Sample records for pta acka dhap

  1. Rituximab improves the treatment results of DHAP-VIM-DHAP and ASCT in relapsed/progressive aggressive CD20+ NHL: A prospective randomized HOVON trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Vellenga (Edo); W.L.J. van Putten (Wim); M.B. van 't Veer (Mars); J.M. Zijlstra (Josée); W.E. Fibbe (Willem); M.H.J. van Oers (Marinus); L.F. Verdonck (Leo); P.W. Wijermans (Pierre); G. van Imhoff (Gustaaf); P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella); P.C. Huijgens (Peter)


    textabstractWe evaluated the role of rituximab during remission induction chemotherapy in relapsed aggressive CD20+non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Of 239 patients, 225 were evaluable for analysis. Randomized to DHAP (cisplatin-cytarabine- dexamethasone)-VIM (etoposide-ifosfamide-methotrexate)-DHAP (cisplatin-

  2. Rituximab improves the treatment results of DHAP-VIM-DHAP and ASCT in relapsed/progressive aggressive CD20(+) NHL : a prospective randomized HOVON trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellenga, Edo; van Putten, Wim L. J.; van't Veer, Mars B.; Zijlstra, Josee M.; Fibbe, Willem E.; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Wijermans, Pierre W.; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Lugtenburg, Pieternella J.; Huijgens, Peter C.


    We evaluated the role of rituximab during remission induction chemotherapy in relapsed aggressive CD20(+) non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Of 239 patients, 225 were evaluable for analysis. Randomized to DHAP (cisplatin-cytarabine-dexamethasone)-VIM (etoposide-ifosfamide-methotrexate)-DHAP (cisplatin-cytarabine

  3. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) (United States)

    Little, B. H.; Poland, D. T.; Bartel, H. W.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.


    The objectives of the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program were to validate in flight the structural integrity of large-scale propfan blades and to measure noise characteristics of the propfan in both near and far fields. All program objectives were met or exceeded, on schedule and under budget. A Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation GII aircraft was modified to provide a testbed for the 2.74m (9 ft) diameter Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan which was driven by a 4475 kw (600 shp) turboshaft engine mounted on the left-hand wing of the aircraft. Flight research tests were performed for 20 combinations of speed and altitude within a flight envelope that extended to Mach numbers of 0.85 and altitudes of 12,192m (40,000 ft). Propfan blade stress, near-field noise on aircraft surfaces, and cabin noise were recorded. Primary variables were propfan power and tip speed, and the nacelle tilt angle. Extensive low altitude far-field noise tests were made to measure flyover and sideline noise and the lateral attenuation of noise. In coopertion with the FAA, tests were also made of flyover noise for the aircraft at 6100m (20,000 ft) and 10,668m (35,000 ft). A final series of tests were flown to evaluate an advanced cabin wall noise treatment that was produced under a separate program by NASA-Langley Research Center.

  4. Prognostic relevance of DHAP dose-density in relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma: an analysis of the German Hodgkin-Study Group. (United States)

    Sasse, Stephanie; Alram, Magdalena; Müller, Horst; Smardová, Lenka; Metzner, Bernd; Doehner, Hartmut; Fischer, Thomas; Niederwieser, Dietger W; Schmitz, Norbert; Schäfer-Eckart, Kerstin; Raemaekers, John M M; Schmalz, Oliver; Tresckow, Bastian V; Engert, Andreas; Borchmann, Peter


    Only 50% of patients with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) can be cured with intensive induction chemotherapy, followed by high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Based on the results of the HDR2 trial two courses of DHAP and subsequent HDCT/ASCT are the current standard of care in relapsed HL. In order to assess the prognostic relevance of DHAP dose density, we performed a retrospective multivariate analysis of the HDR2 trial (N=266). In addition to four risk factors (early or multiple relapse, stage IV disease or anemia at relapse, and grade IV hematotoxicity during the first cycle of DHAP) a delayed start of the second cycle of DHAP>day 22 predicted a significantly poorer progression-free survival (PFS, p=0.0356) and overall survival (OS, p=0.0025). In conclusion, our analysis strongly suggests that dose density of DHAP has a relevant impact on the outcome of relapsed HL patients.

  5. Single-site substitutions improve cold activity and increase thermostability of the dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP). (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Yan; Wu, Li-Ying; Liu, Gang; Feng, Hong


    To engineer dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP) variants to improve cold activity and increase thermostability so these variants are suitable for the leather processing industry. Based on previous studies with bacterial alkaline proteases, double-site mutations (W106K/V149I and W106K/M124L) were introduced into the DHAP from Bacillus pumilus. Compared with the wild-type DHAP hydrolytic activity, the double-site variant W106K/V149I showed an increase in specific hydrolytic activity at 15 °C by 2.3-fold toward casein in terms of hydrolytic rate and 2.7-fold toward the synthetic peptide AAPF-pN by means of kcat/Km value. The thermostability of the variant (W106K/V149I) was improved with the half-life at 60 and 70 °C increased by 2.7- and 5.0-fold, respectively, when compared with the thermostability of the wild-type DHAP. Conclusively, an increase in the cold activity and thermostability of a bacterial alkaline protease was achieved by protein engineering.

  6. Ups and Downs in the PTA Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    PTA prices experienced a roller coaster ride in the first half of November and took most market players by surprise.The swing of PTA prices,which has carried the market from CNY11,000/tonne in the early CNY9246/tonne on Nov.30 and rebounded Dec.,is almost the most violent in the entire history of the PTA industry.More ups and downs are inevitable in coming months.

  7. National PTA Gets Connected with Social Media (United States)

    Phillips, Derek


    People are busy, we all know that. Getting their attention is harder and harder all the time. That's especially true for member organizations and advocacy groups. The National PTA is both and has adapted some social media practices to reach out and maintain contact with more than 5 million volunteers in 25,000 local units. James Martinez, senior…

  8. Recanalization of the lower leg. PTA or stent?; Rekanalisation am Unterschenkel. PTA oder Stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, S. [Medizinischer Klinikverbund Flensburg, Ev.-Luth. Diakonissenanstalt zu Flensburg, Zentrum fuer Gesundheit und Diakonie, Abt. Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie/Neuroradiologie, Flensburg (Germany)


    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement are currently accepted methods for endovascular treatment of critical limb ischemia, if infragenual vessels are involved. Outcome results in high technical success and satisfactory clinical results for treatment of infrapopliteal lesions with regard to patency rates and amputation-free survival. These treatment modalities are also safe for the patients. The question whether PAT alone or additional stent placement is the better choice, is still unanswered due to limited data. (orig.) [German] Die perkutane transluminale Angioplastie (PTA) und die Stentimplantation stellen inzwischen akzeptierte Methoden zur Behandlung der kritischen Extremitaetenischaemie bei Beteiligung infragenualer Gefaesse dar. Diese Behandlungsmodalitaeten haben eine hohe technische Erfolgsrate, sind sicher fuer den Patienten und erbringen zufrieden stellende klinische Ergebnisse zur Therapie infrapoplitealer Laesionen hinsichtlich Offenheitsrate und amputationsfreiem Ueberleben. Die Frage, ob eine alleinige PTA oder die Stentimplantion besser ist, kann anhand der begrenzten derzeitigen Datenlage zur Zeit noch nicht hinreichend beantwortet werden. (orig.)

  9. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA): Flight test report (United States)

    Little, B. H.; Bartel, H. W.; Reddy, N. N.; Swift, G.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.


    The Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft was flown to obtain glade stress and noise data for a 2.74m (9 ft.) diameter single rotation propfan. Tests were performed at Mach numbers to 0.85 and altitudes to 12,192m (40,000 ft.). The propfan was well-behaved structurally over the entire flight envelope, demonstrating that the blade design technology was completely adequate. Noise data were characterized by strong signals at blade passage frequency and up to 10 harmonics. Cabin noise was not so high as to preclude attainment of comfortable levels with suitable wall treatment. Community noise was not excessive.

  10. Development and external validation of a new PTA assessment scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Bram


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA is a key symptom of traumatic brain injury (TBI. Accurate assessment of PTA is imperative in guiding clinical decision making. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a short, examiner independent and practical PTA scale, by selecting the most discriminative items from existing scales and using a three-word memory test. Methods Mild, moderate and severe TBI patients and control subjects were assessed in two separate cohorts, one for derivation and one for validation, using a questionnaire comprised of items from existing PTA scales. We tested which individual items best discriminated between TBI patients and controls, represented by sensitivity and specificity. We then created our PTA scale based on these results. This new scale was externally evaluated for its discriminative value using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and compared to existing PTA scales. Results The derivation cohort included 126 TBI patients and 31 control subjects; the validation cohort consisted of 132 patients and 30 controls. A set of seven items was eventually selected to comprise the new PTA scale: age, name of hospital, time, day of week, month, mode of transport and recall of three words. This scale demonstrated adequate discriminative values compared to existing PTA scales on three consecutive administrations in the validation cohort. Conclusion We introduce a valid, practical and examiner independent PTA scale, which is suitable for mild TBI patients at the emergency department and yet still valuable for the follow-up of more severely injured TBI patients.

  11. PTA Import’s Effect on Domestic Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In recent years,the polyester industry has kept a stable development,and the consumption for PTA has been lifted up year by year.From 2001 to 2006,the growth rate of PTA consumption was around 20.7% averagely.Though it began to be not as fast as it used to in recent a couple of

  12. PTA and stent placement distal to the superficial femoral artery; PTA und Stent distal der AFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, T.; Stadler, A.; Schoder, M.; Kettenbach, J. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinische Abteilung fuer Angiographie und Interventionelle Radiologie, Wien (Austria); Haumer, M. [Klinik fuer Innere Medizin II des Universitaetsklinikums Wien, Klinische Abteilung fuer Angiologie, Wien (Austria)


    Although angioplasty and stent applications in the iliac vessels and the superficial femoral artery have become routine procedures, their usefulness for the treatment of lesions of the popliteal artery and the lower leg arteries is still under discussion. For the popliteal artery, limitations are mainly due to the high mechanical stress in this area, causing high traction forces. Moreover, beyond the occlusive atherosclerotic changes, specific pathological entities such as aneurysms, emboli, entrapment syndromes, and cystic adventitial disease have to be differentiated. There is hope that the development of innovative stent designs with high flexibility might overcome the limitations. For lesions of the lower leg arteries treatment with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) has become the method of choice. However, stent designs as used for cardiac interventions have been adapted for their application below the knee, and first encouraging results may help to justify their broad use in the future. Regarding PTA, innovative equipment and techniques for the treatment of arterial lesions below the knee include dedicated, long, and very flexible balloons, cutting balloon cryoplasty, and laser angioplasty. Regarding stents, bare metal stents, stents with passive or active coatings, and bioabsorbable stents have all been successfully used. (orig.) [German] Waehrend Angioplastie (PTA) und Stentbehandlung im Bereich der Beckengefaesse sich zu etablierten interventionellen Standardverfahren entwickelt haben, ist die endovaskulaere Behandlung von Laesionen der A. poplitea und auch der Unterschenkelgefaesse noch in Diskussion. Gruende hierfuer sind bei der A. poplitea v. a. die unguenstigen mechanischen Faktoren, die hohe Traktionskraefte am Gefaess wirken lassen und besonders die Gefaesspathologien, die neben der stenosierenden Atherosklerose auch andere spezifische Auspraegungen wie Aneurysmen, Embolien, Entrapmentsyndrome und die zystische Adventitianekrose umfassen

  13. Characterization of NiCrAlC PTA coatings



    Surface tailoring with plasma transferred arc (PTA) hardfacing involves the deposition of powder mixtures to produce coatings with an almost unlimited chemical composition. PTA hardfacing is particularly important for processing low weldability alloys, such as those for high-temperature applications, of which NiCrAlC is an example. This study analyzed NiCrAlC coatings processed by PTA using a mixture of elemental powders. Deposition on AISI316L plates was carried out with currents of 100 A an...

  14. L-Tryptophan Production in Escherichia coli Improved by Weakening the Pta-AckA Pathway. (United States)

    Liu, Lina; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing


    Acetate accumulation during the fermentation process of Escherichia coli FB-04, an L-tryptophan production strain, is detrimental to L-tryptophan production. In an initial attempt to reduce acetate formation, the phosphate acetyltransferase gene (pta) from E. coli FB-04 was deleted, forming strain FB-04(Δpta). Unfortunately, FB-04(Δpta) exhibited a growth defect. Therefore, pta was replaced with a pta variant (pta1) from E. coli CCTCC M 2016009, forming strain FB-04(pta1). Pta1 exhibits lower catalytic capacity and substrate affinity than Pta because of a single amino acid substitution (Pro69Leu). FB-04(pta1) lacked the growth defect of FB-04(Δpta) and showed improved fermentation performance. Strain FB-04(pta1) showed a 91% increase in L-tryptophan yield in flask fermentation experiments, while acetate production decreased by 35%, compared with its parent FB-04. Throughout the fed-batch fermentation process, acetate accumulation by FB-04(pta1) was slower than that by FB-04. The final L-tryptophan titer of FB-04(pta1) reached 44.0 g/L, representing a 15% increase over that of FB-04. Metabolomics analysis showed that the pta1 genomic substitution slightly decreased carbon flux through glycolysis and significantly increased carbon fluxes through the pentose phosphate and common aromatic pathways. These results indicate that this strategy enhances L-tryptophan production and decreases acetate accumulation during the L-tryptophan fermentation process.

  15. PTA wastewater molecular toxicity detected with gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Cheng-jun; CHENG Shu-pei; ZHANG Xu-xiang; LANG You-zhe; SUN Shi-lei; GU Ji-dong; ZHAO Da-yong; PAN Wen-yang; YU Hong-xia


    The purified terephthalic acid (PTA) petrochemical wastewater molecular toxicity detected by use of Mouse Genome 430Aliver total RNA was isolated as the temple for synthesis of cDNA and then the cDNA as the temple for synthesis of cRNA.Hybridizing the cRNA with the target genes on the gene chip, there were 232 genes expression levels up-regulated and 74 genes down-regulated discovered obviously. The foremost 40 genes for both the highest and the lowest expression levels involved endogenetic steroid and hormone metabolism, immune system, the leukocyte activity and inflammation, detoxification in liver,reproduction and growth hormone, regulation immune factors of anti-tumor and anti-infection and cancer to the mice sampled. The data suggest the PTA wastewater contained over 5 aromatics and their toxicities integrated were much higher than the pure chemical PTA. And the pure chemical PTA toxicities data cannot be used to evaluate the toxicity of the PTA wastewater instead.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Rohan


    Full Text Available High speed steels (HSS as iron alloys reinforced by carbides of tungsten, chromium, vanadium and/or cobalt are known for more than 100 years. HSS is commonly used for cutting tools fabrication because of their high hardness, ductility, and strength and temperature resistance. Recently many different kinds of thin layers are often deposited on HSS tools in order to increase their lifetime. HSS are produced by conventional metallurgical methods and the tools are hardened by quenching and tempering. Recently, large part of HSS tools are produced by powder metallurgy (i.e. HIP-hot isostatic pressing. There are also some studies about thermal spraying of HSS but there is no evidence about Plasma Transfer Arc cladding of HSS. Two powders of HSS 23, resp. HSS30 grade were selected and deposited by Plasma Transfer Arc (PTA and pulsed PTA on to mild steel substrate. In order to find the ability of thick layer forming, four layers cladding were used. To minimize heat input the influence of 76 Hz pulsation was also studied. Vickers hardness was measured on cross section and metallography of coatings was done. It was found that with selected parameters thick layer of HSS can be deposited. Pulsation increases the hardness of coatings in comparison with layers produced by direct current PTA. PTA and pulsed PTA methods of HSS parts fabrication can be used for both manufacturing and reparation of cutting tools and also for 3D additive manufacturing process.

