor); Hartz, Leslie S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A retainer member suitable for retaining a gap filler placed in gaps between adjacent tile members is presented. One edge of the retainer member may be attached to the gap filler and another edge may be provided with a plurality of tab members which in an intermediate position do not interfere with placement or removal of the gap filler between tile members. The retainer member may be fabricated from a shape memory alloy which when heated to a specified memory temperature will thermally activate the tab members to predetermined memory positions engaging the tile members to retain the gap filler in the gap. This invention has particular application to the thermal tiles on space vehicles such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  5. Adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper (APPL1) regulates the protein level of EGFR by modulating its trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Rin; Hahn, Hwa-Sun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Nguyen, Hong-Hoa [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jun-Mo [Department of Dermatology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong-Sun, E-mail: kangj01@skku.edu [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Myong-Joon, E-mail: hahnmj@skku.edu [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer APPL1 regulates the protein level of EGFR in response to EGF stimulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of APPL1 accelerates the movement of EGF/EGFR from the cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of APPL1 enhances the activity of Rab5. -- Abstract: The EGFR-mediated signaling pathway regulates multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Previously APPL1 (adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper 1) has been reported to function as a downstream effector of EGF-initiated signaling. Here we demonstrate that APPL1 regulates EGFR protein levels in response to EGF stimulation. Overexpression of APPL1 enhances EGFR stabilization while APPL1 depletion by siRNA reduces EGFR protein levels. APPL1 depletion accelerates EGFR internalization and movement of EGF/EGFR from cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF treatment. Conversely, overexpression of APPL1 decelerates EGFR internalization and translocation of EGF/EGFR to the perinuclear region. Furthermore, APPL1 depletion enhances the activity of Rab5 which is involved in internalization and trafficking of EGFR and inhibition of Rab5 in APPL1-depleted cells restored EGFR levels. Consistently, APPL1 depletion reduced activation of Akt, the downstream signaling effector of EGFR and this is restored by inhibition of Rab5. These findings suggest that APPL1 is required for EGFR signaling by regulation of EGFR stabilities through inhibition of Rab5.

  6. An unrecognized foreign body retained in the calcaneus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ro Woon; Choi, Soo Jung; Hwang, Jae Kwang; Ahn, Jae Hong; Kang, Chae Hoon; Shin, Dong Rock [Gangneung Asan Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We describe a case of an unrecognized foreign body retained in the calcaneus. The patient denied any history of trauma. The skin overlying the calcaneus was intact with no local signs of inflammation. The retained foreign body was not observed on the radiograph of the calcaneus. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed a tubular low signal intensity lesion in the calcaneal body, surrounded by strongly enhanced soft tissue and bone marrow edema caused by a foreign body reaction. A foreign body retained in the calcaneus was suspected on the basis of these findings. Surgical exploration and curettage was performed, and a rod shaped wooden fragment was found.

  7. Retained Urethral Catheter Secondary to Placement in Proximal Ureter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. McGregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual complication secondary to indwelling urethral catheter placement. Routine catheter placement by the obstetrics team in a postpartum female leads to retention of the catheter and inability of its removal by both the obstetrics and urology teams. Although a retained urinary catheter is relatively common, inability to remove a catheter secondary to placement inadvertently into a ureter is extremely rare. In this paper we will discuss the options in removing a retained catheter and present our case of a retained catheter secondary to placement within the right proximal ureter.

  8. Retained Urethral Catheter Secondary to Placement in Proximal Ureter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Thomas B; Sharda, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual complication secondary to indwelling urethral catheter placement. Routine catheter placement by the obstetrics team in a postpartum female leads to retention of the catheter and inability of its removal by both the obstetrics and urology teams. Although a retained urinary catheter is relatively common, inability to remove a catheter secondary to placement inadvertently into a ureter is extremely rare. In this paper we will discuss the options in removing a retained catheter and present our case of a retained catheter secondary to placement within the right proximal ureter.

  9. Adjuvant therapy, not mammographic screening, accounts for most of the observed breast cancer specific mortality reductions in Australian women since the national screening program began in 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Robert C; Bell, Robin J; Thiagarajah, Geetha; Stevenson, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    There has been a 28% reduction in age-standardised breast cancer mortality in Australia since 1991 when the free national mammographic program (BreastScreen) began. Therefore, a comparative study between BreastScreen participation and breast cancer age specific mortality trends in Australia was undertaken for two time periods between 1991 and 2007, where women aged 50-59 and 60-69 years, who were invited to screen, were compared to women aged 40-49 and 70-79 years who were not invited, but who did have access to the program. There were mortality reductions in all four age groups between 1991-1992 and 2007, resulting in 5,849 (95% CI 4,979 to 6,718) fewer women dying of breast cancer than would have otherwise been the case. Women aged 40-49 years, who had the lowest BreastScreen participation (approximately 20%), had the largest mortality reduction: 44% (95% CI 34.8-51.2). Women aged 60-69 years, who had the highest BreastScreen participation (approximately 60%), had the smallest mortality reduction: 19% (95% CI 10.5-26.9). As BreastScreen participation by invited women aged 50-69 years only reached a maximum of about 55-60% in 1998-1999, a decline in mortality in Australian women cannot be attributed to BreastScreen prior to this time. Thus, almost 60% of the Australian decline in breast cancer mortality since 1991 cannot be attributed to BreastScreen. Therefore, mammographic screening cannot account for most of the reductions in breast cancer mortality that have occurred in Australian women since 1991 and may have contributed to over-diagnosis. Most, if not all, of the reductions can be attributed to the adjuvant hormonal and chemotherapy, which Australian women have increasingly received since 1986.

  10. A self-retaining retractor for mitral valve operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D M

    1986-08-01

    A new self-retaining retractor for mitral valve operations is described. It is universally adjustable, may be affixed to any sternal retractor, and is completely removable when not required for the intracardiac portion of the procedure.

  11. Seismic design of earth-retaining structures and foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Deepankar; Sitharam, TG; Rao, Subba KS

    2004-01-01

    Earthquake-resistant design of earth retaining structures like retaining walls, earth dams and foundations are very important problems to minimize the devastating effect of earthquake hazards. In this paper a comprehensive review for different methods to calculate seismic earth pressures and their point of applications is shown. Numerical example shows the merit of a displacement-based analysis over force-based analysis by considering a permissible displacement of the wall.Modification of IS ...

  12. Geometric attributes of retaining glycosyltransferase enzymes favor an orthogonal mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock Schuman

    Full Text Available Retaining glycosyltransferase enzymes retain the stereochemistry of the donor glycosidic linkage after transfer to an acceptor molecule. The mechanism these enzymes utilize to achieve retention of the anomeric stereochemistry has been a matter of much debate. Re-analysis of previously released structural data from retaining and inverting glycosyltransferases allows competing mechanistic proposals to be evaluated. The binding of metal-nucleotide-sugars between inverting and retaining enzymes is conformationally unique and requires the donor substrate to occupy two different orientations in the two types of glycosyltransferases. The available structures of retaining glycosyltransferases lack appropriately positioned enzymatic dipolar residues to initiate or stabilize the intermediates of a dissociative mechanism. Further, available structures show that the acceptor nucleophile and anomeric carbon of the donor sugar are in close proximity. Structural features support orthogonal (front-side attack from a position lying ≤ 90° from the C1-O phosphate bond for retaining enzymes. These structural conclusions are consistent with the geometric conclusions of recent kinetic and computational studies.

  13. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite.

  14. Peripartal leukogram in cows with and without retained placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lužajić Tijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether prepartal leukogram in cows with retained placenta could indicate the presence of subclinical systemic inflammatory response before the onset of disease. After calving, sixteen highly pregnant Holstein cows, aged 3 to 9 years, without clinical signs of the disease prior to calving were divided into two groups: the first group (n=9 were animals without retained placenta, or any visible inflammation after birth; the second group (n=7 were cows with retained placenta. Blood was sampled three times before parturition, at intervals of one week, and once 24 hours after birth. The number of total leukocytes, segmented and non segmented neutrophilic granulocytes (NG, lymphocytes and monocytes were determined by standard laboratory techniques. The results have shown that in the group of cows with retained placenta the number of mature neutrophils was slightly elevated in the third, second and last week before calving, and equal number of non segmented neutrophils in regard to the group with no retention. The results have also shown that, in both groups of cows, 24 hours after calving, the number of total leukocytes and the number of segmented neutrophils decreased, but the number of the non segmented neutrophils increased. Based on this, we can conclude that cows with retained placenta had no systemic inflammatory response during three weeks prepartal period, but 24 hours after calving, systemic inflammatory response was documented in all the cows. Moreover, the intensity of inflammatory response in cows with retained placenta was not more pronounced in comparison to cows without retained placenta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  15. Reproductive outcomes of retransferring retained embryos in blastocyst transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hyun Jeong; Koo, Hwa Seon; Cha, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hye Ok; Park, Chan Woo; Song, In Ok

    2016-06-01

    To determine the incidence of embryo retention (ER) in the transfer catheter following embryo transfer (ET) in blastocyst transfer and investigate whether retransferring retained embryos has an impact on reproductive outcomes in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization-ET. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 1,131 blastocyst transfers, which comprised 223 single blastocyst transfer (SBT) and 908 double blastocyst transfer (DBT) cycles. Each SBT and DBT group was classified depending on whether ET was performed without retained embryos in the catheter during the first attempt (without-ER group) or whether any retained embryos were found following ET (ER group) for the purpose of comparing reproductive outcomes in a homogenous population. The overall incidence of finding retained embryos was 2.8% (32/1,131). There were no retained embryos in SBT cycles. In DBT cycles, implantation rates (30.0% vs. 26.6%), positive β-hCG rates (57.2% vs. 56.2%), clinical pregnancy rates (45.3% vs. 46.9%), and live birth rates (38.9% vs. 43.8%) were not significantly different between the without-ER and ER groups. There were no significant differences in the mean birth weight (g) 2,928.4±631.8 vs. 2,948.7±497.8 and the mean gestational age at birth (269.3±17.2 days vs. 264.2±25.7 days). A total of nine cases of congenital birth defects were found in this study population. Eight were observed in the without-ER group and one in the ER group. Our results suggest that retransfer of retained embryos does not have any adverse impact on reproductive outcomes in blastocyst transfer cycles. Furthermore, our results support finding that SBT might be advantageous for decreasing the incidence of retained embryos in catheters.

  16. How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomas, Kim

    2005-01-01

    How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

  17. Follicular Dendritic Cells Retain Infectious HIV in Cycling Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balthasar A Heesters

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART, it does not cure Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and discontinuation results in viral rebound. Follicular dendritic cells (FDC are in direct contact with CD4+ T cells and they retain intact antigen for prolonged periods. We found that human FDC isolated from patients on ART retain infectious HIV within a non-degradative cycling compartment and transmit infectious virus to uninfected CD4 T cells in vitro. Importantly, treatment of the HIV+ FDC with a soluble complement receptor 2 purges the FDC of HIV virions and prevents viral transmission in vitro. Our results provide an explanation for how FDC can retain infectious HIV for extended periods and suggest a therapeutic strategy to achieve cure in HIV-infected humans.

  18. A survey of failed post-retained restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peutzfeldt, A; Sahafi, A; Asmussen, E

    2008-01-01

    Survival of endodontically treated, post-restored teeth depends on a multitude of factors, all of which are practically impossible to include in a randomized, controlled clinical study. The purpose of this survey was to characterize and analyze reported failures of post-retained restorations...... to identify factors critical to failure and to type of failure. A questionnaire was mailed to private practitioners in Denmark with a request to complete the questionnaire whenever a patient presented with a failed post-retained restoration. Information was gathered on factors related to the patient...... increased with the functioning time until failure. Fracture of the post was more common among male than female patients. On the basis of this survey of failed post-retained restorations, it was concluded that tapered posts were associated with a higher risk of tooth fracture than were parallel-sided posts....

  19. 支撑光学制造的几何量计量技术%Dimensional Metrology at PTB to Support Optical Fabrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴高良; SCHULZ Michael; EHRET Gerd; DANZEBRINK Hans-Ulrich; FLUEGGE Jens; BOSSE Harald

    2011-01-01

    几何量计量技术大量应用于光学制造业以检测零件质量和控制生产过程,是光学制造业的核心技术,涉及微纳米结构的几何量计量以及平面、球面、非球面、直纹曲面及自由曲面的面形计量.本文综述了德国联邦物理技术研究院支撑光学制造的部分计量技术.介绍了一种测量范围为25 mm×25 mm×5 mm的计量型大范围原子力显微镜(AFM),可灵活多样地测量各种微纳结构.介绍了一种新颖的AFM探针(ACP),可实现微纳结构侧壁形貌的直接、无损测量.介绍了一种应用Flared AFM探针的真三维AFM及其用于减少针尖磨损的矢量探测技术,可应用于各种纳米结构的真三维测量.介绍了可用于平面和中等曲面面形绝对测量的两种方法:差分型激光束偏转法和可溯源多路传感器法(TMS).讨论了面形测量中存在的挑战性难题.介绍了可用于面形测量的高精度三坐标测量机.%Dimensional metrology is the enabling technology required not only for ensuring the quality of optical products but also for monitoring/controlling the manufacturing processes.Dimensional metrology of micro and nano structures and form metrology of flat,spherical,aspherical,ruled and free form surfaces are needed.This paper introduced some dimensional metrology research activities at PTB to support optical fabrication.A metrological large range atomic force microscope (AFM) with a capable measurement volume of 25 mm × 25 mm × 5 mm was introduced for versatile measurements of micro/nano structures.A kind of assembled cantilever probe (ACP) which is applicable for direct and non-destructive sidewall measurements was presented.A true 3D AFM using flared AFM probes was described by specially developed vector approaching probe (VAP) strategy for true 3D measurements of nano structures.Difference deflectometry and traceable multi sensor (TMS) methods applicable for absolute form metrology of flat to moderately curved

  20. KEY COMPARISON: Activity measurements of the radionuclide 134Cs for the IRMM, Geel, PTB, Germany, OMH, Hungary, LNE-LNHB, France and the NMIJ, Japan in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cs-134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Wätjen, U.; Janßen, H.; Szücs, L.; Coursol, N.; Hino, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Since 2004, the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, Geel, Belgium), Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany), Országos Mérésügyi Hivatal (OMH, Hungary), Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB, France) and the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) each submitted one sample of known activity of 134Cs to the International Reference System (SIR). The OMH, PTB and LNE-LNHB results replace their 1992, 1994 and 1998 SIR measurements respectively while the IRMM and NMIJ submissions are their first measurements in the SIR, replacing the 1978 CCRI(II) comparison results. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.6 MBq and 5.4 MBq. The key comparison results have been added to the matrix of degrees of equivalence that now contains 12 results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cs-134, to which the remaining ten eligible results from the CCRI(II)-K2.Cs-134 held in 1978 are linked. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  1. Reversible corneal toxicity of retained intracameral Perfluoro-n-octane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad S Alharbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old female presented with intracameral retained perfluoro-n-octane (PFO following previous retinal reattachment surgery. After 4 years of follow-up without related sequelae, the patient complained of a gradual decrease in vision secondary to corneal edema with whitish corneal precipitate inferiorly corresponding to the area of retained PFO. Three weeks after anterior chamber washout, corneal edema resolved and the patient obtained 20/40 visual acuity. Even though PFO considered to have a relatively good safety profile, early anterior chamber washout may prevent corneal toxicity and avoid later persistent corneal decompensation.

  2. Knowledge and attitude of dentists toward implant retained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-13

    Sep 13, 2014 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • May-Jun 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 3. Abstract. Objectives: The aim was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of ..... opening in screw‑or cement‑retained implant fixed partial denture designs.

  3. Intrauterine retained fetal bones as a cause of secondary infertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three cases of retained fetal bones, the first two after mid-trimester ... the third after dilatation and evacuation (D&E) of the uterus for a missed abortion, ... In all the cases the diagnosis was confirmed by a high resolution pelvic ultrasound scan.

  4. Retained Stingray Barb and the Importance of Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Gerald F; O'Malley, Rika N; Pham, Oahn; Randolph, Frederick

    2015-09-01

    Stingray envenomation is a common occurrence. X-ray evaluation of stingray wounds is an unnecessarily misunderstood diagnostic concept. We present the case of a patient stung by a stingray with a prolonged and complicated course and permanent disability due to a retained barb. The patient had undergone multiple medical evaluations before an X-ray was obtained.

  5. An Integrated Approach to Recruiting and Retaining Appalachian Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Gary; Hensel, Robin; Curtis, Reagan; Taylor, Lydotta M.; Cilento, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting and retaining Appalachian engineering students is difficult for a variety of ecological and cultural reasons. At West Virginia University an NSF STEP grant has allowed the development of specific interventions to evolve from an ecological model we describe here. The interventions include web-based, realistic engineering design exercises…

  6. Retained portion of latex glove during femoral nailing. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Ali, M; Marwah, S; al-Habdan, I

    1996-11-01

    A case of retained glove during Kuntscher intramedullary nailing is described. An abscess around the glove could have lead to osteomyelitis. One need to be cautious feeling the top end of the nail while femoral nailing to avoid such a complication.

  7. 40 CFR 98.157 - Records that must be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING HCFC-22 Production and HFC-23 Destruction § 98.157 Records... shall retain the following records: (1) The data used to estimate HFC-23 emissions. (2) Records documenting the initial and periodic calibration of the gas chromatographs, weigh scales, volumetric...

  8. 40 CFR 98.287 - Records that must be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.287 Records that must be... measure CO2 emissions, you must retain under this subpart the records required for the Tier 4 Calculation... purchases. (2) Annual operating hours. (b) If a CEMS is not used to measure emissions, you must...

  9. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Moulton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  10. Attracting and Retaining Teachers: A Question of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Karin; Alliata, Roberta; Benninghoff, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    Attracting and retaining competent teachers is a key concern when it comes to managing the supply and demand for teachers. This article examines the motivation that prompts people to enter or leave the teaching profession with the aim of identifying a decision framework for defining teacher policies. The results are based on the teacher workforce…

  11. [Severe complication of a bonded mandibular lingual retainer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pazera, P.; Fudalej, P.S.; Katsaros, C.

    2014-01-01

    Bonding a flexible spiral wire retainer to the lingual surfaces of all six anterior mandibular teeth is a commonly used type of retention. Complications are rare but can be serious enough to produce biologic damage. This article presents a serious complication of a lingual flexible spiral wire retai

  12. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood. PMID:28299217

  13. Retained drains causing a bronchoperitoneal fistula: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieninger Alicia A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bronchoperitoneal fistulas are extremely rare. We present a case where retained surgical drains from a previous surgery resulted in erosion and fistula formation. This condition required an extensive surgical procedure and advanced ventilator techniques. Case presentation A 24-year-old African-American man presented to our Emergency Department with a one-week history of fever, dyspnea, cough, and abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of his chest and abdomen revealed bilateral lower lobe pneumonia and two retained Jackson-Pratt drains in the right upper quadrant. He was taken to the operating room for drain removal, a right hemicolectomy, debridement of a duodenal injury, a Roux-en-y duodenojejunostomy, and an end ileostomy. He subsequently became increasing hypoxemic in the intensive care unit and a bronchoperitoneal fistula was diagnosed. He required high-frequency oscillatory ventilation followed by lung isolation, and was successfully resuscitated using these techniques. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known case report of a bronchoperitoneal fistula caused by retained surgical drains. This is also the first known report that details successful management of this condition with advanced ventilatory techniques. This case highlights the importance of follow-up for trauma patients since retained surgical drains have the potential to cause life-threatening complications. When faced with this condition, clinicians should be aware of advanced ventilatory methods that can be employed in the intensive care unit. In this case, these techniques proved to be life-saving.

  14. Keeping the Best: A Practical Guide to Retaining Key Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Stephen; Barber, Linda; Robinson, Dilys

    This book, which is intended to assist human resource professionals and line managers in the United Kingdom, is a practical guide to retaining key employees. Discussed in the introduction are the relationship between downsizing and retention, problems that retention difficulties pose for human resource management, and the effects of retention…

  15. A Market-Driven Approach to Retaining Talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Employee retention must be rethought in a free-agent market. Compensation can shape who leaves and stays. Job design and customization can tailor jobs to employee needs. Encouraging social ties among colleagues and selecting appealing locations for workplaces are other ways to retain talented workers. (SK)

  16. Severe complication of a bonded mandibular lingual retainer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pazera, P.; Fudalej, P.S.; Katsaros, C.

    2012-01-01

    Bonding a flexible spiral wire retainer to the lingual surfaces of all 6 anterior mandibular teeth is a commonly used type of retention. Complications are rare but can be serious enough to produce biologic damage. This article presents a serious complication of a lingual flexible spiral wire

  17. Management of retained encrusted urethral catheter with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Anwar Kunzman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of non-deflating heavily encrusted Foley catheter successfully removed by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL. To our knowledge this is the first case of using ESWL to remove encrusted foley catheter retained in the bladder.

  18. Retaining ethnic minority nursing students (REMNS): a multidimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdur-Rahman, V; Gaines, C

    1999-01-01

    The under-representation of minority nurses in the nation is of critical concern for nurse educators. The high attrition rate of minority nursing students, on a local and national level, has not been effectively addressed. Project REMNS (Retaining Ethnic Minority Nursing Students), an innovative, comprehensive project, was designed to increase the retention of minority nursing students at Prairie View A&M University. Pre-clinical nursing students were provided strategies to improve critical thinking, stress management, and reading comprehension skills. This was accomplished by the development and implementation of content relevant computer modules on stress management, nutrition, and critical thinking. Implementation of Project REMNS resulted in an increased number of pre-nursing students admitted and retained in the nursing program.

  19. Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federspil, Philipp A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology.

  20. Early Decomposition of Retained Heavy Silicone Oil Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touka Banaee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of early decomposition of retained heavy silicone oil droplets. Case Report: The single highly myopic eye of a 16-year-old boy with history of scleral buckling and buckle revision developed redetachment due to inferior retinal dialysis. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy and injection of heavy silicone oil. Early emulsification of the silicone oil was observed following surgery, which was removed 4 weeks later in another operation. Retained heavy silicone droplets lost their heavier- than-water specific gravity within 2 months together with extensive iris depigmentation, and release of pigment granules into the anterior chamber and vitreous cavity. Conclusion: This case report demonstrates that heavy silicone oil droplets can undergo in vivo chemical decomposition with possible toxic effects on ocular tissues.

  1. Illusory Speed is Retained in Memory during Invisible Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain can retain speed information in early visual short-term memory in an astonishingly precise manner. We investigated whether this (early visual memory system is active during the extrapolation of occluded motion and whether it reflects speed misperception due to contrast and size. Experiments 1A and 2A showed that reducing target contrast or increasing its size led to an illusory speed underestimation. Experiments 1B, 2B, and 3 showed that this illusory phenomenon is reflected in the memory of speed during occluded motion, independent of the range of visible speeds, of the length of the visible trajectory or the invisible trajectory, and of the type of task. These results suggest that illusory speed is retained in memory during invisible motion.

  2. Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federspil, Philipp A.

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology. PMID:22073096

  3. Kinematic framework for evaluating seismic earth pressures on retaining walls

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberg, Scott J.; Mylonakis, George; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.During earthquake ground shaking earth pressures on retaining structures can cyclically increase and decrease as a result of inertial forces applied to the walls and kinematic interactions between the stiff wall elements and surrounding soil. The application, based on limit equilibrium analysis, of a pseudostatic inertial force to a soil wedge behind the wall [the mechanism behind the widely-used Mononobe- Okabe (M-O) method] is a poor analogy for ei...

  4. Air pollution and retained particles in the lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, M.; Avila-Casado, C; Fortoul, T. I.; Vedal, S; Stevens, B; Churg, A

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence associates particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The biological mechanisms underlying these associations and the relationship between ambient levels and retained particles in the lung remain uncertain. We examined the parenchymal particle content of 11 autopsy lungs from never-smoking female residents of Mexico City, a region with high ambient particle levels [3-year mean PM(10) (particulate matter < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diamet...

  5. Retaining professional nurses in South Africa: Nurse managers’ perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    South Africa is experiencing a serious shortage of nurses, which has to be addressed to prevent crises in health care services. Previous studies (Fletcher 2001:324; Oosthuizen 2005:117) found that nurses change their work environment due to dissatisfaction with their job situations. This implies that creating a favourable environment in the workplace situation could help retain professional nurses in their posts, implying that retention strategies should be effective.

    An exploratory, ...

  6. New teeth from old: treatment options for retained primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S; Chan, M F W-Y

    2009-10-10

    Retention of primary teeth beyond their expected exfoliation date is encountered relatively frequently. Most commonly this is due to absence of the permanent successor. In this article patient assessment and the restorative treatment options are discussed with particular emphasis on retention of the primary tooth/teeth in the medium to long-term. The restorative techniques that may be used to improve aesthetics and function of retained primary teeth are illustrated. Consideration of this minimally invasive approach is commended in such cases.

  7. Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects

    OpenAIRE

    Federspil, Philipp A.

    2011-01-01

    Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral impl...

  8. CT appearances of chronically retained wooden intraorbital foreign bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncoeur-Martel, M.P.; Dupuy, J.P.; Maubon, A. [Univ. Hospital Dupuytren, Limoges (France). Dept. of Radiology; Adenis, J.P.; Rulfi, J.Y.; Robert, P.Y. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Univ. Hospital Dupuytren, Limoges (France)

    2001-02-01

    Identification of wooden intraorbital foreign bodies (WIOFB) is crucial for avoiding severe orbital infection. Despite careful clinical examination, WIOFB are often not recognised. We report the CT findings in chronically retained WIOFB. When not initially diagnosed, WIOFB create a granulomatous inflammatory foreign-body reaction. CT demonstrates the WIOFB as a linear dense structure surrounded by a soft-tissue mass with density similar to that of muscle, corresponding to the foreign-body reaction. (orig.)

  9. An integrated framework for transmission cost allocation retaining efficiency concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.W. Marangon [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Gorenstin, B.G.; Vieira Filho, X. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chipp, H.J.; Alvarenga Filho, S. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hirota, M. [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil); Pereira, M.V.F. [Power System Research, Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a methodology for allocating transmission costs among utilities and wheeling agents. The proposed approach is based on the extension of marginal cost theory to take into account discrete component sizes and economy of scale, while retaining desirable economic properties such as revenue reconciliation and incentives for all participants to remain in the pool. The methodology is illustrated in case studies with the Brazilian system. (author) 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Effects of twinning on gestation length, retained placenta, and dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternkamp, S E; Gregory, K E

    1999-01-01

    Constraints to maximal productivity from twinning in beef cattle include increased incidence of dystocia and retained placenta, longer postpartum interval, and lower conception rate. Incidence and cause(s) of the shorter gestation length and of the increased retained placenta and dystocia associated with twinning were evaluated for 3,370 single and 1,014 twin births produced in a population of cattle selected for natural twin births. Gestation length was shorter for twin than for single pregnancies (275.6 vs. 281.3 d, P.10) by parity with twin births. Because of the shorter gestation length and the increased incidence of retained placenta and(or) dystocia, achievement of increased productivity with twinning in cattle necessitates intensive management of twin-producing dams and their calves during the calving season. Management of the increased dystocia can be facilitated by preparturient diagnosis of twin pregnancies, enabling timely administration of obstetrical assistance to facilitate delivery of twin calves and to increase their neonatal survival.

  11. Reliability analysis of retaining walls with multiple failure modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道兵; 孙志彬; 朱川曲

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce the errors of the reliability of the retaining wall structure in the establishment of function, in the estimation of parameter and algorithm, firstly, two new reliability and stability models of anti-slipping and anti-overturning based on the upper-bound theory of limit analysis were established, and two kinds of failure modes were regarded as a series of systems with multiple correlated failure modes. Then, statistical characteristics of parameters of the retaining wall structure were inferred by maximal entropy principle. At last, the structural reliabilities of single failure mode and multiple failure modes were calculated by Monte Carlo method in MATLAB and the results were compared and analyzed on the sensitivity. It indicates that this method, with a high precision, is not only easy to program and quick in calculation, but also without the limit of nonlinear functions and non-normal random variables. And the results calculated by this method which applies both the limit analysis theory, maximal entropy principle and Monte Carlo method into analyzing the reliability of the retaining wall structures is more scientific, accurate and reliable, in comparison with those calculated by traditional method.

  12. Localization of nuclear retained mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune; Libri, Domenico; Boulay, Jocelyne

    2003-01-01

    in the rat7–1 strain colocalize predominantly with nucleolar antigens. Bulk poly(A)+ RNA, on the other hand, is localized primarily to the nuclear rim. Interestingly, the RNA binding nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein Npl3p shows strong colocalization with bulk poly(A)+ RNA, regardless of its nuclear location...... in retaining RNAs in these foci; on deletion of the exosome component Rrp6p, the RNA is released. To determine the exact nuclear location of retained as well as released mRNAs, we have used mRNA export mutant strains to analyze the spatial relationship between newly synthesized heat shock mRNA, the chromosomal...... site of transcription, and known S. cerevisiae nuclear structures such as the nucleolus and the nucleolar body. Our results show that retained SSA4 RNA localizes to an area in close proximity to the SSA4 locus. On deletion of Rrp6p and release from the genomic locus, heat shock mRNAs produced...

  13. Localization of nuclear retained mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMSEN, RUNE; LIBRI, DOMENICO; BOULAY, JOCELYNE; ROSBASH, MICHAEL; JENSEN, TORBEN HEICK

    2003-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a common conditional phenotype associated with deletion or mutation of genes encoding mRNA export factors is the rapid accumulation of mRNAs in intranuclear foci, suggested to be near transcription sites. The nuclear RNA exosome has been implicated in retaining RNAs in these foci; on deletion of the exosome component Rrp6p, the RNA is released. To determine the exact nuclear location of retained as well as released mRNAs, we have used mRNA export mutant strains to analyze the spatial relationship between newly synthesized heat shock mRNA, the chromosomal site of transcription, and known S. cerevisiae nuclear structures such as the nucleolus and the nucleolar body. Our results show that retained SSA4 RNA localizes to an area in close proximity to the SSA4 locus. On deletion of Rrp6p and release from the genomic locus, heat shock mRNAs produced in the rat7–1 strain colocalize predominantly with nucleolar antigens. Bulk poly(A)+ RNA, on the other hand, is localized primarily to the nuclear rim. Interestingly, the RNA binding nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein Npl3p shows strong colocalization with bulk poly(A)+ RNA, regardless of its nuclear location. Taken together, our data show that retention occurs close to the gene and indicate distinct nuclear fates of different mRNAs. PMID:12923254

  14. 18 CFR 367.4360 - Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Appropriations of retained earnings. 367.4360 Section 367.4360 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4360 Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings. This account must include appropriations of retained earnings as follows: (a) Appropriations required...

  15. Integrated “plume winter” scenario for the double-phased extinction during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition: The G-LB and P-TB events from a Panthalassan perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isozaki, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    The event across the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition involved the greatest mass extinction in history together with other unique geologic phenomena of global context, such as the onset of Pangean rifting and the development of superanoxia. The detailed stratigraphic analyses on the Permo-Triassic sedimentary rocks documented a two-stepped nature both of the extinction and relevant global environmental changes at the Guadalupian-Lopingian (Middle and Upper Permian) boundary (G-LB, ca. 260 Ma) and at the Permo-Triassic boundary (P-TB, ca. 252 Ma), suggesting two independent triggers for the global catastrophe. Despite the entire loss of the Permian-Triassic ocean floors by successive subduction, some fragments of mid-oceanic rocks were accreted to and preserved along active continental margins. These provide particularly important dataset for deciphering the Permo-Triassic paleo-environments of the extensive superocean Panthalassa that occupied nearly two thirds of the Earth's surface. The accreted deep-sea pelagic cherts recorded the double-phased remarkable faunal reorganization in radiolarians (major marine plankton in the Paleozoic) both across the G-LB and the P-TB, and the prolonged deep-sea anoxia (superanoxia) from the Late Permian to early Middle Triassic with a peak around the P-TB. In contrast, the accreted mid-oceanic paleo-atoll carbonates deposited on seamounts recorded clear double-phased changes of fusuline (representative Late Paleozoic shallow marine benthos) diversity and of negative shift of stable carbon isotope ratio at the G-LB and the P-TB, in addition to the Paleozoic minimum in 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratio in the Capitanian (Late Guadalupian) and the paleomagnetic Illawarra Reversal in the late Guadalupian. These bio-, chemo-, and magneto-stratigraphical signatures are concordant with those reported from the coeval shallow marine shelf sequences around Pangea. The mid-oceanic, deep- and shallow-water Permian records indicate that significant

  16. Prevention of post surgical infection in retained and semi retained third molar surgery using two antibiotic prophylaxis regimens with Clindamycin

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Infantes, Manuel; Departamento Académico Médico Quirúrgico, Facultad Odontología, UNMSM.; Rodríguez Alfaro, Miguel; Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad Odontología, UNMSM.; Cabrejos Álvarez, Antonio; Departamento Académico Médico Quirúrgico, Facultad Odontología, UNMSM.; Burga Sánchez, Jonny; Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad Odontología, UNMSM.; Chumpitaz Cerrate, Víctor; Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad Odontología, UNMSM.; López Bellido, Roger; Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad Odontología, UNMSM.; Ramón Rosales, Arturo; Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad Odontología, UNMSM.; Varas Hilario, Roberto; Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad Odontología, UNMSM.; Zegarra Cuya, Juan; Bachiller en Odontología, Facultad Odontología, UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two antibiotic prophylaxis regimens with Clindamycin in patients under semi-retained third lower molar surgery. Third molar extractions were carried out in healthy patients who complied with the inclusion criteria, in the central clinic surgery service of San Marcos University dentistry faculty. After having performed the exodontia control appointments were programmed during 5 days post – extraction where the infection signs were evaluated through the pres...