  17. Objective and behavioural assessment of the emergence from post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). (United States)

    Weir, Nicole; Doig, Emmah J; Fleming, Jennifer M; Wiemers, Anna; Zemljic, Collette


    To determine the profile of resolution of typical PTA behaviours and describe new learning and improvements in self-care during PTA. Prospective longitudinal study monitoring PTA status, functional learning and behaviours on a daily basis. Participants were 69 inpatients with traumatic brain injury who were in PTA. PTA was assessed using the Westmead or Oxford PTA assessments. Functional learning capability was assessed using a routine set of daily tasks and behaviour was assessed using an observational checklist. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Challenging behaviours that are typically associated with PTA, such as agitation, aggression and wandering resolved in the early stages of PTA and incidence rates of these behaviours were less than 20%. Independence in self-care and bowel and bladder continence emerged later during resolution of PTA. New learning in functional situations was demonstrated by patients in PTA. It is feasible to begin active rehabilitation focused on functional skills-based learning with patients in the later stages of PTA. Formal assessment of typically observed behaviours during PTA may complement memory-based PTA assessments in determining emergence from PTA.

  18. 浅议 PTA 料仓装车系统的设计%The Design of PTA Buck Silo & Truck Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The paper mainly introduced the design of PTA buck silo & truck loading .In order to better grasp the technology of PTA buck silo & truck loading, The principle of PTA buck silo & truck loading was analyzed and discussed.%  文章主要介绍了 PTA 料仓装车系统的的设计。通过对装车系统设计的一些设计原则进行了分析和探讨,以便于更好地掌握和改进PTA 料仓装车系统的技术。

  19. DHAP胁迫对天山云杉幼苗内源激素含量变化的影响%Change of Endogenous Plant Hormones Contents during Seedling Growth of Picea schrenkiana Treated with DHAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章建红; 陈志颖; 阮晓; 张玉竹; 潘存德; 王强


    Schrenk spruce ( Picea schrenkiana ) ,a major tree species in the forest ecosystems of Xinjiang,plays an important role in water conservation. 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone ( DHAP ) is a principal autotoxic substance in P. schrenkiana needles as well as its litter,and the substance may contribute to P. schrenkiana natural regeneration. In this paper,we determined the change of endogenous plant hormones ( ZT、GA3、IAA and ABA) contents during seedling growth of P. schrenkiana with the ultra performance liquid chromatography ( UPLC) ,and measured growth in radicle,plumule and fresh weight of the seedlings subjected to DHAP treatments, trying to explain physiological mechanisms of the autotoxic effects. The results showed that DHAP treatment had no significant effect on plumule growth of P. schrenkiana but had significant inhibitory effect on fresh weight ( The fresh weight treated with 0 . 1 mmol · L -1 DHAP significantly increased in 10 d) . The impact of DHAP treatment on radicle elongation had a concentration effect in an order of:5 mmol ·L -1 >1 mmol·L -1 >0. 1 mmol·L -1 >control (After 10 d,radicle elongation of 0. 1 mmol·L -1 DHAP treatment groups increased significantly ) . With DHAP concentration increased, the GA3 concentration decreased, the ABA concentration increased,and the ratios of ABA/ZT、ABA/IAA、ABA/( ZT +GA3 +IAA) increased. In 4 -6 d,after 5 mmol·L -1 DHAP treatment,the IAA concentration increased greatly (1. 24 -1. 70 times higher than that of control group),which might inhibit the seedling growth. For 0. 1 mmol · L -1 DHAP treatment group,after 10 d,the concentration of ZT and IAA increased,the concentration of ABA decreased,and the ratios of ABA/ZT、ABA/IAA、ABA/( ZT+ GA3 + IAA ) decreased,which might cause the radicle elongation and fresh weight increasing rapidly. It is suggested that the change of contents and the ratios of endogenous plant hormones during the seedling growth caused by DHAP treatment might be the key factor

  20. Minimal renal toxicity after Rituximab DHAP with a modified cisplatin application scheme in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma


    Lisenko, Katherina; McClanahan, F.; Schöning, Tilman; Schwarzbich, Mark Alexander; Cremer, Martin; Dittrich, Tobias; Ho, Anthony D; Witzens-Harig, Mathias


    Background: Rituximab (R) in combination with DHAP is a widely accepted salvage regimen for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A common adverse effect of this protocol is renal toxicity which may result in treatment discontinuation. Assuming that a lower single dose of cisplatin over several days would reduce renal toxicity, our institution has chosen to administer cisplatin in a dosage of 25 mg/m2 per day as a 3-h infusion over 4 consecutive days. M...

  1. PTA hardfacing of Nb/Al coatings Revestimentos Nb/Al depositados por PTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Graf


    caracterizados revestimentos utilizando uma liga fundida e triturada de Nb40wt%Al e analisado o efeito do Fe e do C nas características dos revestimentos. O trabalho confirmou que é possível processar revestimentos íntegros de Nb40wt%Al por PTA e que ocorre uma forte interação com o substrato, que vai determinar a microestrutura final e as propriedades do revestimento. Destaca-se que na customização de revestimentos de Nb-Al a diluição tem de ser considerada logo nos estágios iniciais do projeto do revestimento.

  2. Predication of Fhhh potential in PTA wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shu-pei; SHI Lei; ZHANG Xu-xiang; YAN Jun; DING Zhong-hai; HAO Chun-bo


    Ebis is the intelligent environmental biotechnological informatics software developed for judging the effectiveness of the microorganism strain in the industrial wastewater treatment system(IWTS) at the optimal status. The parameter, as the objective function for the judgment, is the minimum reactor volume ( Vmin ) calculated by Ebis for microorganism required in wastewater treatment. The rationality and the universality of Ebis were demonstrated in the domestic sewage treatment system(DSTS) with the data published in USA and China at first, then Fhhh strain's potential for treating the purified terephthalic acid(PTA) was proved. It suggests that Ebis would be useful and universal for predicating the technique effectiveness in both DSTS and IWTS.

  3. Genetics and Physiology of Acetate Metabolism by the Pta-Ack Pathway of Streptococcus mutans. (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Nam; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A


    In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans, phosphotransacetylase (Pta) catalyzes the conversion of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetyl phosphate (AcP), which can be converted to acetate by acetate kinase (Ack), with the concomitant generation of ATP. A ΔackA mutant displayed enhanced accumulation of AcP under aerobic conditions, whereas little or no AcP was observed in the Δpta or Δpta ΔackA mutant. The Δpta and Δpta ΔackA mutants also had diminished ATP pools compared to the size of the ATP pool for the parental or ΔackA strain. Surprisingly, when exposed to oxidative stress, the Δpta ΔackA strain appeared to regain the capacity to produce AcP, with a concurrent increase in the size of the ATP pool compared to that for the parental strain. The ΔackA and Δpta ΔackA mutants exhibited enhanced (p)ppGpp accumulation, whereas the strain lacking Pta produced less (p)ppGpp than the wild-type strain. The ΔackA and Δpta ΔackA mutants displayed global changes in gene expression, as assessed by microarrays. All strains lacking Pta, which had defects in AcP production under aerobic conditions, were impaired in their abilities to form biofilms when glucose was the growth carbohydrate. Collectively, these data demonstrate the complex regulation of the Pta-Ack pathway and critical roles for these enzymes in processes that appear to be essential for the persistence and pathogenesis of S. mutans.

  4. Evaluation of propeller/nacelle interactions in the PTA program (United States)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Lyman, V.; Parker, R. J.


    Advanced highly-loaded propellers are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan engine. In order to realize these savings, the propeller must be installed so that the aerodynamics of the propeller/nacelle combination do not lead to excessive cyclic blade stresses or installation losses. The on-going, NASA sponsored, Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) has provided the first high-speed wind-tunnel data on an installed propfan complete with an inlet. This paper presents computational techniques that allow: (1) optimization of inlet plane location, (2) contouring of lip and cowl, and (3) estimation of propeller cyclic loads due to a nonuniform flowfield. These computational methods, in spite of the complexity of the configuration and the slipstream effects, provide predictions of aerodynamic performance which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  5. Occurrence and fate of the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA) in soils (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Cavoski, Ivana; Costi, Roberta; Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Miano, Teodoro M.; Lattanzio, Vincenzo


    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, one of the most common plant species on Earth, produces a wide range of secondary metabolites including the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA). This bracken constituent causes acute poisoning, blindness and cancer in animals, and can be transferred to man when bracken is utilized as food. Also milk from cows eating bracken is thought to be the vector for the transfer of PTA to humans, as well as PTA-contaminated drinking waters. Although some studies on the effect of growth conditions and soil properties on the production and mobility of PTA have been carried out (mainly in the North of Europe), results are sometimes conflicting and further investigations are needed. The aim of the present work is to study the occurrence and the fate of PTA in soils showing different physico-chemical features, collected in different pedoclimatic areas (from the South of Italy), but having the extensive ("wild") livestock farming as common denominator. The PTA content was determined in both soil and fern samples by GC-MS; both the extraction protocol and recovery were previously tested through incubation studies. Soils samples were also characterizes from the physical and chemical point of view (pH, EC, texture, total carbonates, cation exchange capacity, organic C, total N, available nutrients and heavy metal concentration) in order to correlate the possible influence of soil parameters on PTA production, occurrence and mobility. PTA concentration in soil samples was always PTA concentration in the corresponding Pteridium samples (2-780 µg/g), ii) the soil organic matter content (ranging from 3.4 to 22.8%), iii) the soil pH (ranging from 5.9 to 6.6), iv) the soil texture, v) the depth (0-10 cm; 10-20 cm), and vi) precipitations (ranging from 780 to 960 mm/a). This seems to suggest the degradation of the PTA by indigenous microbial community

  6. ASEAN’s Preferential Trade Agreements (PTA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyi Leu


    Full Text Available This paper provides a diversification explanation in order understand the development of PTAs in Southeast Asia. I argue that an important reason why ASEAN states participate in PTAs has been to diversify existing trade ties and to reduce overdependence on a narrow range of export markets. Southeast Asian countries have formed PTAs with markets with which they had weak or unexplored economic relations, as demonstrated by three case analyses: the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA, the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA and the ASEAN-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (AJCEP. To maximise the economic gains and the diversification effects of PTA participation, ASEAN countries have pursued a strategy of strengthening economic unity while keeping external economic linkages as diversified as possible. Although East Asia, and especially China, was an important alternative market to reduce ASEAN’s dependence on trade with America, ASEAN countries have also pursued PTAs with a number of other trading partners. This paper explains how PTAs have helped ASEAN states to develop more policy autonomy in their trading environment.

  7. Current status of PTA industry in China%我国PTA产业现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The article reviews Current production status、new expansion projects、the balance of supply and de-mand 、Situation on the upstream and downstream as well as related forecasts of PTA industry in China,In view of the characteristics of PTA industry and major issues faced by PTA industry in the future in our country,Some sug-gestions for developing PTA industry are put forward.%着重论述了我国精对苯二甲酸(PTA)产业生产现状、新扩建项目情况、供需平衡、上下游情况及相关预测等,并针对 PTA行业的特点和未来我国 PTA行业面临的主要问题,提出了几点发展建议。

  8. Hydrocracking of Jatropha Oil over non-sulfided PTA-NiMo/ZSM-5 Catalyst (United States)

    Yang, Xiaosong; Liu, Jing; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long


    The PTA-NiMo/ZSM-5 catalyst impregnated with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) was designed for the transformation of Jatropha oil into benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) aromatics. The produced catalyst was characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD). The catalytic performance was evaluated by gas chromatography (GC). The liquid products were 70 wt% of the feed oil, and the majority of the liquid products were BTX. The aromatization activity of the catalyst was improved by the addition of PTA and the hierarchical process. The favorable PTA amount was 20 wt% and the yield of BTX was 59 wt% at 380 °C, 3 MPa, H2/oil (v/v) = 1000 and LHSV = 1 h-1 over the PTA20-NiMo/HZ0.5 catalyst (PTA 20 wt%) without sulfurization.

  9. Regulation of fission yeast morphogenesis by PP2A activator pta2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Bernal

    Full Text Available Cell polarization is key for the function of most eukaryotic cells, and regulates cell shape, migration and tissue architecture. Fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells are cylindrical and polarize cell growth to one or both cell tips dependent on the cell cycle stage. Whereas microtubule cytoskeleton contributes to the positioning of the growth sites by delivering polarity factors to the cell ends, the Cdc42 GTPase polarizes secretion via actin-dependent delivery and tethering of secretory vesicles to plasma membrane. How growth is restricted to cell tips and how re-initiation of tip growth is regulated in the cell cycle remains poorly understood. In this work we investigated the function of protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A in S. pombe morphogenesis by deleting the evolutionary conserved PTPA-type regulatory subunit that we named pta2. pta2-deleted cells showed morphological defects and altered growth pattern. Consistent with this, actin patches and active Cdc42 were mislocalized in the pta2 deletion. These defects were additive to the lack of Cdc42-GAP Rga4. pta2Δ cells show upregulated Cdc42 activity and pta2 interacts genetically with polarisome components Tea1, Tea4 and For3 leading to complete loss of cell polarity and rounded morphology. Thus, regulation of polarity by PP2A requires the polarisome and involves Pta2-dependent control of Cdc42 activity.

  10. Highly efficient aldol additions of DHA and DHAP to N-Cbz-amino aldehydes catalyzed by L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate and L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolases in aqueous borate buffer. (United States)

    Garrabou, Xavier; Calveras, Jordi; Joglar, Jesús; Parella, Teodor; Bujons, Jordi; Clapés, Pere


    Aldol addition reactions of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to N-Cbz-amino aldehydes catalyzed by L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase (RhuA) in the presence of borate buffer are reported. High yields of aldol adduct (e.g. 70-90%) were achieved with excellent (>98 : 2 syn/anti) stereoselectivity for most S or R configured acceptors, which compares favorably to the reactions performed with DHAP. The stereochemical outcome was different and depended on the N-Cbz-amino aldehyde enantiomer: the S acceptors gave the syn (3R,4S) aldol adduct whereas the R ones gave the anti (3R,4R) diastereomer. Moreover, the tactical use of Cbz protecting group allows simple and efficient elimination of borate and excess of DHA by reverse phase column chromatography or even by simple extraction. This, in addition to the use of unphosphorylated donor nucleophile, makes a useful and expedient methodology for the synthesis of structurally diverse iminocyclitols. The performance of aldol additions of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to N-Cbz-amino aldehydes using RhuA and L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase (FucA) catalyst in borate buffer was also evaluated. For FucA catalysts, including FucA F131A, the initial velocity of the aldol addition reactions using DHAP were between 2 and 10 times faster and the yields between 1.5 and 4 times higher than those in triethanolamine buffer. In this case, the retroaldol velocities measured for some aldol adducts were lower than those without borate buffer indicating some trapping effect that could explain the improvement of yields.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosio, M.; Gallo, G.; Pozzi, R.;


    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC-PTA...

  12. NiO-PTA supported on ZIF-8 as a highly effective catalyst for hydrocracking of Jatropha oil. (United States)

    Liu, Jing; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Li, Rong; Chen, Pan; Rao, Xin; Deng, Lihong; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu


    Nickel oxide (NiO) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on a ZIF-8 (NiO-PTA/ZIF-8) catalyst was first synthesized and it showed high activity and good selectivity for the hydrocracking of Jatropha oil. The catalyst was characterized by SEM, SEM-EDS, TEM, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, XRD and XPS. Compared with the NiO-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst, the selectivity of C15-C18 hydrocarbon increased over 36%, and catalytic efficiency increased 10 times over the NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst. The prepared NiO-PTA/ZIF-8 catalyst was stable for a reaction time of 104 h and the kinetic behavior was also analyzed. This catalyst was found to bypass the presulfurization process, showing promise as an alternative to sulfided catalysts for green diesel production.