  17. FEM evaluation of cemented-retained versus screw-retained dental implant single-tooth crown prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicciu, Marco; Bramanti, Ennio; Matacena, Giada; Guglielmino, Eugenio; Risitano, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of partial or total edentulous patients is today a challenge for clinicians and dental practitioners. The application of dental implants in order to recover areas of missing teeth is going to be a predictable technique, however some important points about the implant angulation, the stress distribution over the bone tissue and prosthetic components should be well investigated for having final long term clinical results. Two different system of the prosthesis fixation are commonly used. The screw retained crown and the cemented retained one. All of the two restoration techniques give to the clinicians several advantages and some disadvantages. Aim of this work is to evaluate all the mechanical features of each system, through engineering systems of investigations like FEM and Von Mises analyses. The FEM is today a useful tool for the prediction of stress effect upon material and biomaterial under load or strengths. Specifically three different area has been evaluated through this study: the dental crown with the bone interface; the passant screw connection area; the occlusal surface of the two different type of crown. The elastic features of the materials used in the study have been taken from recent literature data. Results revealed an adequate response for both type of prostheses, although cemented retained one showed better results over the occlusal area.

  18. FEM evaluation of cemented-retained versus screw-retained dental implant single-tooth crown prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicciu, Marco; Bramanti, Ennio; Matacena, Giada; Guglielmino, Eugenio; Risitano, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of partial or total edentulous patients is today a challenge for clinicians and dental practitioners. The application of dental implants in order to recover areas of missing teeth is going to be a predictable technique, however some important points about the implant angulation, the stress distribution over the bone tissue and prosthetic components should be well investigated for having final long term clinical results. Two different system of the prosthesis fixation are commonly used. The screw retained crown and the cemented retained one. All of the two restoration techniques give to the clinicians several advantages and some disadvantages. Aim of this work is to evaluate all the mechanical features of each system, through engineering systems of investigations like FEM and Von Mises analyses. The FEM is today a useful tool for the prediction of stress effect upon material and biomaterial under load or strengths. Specifically three different area has been evaluated through this study: the dental crown with the bone interface; the passant screw connection area; the occlusal surface of the two different type of crown. The elastic features of the materials used in the study have been taken from recent literature data. Results revealed an adequate response for both type of prostheses, although cemented retained one showed better results over the occlusal area. PMID:24955150

  19. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  20. How the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme began.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Martyn S

    2014-07-07

    Seventy years ago, the Curtin wartime government introduced legislation for a Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). It was a response to the need to provide access to a wave of antibiotic drugs - sulfonamides, streptomycin, penicillin - to the whole population, not only to the minority able to afford them. The scheme was immediately and successfully opposed by doctors and the conservative opposition, which saw in universal health care an underhand plan to nationalise medicine. There were two High Court challenges, two referendums and a constitutional amendment; but it was not until 1960 that Australians had the comprehensive PBS envisaged by Curtin in 1944.

  1. How "Jonah and the Great Fist" Began.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Warwick

    1985-01-01

    A writer and illustrator of children's books describes the creation of his prize winning work and cautions fellow artists that special care must be taken in printing and binding if their original illustrations are to be faithfully reproduced. (RBW)

  2. How did 'biopolymers' evolve before life began?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J E

    1988-12-01

    The very reactive products of ionizing radiations acting on water (e(aq)(-), OH·, H·, etc.) probably had a very potent effect in selecting prebiopolymers from the polymers of the primordial soup. e(aq)(-), in particular, has properties that give considerable insight into the survival of nucleic acids, secondary structures in DNA and polypeptides, lipid membranes and electron transport systems. OH· could have played an important part in selecting specific binding sites ('specifity selection'). Experimental evidence is available for these proposals.

  3. World Cup:Brands Gamble Began

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As I click the first word on board,eight days,17 hours and one minute later,the 2010 FIFA World Cup South AfricaTM would star t its month-long competition.Who would like to be awarded the World Cup Trophy at last has already aroused the enthusiasm of the whole world.Furthermore,the worldwide famous sports brands also have launched their adventure to bet which team they sponsored would be at the top of the competition.One month later,we could know who will win eventually.

  4. The day the Internet age began

    CERN Multimedia

    Cerf, Vinton G

    2009-01-01

    Forty years ago today the first message was sent between computers on the ARPANET. Vinto G. Cerf, who was a principal programmer on the project, reflects on how our online world was shaped by its innovative origins. (2 pages)

  5. Total rewards that retain: A study of demographic preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pregnolato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Changing workplace demographics and a dearth of employees with scarce skills have forced employers to better understand the various factors that retain talented employees.Research purpose: In this empirical study, the reward preferences and ideal combination of total reward elements (based on an estimation of their relative importance that retain employees from various demographic groups, including employees of different race, gender and age groups, were investigated.Motivation for study: Organisations are competing for talented employees and to benefit from the value these individuals add, it is required of them to stay at the respective businesses. Previous studies have indicated that employees who are offered a reward package that is aligned to their personal preferences are prone to stay longer at the organisation and to be more engaged at work. However, new and novel ways need to be found to identify the reward preferences of employees.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach and descriptive research design was employed to estimate the individual reward preferences and identify an ideal mix of total reward elements that retain different cohorts of employees. Three questionnaires were distributed, including a Remuneration Managers Questionnaire (n = 7, a Remuneration Preference Questionnaire (n = 368 and a Choice-based Conjoint Task Questionnaire (n = 368. The latter two questionnaires were distributed as an online questionnaire to South African businesses and consisted of eight choice-based conjoint tasks, as well as a field survey.Main findings: The results of the choice-based conjoint analysis revealed that all respondents considered financial rewards (Benefits, Performance and Recognition, Remuneration, Career, in that order as relatively speaking, the most important components in their total rewards package that would lead to their retention. For most demographic groups, the remaining three places (i

  6. Retained fetal bones: an unusual cause of abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Chawla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB is a common gynaecological problem with most common causes being fibroid, polyp, endometritis, neoplasia and coagulation disorder. Presence of retained intrauterine fetal bones as a cause of AUB, is a rare but well recognized entity. Patient may present with subfertility, secondary infertility, chronic pelvic pain, vaginal discharge, pelvic inflammatory disease, abnormal uterine bleeding. Incidence reported in literature is 0.15% among patients undergoing diagnostic hysteroscopy. Calcification appears as hyperechoeic area on ultrasound. Hysteroscopy guided removal of bony fragments is the gold standard and leads to complete resolution of symptoms. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2032-2033

  7. Tooth Supported Overdenture Retained with Custom Attachments: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Siddharth; Aras, Meena A; Chitre, Vidya

    2014-12-01

    Overdenture is a favored treatment modality for elderly patients with few remaining teeth. Roots maintained under the denture base preserve the alveolar ridge, provide sensory feedback and improve the stability of the dentures. Furthermore, the use of copings and precision attachments on the remaining teeth enhances the retention of the denture. This clinical report describes a novel method of fabricating a tooth supported overdenture retained with custom made ball attachments using orthodontic separators as a female component. Customized ball attachments with orthodontic separators are a simple and cost effective alternative treatment to the use of prefabricated attachments for enhancing the retention of tooth supported overdentures.

  8. Crystallography of lath martensite and stabilization of retained austenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya. M.

    1982-10-01

    TEM was used to study the morphology and crystallography of lath martensite in low and medium carbon steels in the as-quenched and 200/sup 0/C tempered conditions. The steels have microduplex structures of dislocated lath martensite and continuous thin films of retained austenite at the lath interfaces. Stacks of laths form the packets which are derived from different (111) variants of the same austenite grain. The residual parent austenite enables microdiffraction experiments with small electron beam spot sizes for the orientation relationships (OR) between austenite and martensite. All three most commonly observed ORs, namely Kurdjumov-Sachs, Nishiyama-Wassermann, and Greninger-Troiano, operate within the same sample.

  9. Milk hydrolysis products may retain their allergenic reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    was to investigate some extensively hydrolyzed milk whey products for their ability to retain sensitizing and reacting activity in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model. Method: BN rats were immunized i.p. three times without the use of adjuvant with 200 µg of either PBS (control), intact β-lactoglobulin (BLG), enzyme...... and PEPTIGEN had no sensitizing capacity. However, antibodies from all rats immunized with the intact BLG could still react with both hydrolyzed BLG and PEPTIGEN in a manner that was statistically significant. Conclusion: The extensively hydrolyzed milk whey products investigated in this study showed...

  10. Albumin/asparaginase capsules prepared by ultrasound to retain ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Ana; Ribeiro, Artur; Oliveira, César; Parpot, Pier; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-11-01

    Asparaginase reduces the levels of asparagine in blood, which is an essential amino acid for the proliferation of lymphoblastic malign cells. Asparaginase converts asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the bloodstream leads to hyperammonemia, described as one of the most significant side effects of asparaginase therapy. Therefore, there is a need for asparaginase formulations with the potential to reduce hyperammonemia. We incorporated 2 % of therapeutic enzyme in albumin-based capsules. The presence of asparaginase in the interface of bovine serum albumin (BSA) capsules showed the ability to hydrolyze the asparagine and retain the forming ammonia at the surface of the capsules. The incorporation of Poloxamer 407 in the capsule formulation further increased the ratio aspartic acid/ammonia from 1.92 to 2.46 (and 1.10 from the free enzyme), decreasing the levels of free ammonia. This capacity to retain ammonia can be due to electrostatic interactions and retention of ammonia at the surface of the capsules. The developed BSA/asparaginase capsules did not cause significant cytotoxic effect on mouse leukemic macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The new BSA/asparaginase capsules could potentially be used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia preventing hyperammonemia associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment with asparaginase.

  11. Shrimp tropomyosin retains antibody reactivity after exposure to acidic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Cao, Hanjuan; Maleki, Soheila; Nayak, Balunkeswar Balu

    2017-08-01

    Although shrimp can be found in certain high acid food matrices, the allergenic capacity of shrimp tropomyosin exposed to low pH condition has not been fully clarified. Thus, a model marinade comprising white vinegar adjusted to different pH was used to determine the effects of acid-induced denaturation on the immunoreactivity of tropomyosin. Whole shrimp experienced either swelling or shrinkage after marination depending on the vinegar pH and the final muscle pH. The extractability of soluble myofibrillar proteins was reduced significantly among shrimp marinated in vinegar at pH 1.0-3.5, and a substantial amount of tropomyosin was retained in the insoluble pellets. Consequently, the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding capacity of tropomyosin was significantly lower in the soluble protein fraction of shrimp marinated at pH 1.0-3.5 compared with samples marinated at pH 4.8 and control. However, tropomyosin in the insoluble protein fraction of all marinated shrimp showed strong IgE-binding capacity at all marinating conditions. Thus, tropomyosin in shrimp exposed to low pH condition retained its allergenic capacity owing to the conservation of its linear epitopes. Analysis of the insoluble protein fraction was crucial for the accurate determination of the effect of low pH condition on the immunoreactivity of this allergen. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Salary is not enough to attract and retain the best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations face the challenge of attracting and retaining talented staff. In some instances, a reference to the existence of a war for talent is made. It is that way that the retention of workers has stopped being managed, exclusively, with the offer of good salaries. This paper explores, in a first instance, the theoretical framework that describes the principal tools of talent retention that companies develop, and that are considered as part of the total remuneration that workers receive: economic compensations, recognition, career plans and staff development, feedback, personal and professional life balance, social network and team making, proper relationship with superiors and organizational climate life. Later, the results that were obtained from interviews with ten of the best companies to work for in Peru, according to the Great Place to Work Institute ranking in 2007, on retaining talent tools that they implement are shown. Finally, conclusions on the case studies are presented.

  13. Retained austenite thermal stability in a nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avishan, Behzad, E-mail: b_avishan@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Garcia-Mateo, Carlos, E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), MATERALIA Research Group, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Yazdani, Sasan, E-mail: yazdani@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Caballero, Francisca G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), MATERALIA Research Group, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    The unique microstructure of nanostructured bainite consists of very slender bainitic ferrite plates and high carbon retained austenite films. As a consequence, the reported properties are opening a wide range of different commercial uses. However, bainitic transformation follows the T{sub 0} criteria, i.e. the incomplete reaction phenomena, which means that the microstructure is not thermodynamically stable because the bainitic transformation stops well before austenite reaches an equilibrium carbon level. This article aims to study the different microstructural changes taking place when nanostructured bainite is destabilized by austempering for times well in excess of that strictly necessary to end the transformation. Results indicate that while bainitic ferrite seems unaware of the extended heat treatment, retained austenite exhibits a more receptive behavior to it. - Highlights: • Nanostructured bainitic steel is not thermodynamically stable. • Extensive austempering in these microstructures has not been reported before. • Precipitation of cementite particles is unavoidable at longer austempering times. • TEM, FEG-SEM and XRD analysis were used for microstructural characterization.

  14. Chronic Pelvic Pain and Infertility Resulting from Unrecognized Retained Laminaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Nilsson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2013, the abortion rate in the United States was found to be 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. Of these, the CDC estimates that nearly 49% were performed using unsafe measures. Even when these procedures are safely performed, patients are at risk for immediate or delayed complications. In second-trimester terminations, mechanical dilation with an osmotic dilator is common to allow for delivery of the fetus. The Japanese seaweed Laminaria japonica is used to achieve this purpose. Case. A 28-year-old primigravida presented with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. She had irregular menstrual cycles and reported scant yellow discharge. A transvaginal ultrasound revealed an abnormally appearing endometrium with an elongated structure suspicious for a foreign body. The patient reported a voluntary termination of pregnancy twelve years earlier, for which laminaria were placed prior to the dilation and extraction. She underwent an operative hysteroscopy confirming our suspicion for retained laminaria. The pathology report demonstrated chronic severe endometritis and plant based material. Conclusion. Retained laminaria are associated with chronic pelvic pain and chronic infertility. Since they can be difficult to detect on conventional imaging, proper counting prior to insertion and after removal is an essential physician responsibility.

  15. A new skeletal retention system for retaining anterior open bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodore Albaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Relapse of anterior open bite after treatment poses a challenge to orthodontists and warrants finding new methods. We aimed to compare the effect of a skeletal retention (SR system to the conventional retention (CR commonly used. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients participated in this study. SR group ten patients (five females and five males with mean age of 16.2 years, CR group ten patients (five females and five males with mean age of 17.1 years in pretreatment stage. The SR system is comprised of four self-drilling miniscrews and vacuum retainers with interarch elastics where the CR group is comprised of removable or fixed retainers. Pretreatment (T1, posttreatment (T2, and 1-year follow up (T3 lateral cephalograms were taken and analyzed to compare the stability of both retention modalities. Results: The overbite in the CR group showed more relapse in the form of significant reduction when compared to the SR group (P < 0.001. The overbite was reduced only by 0.1 mm (±0.3 in the SR group compared to 1.4 mm (±0.9 in the CR group. In the CR group, the upper incisors and first molar showed a more significant relapse compared to the SR group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Skeletal retention using miniscrews and vertical elastic is an effective method for retention of anterior open bite cases.

  16. USING BRANDING TO ATTRACT, RECRUIT, AND RETAIN TALENTED STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Valentina FLOREA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this environment in continuous changing it is hard for organizations toattract and maintain the best candidates. The organizations use manymethods to recruit and hire, but now it is time to use the organization’s brandto attract talents the organization would like. This article will define theemployer brand as the organization’s image, as an exceptional place to workin the minds of the current employees as well as potential candidates, clients,customers, and stakeholders. The case study is made in six largeorganizations from Dambovita County, Romania, and describes how to usethe organization’s brand to attract, retain, and engage the people it needs. Imade a survey and the data collected I putted them in a model of analyzeand can be applied to any organization which wants to find out if it is usingcorrectly its strong powers to attract and retain the best candidates. Theemployer brand is the value proposition that organization conveys itsemployees and the external labor market. Great organizations create such astrong brand that it draws the talent to them rather than having to spendsignificant time and money on selling the organization to the talent market.Many benefits in the recruiting world are provided by a strong employmentbrand.

  17. MULTIPLE RETAINED TEETH IN MANDIBLE: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetan Cvetanov

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this science report is to show a rare case of multiple impacted teeth at adult patient and our propose clinical approach.Materials and methods: The clinical case is showed from adult man /64-year old/ with multiple impacted teeth (6 impacted teeth in the anterior place on the mandible were not suggestive of any syndrome or metabolic disorder. The extraction of the impacted teeth was made on two stage with piezosurgery unit under local anaesthesia. For prevention of postsurgical complications, as a swelling and prevention of postsurgical resorbtion were used coneshapes from pressure xeno colagen. To base on clinical and radiological examination we will discuss the differential diagnosis and we will offer a clinical approach about decided the case.Result and Conclusion: The incidence of multiple retained teeth by literature research range from 10.9% to 40.4%, most frequently is the retention of the third molars. In the literature most rarely have clinical reports about multiple retained teeth which differ from third molars at adult patients. The rare clinical case we showed is very demonstrative and the medicative approach which we used gave excellent result.

  18. [Intestinal occlusion secondary to a retained surgical item].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar-Rincón, Luis Ernesto; Gordillo Gómez, Enrique Alejandro; Ramírez-Alcántara, Yunis Lourdes

    Retained surgical items after a surgical procedure is a real, existing, and preventable problem that affects the safety of the surgical patient. Its incidence is not exactly known due to under-reporting of occurrence, due to the potential risk of lawsuits. A 31 year-old women that had an elective caesarean, apparently without complications. In the immediate post-operative period, clinical features appeared that were compatible with intestinal obstruction, such as inability to channel gas, bloating, abdominal pain and vigorous peristalsis. The diagnosis is made by the recent history of abdominal-pelvic surgery and the finding of a foreign body on a simple x-ray of the abdomen. The patient was operated upon, with a satisfactory outcome, and was discharged 5 days later. A retained surgical instrument is an under-reported event that represents a medical-legal problem, leading to various complications, including death if it is not diagnosed and treated early. It is important to know the risk factors and adopt a culture of prevention through perioperative monitoring of equipment and instruments used during the surgical act. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Acquisition and Retaining Granular Samples via a Rotating Coring Bit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This device takes advantage of the centrifugal forces that are generated when a coring bit is rotated, and a granular sample is entered into the bit while it is spinning, making it adhere to the internal wall of the bit, where it compacts itself into the wall of the bit. The bit can be specially designed to increase the effectiveness of regolith capturing while turning and penetrating the subsurface. The bit teeth can be oriented such that they direct the regolith toward the bit axis during the rotation of the bit. The bit can be designed with an internal flute that directs the regolith upward inside the bit. The use of both the teeth and flute can be implemented in the same bit. The bit can also be designed with an internal spiral into which the various particles wedge. In another implementation, the bit can be designed to collect regolith primarily from a specific depth. For that implementation, the bit can be designed such that when turning one way, the teeth guide the regolith outward of the bit and when turning in the opposite direction, the teeth will guide the regolith inward into the bit internal section. This mechanism can be implemented with or without an internal flute. The device is based on the use of a spinning coring bit (hollow interior) as a means of retaining granular sample, and the acquisition is done by inserting the bit into the subsurface of a regolith, soil, or powder. To demonstrate the concept, a commercial drill and a coring bit were used. The bit was turned and inserted into the soil that was contained in a bucket. While spinning the bit (at speeds of 600 to 700 RPM), the drill was lifted and the soil was retained inside the bit. To prove this point, the drill was turned horizontally, and the acquired soil was still inside the bit. The basic theory behind the process of retaining unconsolidated mass that can be acquired by the centrifugal forces of the bit is determined by noting that in order to stay inside the interior of the bit, the

  20. Diet-induced obese mice retain endogenous leptin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaway, Nickki; Mahbod, Parinaz; Rivero, Belen; Norman, Lee Ann; Gertler, Arieh; D'Alessio, David A; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2015-06-02

    Obesity is characterized by hyperleptinemia and decreased response to exogenous leptin. This has been widely attributed to the development of leptin resistance, a state of impaired leptin signaling proposed to contribute to the development and persistence of obesity. To directly determine endogenous leptin activity in obesity, we treated lean and obese mice with a leptin receptor antagonist. The antagonist increased feeding and body weight (BW) in lean mice, but not in obese models of leptin, leptin receptor, or melanocortin-4 receptor deficiency. In contrast, the antagonist increased feeding and BW comparably in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, an increase associated with decreased hypothalamic expression of Socs3, a primary target of leptin. These findings demonstrate that hyperleptinemic DIO mice retain leptin suppression of feeding comparable to lean mice and counter the view that resistance to endogenous leptin contributes to the persistence of DIO in mice.

  1. Milk hydrolysis products may retain their allergenic reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    was to investigate some extensively hydrolyzed milk whey products for their ability to retain sensitizing and reacting activity in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model. Method: BN rats were immunized i.p. three times without the use of adjuvant with 200 µg of either PBS (control), intact β-lactoglobulin (BLG), enzyme...... and PEPTIGEN had no sensitizing capacity. However, antibodies from all rats immunized with the intact BLG could still react with both hydrolyzed BLG and PEPTIGEN in a manner that was statistically significant. Conclusion: The extensively hydrolyzed milk whey products investigated in this study showed......Background: Milk allergy is one of the most common allergies in small children. Extensively hydrolyzed milk formulas are therefore an important source of nutrients for infants being predisposed for allergy and not being breastfeed and to infants with cows milk allergy. The aim of this study...

  2. Thermal desorption of CH4 retained in CO2 ice

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, R; Domingo, M; Satorre, M A

    2008-01-01

    CO2 ices are known to exist in different astrophysical environments. In spite of this, its physical properties (structure, density, refractive index) have not been as widely studied as those of water ice. It would be of great value to study the adsorption properties of this ice in conditions related to astrophysical environments. In this paper, we explore the possibility that CO2 traps relevant molecules in astrophysical environments at temperatures higher than expected from their characteristic sublimation point. To fulfil this aim we have carried out desorption experiments under High Vacuum conditions based on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance and additionally monitored with a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. From our results, the presence of CH4 in the solid phase above the sublimation temperature in some astrophysical scenarios could be explained by the presence of several retaining mechanisms related to the structure of CO2 ice.

  3. Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching

  4. Influence of Parameters of Quenching and Partitioning Process on Microstructure and Fraction of Retained Austenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shirali

    2015-07-01

    of partitioning temperature made the retained austenite films become thicker and its volume fraction increase. On the other hand, by increasing the quenching temperature, carbon content of retained austenite increased sharply.

  5. Influence of cooling conditions and amount of retained austenite on the fracture of austempered ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VYACHESLAV GORYANY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available SEM Analysis of fracture surfaces from tensile test specimens of thick-walled, austempered ductile irons (diameter 160 mm shows different fracture behavior depending on the austenite retained in the matrix. The results show ductile fractures only in areas containing retained austenite sections. In section areas without or with a very low content of retained austenite, only brittle fracture without any plastic deformation occurs. The content of retained austenite determines the amount of ductile fracture in the microstructure.

  6. 13 CFR 120.1706 - Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. 120.1706 Section 120.1706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Pools § 120.1706 Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. The Pool Originator must retain...

  7. Retained placenta in Friesian mares : incidence, risk factors, therapy, and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns incidence, risk factors, therapy and consequences of retained placenta after normal foalings in Friesian mares. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. Incidence of retained placenta was studied in 495 p

  8. 26 CFR 1.636-2 - Production payments retained in leasing transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Production payments retained in leasing... payments retained in leasing transactions. (a) Treatment by lessee. In the case of a production payment (as defined in paragraph (a) of § 1.636-3) which is retained by the lessor in a leasing transaction...

  9. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the m

  10. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the m

  11. 41 CFR 102-37.270 - May a SASP retain surplus property for its own use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a SASP retain surplus property for its own use? 102-37.270 Section 102-37.270 Public Contracts and Property Management... Property § 102-37.270 May a SASP retain surplus property for its own use? Yes, you can retain...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4800 - Self-retaining retractor for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-retaining retractor for neurosurgery. 882...-retaining retractor for neurosurgery. (a) Identification. A self-retaining retractor for neurosurgery is a self-locking device used to hold the edges of a wound open during neurosurgery. (b) Classification...

  13. 18 CFR 367.4390 - Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings. 367.4390 Section 367.4390 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4390 Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings. (a...

  14. Comparative evaluation of microleakage of lingual retainer wires bonded with three different lingual retainer composites: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar-Patil, Smita; Vaz, Anna; Patil, Pravinkumar G

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate microleakage when two types of retainer wires were bonded with two light cured and a self cured lingual retainer composites. Total 120 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were collected and separated into six subgroups of 20 teeth each. Two different wires, a 0.036 inch hard round stainless steel (HRSS) wire sandblasted at the ends and 0.0175 inch multistranded wire bonded onto the lingual surfaces of the incisors with three different types of composite resins of 3M company; Concise Orthodontic (self-cure), Transbond XT (light-cure) and Transbond LR (light-cure). Specimens were further sealed with a nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for microleakage for the enamel-composite and wire-composite interfaces. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. For HRSS wire, at the enamel-composite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and greatest for Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, the microleakage was in order of Transbond LR

  15. Interaction of ubiquitin ligase CBL with LMP2A protein of Epstein-Barr virus occurs via PTB domain of CBL and does not depend on adaptor ITSN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dergai O. V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Previously Latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A of Epstein-Barr virus was found to be ubiquitylated by CBL ubiquitin ligase but no direct interaction of LMP2A with CBL was reported. We aimed to explore this interaction and study a possibility of adaptor protein involvement. Taking into consideration that both LMP2A and CBL were shown to interact with endocytic adaptor protein intersectin 1 (ITSN1, we assumed that the latter could serve as a scaffold for LMP2A/CBL complex. Methods. We used an immunofluorescence and coimmuno- precipitation approaches to test a mutual complex formation of ITSN1, CBL and LMP2A proteins. Results. LMP2A coimmunoprecipitated with CBL while LMP2A did not interact with CBL G306E mutant harboring inactive phosphotyrosine-binding domain. We observed a triple colocalization of ITSN1, CBL and LMP2A signals in MCF-7 cells as well as coprecipitation of all mentioned proteins. Overexpression of ITSN1 did not affect the efficiency of complex formation of LMP2A with CBL. Moreover, LMP2A mutant unable to interact with ITSN1 was readily precipitated with CBL. Conclusions. LMP2A can be engaged in the complex together with endocytic adaptor ITSN1 and ubiquitin ligase CBL. We show that PTB domain of CBL is responsible for interaction with LMP2A. ITSN1 is not required for LMP2A recruiting to CBL.

  16. KEY COMPARISON: Activity measurements of the radionuclide 201Tl for the LNE-LNHB, France, PTB, Germany and the NPL, UK in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tl-201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Moune, M.; Bobin, C.; Kossert, K.; Johansson, L.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Laboratoire national de métrologie et essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) each submitted a sample of known activity of 201Tl to the International Reference System (SIR). In 2006, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) submitted their first sample. The range of values of the activity submitted was between 2 MBq and 63 MBq. These key comparison results have been included in the re-evaluated key comparison reference value and replaced the previous results for France and Germany in the matrix of degrees of equivalence in the key comparison database that now contains seven results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tl-201. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  17. 3-D Distribution of Retained Colloids in Unsaturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, V. L.; Perez-Reche, F. J.; Holzner, M.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Otten, W.

    2013-12-01

    It is well accepted that colloid transport processes in porous media differ substantially between water saturated and unsaturated conditions. Differences are frequently ascribed to colloid immobilization by association with interfaces with the gas, as well as to restrictions of the liquid medium through which colloids are transported. Such factors depend on interfacial conditions provided by the water saturation of the porous medium. Yet, the current understanding of the importance of colloid retention at gas interfaces is based on observations of single pores or two-dimensional pore network representations, leaving open the question of their statistical significance when all pores in the medium are considered. In order to address this question, column experiments were performed using a model porous medium of glass beads through which colloidal silver particles were transported for conditions of varying water content. X-ray microtomography was subsequently employed as a non-destructive imaging technique to obtain pore-scale information of the entire column regarding: i) the presence and distribution of the four main locations where colloids can become retained (interfaces with the liquid-solid, gas-liquid and gas-solid, and the bulk liquid), ii) deposition profiles of colloids along the column classified by the available retention location, iii) morphological characteristics of the deposited colloidal aggregates, and iv) channel widths of 3-dimensional pore-water network representations. The results presented provide, for the first time, a direct statistical evaluation on the significance of colloid retention by attachment to the liquid-solid, gas-liquid, gas-solid interfaces, and by straining in the bulk liquid. Additionally, an effective-pore structure characteristic is proposed to improve predictions of mass removal by straining under various water saturations. A) Unsaturated conditions. B) Saturated conditions. Left: Tomograph slice illustrating with false

  18. Seniors in Society. Strategies to Retain Individual Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The research project on "Seniors in Society. Strategies to Retain Individual Autonomy" (2002 - 2004 is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic. It's importance is empha-sized by the relevance of social and economic aspects of demographic ageing of the popula-tion and that of fundamental changes associated with the transformation of Czech society. The objectives of the research are (1 to find out seniors' material and social resources sup-porting their relative autonomy in everyday life, (2 to record their personal expectations from state, community, or formal and informal support and aid institutions, respectively, and (3 to uncover their engagement in social interaction and individual experiencing of the integration into social groups. The data acquired become the base for (4 identifying the typologies corre-sponding to the levels of seniors' social integration (i.e. groups of relatives, friends, neighbours, special-interest and professional groups. By applying qualitative methods, we explore (5 strategies of everyday life and coping with life cycle events and crisis within par-ticular types. Special attention is paid to the family background of the seniors, including rela-tives in the vertical line. Specifically, we focus on (6 conditions under which family is capa-ble and willing to help or actually is helping it's oldest members, as well as on their interpre-tation within (7 identified types of the relatives supportive systems.

  19. Improving wheat to remove coeliac epitopes but retain functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R.; Tatham, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    Coeliac disease is an intolerance triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins. It is of increasing concern to consumers and health professionals as its incidence appears to be increasing. The amino acid sequences in gluten proteins that are responsible for triggering responses in sensitive individuals have been identified showing that they vary in distribution among and between different groups of gluten proteins. Conventional breeding may therefore be used to select for gluten protein fractions with lower contents of coeliac epitopes. Molecular breeding approaches can also be used to specifically down-regulate coeliac-toxic proteins or mutate coeliac epitopes within individual proteins. A combination of these approaches may therefore be used to develop a “coeliac-safe” wheat. However, this remains a formidable challenge due to the complex multigenic control of gluten protein composition. Furthermore, any modified wheats must retain acceptable properties for making bread and other processed foods. Not surprisingly, such coeliac-safe wheats have not yet been developed despite over a decade of research. PMID:26937068

  20. A Review of Interventions to Recruit and Retain ICT Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo A. Siiman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews and analyses the educational research literature on interventions to increase the recruitment and retention of information and communications technology (ICT students. The results show that three changes in computing pedagogy characterize successful interventions, and consequently offer promising ways to attract and prepare more people for careers in ICT. The most important selection criterion considered when choosing papers to review was that interventions had been tested in practice and their effectiveness measured. Interventions were arranged into two groups: recruitment and retention. Recruitment interventions described initiatives to motivate interest in computing among secondary schools students, whereas retention interventions described efforts to retain students in ICT majors at universities. The three pedagogical approaches that emerged from an analysis of the successful interventions were: (1 visual programming environments to teach introductory programming, (2 inquiry learning activities to engage students in computing, and (3 integration of interdisciplinary knowledge to attract students from diverse disciplines. This review draws attention to innovative teaching practices currently shaping computer science education. Wider adoption of these pedagogical strategies has the potential to significantly increase the number of qualified ICT professionals.

  1. Retaining physicians in Lithuania: integrating research and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkiene, Liudvika; Macijauskiene, Jurate; Riklikiene, Olga; Stricka, Marius; Padaiga, Zilvinas

    2013-04-01

    Many of the strategic planning studies worldwide have made recommendations to the policy makers on the steps to be taken in eliminating the perceived shortages of physician workforce or in improving their distribution and retention. Policy makers have also considered various policy interventions to ensure adequate numbers of physicians. This study reviewed the research evidence and health policy decisions taken from 2000 to 2010 in Lithuania and evaluated the chronological links over time between scientific recommendations and policy decisions. From the analysis it would seem that Lithuania's success in retaining physicians between 2000 and 2010 was influenced by the timely implementation of particular research recommendations, such as increased salaries and increased enrolment to physician training programmes. In addition were the health policy interventions such as health sector reform, change in the legal status of medical residents and establishment of professional re-entry programmes. Based on this evidence it is recommended that policy makers in Lithuania as well as in other countries should consider comprehensive and systematic health policy approaches that combine and address various aspects of physician training, retention, geographic mal-distribution and emigration. Implementation of such an inclusive policy however is impossible without the integration of research into strategic decision making in workforce planning and effective health policy interventions.

  2. Leading a multigenerational workforce: strategies for attracting and retaining millennials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Terrence F; Sedrak, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, leaders in healthcare have noticed an increase in generational tension among employees, most often focused on the attitudes and behaviors of the arriving millennials (generation Y). While these employee relations issues were a nuisance, they rarely rose to the level of a priority demanding leadership intervention. Some leaders, in fact, hoped that the issues would resolve themselves as these young employees settled in and learned that they had to demonstrate new behaviors to be successful in the workplace. Most organizations adopted this wait-and-see attitude. Not so today. As the boomer generation has begun its exodus from the workplace, organizations are increasingly looking at the millennials as not a problem but a solution to the workplace manpower transition that is under way. Our problem is that we don't yet know how best to lead such a diverse, multigenerational workforce. This article examines the generational topic and provides advice concerning a variety of changes that leaders may implement to advance their organization's ability to attract and to retain the millennials.

  3. Grass Plants Bind, Retain, Uptake, and Transport Infectious Prions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pritzkow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrPSc to plants. Small quantities of PrPSc contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrPSc for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves. These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease.

  4. Air pollution and retained particles in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, M; Avila-Casado, C; Fortoul, T I; Vedal, S; Stevens, B; Churg, A

    2001-10-01

    Epidemiologic evidence associates particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The biological mechanisms underlying these associations and the relationship between ambient levels and retained particles in the lung remain uncertain. We examined the parenchymal particle content of 11 autopsy lungs from never-smoking female residents of Mexico City, a region with high ambient particle levels [3-year mean PM(10) (particulate matter aerodynamic diameter)= 66 microg/m(3)], and 11 control residents of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, a region with relatively low levels (3-year mean PM(10) = 14 microg/m(3). Autopsy lungs were dissolved in bleach and particles were identified and counted by analytical electron microscopy. Total particle concentrations in the Mexico City lungs were significantly higher [geometric mean = 2,055 (geometric SD = 3.9) x 10(6) particles/g dry lung vs. 279 (1.8) x 10(6) particles/g dry lung] than in lungs from Vancouver residents. Lungs from Mexico City contained numerous chain-aggregated masses of ultrafine carbonaceous spheres, some of which contained sulfur, and aggregates of ultrafine aluminum silicate. These aggregates made up an average of 25% of the total particles by count in the lungs from Mexico City, but were only rarely seen in lungs from Vancouver. These observations indicate for the first time that residence in a region with high levels of ambient particles results in pulmonary retention of large quantities of fine and ultrafine particle aggregates, some of which appear to be combustion products.

  5. Improving wheat to remove coeliac epitopes but retain functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Tatham, Arthur S

    2016-01-01

    Coeliac disease is an intolerance triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins. It is of increasing concern to consumers and health professionals as its incidence appears to be increasing. The amino acid sequences in gluten proteins that are responsible for triggering responses in sensitive individuals have been identified showing that they vary in distribution among and between different groups of gluten proteins. Conventional breeding may therefore be used to select for gluten protein fractions with lower contents of coeliac epitopes. Molecular breeding approaches can also be used to specifically down-regulate coeliac-toxic proteins or mutate coeliac epitopes within individual proteins. A combination of these approaches may therefore be used to develop a "coeliac-safe" wheat. However, this remains a formidable challenge due to the complex multigenic control of gluten protein composition. Furthermore, any modified wheats must retain acceptable properties for making bread and other processed foods. Not surprisingly, such coeliac-safe wheats have not yet been developed despite over a decade of research.

  6. Who is Retained in First Grade? A Psychosocial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Victor L; Hughes, Jan N

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 784 children with below-median literacy performance in kindergarten or at the beginning of grade 1 was assessed in 5 areas of psychological and social variables: academic competence, sociodemographic characteristics, social/emotional/behavioral characteristics, school context, and home environment. We examined the contribution of academic competence to retention first, and then evaluated contributions of each of the other areas beyond academic competence. The 165 students retained in first grade were found to differ from promoted students on reading and mathematics achievement test scores, teacher-rated engagement and achievement, and intelligence as individual predictors of academic competence, but with direct effects only for reading and teacher-rated achievement when entered as a set of predictors. None additional variables had zero-order significant correlations with retention status. Using hierarchical logistic regression, beyond the effects of academic competence variables we found that only being underage for grade and the home environmental variables of positive parental perceptions of their child's school, sense of shared responsibility for education with the school, and parent communication with the school contributed significantly to retention. Implications for educational policy and intervention are discussed.

  7. Field Measurements and Pullout Tests of Reinforced Earth Retaining Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈群; 何昌荣; 朱分清

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, field measurements and pullout tests of a new type of reinforced earth retaining wall, which is reinforced by trapezoid concrete blocks connected by steel bar, are described. Field measurements included settlements of the earth fill, tensile forces in the ties and earth pressures on the facing panels during the construction and at completion. Based on the measurements, the following statements can be made: ( 1 ) the tensile forces in the ties increased with the height of backfill above the tie and there is a tensile force crest in most ties; (2) at completion, the measured earth pressures along the wall face were between the values of the active earth pressures and the pressures at rest; (3) larger settlements occurred near the face of the wall where a zone of drainage sand and gravel was not compacted properly and smaller settlements occurred in the well-compacted backfill. The results of field pullout tests indicated that the magnitudes of pullout resistances as well as tensile forces induced in the ties were strongly influenced by the relative displacements between the ties and the backfill, and pullout resistances increased with the height of backfill above the ties and the length of ties.

  8. Determination of the solids retainment effectiveness of disposable swim diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Richard P; Patch, Steven C; Berkowitz, Jacob F; Johnson, Holly D

    2004-06-01

    In light of recent and increasing incidences of pathogenic E. coli outbreaks at public bathing facilities attributable to non-toilet-trained infants and toddlers, many such facilities are restricting water contact for this age group. A number of manufacturers are now offering disposable "swim diapers," which claim to effectively retain fecal material under typical pool play conditions. The study reported here examined the solids retention effectiveness of three major brands of swim diapers as well as of conventional disposable diapers, under simulated water play conditions. Swim diapers of all three brands exhibited an approximately equal fine-solids retention capability of about 98 to 99 percent over 30 minutes of water immersion activity. Conventional disposable diapers invariably fell down or came apart during the experiments, resulting in very limited solids retention. This study indicates that commercially available swim diapers represent a vast improvement in reducing the potential for fecal material release in public pool facilities, but that some release will still generally occur with these products.

  9. Retained surgical sponges: what the practicing clinician should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakorafas, George H; Sampanis, Dimitrios; Lappas, Christos; Papantoni, Eva; Christodoulou, Spyros; Mastoraki, Aikaterini; Safioleas, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Retained surgical sponges (RSS) are an avoidable complication following surgical operations. RSS can elicit either an early exudative-type reaction or a late aseptic fibrous tissue reaction. They may remain asymptomatic for long time; when present, symptomatology varies substantially and includes septic complications (abscess formation, peritonitis) or fibrous reaction resulting in adhesion formation or fistulation into adjacent hollow organs or externally. Plain radiograph may be useful for the diagnosis; however, computed tomography is the method of choice to establish correct diagnosis preoperatively. Removal of RSS is always indicated to prevent further complications. This is usually accomplished by open surgery; rarely, endoscopic or laparoscopic removal may be successful. Prevention is of key importance to avoid not only morbidity and even mortality but also medicolegal consequences. Preventive measures include careful counting, use of sponges marked with a radiopaque marker, avoidance of use of small sponges during abdominal procedures, careful examination of the abdomen by the operating surgeon before closure, radiograph in the operating theater (either routinely or selectively), and recently, usage of barcode and radiofrequency identification technology.

  10. Older Runners Retain Youthful Running Economy despite Biomechanical Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Owen N; Kipp, Shalaya; Roby, Jaclyn M; Grabowski, Alena M; Kram, Rodger; Ortega, Justus D

    2016-04-01

    Sixty-five years of age typically marks the onset of impaired walking economy. However, running economy has not been assessed beyond the age of 65 yr. Furthermore, a critical determinant of running economy is the spring-like storage and return of elastic energy from the leg during stance, which is related to leg stiffness. Therefore, we investigated whether runners older than 65 yr retain youthful running economy and/or leg stiffness across running speeds. Fifteen young and 15 older runners ran on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.01, 2.46, and 2.91 m·s(-1). We measured their rates of metabolic energy consumption (i.e., metabolic power), ground reaction forces, and stride kinematics. There were only small differences in running economy between young and older runners across the range of speeds. Statistically, the older runners consumed 2% to 9% less metabolic energy than the young runners across speeds (P = 0.012). Also, the leg stiffness of older runners was 10% to 20% lower than that of young runners across the range of speeds (P = 0.002), and in contrast to the younger runners, the leg stiffness of older runners decreased with speed (P economy despite biomechanical differences. It may be that vigorous exercise, such as running, prevents the age related deterioration of muscular efficiency and, therefore, may make everyday activities easier.

  11. Grass plants bind, retain, uptake, and transport infectious prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzkow, Sandra; Morales, Rodrigo; Moda, Fabio; Khan, Uffaf; Telling, Glenn C; Hoover, Edward; Soto, Claudio

    2015-05-26

    Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrP(Sc)) to plants. Small quantities of PrP(Sc) contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces) can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrP(Sc) for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves). These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated identification of retained surgical items in radiological images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Gady; Gan, Lin; Moric, Mario; Gluncic, Vicko

    2015-03-01

    Retained surgical items (RSIs) in patients is a major operating room (OR) patient safety concern. An RSI is any surgical tool, sponge, needle or other item inadvertently left in a patients body during the course of surgery. If left undetected, RSIs may lead to serious negative health consequences such as sepsis, internal bleeding, and even death. To help physicians efficiently and effectively detect RSIs, we are developing computer-aided detection (CADe) software for X-ray (XR) image analysis, utilizing large amounts of currently available image data to produce a clinically effective RSI detection system. Physician analysis of XRs for the purpose of RSI detection is a relatively lengthy process that may take up to 45 minutes to complete. It is also error prone due to the relatively low acuity of the human eye for RSIs in XR images. The system we are developing is based on computer vision and machine learning algorithms. We address the problem of low incidence by proposing synthesis algorithms. The CADe software we are developing may be integrated into a picture archiving and communication system (PACS), be implemented as a stand-alone software application, or be integrated into portable XR machine software through application programming interfaces. Preliminary experimental results on actual XR images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Pregnancy outcomes of women with failure to retain rubella immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzenburg, Christopher J; Gilmandyar, Dzhamala; Thornburg, Loralei L; Hackney, David N

    2014-12-01

    We sought to explore the clinical variables associated with the loss of rubella immunity during pregnancy and to determine if these changes are linked to obstetrical complications. This is a case-control study in which women were identified whose rubella antibody titers were equivocal or non-immune and compared to those who had retained immunity. Two hundred and eighty-five cases were identified and compared to the same number of controls using Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U-test or Fisher's exact test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were employed. Subjects with diminished immunity were more likely to have public insurance and higher gravidity with a trend toward increased tobacco use. Diminished rubella immunity was not associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, including preterm birth and pre-eclampsia and is likely not a risk factor for these pregnancy outcomes. While no adverse pregnancy outcomes were associated with a loss of rubella immunity, women with greater number of pregnancies appear to lose their immunity to rubella. This relationship needs to be explored further and if proven, revaccination prior to pregnancy may need to be addressed.

  14. Hawley or vacuum-formed retainers following orthodontic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalha, Anmol S

    2014-12-01

    Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Science, LILACS. In addition, Pro-Quest Dissertation and Thesis database and Pro-Quest Science Journals. Hand searches were also carried out in American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, European Journal of Orthodontics and Journal of Orthodontics. Two reviewers independently selected studies, and randomised, quasi-randomised (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were considered. Studies with at least six months follow-up were included. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment were carried out independently by two reviewers. A narrative summary was presented as a meta-analysis could not be performed. Seven studies were included (five RCTs, two CCTs). Three were considered to be at low risk of bias, three at moderate risk and one at high risk. There was some evidence to suggest that no difference exists to distinguish between the HRs and VFRs with respect to changes in intercanine and intermolar widths after orthodontic retention. There was insufficient evidence to support the use of VFRs over HRs in relation to occlusal contacts, cost effectiveness, patient satisfaction and survival time. This systematic review suggests that further high-quality RCTs regarding the differences between HRs and VFRs during orthodontic retention are necessary to determine which retainer is the better selection for orthodontists.

  15. The Role of Organizational Culture in Retaining Nursing Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Castle, Nicholas G.; Lin, Michael K.; Shrivastwa, Nijika; Spreitzer, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We examined how organizational culture in nursing homes affects staff turnover, because culture is a first step to creating satisfactory work environments. Design and Methods: Nursing home administrators were asked in 2009 to report on facility culture and staff turnover. We received responses from 419 of 1,056 administrators contacted. Respondents reported the strength of cultural values using scales from a Competing Values Framework and percent of staff leaving annually for Registered Nurse (RN), Licensed Practice Nurse (LPN), and nursing aide (NA) staff. We estimated negative binomial models predicting turnover.  Results: Turnover rates are lower than found in past but remain significantly higher among NAs than among RNs or LPNs. Facilities with stronger market values had increased turnover among RNs and LPNs, and among NAs when turnover was adjusted for facilities with few staff. Facilities emphasizing hierarchical internal processes had lower RN turnover. Group and developmental values focusing on staff and innovation only lowered LPN turnover. Finally, effects on NA turnover become insignificant when turnover was adjusted if voluntary turnover was reported. Implications: Organizational culture had differential effects on the turnover of RN, LPN, and NA staff that should be addressed in developing culture-change strategies. More flexible organizational culture values were important for LPN staff only, whereas unexpectedly, greater emphasis on rigid internal rules helped facilities retain RNs. Facilities with a stronger focus on customer needs had higher turnover among all staff. PMID:24218146

  16. Retaining professional nurses in South Africa: Nurse managers’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is experiencing a serious shortage of nurses, which has to be addressed to prevent crises in health care services. Previous studies (Fletcher 2001:324; Oosthuizen 2005:117 found that nurses change their work environment due to dissatisfaction with their job situations. This implies that creating a favourable environment in the workplace situation could help retain professional nurses in their posts, implying that retention strategies should be effective.

    An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and qualitative design was used to describe nurse managers’views on factors which could influence professional nurse retention, as well as their views regarding attributes that were required to enable them to contribute towards enhancing professional nurse retention. A purposive sample of nurse managers employed in public and private hospitals in the Gauteng province was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 nurse managers.The results were analysed qualitatively and contextualised within Vogt, Cox, Velthouse and Thames’s Cork-Top (Bottleneck Theory of Nurse Retention (1983 and Lewin’s Force-Field Analysis Theory (1952.

    Factors pertaining to individual nurses, the organisation and nurse managers could influence the retention of professional nurses. Poor working conditions, long and inconvenient working hours,uncompetitive salaries and professional development of nurses have to be addressed to enhance professional nurses’ retention. Unsafe working environments and a lack of resources threaten the safety and well-being of nurses and patients and contribute to high turnover rates. Nurse managers have to address shortcomings in their managerial and leadership skills and implement changes within a multigenerational nursing workforce and challenging working environments.

    Opsomming

    Suid-Afrika ervaar ’n ernstige tekort aan verpleegkundiges wat aangespreek moet word ten einde krisisse

  17. Design principles for engaging and retaining virtual citizen scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Dara M; Longo, Justin; Dobell, A R

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science initiatives encourage volunteer participants to collect and interpret data and contribute to formal scientific projects. The growth of virtual citizen science (VCS), facilitated through websites and mobile applications since the mid-2000s, has been driven by a combination of software innovations and mobile technologies, growing scientific data flows without commensurate increases in resources to handle them, and the desire of internet-connected participants to contribute to collective outputs. However, the increasing availability of internet-based activities requires individual VCS projects to compete for the attention of volunteers and promote their long-term retention. We examined program and platform design principles that might allow VCS initiatives to compete more effectively for volunteers, increase productivity of project participants, and retain contributors over time. We surveyed key personnel engaged in managing a sample of VCS projects to identify the principles and practices they pursued for these purposes and led a team in a heuristic evaluation of volunteer engagement, website or application usability, and participant retention. We received 40 completed survey responses (33% response rate) and completed a heuristic evaluation of 20 VCS program sites. The majority of the VCS programs focused on scientific outcomes, whereas the educational and social benefits of program participation, variables that are consistently ranked as important for volunteer engagement and retention, were incidental. Evaluators indicated usability, across most of the VCS program sites, was higher and less variable than the ratings for participant engagement and retention. In the context of growing competition for the attention of internet volunteers, increased attention to the motivations of virtual citizen scientists may help VCS programs sustain the necessary engagement and retention of their volunteers.

  18. Recruiting and Retaining Physics Majors at Brigham Young University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, R. Steven

    2001-04-01

    The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Brigham Young University has had a steadily increasing number of graduates over the past ten years during a period of national decline in undergraduate physics majors. I will discuss what we do in our department to attract and retain majors. In particular I will highlight orientation activities, advisement, promoting student-student interactions, faculty mentoring, undergraduate research, teaching emphasis, and department culture. We have assessed the effectiveness of our recruiting and retention efforts by looking at profiles of our students and surveys of current and former students. The majors come to us well prepared, with high school GPA's (3.6) and natural science ACT scores (30) that have remained fairly constant over a recent five year period. Most say they chose physics because it was interesting or they thought it would fulfill a desire to understand the world or universe better. About half of the students decided to major in physics in primary or secondary school. One fifth selected physics as their major during their first year of college. The principle reasons current students gave for remaining in physics included a continuing interest in the subject, relationships with faculty, a satisfaction with meeting the challenge, and achieving personal goals. Alumni report positive or very positive experiences in the classroom (88%), in discussions and associations with faculty (81%), and in discussions and associations with other students (87%). About half the students plan to go into graduate physics programs after graduation. The rest are principally planning on graduate school in other disciplines, industrial or government employment, physics teaching, or professional schools.

  19. The role of organizational culture in retaining nursing workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Castle, Nicholas G; Lin, Michael K; Shrivastwa, Nijika; Spreitzer, Gretchen

    2015-06-01

    We examined how organizational culture in nursing homes affects staff turnover, because culture is a first step to creating satisfactory work environments. Nursing home administrators were asked in 2009 to report on facility culture and staff turnover. We received responses from 419 of 1,056 administrators contacted. Respondents reported the strength of cultural values using scales from a Competing Values Framework and percent of staff leaving annually for Registered Nurse (RN), Licensed Practice Nurse (LPN), and nursing aide (NA) staff. We estimated negative binomial models predicting turnover.  Turnover rates are lower than found in past but remain significantly higher among NAs than among RNs or LPNs. Facilities with stronger market values had increased turnover among RNs and LPNs, and among NAs when turnover was adjusted for facilities with few staff. Facilities emphasizing hierarchical internal processes had lower RN turnover. Group and developmental values focusing on staff and innovation only lowered LPN turnover. Finally, effects on NA turnover become insignificant when turnover was adjusted if voluntary turnover was reported. Organizational culture had differential effects on the turnover of RN, LPN, and NA staff that should be addressed in developing culture-change strategies. More flexible organizational culture values were important for LPN staff only, whereas unexpectedly, greater emphasis on rigid internal rules helped facilities retain RNs. Facilities with a stronger focus on customer needs had higher turnover among all staff. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Two-year survival analysis of twisted wire fixed retainer versus spiral wire and fiber-reinforced composite retainers: a preliminary explorative single-blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Rakhshan, Vahid; Saravi, Mahdi Gholamrezaei; Zamanian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Traditional retainers (both metal and fiber-reinforced composite [FRC]) have limitations, and a retainer made from more flexible ligature wires might be advantageous. We aimed to compare an experimental design with two traditional retainers. Methods In this prospective preliminary clinical trial, 150 post-treatment patients were enrolled and randomly divided into three groups of 50 patients each to receive mandibular canine-to-canine retainers made of FRC, flexible spiral wire (FSW), and twisted wire (TW). The patients were monitored monthly. The time at which the first signs of breakage/debonding were detected was recorded. The success rates of the retainers were compared using chi-squared, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses (α = 0.05). Results In total, 42 patients in the FRC group, 41 in the FSW group, and 45 in the TW group completed the study. The 2-year failure rates were 35.7% in the FRC group, 26.8% in the FSW group, and 17.8% in the TW group. These rates differed insignificantly (chi-squared p = 0.167). According to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, failure occurred at 19.95 months in the FRC group, 21.37 months in the FSW group, and 22.36 months in the TW group. The differences between the survival rates in the three groups were not significant (Cox regression p = 0.146). Conclusions Although the failure rate of the experimental retainer was two times lower than that of the FRC retainer, the difference was not statistically significant. The experimental TW retainer was successful, and larger studies are warranted to verify these results. PMID:27019825

  1. The effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective In the view of the widespread acceptance of indefinite retention, it is important to determine the effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers on periodontal health, survival and failure rates of retainers, cost-effectiveness, and impact of orthodontic retainers on patient-reported outcomes. Methods A comprehensive literature search was undertaken based on a defined electronic and gray literature search strategy (PROSPERO: CRD42015029169). The following databases were searc...

  2. AN INVESTIGATION OF RETAINED AUSTENITE CONTENTS IN CARBURIZED SAE 8620 STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, retained austenite contents in carburized  SAE 8620 (21NiCrMo2) steel were investigated. Carburizing programs were carried out in gas atmosphere at 940°C. X-ray diffraction was used to determine retained austenite contents in the case-hardened microstructures of the carburized specimens. Test results indicated that maximum retained austenite contents at the microstructures of the carburized specimens that carburized 45 minute, 3 h and 5 h carburizing times at ...

  3. Academic retainer medicine: an innovative business model for cross-subsidizing primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucier, David J; Frisch, Nicholas B; Cohen, Brian J; Wagner, Michael; Salem, Deeb; Fairchild, David G

    2010-06-01

    Retainer-medicine primary care practices, commonly referred to as "luxury" or "concierge" practices, provide enhanced services to patients beyond those available in traditional practices for a yearly retainer fee. Adoption of retainer practices has been largely absent in academic health centers (AHCs). Reasons for this trend stem primarily from ethical concerns, such as the potential for patient abandonment when physicians downsize from larger, traditional practices to smaller, retainer-medicine practices.In 2004, the Department of Medicine at Tufts Medical Center developed an academic retainer-medicine primary care practice within the Division of General Medicine that not only generates financial support for the division but also incorporates a clinical and business model that is aligned with the mission and ethics of an academic institution.In contrast to private retainer-medicine practices, this unique business model addresses several of the ethical issues associated with traditional retainer practices-it does not restrict net access to care and it neutralizes concerns about patient abandonment. Addressing the growing primary care shortage, the model also presents the opportunity for a retainer practice to cross-subsidize the expansion of general medicine in an academic medical setting. The authors elucidate the benefits, as well as the inherent challenges, of embedding an academic retainer-medicine practice within an AHC.

  4. Effect of Cu, Mo, Si on the content of retained austenite of austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Y. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, the effects of Cu, Mo, Si contents on the volume fraction of retained austenite of austempered ductile iron (ADI) are analyzed exactly by X-ray diffraction, and the fracture modes of test samples with different volume fraction of retained austenite are investigated by SEM. It is shown that the retained austenite content increases with the content of copper, decreases with the content of molybdenum, and reaches the maximum with a certain content of silicon. When the retained austenite content decreases, the fracture modes of test samples change from ductile fracture to cleavage fracture.

  5. A Modified Design for Posterior Inlay-Retained Fixed Dental Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Samran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report a clinical case with bilateral missing mandibular second premolars that were restored by metal-ceramic inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses. The first prosthesis was of a traditional design and the second was of a modified design. The suggested design is created by modifying the retainer wings of the traditional resin-bonded inlay-retained fixed dental prosthesis and covering the wings with composite resin. The modified design is relatively conservative, esthetic and provides an extra element for the retention of posterior metal-ceramic inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses.

  6. Kinetics of Label Retaining Cells in the Developing Rat Kidneys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Wang

    Full Text Available The kidney is a specialized low-regenerative organ with several different types of cellular lineages. The BrdU label-retaining cell (LRCs approach has been used as part of a strategy to identify tissue-specific stem cells in the kidney; however, because the complementary base pairing in double-stranded DNA blocks the access of the anti-BrdU antibody to BrdU subunits, the stem cell marker expression in BrdU-labeled cells are often difficult to detect. In this study, we introduced a new cell labeling and detection method in which BrdU was replaced with 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU and examined the time-dependent dynamic changes of EdU-labeled cells and potential stem/progenitor markers in the development of kidney.Newborn rats were intraperitoneally injected with EdU, and their kidneys were harvested respectively at different time points at 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks post-injection. The kidney tissues were processed for EdU and cellular markers by immunofluorescence staining.At the early stage, LRCs labeled by EdU were 2176.0 ± 355.6 cells at day one in each renal tissue section, but dropped to 168 ± 48.4 cells by week 6. As time increased, the numbers of LRCs were differentially expressed in the renal cortex and papilla. At the postnatal day one, nearly twice as many cells in the cortex were EdU-labeled as compared to the papilla (28.6 ± 3.6% vs. 15.6 ± 3.4%, P<0.05, while there were more LRCs within the renal papilla since the postnatal week one, and at the postnatal week 6, one third as many cells in the cortex were EdU-labeled as compared to the papilla (2.5 ± 0.1% vs. 7.7 ± 2.7%, P<0.05. The long-term LRCs at 6-week time point were associated exclusively with the glomeruli in the cortex and the renal tubules in the papilla. At 6 weeks, the EdU-labeled LRCs combined with expression of CD34, RECA-1, Nestin, and Synaptopodin were discretely but widely distributed within the glomeruli; Stro-1 around the glomeruli; and

  7. Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) Prevalence Amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to WHO report of 2007, Directly Observed Treatment Short course ... and the data was entered into a computer using SPSS version 16 for windows. ... was calculated at P-value less than 0.05 to check possible association between ...

  8. a retrospective study of pulmonary tuberculosis (ptb)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    PREVALENCE AMONGST PATIENTS ATTENDING INFECTIOUS DISEASES. HOSPITAL (IDH) IN KANO, ... there is need for stepping up TB awareness, treatment and control program. Key words: .... increased the spread of TB in both the developing and developed world. ... gastroenteritis, cholera, TB, e.t.c.. Target Groups ...

  9. Heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta in Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedictus, L.; Koets, A.P.; Kuijpers, F.H.J.; Joosten, I.; Eldik, van P.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Failure of the timely expulsion of the fetal membranes, called retained placenta, leads to reduced fertility, increased veterinary costs and reduced milk yields. The objectives of this study were to concurrently look at the heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta and test th

  10. 40 CFR 35.925-17 - Retained amounts for reconstruction and expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... expansion. 35.925-17 Section 35.925-17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... Water Act § 35.925-17 Retained amounts for reconstruction and expansion. That the allowable project... retains for future reconstruction and expansion under § 35.928-2(a)(2)(ii), together with interest earned....

  11. Reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta and manual removal of the placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    Because the incidence of retained placenta in Friesian mares is estimated to be high, and no reports have been published on the reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta, we studied postpartum reproductive performance in Friesian brood mares with (n = 54) and without (n = 50

  12. 42 CFR 403.239 - Submittal of material to retain certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submittal of material to retain certification. 403.239 Section 403.239 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Certification Program: General Provisions § 403.239 Submittal of material to retain certification. (a)...

  13. Fracture resistance of direct inlay-retained adhesive bridges : Effect of pontic material and occlusal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuklander, Marijn; Salihoglu-Yener, Esra; Ozcan, Mutlu

    This study evaluated the effect of a) pontic materials and b) occlusal morphologies on the fracture resistance of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses (FDP). Inlay-retained FRC FPDs (N=45, n=9) were constructed using a) resin composite (deep anatomy), b) natural

  14. Fracture resistance of direct inlay-retained adhesive bridges : Effect of pontic material and occlusal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuklander, Marijn; Salihoglu-Yener, Esra; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a) pontic materials and b) occlusal morphologies on the fracture resistance of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses (FDP). Inlay-retained FRC FPDs (N=45, n=9) were constructed using a) resin composite (deep anatomy), b) natural to

  15. Volcanic Origin of Claystone near the Permian-Triassic Boundary in the Deep water Environment of the Lower Yangtze Region and Its Implications for LPME%下扬子 PTB 界线深水相区粘土岩的火山成因研究及其对 LPME 的指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖志伟; 胡文蠧; 王小林; 曹剑; 姚素平; 万野

    2016-01-01

    全球,尤其是特提斯域二叠—三叠纪之交(PTB)剖面中普遍发育火山成因的粘土岩,对理解晚二叠世末生物大灭绝(LPME)的触发机制及相关基础地质问题具有重要意义。本文报道了在华南下扬子区新发现两条深水 PTB 剖面(皖南牛山和蔡村)的粘土岩工作,包括岩石学、矿物学和全岩地球化学等,填补了区域研究空白。研究结果发现,粘土岩主要由伊利石等粘土矿物,以及石英、岩浆锆石、长石等斑晶矿物组成。在地球化学上具有高 K2 O、低 Na2 O、相对富集大离子亲石元素(LILE)、相对亏损高场强元素(HFSE)等特征。据此,认为这些粘土岩为火山成因的钾质斑脱岩,其原岩可能为中酸性流纹英安岩,具有弧岩浆作用的源区背景。对比华南其他地区已发现的 PTB 界线粘土岩,发现它们成因类似,可能来源于古特提斯洋周缘陆陆碰撞,抑或是泛大洋俯冲潘吉亚大陆东缘(包括华南板块)所导致的长英质火山岩浆喷发,且具有多期多源性特点。PTB 时期全球活跃的火山岩浆活动(包括镁铁质火山作用和华南地区火山灰所指征的长英质火山作用)可能是导致 LPME 的主要原因。%The volcanogenic claystone,deposited globally,especially around the Tethyan Realm in the Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB ), plays a significant role in understanding the triggering mechanism and associated geological events for the Latest Permian Mass Extinction (LPME).Here,we present research of claystones around the PTB on mineralogy,petrology and geochemistry,which has filled the blank in this area.The results show that the components of the PTB claystone are composed mainly of volcanogenic clays (illite,etc.),and phenocryst minerals (such as quartz,calcite,pyrite and magmatic zircon).Their geochemical compositions are characterized with high K2 O and low Na2 O,relative enrichment in Large

  16. Pulsatile lavage irrigator tip, a rare radiolucent retained foreign body in the pelvis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archdeacon Michael T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retained foreign bodies after surgery have the potential to cause serious medical complications for patients and bring fourth serious medico-legal consequences for surgeons and hospitals. Standard operating room protocols have been adopted to reduce the occurrence of the most common retained foreign bodies. Despite these precautions, radiolucent objects and uncounted components/pieces of instruments are at risk to be retained in the surgical wound. We report the unusual case of a retained plastic pulsatile lavage irrigator tip in the surgical wound during acetabulum fracture fixation, which was subsequently identified on routine postoperative computed tomography. Revision surgery was required in order to remove the retained object, and the patient had no further complications.

  17. Translational and rotational knee joint stability in anterior and posterior cruciate-retaining knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, JiaHsuan; Müller, Otto; Dilger, Torsten; Wülker, Nikolaus; Wünschel, Markus

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated passive translational and rotational stability properties of the intact knee joint, after bicruciate-retaining bi-compartmental knee arthroplasty (BKA) and after posterior cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fourteen human cadaveric knee specimens were used in this study, and a robotic manipulator with six-axis force/torque sensor was used to test the joint laxity in anterior-posterior translation, valgus-varus, and internal-external rotation. The results show the knee joint stability after bicruciate-retaining BKA is similar to that of the native knee. On the other hand, the PCL-retaining TKA results in inferior joint stability in valgus, varus, external rotation, anterior and, surprisingly, posterior directions. Our findings suggest that, provided functional ligamentous structures, bicruciate-retaining BKA is a biomechanically attractive treatment for joint degenerative disease.

  18. Factors influencing success of cement versus screw-retained implant restorations: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Manawar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: As more and more dental practitioners are focusing on implant-supported fixed restorations, some clinicians favor the use of cement retained restorations while others consider screw retained prosthesis to be the best choice. Discussion: In screw-retained restorations, the fastening screw provides a solid joint between the restoration and the implant abutment, while in cement-retained prostheses the restorative screw is eliminated to enhance esthetics, occlusal stability, and passive fit of the restorations. The factors that influence the type of fixation of the prostheses to the implants like passivity of the framework, ease of fabrication, occlusion, esthetics, accessibility, retention and retrievability are discussed in this article with scientific studies demonstrating superior outcomes of one technique over another. Screwretained implant restorations have an advantage of predictable retention, retrievability and lack of potentially retained subgingival cement. However, a few disadvantages exist such as precise placement of the implant for optimal and esthetic location of the screw access hole and obtaining passive fit. On the other hand, cement retained restorations eliminate unesthetic screw access holes, have passive fit of castings, reduced complexity of clinical and lab procedures, enhanced esthetics, reduced cost factors and non disrupted morphology of the occlusal table. Conclusion: This article compares the advantages, potential disadvantages and limitations of screw and cement retained restorations and their specific implications in the most common clinical situation.

  19. Retained Blood Syndrome After Cardiac Surgery: A New Look at an Old Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Edward M; Gillinov, A Marc; Cohn, William E; Ley, S Jill; Fischlein, Theodor; Perrault, Louis P

    2015-01-01

    Retained blood occurs when drainage systems fail to adequately evacuate blood during recovery from cardiothoracic surgery. As a result, a spectrum of mechanical and inflammatory complications can ensue in the acute, subacute, and chronic setting. The objectives of this review were to define the clinical syndrome associated with retained blood over the spectrum of recovery and to review existing literature regarding how this may lead to complications and contributes to poor outcomes. To better understand and prevent this constellation of clinical complications, a literature review was conducted, which led us to create a new label that better defines the clinical entity we have titled retained blood syndrome. Analysis of published reports revealed that 13.8% to 22.7% of cardiac surgical patients develop one or more components of retained blood syndrome. This can present in the acute, subacute, or chronic setting, with different pathophysiologic mechanisms active at different times. The development of retained blood syndrome has been linked to other clinical outcomes, including the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation and infection and the need for hospital readmission. Grouping multiple objectively measurable and potentially preventable postoperative complications that share a common etiology of retained blood over the continuum of recovery demonstrates a high prevalence of retained blood syndrome. This suggests the need to develop, implement, and test clinical strategies to enhance surgical drainage and reduce postoperative complications in patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery.