  13. BP to Increase Production Capacity of PTA at BP Zhuhai Chemical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    BP has announced a strategic plan for its substantial development in China. It is actively proceeding with its project to increase its production capacity of purified terephthalic acid, or PTA, at the BP Zhuhai Chemical Company Limited facility i n Guangdong, China.

  14. Process mapping of PTA and stent placement in a university hospital interventional radiology department. (United States)

    de Bucourt, Maximilian; Busse, Reinhard; Güttler, Felix; Reinhold, Thomas; Vollnberg, Bernd; Kentenich, Max; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgräber, Ulf K


    To apply the process mapping technique in an interdisciplinary approach in order to visualize, better understand, and efficiently organize percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement procedures in a university hospital's interventional radiology department. After providing an overview of seven established mapping techniques for medical professionals, the process mapping technique was chosen and applied in an interdisciplinary approach including referrers (physicians, nurses, and other staff in referring departments, e.g., vascular surgery), providers (interventional radiologists, nurses, technicians, and staff of the angiography suite), and specialists of the hospital's controlling department. A generally binding and standardized process map was created, describing the entire procedure for a patient in whom the radiological intervention of PTA or stent treatment is contemplated from admission to the department of vascular surgery until discharge after successful treatment. This visualization tool assists in better understanding (especially given natural staff fluctuation over time) and efficiently organizing PTA and stent procedures. Process mapping can be applied for streamlining workflow in healthcare, especially in interdisciplinary settings. By defining exactly what a business entity does, who is responsible, to what standard a process should be completed, and how the success can be assessed, this technique can be used to eliminate waste and inefficiencies from the workplace while providing high-quality goods and services easily, quickly, and inexpensively. Process mapping can be used in a university hospital's interventional radiology department. • Process mapping can describe the patient's entire process from admission to PTA/stent placement until discharge. • Process mapping can be used in interdisciplinary teams (e.g., referrers, providers, and controlling specialists). • Process mapping can be used in order to more efficiently

  15. Rational minimally invasive treatment of pAOD: when should a conservative approach, PTA, or stent be chosen?; Rationale minimal-invasive Therapie der pAVK: wann konservativ, wann PTA, wann Stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein der Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Kiel (Germany)


    In order to obtain optimal results and satisfied patients, rational therapy of pAOD should strictly follow national and international society guidelines. In particular cases an individual therapeutic concept seems justified beyond these guidelines. Based on clinical data and driven by costs, aortic and iliac lesions may be treated by PTA or selective stent placement with equal results; however, long-term data justify also primary, direct stenting. For treatment of infrainguinal and popliteal stenotic lesions primary stenting should be restricted to PTA failure (dissection, recoil, occlusion); except for treatment of extended lesions, primary stenting compared to PTA alone seems beneficial in terms of midterm patency. Endovascular procedures below the knee and at the toe should be limited to existing limb-threatening ischemia in order to save the extremity; whether PTA or stenting is advantageous has not yet determined. (orig.) [German] Die rationale Therapie der peripheren arteriellen Verschlusskrankheit (pAVK) sollte in Anlehnung an Richtlinien der nationalen und internationalen Fachgesellschaften erfolgen, um in hohem Masse ein klinisch optimales und zufrieden stellendes Behandlungsergebnis fuer den Patienten zu erreichen. Im Einzelfall muss allerdings eine individuelle Therapiestrategie ausserhalb der Richtlinien entwickelt werden. Basierend auf gleichwertigen klinischen Daten und Kostengruenden sind aortal und in besonderem Masse iliakal die alleinige perkutane transluminale Angioplastie (PTA) und/oder selektive Stentimplantation zu bevorzugen, wenngleich ausgezeichnete Langzeitergebnisse auch eine direkte, primaere Stentimplantation rechtfertigen. Infrainguinal und popliteal hingegen sollten Stents nicht primaer zur Behandlung stenosierender Veraenderungen eingesetzt werden, sondern nur nach fehlgeschlagener PTA (Dissektion, Recoil, Verschluss); lediglich zur Behandlung langstreckiger Veraenderungen koennte eine Stentimplantation Vorteile gegenueber einer

  16. Breeding and Genotyping of PTA-1-/-/ApoE-/-Double-gene Knockout Mice%PTA-1-/-/ApoE-/-双基因敲除小鼠的繁育及基因型鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董子龙; 庄然; 张宇丝; 金伯泉; 张圆


    目的 建立(PTA-1-/-/ApoE-/-)双基因敲除小鼠(double-gene knockout,DKO)模型,探讨该小鼠的繁育及鉴定方法,为进一步利用该小鼠研究相关疾病奠定基础.方法 将引进的PTA-1-/-及ApoE-/-基因敲除小鼠通过杂交和互交的方法进行繁殖,以得到DKO小鼠.结果 经过PCR基因鉴定的方法证实PTA-1-/-/ApoE-/-双基因敲除小鼠繁育成功.结论 正确的饲养繁殖及鉴定方法是获得该DKO纯合子小鼠的有效途径.%Objective To breed and identify the PTA-1-/-/ApoE-/- double-gene knockout (DKO) mice and to establish an animal model to further study the role of PTA-1 molecule in diseases. Method PTA-1 gene knockout mice were paired with the ApoE gene knockout mice in different ways. Genomic DNA were isolated from the tails and analyzed by PCR. Result Genotyping analysis identified that we established PTA-1 -/-/ApoE-/- DKO mice successfully. Conclusion It is feasible to breed PTA-1 -/-/ApoE-/- DKO mice with the PTA-1 and ApoE gene knockout mice. PCR can be used to identify the genotype of the DKO mice precisely.

  17. Neointimal Hyperplasia after Silverhawk Atherectomy versus Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) in Femoropopliteal Stent Reobstructions: A Controlled, Randomized Pilot Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodmann, Marianne, E-mail:; Rief, Peter; Froehlich, Harald; Dorr, Andreas; Gary, Thomas; Eller, Philipp; Hafner, Franz [Medical University of Graz, Division of Angiology (Austria); Deutschmann, Hannes [Medical University Graz, Division of Interventional Radiology (Austria); Seinost, Gerald; Pilger, Ernst [Medical University of Graz, Division of Angiology (Austria)


    Due to intimal hyperplasia instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment is still an unsolved problem. Different techniques have been discussed in case of reintervention to guarantee longlasting patency rate. We conducted a randomized, controlled, pilot trial comparing Silverhawk atherectomy with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with a first instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment, to evaluate intima media thickness (IMT) within the treated segment, as a parameter of recurrence of intimal hyperplasia. In a total 19 patients were included: 9 patients in the atherectomy device and 10 patients in the PTA arm. IMT within the treated segment was statistically significantly elevated in all patients treated with the Silverhawk device versus the patients treated with PTA. The obvious differentiation in elevation of IMT in nonfavor for patients treated with the Silverhawk device started at month 2 (max IMT SH 0.178 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.1 mm, p = 0.001) with a spike at month 5 (max IMT SH 0.206 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.145 mm, p = 0.003) and a decline once again at month 6 (max IMT SH 0.177 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.121 mm, p = 0.02). The values for mean IMT performed the same way. Although Silverhawk atherectomy provides good results at first sight, in the midterm follow-up of treatment of first instent restenosis it did not perform better than PTA as it showed elevated reoccurrence of intimal media hyperplasia.

  18. Plasma Transferred ARC (PTA Hardfacing of Recycled Hardmetal Reinforced Nickel-matrix Surface Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadi ZIKIN


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to apply coarse recycled hardmetal particles in combination with Ni-based matrix to produce wear resistant metal matrix composite (MMC thick coatings using plasma transferred arc hardfacing (PTA technology. Assignment of hardmetal waste as initial material can significantly decrease the production costs and improve the mechanical properties of coatings and, consequently, increase their wear resistance. The microstructure of MMC fabricated from a recycled powder was examined by optical and SEM/EDS microscopes, whereas quantitative analyses were performed by image analysis method. Micro-mechanical properties, including hardness and elastic modulus of features, were measured by nanoindentation. Furthermore, behaviour of materials subjected to abrasive and impact conditions was studied. Results show the recycled powder provides hardfacings of high quality which can be successfully used in the fabrication of wear resistant MMC coatings by PTA-technology.DOI:

  19. Effect of Heat Treatment on Wear Resistance of Nickel Aluminide Coatings Deposited by HVOF and PTA (United States)

    Benegra, M.; Santana, A. L. B.; Maranho, O.; Pintaude, G.


    This study aims to compare the wear resistance of nickel aluminide coatings deposited using plasma transferred arc (PTA) and high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) processes. Wear resistance was measured in rubber wheel abrasion tests. In both deposition processes, the same raw material (nickel aluminide powder) was atomized and deposited on a 316L steel plate substrate. After deposition, specimens were subjected to thermal cycling, aiming solubilization and precipitation. Coatings deposited using PTA developed different microstructures as a result of the incorporation of substrate elements. However, despite the presence of these microstructures, they performed better than coatings processed using HVOF before the heat treatment. After thermal cycling, the superficial hardness after the wear tests for both processes was similar, resulting in similar mass losses.

  20. World-class PTA Project of BP Put into Production in Zhuhai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The first-phase project of Zhuhai BP Chemical Co Ltd - the 350,000-ton PTA production facility - was put into production on September 9 in Zhuhai,Guangdong Province. The letter of intent for this project was signed in 1989, but construction did not start until October 2000. The first phase project,which draws an investment of US$360million, was completed and put into commissioning in January this year.

  1. Technology assessment in Non-PTA countries: an overview of recent developments in Europe


    Boavida, Nuno; António B. Moniz


    Paper based on the text to be published in Moniz, A.B. and Okuwada, K. (2016), Technology Assessment in Japan and Europe, Karlsruhe, KIT Scientific Publishing This work aims to describe the latest developments in European countries or regions that lack a structure to develop Parliamentary Technology Assessment activities (named non-PTA). They are countries or regions where parliamentary-oriented technology assessment activities have not yet resulted in a formal structure, but where these a...

  2. Numerical Modeling of Helium Pressurization System of Propulsion Test Article (PTA) (United States)

    Steadman, Todd; Majumdar, Alok; Holt, Kimberly


    A transient model of the Propulsion Test Article (PTA) Helium Pressurization System was developed using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The model included feed lines from the facility interface to the engine purge interface and Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Rocket Propellant 1 (RP-1) tanks, the propellant tanks themselves including ullage space and propellant feed lines to their respective pump interfaces. GFSSP's capability was extended to model a control valve to maintain ullage pressure within a specified limit and pressurization processes such as heat transfer between ullage gas, propellant and the tank wall. The purpose of the model is to predict the flow system characteristics in the entire pressurization system during 80 seconds of lower feed system priming, 420 seconds of fuel and LOX pump priming and 150 seconds of engine firing. Subsequent to the work presented here, the PTA model has been updated to include the LOX and RP-1 pumps, while the pressurization option itself has been modified to include the effects of mass transfer. This updated model will be compared with PTA test data as it becomes available.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107. (United States)

    Sosio, Margherita; Gallo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Roberta; Serina, Stefania; Monciardini, Paolo; Bera, Agnieska; Stegmann, Evi; Weber, Tilmann


    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC-PTA-5024 consists of 8,543,819 bp, with a 71.2% G+C content and 7,860 protein-coding genes.

  4. Construction and characterization of pta gene-deleted mutant of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid fermentation. (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Liu, Xiaoguang; Yang, Shang-Tian


    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium, producing butyrate and acetate as its main fermentation products. In order to decrease acetate and increase butyrate production, integrational mutagenesis was used to disrupt the gene associated with the acetate formation pathway in C. tyrobutyricum. A nonreplicative integrational plasmid containing the phosphotransacetylase gene (pta) fragment cloned from C. tyrobutyricum by using degenerate primers and an erythromycin resistance cassette were constructed and introduced into C. tyrobutyricum by electroporation. Integration of the plasmid into the homologous region on the chromosome inactivated the target pta gene and produced the pta-deleted mutant (PTA-Em), which was confirmed by Southern hybridization. SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis results indicated that protein expression was changed in the mutant. Enzyme activity assays using the cell lysate showed that the activities of PTA and acetate kinase (AK) in the mutant were reduced by more than 60% for PTA and 80% for AK. The mutant grew more slowly in batch fermentation with glucose as the substrate but produced 15% more butyrate and 14% less acetate as compared to the wild-type strain. Its butyrate productivity was approximately 2-fold higher than the wild-type strain. Moreover, the mutant showed much higher tolerance to butyrate inhibition, and the final butyrate concentration was improved by 68%. However, inactivation of pta gene did not completely eliminate acetate production in the fermentation, suggesting the existence of other enzymes (or pathways) also leading to acetate formation. This is the first-reported genetic engineering study demonstrating the feasibility of using a gene-inactivation technique to manipulate the acetic acid formation pathway in C. tyrobutyricum in order to improve butyric acid production from glucose.

  5. The sucrose transporter family in Populus: the importance of a tonoplast PtaSUT4 to biomass and carbon partitioning. (United States)

    Payyavula, Raja S; Tay, Kate H C; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Harding, Scott A


    Plasma membrane, proton-coupled Group II sucrose symporters (SUT) mediate apoplastic phloem loading and sucrose efflux from source leaves in Arabidopsis and agricultural crop species that have been studied to date. We now report that the most abundantly expressed SUT isoform in Populus tremula×alba, PtaSUT4, is a tonoplast (Group IV) symporter. PtaSUT4 transcripts were readily detected in conducting as well as mesophyll cells in stems and source leaves. In comparison, Group II orthologs PtaSUT1 and PtaSUT3 were very weakly expressed in leaves. Both Group II and Group IV SUT genes were expressed in secondary stem xylem of Populus. Transgenic poplars with RNAi-suppressed PtaSUT4 exhibited increased leaf-to-stem biomass ratios, elevated sucrose content in source leaves and stems, and altered phenylpropanoid metabolism. Transcript abundance of several carbohydrate-active enzymes and phenylalanine ammonia-lyases was also altered in transgenic source leaves. Nitrogen-limitation led to a down-regulation of vacuolar invertases in all plants, which resulted in an augmentation of sucrose pooling and hexose depletion in source leaves and secondary xylem of the transgenic plants. These results are consistent with a major role for PtaSUT4 in orchestrating the intracellular partitioning, and consequently, the efflux of sucrose from source leaves and the utilization of sucrose by lateral and terminal sinks. Our findings also support the idea that PtaSUT4 modulates sucrose efflux and utilization in concert with plant N-status.

  6. Characterization of Fe-Cr-B based coatings produced by HVOF and PTA processes (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Jun; Grossi, Stephanie; Kweon, Young-Gak


    Two Fe-Cr-B based gas atomized powders, Armacor M and 16, were thermally sprayed on a low carbon steel substrate, using the HVOF (High Velocity Oxygen Fuel) process. Armacor M was also weld-surfaced with the PTA (Plasma Transferred Arc) process. The resultant deposits were subsequently characterized, using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness measurement. The effects of heat treatment were also studied for HVOF-sprayed coatings. The wear performance of the coatings was investigated by two-body abrasive wear tests. The results of microstructural analysis of as-sprayed deposits revealed oxide and boride phases such as Fe3O4 and Cr1.65F0.35B0.96 in an α matrix for the HVOF-sprayed Armacor 16 coating, and only the boride phases (Cr1.65F0.35B0.96 and Cr2B) in an α matrix for the HVOFsprayed Armacor M coating. PTA weld-surfaced Armacor M coating contains needle-type long precipitates of Cr2B) and Cr1.65F0.35B0.96, in the α matrix. The hardness of the HVOF-sprayed Armacor 16 coating after heat treatment was substantially less than that of the as-sprayed coating due to the phase transformation from α to γ phase. Heat treatments of the HVOF-sprayed Armacor M coating did not produce changes in phase and its hardness decreased as compared to that of the as-sprayed coating. While HVOF-sprayed and PTA weld-surfaced Armacor M coatings have the same hardness, the latter shows better abrasive wear resistance because of the size and orientation of its boride phases. The broadening of the XRD patterns and the increase in hardness after wear testing suggest that the transformation from the crystalline to the amorphous structure occurred on the uppermost layer during wear testing.

  7. Persistent primitive trigeminal arteries (PTA) and its variant (PTAV): analysis of 103 cases detected in 16,415 cases of MRA over 3 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' uchi, Eri; O' uchi, Toshihiro [Kameda Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)


    The primitive persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common carotid-basilar anastomosis, but because of its extremely low incidence, it is poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to clarify the features of PTA and its variants (PTAV) based on a large magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) series. MRA was performed on continuous 16,415 patients (8,610 males and 7,805 females) between October 2005 and September 2008 using two 1.5-T systems and one 1.0-T system. These all MRAs were evaluated by neuroradiologists. The incidence of both PTA and PTAV was 0.68% (48 cases of PTA, 50 cases of PTAV, and five unclassified). Among them, 65 cases originated from the left internal carotid artery and 38 from the right. There were 44 cases of lateral type PTA and four cases of medial type. Hypoplasia of the basilar artery proximal to the union of PTA was recognized as follows: no hypoplasia in 12 cases, moderate hypoplasia in 22 cases, and severe hypoplasia in 13 cases. Distance from SCA and the union was an average of 6.7 mm. Four cases of pre- and postoperative cerebral aneurysms were recognized in 103 cases (3.9%). We have identified details of both PTA/PTAV. The incidence of PTA was similar to previous studies, and the co-existence of cerebral aneurysm was also similar when compared to patients in the general population without PTA or PTAV. (orig.)

  8. Research on Synthesis of DADHB/PTA/SWNT-COOH Complex%DADHB/PTA/SWNT-COOH复合物合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 宋元军; 胡桢; 黄玉东; 赵蕾; 宋波; 林宏



  9. P(TA) macro-, micro-, nanoparticle-embedded super porous p(HEMA) cryogels as wound dressing material. (United States)

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Silan, Coskun


    Super porous poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA)) cryogel was successfully synthesized by using polyethylene glycol diacrylate (p(EGDA)) crosslinker under cryogenic conditions. Poly(Tannic acid) (p(TA)) macro-, micro-, and nanoparticles prepared from a natural polyphenol, tannic acid (TA), were embedded into p(HEMA) cryogel networks to obtain composite p(TA) particle-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel. Different size ranges of spherical p(TA) particles, 2000-500μm, 500-200μm, 200-20μm, and 20-0.5μm size, were included in the cryogel network and illustrated by digital camera, optic microscope, and SEM images of the microgel-cryogel network. The swelling properties and moisture content of p(TA) microgel-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel were investigated at wound healing pH conditions such as pH5.4, 7.4, and 9 at 37.5°C, and the highest swelling capacity was found at pH9 with 972±2% swelling in 30s. Higher amounts of DI water were quickly absorbed by p(HEMA)-based cryogel, and moisture retention within the cryogel structure for a longer time period at room temperature is due to existence of p(TA) particles. Degradation profiles of p(TA) particle-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel were shown to be controlled by different pH conditions, and a linear release profile was found with total cumulative release of 5.8±0.8mg/g TA up to 12days at pH7.4 and 37.5°C. The antioxidant behavior of degraded p(TA) particles from p(HEMA) cryogel were found as 46±1μgmL(-1) gallic acid equivalent and 165±18mMtroloxequivalentg(-1). The p(TA) particle-embedded p(HEMA) cryogel has high hemocompatibility with 0.0158±0.0126% hemolysis ratio, and effective hemostatic properties with 8.1±0.9 blood clotting index.

  10. High speed wind tunnel tests of the PTA aircraft. [Propfan Test Assessment Program (United States)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Little, B. H., Jr.


    Propfans, advanced highly-loaded propellers, are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds, giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan-powered aircraft. NASA is currently sponsoring the Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) to provide basic data on the structural integrity and acoustic performance of the propfan. The program involves installation design, wind-tunnel tests, and flight tests of the Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan in a wing-mount tractor installation on the Gulfstream II aircraft. This paper reports on the high-speed wind-tunnel tests and presents the computational aerodynamic methods that were employed in the analyses, design, and evaluation of the configuration. In spite of the complexity of the configuration, these methods provide aerodynamic predictions which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  11. Acetate fluxes in Escherichia coli are determined by the thermodynamic control of the Pta-AckA pathway (United States)

    Enjalbert, Brice; Millard, Pierre; Dinclaux, Mickael; Portais, Jean-Charles; Létisse, Fabien


    Escherichia coli excretes acetate upon growth on fermentable sugars, but the regulation of this production remains elusive. Acetate excretion on excess glucose is thought to be an irreversible process. However, dynamic 13C-metabolic flux analysis revealed a strong bidirectional exchange of acetate between E. coli and its environment. The Pta-AckA pathway was found to be central for both flux directions, while alternative routes (Acs or PoxB) play virtually no role in glucose consumption. Kinetic modelling of the Pta-AckA pathway predicted that its flux is thermodynamically controlled by the extracellular acetate concentration in vivo. Experimental validations confirmed that acetate production can be reduced and even reversed depending solely on its extracellular concentration. Consistently, the Pta-AckA pathway can rapidly switch from acetate production to consumption. Contrary to current knowledge, E. coli is thus able to co-consume glucose and acetate under glucose excess. These metabolic capabilities were confirmed on other glycolytic substrates which support the growth of E. coli in the gut. These findings highlight the dual role of the Pta-AckA pathway in acetate production and consumption during growth on glycolytic substrates, uncover a novel regulatory mechanism that controls its flux in vivo, and significantly expand the metabolic capabilities of E. coli. PMID:28186174

  12. Preparation and characterization of hybrid Nafion/silica and Nafion/silica/PTA membranes for redox flow batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glibin, V.; Pupkevich, V.; Svirko, L.; Karamanev, D. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering


    Redox flow batteries are both efficient and cost-effective. However, the long-term stability of most ion-exchange membranes is limited as a result of the high oxidation rates of ions with high redox potentials. A method of synthesizing multi-component Nafion-silica and Nafion-silica-PTA membranes was presented in this study, which also investigated the electrochemical and ion transport properties of the membranes. Membranes were cast from dimethylformamide (DMFA) solution. The iron ion diffusion kinetics of the Nafion-silica and Nafion-silica PTA membranes were studied by dialysis. Results of the investigation demonstrated that the introduction of silica and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) into the Nafion membrane composition resulted in a significant decrease of ion transfer through the membrane. The addition of PTA also increased membrane permeability to ferric ions. The low iron diffusion coefficient and high ionic conductivity of the Nafion-silica membrane makes it a promising material for use in redox flow batteries. 4 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  13. New water-soluble azido- and derived tetrazolato-platinum(II) complexes with PTA. Easy metal-mediated synthesis and isolation of 5-substituted tetrazoles. (United States)

    Smoleński, Piotr; Mukhopadhyay, Suman; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Charmier, M Adília Januário; Pombeiro, Armando J L


    The water-soluble four- and five-coordinate diazido-platinum(II) complexes cis-[Pt(N3)2(PTA)2] (1) (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane), cis-[Pt(N3)2(Me-PTA)2]I2 (2) (Me-PTA = N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane cation) and [Pt(N3)2(PTA)3] (3) were obtained by reactions of cis-[Pt(N3)2(PPh3)2] with PTA or [Me-PTA]I in dichloromethane. [2 + 3] cycloadditions of with organonitriles NCR gave the bis(tetrazolato) complexes trans-[Pt(N4CR)2(PTA)2] (R = Ph (4), 4-ClC6H4 (5) or 3-NC5H4 (6)), the reactions being greatly accelerated by microwave irradiation. 5-R-1H-Tetrazoles N4CR (R = Ph, 4-ClC6H4 and 3-NC5H4) were easily liberated from the tetrazolato complexes and isolated in high yields, in a single-pot process, upon reaction with aqueous diluted HCl, with concomitant formation of the water soluble cis-[Pt(Cl)2(PTA-H)2] complex 7. Alternatively, in a less convenient method, the tetrazoles could be liberated on reaction of 4-6 with propionitrile which also leads to the dicyano trans-[Pt(CN)2(PTA)2] complex 8. The compounds were characterized by IR, 1H, 13C and 31P[1H] NMR spectroscopies, FAB+-MS or ESI-MS, elemental analyses and (for and 4) also by X-ray diffraction.

  14. PTA装置氢气回收方法分析%Analysis of hydrogen recovery process of PTA plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红坤; 崔国刚; 陈学佳; 杨立平; 孙爱军


    The hydrogen utilization and emission situation was introduced during the production of purified terephthalic acid ( PTA) .The necessity of hydrogen recovery process was put forward for PTA plants .The widely applied hydrogen recovery tech-niques were analyzed , including cryogenic separation , pressure swing adsorption and membrane separation .Their advantages and disadvantages were compared .The hydrogen recovery technological process was preliminarily designed for PTA plants and its eco -nomical efficiency was predicted .The membrane separation technique was suitable for the hydrogen recovery of PTA plants due to the advantages of high recovered hydrogen concentration and low investment .The consumption of hydrogen , nitrogen and steam could be considerably decreased as the membrane separation technique was applied in the hydrogen recovery of PTA plants .The membrane separation technique provided significant energy conservation effect and possessed wonderful prospects .%介绍了精对苯二甲酸( PTA)生产过程中氢气的使用和排放现状,指出了PTA装置氢气回收的必要性。分析了目前工业中应用较为广泛的氢气回收方法,包括深冷分离法、变压吸附法和膜分离法,对比了3种方法的优缺点。初步设计了PTA装置氢气回收工艺流程,预估了PTA装置氢气回收的经济性。膜分离法具有回收氢气浓度高、投资少等优点,用于 PTA装置氢气回收较为适合;膜分离法用于PTA 装置氢气回收后,可大幅降低装置的氢气、氮气和蒸汽的使用量,节能效果显著,具有良好的应用前景。

  15. Development and validation of a new survey: Perceptions of Teaching as a Profession (PTaP) (United States)

    Adams, Wendy


    To better understand the impact of efforts to train more science teachers such as the PhysTEC Project and to help with early identification of future teachers, we are developing the survey of Perceptions of Teaching as a Profession (PTaP) to measure students' views of teaching as a career, their interest in teaching and the perceived climate of physics departments towards teaching as a profession. The instrument consists of a series of statements which require a response using a 5-point Likert-scale and can be easily administered online. The survey items were drafted by a team of researchers and physics teacher candidates and then reviewed by an advisory committee of 20 physics teacher educators and practicing teachers. We conducted 27 interviews with both teacher candidates and non-teaching STEM majors. The survey was refined through an iterative process of student interviews and item clarification until all items were interpreted consistently and answered for consistent reasons. In this presentation the preliminary results from the student interviews as well as the results of item analysis and a factor analysis on 900 student responses will be shared.

  16. Pilot regulation of MnP-SA for treating PTA wastewater. (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Lei; Cheng, Shu-Pei; Wan, Yu-Qiu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Cheng-Jun; Yu, Hong-Xia; Luo, Xiang; Lu, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Wang, Gui-Lin; Wang, Hong-Li; Yu, Jing-Zhou; Chen, Jun


    In the pilot study of treating the purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater with the functional Strain Fhhh in the carrier activated sludge process (CASP), the ratio of COD: TN: TP and the concentrations of Cu, Mn, Se and Zn were controlled to improve the manganese peroxidase (MnP) levels for increasing the treatment efficiency. When the ratio of COD: TN: TP was 100: 0.36: 0.15 and the concentrations of Cu, Mn, Se and Zn were 0.54, 5.07, 0.00 and 0.08 mg/L, the MnP specific activity (MnP-SA) reached 689 U/L, and the sludge loading rate to COD(SLRC) was 1.09 d(-l), which was 4--7 fold of that in other processes reported. The data indicated that improving MnP level could enhance the degradability of Fhhh. And the potentials of Fhhh and CASP will be also discussed in this paper.

  17. Pilot regulation of MnP-SA for treating PTA wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shi-lei; ZHANG Xiao-chun; WANG Gui-lin; WANG Hong-li; YU Jing-zhou; Chen Jun; CHENG Shu-pei; WAN Yu-qiu; ZHANG Xu-xiang; SHI Lei; ZHU Cheng-jun; YU Hong-xia; LUO Xiang; LU Jian-hua


    In the pilot study of treating the purified terephthalic acid(PTA) wastewater with the functional Strain Fhhh in the carrier activated sludge process(CASP), the ratio of COD:TN:TP and the concentrations of Cu, Mn, Se and Zn were controlled to improve the manganese peroxidase(MnP) levels for increasing the treatment efficiency. When the ratio of COD: TN: TP was 100: 0.36: 0.15 and the concentrations of Cu, Mn, Se and Zn were 0.54, 5.07, 0.00 and 0.08 mg/L, the MnP specific activity(MnP-SA) reached 689 U/L, and the sludge loading rate to COD(SLRC) was 1.09 d-1 , which was 4-7 fold of that in other processes reported. The data indicated that improving MnP level could enhance the degradability of Fhhh. And the potentials of Fhhh and CASP will be also discussed in this paper.

  18. A novel fast mass transfer anaerobic inner loop fluidized bed biofilm reactor for PTA wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Chen, Yingwen; Zhao, Jinlong; Li, Kai; Xie, Shitao

    In this paper, a fast mass transfer anaerobic inner loop fluidized bed biofilm reactor (ILFBBR) was developed to improve purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater treatment. The emphasis of this study was on the start-up mode of the anaerobic ILFBBR, the hydraulic loadings and the operation stability. The biological morphology of the anaerobic biofilm in the reactors was also analyzed. The anaerobic column could operate successfully for 46 days due to the pre-aerating process. The anaerobic column had the capacity to resist shock loadings and maintained a high stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) and terephthalic acid removal rates at a hydraulic retention time of 5-10 h, even under conditions of organic volumetric loadings as high as 28.8 kg COD·m(-3).d(-1). The scanning electron microscope analysis of the anaerobic carrier demonstrated that clusters of prokaryotes grew inside of pores and that the filaments generated by pre-aeration contributed to the anaerobic biofilm formation and stability.

  19. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and venous stenting in hemodialysis patients with vascular access-related venous stenosis or occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christidou, Fotini P. [Renal Unit, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalpakidis, Vasilios I. [Department of Radiology, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Iatrou, Kostas D. [Department of Radiology, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Zervidis, Ioannis A. [Department of Radiology, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Bamichas, Gerasimos I. [Renal Unit, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Gionanlis, Lazaros C. [Renal Unit, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Natse, Taisir A. [Renal Unit, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece); Sombolos, Kostas J. [Renal Unit, G.H. ' G. Papanikolaou' , Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail:


    Aim of the study: To present our experience with PTA and venous stenting in hemodialysis patients with vascular access (VA) related venous stenosis or occlusion. Patients - methods: We studied retrospectively 22 hemodialysis patients with VA-related venous stenosis or occlusions that were treated with PTA and subsequent stenting. The following lesions were detected by digital subtraction venography: occlusion of the brachiocephalic and/or subclavian veins in four patients, stenosis (80-90%) of the same veins in 10 patients, stenosis (80-95%) of the axillary vein in four patients, brachial vein stenosis in two patients, and cephalic vein stenosis in two patients. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 29 months (mean 15.4 {+-} 9.8 months). Primary and cumulative stent patency was recorded. Results: Twenty-two primary venous PTA-stent implantation procedures were performed using 25 stents. The initial deployment of these 25 stents was technically successful, with complete opening (>80%) of the vein's lumen in all but one patient (95.4%). The patency of the vein immediately after the stenting procedure was greater than 90% in 13 patients, 80-90% in eight patients, and less than 40% in the case involving failure. Seventeen episodes of re-obstruction occurred in 13 patients (59%), and all were treated with the same PTA-stent procedures. At the end of the study period 47 stents had been placed in patients. The 3, 6, 12 and 24-month primary patency rates were 88.3%, 65.3%, 45.6% and 25.5%, respectively. Overall cumulative stent patency was 95.4% after 3 months, 79% after 6 months, 74% after 12 months, and 62.8% after 24 months. Conclusion: PTA with primary venous stenting is an effective method for the treatment of VA-related stenosis or occlusion. However, repeat and sometimes multiple interventions are usually needed for the treatment of re-stenosis or re-occlusion episodes.