  20. Masticatory performance and chewing experience with implant-retained mandibular overdentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertman, ME; Slagter, AP; van't Hof, MA; van Waas, MAJ; Kalk, W

    The relationship between masticatory performance and chewing experience has not yet been explored for patients with implant-retained overdentures. Although many relationships have been found between parameters of objective and subjective oral function, the structure of these relationships remain

  1. Retaining Large and Adjustable Elastic Strains of Kilogram-Scale Nb Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Wang, Hua; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Ren, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Brown, Dennis E; Li, Ju

    2016-02-10

    Individual metallic nanowires can sustain ultralarge elastic strains of 4-7%. However, achieving and retaining elastic strains of such magnitude in kilogram-scale nanowires are challenging. Here, we find that under active load, ∼ 5.6% elastic strain can be achieved in Nb nanowires embedded in a metallic matrix deforming by detwinning. Moreover, large tensile (2.8%) and compressive (-2.4%) elastic strains can be retained in kilogram-scale Nb nanowires when the external load was fully removed, and adjustable in magnitude by processing control. It is then demonstrated that the retained tensile elastic strains of Nb nanowires can increase their superconducting transition temperature and critical magnetic field, in comparison with the unstrained original material. This study opens new avenues for retaining large and tunable elastic strains in great quantities of nanowires and elastic-strain-engineering at industrial scale.

  2. Model test on sand retaining wall reinforced with denti-strip inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG MengXi; ZHOU Huai

    2008-01-01

    In conventional reinforced soil structures, the reinforcements are often laid hori-zontally in the soil. In this paper, a new concept of soil reinforced with denti-strip inclusions was proposed and a series of laboratory model tests were carried out on sand retaining wall reinforced with denti-strip inclusions. Besides the horizontal displacements of the facing, the lateral earth pressures acting on vertical elements were measured. A microscopic measurement was performed to investigate the deformation and progressive failure of the sand within model retaining wall. Based on the image analytical technique, the bearing capability and interaction mecha-nism of reinforced sand retaining wall were analyzed. The model of the initial shear failure and potential failure surface were also put forward. From the ex-perimental results, it is shown that denti-strip inclusions can increase the bearing capability of retaining wall significantly and restrict the facing displacements effi-ciently, as compared with conventional horizontal reinforcement.

  3. Forgotten/retained double J ureteric stents: A source of severe morbidity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerli, Rajendra B; Magdum, Prasad V; Sharma, Vikas; Guntaka, Ajay Kumar; Hiremath, Murigendra B; Ghagane, Shridhar

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the usage of double J (DJ) ureteral stents in the management of a variety of urinary tract disease processes mandates familiarity with these devices, their consequences and their potential complications, which at times can be devastating. We retrospectively reviewed our series of children with forgotten/retained DJ ureteric stents. Hospital records of all patients' forgotten/retained DJ ureteral stent at our hospital were reviewed for age, gender, indication for insertion of DJ stent, duration of stent insertion, radiological images and surgical procedures performed. During the study period, January 2000 to December 2014 (a 15-year period), a total of 14 children underwent removal of forgotten/retained DJ ureteral stent. A combination of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, cystolitholapaxy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy was done to free the DJ stent and extract it. Forgotten/retained stents in children are a source of severe morbidity, additional/unnecessary hospitalisation and definitely financial strain.

  4. A new approach to incisor retention--the lingual spur retainer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T G

    1996-08-01

    Late lower incisor crowding and incisor rotations remain a problem in orthodontics. We describe a new fixed retainer which is simple to use, allows physiological tooth movement, but prevents rotational and labio-lingual relapse.

  5. Mechanical performance of a double-face reinforced retaining wall in an area disturbed by mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guang-yun; BAI Yong-sheng; SHENG Ping; GUO Rui-ping

    2009-01-01

    The application of a double-face reinforced retaining wall during road construction can reduce engineering costs, speed road paving and have a good influence on environment. An ABAQUS numerical model of a double-face reinforced retaining wall was built. The influence of surface subsidence induced by mining was considered. A physical model test was also performed in the laboratory on a reinforced retaining wall. The influence of subsidence induced by mining was observed. The numerical results match measurements in the laboratory very well. The vertical pressure on the base of the retaining wall, the horizontal displacement of the wall and the horizontal soil pressure acting on the wall were analyzed. The differential settlement of the reinforced belt and axial forces in the wall were also studied.

  6. An improved index for the waxed stage of an implant-retained framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, E D; Krantz, W A; Ivanhoe, J R; Edge, M J

    1991-11-01

    A method for making an improved index for the waxed stage of Branemark implant-retained frameworks is described. The index improves visibility of the tooth and abutment cylinder relationship permitting the optimization of framework dimensions and contour.

  7. Retaining Large and Adjustable Elastic Strains of Kilogram-Scale Nb Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Wang, Hua; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Ren, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Brown, Dennis E.; Li, Ju

    2016-02-10

    Individual metallic nanowires can sustain ultra-large elastic strains of 4-7%. However, achieving and retaining elastic strains of such magnitude in kilogram-scale nanowires are challenging. Here, we find that under active load, ~5.6% elastic strain can be achieved in Nb nanowires embedded in a metallic matrix deforming by detwinning. Moreover, large tensile (2.8%) and compressive (-2.4%) elastic strains can be retained in kilogram-scale Nb nanowires when the external load was fully removed, and adjustable in magnitude by processing control. It is then demonstrated that the retained tensile elastic strains of Nb nanowires can increase their superconducting transition temperature and critical magnetic field, in comparison with the unstrained original material. This study opens new avenues for retaining large and tunable elastic strains in great quantities of nanowires and elastic-strain-engineering at industrial scale.

  8. INFLUENCE OF COOLING RATE ON THE OCORRENCE OF RETAINED AUSTENITE IN A STEEL FOR WELDING ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Carvalho Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cooling rate on the occurrence of retained austenite in a low carbon Si-Mn steel, used for welding electrodes, is measured here by combining the sectioning of Jominy test samples with the measurement of retained austenite by X-ray diffraction. It was observed that the amount of retained austenite increases from zero, as the cooling rate is less than 0.8°C/s, and the structure is mostly ferrite, to a maximum of 6%, where the quantity of bainite is also maximum. This information guides the post-rolling cooling cycle when welding grade is been rolled. The hard phases proportionality with the amount of retained austenite allows, then, the use of X-ray diffraction as an end of the line equipment for quality control, and also permits simplification of heat treatment before wire drawing.

  9. RECRUITING, RETAINING, AND REPORTING EXPOSURE STUDY RESULTS TO PARTICIPANTS AND THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is developing techniques and capabilities to recruit and retain participants in exposure measurement studies and to effectively report study results to participants and the public. These techniques are being applied in three N...

  10. Implant-retained mandibular overdentures versus conventional dentures : 10 years of care and aftercare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A; Meijer, HJA; Raghoebar, GM; Vissink, A

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This 10-year prospective, randomized, clinical trial investigated the treatment outcome of edentulous patients treated with mandibular overdentures retained by 2 endosseous implants compared with conventional dentures in patients with or without vestibuloplasty. Materials and Methods: One

  11. The effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalya Al-Moghrabi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In the view of the widespread acceptance of indefinite retention, it is important to determine the effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers on periodontal health, survival and failure rates of retainers, cost-effectiveness, and impact of orthodontic retainers on patient-reported outcomes. Methods A comprehensive literature search was undertaken based on a defined electronic and gray literature search strategy (PROSPERO: CRD42015029169. The following databases were searched (up to October 2015; MEDLINE via OVID, PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS, BBO, ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Research Register, and ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis database. Randomized and non-randomized controlled clinical trials, prospective cohort studies, and case series (minimum sample size of 20 with minimum follow-up periods of 6 months reporting periodontal health, survival and failure rates of retainers, cost-effectiveness, and impact of orthodontic retainers on patient-reported outcomes were identified. The Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to assess the quality of included trials. Results Twenty-four studies were identified, 18 randomized controlled trials and 6 prospective cohort studies. Of these, only 16 were deemed to be of high quality. Meta-analysis was unfeasible due to considerable clinical heterogeneity and variations in outcome measures. The mean failure risk for mandibular stainless steel fixed retainers bonded from canine to canine was 0.29 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.26, 0.33 and for those bonded to canines only was 0.25 (95 % CI: 0.16, 0.33. A meta-regression suggested that failure of fixed stainless steel mandibular retainers was not directly related to the period elapsed since placement (P = 0.938. Conclusion Further well-designed prospective studies are needed to elucidate the benefits and potential harms associated with

  12. Magnet retained cheek plumper in complete denture esthetics: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakant Chhagan Deogade

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This clinical report describes a technique to improve support for sunken cheeks using magnet retained detachable acrylic cheek plumpers. The new generation of magnets with improved technology provides sufficient denture retention for clinical application. However, further follow-up may be necessary to ascertain the long-term usefulness of the magnet-retained prosthesis, because of corrosion and further loss of magnetism.

  13. Urgent awake thoracoscopic treatment of retained haemothorax associated with respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    Pompeo, Eugenio; Cristino, Benedetto; Rogliani, Paola; Dauri, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A number of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) procedures are being increasingly performed by awake anesthesia in an attempt of minimizing the surgical- and anesthesia-related traumas. However, so far the usefulness of awake VATS for urgent management of retained haemothorax has been scarcely investigated. Herein we present two patients with retained haemothorax following previous thoracentesis and blunt chest trauma, respectively, who developed acute respiratory failure and underwen...

  14. High Value Talent: Identifying, Developing, and Retaining Naval Special Warfare’s Best Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Victor H . Vroom in 1964, proposes that a person’s behavior results from expectations about the outcomes of that behavior.79 Basically, an individual...Retaining Naval Special Warfare’s Best Leaders 6. AUTHOR(S) Walter H . Allman, Jonathan M. Fussell, Marty D. Timmons 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...AND RETAINING NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE’S BEST LEADERS Walter H . Allman III Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S. History, United States

  15. Dilation effect on 3D Passive Earth Pressure Coefficients for Retaining Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Khelifa, Tarek; Benmebarek, Sadok

    2015-01-01

    The 2D passive earth pressures acting on rigid retaining walls problem has been widely treated in the literature using different approaches (limit equilibrium, limit analysis, slip line and numerical computation), however, the 3D passive earth pressures problem has received less attention. This paper is concerned with the numerical study of 3D passive earth pressures induced by the translation of a rigid rough retaining wall for associated and non-associated soils. Using the explicit finite d...

  16. Dilation effect on 3D Passive Earth Pressure Coefficients for Retaining Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Khelifa, Tarek; Benmebarek, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    The 2D passive earth pressures acting on rigid retaining walls problem has been widely treated in the literature using different approaches (limit equilibrium, limit analysis, slip line and numerical computation), however, the 3D passive earth pressures problem has received less attention. This paper is concerned with the numerical study of 3D passive earth pressures induced by the translation of a rigid rough retaining wall for associated and non-associated soils. Using the explicit finite d...

  17. Nonsyndromic bilateral multiple retained primary incisors in mandibular arch: Rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A disturbed eruption process creates a clinical situation that is challenging to diagnose and treat. The clinical arena of tooth eruption disorders includes both syndromic and nonsyndromic problems varying from delayed eruption to a complete failure of eruption or sometimes retained primary teeth. This paper reports a rare case of retained bilateral primary incisors on mandibular arch in a systemically healthy patient with eruption of the permanent central and lateral incisors bilaterally.

  18. Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kinji Kobori; Yuto Maruta; Shigeru Mineo; Toru Shigematsu; Masao Hirayama

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (9...

  19. Assessment of Factors Affecting Adolescent Patients' Compliance with Hawley and Vacuum Formed Retainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Shirazi, Sajjad; Sharghi, Reza; Shirazi, Samaneh

    2016-06-01

    Success of orthodontic retention with removable retainers almost entirely depends on patients' compliance. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between adolescent orthodontic patients' compliance and various clinical and social factors. The data were collected from 77 orthodontic patients aged 7-11 years old who had finished the full fixed appliance therapy. Hawley's retainers were used in 34 patients and 43 patients used Vacuum Formed Retainers (VFRs). The subjects completed a questionnaire including several identifiers allowing the respondents to be classified into subgroups. They were also asked to indicate how long they wore their retainers during the day, by writing the number of hours in the report-card for the next three months. Comparison of the results was performed by one-way ANOVA and independent sample-t tests. No significant differences were found between males and females. Type of the retainer, patients' grade of study, mothers' occupation, clinicians' and parents' attitudes and filling the report cards had significant effect on mean wear hours per day. When compliance of the patients was assessed according to treatment location, Living place, parents' educational degrees and ethnicity, no significant differences could be found. The adolescent patients' compliance was greater with VFRs than with Hawley's retainers. Parental attitude and doctor-patient relationship had a great impact on adolescent patients' compliance.

  20. Assessment of Factors Affecting Adolescent Patients’ Compliance with Hawley and Vacuum Formed Retainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Sharghi, Reza; Shirazi, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Success of orthodontic retention with removable retainers almost entirely depends on patients’ compliance. Aim This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between adolescent orthodontic patients’ compliance and various clinical and social factors. Materials and Methods The data were collected from 77 orthodontic patients aged 7-11 years old who had finished the full fixed appliance therapy. Hawley’s retainers were used in 34 patients and 43 patients used Vacuum Formed Retainers (VFRs). The subjects completed a questionnaire including several identifiers allowing the respondents to be classified into subgroups. They were also asked to indicate how long they wore their retainers during the day, by writing the number of hours in the report-card for the next three months. Comparison of the results was performed by one-way ANOVA and independent sample-t tests. Results No significant differences were found between males and females. Type of the retainer, patients’ grade of study, mothers’ occupation, clinicians’ and parents’ attitudes and filling the report cards had significant effect on mean wear hours per day. When compliance of the patients was assessed according to treatment location, Living place, parents’ educational degrees and ethnicity, no significant differences could be found. Conclusion The adolescent patients’ compliance was greater with VFRs than with Hawley’s retainers. Parental attitude and doctor-patient relationship had a great impact on adolescent patients’ compliance. PMID:27504404

  1. Pressure relief and structure stability mechanism of hard roof for gob-side entry retaining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩昌良; 张农; 李宝玉; 司光耀; 郑西贵

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the pressure relief and structure stability mechanism of lateral cantilever structure in the stope under the direct coverage of thick hard roof and its impact on the gob-side entry retaining, a lateral cantilever fractured structural mechanical model was established on the basis of clarification for the stress environment of gob-side entry retaining, and the equation of roof given deformation and the balance judgment for fracture block were obtained. The optimal cantilever length was proposed based on the comparison of roof structural characteristics and the stress, deformation law of surrounding rocks under six different cantilever lengths by numerical simulation method. Double stress peaks exist on the sides of gob-side entry retaining and the entry located in the low stress area. The pressure of gob-side entry retaining can be relieved by reducing the cantilever length. However, due to the impact of arch structure of rock beam, unduly short cantilever would result in insufficient pressure relief and unduly long cantilever would bring larger roof stress which results in intense deformation. Therefore, there is optimal cantilever length, which was 7-8 m in this project that enables to achieve the minimum deformation and the most stabilized rock structure of entry retaining. An engineering case of gob-side entry retaining with the direct coverage of 10 m thick hard limestone roof was put forward, and the measured data verified the reasonability of conclusion.

  2. Rapid excavation with a newly developed retaining system:Spiral assembly steel structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关成立; 杨宇友; 王成彪

    2015-01-01

    The spiral assembly steel structure, a newly developed retaining wall for the rapid excavation of small-sized foundation pits in unsaturated soil, is presented. This new type of retaining structure is prefabricated in the factory and is assembled on site in the excavation of a pit. This retaining structure is composed of several prefabricated steel structural units, in which the adjacent steel structural units are joined with connectors. Each steel structural unit has one steel pipe in the radial direction and is welded to a single piece of steel plate. After full installation in situ, the retaining structure becomes a cylindrical steel structure. With the protection afforded by this new type of retaining structure, excavation work can be completed within 24 h to a depth up to 5 m. In order to verify the reliability and effectiveness of this new retaining structure, field construction tests were conducted in Beijing, China. The test construction was monitored. The monitoring program included measuring stress in the structure, lateral earth pressure, and lateral deformation of the surrounding soil. The monitoring data from the field test were compared with the theoretical results. The results show that the proposed new structure is reliable and effective.

  3. [Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass.

  4. Parental Origin of the Retained X Chromosome in Monosomy X Miscarriages and Ongoing Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maribel; Stergiotou, Iosifina; Pauta, Montse; Marquès, Borja; Badenas, Cèlia; Soler, Anna; Yaron, Yuval; Borrell, Antoni

    2017-10-05

    To assess the distribution of the parental origin of the retained X chromosome in monosomy X, either in miscarriages or in ongoing pregnancies. The parental origin of the X chromosome was determined in monosomy X pregnancies, either miscarriages or ongoing pregnancies. Microsatellite marker patterns were compared between maternal and fetal samples by quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction. Distributions of maternally and paternally derived X chromosome were assessed in miscarriages and in ongoing pregnancies using two-tailed Fisher exact test. Forty monosomy X pregnancies were included in the study: 26 miscarried at 5-16 weeks, and 14 ongoing pregnancies were diagnosed at 11-20 weeks. The retained X chromosome was maternally derived in 67% of the cases. In miscarriages, maternal and paternal X chromosome were retained in a similar proportion (54% [95% CI: 35-73%] vs. 46% [95% CI: 27-65%]), while in ongoing pregnancies, the maternal rate was 13 times higher (93% [95% CI: 79-100%)] vs. 7% [95% CI: 0-20%]). The retained X chromosome in individuals with monosomy X should theoretically be maternally derived in 2/3 of the cases. Our study suggests a preferential early miscarriage in pregnancies with a retained paternally derived X chromosome. This may explain the observation that 75-90% of individuals with monosomy X retain the maternal X chromosome. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The usefulness of CT guided drainage of abscesses caused by retained appendicoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, O. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Geoghegan, T. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Ridgeway, P. [Department of Surgery, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Colhoun, E. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Snow, A. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)]. E-mail: william.torreggiani@amnch.ie

    2006-10-15

    Objectives: To determine the utility of percutaneous computed tomography (CT) guided drainage of abscesses formed secondary to retained appendicoliths. Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted over a 5-year period to identify patients who underwent CT guided drainage of abscesses related to retained appendicoliths. Inclusion criteria were a history of prior proven appendicitis treated by laparoscopic appendicectomy, identification of a post-operative abscess related to a visualised retained appendicolith and initial treatment by CT guided drainage. Data regarding initial technical success as well as long-term outcome was recorded in each case. Results: In total, five patients were identified who underwent CT guided abscess drainage related to retained appendicoliths. There were three males and two females (age range 12-54 years). Initial drainage under CT guidance was technically successful in all cases with successful catheter placement and resolution of the abscess cavity. In all five cases however, there was recurrence of abscess formation following catheter removal. In one case, a second attempt with CT guided drainage was performed. Again this was initially successful with abscess recurrence following catheter removal. In all five cases, formal surgical drainage with removal of retained appendicolith resulted in a successful outcome. Conclusion: CT guided percutaneous drainage of intra abdominal abscess secondary to retained appendicoliths is only successful in the short term. Formal surgical drainage and removal of the appendicolith is required for long-term success.

  6. Comparison of vacuum-formed and Hawley retainers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Wenjia; He, Jin'an; Meng, Hongying; Jiang, Yanping; Huang, Chaoxiao; Li, Min; Yuan, Kan; Kang, Na

    2014-06-01

    Hawley retainers (HRs) and vacuum-formed retainers (VFRs) are the 2 most commonly used retainers in orthodontics. However, the basis for selection of an appropriate retainer is still a matter of debate among orthodontists. In this systematic review, we evaluated the differences between VFRs and HRs. Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, LILACS, and Pro-Quest) were searched with no language restriction. The relevant orthodontic journals and reference lists were checked for all eligible studies. Two article reviewers independently screened the retrieved studies, extracted the data, and evaluated the quality of the primary studies. A total of 89 articles were retrieved in the initial search. However, only 7 articles met the inclusion criteria. Some evidence suggested that no difference exists to distinguish between the HRs and VFRs with respect to changes in intercanine and intermolar widths after orthodontic retention. In terms of occlusal contacts, cost effectiveness, patient satisfaction, and survival time, there was insufficient evidence to support the use of VFRs over HRs. Additional high-quality, randomized, controlled trials concerning these retainers are necessary to determine which retainer is better for orthodontic procedures. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nat'l_Register, ContributingResources, Historic Retaining Wall at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_retainwll)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of one arc representing the historic retaining wall (HS-X2) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The retaining wall was...

  8. Retained placenta in Friesian mares : reproductive performance after foal heat breeding versus breeding in a subsequent heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    Postpartum reproductive performance was studied in 54 Friesian brood mares with and 50 without retained placenta. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. The group of mares with retained placenta was subdivided into mares i

  9. 25 CFR 171.600 - What information is collected and retained on the irrigation service I receive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information is collected and retained on the....600 What information is collected and retained on the irrigation service I receive? We will collect and retain at least the following information as part of our record of the irrigation service we...

  10. Fracture strength and bending of all-ceramic and fiber-reinforced composites in inlay-retained fixed partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Saridag

    2012-06-01

    Conclusions: Zirconia-based ceramic inlay-retained fixed partial dentures demonstrated the highest fracture strength. The fiber-reinforced composite inlay-retained fixed partial dentures demonstrated higher bending values than did the all-ceramic inlay-retained fixed partial dentures.

  11. Effects of a new type of clear overlay retainer on occlusal contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Yeon; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2017-05-01

    The popularity of clear overlay retainers (CORs) has increased recently because of their advantages such as better esthetics, cost effectiveness, easy fabrication, and good compliance. However, a deficiency in posterior occlusal settling is a reported limitation of CORs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the posterior occlusal contact changes in a new type of clear orthodontic retainer called Oral-treaper (OTP), which consists of three layers and has stronger mechanical characteristics than do conventional retainers. Three patients who completed fixed orthodontic treatment received OTP as a removable retainer. Cast models were fabricated after the removal of fixed appliances (T1) and after 4 to 11 months of using the retainers (T2). We evaluated all the cast models to compare the post-orthodontic settling pattern during the use of the OTPs. The depth of occlusal contacts was evaluated using color maps. The OTP did not prevent vertical settling in all patients but resulted in an improvement in posterior occlusal contact points.

  12. An examination of the earthquake behaviour of a retaining wall considering soil-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köktan, Utku; Demir, Gökhan; Kerem Ertek, M.

    2017-04-01

    The earthquake behavior of retaining walls is commonly calculated with pseudo static approaches based on Mononobe-Okabe method. The seismic ground pressure acting on the retaining wall by the Mononobe-Okabe method does not give a definite idea of the distribution of the seismic ground pressure because it is obtained by balancing the forces acting on the active wedge behind the wall. With this method, wave propagation effects and soil-structure interaction are neglected. The purpose of this study is to examine the earthquake behavior of a retaining wall taking into account the soil-structure interaction. For this purpose, time history seismic analysis of the soil-structure interaction system using finite element method has been carried out considering 3 different soil conditions. Seismic analysis of the soil-structure model was performed according to the earthquake record of "1971, San Fernando Pacoima Dam, 196 degree" existing in the library of MIDAS GTS NX software. The results obtained from the analyses show that the soil-structure interaction is very important for the seismic design of a retaining wall. Keywords: Soil-structure interaction, Finite element model, Retaining wall

  13. The role of psychological ownership in retaining talent: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Olckers

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Managing psychological ownership can have positive attitudinal and behavioural effects, promote organisational effectiveness and support talent retention.Research purpose: This paper seeks to explore and describe psychological ownership, distinguish it from other work-related attitudes and clarify the role that psychological ownership can play in retaining talent.Motivation for the study: Previous studies of human resource practices and organisational characteristics that affect organisational commitment and the retention of talent have reported that absent variables could be responsible for varied results. Psychological ownership could be one of them.Research design, approach and method: Based on a systematic review of the literature published over the last 20 years, the authors synthesised various research perspectives into a framework of psychological ownership and its links to retaining talent.Main findings: The authors found that psychological ownership was a comprehensive multidimensional construct. It is distinct from other work-related attitudes and seems capable of enabling organisations to retain the talents of skilled employees.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations can benefit from psychological ownership because it leads employees to feel responsible towards targets (like organisations and to show stewardship. It can help organisations to retain talent and influence the intentions of skilled employees to remain with their organisations.Contribution/value-add: Psychological ownership, as an integrated multidimensional construct, has expanded the existing theory about the organisational commitment and work-related attitudes that organisations need to retain talent in the 21st century.

  14. Implant-retained mandibular overdentures versus conventional dentures: 10 years of care and aftercare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Anita; Meijer, Henny J A; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Vissink, Arjan

    2006-01-01

    This 10-year prospective, randomized, clinical trial investigated the treatment outcome of edentulous patients treated with mandibular overdentures retained by 2 endosseous implants compared with conventional dentures in patients with or without vestibuloplasty. One hundred fifty-one edentulous patients (5 groups) with a symphyseal mandibular bone height between 8 and 25 mm participated. Sixty-two patients were treated with an overdenture retained by 2 implants (groups 1 and 3), 59 patients were treated with a conventional denture (groups 2 and 5), and 30 patients were treated with a conventional denture after preprosthetic vestibuloplasty (group 4). Patients who received conventional dentures but preferred implants later on could undergo implant surgery after 1 year of their initial treatment, but were analyzed in their original group. The prosthetic and surgical care and aftercare were scored during a 10-year evaluation period. One hundred thirty-three patients completed the 10-year follow-up evaluations. Forty-four percent of patients treated with conventional dentures switched within 10 years to implant-retained overdentures, versus 16% of the patients who were treated with conventional dentures after vestibuloplasty. On average, a greater time investment and more treatment sessions were needed in patients treated with implant-retained overdentures compared to patients treated with conventional dentures. Patients treated with an implant-retained overdenture need more treatment interventions and treatment time than patients treated with conventional dentures.

  15. CT findings of foreign body reaction to retained endoloop ligature plastic tube mimicking acute appendicitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jae Hong; Kang, Chae Hoon; Choi, Soo Jung; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Shick; Shin, Dong Rock [Dept. of Radiology, GangNeung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Many hospitals experience one or more retained surgical instrument events with risk of patient morbidity and medicolegal problems. Identification of retained surgical instrument is important. The radiologists should be familiar with imaging finding of retained surgical instrument. In a 62-year-old female with a retained plastic tube, localized peritoneal infiltration around air-containing tubular structure mimicked acute appendicitis on abdomen computed tomography (CT), one year after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We reported CT findings of foreign body reaction related to retained Endoloop ligature plastic tube mimicking acute appendicitis.

  16. CT Findings of Foreign Body Reaction to a Retained Endoloop Ligature Plastic Tube Mimicking Acute Appendicitis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jae Hong; Kang, Chae Hoon; Choi, Soo-Jung; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Shick; Shin, Dong Rock [Department of Radiology, Asan Foundation, GangNeung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung 25440 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Many hospitals experience one or more retained surgical instrument events with risk of patient morbidity and medicolegal problems. Identification of retained surgical instrument is important. The radiologists should be familiar with imaging finding of retained surgical instrument. In a 62-year-old female with a retained plastic tube, localized peritoneal infiltration around air-containing tubular structure mimicked acute appendicitis on abdomen computed tomography (CT), one year after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We reported CT findings of foreign body reaction related to retained Endoloop ligature plastic tube mimicking acute appendicitis.

  17. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Annual report 2014; Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Jahresbericht 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-15

    The following topics are dealt with: Mechanics and acoustics, electricity, chemical physics and explosion protection, optics, manufacturing measurement techniques, ionizing radiation, temperature and synchrotron radiation, medical physics and metrological information techniques. (HSI)

  18. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Annual report 2016; Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Jahresbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-15

    The following topics are dealt with: Quality management, legal metrology, technology transfer, technical cooperation, mechanics and acoustics, chemical physics and explosion protection, optics, manufacturing measurement techniques, ionizing radiation, temperature and synchrotron radiation, medical physics and metrological information techniques. (HSI)

  19. Fertility Effects of Retained Trees with Vegetation Development on Landslide Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Aere, of Taiwan in 2004, caused landslides of Shihmen reservoir watershed of Sule creek, and this damaged area was recovered with hydro-seeding vegetation engineering forming three retained trees island on the slopeland in 2006. This study investigated the fertility effect of retained trees for vegetation development on landslide area. The relevant results that the Rhodes grass is the dominant plant and near the three retained trees area, 192 trees for 18 species, which sources of seeds are carried and spread by wind and wildlife, increases in this landslide area from 2006 to 2013, meanwhile, the tree island is getting formed. The three trees islands change micro-climate, and they gather nutrients and moisture as much as possible so that the vegetation community could develop from tree island area to external side gradually.

  20. RESEARCH ON HOT FORMING PROCESS OF A RETAINING RING OF HIGH-NITROGEN STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Q.Chen; J.S.Liu; H.G.Guo

    2004-01-01

    Mnl8Crl8N, the high-nitrogen steel, is the 2nd generation material for manufacturing the retaining ring of firepower generators. In this paper, the hot deformation behavior of the material was investigated by thermo-mechanical modeling tests. And the flow stress curves of the steel were obtained for various combinations of the temperature and strain rate.Based on the results of the tests, the complex forming process of a retaining ring including punching, expanding and extrusion with an enclosure was put forward and simulated by means of numerical simulation method. The results indicate that the process is a novel and force-saved practical technology for manufacturing heavy retaining rings.

  1. The effect of construction stage on the development of retaining wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md; Rahim, Mustaqqim Abdul; Hiung, Voo Kien; Isa, Nur Fitriah; Sofri, Liyana Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    With the growing of population and density in metropolitan areas, especially for the narrow space areas, high rise buildings are the best choice to fulfil the demands for the lacking spaces for development. Hence, it seems deep excavation is necessary to construct underground spaces. Control of soil deformation is crucial for deep excavation in congested urban area to minimize its effect on adjacent structures. During excavation of the soil, retaining walls are required to retain the soil behind it. Therefore, an appropriate method or modelling is required to determine the movement of retaining wall due to lateral earth pressure acts behind it. Finite Element Method (FEM) utilizing computer program PLAXIS, was used to estimate the wall and ground deformation at each stage of excavation.

  2. Assessing the MR compatibility of dental retainer wires at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezel, Joep; Kooij, Bert Jan; Webb, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    To determine the MR compatibility of common dental retainer wires at 7 Tesla in terms of potential RF heating and magnetic susceptibility effects. Electromagnetic simulations and experimental results were compared for dental retainer wires placed in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Simulations were then performed for a human model with wire in place. Finally, image quality was assessed for different scanning protocols and wires. Simulations and experimental data in phantoms agreed well, with the length of the wire correlating to maximum heating in phantoms being approximately 47 mm. Even in this case, no substantial heating occurs when scanning within the specific absorption rate (SAR) guidelines for the head. Image distortions from the most ferromagnetic dental wire were not significant for any brain region. Dental retainer wires appear to be MR compatible at 7 Tesla. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Effect of cigarette smoking on coexistence of cadmium and zinc in retained wisdom teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, Piotr; Kwapuliński, Jerzy; Drugacz, Jan; Malara, Beata

    2005-01-01

    The change in coexistence pattern of elements (antagonism-synergism) in conditions of excessive level of toxic element is observed in many biological samples. The aim of this study was to establish the cadmium and zinc content in hard tissues of retained wisdom teeth of smokers and non-smokers and to find out if active exposure to cigarette smoke has an influence on coexistence of both metals in these tissues. Material consisted of 127 retained wisdom teeth (65 from smokers and 62 from non-smokers). Cadmium and zinc contents were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. We found out that retained wisdom tooth from smokers exhibited higher cadmium and zinc contents compared to non-smokers' teeth. Moreover, coexistence pattern of cadmium and zinc in teeth depends on exposure to heavy metals and exhibits strong synergism in smokers.

  4. Rigidly framed earth retaining structures thermal soil structure interaction of buildings supporting unbalanced lateral earth pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Aboumoussa, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Structures placed on hillsides often present a number of challenges and a limited number of economical choices for site design. An option sometimes employed is to use the building frame as a retaining element, comprising a Rigidly Framed Earth Retaining Structure (RFERS). The relationship between temperature and earth pressure acting on RFERS, is explored in this monograph through a 4.5 year monitoring program of a heavily instrumented in service structure. The data indicated that the coefficient of earth pressure behind the monitored RFERS had a strong linear correlation with temperature. The study also revealed that thermal cycles, rather than lateral earth pressure, were the cause of failure in many structural elements. The book demonstrates that depending on the relative stiffness of the retained soil mass and that of the structural frame, the developed lateral earth pressure, during thermal expansion, can reach magnitudes several times larger than those determined using classical earth pressure theories....

  5. Identification and localization of label-retaining cells in hamster epithelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickenbach, J.R.; Mackenzie, I.C.

    1984-06-01

    A subpopulation of basal epithelial cells which retains tritiated thymidine label for extended periods was previously demonstrated in skin and oral mucosae of mice. The present study examined the presence of similar cells in hamsters. Five-day-old hamsters were labeled with tritiated thymidine and the rate at which label was diluted from the basal cells observed. A small percentage of basal cells was found to retain label for up to 69 days. The location of such label-retaining cells (LRCs) in the palatal epithelium and in tongue papillae was examined. Thirty and 69 days after labeling, approximately 80% of LRCs in palate were located in the proximal halves of papillae and 80% of LRCs in tongue were positioned basally with approximately 30% of such LRCs occupying positions previously suggested to be stem cell locations. The finding that slowly cycling keratinocytes are related to patterns of tissue architecture is compatible with a function of these cells as epithelial stem cells.