  20. Biohydrogen production from purified terephthalic acid (PTA) processing wastewater by anaerobic fermentation using mixed microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ge-Fu; Wu, Peng; Wei, Qun-Shan; Lin, Jian-yi; Liu, Hai-Ning [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Gao, Yan-Li [China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) processing wastewater was evaluated as a fermentable substrate for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production with simultaneous wastewater treatment by dark-fermentation process in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) with selectively enriched acidogenic mixed consortia under continuous flow condition in this paper. The inoculated sludge used in the reactor was excess sludge taken from a second settling tank in a local wastewater treatment plant. Under the conditions of the inoculants not less than 6.3 gVSS/L, the organic loading rate (OLR) of 16 kgCOD/m{sup 3} d, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 h and temperature of (35 {+-} 1) C, when the pH value, alkalinity and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the effluent ranged from 4.2 to 4.4, 280 to 350 mg CaCO{sub 3}/L, and -220 to -250 mV respectively, soluble metabolites were predominated by acetate and ethanol, with smaller quantities of propionate, butyrate and valerate. Stable ethanol-type fermentation was formed with the sum of ethanol and acetate concentration ratio of 70.31% to the total liquid products after 25 days operation. The H{sub 2} volume content was estimated to be 48-53% of the total biogas and the biogas was free of methane throughout the study. The average biomass concentration was estimated to be 10.82 gVSS/L, which favored H{sub 2} production efficiently. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal reached at about 45% and a specific H{sub 2} production rate achieved 0.073 L/gMLVSS d in the study. This CSTR system showed a promising high-efficient bioprocess for H{sub 2} production from high-strength chemical wastewater. (author)

  1. PTA锻焊反应器的制造%Fabrication of Forge Welding PTA Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The article introduces several key techniques for fabrication of large Cr-Mo steel forge welding reactor in PTA unit. The chemical composition of material should be controlled to improve the anti-tempered embrittlement ability for Cr-Mo steel; the advanced smelting process and forging technique should be used to assure the large forging quality;the cooling process of normalization for Cr-Mo steel head should be optimized to assure the material property;the reasonable welding process should be used to assure the welding quality of thick wall circumferential seam and reduce the fabrication cost;the overlay welding process should be optimized to assure the overlay welding quality in inner surface of reactor. Finally, it is very important for the Cr-Mo steel pressure vessel to use the proper heat treatment procedure.%本文对PTA装置上的大型铬钼钢锻焊反应器,在制造过程中的几个关键技术进行了介绍:控制材料的化学成分提高铬钼钢材料的抗回火脆化能力;采用先进的冶炼工艺和锻造技术保证大型锻件的质量;优化铬钼钢封头正火热处理中的冷却工艺来保证材料的性能指标;采用合理的焊接工艺,既保证了厚壁环焊缝的焊接质量,又降低了制造成本;优化堆焊工艺,保证了反应器内壁的堆焊质量;正确选择热处理规范,对铬钼钢压力容器至关重要。

  2. Application of streptokinase and PTA in lower limb chronic ischaemia; Zastosowanie streptokinazy i przezskornej angioplastyki w przewleklym niedokrwieniu konczyn dolnych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syberyjski, R.; Domanski, Z.; Cyrylowski, L. [Pomorska Akademia Medyczna, Szczecin (Poland)


    In 14 patients with chronic ischaemia of lower limbs, local fibrynolysis with streptokinase followed by PTA was performed in occluded arteries. The procedure was successful in 10 patients. An adverse reaction was observed in 1 patient (gingivorrhea), and a complication was noticed in another one (acute ischaemia due a trombosis). These results suggest that the method may appear as a safe alternative to a surgery treatment, and encourage to evaluate an effectiveness of the procedure in a large group of patients. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs.

  3. Mass spectrometry and UV-VIS spectrophotometry of ruthenium(II) [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex in solution. (United States)

    Peña-Méndez, Eladia María; González, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Pablo; Romerosa, Antonio; Havel, Josef


    Ruthenium(II) complexes are of great interest as a new class of cancerostatics with advantages over classical platinum compounds including lower toxicity. The stability of the [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex (I) (Cp cyclopentadienyl, mPTA N-methyl 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) in aqueous solution was studied using spectrophotometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Spectrophotometry proves that at least three different reactions take place in water. Dissolution of I leads to fast coordination of water molecules to the Ru(II) cation and then slow hydrolysis and ligand exchange of chloride and mPTA with water, hydroxide or with trifluoromethane sulfonate itself. Via MALDI and LDI of the hydrolyzed solutions the formation of singly positively charged ions of general formula RuCl(p)(Cp)(q)(mPTA)(r)(H2O)(s)(OH)(t) (p = 0-1, q = 0-1, r = 0-2, s = 0-5, t = 0-2) and of some fragment ions was shown. The stoichiometry was determined by analyzing the isotopic envelopes and computer modelling. The [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex can be stabilized in dilute hydrochloric acid or in neutral 0.15 M isotonic sodium chloride solution. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of [RuCp(PPh3)2(HdmoPTA)](OSO2CF3)2 (HdmoPTA = 3,7-H-3,7-Dimethyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane). (United States)

    Mendoza, Zenaida; Lorenzo-Luis, Pablo; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Martín-Batista, Elva; Padrón, José M; Scalambra, Franco; Romerosa, Antonio


    The complex [RuCp(PPh3)2(HdmoPTA)](OSO2CF3)2 (2; HdmoPTA = 3,7-H-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane) was synthesized and characterized. Its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex showed a more potent antiproliferative activity than cisplatin against a representative panel of human cancer cells.

  5. [Percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) in the treatment of non-penetrating injuries to the subclavian artery. A clinical case]. (United States)

    Giordanengo, F; Boneschi, M; Giorgetti, P L; Lovaria, A


    Non penetrating injuries to the subclavian vessels are uncommon. We present a case of a young patient with an isolated blunt trauma of the right subclavian artery. The patient, a 25 year-old woman, was admitted to our Institute after a motor-vehicle accident, with a physical findings of absent peripheral pulses and right clavicular fracture, confirmed by non-invasive vascular evaluation and X-ray of the chest. Diagnosis was established by an urgent selective angiography that showed a subintimal hematoma with occlusion of the vessel and peripheral ischemia of the arm. The patient clinical status (hemodynamically stable) permitted a conservative management and a transluminal percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) with a trans-femoral catheter balloon. After radiologic treatment, the patient showed good palpable peripheral pulses. Clavicular fracture was treated by esternal stabilization. We believe that in selected patients, without other serious life-threatening injures, the intimal artery injury can be treated by a conservative and now also radiologic Therapy; PTA treatment avoids morbidity and mortality associated with surgical intervention.

  6. [Clinicopathological study of the 1973 who classification and the WHO/ISUP classification in pTa bladder carcinoma]. (United States)

    Ishida, Ryo; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Yoshida, Shinri; Shiota, Takako; Nisikimi, Toshinori; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yokoi, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroaki


    To compare the usefulness of the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 classification with the WHO/International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) classification in pTa bladder tumors. A retrospective analysis was performed on 132 patients (107 men and 25 women; mean age 69 years) with a initial diagnosis of pTa bladder carcinoma. Median follow-up were 67 months. On the WHO 1973 classification, histopathological evaluation of initial diagnostic specimens revealed 51 cases with grade1, 68 cases with grade 2, 13 cases with grade3. All histological slides were examined by one genitourinary pathologist blinded with respect to clinical outcome and were classified according to the WHO/ISUP classification. Disease progression was defined as up stage (> or = pT1). Actual probability of progression-free and recurrence-free survival rate were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Log rank test was used to determine statistical difference between actual curves. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done using Cox regression analysis. The independent variables were multiplicity, histopathological grade, and adjuvant intravesical therapy. The dependent variable was disease progression and recurrence. The tumors were reclassified as low grade carcinoma in 77 and high grade carcinoma in 55. During the follow-up, 68 patients experience recurrence, 14 patients experienced disease progression. On the WHO 1973 classification, the risk of recurrence was significantly lower in patients with grade 1 compared to those with grade3 (p = 0.007). On the WHO/ISUP classification, the risk of recurrence and disease progression were significantly lower in patients with low grade compared to those with high grade (p = 0.003, P = 0.01). After adjustment for tumor multiplicity and adjuvant therapy, the relative risks of recurrence and progression in the low grade carcinoma versus the high grade carcinoma was 2.0 (95% confidence intervals 1.26-3.31), 5.6 (95% confidence intervals 1

  7. The function of platelet and T cell activation antigen 1 (PTA1) on NK cells%血小板T细胞活化抗原1分子在NK细胞上的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贇; 金伯泉; 欧阳为明; 李林; 李德敏; 朱勇; 贾卫; 刘雪松; 李琦; 张新海


    目的研究血小板T细胞活化抗原1(PTA1)分子在NK细胞杀伤过程中的作用。方法应用重导向细胞毒实验,探讨了PTA1分子对混合淋巴细胞反应中活化的NK细胞杀伤作用的影响。结果在重导向细胞毒实验中,PTA1 McAb能明显上调NK细胞及CTL的杀伤活性。结论 PTA1分子在NK细胞上具有刺激性受体的功能。%Objective To study the function of platelet and T cell activation antigen 1(PTA1) in cytotoxicity of human NK cells. Methods Redirected cytotoxicity assay (RCA) was used to detect the effect of PTA1 on cytotoxicity of NK cells generated from mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). Results In RCA, PTA1 McAb upregulated the cytotoxicity of NK cells and CTLs. Conclusion PTA1 functions as an activation receptor/membrane molecule on killer cells including NK and CTLs.

  8. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel. (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu


    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h(-1). The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment.

  9. Reasons analysis and measures for PTA large storage silo deformation%PTA大料仓变形的原因及措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍建明; 任兰英


    介绍了PTA大料仓结构,合纤公司及洛阳分公司下料、送料方式,分析了聚酯装置3台PTA大料仓变形的原因。A,B料仓变形原因为PTA架桥,大料仓氮气补充设备故障,料仓顶部呼吸阀不动作或动作不及时,C料仓变形原因是PTA架桥。对A,B和C料仓分别采取相应的措施。%The structure of PTA large storage silo,the feeding and conveying way of synthetic fiber comPany and Luoyang Petrochemical ComPany was introduced. The deformation reasons for the three PTA large storage silo of PET Plant were analysed. The deformation reasons for A,B storage silo were PTA bridging,large storage silo nitrogen suPPlement facility failure,the breathing valve on toP of the storage silo not action or action not timely. The deforma﹣tion reason for C storage silo was PTA bridging. APProPriate measures were taken for A,B and C storage silo.

  10. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu


    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h-1. The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment.

  11. Identification and characterization of a matrix metalloproteinase (Pta1-MMP) expressed during Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seed development, germination completion, and early seedling establishment. (United States)

    Ratnaparkhe, Supriya M; Egertsdotter, E M Ulrika; Flinn, Barry S


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) modifications occur during plant growth, development, and in response to environmental stimuli. Key modulators of ECM modification in vertebrates, the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have also been described in a few plants. Here, we report the identification of Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) Pta1-MMP and its characterization during seed development and germination. Pta1-MMP protein has the structural characteristics of other plant MMPs, the recombinant protein exhibits Zn(2+)-dependent protease activity, and is inhibited by EDTA and the active site-binding hydroxamate inhibitor GM6001. The Pta1-MMP gene is expressed in both embryo and megagametophyte, with transcript levels increasing in both during the period from proembryo to early cotyledonary stage, then declining during late embryogenesis and maturation drying. Protein extracts exhibited similar developmental-stage MMP-like activity. Seed germination was stimulated by GA(3) and inhibited by ABA, and the timing of germination completion was mirrored by the presence of MMP-like protease activity in both water- and GA(3)-imbibed embryos. Pta1-MMP gene transcript levels increased in association with radicle protrusion for both GA(3)- and water-treated embryos, in agreement with MMP-like activity. In contrast, by 11 days after imbibition, Pta1-MMP gene transcripts in ABA-treated embryos were at levels similar to the other treatments, although MMP-like activity was not observed. The application of GM6001 during Loblolly pine seed germination inhibited radicle protrusion. Our results suggest that MMP activity may be involved in ECM modification, facilitating the cell division and expansion required during seed development, germination completion, and subsequent seedling establishment.

  12. The Influence of High Temperature Exposure on the Wear Performance of a Ni Based Alloy PTA Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karin Graf; Ana Sofia C.M. d'Oliveira


    Degradation phenomena like wear and corrosion, may have their effects accelerated as components operate at high temperature. The aim of this work is to make an indirect evaluation of the influence of high temperature exposure on wear behavior of Ni coatings. A Ni-Cr-Mo-W alloy, was deposited with Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) process. An indirect approach based on the Ahrrenius relationship was used to evaluated long time exposures at high temperatures. To simulate longer exposures at lower temperatures, coatings were exposed to higher temperatures for the same time interval. So coatings were soaked in an air furnace at 650℃, 1000℃ and 1200℃. Metal/metal wear behavior was evaluated by pin-on-disc tests. Pins were removed from the coatings by eletrodischarge machining and rubbed against a VC31 quenched and tempered tool steel. Two sets of wear tests were run at 2m/s, for different loads (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0Kg) and for different sliding distances (120, 720, 1080, 1440 and 1800m).Coatings characterization was done by scanning electronic microscopy and Vickers microhardness. Results showed as temperature is increased, coatings wear performance is altered,and this is associated with microstructural changes.

  13. Robust Parameter Identification to Perform the Modeling of pta and poxB Genes Deletion Effect on Escherichia Coli. (United States)

    Guerrero-Torres, V; Rios-Lozano, M; Badillo-Corona, J A; Chairez, I; Garibay-Orijel, C


    The aim of this study was to design a robust parameter identification algorithm to characterize the effect of gene deletion on Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655. Two genes (pta and poxB) in the competitive pathways were deleted from this microorganism to inhibit pyruvate consumption. This condition deviated the E. coli metabolism toward the Krebs cycle. As a consequence, the biomass, substrate (glucose), lactic, and acetate acids as well as ethanol concentrations were modified. A hybrid model was proposed to consider the effect of gene deletion on the metabolism of E. coli. The model parameters were estimated by the application of a least mean square method based on the instrument variable technique. To evaluate the parametric identifier method, a set of robust exact differentiators, based on the super-twisting algorithm, was implemented. The hybrid model was successfully characterized by the parameters obtained from experimental information of E. coli MG1655. The significant difference between parameters obtained with wild-type strain and the modified (with deleted genes) justifies the application of the parametric identification algorithm. This characterization can be used to optimize the production of different byproducts of commercial interest.