  6. Designing a safer process to prevent retained surgical sponges: a healthcare failure mode and effect analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Victoria M; Cullen, Joseph J

    2011-08-01

    A retained surgical sponge is a sentinel event that can result in serious negative outcomes for the patient. Current standards rely on manual counting, the accuracy of which may be suspect, yet little is known about why counting fails to prevent retained sponges. The objectives of this project were to describe perioperative processes to prevent retained sponges after elective abdominal surgery; to identify potential failures; and to rate the causes, probability, and severity of these failures. A total of 57 potential failures were identified, associated with room preparation, the initial count, adding sponges, removing sponges, the first closing count, and the final closing count. The most frequently identified causes of failures included distraction, multitasking, not following procedure, and time pressure. Most of the failures are not likely to be affected by an educational intervention, so additional technological controls should be considered in efforts to improve safety.

  7. Applications of a thru-tubing cement retainer conveyed on coiled tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, T. (Baker Oil Tools, Houston, TX (Canada)); Tudor, E.H. (Canadian Fracmaster Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)); Cooke, J.A. (Chevron Canada Resources, Fox Creek, AB (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A thru-tubing inflatable permanent cement retainer has been developed to selectively squeeze cement without pulling the production tubing or killing the well. The system has been run successfully on coiled tubing through 73 mm tubing and set in 177.8 mm casing. Due to the performance limitations of the inflatable cement retainer, unconventional methods were used to inflate the tool and perform a hesitation cement squeeze. Equipment and procedures used to selectively squeeze off water production in two wells in the Kaybob south field in central Alberta are described. Both wells are gas producers from a sour, underpressured carbonate formation. In order to control hydrostatic pressure and obtain the squeeze, nitrogen gas was used as the circulation and displacement medium. Workover design considerations, cement retainer differential pressure ratings, depth control, inflation procedure, cement slurry design, cement squeeze operation, and job procedure are described. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Tensile Ductility of Nanostructured Bainitic Steels: Influence of Retained Austenite Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sourmail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High silicon (>1.5% steels with different compositions were isothermally transformed to bainite at 220 and 250 °C to produce what is often referred to as nanostructured bainite. Interrupted tensile tests were carried out and the retained austenite was measured as a function of strain. Results were correlated with tensile ductility. The role of retained austenite stability is remarkably underlined as strongly affecting the propensity to brittle failure, but also the tensile ductility. A simple quantitative relationship is proposed that clearly delimitates the different behaviours (brittle/ductile and correlates well with the measured ductility. Conclusions are proposed as to the role of retained austenite fraction and the existence of a threshold value associated with tensile rupture.

  9. Stability study on naturally filling body in gob-side entry retaining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Baojing; Xu Jinhai; Zhao Maosen; Zeng Qinglin

    2012-01-01

    In the construction of the filling gob-side entry retaining in a lane,we utilize the self-slide natural phenomenon of a falling gangue in an inclined coal seam goaf.First,we put the falling gangue of goaf above the laneway and made it the main filling material by adopting the measurement of flexible supporting system combined with those of rigid supporting system.Then we made the filling material gunited and solidified to maintain the filling goal of the gob-side entry retaining beside the lane.Considering the law of energy conservation and law of pressure distribution for retaining the active and static soil of the wail,we analyzed the reliability of a gangue blocking facilities and the stability of the filling material in the lane.We analyze the figures to see the stability.The result shows that the gangue block supporting system is reliable,and has been successfully practically applied.

  10. An orthodontic device for retaining implanted radioactive sources during brachytherapy for cancer of the oral cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuko, Noriko; Katsura, Kouji [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Sato, Katsurou; Kawana, Masahiro; Nonomura, Naobumi

    2000-03-01

    An orthodontic retainer was devised to keeping implanted radioactive sources in position and improve the quality of life during brachytherapy for cancer of the oral cavity. The retainer was used in 3 patients with oral cancer, one with cancer of the hard palate, one with cancer of the soft palate, and one with cancer of the floor of mouth, during brachytherapy using {sup 198}Au grains and {sup 137}Cs needles. These patients could speak freely. One with cancer of the hard palate could drink water and ingest semi-liquid food during treatment instead of nasal tube feeding. The plaster dental model obtained while making the retainer proved to be useful for training radiation oncologists. (author)

  11. Seismic earth pressures on flexible cantilever retaining walls with deformable inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur L. Ertugrul

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the results of 1-g shaking table tests performed on small-scale flexible cantilever wall models retaining composite backfill made of a deformable geofoam inclusion and granular cohesionless material were presented. Two different polystyrene materials were utilized as deformable inclusions. Lateral dynamic earth pressures and wall displacements at different elevations of the retaining wall model were monitored during the tests. The earth pressures and displacements of the retaining walls with deformable inclusions were compared with those of the models without geofoam inclusions. Comparisons indicated that geofoam panels of low stiffness installed against the retaining wall model affect displacement and dynamic lateral pressure profile along the wall height. Depending on the inclusion characteristics and the wall flexibility, up to 50% reduction in dynamic earth pressures was observed. The efficiency of load and displacement reduction decreased as the flexibility ratio of the wall model increased. On the other hand, dynamic load reduction efficiency of the deformable inclusion increased as the amplitude and frequency ratio of the seismic excitation increased. Relative flexibility of the deformable layer (the thickness and the elastic stiffness of the polystyrene material played an important role in the amount of load reduction. Dynamic earth pressure coefficients were compared with those calculated with an analytical approach. Pressure coefficients calculated with this method were found to be in good agreement with the results of the tests performed on the wall model having low flexibility ratio. It was observed that deformable inclusions reduce residual wall stresses observed at the end of seismic excitation thus contributing to the post-earthquake stability of the retaining wall. The graphs presented within this paper regarding the dynamic earth pressure coefficients versus the wall flexibility and inclusion characteristics may

  12. Seismic earth pressures on flexible cantilever retaining walls with deformable inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozgur L. Ertugrul; Aurelian C. Trandafir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the results of 1-g shaking table tests performed on small-scale flexible cantilever wall models retaining composite backfill made of a deformable geofoam inclusion and granular cohesionless material were presented. Two different polystyrene materials were utilized as deformable inclusions. Lateral dynamic earth pressures and wall displacements at different elevations of the retaining wall model were monitored during the tests. The earth pressures and displacements of the retaining walls with deformable inclusions were compared with those of the models without geofoam inclusions. Comparisons indicated that geofoam panels of low stiffness installed against the retaining wall model affect displacement and dynamic lateral pressure profile along the wall height. Depending on the in-clusion characteristics and the wall flexibility, up to 50% reduction in dynamic earth pressures was observed. The efficiency of load and displacement reduction decreased as the flexibility ratio of the wall model increased. On the other hand, dynamic load reduction efficiency of the deformable inclusion increased as the amplitude and frequency ratio of the seismic excitation increased. Relative flexibility of the deformable layer (the thickness and the elastic stiffness of the polystyrene material) played an important role in the amount of load reduction. Dynamic earth pressure coefficients were compared with those calculated with an analytical approach. Pressure coefficients calculated with this method were found to be in good agreement with the results of the tests performed on the wall model having low flexibility ratio. It was observed that deformable inclusions reduce residual wall stresses observed at the end of seismic excitation thus contributing to the post-earthquake stability of the retaining wall. The graphs presented within this paper regarding the dynamic earth pressure coefficients versus the wall flexibility and inclusion characteristics may serve for the

  13. Systemic Presentation of Retained Foreign Body in the Peritoneal Cavity (Gossypiboma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mehrabi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the infrequent complications of surgical operations is retained foreign body in body cavities which lead to morbidity and mortality for patients and also medico-legal problems for surgeons. Gossypiboma is an uncommon surgical complication, which is defined as a mass or cystic lesion due to retained surgical sponge in the abdominal cavity. Retained foreign body causes abscess, fistula, mass, obstruction after surgical operations and is diagnosed by x ray evaluation. In all patients, it is presented with pain, palpable mass. The infected post operation retained foreign bodies should be considered in differential diagnosis. In this study, we reported a patient with systemic presentation of retained two foreign bodies (surgical sponge in abdominal cavity. Case: The patient is a 32 years old female, which after cesarean section in 2008 developed abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss. The patient was referred to a specialist, and para-clinical checkup was done on her. In sonography and CT-scan, two cystic lesions with calcified wall were reported in the left and right sides of the abdomen. Then, the patient was referred to a surgeon with the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. During operation, cystic lesion with adhesion to viscera in the right side of the abdomen and a mass lesion in the descending colon in the left side were seen.The pathology report showed a surgical sponge in the right cystic lesion and surgical towel in the descending colon. Conclusion: Retained foreign bodies should be considered in differential diagnosis of any post operative patients who are presented with pain, infection, or palpable mass.

  14. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshed, Iris; Kushnir, Tamar; Shabshin, Noga; Konen, Eli (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)), e-mail: iris.eshed@sheba.health.gov.il

    2010-03-15

    Background: Increasing numbers of military confrontations and terrorist attacks have led to increasing reports of retained metal fragments among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The potential hazard of retained metal fragments for patients undergoing MRI has been studied among patients with retained metal fragments from domestic violence but not from combat and terrorist attacks. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety of MRI in patients with subcutaneous warfare-metal fragments. Material and Methods: 10,322 consecutive metal screening forms of patients scheduled for 1.5 Tesla (T) MR examination were retrospectively reviewed. All patients reported to have retained metal fragments were contacted by telephone and asked to describe the event in which they were exposed to the fragments and for any adverse sequelae or sensations during and after MRI. Their radiographs were evaluated for the number and size of the fragments. The data were analyzed for correlations between these factors. Results: Seven of the 24 patients who reported retained metal fragments were excluded, since there was no validating evidence of their presence. Fragments in the remaining 17 patients (18 MRI examinations) were inflicted by military or terrorist attacks that occurred 2-39 years prior to the MRI. The fragment size ranged between 1 and 10 mm. One patient reported a superficial migration of a 10-mm fragment after MRI. No other adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Conducting 1.5T MRI examinations is safe in patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks not in the vicinity of vital organs. However, caution is advised.

  15. Evaluation of Histological Impacts of Three Types of Orthodontic Fixed Retainers on Periodontium of Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Oshagh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Fixed retainers were developed to maintain incisor alignments after orthodontic treatments. Although the effects of fixed retainers on periodontal health are clinically studied, no studies have still evaluated the histological changes in the periodontium after the placement of thefixed retainers. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of customised retainers on periodontium histologically. Materials and Method: Forty pairs of maxillary and mandibular central incisors of twenty rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups: The first group was considered as the control and in the second group, Fiber Reinforced Composite (FRC, in the third group, 0.014 inch stainless steel (SS wire and in the fourth group, 0.175 inch multistrand stainless steel (MSS wire were bonded on the labial surfaces of the incisors. After sixty days; animals' periodontium were evaluated his-tologically. Results: The number of bone resorption lacuna in the control group was signifi-cantly less than FRC and 0.014 SS groups. The periodontal vessel count and their diameter in the control group was significantly lower than the other groups. The pulp vessel count and their diameter in controls were significantly more than the 0.014 SS and the 0.175 MSS groups. Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that FRC fixed retainer might cause detrimental effects on the periodontal ligaments and supporting bone and the 0.014- inch and 0.175- inch fixed retainers can cause hyalinization and possibly the necrosis of the pulp.

  16. Transmural Migration of a Retained Sponge Through the Rectum: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Veli Özkan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Retained surgical sponge in the abdomen following abdominal and pelvic surgery is an uncommon condition. Here we present a case of retained surgical sponge with unusual presenting symptoms. A 27-year old female patient presented to our department with a foreign body localized in the anal region. She had a past history of a myomectomy 1 year earlier. Clinical examination and radiographic workout revealaed a sponge migrating towards the rectum. The sponge was removed under visual guidance of rectoscopy without laparotomy. The patient was discharged without complications.

  17. Torque resistance of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Dario; Dalstra, Michel; Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Movements of teeth splinted by fixed retention wires after orthodontic treatment have been observed. The aetiological factors for these movements are unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the resistance to torque of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed...... retainers in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: Torquing moments acting on a retainer wire were measured in a mechanical force testing system by applying buccal crown torque to an upper lateral incisor in both a 3-teeth and in a 2-teeth setup. Seven stainless steel wires with different shape, type (plain...

  18. Textiloma, migration of retained long gauze from abdominal cavity to intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Molaei Govarjin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retaining of long gauzes and surgical sponges in the abdomen is one of the most frequent medical errors usually manifests as abscess or abdomino- cutaneus fistulas and with no definite symptoms during lifetime. Here, we introduce a 35 year old woman with an intestino-cutaneal fistula caused by retained long gauze in the abdomen entered the terminal ileum,9 months after cesarean section. This is called “Textiloma”. There is no report of textiloma in Iran and there are only a few cases in the world.

  19. Delayed myelopathy secondary to stab wound with a retained blade tip within the laminae: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Delayed neurologic deficit after a stab wound with a retained foreign body near the spinal canal is unusual, adequate radiological examination is fundamental in detecting retained foreign bodies, especially the CT scan, surgical extraction of the foreign body is the primary task and the surgical outcome is satisfactory. Here, we report a rare case of delayed myelopathy caused by spinal stenosis secondary to broken blade tip within thoracic laminae in an old man, who was injured in a knife attack 39 years ago. The incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis and prognosis are discussed.

  20. A technique for the management of screw access opening in cement-retained implant restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kermanshah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abutment screw loosening has been considered as a common complication of implant-supported dental prostheses. This problem is more important in cement-retained implant restorations due to their invisible position of the screw access opening. Case Report: This report describes a modified retrievability method for cement-retained implant restorations in the event of abutment screw loosening. The screw access opening was marked with ceramic stain and its porcelain surface was treated using hydrofluoric acid (HF, silane, and adhesive to bond to composite resin. Discussion: The present modified technique facilitates screw access opening and improves the bond between the porcelain and composite resin.

  1. Rehabilitation of orbital defect with silicone orbital prosthesis retained by dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttal, Satyabodh Shesharaj; Desai, Jhanvi; Kudva, Adarsh; Patil, Basavaraj R

    2016-01-01

    Orbital defects can result from cancer, birth anomalies, or trauma leading to an onslaught of problems in the function and psyche of the patient. These defects are restored by surgical reconstruction and followed by placement of orbital prosthesis for cosmetic makeup. The use of dental implants in retaining orbital prosthesis improves patient acceptance of the prosthesis owing to better retention and stability than conventional adhesive retained prosthesis. This case report describes a custom-made magnetic retentive assembly anchored by a dental implant which offers the orbital prosthesis the simplicity of self-alignment and ease of use. PMID:26953033

  2. Prosthodontic maintenance requirements of implant-retained overdentures using the locator attachment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vere, Joe; Hall, Derek; Patel, Raj; Wragg, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prosthodontic maintenance requirements of patients rehabilitated with maxillary and mandibular implant-retained overdentures using the Locator Attachment System by retrospectively reviewing case records. Fifty patients made 112 unplanned return visits over a 3-year period. The most common reasons for returning were denture adjustments (n = 45), inadequate retention (n = 39), and loosening of the implant abutments (n = 14). Implant-retained overdentures using the Locator Attachment System have comparable prosthodontic maintenance requirements to other attachment systems. Problems associated with these prostheses are usually simple to resolve chairside.

  3. Thermal Stability of Retained Austenite in TRIP Steel After Different Treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen; LI Lin; Bruno C De Cooman; Patrick Wollants; YANG Chun-xia

    2008-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of retained austenite in TRIP steel was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The decomposition curve was abnormal, and the decomposition temperature and the activation energy were measured by the Kissinger method, which were all higher than those in quenched steel. The thermal decomposition data of samples soaked in liquid nitrogen after TRIP treatment were all similar to those without additional low temperature treatment. It indicated that there is a high thermal stability in retained austenite of the TRIP steel at low temperature, which was also proved by XRD analysis.

  4. Rehabilitation of orbital defect with silicone orbital prosthesis retained by dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttal, Satyabodh Shesharaj; Desai, Jhanvi; Kudva, Adarsh; Patil, Basavaraj R

    2016-01-01

    Orbital defects can result from cancer, birth anomalies, or trauma leading to an onslaught of problems in the function and psyche of the patient. These defects are restored by surgical reconstruction and followed by placement of orbital prosthesis for cosmetic makeup. The use of dental implants in retaining orbital prosthesis improves patient acceptance of the prosthesis owing to better retention and stability than conventional adhesive retained prosthesis. This case report describes a custom-made magnetic retentive assembly anchored by a dental implant which offers the orbital prosthesis the simplicity of self-alignment and ease of use.

  5. Long-retained vaginal foreign body causing chronic vaginitis in a bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Elisabeth C; Pharr, John W; Ringwood, Brendon P; Beckwith, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    A vaginal foreign body consisting of a piece of retained calvarium from a macerated fetus was identified and removed using vaginoscopy in a 4-year-old, spayed female bulldog. The dog had a 12-month history of chronic mucopurulent vaginitis. Vaginal foreign bodies, although uncommon, are a differential diagnosis for recurrent mucopurulent or hemorrhagic chronic vaginal discharge. A case of chronic vaginitis caused by a long-retained intravaginal foreign body in a dog is described and compared to four other canine cases reported in the literature.

  6. Evolution of the Stability Work from Classic Retaining Walls to Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Stanciu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the consolidation of soil mass and the construction of the stability works for roads infrastructure it was studied the evolution of these kinds of works from classical retaining walls - common concrete retaining walls, to the utilization in our days of the modern and competitive methods - mechanically stabilized earth walls. Like type of execution the variety of the reinforced soil is given by the utilization of different types of reinforcing inclusions (steel strips, geosynthetics, geogrids or facing (precast concrete panels, dry cast modular blocks, metal sheets and plates, gabions, and wrapped sheets of geosynthetics.

  7. 14 CFR 382.145 - What records concerning training must carriers retain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... retain for three years individual employee training records demonstrating that all persons required to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What records concerning training must... TRAVEL Training and Administrative Provisions § 382.145 What records concerning training must...

  8. What businesses are doing to attract and retain employees--becoming an employer of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K F

    2001-03-01

    This article explains why the new economy has made many businesses anxious to become employers of choice. The author uses a case study to show how one firm achieved this goal and explains the role that innovative benefits practices and other HR policies can play in attracting and retaining qualified employees.

  9. Attracting, Retaining, and Developing Quality Teachers in Small Schools. Small Schools Network Information Exchange No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast & Islands, Andover, MA.

    This collection of articles gathers reprinted materials on teacher attraction and retention for small and rural school districts. The material is organized in two sections: (1) Attracting and Retaining Quality Teachers and (2) Challenging and Enriching Current Staff. Reprints from a number of publications present strategies for addressing the…

  10. Retained Products of Conception: An Atypical Presentation Diagnosed Immediately with Bedside Emergency Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Adkins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Retained products of conception is an important diagnosis to consider in patients presenting with postpartum complaints. Bedside ultrasound is a rapid, accurate, noninvasive modality to evaluate these patients. Objective. To report an atypical case of retained products of conception diagnosed with bedside ultrasound in the emergency department. Case Report. A 27-year-old female who was 1-month postpartum presented with vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and no fever. At the time of initial H&P, bedside ultrasound revealed echogenic material within the endometrial cavity with blood flow seen by color Doppler consistent with retained products of conception. The bedside ultrasound rapidly narrowed the differential and allowed a definitive diagnosis immediately. Ob/Gyn was consulted and dilation and curettage was performed in the operating room. Conclusions. Retained products of conception is an important diagnosis for the emergency physician to consider in at-risk patients. The sonographic findings are easily obtained and interpreted by emergency physicians. Earlier diagnosis of this disease process should lead to more focused patient evaluations and management.

  11. Two-center clinical trial of implant-retained mandibular overdentures versus complete dentures - Chewing ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertman, ME; Boerrigter, EM; VantHof, MA; VanWaas, MAJ; vanOort, RP; Boering, G; Kalk, W

    This study is a two-center clinical trial with the aim to assess the treatment effects of implant-retained mandibular overdentures versus conventional complete dentures. Treatment had been assigned according to a balanced allocation method. The following criteria were used to enhance the

  12. The S.M.A.R.T. Strategy to Recruiting and Retaining High School Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubisco, Robyn; Birren, Genevieve F. E.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the S.M.A.R.T. strategy for recruiting and retaining quality high school coaches. S.M.A.R.T. stands for Scouting, Mentoring and Coaching, Appreciation, Rating, and Time. Scouting addresses how one goes about locating and hiring quality coaches. Mentoring and Coaching addresses how to develop the coach within the specific…

  13. Boi-energy retains it's mitigration potential under elevated CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberloo, M.; Luyssaert, S.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background - If biofuels are to be a viable substitute for fossil fuels, it is essential that they retain their potential to mitigate climate change under future atmospheric conditions. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] stimulates plant biomass production; however, the beneficial effects

  14. Effects of Hardness on Pintle Rod Performance in the Universal and Retained Gas Samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-11-18

    Interaction between hardness of the pintle rods and the retainer rings used in the core samplers is investigated. It is found that ordinary Rockwell C measurements are not sufficient and superficial hardness instruments are recommended to verify hardness since in-production hardness of pintle rods is found to vary widely and probably leads to some premature release of pistons in samplers.

  15. Effect of inbreeding on the incidence of retained placenta in Friesian horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M.; Vrijenhoek, T.; Hesselink, J.W.; Barkema, H.W.; Groen, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    This study was motivated by the hypothesis that the incidence of retained placenta (RP) in Friesian horses is associated with inbreeding. The objectives were to 1) calculate the inbreeding rate in the total registered Friesian horse population; 2) study the association of the inbreeding coefficient

  16. Model test on sand retaining wall reinforced with denti-strip inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In conventional reinforced soil structures,the reinforcements are often laid hori-zontally in the soil.In this paper,a new concept of soil reinforced with denti-strip inclusions was proposed and a series of laboratory model tests were carried out on sand retaining wall reinforced with denti-strip inclusions.Besides the horizontal displacements of the facing,the lateral earth pressures acting on vertical elements were measured.A microscopic measurement was performed to investigate the deformation and progressive failure of the sand within model retaining wall.Based on the image analytical technique,the bearing capability and interaction mechanism of reinforced sand retaining wall were analyzed.The model of the initial shear failure and potential failure surface were also put forward.From the experimental results,it is shown that denti-strip inclusions can increase the bearing capability of retaining wall significantly and restrict the facing displacements efficiently,as compared with conventional horizontal reinforcement.

  17. Optimum Design of Gravity Retaining Walls Using Charged System Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talatahari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the optimum design retaining walls, as one of the familiar types of the retaining walls which may be constructed of stone masonry, unreinforced concrete, or reinforced concrete. The material cost is one of the major factors in the construction of gravity retaining walls therefore, minimizing the weight or volume of these systems can reduce the cost. To obtain an optimal seismic design of such structures, this paper proposes a method based on a novel meta-heuristic algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the Coulomb's and Gauss’s laws of electrostatics in physics, and it is called charged system search (CSS. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this algorithm, an example is utilized. Comparing the results of the retaining wall designs obtained by the other methods illustrates a good performance of the CSS. In this paper, we used the Mononobe-Okabe method which is one of the pseudostatic approaches to determine the dynamic earth pressure.

  18. Minority Students in Journalism. Recruiting, Retaining, Graduating: Lessons from Six Experimental Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Ralph L.

    This report describes the implementation and results of six university programs, funded by the Knight Foundation, to recruit and retain students from underrepresented minority groups in the field of journalism. It reviews the objectives, background, implementation, and results of continuing programs at Florida A&M University, the University of…

  19. In vivo biofilm formation on stainless steel bonded retainers during different oral health-care regimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Marije A.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; Busscher, Henk I.; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Retention wires permanently bonded to the anterior teeth are used after orthodontic treatment to prevent the teeth from relapsing to pre-treatment positions. A disadvantage of bonded retainers is biofilm accumulation on the wires, which produces a higher incidence of gingival recession, increased po

  20. Immediate loading of two implants with a mandibular implant-retained overdenture: a new treatment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, G.T.; Wismeijer, D.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to present the clinical outcomes of the immediate loading of two bar-splinted implants retaining a mandibular overdenture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a clinical trial, 124 edentulous patients were treated according to a new treatment concept, which involves the imme

  1. A Success Story: Recruiting & Retaining Underrepresented Minority Doctoral Students in Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William M.

    2006-01-01

    There are various ways to succeed in recruiting and retaining underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral students; but key to them all is the creation of real student-faculty relationships, which demonstrate by example that diversity and excellence can and should coexist. This cannot be delegated or done indirectly, and no amount of outreach, campus…

  2. Alternative complete-arch cement-retained implant-supported fixed partial denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, T M; Ercoli, C; Hagan, M E

    1999-07-01

    Early implant prostheses designs, which used screw-retained metal and acrylic resin structures, frequently left a space between the prosthesis and the soft tissue. Common deficiencies of this design included phonetic and esthetic problems and screw loosening. Cement-retained implant prostheses are also used in partially and completely edentulous patients, and are thought to have optimal occlusion and esthetics. Moreover, cement-retained prostheses may induce less stress on the implant, thereby maximizing the possibility of a passive fit. Porcelain fused to metal prostheses have been used mostly in partially edentulous situations. Recently, complete-arch porcelain fused to metal prostheses that replace hard and soft tissue have been used and, although this restoration can have excellent esthetics, there are disadvantages such as high cost, potential framework distortion during fabrication, and difficulty in repairing fractures of in-service porcelain. This article describes an alternative technique for the fabrication of a complete-arch, cement-retained, metal-acrylic resin implant-supported fixed partial denture. When compared with porcelain fused to metal complete-arch restorations, this prostheses is esthetic, has excellent retention and stability, yet is relatively inexpensive to fabricate, and requires less laboratory skill.

  3. Exploring Characteristics of Retained First-Year Students Enrolled in Non-Proximal Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstock, Laurie G.; Havice, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored pre- and post-admission characteristics of retained first-year students enrolled in non-proximal distance learning programs within public, 2-year colleges. Five pre-admission and six post-admission characteristics were explored. The sample for this study consisted of 197 first-year students enrolled in non-proximal distance…

  4. 75 FR 32857 - Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACG) and National Science and Mathematics Access To Retain Talent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Part 691 Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACG) and National Science and Mathematics Access To Retain Talent Grant (National Smart Grant) Programs CFR Correction In Title 34 of the Code of Federal...

  5. Recruiting and Retaining of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Groups in Special Education: Defining the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Whatley, Gloria D.

    2003-01-01

    The present article serves as an introduction to a special issue on recruiting and retaining culturally and linguistically diverse populations into the field of special education. Members of the Diversity Committee of the Teacher Education Division (TED) of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) and selected guest were invited authors.…

  6. Retained third molars removal in a severely resorbed edentulous mandible. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverzut, Cassio Edvard; Trivellato, Alexandre Elias; Sverzut, Alexander Tadeu; Azenha, Marcelo Rodrigues; Yamaji, Marco Aurélio Kenichi; Pepato, Andre Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The presence of asymptomatic third molars can represent a potential problem in the mandible when these teeth are retained and the patient has lost all normally erupted teeth. Once the mandibular first and second molars are removed, the mandibular body becomes weaker with time, increasing the complexity, morbidity and incidence of complication in the surgical procedure to remove the retained third molar. This paper reports a case where the mandibular third molars retained in a severely resorbed mandible were removed in a 54-year-old female patient. The treatment plan was based on the safe surgical removal of the teeth and prosthetic rehabilitation with an implant-supported milled bar overdenture and a bone-mucous-supported complete denture in the mandibular and maxillary arch, respectively. If the removal of a retained third molar is indicated in a severely resorbed edentulous mandible, the treatment plan must involve not only preventive measures in order to avoid mandible fracture during or after tooth removal, but also alternatives that allow an adequate mandibular rehabilitation.

  7. Evaluation of extraction sites for evidence of retained tooth roots and periapical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James I; Niemiec, Brook

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective clinical study was to determine the frequency and pathogenicity of unintentional retained tooth root fragments after extraction of the maxillary fourth premolar (108 and 208) and mandibular first molar teeth (309 and 409) in 74 canine and 42 feline client-owned patients. Radiographs of client-owned animals with historical evidence of extraction of teeth 309 and 409 were reviewed. All patients had dental extraction(s) for clinical reasons, and all extractions were deemed successful by the practitioners. Extraction sites were radiographed to identify tooth root fragments and pathology. Twenty-five canine and 25 feline patients that had extractions utilizing preoperative and postoperative radiography were also included. Sixty-one of 74 canine patients (82.4%; P retained tooth root fragments. In total, 100 of 116 cases (86.4%; P retained tooth root fragments, and periapical pathology was found in 66 of 116 (56.8%; P = 0.000000743) radiographs, including 39 of 74 canine cases (52.7%; P = 0.00002765) and 27 of 42 feline cases (64.3%; P = 0.01589). The control group had no evidence of retained root fragments. Further veterinary dental training and routine use of pre- and postoperative dental radiology are recommended.

  8. Early onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes : foot deformity in a first grade family member

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, HJ; Van der Hulst, M; Ippel, E; Prevo, RL; Hageman, G

    1999-01-01

    Early onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes (EOCA) is a clinical syndrome characterised by progressive cerebellar ataxia with an onset before the age of 25 years and a wide spectrum of associated features. It is distinguished from Friedreich's ataxia (FA) mainly by the preservation

  9. The use of processed silicone to retain the implant-supported tissue-borne overdenture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, E D; Krantz, W A; Ivanhoe, J R

    1992-02-01

    A technique is described for constructing the implant-retained overdenture with heat-polymerized silicone that is processed around undercuts in a round bar framework connecting the implants. An acrylic resin circular rest contacting the bar ensures that the implants are loaded in occlusion for stress distribution over the fixtures.

  10. Growth and grazing responses of two chloroplast-retaining dinoflagellates: effect of irradiance and prey species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Hansen, P.J.; Larsen, J.

    2000-01-01

    associated with surfaces. Both organisms are able to retain functional chloroplasts from their prey. They are both able to grow heterotrophically in the dark, but growth rates increase in the light. The maximum growth and ingestion rates of G, gracilentum are much higher than those of A. poecilochroum...

  11. Quantitative analysis of retained austenite in laser melted martensitic stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seleka, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available of this study was to determine if X-ray diffraction (XRD) was sufficient for quantifying the volume percentage of retained austenite. After a preliminary qualitative analysis, a Rietveld full pattern refinement program was used to quantify the volume percentage...

  12. 32 CFR 552.122 - Personnel not authorized to possess or retain personal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personal weapons. 552.122 Section 552.122 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... authorized to possess or retain personal weapons. (a) Possession, retention or storage of personal weapons or... enforcement officer authorized to carry the weapon under state or federal law, while on Fort Lewis or a sub...

  13. Fractal gait patterns are retained after entrainment to a fractal stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Christopher K; Kiefer, Adam W; Wittstein, Matthew W; Leonard, Kelsey B; MacPherson, Ryan P; Wright, W Geoffrey; Haran, F Jay

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that fractal patterns in gait can be altered by entraining to a fractal stimulus. However, little is understood about how long those patterns are retained or which factors may influence stronger entrainment or retention. In experiment one, participants walked on a treadmill for 45 continuous minutes, which was separated into three phases. The first 15 minutes (pre-synchronization phase) consisted of walking without a fractal stimulus, the second 15 minutes consisted of walking while entraining to a fractal visual stimulus (synchronization phase), and the last 15 minutes (post-synchronization phase) consisted of walking without the stimulus to determine if the patterns adopted from the stimulus were retained. Fractal gait patterns were strengthened during the synchronization phase and were retained in the post-synchronization phase. In experiment two, similar methods were used to compare a continuous fractal stimulus to a discrete fractal stimulus to determine which stimulus type led to more persistent fractal gait patterns in the synchronization and post-synchronization (i.e., retention) phases. Both stimulus types led to equally persistent patterns in the synchronization phase, but only the discrete fractal stimulus led to retention of the patterns. The results add to the growing body of literature showing that fractal gait patterns can be manipulated in a predictable manner. Further, our results add to the literature by showing that the newly adopted gait patterns are retained for up to 15 minutes after entrainment and showed that a discrete visual stimulus is a better method to influence retention.

  14. Adhesive Properties of Bonded Orthodontic Retainers to Enamel : Stainless Steel Wire vs Fiber-reinforced Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Krebs, Eliza; Sandham, John; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to compare the bond strength of a stainless steel orthodontic wire vs various fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) used as orthodontic retainers on enamel, analyze the failure types after debonding, and investigate the influence of different application proced

  15. Survival of flexible, braided, bonded stainless steel lingual retainers : a historic cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, D. J. Lie Sam; Ozcan, M.; Verkerke, G. J.; Sandham, John; Dijkstra, P. U.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to retrospectively evaluate the clinical survival rate of flexible, braided, rectangular bonded stainless steel lingual retainers, and to investigate the influence of gender, age of the patient, and operator experience on survival after orthodontic treatment at the

  16. Retained non-adaptive plasticity : gene flow or small inherent costs of plasticity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Piersma, T

    Question: Do clams from populations not exposed to a predator retain the ability to respond to that predator?? Motivation: If maintaining the potential for phenotypic plasticity involves a significant cost. plasticity should be selected against in constant environments. Background: Clams of the

  17. In vitro debonding of orthodontic retainers analyzed with finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milheiro, A.; de Jager, N.; Feilzer, A.J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the load and deflection at failure of different lingual retainers bonded with composite to enamel in a standardized three-point bending test. The results were rationalized with finite element analysis (FEA) models. Materials and methods: Fou

  18. Behavior of Reinforced Retaining Walls with Different Reinforcement Spacing during Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangkuk Ahn

    2015-01-01

    reinforcement spacing using LS-DYNA, a general finite-element program. Eight tons of truck weight was used for the numerical analysis model. The behavior of a reinforced retaining wall under variable reinforcement spacing and positioning was analyzed. The results indicated that the reinforcement material was an important resistance factor against external collision load.