  14. The optimization of PTA purificatioin wastewater handling process%PTA精制废水处理工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於扣红; 冒永生


    Elaborate the principle of the PTA refining wastewater~ recycling system,operational condition and existing problem of the system ; to analyze the principle of impaired reveise osmosis membrane, through expriments put forward solution ; through adsorption operiation handle a little PX of waste water, in order to achieve effect of pro- tection the membrane.%阐述了PTA精制废水处理工艺即萃取-超滤-反渗透系统的原理以及该系统的运行情况及出现的问题;分析了反渗透膜受损机理,并通过实验提出了解决方案;通过吸附操作来处理废水中少量的PX,以达到保护膜的作用,从而优化了废水处理工艺;通过实验论证了方案的可行性。

  15. Influence of Processing on the Microstructure and Properties of CoCrMoSi Alloy PTA Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G Bohatch


    Full Text Available AbstractWear performance as well as the low toughness of CoCrMoSi alloys is associated with the presence of Laves phase. In light of this, alloying elements have been altered in order to reduce the brittleness of newly-cast alloys. This study evaluated coatings by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA with different interactions with the AISI 316L substrate. The higher the dilution, it was hypothesized, the higher Iron, Chromium and Nickel contents proceeding from substrate and, therefore, the lower hard Laves phase fraction. Coatings were characterized by light and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers hardness. Wear behavior was assessed by pin-on-disc and ball-on-flat tests. Laves phase and Cobalt solid solution eutectic lamellar microstructure was observed for coating processed with 120A (18% dilution. The chemical composition was displaced to hypoeutectic, showing Cobalt solid solution dendrites and interdendrictic eutectic lamellar for the coatings processed with higher current intensity (150 / 180A, due to the higher interaction with the substrate (26 / 38% dilution. Dilution increased with the deposition current, causing hardness to decrease from 702 – 526 HV0.5. Wear mass loss rate increased by up to 41.7% and friction coefficient (μ ranged from 0.45 – 1.06 as the chemical composition changed.

  16. Balloon dilatation and balloon-expandable stents for PTA of proximal venous stenoses in haemodialysis patients. Dilatation und ballonexpandierbare Stents zur Therapie zentralvenoeser Stenosen bei Dialysepatienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landwehr, P.; Lackner, K. (Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik); Goetz, R. (Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Nephrologie)


    On 10 dialysis patients we performed 12 balloon dilatations, 2 catheter lyses, 6 stent implants (Palmaz stent) and one atherectomy of central venous stenoses or occlusions (v. subclavia, v. brachiocephalica) at the shunt arm of the patient. The primary success rate was, in balloon PTA and lysis, 12/14 interventions, and in stent placement and atherectomy 7/7. The angiographical and clinical primary result after stent implantation was significantly better than after conventional dilatation. After 66% of the balloon dilatations recidivation occurred within the first year; this can be treated by means of repeated PTA. Whether long-term exclusion of recurrence can be achieved by stent implantation, must be established by means of follow-up studies that are at present in progress. (orig.).

  17. Relationship of cytokeratin 20 and CD44 protein expression with WHO/ISUP grade in pTa and pT1 papillary urothelial neoplasia. (United States)

    Desai, S; Lim, S D; Jimenez, R E; Chun, T; Keane, T E; McKenney, J K; Zavala-Pompa, A; Cohen, C; Young, R H; Amin, M B


    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of immunoreactivity of cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and CD44 across the spectrum of urothelial neoplasia using the WHO/ISUP consensus classification. A total of 120 papillary urothelial pTa and pT1 tumors (8 papillomas, 8 neoplasms of low malignant potential, and 42 low-grade and 62 high-grade carcinomas) were immunostained by using CK20 and CD44 antibodies. The relationships of tumor grade, pathologic stage, recurrences, and progression in stage with CK20 and CD44 immunoreactivity were assessed. WHO/ISUP grade correlated with tumor stage (P ISUP grade and to each other, and our data suggest their potential combined utility in predicting biologic behavior in patients with papillary urothelial pTa and pT1 neoplasms.

  18. PTA Overlaying Process Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.; Chang, J.C.; Kim, J.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    This study is concerned with the development of reuse technology for 1100 deg.C class major component of gas turbine. To get the fundamental understanding for the repair techniques by PTAW, the physical properties and microstructures of welding metal and the effect of individual welding parameters are reviewed. Moreover, by extensive analysis on the various problems following the PTAW and try to figure out the solutions, the study will help us to apply the PTAW technology on the repair works of used turbine blades. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. PTA加氢反应器国产化扩容设计与改造%Domestic capacity expansion and innovation of PTA hydrogenation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷玲; 钱枝茂


    The characteristics of Amoco process and hydrogenation reactor for purified terephthalic acid (PTA) were introduced.Based on the design principle of expanding the capacity of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) hydrogenation reactor from 225 kt/a to 350 kt/a,the process parameters design and innovation of hydrogenation reactor were discussed.The results showed that the temperature hydrogenation reactor was designed as 315 ℃,pressure 10.0 MPa,size φ 2.5 m ×9.0 m and 8 000 h running time annually when the mass fraction of crude terephthalic acid was 27% and the reaction resident time was 10 min; a new type filter was applied to decompose large eddy to protect catalysts and filter screens; the hydrogenation reactor run very well in the practical production after capacity expansion and provided qualified products with carboxybenzaldehyde content below 25 μg/g;and the output of PTA plant was 720 kt/a,exceeding the designed capacity.%介绍了精对苯二甲酸(PTA)的Amoco生产工艺及加氢反应器的特点;根据加氢反应器由225 kt/a扩容至350 kt/a的设计原理,探讨了加氢反应器的工艺参数的设计与改造.结果表明:根据进料粗对苯二甲酸质量分数为27%,反应停留时间为10 min,设计加氢反应器的温度为315℃,压力为10.0 MPa,尺寸为φ2.5m×9.0m,每年操作时间8000h;改用新型过滤器来分解大涡流,以保护催化剂和过滤网;经扩容改造的加氢反应器投入生产后,运行良好,产品质量达标,对羧基苯甲醛含量小于25 μg/g,PTA装置产量达到了720 kt/a,超过了设计能力.

  20. Incidence of major amputations, bypass procedures and percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTA) in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in a German referral center 1996-2003; Inzidenzen von Major-Amputationen, Bypass-Operationen und perkutanen transluminalen Angioplastien (PTA) zur Behandlung der peripheren arteriellen Verschlusskrankheit in einer deutschen Klinik der Maximalversorgung 1996-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, W.A. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany); Inst. fuer Medizinmanagement und Gesundheitswissenschaften, Univ. Bayreuth (Germany); Freitag, M.H. [Inst. fuer Medizinmanagement und Gesundheitswissenschaften, Univ. Bayreuth (Germany); Woelfle, K.D. [Chirurgisches Zentrum, Klinik fuer Gefaesschirurgie, Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany); Bohndorf, K.; Kirchhof, K. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany)


    Purpose: To determine the current incidence of major amputations, bypass procedures and percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTA) in a study population of patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease in a German referral center. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, we recruited patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease who underwent an amputation, bypass procedure, or PTA in the region of the pelvis or lower limbs between 1996 and 2003 at the Augsburg Medical Center. Patients were identified via the hospital database. This was performed with the help of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD 9 and 10), the operation code (OPS), and appropriate invoices. The incidence of PTAs was further estimated with 200 charts. Results: Of 5379 patients, 627 underwent amputation, 1832 a bypass procedure, and 2920 a PTA. The incidence of PTAs increased during the study period from 51.3/100 000/year to 64.4/100 000/year (p<0.01), while the number of amputations and bypass procedures remained stable. The incidence of PTAs was exceeded by that of bypass procedures only in patients older than 85 years. The age of the amputees decreased during the study period from 72.2 to 70.5 years (p<0.01). The age of patients who underwent a bypass procedure increased from 67.2 to 69.4 years, and the age of patients who underwent PTA increased form 66.3 to 69.8 years (p<0.01). Bypass procedures and PTAs were performed in men 6.3 years earlier than in women (p<0.01). Conclusion: The result is a population-corrected need of 8.4/100 000/year major amputations, 23/100 000/year bypass procedures and 64.4/100 000/year PTAs for patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease within the referral area of our hospital. The performance of major amputations and bypass procedures stagnates, while the incidence of PTAs is increasing. (orig.)

  1. Determination of content of PTA in polyester paste with back titration method%返滴定法测定聚酯浆料中PTA含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红华; 吕咏梅; 袁娟


    以吡啶为溶剂测定浆料中PTA含量的方法毒性大,污染环境。返滴定法使用过量的一定浓度的KOH溶液与浆料中PTA反应,再采用电位滴定法,用硫酸标准溶液滴定过量KOH。根据消耗硫酸的体积,计算出浆料中PTA的含量。试验结果表明,返滴定法测试结果准确、快捷、无毒。%The determination of PTA with pyridine as solvent is very poisonous and pollutes the environment. Use certain amount of certain concentration KOH solution to react with PTA. Then use sulfuric acid standard solu- tion to titrate the remaining KOH by potentiometric titration, and calculate the Content of FFA in the paste. The re- sult shows that data of back titration method is precise, and the method is quick, simple and non poisonous.

  2. pta基因敲除对L-色氨酸发酵的影响%Effects of gene pta disruption on L-tryptophan fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静; 史建明; 刘倩; 徐庆阳; 谢希贤; 温廷益; 陈宁


    [Objective]To study the effects of gene pta disruption on biosynthesis of L-tryptophan.[Methods]The pta gene of the L-tryptophan producing strain E, coli TRTH was disrupted by Red recombination technology and a pta mutant E.coli TRTHΔpfa was constructed.Fed-batch fermentation of E.coli TRTHΔpfa was carried out in 30-Liter fermentor to investigate the biomass, L-tryptophan production, organic acid content and the concentration of NH4+ , lactate, pyruvate and succinate.The metabolic flux balance model of L-tryptophan synthesis by E.coli was established.Based on this model, the practical metabolic flux distribution of E.coli and its pta mutant were determined with the linear program planted in MATLAB software.[Results]Compared with E, coli TRTH, the pta mutant was able to maintain higher growth rate at exponential phase, the final biomass and the L-tryptophan production were increased by 52.7% and 46.8% respectively.Meanwhile, the data analysis of organic acids accumulated during fed-batch culture showed that the concentration of acetate was decreased to 2.5 g/L, which was only 19.5% of that of the parental strain; as the decreased concentration of succinate, the accumulation of pyruvate and lactate was increased.The concentration of Na , K , PO43-were consistent with E.coli TRTH during the fed-batch culture, the concentration of NH4+ was decreased by 33.2%.The metabolic flux analysis indicated that EMP pathway and TCA cycle were reduced by 7.4% and 32.2% respectively, but PP pathway was increased by 8.4% compared with E.coli TRTH during the middle and late period of the fed-batch culture.[Conclusion]In the process of L-tryptophan fermentation, pta gene deletion in E.coli TRTH led to change in metabolic flux and acetate content, which derepressed its inhibition on cell growth and production of L-tryptophan and finally made a substantial increase of bacterial biomass and L-tryptophan production.%[目的]探究pta基因缺失对大肠杆菌发酵生产L

  3. 废对苯二甲酸综合回收利用的优化工艺研究%Optimal Processes Study of Waste PTA Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林涛; 王键华


    研究了以废对苯二甲酸(PTA含量85 %~95 %)与甲醇为原料,对甲苯磺酸为催化剂,催化酯化得到对苯二甲酸二甲酯(DMT).通过正交实验法优化得到最佳反应条件为:50 mmol的废PTA,催化剂量为0.5 g,反应温度为130 ℃,甲醇用量为130 mL.在此反应条件下DMT平均酯化率达到(83.1±2.3) %,产物经纯化后DMT纯度达99.5 %以上.

  4. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Properties of Copper(Ⅱ) Complex [Cu(PTA)(Phen)2](p-MBA)(H2O)%[Cu(PTA)(Phen)2](p-MBA)(H2O)配合物的合成、晶体结构及电化学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖群; 李昶红; 陈志敏; 邝代治; 李薇; 陈满生


    The crystal structure of the title complex with the stoichiometric formula [Cu(PTA)(Phen)2](p-MBA)(H2O) (Phen=1,10-phenanthroline, PTA=terephthalic acid, p-MBA=p-toluic acid) has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal (C48H40CuN4O10, Mr=896.38) belongs to the monoclinic space group C2/c, with the following crystallographic parameters: a=1.778 6(3) nm, b=1.912 5(3) nm, c=1.389 9(2) nm,3=114.686(2)°, V=0.148 3 for 2 644 observed reflections (I>2σ(l)). The crystal structure shows that the copper(Ⅱ) ion is coordinated with two oxygen atoms from one terephthalic acid molecule and four nitrogen atoms from two 1,10-phenanthroline molecules, forming a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The cyclic voltametric behavior of the complex is also reported. CCDC: 298809.

  5. Processo PTA-P - uma revisão da literatura como base para inovações. Parte 1 de 2: elementos construtivos PTA-P process - a literature review as basis for innovations. Part 1 of 2: constructive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Henrique Gonçalves e Silva


    Full Text Available Em vários setores industriais estão presentes mecanismos de desgaste da superficial. Exemplos onde se observa grande impacto desse fator são as áreas de geração de energia, produção e refino de petróleo e mineração, que se caracterizam por processamento contínuo em larga escala. Como solução para este problema, são possíveis duas abordagens: o revestimento prévio das superfícies com materiais de alta resistência e a manutenção periódica. Uma opção para este procedimento é a soldagem PTA-P (Plasma com adição de pó metálico. Inserida no contexto de um projeto dedicado à Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento do processo PTA-P para geração de inovações do sistema e sua parametrização, a ampla Revisão da Literatura que se inicia neste artigo e se estende por mais um procurou incorporar não somente fatores científicos, mas também tecnológicos, com especial atenção a linhas de pesquisa atuais em centros de referência mundial. Apesar de o processo ter suas bases estabelecidas, foram verificados diferentes princípios construtivos, aplicações, vantagens e limitações. Ao longo da série, estas informações são confrontadas entre si e com conhecimento próprio gerado, de maneira crítica e sob critérios concretos. Neste primeiro artigo, são abordados aspectos históricos e conceituais e diferentes projetos de elementos construtivos fundamentais do processo, que incorrem em diferentes faixas de operação e aplicações alvo.Wear mechanisms are present in several industrial sectors and affect pieces, equipments, reservoirs and pipelines surfaces. Examples where this can be noticed are energy generation, oil production and refining and mining, characterized by large scale continuous processing. Two approaches are possible as solutions for this problem: previous surface coating with high resistance materials and periodic maintenance. An option for this procedure is PTA-P Welding (Plasma Transferred Arc with Powder as

  6. PTA装置催化燃烧系统存在问题和对策%PTA Plant of Catalytic Combustion System Problem and Counter-measurers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The paper described the PTA plant process and catalytic combustion process, found out the problems existing in the system .methanol pump switching speed is low, cause air compressor interlock. We analyzed the cause of it, the improvement measure were put forward, achieved good results. After the system redevelop, because methanol pump caused by switching the plant stops was great reduced.%文章叙述了PTA装置流程和催化燃烧工艺,指出了系统存在的问题,即甲醇泵切换速度慢,造成装置核心设备空压机联锁。分析了原因,提出了改进措施。取得了较好的效果。系统改造后.因甲醇泵切换造成装狂空压机停车的联锁次数大为减少。

  7. Microstructure and Wear Properties of FeCrC, FeW and Feti Modified Iron Based Alloy Coating Deposited by PTA Process on AISI 430 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teker T.


    Full Text Available The plasma transferred arc (PTA process was used for developing wear resistance of AISI 430 steel substrate. Appropriate quantities of FeCrC, FeW and FeTi powders were combined to create conditions that synthesized M7C3 particles into reinforced Fe-based composite surface coating. The phase transformations on new created coated surfaces were comprehensively examined by using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, microanalysis by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, microhardness and abrasive wear tests. The microstructure studies of the superficial layers of the coating revealed presence of a mixture of the dendritic phase structure of austenite (γ and fine eutectic M7C3 carbides. The results show that; the concentrations of the elements (Cr, W, Ti added as ferroalloys, the size of dendrites formed in the coated surface, the change of hardness of the coated surfaces, the carbide volume rate and thickness of the coating changed by the variation of the processing parameters (ratio of reinforcement particulates and heat input.