  19. MTBE BIODEGRADATION IN A GRAVITY FLOW, HIGH-BIOMASS RETAINING BIOREACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE), a widely used fuel oxygenate, was investigated using a pilot-scale biomass-retaining bioreactor called a Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR). The reactor was operated for a year at a flow rate of 2500 L/d on Ci...

  20. 26 CFR 25.2701-2 - Special valuation rules for applicable retained interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applying the valuation method of § 25.2701-3, the value of P's preferred stock is its fair market value... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special valuation rules for applicable retained... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Special Valuation Rules § 25...

  1. Boi-energy retains it's mitigration potential under elevated CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberloo, M.; Luyssaert, S.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background - If biofuels are to be a viable substitute for fossil fuels, it is essential that they retain their potential to mitigate climate change under future atmospheric conditions. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] stimulates plant biomass production; however, the beneficial effects

  2. 36 CFR 1235.16 - How will NARA respond to an agency's request to retain records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will NARA respond to an agency's request to retain records? 1235.16 Section 1235.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... provided by NARA, or (2) Function as an agency archives, unless specifically authorized by statute or...

  3. 17 CFR 229.1009 - (Item 1009) Persons/assets, retained, employed, compensated or used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Mergers and Acquisitions (Regulation M-A) § 229.1009 (Item 1009) Persons/assets, retained, employed, compensated or used... corporate assets of the subject company that has been or will be employed or used by the filing person...

  4. Factors related to the etiology of retained placenta in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, I.; Eldik, P. van; Elving, L.; Mey, G.J.W. van der

    1987-01-01

    Birth records of 369 288 calvings of 160 188 Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cows were analysed to assess the influence of factors associated with retained placenta. Special emphasis was placed on the analysis of a subset containing data on births involving a single live calf and an easy or normal calving process

  5. Biomechanical analysis of posterior cruciate ligament retaining high-flexion total knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, J.; Zanden, van der A.C.; De Waal Malefijt, M.; Verdonschot, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background High-flexion knee replacements have been developed to accommodate a large range of flexion (>120°) after total knee arthroplasty. Both posterior cruciate ligament retaining and sacrificing high-flexion knee designs have been marketed. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the b

  6. A rare case of cervical fibroid presenting as retained placenta with postpartum hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Chowdhury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibroids during pregnancy are often asymptomatic but sometimes may lead to various complications and unusual presentations. We are reporting an unusual case of cervical fibroid during pregnancy that presented as retained placenta with postpartum hemorrhage following a full term normal vaginal delivery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 505-507

  7. Changes in the edentulous maxilla in persons wearing implant-retained mandibular overdentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narhi, TO; Geertman, ME; Hevinga, M; Abdo, H; Kalk, W

    2000-01-01

    Statement of problem. It has been suggested that risk for severe resorption in the anterior maxilla is increased in persons wearing mandibular implant-retained overdentures. However, little information is available about the changes in the edentulous maxilla after mandibular implant treatment. Purpo

  8. Five years of aftercare of implant-retained mandibular overdentures and conventional dentures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Geertman, M.E.; Meijer, H.J.; Raghoebar, G.M.; Kwakman, J.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Oort, R.P. van

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this multicentre randomized clinical trial was to analyse surgical and prosthetic aftercare and clinical implant performance of edentulous patients with implant-retained mandibular overdentures and of patients with conventional dentures, either or not after pre-prosthetic

  9. Five years of aftercare of implant-retained mandibular overdentures and conventional dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Geertman, M.E.; Meijer, H.J.A.; Raghoebar, G.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Oort, R.P. van

    The purpose of this multicentre randomized clinical trial was to analyse surgical and prosthetic aftercare and clinical implant performance of edentulous patients with implant-retained mandibular overdentures and of patients with conventional dentures, either or not after pre-prosthetic

  10. K-12 Education Nonprofit Employees' Perceptions of Strategies for Recruiting and Retaining Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Tara Marie

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the key reasons individuals who work in K-12 education nonprofit organizations enter the field of K-12 nonprofit education and their motivations for doing so. The purpose of this study was to find new strategies for recruiting and retaining K-12 education nonprofit employees by examining the obstacles that exist to…

  11. Early onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes : foot deformity in a first grade family member

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, HJ; Van der Hulst, M; Ippel, E; Prevo, RL; Hageman, G

    1999-01-01

    Early onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes (EOCA) is a clinical syndrome characterised by progressive cerebellar ataxia with an onset before the age of 25 years and a wide spectrum of associated features. It is distinguished from Friedreich's ataxia (FA) mainly by the preservation o

  12. In vivo biofilm formation on stainless steel bonded retainers during different oral health-care regimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Marije A.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; Busscher, Henk I.; Ren, Yijin

    Retention wires permanently bonded to the anterior teeth are used after orthodontic treatment to prevent the teeth from relapsing to pre-treatment positions. A disadvantage of bonded retainers is biofilm accumulation on the wires, which produces a higher incidence of gingival recession, increased

  13. Strategies to Recruit and Retain Students in Physical Science and Mathematics on a Diverse College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen-Mei; Kwon, Chuhee; Stevens, Lora; Buonora, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article presents implementation details and findings of a National Science Foundation Scholarship in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Program (S-STEM) consisting of many high-impact practices to recruit and retain students in the physical sciences and mathematics programs, particularly first-generation and underrepresented…

  14. Seismic Effects on the Design of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Earth Retaining Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    geosynthetics and are subjected to cyclic motion such as that caused by earthquakes. It will examine some case studies of the performance of... geosynthetic reinforced earth retaining structures (GSRW) and review some time tested concepts dealing with both geosynthetics and seismic earth pressures

  15. Kinetics modeling of delta-ferrite formation and retainment during casting of supermartensitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nießen, Frank; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hald, John

    2017-01-01

    -ferrite originates from the incomplete transformation to austenite. The kinetics model predicted the measured amount of δ-ferrite and the partitioning of Cr and Ni reasonably well. Further, it showed that slower cooling for the investigated alloy leads to less retained δ-ferrite, which is in excellent agreement...

  16. Seismic Earth Pressure Development in Sheet Pile Retaining Walls: A Numerical Study

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeev, P; Sivakugan, N

    2015-01-01

    The design of retaining walls requires the complete knowledge of the earth pressure distribution behind the wall. Due to the complex soil-structure effect, the estimation of earth pressure is not an easy task; even in the static case. The problem becomes even more complex for the dynamic (i.e., seismic) analysis and design of retaining walls. Several earth pressure models have been developed over the years to integrate the dynamic earth pressure with the static earth pressure and to improve the design of retaining wall in seismic regions. Among all the models, MononobeOkabe (M-O) method is commonly used to estimate the magnitude of seismic earth pressures in retaining walls and is adopted in design practices around the world (e.g., EuroCode and Australian Standards). However, the M-O method has several drawbacks and does not provide reliable estimate of the earth pressure in many instances. This study investigates the accuracy of the M-O method to predict the dynamic earth pressure in sheet pile wall. A 2D pl...

  17. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT NEEDLE-RETAINING DURATION ON CEREBRAL HEMODYNAMICS OF CEREBRAL PARALYSIS CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青; 王琴玉; 冯健强; 张壮涛; 陈雪云; 靳瑞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of different needle-retaining duration on cerebral hemodynamics in cerebral paralysis (CP) children.Methods: A total of 20 cases of CP children were subjected into this study.Changes of systolic peak value (Vs), blood flow velocity at the end-diastolic phase (Ved), mean velocity (Vm), pulsation index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of the cerebral hemodynamics before and after performing JIN's Three-Needling Therapy with the needles retained for 30 min (group A) and 5 min (group B) were observed by using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD).Results: After acupuncture, the blood flow in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) was accelerated, and the resistance of blood vessels decreased.The effect of needle-retaining-30 min was better than that of needle-retaining-5 min.Conclusion: In treating cerebral paralysis by using JIN's Three-Needling Therapy, sufficient stimulation provided by needle remaining is an important factor for achieving satisfactory therapeutic effects.

  18. Using New Social Media to Recruit and Retain Qualified Special Education Personnel. Practice Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Eve

    2011-01-01

    As communication technologies continue to evolve at an ever-expanding rate, some states and localities are turning to new social media tools as a means of recruiting and retaining qualified education personnel. Based on examples from around the country drawn from early intervention (EI) programs, state education agencies (SEAs), local education…

  19. Activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 201}Tl for the L.N.E.-L.N.H.B., France, P.T.B., Germany and the N.P.L., UK in the ongoing comparison B.I.P.M..R.I.(2)-K1.TI-201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); Moune, M.; Bobin, C. [CEA Saclay, Laboratoire National Henri Becquer (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Kossert, K. [Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt (PTB) (Germany); Johansson, L. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL) (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    In 2005, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et essais- Laboratoire national Henri becquerel (L.N.E.- L.N.H.B.) and the Physikalisch-technische bundesanstalt (P.T.B.) each submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 201}Tl to the International reference system (S.I.R.). In 2006, the National physical laboratory (N.P.L.) submitted their first sample. The range of values of the activity submitted was between 2 MBq and 63 MBq. These key comparison results have been included in the re-evaluated key comparison reference value and replaced the previous results for france and Germany in the matrix of degrees of equivalence in the key comparison database that now contains seven results, identifier B.I.P.M..R.I.(2)-KI.Tl-201. (authors)

  20. Characteristics of dewatering induced drawdown curve under blocking effect of retaining wall in aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Xia; Shen, Shui-Long; Yuan, Da-Jun

    2016-08-01

    For deep excavation pits that require the pumping of confined groundwater, a combination of a retaining wall and dewatering with large-diameter wells is usually adopted during excavation to improve safety. Since a retaining wall has a much lower hydraulic conductivity than the surrounding material in the aquifer, blocking of seepage to prolong the seepage path of the groundwater outside of the pit is effective. The retaining walls used during excavation dewatering cause hydraulic head drawdown inside the pit much faster than outside the pit. Thus, difference in hydraulic head between inside and outside of the pit increases. To investigate the mechanism of the blocking effect, numerical simulation using the finite difference method (FDM) was conducted to analyze the effects of pumping in the pit. The FDM results show that drawdown varies along the depth of the confined aquifer. The influence factors of drawdown inside and outside the pit include insertion depth of retaining walls, anisotropy of a confined aquifer and screen length of pumping wells. In addition, FDM results also show that the drawdown-time curve can be divided into four stages: in Stage I, drawdown inside the pit is very small and outside the pit it is almost zero; in Stage II, drawdown increases quickly with time; in Stage III, the drawdown curve is parallel to the Cooper-Jacob curve on semi-log axes; and in Stage IV, the drawdown becomes constant. These characteristics of the drawdown curve under the blocking effect of a retaining wall in an aquifer provide a way of estimating hydrogeological parameters according to pumping test results.

  1. Retained placenta of dairy cows associated with managemental factors in Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mozaffor Hossain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The incidence of retained placenta of dairy cows in relation to individual animal level and farm management factors such as farm type, farm size, housing system, floor type, feed quality, time of parturition, farming experience of farmer and delivery pattern of cows was determined. Materials and Methods: A total 1205 parturated dairy cows conducted in nine upazilas and four Metro Thana of Rajshahi district during July 2010 to June 2011for attainment of the result. Individual animal and farm management factors associated with retained placenta were recorded in a structured questionnaire through face-to-face farmer's interview and reviewing farm records. The raw data were compiled and statistical SPSS program to analyze to obtained result. Results: The overall incidence of retained placenta was 13.4%. The incidence was significantly higher in Local × Sahiwal genotype (4.6% and late delivery (longer gestation period (80% than their counter groups (p<0.05. The large farm (6.0% had higher incidence and had no significant effect than medium and individual household. Similarly animals housed in Tin shed building with poor ventilation facilities (6.6%, animal housed in unscientific concrete floor (6.8%, animals mostly grassed along with small amount of straw supplied (5.4% and a farmer had less than one year farming experience (5.3% had not significant statistically show higher incidence of retained placenta. Conclusion: The local genotype; mini farm; supplied better feed quality; vast farming experience of farmer and normal delivery with eutocia had less chance of retained placenta of dairy cows. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 180-184

  2. Complications and subsequent removal of retained shunt hardware after endoscopic third ventriculostomy: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindrik, Jonathan; Jallo, George I; Ahn, Edward S

    2013-06-01

    This case series highlights multiple complications and subsequent removal of retained shunt hardware in pediatric patients after successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). Removal or retention of existing shunt hardware following ETV represents an important dilemma. Prior studies have reported infections and organ perforation related to nonfunctioning shunts but none in the context of successful ETV. Data obtained in 3 children with hydrocephalus treated at the authors' institution were retrospectively reviewed after the patients experienced complications due to retained shunt hardware following ETV. Etiologies of hydrocephalus included tectal glioma and intraventricular hemorrhage. All 3 patients had a history of multiple shunt revisions and underwent urgent ETV in the setting of a shunt malfunction. In each case, the entire shunt system was left in situ, but it became the source of subsequent complications. Two of the 3 patients presented with the shunt infected by gram-negative bacilli 10 days and 4.5 months postoperatively, respectively. The remaining patient experienced wound dehiscence over the shunt valve 4.5 months after ETV. In all patients, the complications were managed successfully by removing the shunt hardware. None of the patients required repeat shunt insertion from the time of removal throughout the follow-up period (mean 24 months, range 9-36 months). During the study period, a total of 6 patients with indwelling shunt hardware underwent ETV with the expectation of being shunt independent. Among these 6 patients, 3 experienced no complications from the retained hardware whereas 3 patients (50%) ultimately experienced adverse consequences related to retained hardware. This case series illustrates complications involving retained shunt hardware after successful ETV. These examples support consideration of shunt removal at the time of ETV in the appropriate context.

  3. Efficacy of ozone and other treatment modalities for retained placenta in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel, R; Tkalčić, S

    2013-02-01

    Retained placenta is a worldwide recognized clinical condition in puerperal cows, which can significantly affect their health and fertility. Available treatment modalities are often of questionable efficacy or associated with time constraints, practicality or monetary considerations for their wide application in a routine dairy practice. The objective of this study was to compare and assess the efficacy of different treatment options, including a novel ozone treatment, for the retained placenta. Two hundred cows diagnosed with retained placenta were divided into five treatment groups, each receiving a different treatment option. Group A (n = 40) was given a combination treatment of intrauterine ozone and parenteral cephalexin; group B (n = 40) was given intrauterine ozone; group C (n = 40) was given a combination of parenteral cephalexin and intrauterine antibiotic tablets; group D (n = 40) was given only parenteral cephalexin and group E (n = 40) was given parenteral prostaglandins in 11-day intervals. The control group (group Z, n = 200) included cows that gave birth without assistance and were not diagnosed with a retained placenta. The ozone treatment (groups A and B) was found to be the most effective modality resulting in the shortest period of days open, the smallest number of artificial inseminations until pregnancy, the smallest number of animals diagnosed with fever within 10 days post-calving, the highest percentage of animals pregnant within 200 days after calving and the smallest number of animals culled because of infertility, when compared to the other treatment groups. The intrauterine ozone flush therefore has a potential as an efficacious and cost-effective treatment option for retained placenta, with an overall positive effect on puerperal health and fertility in cows.

  4. Study on gob-side entry retaining technique with roadside packing in longwall top-coal caving technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Xin-zhu(华心祝)

    2004-01-01

    Pointed out some technical difficulties of gob-side entry retaining with roadside packing in longwall top-coal caving technology (LTCT), and analyzed the function mechanism of roadside filling body. Theory analysis shows the mechanical properties of high water material fit for the feature of deformation of gob-side entry retaining in LTCT, and gob-side entry retaining in LTCT face is one of effective ways to increase the recovery ratio of mining district.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Nathalie C; Renaud, David; Tremblay, Robert; Duffield, Todd F

    2014-12-01

    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Meloxicam can be used on the day of calving in lactating cows without increasing the risk of retained fetal membranes.

  6. Effect of different housing retaining materials on the flexural strength of an acrylic resin overdenture base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkir, Serhat Emre; Yilmaz, Burak

    2017-04-03

    An attachment housing inside an overdenture may weaken the acrylic resin base. The type of housing retaining material may affect the strength of the housing retaining material-acrylic resin base assembly. The effect of different housing retaining materials on the strength of acrylic resin base is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different materials used to retain the housing on the flexural strength of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) resin base. Sixty PMMA specimens (64×10×4 mm) were prepared with a clearance inside to allow the insertion of overdenture housings. Five different materials were used for housing orientation: an autopolymerizing composite resin, an acrylic resin reline material, a heat-polymerized PMMA, an autopolymerizing PMMA (n=10), and a control group (n=10) were prepared without any preparation or housing. The specimens were thermocycled 5000 times between 5°C and 55°C. The flexural strength data were analyzed by an analysis of variance using the maximum likelihood estimation method to eliminate the needs for normality within the groups and for equality of variances between the groups. If statistically significant, resolution of the significance factor was obtained by pairwise comparisons using the Tukey adjustment (α=.05). The fracture values were statistically significantly higher (Pmaterial (26.78 ±6.72 MPa), the acrylic resin reline material (16.94 ±4.38 MPa), the Ufigel (16.07 ±3.40 MPa), and the autopolymerizing composite resin (19.37 ±3.13 MPa). Heat- and autopolymerizing PMMA groups were significantly different from acrylic resin-based hard reline materials (Pmaterial except for one of the hard reline groups, which separated from the PMMA. The tested retaining materials significantly reduced the flexural strength of PMMA denture base. The flexural strength of the resin base with housing was significantly higher when PMMA-based retaining materials were used than when acrylic resin

  7. Upper bound seismic rotational stability analysis of gravity retaining walls considering embedment depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 黄达; 杨超; 孙莎

    2015-01-01

    Stability analysis of gravity retaining wall was currently based on the assumption that the wall had no embedment depth. The effect of earth berm was usually neglected. The present work highlighted the importance of embedment depth when assessing the seismic stability of gravity retaining walls with the pattern of pure rotation. In the framework of upper bound theorem of limit analysis, pseudo-static method was applied into two groups of parallel rigid soil slices methods in order to account for the effect of embedment depth on evaluating the critical acceleration of wall-soil system. The present analytical solution is identical to the results obtained from using limit equilibrium method, and the two methods are based on different theory backgrounds. Parameter analysis indicates that the critical acceleration increases slowly when the ratio of the embedment depth to the total height of the wall is from 0 to 0.15 and increases drastically when the ratio exceeds 0.15.

  8. Retaining and assisting nontraditional nursing students in a baccalaureate nursing program utilizing Blackboard & Tegrity technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Earlene B; Reinckens, Tina; Yarborough, Mildred; Robinson, Vaple I

    2006-01-01

    Historically Black College and University (HBCU) implemented new teaching methodologies that incorporate both technology and face-to-face teaching as a means of assisting and retaining the non-traditional student. Teaching strategies were enhanced through a new instructional delivery method, Tegrity. The course, Introduction to Nursing Process I, was transformed to a hybrid on-line course using Blackboard and Tegrity. Its transformation reflected inherent strengths when faculty used a systematic approach and implemented a strong team effort. A team approach including collaboration on lecture content and shared PowerPoint presentations in all sections of the course facilitated consistency in the course content. A conceptual model, which included a systems approach that encourages student involvement, was actualized throughout the project. This article utilizes a descriptive approach and explains what faculty did to retain and assist the 157 newly admitted non-traditional baccalaureate nursing students using two technological methods.

  9. The formation of bronchocutaneous fistulae due to retained epicardial pacing wires: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Patris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporary epicardial pacing wires during open-heart surgery are routinely used both for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In complicated cases where patients are unstable or the wires are difficult to remove, the pacing wires are cut at the skin level and allowed to retract by themselves. This procedure rarely causes complications. However, there have been cases reporting that retained pacing wires are linked to the formation of sterno-bronchial fistulae, which may present a while after the date of operation and are usually infected. This review aims to study the cases presenting sterno-bronchial fistulae due to retained epicardial pacing wires and to highlight the important factors associated with these. It is important to note these complications, as fistulae may cause a variety of problems to the patient if undiagnosed and left untreated. With the aid of scans such as fistulography, fistulae can be identified and treated and will improve the patients' health dramatically.

  10. ACIDIC SOAKING AND STEAM BLANCHING RETAIN ANTHOCYANINS AND POLYPHENOLS IN PURPLE Dioscorea alata FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Nelis Imanningsih; Deddy Muchtadi; Tutik Wresdiyati; Nurheni Sri Palupi2); Komari

    2013-01-01

    Purple Dioscorea alata (DA) tuber has health benefits due to its bioactive anthocyanins, which belong to polyphenolic group. Tuber is commonly made into flour to optimize its uses, however, the anthocyanins undergo significant degradation during processing because of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase activities. This research investigated factors that retain anthocyanins and polyphenols in the purple DA flour as well as its antioxidant capacity. The types of treatments during milling process ...

  11. An implant-supported, screw-retained, provisional fixed partial denture for pontic site enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrani, Ricardo; Phillips, Keith; Kois, John C

    2005-01-01

    Due to remodeling of the edentulous ridge following tooth extraction, clinicians and dental technicians face a variety of challenges when attempting to deliver an aesthetic fixed partial denture for the anterior maxilla. An implant-supported, screw-retained fixed partial denture provisional restoration can be utilized in order to manipulate the pontic site with predictable success. This technique can create the illusion of pontics emerging from the soft tissue, creating a natural-looking effect for seating of the definitive restoration.

  12. Functional characterisation of an intron retaining K+ transporter of barley reveals intron-mediated alternate splicing

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, K.

    2015-01-01

    Intron retention in transcripts and the presence of 5 and 3 splice sites within these introns mediate alternate splicing, which is widely observed in animals and plants. Here, functional characterisation of the K+ transporter, HvHKT2;1, with stably retained introns from barley (Hordeum vulgare) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and transcript profiling in yeast and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is presented. Expression of intron-retaining HvHKT2;1 cDNA (HvHKT2;1-i) in trk1, trk2 yeast strain defective in K+ uptake restored growth in medium containing hygromycin in the presence of different concentrations of K+ and mediated hypersensitivity to Na+. HvHKT2;1-i produces multiple transcripts via alternate splicing of two regular introns and three exons in different compositions. HKT isoforms with retained introns and exon skipping variants were detected in relative expression analysis of (i) HvHKT2;1-i in barley under native conditions, (ii) in transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing HvHKT2;1-i, and (iii) in trk1, trk2 yeast expressing HvHKT2;1-i under control of an inducible promoter. Mixed proportions of three HKT transcripts: HvHKT2;1-e (first exon region), HvHKT2;1-i1 (first intron) and HvHKT2;1-i2 (second intron) were observed. The variation in transcript accumulation in response to changing K+ and Na+ concentrations was observed in both heterologous and plant systems. These findings suggest a link between intron-retaining transcripts and different splice variants to ion homeostasis, and their possible role in salt stress.

  13. LEO P: HOW MANY METALS CAN A VERY LOW MASS, ISOLATED GALAXY RETAIN?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P., E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with an extremely low gas-phase oxygen abundance (3% solar). The isolated nature of Leo P enables a quantitative measurement of metals lost solely due to star formation feedback. We present an inventory of the oxygen atoms in Leo P based on the gas-phase oxygen abundance measurement, the star formation history (SFH), and the chemical enrichment evolution derived from resolved stellar populations. The SFH also provides the total amount of oxygen produced. Overall, Leo P has retained 5% of its oxygen; 25% of the retained oxygen is in the stars while 75% is in the gas phase. This is considerably lower than the 20%–25% calculated for massive galaxies, supporting the trend for less efficient metal retention for lower-mass galaxies. The retention fraction is higher than that calculated for other alpha elements (Mg, Si, Ca) in dSph Milky Way satellites of similar stellar mass and metallicity. Accounting only for the oxygen retained in stars, our results are consistent with those derived for the alpha elements in dSph galaxies. Thus, under the assumption that the dSph galaxies lost the bulk of their gas mass through an environmental process such as tidal stripping, the estimates of retained metal fractions represent underestimates by roughly a factor of four. Because of its isolation, Leo P provides an important datum for the fraction of metals lost as a function of galaxy mass due to star formation.

  14. The dinoflagellates Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum retain functionally overlapping mitochondria from two evolutionarily distinct lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Patrick J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abtract Background The dinoflagellates Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum are distinguished by the presence of a tertiary plastid derived from a diatom endosymbiont. The diatom is fully integrated with the host cell cycle and is so altered in structure as to be difficult to recognize it as a diatom, and yet it retains a number of features normally lost in tertiary and secondary endosymbionts, most notably mitochondria. The dinoflagellate host is also reported to retain mitochondrion-like structures, making these cells unique in retaining two evolutionarily distinct mitochondria. This redundancy raises the question of whether the organelles share any functions in common or have distributed functions between them. Results We show that both host and endosymbiont mitochondrial genomes encode genes for electron transport proteins. We have characterized cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1, cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2, cytochrome oxidase 3 (cox3, cytochrome b (cob, and large subunit of ribosomal RNA (LSUrRNA of endosymbiont mitochondrial ancestry, and cox1 and cob of host mitochondrial ancestry. We show that all genes are transcribed and that those ascribed to the host mitochondrial genome are extensively edited at the RNA level, as expected for a dinoflagellate mitochondrion-encoded gene. We also found evidence for extensive recombination in the host mitochondrial genes and that recombination products are also transcribed, as expected for a dinoflagellate. Conclusion Durinskia baltica and K. foliaceum retain two mitochondria from evolutionarily distinct lineages, and the functions of these organelles are at least partially overlapping, since both express genes for proteins in electron transport.

  15. Fractal gait patterns are retained after entrainment to a fractal stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher K Rhea

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that fractal patterns in gait can be altered by entraining to a fractal stimulus. However, little is understood about how long those patterns are retained or which factors may influence stronger entrainment or retention. In experiment one, participants walked on a treadmill for 45 continuous minutes, which was separated into three phases. The first 15 minutes (pre-synchronization phase consisted of walking without a fractal stimulus, the second 15 minutes consisted of walking while entraining to a fractal visual stimulus (synchronization phase, and the last 15 minutes (post-synchronization phase consisted of walking without the stimulus to determine if the patterns adopted from the stimulus were retained. Fractal gait patterns were strengthened during the synchronization phase and were retained in the post-synchronization phase. In experiment two, similar methods were used to compare a continuous fractal stimulus to a discrete fractal stimulus to determine which stimulus type led to more persistent fractal gait patterns in the synchronization and post-synchronization (i.e., retention phases. Both stimulus types led to equally persistent patterns in the synchronization phase, but only the discrete fractal stimulus led to retention of the patterns. The results add to the growing body of literature showing that fractal gait patterns can be manipulated in a predictable manner. Further, our results add to the literature by showing that the newly adopted gait patterns are retained for up to 15 minutes after entrainment and showed that a discrete visual stimulus is a better method to influence retention.

  16. Endodontic management of a four rooted retained primary maxillary second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Chhabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of accessory roots is rare in the primary dentition. Complete knowledge and understanding of tooth anatomy is essential to carry out high quality dental treatment with excellent outcome. In addition, the persistent primary tooth and its missing permanent successor in the dental arch pose several hurdles in front of the clinician due to doubtful survival of primary tooth. In this paper, highlights the root canal treatment of a rarest four rooted retained primary maxillary second molar.

  17. An Analysis of Retaining or Replacing Air Force Command and Control Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    control aircraft perform, as well as the importance of maintaining the capability. Current command and control aircraft , as well as potential aircraft that...can replace the existing command and control aircraft , were researched to determine the cost and performance specifications. The current and...completed product identifies if the Air Force should retain or replace command and control aircraft . Additional areas for further research were listed

  18. Comparison of Wear Resistance of Hawley and Vacuum Formed Retainers: An in-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkelgosha V

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: As a physical property, wear resistance of the materials used in the fabrication of orthodontic retainers play a significant role in the stability and long term use of the appliances. Objectives: To evaluate the wear resistance of two commonly used materials for orthodontic retainers: Acropars OP, i.e. a polymethyl methacrylate based material, and 3A-GS060, i.e. a polyethylene based material. Materials and Methods: For each material, 30 orthodontic retainers were made according to the manufacturers’ instructions and a 30×30×2 mm block was cut out from the mid- palatal area of each retainer. Each specimen underwent 1000 cycles of wear stimulation in a pin on disc machine. The depth of wear of each specimen was measured using a Nano Wizard II atomic force microscope in 3 random points of each specimen’s wear trough. The average of these three measurements was calculated and considered as mean value wear depth of each specimen (µm. Results: The mean wear depth was 6.10µm and 2.15µm for 3A-GS060 and Acropars OP groups respectively. Independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.001. The results show Polymethyl methacrylate base (Acropars is more wear resistance than the polyethylene based material (3A-GS060. Conclusions: As the higher wear resistance of the fabrication material can improve the retainers’ survival time and its cost-effectiveness, VFRs should be avoided in situations that the appliance needs high wear resistance such as bite blocks opposing occlusal forces.

  19. The short- and long-term fates of memory items retained outside the focus of attention

    OpenAIRE

    LaRocque, Joshua J.; Eichenbaum, Adam S.; Starrett, Michael J.; Rose, Nathan S.; Emrich, Stephen M.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2015-01-01

    When a test of working memory (WM) requires the retention of multiple items, a subset of them can be prioritized. Recent studies have shown that, although prioritized (i.e., attended) items are associated with active neural representations, unprioritized (i.e., unattended) memory items can be retained in WM despite the absence of such active representations, and with no decrement in their recognition if they are cued later in the trial. These findings raise two intriguing questions about the ...

  20. Suction Curettage for Removal of Retained Intrathoracic Blood Clots and Pleural Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Redan, Jay Alan; Palmer, Meade Todd; Tylutki, Francis John

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a thoracoscopic technique for correcting and/or removing an intrathoracic disease process using our existing operating room equipment and without a “small thoracotomy.” Methods and Procedures: Fifty-eight patients from October 1994 to April 1998 were prospectively studied. All were undergoing procedures involving the removal of a suspected benign (or infectious) pleural process or a retained blood clot. Three or four thoracic ports were used in all cases. Straight and cu...

  1. Retaining students in Australian higher education: cultural capital and field distinction

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    In the global phenomenon of widening participation policy in higher education, lower retention rates for students from less advantaged socioeconomic circumstances have potential to undermine its social inclusion agenda. This might be an issue in Europe but is not necessarily the case elsewhere. In this paper we consider statistical data on Australian university students from under-represented groups, retained at similar rates as their more advantaged peers. Our data also include print and onl...

  2. Use of Implant Retained Splint for Vestibuloplasty: Alternative to Conventional Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Narad, Chintan; Pinto, Pascal Xavier; Kotrashetti, Sharadhinu M.

    2010-01-01

    It is generally agreed that firmly attached keratinized mucosa surrounding the implant and abutment is thought to provide additional protection against mechanical trauma. Inflammation of soft tissue can result in peri-implantitis [1] with marginal bone loss or hyperplasia of surrounding mucosa. The purpose of this article is to describe our experience in using the two dental implants placed in the canine region in completely edentulous mandible and implant retained denture as a stent for vest...

  3. Use of implant retained splint for vestibuloplasty: alternative to conventional technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narad, Chintan; Pinto, Pascal Xavier; Kotrashetti, Sharadhinu M

    2010-12-01

    It is generally agreed that firmly attached keratinized mucosa surrounding the implant and abutment is thought to provide additional protection against mechanical trauma. Inflammation of soft tissue can result in peri-implantitis [1] with marginal bone loss or hyperplasia of surrounding mucosa. The purpose of this article is to describe our experience in using the two dental implants placed in the canine region in completely edentulous mandible and implant retained denture as a stent for vestibuloplasty.

  4. A 26-Year-Old Retained Demised Abdominal Pregnancy Presenting with Umbilical Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnadi Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on a 72-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with passage of fetal bones through an umbilical fistula. She was diagnosed as a case of demised abdominal pregnancy, which had been retained for 26 years. She subsequently had exploratory laparotomy, evacuation of the abdominal pregnancy, hysterectomy, and bowel resection. The patient’s condition remained unstable throughout the postoperative period and she died from septicemia on the eleventh day.

  5. TRANSMURAL MIGRATION OF A RETAINED SPONGE THROUGH BOWEL WALL CAUSING INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanief Dar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gossypiboma (GP or retained surgical sponge is one of the rare surgical complications which can happen despite precautions. It is an avoidable surgical complication which can lead to increased patient Morbidity and profound Medicolegal implications. Abdominal textiloma may be asymptomatic or present serious gastrointestinal complications such as bowel obstruction, perforation or fistula formation because of misdiagnosis, it may mimic abscess formation in early stage or soft tissue masses in chronic stage.

  6. Endodontic management of a four rooted retained primary maxillary second molar

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Chhabra

    2013-01-01

    The presence of accessory roots is rare in the primary dentition. Complete knowledge and understanding of tooth anatomy is essential to carry out high quality dental treatment with excellent outcome. In addition, the persistent primary tooth and its missing permanent successor in the dental arch pose several hurdles in front of the clinician due to doubtful survival of primary tooth. In this paper, highlights the root canal treatment of a rarest four rooted retained primary maxillary second m...

  7. Exposure of the mitral valve using flexible self-retaining retractors and an atrial hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Toshihiko; Yasuoka, Takashi; Inoue, Kazushige; Ikuta, Takeshi; Bito, Yasuyuki

    2007-10-01

    We hereby present our technique for using the self-retaining flexible arm retractor and its attachments for mitral valve exposure. The Aortic Valve Assistant, which was developed for aortic valve exposure, is also very useful for exposure of the inferior wall of the left atrium. Our modified atrial hook provides excellent exposure of the anterior mitral annulus. Extensive dissection and the combined use of the flexible arm and attachments allows us comfortable access for mitral valve operations.