  8. Measurement and prediction of propeller flow field on the PTA aircraft at speeds of up to Mach 0.85. [Propfan Test Assessment (United States)

    Aljabri, Abdullah S.


    High speed subsonic transports powered by advanced propellers provide significant fuel savings compared to turbofan powered transports. Unfortunately, however, propfans must operate in aircraft-induced nonuniform flow fields which can lead to high blade cyclic stresses, vibration and noise. To optimize the design and installation of these advanced propellers, therefore, detailed knowledge of the complex flow field is required. As part of the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) program, a 1/9 scale semispan model of the Gulfstream II propfan test-bed aircraft was tested in the NASA-Lewis 8 x 6 supersonic wind tunnel to obtain propeller flow field data. Detailed radial and azimuthal surveys were made to obtain the total pressure in the flow and the three components of velocity. Data was acquired for Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 0.85. Analytical predictions were also made using a subsonic panel method, QUADPAN. Comparison of wind-tunnel measurements and analytical predictions show good agreement throughout the Mach range.

  9. 从PTA残渣中回收醋酸钴和醋酸锰的研究%Study on Recovery of Cobalt and Manganese Acetates from PTA Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘公召; 隋智通


    The extraction-crystallization method was used to recover cobalt and manganese acetates from the waste catalyst in the PTA production process .The effct of operating conditions on the recovery of cobalt and manganese acetates was studied.The experimental results indicated that the recovery can arrive to 85% under the conditions of extraction temperature 80℃,extraction time 30—45min,liquid-solid ratio 9∶1 and crystallization temperature 5℃.The recovered cobalt and manganese acetates can be reused for catalyst.%以对苯二甲酸生产装置中排放的废催化剂为原料,采用萃取—结晶法回收其中的醋酸钴和醋酸锰。研究了操作条件对醋酸钴和醋酸锰回收率的影响,实验结果表明:在萃取温度80℃,萃取时间30~45min,液固比9∶1,结晶温度5℃,分三级萃取结晶的条件下,醋酸钴和醋酸锰的回收率达85%。回收的醋酸钴和醋酸锰可以重复用作催化剂。

  10. Enhancement of the antiproliferative activity of [RuCp(PPh3)2(dmoPTA-1κP)](+)via its coordination to one {CoCl2} unit: synthesis, crystal structure and properties of [RuCp(PPh3)2-μ-dmoPTA-1κP:2κ(2)N,N'-CoCl2](OTf)·0.25H2O. (United States)

    Mendoza, Zenaida; Lorenzo-Luis, Pablo; Scalambra, Franco; Padrón, José M; Romerosa, Antonio


    Synthesis, characterization and the antiproliferative activity of a new bimetallic complex [RuCp(PPh3)2-μ-dmoPTA-1κP:2k(2)N,N'-CoCl2]OTf·0.25H2O are described. The stability of the complex was studied under air and N2 atmospheres and in CDCl3, DMSO, water and the cell culture medium, at room temperature and 40 °C. The complex showed an enhanced antiproliferative activity (up to six-fold) when compared with its parent complex [RuCp(PPh3)2(HdmoPTA)](2+) against human lung, cervix, breast, and colon solid tumor cell lines.

  11. Effects of Bacillus subtilis 'PB6' (ATCC - PTA 6737 on Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea (CDAD and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Peys


    Full Text Available The administration of probiotic bacteria is emerging as a potential means of preventing the onset or recurrence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD and of attenuating inflammatory activity and preventing relapses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. We evaluated the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ‘PB6’ (ATCC – PTA 6737 in a hamster model of antibiotic-induced CDAD and in a rat model of IBD. CDAD was induced in male Golden Syrian hamsters using C. difficile and clindamycin. These hamsters received either nothing or, by gavage, vancomycin (5 days or PB6 (low, middle and high dose, 6 days. Diarrhea, body weight loss and mortality were observed in all groups in which CDAD was induced. Intensity of diarrhea and body weight loss was least in the groups treated with vancomycin or with the highest dose of PB6. At the end of the treatment period, vancomycin and the highest dose of PB6 were equally efficient in preventing mortality in this hamster model of CDAD. No adverse effects of PB6 treatment were observed in healthy animals. In male Wistar rats, colitis was induced using a single intrarectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS. Treatments consisted of PB6 (low, middle and high dose, Saccharomyces boulardii, mesalazine, infliximab, or no treatment. A possible benefit of the prophylactic use of PB6 was also tested. At the end of the treatment period significant differences in body weight gain, in colon inflammatory edema and in gross morphology of the colon intestinal lining were observed between groups. The groups treated with high dose PB6 could not be distincted from the colitis-free negative control group nor from the group treated with mesalazine. The data presented are suggestive of possible therapeutic effectiveness of PB6 in CDAD and IBD in humans.

  12. Franklin Elementary PTA's "Sweet Success" (United States)

    Freemon, Jennifer


    Just a few short years ago, Franklin Elementary in Glendale, California, was in danger of closing its doors because enrollment was so low. The school district decided to put into place a series of language immersion programs at the site. It currently houses Spanish, Italian, and German immersion programs. These programs have boosted Franklin's…

  13. Obstructed surgical porto-systemic shunts in the early postoperative period: interventional therapy by angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement; Obstruktion chirurgischer portosystemischer Shunts in der fruehen postoperativen Phase: interventionelle Behandlung durch Angioplastie und Stentimplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunk, H.; Textor, J.; Koenig, R.; Wilhelm, K.; Schild, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Wolff, M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik


    Recurrent variceal bleeding in patients treated with surgical porto-systemic shunting is most often due to shunt stenoses or occlusion. Radiological interventional procedures are a possible method of therapy and our experience herein is described in this report. Patients and Methods: from 1997 to 1999 54 patients with recurrent variceal bleeding were treated with a surgical porto-systemic shunt procedure. Of these early shunt occlusion occurred in 5 patients, which was treated with percutaneous transcatheter techniques. Results: in only one patient was PTA alone sufficient to reestablish shunt patency, in four patient stent placement was necessary in addition. In the follow-up period 1 patient died 26 month after intervention with (autopsy-proven) patent shunt, in one patient shunt reocclusion occurred after 11 months and in 3 patients the shunt is still patent. Conclusions: PTA, if necessary in combination with stent placement, is an attractive alternative method of therapy in case of an early surgical porto-systemic shunt occlusion. (orig.) [German] Rezidivblutungen nach chirurgischer portosystemischer Shuntanlage sind meistens durch eine Shuntstenose oder einen Shuntverschluss bedingt. Hier stellen interventionelle Eingriffe einen moeglichen therapeutischen Ansatz dar, ueber den im Folgenden berichtet werden soll. Patienten und Methode: zwischen 1997 und 1999 wurde bei insgesamt 54 Patienten wegen rezidivierender Blutungen ein operativer portosystemischer Shunt angelegt. Von diesen zeigten fuenf Patienten in der unmittelbaren postoperativen Periode einen Shuntverschluss, der radiologisch interventionell therapiert wurde. Ergebnisse: bei einem der fuenf Patienten genuegte zur Wiederherstellung des Flusses eine alleinige Ballondilatation (PTA), bei vier Patienten musste zusaetzlich eine Stentimplantation durchgefuehrt werden. In der weiteren Nachsorge ist ein Pat. nach 26 Wochen mit autoptisch offenem Shunt verstorben, bei 3 Pat. ist der Shunt offen, bei einem

  14. Resistência à erosão por cavitação de aços inoxidáveis austeníticos CrMnSiN depositados por PTA Cavitation erosion resistance of CrMnSiN austenitic stainless steels deposited by PTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Ormeu Ribeiro


    Full Text Available A erosão por cavitação deteriora componentes em serviço, tais como partes metálicas de bombas de água, válvulas e, em especial, pás de turbinas hidráulicas, sendo nesse último caso responsável por elevados prejuízos ligados tanto aos custos da manutenção direta, como sobretudo às perdas por interrupção na geração de energia elétrica. Dentre os materiais aplicados no reparo por soldagem de danos por cavitação incluem-se aços inoxidáveis tradicionais tipo AISI 308 e 309, aços inoxidáveis ao Co e ligas à base de Co (stellites, caracterizando-se essas últimas pela maior sensibilidade a trincas, dificuldade de esmerilhamento e pelo mais alto custo. Nesse contexto este trabalho buscou formular, depositar e analisar o desempenho de aços inoxidáveis austeníticos CrMnSiN, soldados pelo processo PTA. A resistência à erosão por cavitação foi avaliada segundo a norma ASTM G 32-92. A microestrutura foi caracterizada por microscopia ótica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura e a formação de martensitas α' e ε, induzida pela cavitação, foi avaliada por difração de raios-X. A integridade da superfície dos depósitos foi controlada por END, além disso a dureza e a facilidade de acabamaneto por esmerilhamento serviram como critérios para avaliar os revestimentos soldados. Verificou-se que os revestimentos aplicados por PTA eram livres de trincas de solidificação, com baixa porosidade, boa molhabilidade e adequado acabamento superficial. A melhor liga inoxidável austenítica elaborada (0,03%C; 0,35% N; 13,2%Cr; 11,8% Mn; 2,8%Si; bal %Fe mostrou uma resistência à erosão por cavitação próxima aquela das principais ligas comerciais.Cavitation erosion deteriorates components like metallic parts of water pumps, valves and blades of hydraulic turbines, in this last case being responsible for high economical losses, associated to direct maintenance costs, but above all due to the interruption of the electric

  15. Altered DNA Binding and Amplification of Human Breast Cancer Suppressor Gene BRCA1 Induced by a Novel Antitumor Compound, [Ru(η6-p-phenylethacrynateCl2(pta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisorn Ratanaphan


    Full Text Available The ruthenium-based complex [Ru(η6-p-phenylethacrynateCl2(pta] (pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo-[]decane, termed ethaRAPTA, is an interesting antitumor compound. The elucidation of the molecular mechanism of drug activity is central to the drug development program. To this end, we have characterized the ethaRAPTA interaction with DNA, including probing the sequence specific modified DNA structural stability and DNA amplification using the breast cancer suppressor gene 1 (BRCA1 of human breast and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines as models. The preference of ethaRAPTA base binding is in the order A > G > T > C. Once modified, the ethaRAPTA-induced BRCA1 structure has higher thermal stability than the modified equivalents of its related compound, RAPTA-C. EthaRAPTA exhibits a higher efficiency than RAPTA-C in inhibiting BRCA1 amplification. With respect to both compounds, the inhibition of BRCA1 amplification is more effective in an isolated system than in cell lines. These data provide evidence that will help to understand the process of elucidating the pathways involved in the response induced by ethaRAPTA.

  16. Construction of Plant Expression Vectors Containing Two Anti - insect Genes pCAMBIA3300 - bt - pta%植物表达双价抗虫载体pCAMBIA3300-bt-pta的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本研究将苏云金芽孢杆菌(bt)与半夏凝集素抗虫基因(pta)两类抗虫基因连接到具有高效性的植物表达载体pCAMBIA3300中,重组表达质粒分别经过ApaⅡ单酶切及xhoⅠ和KpnⅠ双酶切鉴定、分析后,实验结果表明含有双价抗虫基因pCAMBIA3300-bt-pta的植物重组表达质粒已构建成功。%Two insect -resistant genes, Ternata leetin gene ( Pta ) and Bacillusthuringiensis ( bt ), were ligated into the plant expression vectors, pCAMBIA3300. The recombinant plasmids were confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis and the results showed that these recombinant plasmids were constructed successfully.

  17. Fuzzy Support Vector Regression Model of 4-CBA Concentration for Industrial PTA Oxidation Process%工业PTA氧化工程中4-CBA浓度的模糊支持向量回归模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英; 苏宏业; 刘瑞兰; 褚健


    In the past few years, support vector machines (SVMs) have been applied to many fields, such as pattern recognition and data mining, etc. However there still exist some problems to be solved. One of them is that the SVM is very sensitive to outliers or noises because of over-fitting problem. In this paper, a fuzzy support vector regression (FSVR) method is presented to deal with this problem. Strategies based on k nearest neighbor (kNN) and support vector data description (SVDD) are adopted to set the fuzzy membership values of data points in FSVR.The proposed FSVR soft sensor models based on kNN and SVDD are employed to predict the concentration of 4-carboxy-benzaldehyde (4-CBA) in purified terephthalic acid (PTA) oxidation process. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method indeed reduces the effect of outliers and yields higher accuracy.

  18. 厌氧折流板反应器处理PTA废水及其相分离特性%Terephthalic acid(PTA) wastewater treated by anaerobic baffled reactor and its phase separation characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠林; 钟中; 韩萍芳; 吕效平


    The start-up and phase separation characteristics of the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater were investigated. Results showed that under these conditions the temperature was (35 ± 1) ℃ , hydraulic retention time was 40 h and volumetric loading rate was 3.60 kg/(m3·d) , the ABR started up successfully and the maximum removal efficiency of COD reached 80% after 62 d operation. The concentration of volatile fatty acids ( VFA) in the different compartments of ABR decreased along the flow direction, In contrast, the content of CH4 , the volatile suspended solid (VSS) , the ratio of VSS and the total suspended solid (TSS) , the specific methane production activities and the coenzyme F420 increased, the significant phase separation characteristics.%对厌氧折流板反应器(ABR)处理精对苯二甲酸(PTA)生产废水的启动及相分离过程进行研究.结果表明:经过62 d的运行,反应器在(35±1)℃、水力停留时间40 h、容积负荷3.60 kg/(m3·d)的条件下,最大COD去除率达到80%以上,ABR启动成功.沿着水流方向,不同格室中挥发性脂肪酸(VFA)浓度依次减小,CH4含量不断增加,且污泥中挥发性悬浮固体浓度(VSS)及其与总悬浮固体浓度(TSS)之比、产甲烷活性和辅酶F420不断增大,ABR中显示出显著的厌氧微生物相分离特性.