  8. Maxillary cement retained implant supported monolithic zirconia prosthesis in a full mouth rehabilitation: a clinical report

    OpenAIRE

    Sadid-Zadeh, Ramtin; Liu, Perng-Ru; Aponte-Wesson, Ruth; O'Neal, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    This clinical report presents the reconstruction of a maxillary arch with a cement retained implant supported fixed prosthesis using a monolithic zirconia generated by CAD/CAM system on eight osseointegrated implants. The prosthesis was copy milled from an interim prosthesis minimizing occlusal adjustments on the definitive prosthesis at the time of delivery. Monolithic zirconia provides high esthetics and reduces the number of metal alloys used in the oral cavity.

  9. Maxillary cement retained implant supported monolithic zirconia prosthesis in a full mouth rehabilitation: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadid-Zadeh, Ramtin; Liu, Perng-Ru; Aponte-Wesson, Ruth; O'Neal, Sandra J

    2013-05-01

    This clinical report presents the reconstruction of a maxillary arch with a cement retained implant supported fixed prosthesis using a monolithic zirconia generated by CAD/CAM system on eight osseointegrated implants. The prosthesis was copy milled from an interim prosthesis minimizing occlusal adjustments on the definitive prosthesis at the time of delivery. Monolithic zirconia provides high esthetics and reduces the number of metal alloys used in the oral cavity.

  10. Review of the Nomenclature of the Retaining Ligaments of the Cheek: Frequently Confused Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeui Seok Seo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of its inception within facial anatomy, wide variability in the terminology as well as the location and extent of retaining ligaments has resulted in confusion over nomenclature. Confusion over nomenclature also arises with regard to the subcutaneous ligamentous attachments, and in the anatomic location and extent described, particularly for zygomatic and masseteric ligaments. Certain historical terms—McGregor’s patch, the platysma auricular ligament, parotid cutaneous ligament, platysma auricular fascia, temporoparotid fasica (Lore’s fascia, anterior platysma-cutaneous ligament, and platysma cutaneous ligament—delineate retaining ligaments of related anatomic structures that have been conceptualized in various ways. Confusion around the masseteric cutaneous ligaments arises from inconsistencies in their reported locations in the literature because the size and location of the parotid gland varies so much, and this affects the relationship between the parotid gland and the fascia of the masseter muscle. For the zygomatic ligaments, there is disagreement over how far they extend, with descriptions varying over whether they extend medially beyond the zygomaticus minor muscle. Even the ‘main’ zygomatic ligament’s denotation may vary depending on which subcutaneous plane is used as a reference for naming it. Recent popularity in procedures using threads or injectables has required not only an accurate understanding of the nomenclature of retaining ligaments, but also of their location and extent. The authors have here summarized each retaining ligament with a survey of the different nomenclature that has been introduced by different authors within the most commonly cited published papers.

  11. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Mayser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m2 depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes.

  12. Retaining nurses in metropolitan areas: insights from senior nurse and human resource managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Vari M; Halter, Mary; Gale, Julia; Harris, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the views of senior nurse and human resource managers of strategies to retain hospital nurses in a metropolitan area. Against a global shortage, retaining nurses is a management imperative for the quality of hospital services. Semi-structured interviews, thematically analysed. Metropolitan areas have many health organisations in geographical proximity, offering nurses choices in employer and employment. Senior nurse and human resource managers recognised the complexity of factors influencing nurse turnover, including those that 'pulled' nurses out of their jobs to other posts and factors that 'pushed' nurses to leave. Four themes emerged in retaining nurses: strategy and leadership, including analysis of workforce and leavers' data, remuneration, the type of nursing work and career development and the immediate work environment. In contexts where multiple organisations compete for nurses, addressing retention through strategic leadership is likely to be important in paying due attention and apportioning resources to effective strategies. Aside from good human resource management practices for all, strategies tailored to different segments of the nursing workforce are likely to be important. This metropolitan study suggests attention should be paid to strategies that address remuneration, progressing nursing careers and the immediate work environment. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Neuroblastoma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts retain metastatic patterns and geno- and phenotypes of patient tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekeveldt, Noémie; Wigerup, Caroline; Gisselsson, David; Mohlin, Sofie; Merselius, My; Beckman, Siv; Jonson, Tord; Börjesson, Anna; Backman, Torbjörn; Tadeo, Irene; Berbegall, Ana P; Ora, Ingrid; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa; Påhlman, Sven; Bexell, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumour with heterogeneous characteristics and children with metastatic disease often have a poor outcome. Here we describe the establishment of neuroblastoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) by orthotopic implantation of viably cryopreserved or fresh tumour explants of patients with high risk neuroblastoma into immunodeficient mice. In vivo tumour growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Neuroblastoma PDXs retained the undifferentiated histology and proliferative capacity of their corresponding patient tumours. The PDXs expressed neuroblastoma markers neural cell adhesion molecule, chromogranin A, synaptophysin and tyrosine hydroxylase. Whole genome genotyping array analyses demonstrated that PDXs retained patient-specific chromosomal aberrations such as MYCN amplification, deletion of 1p and gain of chromosome 17q. Thus, neuroblastoma PDXs recapitulate the hallmarks of high-risk neuroblastoma in patients. PDX-derived cells were cultured in serum-free medium where they formed free-floating neurospheres, expressed neuroblastoma gene markers MYCN, CHGA, TH, SYP and NPY, and retained tumour-initiating and metastatic capacity in vivo. PDXs showed much higher degree of infiltrative growth and distant metastasis as compared to neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)c cell line-derived orthotopic tumours. Importantly, the PDXs presented with bone marrow involvement, a clinical feature of aggressive neuroblastoma. Thus, neuroblastoma PDXs serve as clinically relevant models for studying and targeting high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma.

  14. Influence of EPS Geofoam Buffers on the Static Behavior of Cantilever Earth-Retaining Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür L. Ertuğrul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of expanded polystyrene (EPS buffers on lateral stresses and deflections of model retaining walls with various flexibility values were investigated. For this purpose, 0.7 m high model walls were instrumented and 1-g model tests were performed in laboratory environment. In the first group of tests, the wall models retain only granular cohesionless backfill whereas in the second and third group of tests, EPS deformable buffers of two different thicknesses were installed between the wall and granular backfill. Tests were repeated for four different wall thicknesses and results were discussed comparatively. As wall flexibility increases, there is a decrease in the load reduction pattern of the buffer. On the other hand, utilization of geofoam buffers with flexible cantilever walls still provides substantial decrease in wall thrust and deflections thus leading to more economical retaining structure design. The lateral earth pressure coefficients determined through model tests were compared to those calculated from Coulomb's theory for active lateral earth stresses. A graph is provided for the estimation of lateral earth pressure coefficients for various combinations of wall flexibilities and buffer characteristics.

  15. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON TREATMENT OF STUBBORN HICCUP BY ACUPUNCTURE WITH DIFFERENT NEEDLE RETAINING TIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包飞; 梁中; 王凤琴

    2003-01-01

    Purpose:Observe the effect of different duration of needle-retention on acupuncture treatment of stub-born hiccup. Methods: 85 cases of stubborn hiccup patients are randomly divided into control group (n=40) and treat-rment grcup(n=45) according to their visiting time. For patients of control group, acupuncture needles (in both scalppoints and body acupoints) are retained for 30 min, While for patients of treatment group, the needles inserted in thebody acupoints are retained for 1 hr, and that inserted in scalp-point is retained for more than 6 hrs. The treatment isconducted once daily, continuously for 5 times. Results: The cure rate of treatment group is 88.9% (that for deficiencysyndrome is 85.3%), and that of control group is 65% (that for deficiency syndrome is 53.3% ). There is a significantdifference between two groups in the cure rate (P<0.05). The cure rates for excess syndrome of two groups both are100%. Conclusion: Longer retention of acupuncture needle has a better therapeutic effect for deficiency-syndrome typehiccup.

  16. Clinical success of implant-supported and tooth-implant-supported double crown-retained dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhart, Gunda; Koob, Andreas; Schmitter, Marc; Gabbert, Olaf; Stober, Thomas; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to compare biological and technical complications of implant-supported and tooth-implant-supported double crown-retained dentures (DCRDs) with those of tooth-supported DCRDs. Sixty-three DCRDs were monitored. One study group included 16 prostheses with a combination of implants and natural teeth as double crowns (ti group), whereas in the second study group, 19 dentures were retained exclusively on implants (ii group); a third study group with 28 exclusively tooth-supported dentures served as controls (tt group). Tooth loss, implant failure, and technical complications (loss of retention of primary crown, abutment screw loosening, loss of facing, fracture of resin denture teeth and fracture of saddle resin) were analysed. During the observation period of 24 months, no implants or teeth were lost in the ti group and three technical complications were recorded. In the ii group, two implants were lost, two cases of peri-implantitis occurred and four technical complications were observed. In the tt group, two cases of tooth loss and seven technical complications were observed. At the time of the last examination, all prostheses of the ti group and the ii group were functional. Patients of these two study groups reported high satisfaction with both function and aesthetics with no significant difference between the two groups. Treatment with DCRDs showed comparable results in the three study groups. The 2-year results indicate that double crowns can be recommended for implant and combined tooth-implant-retained dentures.

  17. Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinji Kobori

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (94.1% and polyphenols (84.7%. The antioxidant activity of the decaffeinated cocoa powder (DCP made with this optimized SCCO2 extraction method was 85.3% that of non-processed cocoa powder. The total procyanidin and total polyphenol concentrations of the DCPs resulting from various SCCO2 extractions showed a significant positive correlation with oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. The correlation coefficient between total polyphenols and ORAC was higher than that between total procyanidins and ORAC; thus, the concentration of total polyphenols might be a greater factor in the antioxidant activity of DCP. These results indicate that we could remove large quantities of caffeine from conventional high-cocoa products while retaining the functional benefits of high polyphenol content. This SCCO2 extraction method is expected to be applicable high-cocoa products, such as dark chocolate.

  18. Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, Kinji; Maruta, Yuto; Mineo, Shigeru; Shigematsu, Toru; Hirayama, Masao

    2013-10-14

    Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (94.1%) and polyphenols (84.7%). The antioxidant activity of the decaffeinated cocoa powder (DCP) made with this optimized SCCO₂ extraction method was 85.3% that of non-processed cocoa powder. The total procyanidin and total polyphenol concentrations of the DCPs resulting from various SCCO₂ extractions showed a significant positive correlation with oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The correlation coefficient between total polyphenols and ORAC was higher than that between total procyanidins and ORAC; thus, the concentration of total polyphenols might be a greater factor in the antioxidant activity of DCP. These results indicate that we could remove large quantities of caffeine from conventional high-cocoa products while retaining the functional benefits of high polyphenol content. This SCCO₂ extraction method is expected to be applicable high-cocoa products, such as dark chocolate.

  19. Effect of Multi-Step Tempering on Retained Austenite and Mechanical Properties of Low Alloy Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Reza Bakhsheshi-Rad; Ahmad Monshi; Hossain Monajatizadeh; Mohd Hasbullah Idris; Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir; Hassan Jafari

    2011-01-01

    The effect of multi-step tempering on retained austenite content and mechanical properties of low alloy steel used in the forged cold back-up roll was investigated.Microstructural evolutions were characterized by optical microscope,X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscope and Feritscope,while the mechanical properties were determined by hardness and tensile tests.The results revealed that the content of retained austenite decreased by about 2% after multi-step tempering.However,the content of retained austenite increased from 3.6% to 5.1% by increasing multi-step tempering temperature.The hardness and tensile strength increased as the austenitization temperature changed from 800 to 920 ℃,while above 920 ℃,hardness and tensile strength decreased.In addition,the maximum values of hardness,ultimate and yield strength were obtained via triple tempering at 520 ℃,while beyond 520 ℃,the hardness,ultimate and yield strength decreased sharply.

  20. Leo P: How Many Metals can a Very Low-Mass, Isolated Galaxy Retain?

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dolphin, Andrew; Cannon, John M; Salzer, John J; Rhode, Katherine L; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Berg, Danielle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2015-01-01

    Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with an extremely low gas-phase oxygen abundance (3% solar). The isolated nature of Leo P enables a quantitative measurement of metals lost solely due to star formation feedback. We present an inventory of the oxygen atoms in Leo P based on the gas-phase oxygen abundance measurement, the star formation history, and the chemical enrichment evolution derived from resolved stellar populations. The star formation history also provides the total amount of oxygen produced. Overall, Leo P has retained 5 % of its oxygen; 25% of the retained oxygen is in the stars while 75% is in the gas phase. This is considerably lower than the 20-25% calculated for massive galaxies, supporting the trend for less efficient metal retention for lower mass galaxies. The retention fraction is higher than that calculated for other alpha elements (Mg, Si, Ca) in dSph Milky Way satellites of similar stellar mass and metallicity. Accounting only for the oxygen retained in stars, our results are consistent wi...

  1. Antibacterial activity and retained protein of earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus as feed additive combined with chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sofyan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to enhance the bacterial growth inhibition of E. coli by using earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus meal (TCT which was added with chitosan and its effect on the retained protein in broilers. Inhibition of E. coli growth was tested using dilution method on the nutrient broth by additional 2% TCT combined with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% chitosan. Retained protein was measured using broiler fed diet containing 2% TCT (w/w and added by chitosan 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.50% of TCT (w/w. The numbers of 15 broilers Cobb strain 35 days old were arranged on Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Results showed inhibition of E. coli was increased using TCT mixed chitosan. The highest inhibition to E. coli growth obtained from TCT + 0.5% chitosan. Retained protein tended to increase up to 1% (w/w chitosan. Otherwise, chitosan level more than 1% could reduce protein retention. It is concluded that use of 1% chitosan increased TCT capability to inhibit E. coli and protein retention in the broilers.

  2. Effect of microstructure on the stability of retained austenite in transformation-induced-plasticity steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhina, I. B.; Hodgson, P. D.; Pereloma, E. V.

    2004-08-01

    Two Fe-0.2C-1.55Mn-1.5Si (in wt pct) steels, with and without the addition of 0.039Nb (in wt pct), were studied using laboratory rolling-mill simulations of controlled thermomechanical processing. The microstructures of all samples were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructural behavior of phases under applied strain was studied using a heat-tinting technique. Despite the similarity in the microstructures of the two steels (equal amounts of polygonal ferrite, carbide-free bainite, and retained austenite), the mechanical properties were different. The mechanical properties of these transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steels depended not only on the individual behavior of all these phases, but also on the interaction between the phases during deformation. The polygonal ferrite and bainite of the C-Mn-Si steel contributed to the elongation more than these phases in the C-Mn-Si-Nb-steel. The stability of retained austenite depends on its location within the microstructure, the morphology of the bainite, and its interaction with other phases during straining. Granular bainite was the bainite morphology that provided the optimum stability of the retained austenite.

  3. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic studies establish that heparanase is a retaining glycosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jennifer C., E-mail: jennifer.wilson@griffith.edu.au [Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, QLD 4222 (Australia); Laloo, Andrew Elohim [School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Singh, Sanjesh [Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, QLD 4222 (Australia); Ferro, Vito, E-mail: v.ferro@uq.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •{sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR chemical shifts of fondaparinux were fully assigned by 1D and 2D NMR techniques. •Hydrolysis of fondaparinux by heparanase was monitored by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. •Heparanase is established to be a retaining glycosidase. -- Abstract: Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains of proteoglycans in basement membranes and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Heparanase is implicated in several diverse pathological processes associated with ECM degradation such as metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis and is thus an important target for anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drug discovery. Heparanase has been classed as belonging to the clan A glycoside hydrolase family 79 based on sequence analysis, secondary structure predictions and mutagenic analysis, and thus it has been inferred that it is a retaining glycosidase. However, there has been no direct experimental evidence to support this conclusion. Herein we describe {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic studies of the hydrolysis of the pentasaccharide substrate fondaparinux by heparanase, and provide conclusive evidence that heparanase hydrolyses its substrate with retention of configuration and is thus established as a retaining glycosidase. Knowledge of the mechanism of hydrolysis may have implications for future design of inhibitors for this important drug target.

  4. Treatment of retained placenta with misoprostol: A randomised controlled trial in a low-resource setting (Tanzania)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. van Beekhuizen (Heleen); A.B. Pembe (Andrea); H. Fauteck (Heiner); F.K. Lotgering (Fred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Retained placenta is one of the common causes of maternal mortality in developing countries where access to appropriate obstetrical care is limited. Current treatment of retained placenta is manual removal of the placenta under anaesthesia, which can only take place in larger

  5. Treatment of retained placenta with misoprostol: a randomised controlled trial in a low-resource setting (Tanzania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, H.J. van; Pembe, A.B.; Fauteck, H.; Lotgering, F.K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Retained placenta is one of the common causes of maternal mortality in developing countries where access to appropriate obstetrical care is limited. Current treatment of retained placenta is manual removal of the placenta under anaesthesia, which can only take place in larger health care

  6. Effect of tightening torque on the marginal adaptation of cement-retained implant-supported fixed dental prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghanbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the marginal misfit of cement-retained FDPs increased continuously when the tightening torque increased. After cutting the connectors, the marginal misfit of the ANRs was higher than those of the straight abutment retainers.

  7. Tensile test and interface retention forces between wires and composites in lingual fixed retainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolone, Maria Giacinta; Kaitsas, Roberto; Obach, Patricia; Kaitsas, Vasilios; Benedicenti, Stefano; Sorrenti, Eugenio; Barberi, Fabrizio

    2015-06-01

    In daily orthodontic clinical practice retention is very important, and lingual retainers are part of this challenge. The failure of lingual retainers may be due to many factors. The aim of this study was to assess the retention forces and mechanical behavior of different types of wires matched with different kinds of composites in lingual retainers. A tensile test was performed on cylindrical composite test specimens bonded to orthodontic wires. The specimens were constructed using four different wires: a straight wire (Remanium .016×.022″ Dentaurum), two round twisted wires (Penta One .0215″ Masel, Gold Penta Twisted .0215″ Gold N'braces) and a rectangular braided wire (D-Rect .016×.022″ Ormco); and three composites: two micro-hybrids (Micro-Hybrid Enamel Plus HFO Micerium, and Micro-Hybrid SDR U Dentsply) and a micro-nano-filled composite (Micro-Nano-Filled Transbond LR 3M). The test was performed at a speed of 10mm/min on an Inström device. The wire was fixed with a clamp. The results showed that the bonding between wires and composites in lingual fixed retainers seemed to be lowest for rectangular smooth wires and increased in round twisted and rectangular twisted wires where the bonding was so strong that the maximum tension/bond strength was greater than the ultimate tensile strength of the wire. The highest values were in rectangular twisted wires. Concerning the composites, hybrid composites had the lowest interface bonding values and broke very quickly, while the nano- and micro-composites tolerated stronger forces and displayed higher bonding values. The best results were observed with the golden twisted wire and reached 21.46 MPa with the Transbond composite. With the rectangular braided wire the retention forces were so high that the Enamel Plus composite fractured when the load exceeded 154.6 N/MPa. When the same wire was combined with the Transbond LR either the wire or the composite broke when the force exceeded 240 N. The results of this

  8. Relations of abrasion resistance and hardness of 16Cr-3C white irons with retained austenite content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiping Sun; Rulin Zuo; Cong Li; Baoluo Shen; Shengji Gao; Sijiu Huang

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the retained austenite content of the matrix in 16Cr-3C white irons and the abrasion resistance was investigated. The results show that: (1) the abrasion resistance can be improved by sub-critical heat treatment, which could be attributed to the decrease of the retained austenite content; (2) both the abrasion resistance and hardness can be improved by controlling the retained austenite content below 20%-30% and arrive at the maximum when the retained austenite content is reduced to about 10%; (3) the abrasion resistance decreases abruptly once the retained austenite content is lower than 10%, which stems from both the in situ transformation of (Fe, Cr)23C6 to M3C carbides and the formation of pearlitic matrix.

  9. Where Radiobiology Began in Russia: A Physician’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    that no one was feed anything less than sour cream 4 and eggs ; it was clean as a whistle there, they said, always warm, where the work was...solution. All the processes for extracting these salts from other radiators posed a hazard of personnel. In her book, Angelina Konstantinovna Guskova...various rumors of the water’s harmfulness to the public. Residents noticed behavioral changes in wild ducks , which became so weak they could no longer fly

  10. How it all began: a personal history of gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithies, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Arne Tiselius' moving boundary electrophoresis method was still in general use in 1951 when this personal history begins, although zonal electrophoresis with a variety of supporting media (e.g., filter paper or starch grains) was beginning to replace it. This chapter is an account of 10 years of experiments carried out by the author during which molecular sieving gel electrophoresis was developed and common genetic variants of two proteins, haptoglobin and transferrin, were discovered in normal individuals. Most of the figures are images of pages from the author's laboratory notebooks, which are still available, so that some of the excitement of the time and the humorous moments are perhaps apparent. Alkaline gels, acidic gels with and without denaturants, vertical gels, two-dimensional gels, and gels with differences in starch concentration are presented. The subtle details that can be discerned in these various gels played an indispensable role in determining the nature of the change in the haptoglobin gene (Hp) that leads to the polymeric series characteristic of Hp ( 2 ) /Hp ( 2 ) homozygotes. Where possible, the names of scientific friends who made this saga of gel electrophoresis so memorable and enjoyable are gratefully included.

  11. The progene hypothesis: the nucleoprotein world and how life began.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altstein, Anatoly D

    2015-11-26

    In this article, I review the results of studies on the origin of life distinct from the popular RNA world hypothesis. The alternate scenario postulates the origin of the first bimolecular genetic system (a polynucleotide gene and a polypeptide processive polymerase) with simultaneous replication and translation and includes the following key features: 1. The bimolecular genetic system emerges not from mononucleotides and monoamino acids, but from progenes, namely, trinucleotides aminoacylated on 3'-end by a non-random amino acid (NpNpNp ~ pX ~ Aa, where N--deoxyribo- or ribonucleoside, p--phosphate, X--a bifunctional agent, for example ribose, Aa--amino acid, ~ macroerge bond). Progenes are used as substrates for simultaneous synthesis of a polynucleotide and a polypeptide. Growth of the system is controlled by the growing polypeptide, and the bimolecular genetic system emerges as an extremely rare event. The first living being (virus-like organism protoviroid, Protoviroidum primum) arises and reproduces in prebiotic liposome-like structures using progenes. A population of protoviroids possessing the genetic system evolves in accordance with the Darwinian principle. Early evolution from protoviroid world to protocell world is shortly described. 2. The progene forming mechanism (NpNp + Np ~ pX ~ Aa) makes it possible to explain the emergence of the prebiotic physicochemical group genetic code, as well as the selection of organic compounds for the future genetic system from the racemic environment. 3. The protoviroid is reproduced on a progene basis via replicative transcription-translation (RTT, the first molecular genetic process) that is similar to its modern counterparts. Nothing is required for the emergence and reproduction of the protoviroid except for progenes and conditions for their formation. 4. The general scheme of early evolution is as follows: prebiotic world → protoviroid (nucleoprotein) world → protocell (DNA-RNA-protein) world → LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor) → modern cell world. This scheme exclude the existence of an independent RNA world as predecessor of the cellular world.

  12. MODERN CLINICAL SCIENCE BEGAN WITH SANTORIO SANTORIO (1561-1636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale G. De Santo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Santorio Santorio (1561-1636, born in Capodistria, a Venice Republic territory, (now Koper in Slovenia, student, medical doctor, and professor of theoretical medicine at the university of Padua, marked the beginning of modern medicine. Santorio introduced measurements and mathematics into human experimentation. By means of a weighing machine, over a 30-year period, he investigated on more than ten thousand persons, including Galileo Galilei. He used to measure daily body weight, along with the quantity of ingested food and drink, and the quantity of body discharges (urine and feces so that he could calculate the insensible perspiration which he used as a dual token to characterize health and disease, to cure patients after knowing their physical parameters including the pulse and the temperature. His main work was De statica medicina, a well received book which had more than 40 editions during the 17th and 18th century and was translated into English, Italian, French and German. A book small but praised by Boerhaave, von Haller and Lavoisier which granted to Santorio the definition of Galilean, by many historians of medicine including Salvatore De Renzi, Castiglioni, Pucinotti and Pazzini. Santorio embodied the modern physician-scientist, continually experimenting on humans and immediately transforming into medical devices using the data originating in basic science. So the findings repported in the books were immediately used to help patients. He also introduced self-experimentation in medicine, an important problem even nowadays. Although he was aware that the university took credit for his work, he respected the institution from which he obtained a salary for life even when he stopped the teaching at the University. So he even showed his modernity: pioneer in granting to the University of Padua, through his last will, money for yearly scholarships.

  13. Origins how the planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe began

    CERN Document Server

    Eales, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This book looks at answers to the biggest questions in astronomy – the questions of how the planets, stars, galaxies and the universe were formed. Over the last decade, a revolution in observational astronomy has produced possible answers to three of these questions. This book describes this revolution. The one question for which we still do not have an answer is the question of the origin of the universe. In the final chapter, the author looks at the connection between science and philosophy and shows how new scientific results have laid the groundwork for the first serious scientific studies of the origin of the universe.

  14. In vivo phenotypic characterisation of nucleoside label-retaining cells in mouse periosteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HM Cherry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Periosteum is known to contain cells that, after isolation and culture-expansion, display properties of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs. However, the equivalent cells have not been identified in situ mainly due to the lack of specific markers. Postnatally, stem cells are slow-cycling, long-term nucleoside-label-retaining cells. This study aimed to identify and characterise label-retaining cells in mouse periosteum in vivo. Mice received iodo-deoxy-uridine (IdU via the drinking water for 30 days, followed by a 40-day washout period. IdU+ cells were identified by immunostaining in conjunction with MSC and lineage markers. IdU-labelled cells were detected throughout the periosteum with no apparent focal concentration, and were negative for the endothelial marker von Willebrand factor and the pan-haematopoietic marker CD45. Subsets of IdU+ cells were positive for the mesenchymal/stromal markers vimentin and cadherin-11. IdU+ cells expressed stem cell antigen-1, CD44, CD73, CD105, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α and p75, thereby displaying an MSC-like phonotype. Co-localisation was not detectable between IdU and the pericyte markers CD146, alpha smooth muscle actin or NG2, nor did IdU co-localise with β-galactosidase in a transgenic mouse expressing this reporter gene in pericytes and smooth muscle cells. Subsets of IdU+ cells expressed the osteoblast-lineage markers Runx2 and osteocalcin. The IdU+ cells expressing osteocalcin were lining the bone and were negative for the MSC marker p75. In conclusion, mouse periosteum contains nucleoside-label-retaining cells with a phenotype compatible with MSCs that are distinct from pericytes and osteoblasts. Future studies characterising the MSC niche in vivo could reveal novel therapeutic targets for promoting bone regeneration/repair.

  15. Soft Roof Failure Mechanism and Supporting Method for Gob-Side Entry Retaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the soft roof failure mechanism and the supporting method for a gateway in a gently inclined coal seam with a dip angle of 16° kept for gob-side entry retaining, and through the methodology of field investigation and numerical and analytical modeling, this paper analyzed the stress evolution law of roof strata at the working face end and determined that the sharp horizontal stress unloading phenomenon along the coal wall side did not appear after the working face advanced. Conversely, the horizontal stress along the gob side instantly decreased and the tensile stress produced, and the vertical stress in the central part of the roof had a higher reduction magnitude as well. An in-depth study indicates that the soft roof of the working face end subsided and seriously separated due to the effect of the front abutment pressure and the roof hanging length above the gob line, as well as certain other factors, including the rapid unloading of the lateral stress, tension and shear on the lower roof rock layer and dynamic disturbance. Those influencing factors also led to rapid crack propagation on a large scale and serious fracturing in the soft roof of the working face end. However, in the gob stress stabilized zone, the soft roof in the gob-side entry retaining has a shearing failure along the filling wall inside affected by the overburden pressure, rock bulking pressure, and roof gravity. To maintain the roof integrity, decrease the roof deformation, and enable the control of the working face end soft roof and the stabilization of the gob-side entry retaining roof, this study suggests that the preferred bolt installation angle for the soft roof situation is 70° based on the rock bolt extrusion strengthening theory.

  16. Two systems of desinclusion of retained teeth: system means crossbow and mouse trap system

    OpenAIRE

    Soldevilla Galarza, Luciano; Departamento Académico de Estomatología Pediátrica,Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Alarcón Olivera, Rolando; Rodríguez Varas, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    The presence of retained teeth is very common in children, excluding third molars, they are the most frequently. Most of these teeth are exposed surgically following its orthodontic direction within the dental arches. In orthodontic treatrnent we have the system "Ballista Spring" and the "Mouse Trap" that will allow us the solve limitations of another systems. La presencia de un diente retenido es muy común en niños, excluyendo las terceras molares son los más frecuentemente impactados. Co...

  17. Retained nuclear fragment found during Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifflin, Mark D; Neuffer, Marcus C; Mamalis, Nick

    2011-03-01

    An 82-year-old man with a 2- to 3-month history of progressive visual loss due to corneal edema was referred to our center. The ocular history was significant for uneventful cataract surgery approximately 3 years earlier. Pseudophakic bullous keratopathy was diagnosed and Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) performed. During surgery, a retained nuclear fragment was discovered in the anterior chamber. The fragment was removed and the DSAEK completed successfully. At the 4-month follow-up, the symptoms had completely resolved and the uncorrected distance visual acuity in the affected eye was 20/40. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A case of a retained intralenticular foreign body for two years

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Mete; YILMAZ, Turgut; Yiǧit, Mehmet; Ülkü, Gülşen; Arslan, Sermal

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a missed metallic intraocular foreign body retained in the lens over a two-year period without causing inflammatory reaction, which presented with cataract later. A 24-year-old man presented with a progressive blurring of vision in the left eye for two years. He had had a history of metal-on-metal activity two years before. He had pain for one day in left eye and it was healed by the following day. Biomicroscopic examination revealed cataract, an intralenticular foreign bo...

  19. [Experience with surgical-orthodontic management of impacted and retained upper canines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herényi, G

    1990-07-01

    On basis of experiences obtained in the course of the surgical orthodontic treatment of 26 upper impacted and retained, respectively, incisors it has been established that, at given conditions, positioning the incisor into occlusion should be tried, even if the axis position approaches 90 degrees. The lesion is discovered relatively lately, many do not risk the treatment and the number of interrupted treatments is high as well. There is possibility to avoid possible complications, interruption of joining to force system, loss of anchorage, pulpa necrosis, root resorption, cysta follicularis.

  20. Ever deeper phylogeographies: trees retain the genetic imprint of Tertiary plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampe, Arndt; Petit, Rémy J

    2007-12-01

    Changes in species distributions after the last glacial maximum (c. 18 000 years bp) are beginning to be understood, but information diminishes quickly as one moves further back in time. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Magri et al. (2007) present the fascinating case of a Mediterranean tree species whose populations preserve the genetic imprints of plate tectonic events that took place between 25 million years and 15 million years ago. The study provides a unique insight into the pace of evolution of trees, which, despite interspecific gene flow, can retain a cohesive species identity over timescales long enough to allow the diversification of entire plant and animal genera.

  1. Implant retained overdentures for two patients with severe lichen planus: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Salvatore J; Camisa, Charles; Morgan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Lichen planus is a common inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that often manifests itself intraorally. Oral lichen planus can appear in many forms; the most significant form for the edentulous patient is the erosive variety. For the patient, wearing a complete denture is quite dramatic because of the friability of the tissue. Implant-supported overdentures are a predictable treatment for edentulous patients, but this has been discouraged for the patient with erosive lichen planus. This article describes 2 patients with oral erosive lichen planus who were successfully treated with implant-retained mandibular overdentures.

  2. Replacement of hopeless retained primary teeth by immediate dental implants: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rafael R; Macedo, Guilherme O; Muglia, Valdir A; Souza, Sérgio L S; Novaes, Arthur B; Taba, Mário

    2009-01-01

    Hopeless retained primary teeth without permanent successors represent a restorative challenge for clinicians, along with esthetic and functional problems for patients. While various treatment approaches for congenitally missing teeth have been proposed, the replacement of a missing tooth with a dental implant offers specific advantages, such as preservation of the alveolar crest and elimination of the need to restore the adjacent teeth, over other options for tooth replacement. The aim of this article was to illustrate the surgical and prosthetic treatment with implants of a patient with primary teeth without permanent successors.

  3. Flexible Retaining Barriers for Prevention of Avalanches on National Highway NH-1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Chaudhary

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available "An avalanche hazard Call be reduced by active and passive methods. In an active method, which is a very effective, avalanche control structures are used to mitigate the avalanche danger. These structures can be installed in any of the three zones of an avalanche, viz., formation zone, middle zone and run-out zone. In the formation zone, avalanche can be controlled by supporting structures/retaining barriers, which are installed in the formation zone with a view to prevent formation of an avalanche. Their placement in the formation zone with proper arrangement and layout helps in preventing fracture in the snow mass. The basic concept lies in converting the shear and tensile stresses in snow into compressive stresses which can be conveniently sustained by the snowcover. Such supporting structures/retaining barriers can be categorised into rigid and flexible types of structures. Snow rakes and snow bridges are categorised as rigid structures, whereas wire rope nets are categorised as flexible structures. The Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment, Chandigarh, had developed snow nets in 1988-89, which were installed at D-10 avalanche site on north portal of Jawahar tunnel, Jammu-Srinagar Highway (NH-1A. These nets were designed considering the snow forces acting in the direction parallel to the slope only. Hence, the movement of the swivel post was restricted in one direction only. However, detailed scientific studies carried out for retaining barriers over the last seven year's have revealed that two types of failures occur in these nets. First, a major failure was noticed in hinge joint of swivel post, and second, a failure was noticed in the foundation of the uphill anchor. To overcome these failures, the swivel post joint has been redesigned as articulated ball and socket joint to cater for omni directional movement to the swivel post, and the uphill anchor foundation has been strengthened by providing the reinforcement. This paper deals with

  4. Work Hardening Behavior and Stability of Retained Austenite for Quenched and Partitioned Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun-yu WANG; Ying CHANG; Jie YANG; Wen-quan CAO; Han DONG; Yi-de WANG

    2016-01-01

    Both microstructure and mechanical properties of low alloy steels treated by quenching and partitioning (Q&P)process were examined.The mixed microstructure of martensite and large-fractioned retained austenite (about 27�3%)was characterized and analyzed,excellent combinations of total elongation of 1 9% and tensile strength of 1 835 MPa were obtained,and three-stage work hardening behavior was demonstrated during tensile test.The en-hanced mechanical properties and work hardening behavior were explained based on the transformation-induced plas-ticity effect of large-fractioned austenite.

  5. Doping of carbon nanotubes with nitrogen improves protein coverage whilst retaining correct conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Hilary J.; Antoranz Contera, Sonia; de Planque, Maurits R. R.; Grobert, Nicole; Ryan, J. F.

    2008-09-01

    Relevant parameters for non-covalent protein functionalization of carbon nanotubes are explored. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes are carboxylated and functionalized with metalloproteins. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) we quantitatively determine that coverage with nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes is superior compared to coverage with un-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes, due to enhanced carboxylation. Conformational analysis using a combination of AFM, antibody binding assays, circular dichroism and UV-visible spectroscopy demonstrates that the metalloproteins retain their native structure when adsorbed to nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes irrespective of their size, charge or folding motif.

  6. Metal-reinforced single implant mandibular overdenture retained by an attachment: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grageda, Edgar; Rieck, Bastian

    2014-01-01

    Results of studies have shown that a single implant mandibular overdenture significantly increases the satisfaction and quality of life of patients with edentulism. The single implant-retained overdenture has the additional advantage of being less expensive and invasive than a 2-implant supported overdenture but has a high incidence of fracture of the acrylic resin base at the point of the implant. The treatment, design, and fabrication of a metal-reinforced single-implant mandibular overdenture with the Locator attachment as a retention device is described.

  7. C-terminal KDEL-modified cystatin C is retained in transfected CHO cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Teit Eliot; Vogel, Charlotte Katrine; Schwartz, Thue W.

    1990-01-01

    The significance of a C-terminal tetrapeptide, Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL), as a retention signal for the endoplasmatic reticulum was studied using cystatin C, a general thiol protease inhibitor, as the reporter protein. Clones of CHO cells were analyzed after stable transfection with eukaryotic...... expression vectors encoding either cystatin C, KDEL extended cystatin C, or cystatin C extended with a control sequence. It is concluded that cystatin C with the KDEL tetrapeptide as a C-terminal extension is retained intracellularly without apparent accumulation of the molecule....

  8. Bonded orthodontic retainer (Literature review)%粘接型保持器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华先明; 程祥荣

    2003-01-01

    @@ 牙弓总是向治疗前的形状复发[1],因此,临床正畸医生面临的极大挑战是错(牙合)畸形矫治后的保持[2].粘接型保持器(bonded orthodontic retainer,BOR)是一种美观、高效的长期保持器[3-5],以其不依赖于患者的配合来稳定治疗效果而深受患者的喜爱[6,7].

  9. Language learning apps or games: an investigation utilizing the RETAIN model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda A. Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Combining games with mobile devices can promote learning opportunities at the learners' fingertips and enable ubiquitous learning experiences. As teachers increasingly assign games to reinforce language learning, it becomes essential to evaluate how effective these applications are in helping students learn the content or develop the skills that the games are reinforcing. This article examines two English language learning apps under the RETAIN model (GUNTER; KENNY; VICK, 2008. The findings indicate that although these apps offer some language learning opportunities, they do not present scenario-based quality or gameplay, among other elements, if they are to be considered games.

  10. Sonographic appearance of a retained surgical sponge after thyroidectomy: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Belet, Umit; Aydin, Ramazan; Akan, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Although a number of cases of retained surgical sponge (RSS) after thoracic and abdominal surgery have been reported in the literature, the occurrence of RSS after thyroidectomy is very rare. We report the imaging findings of three cases of RSS after thyroidectomy. Sonography of the three patients revealed a hyperechoic mass with marked acoustic shadow. Computed tomography showed a well-defined, circumscribed heterogeneous mass that had gas bubbles inside in two patients, whereas the mass in the third patient was hyperdense and homogenous with smooth margins. All three RSSs were surgically removed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  11. Local benefits of retaining natural vegetation for soil retention and hydrological services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Farrell, PJ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com South African Journal of Botany x SAJB-00428; No of Pages 11....V. on behalf of SAAB. Keywords: Ecosystem services; Rainfall simulation; Renosterveld fragments; Transformation; Wind erosion PROOAbstract Local benefits of retaining natura hydrologica P.J. O'Farrell a,�, J.S. Donaldso a Plant Conservation Unit, Botany...

  12. Semiconducting graphene nanoribbon retains band gap on amorphous or crystalline SiO_2

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M. Zubaer

    2011-01-01

    Electronic properties of a semiconducting armchair graphene nanoribbon on SiO_2 are examined using first-principles calculations and taking into account the van der Waals interaction. Unlike semiconducting carbon nanotubes, which exhibit variations in band gap on SiO_2, the nanoribbon is found to retain its band gap on SiO_2, regardless of the separation distance or the dielectric’s surface type—crystalline or amorphous. The interfacial interaction leads to electron-transfer from the nanor...

  13. Monitoring, Back analysis and Redesign of a Deep excavation Retaining system in marl formation. Case history, Modelling and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saydi Chantal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a case study of retaining system of a deep excavation in a marly material in Beirut. The retaining system was redesigned using a new set of mechanical parameter considered more realistic than the set issued from the site investigation study. The new values were issued from back analysis of displacements measurement performed in the same site. The horizontally deflection of the retaining system was measured using three vertical inclinometers. The experimentation results are simulated by numerical calculation using finite elements code.

  14. Control of floor heaves with steel pile in gob-side entry retaining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ying; Chen Jin; Bai Jianbiao

    2016-01-01

    A new approach named as steel pile method is innovatively proposed in this study to control severe floor heaves in gob-side entry retaining. It is required that the steel piles be installed in the floor corners with a certain interval before the influence of the dynamic pressure induced by current panel extraction. Using numerical simulation and theoretical analysis, this study investigated the interaction between the steel piles and the floor rocks during the service life of the steel piles, and revealed the mechanism of the steel piles in controlling floor heaves. The effect of the steel pile parameters on the control of floor heaves was presented and elaborated. It is found that the effectiveness of the steel piles in controlling floor heaves can be enhanced with greater installed dip angle, longer length and smaller interval of the steel piles. Compared with traditional methods, e.g., using floor anchor bolts and floor restoration, the advantages using steel pile were successfully defined in terms of controlling effect and economic benefits. It is hoped that the proposed method can contribute to the development of gob-side entry retaining technique.

  15. Attracting and Retaining Undergraduate Students in the Geosciences: A Multipronged Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantale Damas, M.

    2017-04-01

    The geosciences are taught at relatively few colleges and universities in the United States. Furthermore, fewer students are selecting the geosciences as careers and where the loss of retired scientists is significant. Thus, new approaches and strategies are needed to attract and retain students in the geosciences. The aim of this project is to both increase the diversity and visibility of the geosciences at the undergraduate level. Using both an interdisciplinary and inter-institutional approach, the Queensborough Community College (QCC) of the City University of New York (CUNY) has been very successful at engaging students in educational activities and applied research in solar, geospace, and atmospheric physics, under the umbrella discipline of space weather. As an interdisciplinary field, space weather offers students a great opportunity to study the Sun-Earth connection. Additionally, students also receive support through several partner institutions including the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), four-year colleges and universities, and other summer research programs. With its institutional partners, QCC has implemented a year-long program with two components: 1) during the academic year, students are enrolled in a course-based introductory research (CURE) where they conduct research on real-world problems; and 2) during the summer, students are placed in research internships at partner institutions. This poster will describe these approaches, as well as present best strategies that are used to attract and retain students in the geosciences.

  16. Nanomechanical properties of bone around cement-retained abutment implants. A minipig study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R.M. de Barros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim The nanomechanical evaluation can provide additional information about the dental implants osseointegration process. The aim of this study was to quantify elastic modulus and hardness of bone around cemented-retained abutment implants positioned at two different crestal bone levels. Materials and methods The mandibular premolars of 7 minipigs were extracted. After 8 weeks, 8 implants were inserted in each animal: crestally on one side of the mandible and subcrestally on the other (crestal and subcrestal groups. Functional loading were immediately provided with abutments cementation and prostheses installation. Eight weeks later, the animals euthanasia was performed and nanoindentation analyses were made at the most coronal newly formed bone region (coronal group, and below in the threaded region (threaded group of histologic sections. Results The comparisons between subcrestal and crestal groups did not achieve statistical relevance; however the elastic modulus and hardness levels were statistically different in the two regions of evaluation (coronal and threaded. Conclusions The crestal and subcrestal placement of cement-retained abutment implants did not affect differently the nanomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. However the different regions of newly formed bone (coronal and threaded groups were extremely different in both elastic modulus and hardness, probably reflecting their differences in bone composition and structure.

  17. A case of a retained intralenticular foreign body for two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Guler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mete Güler1, Turgut Yilmaz2, Mehmet Yigit2, Gülsen Ülkü2, Sermal Arslan21Department of Ophthalmology, Elazig Harput State Hospital, Turkey; 2Departmant of Ophthalmology, Elazig Education and Research HospitalAbstract: We report a case of a missed metallic intraocular foreign body retained in the lens over a two-year period without causing inflammatory reaction, which presented with cataract later. A 24-year-old man presented with a progressive blurring of vision in the left eye for two years. He had had a history of metal-on-metal activity two years before. He had pain for one day in left eye and it was healed by the following day. Biomicroscopic examination revealed cataract, an intralenticular foreign body, and a corneal scar at seven o’clock meridian of the cornea in the left eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in the left eye. Intralenticular foreign body removal, phacoemulsification, and an intraocular lens implantation was performed under local anesthesia. The intralenticular foreign body was metallic and its size was about 2 × 2 mm. Two weeks after the operation best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in left eye. A retained foreign body should be considered in each patient with a history of penetrating ocular trauma and all efforts must be made to exclude presumptive diagnosis of intraocular foreign body.Keywords: cataract, intralenticular foreign body, penetrating intraocular injury

  18. Implications of the atmosphere-soil interaction for the design of earth retaining structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruge Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of most geotechnical structures is highly governed by environmental factors, particularly in tropical regions where there are very pronounced dry and wet seasons. Design of earth retaining structures generally tend to be too conservative due to the uncertainty generated by the incorporation of environmental variables. Those variables control the soil unsaturated response and in addition to the known insufficiency of the basic models used in traditional designs they are responsible for conservative designs. Rainfall is the main aspect that affects the soil properties of a particular site. It modifies the soil suction potential, according to the degree of saturation caused by the soil-atmosphere interaction. Currently, state-of-the-art numerical tools allow to simulate the influence of those variables in the behaviour of earth retaining structures. This paper analyses the possible implications of the use of numerical simulations for the design, which include, in the mathematical formulation, the suction as a main parameter. The hypoplastic model for unsaturated response was used. Numerical simulations performed with the use of traditional and modern constitutive models obtained encouraging results that reveal the importance of include suction in design processes.

  19. An approach to maintain orthodontic alignment of lower incisors without the use of retainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, Tore Odd; Espeland, Lisen

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the long-term stability of orthodontic alignment of lower incisors without the use of retainers. The study sample comprised 56 patients treated according to a protocol that included over-correction of rotated teeth at an early stage of treatment and systematic enamel reduction (stripping) of the approximal surfaces in the mandibular anterior region, both during treatment and follow-up. Care was also taken to maintain dental arch form and to avoid lateral expansion of the lower dental arch and proclination of the incisors. Dental study casts were obtained pre-treatment, at the end of treatment, and 3 years post-treatment. Alignment of the mandibular incisors was recorded using Little's irregularity index. The inter-canine distance and the sum of the mesio-distal widths of the mandibular incisors and canines were also measured. The total amount of enamel removed from the approximal surfaces of the lower anterior teeth ranged from 0.3 to 5.0 mm (mean 1.9 mm). The mean increase in irregularity index score of 0.6 from post-treatment to 3 years follow-up indicated good stability. In 45 per cent of the patients the change in score during this period was less than 0.5, indicating that the treatment approach presented may be considered an alternative strategy to placement of lower retainers to safeguard the stability of alignment of mandibular incisors.

  20. DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE OF RETAINING WALL WITH WALL MOVEMENT OF ROTATION ABOUT TOP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元战; 唐照评; 郑斌

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Coulomb' s theory that the earth pressure against the back of a retaining wall is due to the thrust exerted by the sliding wedge of soil from the back of the wall to a plane which passes through the bottom edge of the wall and has an inclination equal to the angle of θ, the theoretical answers to the unit earth pressure, the resultant earth pressure and the point of application of the resultant earth pressure on a retaining wall were obtained for the wall movement mode of rotation about top. The comparisons were made among the formula presented here, the formula for the wall movement mode of translation,the Coulomb' s formula and some experimental observations. It is demonstrated that the magnitudes of the resultant earth pressures for the wall movement mode of rotation about top is equal to that determined by the formula for the wall movement mode of translation and the Coulomb' s theory. But the distribution of the earth pressure and the points of application of the resultant earth pressures have significant difference.

  1. [Reason for failure in the treatment of impacted and retained teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignoly, Marion; Monnet-Corti, Virginie; Le Gall, Michel

    2016-03-01

    The positioning of an impacted or retained tooth in either children or adults presents a real challenge for the two practitioners involved, the orthodontist and the surgeon in charge of the surgical exposure. The maxillary canine is the tooth most often impacted in the anterior segment, with a prevalence of 2% in the general population. One can understand, therefore, the functional and esthetic challenge for the surgical-orthodontic team whose aim will be to reposition the impacted or retained tooth in the arch. A large number of mistakes must be avoided in order to achieve a satisfactory result for both the patient and the practitioner. Modern imaging techniques should be used to obtain a precise diagnosis of the location of the tooth and to perform surgery which will spare the tooth in question as well as the surrounding anatomic structures. The directions and forces of the traction used will need to be carefully thought out in order to move the tooth into its final position on the arch in optimal conditions. The periodontal setting will be optimized and checked at every step of the treatment. The aim, in fact, is to anticipate the onset of periodontal problems on the grounds that prevention is easier than cure.

  2. The role of the Azores Archipelago in capturing and retaining incoming particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Iria; Harrison, Cheryl S.; Caldeira, Rui M. A.

    2016-02-01

    The capacity of the Azores Archipelago to capture and retain incoming particles and organisms that are drifting with the oceanic currents was the main focus of this study. Using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model coupled with the Connectivity Modeling System (an offline Lagrangian tool) a series of experiments were conducted to determine: i) the origin of the particles that reach the archipelago, ii) the capacity of each island sub-group to retain incoming particles and organisms, as well as the iii) oceanographic phenomena that lead to their transport and retention. The Gulf Stream (GS) and the westward propagating eddy corridors were identified as the main transport pathways affecting the Azores region. Eddy Kinetic Energy from altimetry data and Lyapunov exponent analysis suggest that eddies and filaments are the main delivery mechanisms. In the upper mixed layer, the GS and its associated eddies are a predominant regional oceanographic feature injecting particles from the north and west boundaries toward the Azores. The capacity to capture particles of each island sub-group was directly proportional to their size, while the retention time within the Azores region increased with depth, associated with the decrease in velocity of the intermediate water currents. This study opens new prospects to understand transport in the Mid-Atlantic (Azores) region and the islands' role in marine colonization, dispersal, fisheries recruitment and speciation.

  3. A strategy that iteratively retains informative variables for selecting optimal variable subset in multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Wang, Wei-Ting; Tan, Min-Li; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Li, Hong-Dong; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Lu, Hong-Mei; Xu, Qing-Song

    2014-01-07

    Nowadays, with a high dimensionality of dataset, it faces a great challenge in the creation of effective methods which can select an optimal variables subset. In this study, a strategy that considers the possible interaction effect among variables through random combinations was proposed, called iteratively retaining informative variables (IRIV). Moreover, the variables are classified into four categories as strongly informative, weakly informative, uninformative and interfering variables. On this basis, IRIV retains both the strongly and weakly informative variables in every iterative round until no uninformative and interfering variables exist. Three datasets were employed to investigate the performance of IRIV coupled with partial least squares (PLS). The results show that IRIV is a good alternative for variable selection strategy when compared with three outstanding and frequently used variable selection methods such as genetic algorithm-PLS, Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination by PLS (MC-UVE-PLS) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS). The MATLAB source code of IRIV can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

  4. Catalytic nanoceria are preferentially retained in the rat retina and are not cytotoxic after intravitreal injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily L Wong

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria possess catalytic and regenerative radical scavenging activities. The ability of nanoceria to maintain cellular redox balance makes them ideal candidates for treatment of retinal diseases whose development is tightly associated with oxidative damage. We have demonstrated that our stable water-dispersed nanoceria delay photoreceptor cell degeneration in rodent models and prevent pathological retinal neovascularization in vldlr mutant mice. The objectives of the current study were to determine the temporal and spatial distributions of nanoceria after a single intravitreal injection, and to determine if nanoceria had any toxic effects in healthy rat retinas. Using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, we discovered that nanoceria were rapidly taken up by the retina and were preferentially retained in this tissue even after 120 days. We also did not observe any acute or long-term negative effects of nanoceria on retinal function or cytoarchitecture even after this long-term exposure. Because nanoceria are effective at low dosages, nontoxic and are retained in the retina for extended periods, we conclude that nanoceria are promising ophthalmic therapeutics for treating retinal diseases known to involve oxidative stress in their pathogeneses.

  5. Tumor-initiating label-retaining cancer cells in human gastrointestinal cancers undergo asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Hari, Danielle M; Mullinax, John E; Ambe, Chenwi M; Koizumi, Tomotake; Ray, Satyajit; Anderson, Andrew J; Wiegand, Gordon W; Garfield, Susan H; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Label-retaining cells (LRCs) have been proposed to represent adult tissue stem cells. LRCs are hypothesized to result from either slow cycling or asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, the stem cell nature and whether LRC undergo ACD remain controversial. Here, we demonstrate label-retaining cancer cells (LRCCs) in several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including fresh surgical specimens. Using a novel method for isolation of live LRCC, we demonstrate that a subpopulation of LRCC is actively dividing and exhibits stem cells and pluripotency gene expression profiles. Using real-time confocal microscopic cinematography, we show live LRCC undergoing asymmetric nonrandom chromosomal cosegregation LRC division. Importantly, LRCCs have greater tumor-initiating capacity than non-LRCCs. Based on our data and that cancers develop in tissues that harbor normal-LRC, we propose that LRCC might represent a novel population of GI stem-like cancer cells. LRCC may provide novel mechanistic insights into the biology of cancer and regenerative medicine and present novel targets for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Effect of bainite transformation and retained austenite on mechanical properties of austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Abe, Toshihiko; Tada, Shuji

    1996-06-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) has excellent mechanical properties, but its Young's modulus is low. Austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel (AGS) has been developed in order to obtain a new material with superior mechanical properties to ADI. Its carbon content (approximately 1.0 pct) is almost one-third that of a standard ADI; thus, the volume of graphite is also less. Young's modulus of AGS is 195 to 200 GPa and is comparable to that of steel. Austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel has an approximately 200 MPa higher tensile strength than ADI and twice the Charpy absorbed energy of ADI. The impact properties and the elongation are enhanced with increasing volume fraction of carbon-enriched retained austenite. At the austempering temperature of 650 K, the volume fraction of austenite is approximately 40 pct for 120 minutes in the 2.4 pct Si alloy, although it decreases rapidly in the 1.4 pct Si alloy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that appropriate quantity of silicon retards the decomposition of the carbon-enriched retained austenite. For austempering at 570 K, the amount of the carbon-enriched austenite decreases and the ferrite is supersaturated with carbon, resulting in high tensile strength but low toughness.

  7. Effect of bainite transformation and retained austenite on mechanical properties of austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Abe, Toshihiko; Tada, Shuji [Tohoku National Industrial Research Inst., Sendai (Japan). Materials Engineering Div.

    1996-06-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) has excellent mechanical properties, but its Young`s modulus is low. Austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel (AGS) has been developed in order to obtain a new material with superior mechanical properties to ADI. Its carbon content (approximately 1.0 pct) is almost one-third that of a standard ADI; thus, the volume of graphite is also less. Young`s modulus of AGS is 195 to 200 GPa and is comparable to that of steel. Austempered spheroidal graphite cast steel has an approximately 200 MPa higher tensile strength than ADI and twice the Charpy absorbed energy of ADI. The impact properties and the elongation are enhanced with increasing volume fraction of carbon-enriched retained austenite. At the austempering temperature of 650 K, the volume fraction of austenite is approximately 40 pct for 120 minutes in the 2.4 pct Si alloy, although it decreases rapidly in the 1.4 pct Si alloy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that appropriate quantity of silicon retards the decomposition of the carbon-enriched retained austenite. For austempering at 570 K, the amount of the carbon-enriched austenite decreases and the ferrite is supersaturated with carbon, resulting in high tensile strength but low toughness.

  8. Characterizing researchers by strategies used for retaining minority participants: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James; Quinn, Sandra C; Fryer, Craig S; Garza, Mary A; Kim, Kevin H; Thomas, Stephen B

    2013-09-01

    Limited attention has been given to the optimal strategies for retaining racial and ethnic minorities within studies and during the follow-up period. High attrition limits the interpretation of results and reduces the ability to translate findings into successful interventions. This study examined the retention strategies used by researchers when retaining minorities in research studies. From May to August 2010, we conducted an online survey with researchers (principal investigators, research staff, and IRB members) and examined their use of seven commonly used retention strategies. The number and type of retention strategies used, how these strategies differ by researcher type, and other characteristics (e.g., funding) were explored. We identified three clusters of researchers: comprehensive retention strategy researchers - utilized the greatest number of retention strategies; moderate retention strategy researchers - utilized an average number of retention strategies; and limited retention strategy researchers - utilized the least number of retention strategies. The comprehensive and moderate retention strategy researchers were more likely than the limited retention strategy researchers to conduct health outcomes research, work with a community advisory board, hire minority staff, use steps at a higher rate to overcome retention barriers, develop new partnerships with the minority community, modify study materials for the minority population, and allow staff to work flexible schedules. This study is a novel effort to characterize researchers, without implying a value judgment, according to their use of specific retention strategies. It provides critical information for conducting future research to determine the effectiveness of using a combination of retention strategies.

  9. Attracting, Preparing, and Retaining Under-Represented Populations in Rural and Remote Alberta-North Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Steel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the government of the western Canadian province of Alberta has drafted policies and conducted research on the problem of populations under-represented in adult education. This Alberta-North and Athabasca University study, funded by the Alberta government’s Innovation Fund, uses the advice and educational experiences of northern former and present students, and of other community members, to identify ways of better attracting, preparing, and retaining under-represented populations in northern Alberta communities through provision and training in the use of distance delivery methods.The research reported here commences with a review of the literature to investigate the following: 1 the contribution distance education makes globally to learning access in remote areas (and resulting economic growth for under-served populations; 2 how support is provided to retain isolated students; and 3 the help needed to assist remote students to complete distance programs. Community consultations with social service and education agencies in three communities were conducted in order to obtain their perspectives about what helps to attract and support students to educational programs and the barriers students typically encounter, which might be mitigated by distance methods. Finally, a survey was designed and distributed in 87 Alberta-North communities in northern Alberta and across Canada’s Northwest Territories to add perspective to the consultation results.

  10. Equilibrium sediment transport in lower Yellow River during later sediment-retaining period of Xiaolangdi Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-lei Guo; Dong-po Sun; En-hui Jiang; Peng Li

    2015-01-01

    The Xiaolangdi Reservoir has entered the later sediment-retaining period, and new sediment transport phenomena and channel re-estab-lishing behaviors are appearing. A physical model test was used to forecast the scouring and silting trends of the lower Yellow River. Based on water and sediment data from the lower Yellow River during the period from 1960 to 2012, and using a statistical method, this paper analyzed the sediment transport in sediment-laden flows with different discharges and sediment concentrations in the lower Yellow River. The results show that rational water-sediment regulation is necessary to avoid silting in the later sediment-retaining period. The combination of 3 000 m3/s

  11. Safe retaining pressures for pressurized tunnel face using nonlinear failure criterion and reliability theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-li; YAO Cong; ZHANG Jia-hua

    2016-01-01

    Based on the active failure mechanism and passive failure mechanism for a pressurized tunnel face, the analytical solutions of the minimum collapse pressure and maximum blowout pressure that could maintain the stability of pressurized tunnel faces were deduced using limit analysis in conjunction with nonlinear failure criterion under the condition of pore water pressure. Due to the objective existence of the parameter randomness of soil, the statistical properties of random variables were determined by the maximum entropy principle, and the Monte Carlo method was employed to calculate the failure probability of a pressurized tunnel. The results show that the randomness of soil parameters exerts great influence on the stability of a pressurized tunnel, which indicates that the research should be done on the topic of determination of statistical distribution for geotechnical parameters and the level of variability. For the failure probability of a pressurized tunnel under multiple failure modes, the corresponding safe retaining pressures and optimal range of safe retaining pressures are calculated by introducing allowable failure probability and minimum allowable failure probability. The results can provide practical use in the pressurized tunnel engineering.

  12. The dance of communication: retaining family membership despite severe non-speech dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Bruce D; McCormack, Lynne

    2014-09-01

    There is minimal research investigating non-speech communication as a result of living with severe dementia. This phenomenological study explores retained awareness expressed through non-speech patterns of communication in a family member living with severe dementia. Further, it describes reciprocal efforts used by all family members to engage in alternative patterns of communication. Family interactions were filmed to observe speech and non-speech relational communication. Participants were four family groups each with a family member living with non-speech communication as a result of severe dementia. Overall there were 16 participants. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. One superordinate theme, Dance of Communication, describes the interactive patterns that were observed during family communication. Two subordinate themes emerged: (a) in-step; characterised by communication that indicated harmony, spontaneity and reciprocity, and; (b) out-of-step; characterised by communication that indicated disharmony, syncopation, and vulnerability. This study highlights that retained awareness can exist at levels previously unrecognised in those living with limited or absent speech as a result of severe dementia. A recommendation for the development of a communication program for caregivers of individuals living with dementia is presented.

  13. Mobilization of Metal From Retained Embedded Fragments in a Blast-Injured Iraq War Veteran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitens, Joanna M; Centeno, Jose A; Squibb, Katherine S; Condon, Marian; McDiarmid, Melissa A

    2016-06-01

    A frequent comorbidity of traumatic injury due to a blast or explosion, commonly reported in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, is that of retained embedded fragments typically of unknown content. Because of concerns over both local and systemic health effects related to both the physical presence of and mobilization of materials from embedded fragments, the Department of Veterans Affairs established a surveillance program for this group of veterans. We present here the case of a surveillance-enrolled veteran who submitted: (1) three surgically removed fragments for content analyses, (2) tissue adhered to the fragments for histology and metal concentration evaluation, and (3) pre- and postfragment removal urine samples to assess concentrations of various metals often found in fragments. Results indicate that removed fragments were aluminum-copper alloys. Surrounding tissue analyses revealed elevated concentrations of these metals and evidence of chronic inflammation, but no neoplastic changes. Urine aluminum concentrations, initially elevated compared to normal population values, decreased significantly after fragment removal, illustrating the utility of urine biomonitoring to provide insight into fragment composition. A medical surveillance program integrating fragment composition data, tissue analyses, and repeat urine biomonitoring can help inform the patient-specific medical management of both the local and systemic effects of retained metal fragments. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Gait analysis comparison of cruciate retaining and substituting TKA following PCL sacrifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Siddharth; Gioe, Terence J; Yoon, Patrick; Schwartz, Michael H

    2012-08-01

    The role of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) remains controversial in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), with some surgeons who believe in PCL sacrifice and substitution and others who believe in PCL preservation for stability. Manufacturers have developed both cruciate-substituting/posterior stabilized (PS) implants typically used when the ligament is sacrificed and cruciate retaining (CR) implants designed for ligament preservation. However, studies demonstrate excellent clinical results with CR implants despite PCL sacrifice. This study sought to determine functional stability differences between PS and CR TKAs following PCL sacrifice. Eighteen (9 matched pairs) subjects with either a PS or CR TKA and sacrificed PCL and a normal contralateral knee were subjected to physical exam and gait analysis (walking, stair ascent and descent) using a staircase model, passive reflective arrays and an optoelectric system. No differences were detected between the two groups among any of the measured parameters (knee flexion angle, knee flexion moment, knee power absorption, pelvic tilt). PCL sacrifice in a well-balanced cruciate retaining TKA did not result in instability during stair descent based on gait parameters. The decision to use a posterior stabilized design when faced with an incompetent PCL intraoperatively should be based on factors other than anticipated instability.

  15. Effect of plastic soil on a retaining wall subjected to surcharge loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Juari Khawla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation and climatic changes play a significant role that affects the stresses exerted on a retaining wall, and the state of stresses in the soil mass behind the wall especially for highly expansive soil. These stresses resulted in the wall moving either away or towards the soil. In this study, a laboratory physical model of the retaining wall formed of a box having (950×900×600 mm dimensions with one side representing the wall being developed. After the soil being laid out in the box in specified layers, specified conditions of saturation and normal stresses were applied. The wall is allowed to move horizontally in several distances (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 , 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mm, and the stresses being measured, then the vertical loading was released. The main measured variables during the tests are; the active and passive earth pressures, vertical movement of the soil, total suction and time. Results showed that the lateral earth pressure along the depth of the wall largely decreased when wall moved away from the soil. Total suction was slightly affected during wall’s movement. At unloading stage, the lateral earth pressure decreased at the upper half of wall height, but increased at the other wall part. Total suction was increased at all depths during this stage.

  16. Kinematics and Mechanical Properties of Knees following Patellar Replacing and Patellar Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongying Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee injury is a common medical issue. A full understanding of the kinematics and mechanical properties of knees following total knee arthroplasty (TKA repair utilizing patellar replacement (only the base of the patella is replaced versus patellar retaining surgical techniques is still lacking. In the current paper, we investigated magnetic resonance (MR imaging data from knees repaired by these two methods and evaluated total knee models created using imaging reconstruction technology that simulated gait conditions. Results revealed that patellar replacement had little influence on tibiofemoral kinematics, although the tibia-surface equivalent stress increased slightly. By contrast, patellar replacement had a significant influence on the patellofemoral joint; patellar internal rotation, external rotation, and medial-lateral translation were all increased. Moreover, the stress distribution on patellar prostheses was altered, resulting in an increased surface maximal equivalent stress on the corresponding area. Moreover, during the gait cycle, we found that the area with maximal equivalent stress shifted its position. Finally, the patellofemoral joint showed decreased motion stability. From the view of kinematics and mechanics, this paper suggests that patella should be retained during TKA if it is possible. The present study presented approaches and technologies for evaluating kinematics and mechanical properties of total knee joint after TKA under gait loads.

  17. Thermal and mechanical stability of retained austenite in aluminum-containing multiphase TRIP steels

    CERN Document Server

    Zwaag, S; Kruijver, S O; Sietsma, J

    2002-01-01

    Stability of retained austenite is the key issue to understand transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect. In this work, both thermal stability and mechanical stability are investigated by thermo-magnetic as well as in situ conventional X-ray diffraction and micro synchrotron radiation diffraction measurements. The thermal stability in a 0.20C-1.52Mn-0.25Si-0.96Al (wt%) TRIP steel is studied in the temperature range between 5 and 300 K under a constant magnetic field of 5T. It is found that almost all austenite transforms thermally to martensite upon cooling to 5K and M sub s and M sub f temperatures are analyzed to be 355 and 115 K. Transformation kinetics on the fraction versus temperature relation are well described by a model based on thermodynamics. From the in situ conventional X-ray and synchrotron diffraction measurements in a 0.17C-1.46Mn-0.26Si-1.81Al (wt%) steel, the volume fraction of retained austenite is found to decrease as the strain increases according to Ludwigson and Berger relation. T...

  18. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 113Sn to include the 2010 results of the PTB (Germany) and the LNE-LNHB (France), and the 2011 result of the CIEMAT (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Bobin, C.; Lépy, M.-C.; Moune, M.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Peyres, V.; Roteta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1975, seven national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted eleven samples of known activity of 113Sn to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.7 MBq and 22 MBq. The present primary standardization results for the PTB, Germany and the LNE-LNHB, France, replace their earlier results of 1989 and 1992, respectively. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been evaluated for the first time for 113Sn. There are only three results remaining in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 comparison, all the previously published ones being outdated. The degrees of equivalence between each of these three equivalent activities measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma applied to post-extraction retained lower third molar alveoli. A systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barona-Dorado, C; González-Regueiro, I; Martín-Ares, M; Arias-Irimia, O; Martínez-González, J-M

    2014-01-01

    ... the healing of soft and hard tissues. To evaluate the available scientific evidence related to the application of platelet-rich plasma in the post-extraction alveoli of a retained lower third molars...

  20. Utilities:Other:The Retaining Wall (non-historic) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:wall)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents the retaining wall (non-historic) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The wall was collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit with...