  19. Processo PTA-P - Uma revisão da literatura como base para inovações: parte 2 de 2: comportamento térmico e cinemático do pó, parâmetros e consumíveis do processo PTA-P Process - A literature review as basis for innovations: part 2 of 2: powder thermal and kinematic behavior, process parameters and consumables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Henrique Gonçalves e Silva


    Full Text Available A forma do material de adição confere ao processo PTA-P alguns de seus principais diferenciais de desempenho em relação ao processo com adição de arame. No campo metalúrgico, há maior flexibilidade de manipulação da composição química do depósito pela mistura de pós; o material particulado também favorece maior refino da microestrutura. Em termos de processo, o pó favorece maior controlabilidade da poça metálica e geometria do cordão. Por outro lado, o pó também é a origem de grandes desafios tecnológicos, principalmente em aplicações não convencionais, como na posição sobrecabeça. Assim, o estudo sobre o comportamento do pó em sua trajetória até a poça de fusão foi realizado, como base de conhecimento para inovações do sistema. São descritas as propriedades e processos de fabricação do material de adição e suas implicações sobre o processo. Também neste segundo artigo da série é apresentado um panorama dos parâmetros utilizados em trabalhos industriais e de P&D relatados na literatura, sob diferentes condições e aplicações, incluindo regulagens elétricas e os parâmetros geométricos da tocha e alimentação de material. Com influência fundamental no resultado da solda, também os gases do processo são abordados.The form of the filler material yields to the PTA-P Process some of its performance distinctions in relation to wire feed. In the metallurgical field, there is manipulation flexibility over the material, and therefore the deposit's chemical composition by means of powder mixture; in addition, greater grain refining is favored by the particulate material. In terms of process, one can mention better molten pool controllability and bead finishing from powder. On the other hand, particulate material consists also in the origin of technological challenges, mainly in non conventional applications, like overhead position welding. Hence, studies on the powder behavior in its way until the

  20. Combination of ruthenium(II)-arene complex [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl2(pta)] (RAPTA-C) and the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib results in efficient angiostatic and antitumor activity (United States)

    Berndsen, Robert H.; Weiss, Andrea; Abdul, U. Kulsoom; Wong, Tse J.; Meraldi, Patrick; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Dyson, Paul J.; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja


    Ruthenium-based compounds show strong potential as anti-cancer drugs and are being investigated as alternatives to other well-established metal-based chemotherapeutics. The organometallic compound [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl2(pta)], where pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (RAPTA-C) exhibits broad acting anti-tumor efficacy with intrinsic angiostatic activity. In the search for an optimal anti-angiogenesis drug combination, we identified synergistic potential between RAPTA-C and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, erlotinib. This drug combination results in strong synergistic inhibition of cell viability in human endothelial (ECRF24 and HUVEC) and human ovarian carcinoma (A2780 and A2780cisR) cells. Additionally, erlotinib significantly enhances the cellular uptake of RAPTA-C relative to treatment with RAPTA-C alone in human ovarian carcinoma cells, but not endothelial cells. Drug combinations induce the formation of chromosome bridges that persist after mitotic exit and delay abscission in A2780 and A2780cisR, therefore suggesting initiation of cellular senescence. The therapeutic potential of these compounds and their combination is further validated in vivo on A2780 tumors grown on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, and in a preclinical model in nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirms effective anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative activity in vivo, based on a significant reduction of microvascular density and a decrease in proliferating cells. PMID:28223694

  1. Study on separation of cobalt and manganese from waste residue of PTA by ammonia-carbonate leaching%氨-碳酸盐法分离PTA废渣中的钴和锰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何沁华; 刘维桥; 邹超; 魏成文; 尚通明; 周全海; 高峰


    精对苯二甲酸(PTA)生产中的废钴锰催化剂中钴低锰高,常用的钴锰分离方法一般不适用,分离钴锰时非常容易互相夹带,导致分离不完全。本文采用氨-碳酸盐法分离PTA废渣浸出液中的钴和锰。在正交试验的基础上,以钴剩余率和锰沉淀率作为考核指标,考察了碳酸盐的种类、反应时间、反应温度、搅拌速度、氨的用量和碳酸盐的用量等因素对钴、锰分离效果的影响。实验结果表明,在氨-碳酸钠、氨-碳酸铵、氨-碳酸氢铵3种溶液中,最佳搅拌速度、反应时间、反应温度分别为200r/min、8h和20℃,氨的最佳用量分别为理论化学反应计量的1.9倍、1.4倍和1.7倍,碳酸盐的用量分别为理论化学反应计量的1.0倍、1.3倍和1.3倍。在最佳反应条件下,氨-碳酸钠、氨-碳酸铵、氨-碳酸氢铵3种溶液中,钴的最大剩余率分别可达到96.0%、99.8%和99.5%,锰沉淀率均可达到100%。%The content of cobalt in the waste cobalt and manganese catalyst in the production of PTA was low and the content of manganese was high. The common cobalt and manganese separation methods generally were not suitable for this material and would make cobalt and manganese mixed with each other,leading to incomplete separation. Ammonia - carbonate method was used in the separation of the cobalt and manganese from lixivium of the waste residue of PTA in this paper. As the surplus rate of cobalt and the precipitation rate of manganese were used as assessment indicators,the effects of the carbonates’ types,reaction time, temperature,stirring speed,the amount of ammonia and the amount of carbonate on the separation effect of cobalt and manganese were studied on the basis of orthogonal experiments. Experimental results show that,in the solutions of ammonia-sodium carbonate,ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate,the best reaction condition is: stirring rate 200r/min,reaction time 8

  2. The Roles of Education in Japan,PTA and BCP and Experience in Dealing with Disasters%日本学校教育中的PTA、BCP对灾害危机对应的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    东日本大地震、海啸及其随之而来的福岛核电站核泄漏的灾害,不仅给日本民众的生命与安全带来重大威胁,也迫使日本全国各地的许多学校无法进行正常的教育活动。虽然说人类难以阻止自然灾害的发生,但是如果对自然灾害的常识有所了解,并针对性地做好防御准备,那么,它给人类带来的危害就会被尽可能地降低并减小。本文试图通过对日本学校教育、PTA、BCP三位一体化的危机对应体系的考察,以期借鉴日本在应对灾害危机中的经验。%The earthquake and tsunami happened in the eastern Japan and the following nuclear leakage in Fukushima Nuclear Power Station not only brought serious threat to the life and safety of Japanese people,but also made it impossible for many schools across the country to conduct regular education activities.Al-though human could hardly prevent the occurrence of natural disasters,we could have some knowledge of the natural disasters,and take necessary precautions against them accordingly.In this way,the harm that natural disasters bring to human might be reduced as much as possible.Through the survey of corresponding system of the trinity of education in Japanese school,PTA and BCP,we can learn Japan’s experience in dealing with disasters.

  3. Treatment of arteriosclerosis obliterations on outflow tract of lower extremity artery by PTA with Deep balloon catheters%Deep球囊PTA治疗下肢动脉流出道硬化闭塞症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建勇; 蒋米尔; 肖红; 潘金强


    目的 探讨Deep球囊经皮腔内血管成形术(PTA)微创治疗下肢动脉流出道硬化闭塞症的疗效.方法 Deep球囊PTA治疗下肢动脉流出道硬化闭塞症26条肢体,观察其即时成功率,多普勒超声随访已治疗处再闭塞率,对治疗前后的踝/肱指数(ABI)、趾端皮肤温度(TTS)以及流出道动脉造影显影分数(OTVC)采用方差分析进行比较.结果 全组经Deep球囊PTA微创治疗的即时成功率为100%.与治疗前比较,治疗后第1个月ABI具有显著差异(P<0.05),第6个月ABI无显著差异(P>0.05),但TTS有显著差异(P<0.05),第6个月下肢动脉流出道已闭塞的12条肢体的OTVC有显著差异(P<0.05).下肢动脉流出道已治疗处1、3和6个月的再闭塞率分别为3.85%、38.46%和46.15%.结论 采用Deep球囊PTA微创治疗下肢动脉流出道硬化闭塞症可促进动脉侧支血管生成,改善血供,提高TTS.

  4. DHAP-dependent aldolases from (hyper)thermophiles: biochemistry and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcicchio, P.; Wolterink-van Loo, S.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Oost, van der J.


    Generating new carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds in an enantioselective way is one of the big challenges in organic synthesis. Aldolases are a natural tool for stereoselective C-C bond formation in a green and sustainable way. This review will focus on thermophilic aldolases in general and on dihydroxyaceto

  5. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajoure, Meloud, E-mail: [MechanicalEng.,HIHM,Gharian (Libya); Tajouri, Ali, E-mail:, E-mail:; Abuzriba, Mokhtar, E-mail:, E-mail: [Materials and Metallurgical Eng., UOT, Tripoli (Libya); Akreem, Mosbah, E-mail: [Industrial Research Centre,Tripoli (Libya)


    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  6. Kök hücrede gen transferi ile istenen bir genin aktivasyonu veya susturulması uygulamalarının rejeneratif tıpta kullanımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Dilşad Çoban


    Full Text Available İnsan kök hücresi kendine benzeyen hücreler oluşturabilen ve farklılaşma potansiyeline sahip özellikte hücrelerdir. Embriyonik kök hücreler farlı hücre tiplerine dönüşebildiği için kök hücre biyolojisinde ve rejeneratif tıpta paha biçilmez bir araçtır. Yeni gelişen gen teknolojileri ile ökaryot hücreye gen aktarımı mümkündür. Bu teknolojiler ile hücrede istenilen genlerin aktiflenmesi veya susturulması olasıdır. Uygun ortam sağlandığında normalde kapalı olan bazı genlerin aktif formlarının hücre çekirdeğine aktarılması ile farklanmış bir insan hücresinden indüklenmiş pluripotent kök hücreler elde edilmektedir. Bilindiği gibi, “small interference RNA” ve “micro RNA” lar hücrede gen fonksiyonlarını düzenlerler. Bu moleküller ökaryot hücrede gen susturulması amacı ile genellikle viral ve viral olmayan metodlar ile aktarılarak kullanılırlar. Gen susturulması teknolojisi, embriyonik kök hücre veya indüklenmiş pluripotent kök hücrelerin istenilen yönde örneğin bir nöron, pankreas veya kalp hücresi yönünde farklanmasında önemli bir araçtır. Tüm bu gelişmeler bize doku mühendisliği alanında hasta bazlı rejeneratif tıp uygulamalarının yapılabileceğini, kişiye özgü doku ve organ temininin mümkün olabileceğini göstermektedir.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖发新; 任永鹏; 李岩松; 徐新阳


    采用不同浓度的盐酸对椰壳活性炭进行预处理,然后以浸渍法制备精对苯二甲酸(PTA)精制用Pd/C催化剂.通过SEM,EDS,TEM,XRD及氮气吸附-脱附测试等手段,研究盐酸预处理对Pd/C催化剂微观结构的影响,并探讨盐酸浓度与催化剂活性的关系.结果表明,活性炭载体经盐酸预处理后所得Pd/C催化剂的活性随盐酸浓度的增加呈先增大后减小的趋势,在盐酸浓度为0.6 mol/L时达到最大值.SEM和吸附-脱附表征结果均表明,盐酸预处理使Pd/C催化剂的平均孔径和中孔 孔体积有所增大.能谱测试结果表明,盐酸预处理后,催化剂的Pd含量变化不大,但由于盐酸对孔 结构造成的改变,使得表面下的活性炭基体暴露出来,出现O元素及微量的Si、Cl元素.盐酸预处理对Pd/C催化剂的物相未造成影响.由于盐酸预处理使催化剂的孔径及中孔孔体积增加,有效负载面积增大,促进Pd在载体上的分散,从而提高了催化剂的活性.%A commercial coconut activated carbon was firstly pretreated by HCl with different concentrations.Then the Pd/C catalyst used for purification of terephthalic acid was prepared using immersion method based on the pretreated carbon.By means of SEM,EDS,TEM,XRD and BET techniques,the impact of HCl pretreatment on microstructure and activity of the catalysts was investigated,and the relationship between HCl concentration and catalyst activity was explored.Test results show that the catalytic activity first increases and then decreases with the increase of HCl concentration and the maximum activity was obtained at the HCl concentration of 0.6 mol/L.SEM and adsorption-desorption tests show that the pretreatment of HCl can increase the average pore diameter and the mesopore volume of activated carbon.The EDS result indicates that the content of Pd maintains nearly constant,while some O element and trace impurity of Si and Cl appear on the carbon surface after HCl pretreatment

  8. [Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), 10 years of experience]. (United States)

    Estevan Solano, J M; García-Cosío, J; Rodríguez, E; Barreiro, A; Maynar, M


    Authors present their experiences during 10 years (1980-89) with the treatment of peripheral arteriopathies with the ATP. Between a total of 455 procedures, an accumulative permeability of 82% in the iliac sector and 71% in the femoro-popliteal sector in elective indications was reached. The total availability of this therapeutic method, the accurate selection of indications and the valious cooperation between Angioradiology and Vascular Surgery Departments should be noted.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The objective of this phase-I study was to establish the maximum tolerable dose of recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) after salvage chemotherapy in patients with malignant lymphoma. Twenty-one patients with relapsed Hodgkin's disease or intermediate/high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma received r

  10. Signal integration by the two-component signal transduction response regulator CpxR. (United States)

    Wolfe, Alan J; Parikh, Niyati; Lima, Bruno P; Zemaitaitis, Bozena


    The CpxAR two-component signal transduction system in Escherichia coli and other pathogens senses diverse envelope stresses and promotes the transcription of a variety of genes that remedy these stresses. An important member of the CpxAR regulon is cpxP. The CpxA-dependent transcription of cpxP has been linked to stresses such as misfolded proteins and alkaline pH. It also has been proposed that acetyl phosphate, the intermediate of the phosphotransacetylase (Pta)-acetate kinase (AckA) pathway, can activate the transcription of cpxP in a CpxA-independent manner by donating its phosphoryl group to CpxR. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the transcription of cpxP using mutants with mutations in the CpxAR pathway, mutants with mutations in the Pta-AckA pathway, and mutants with a combination of both types of mutations. From this epistasis analysis, we learned that CpxR integrates diverse stimuli. The stimuli that originate in the envelope depend on CpxA, while those associated with growth and central metabolism depend on the Pta-AckA pathway. While CpxR could receive a phosphoryl group from acetyl phosphate, this global signal was not the primary trigger for CpxR activation associated with the Pta-AckA pathway. On the strength of these results, we contend that the interactions between central metabolism and signal transduction can be quite complex and that successful investigations of such interactions must include a complete epistatic analysis.

  11. Systems biology approach reveals that overflow metabolism of acetate in Escherichia coli is triggered by carbon catabolite repression of acetyl-CoA synthetase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahku Ranno


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biotechnology industry has extensively exploited Escherichia coli for producing recombinant proteins, biofuels etc. However, high growth rate aerobic E. coli cultivations are accompanied by acetate excretion i.e. overflow metabolism which is harmful as it inhibits growth, diverts valuable carbon from biomass formation and is detrimental for target product synthesis. Although overflow metabolism has been studied for decades, its regulation mechanisms still remain unclear. Results In the current work, growth rate dependent acetate overflow metabolism of E. coli was continuously monitored using advanced continuous cultivation methods (A-stat and D-stat. The first step in acetate overflow switch (at μ = 0.27 ± 0.02 h-1 is the repression of acetyl-CoA synthethase (Acs activity triggered by carbon catabolite repression resulting in decreased assimilation of acetate produced by phosphotransacetylase (Pta, and disruption of the PTA-ACS node. This was indicated by acetate synthesis pathways PTA-ACKA and POXB component expression down-regulation before the overflow switch at μ = 0.27 ± 0.02 h-1 with concurrent 5-fold stronger repression of acetate-consuming Acs. This in turn suggests insufficient Acs activity for consuming all the acetate produced by Pta, leading to disruption of the acetate cycling process in PTA-ACS node where constant acetyl phosphate or acetate regeneration is essential for E. coli chemotaxis, proteolysis, pathogenesis etc. regulation. In addition, two-substrate A-stat and D-stat experiments showed that acetate consumption capability of E. coli decreased drastically, just as Acs expression, before the start of overflow metabolism. The second step in overflow switch is the sharp decline in cAMP production at μ = 0.45 h-1 leading to total Acs inhibition and fast accumulation of acetate. Conclusion This study is an example of how a systems biology approach allowed to propose a new regulation mechanism for

  12. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli W3110 to produce L-malate. (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxiang; Chen, Xiulai; Qian, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yuancai; Wang, Li; Qiao, Weihua; Liu, Liming


    A four-carbon dicarboxylic acid L-malate has recently attracted attention due to its potential applications in the fields of medicine and agriculture. In this study, Escherichia coli W3110 was engineered and optimized for L-malate production via one-step L-malate synthesis pathway. First, deletion of the genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA), pyruvate oxidase (poxB), pyruvate formate lyase (pflB), phosphotransacetylase (pta), and acetate kinase A (ackA) in pta-ackA pathway led to accumulate 20.9 g/L pyruvate. Then, overexpression of NADP(+) -dependent malic enzyme C490S mutant in this multi-deletion mutant resulted in the direct conversion of pyruvate into L-malate (3.62 g/L). Next, deletion of the genes responsible for succinate biosynthesis further enhanced L-malate production up to 7.78 g/L. Finally, L-malate production was elevated to 21.65 g/L with the L-malate yield to 0.36 g/g in a 5 L bioreactor by overexpressing the pos5 gene encoding NADH kinase in the engineered E. coli F0931 strain. This study demonstrates the potential utility of one-step pathway for efficient L-malate production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 656-664. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Radiation exposure of medical personnel in connection with angiography and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Strahlenexposition des Personals bei Angiographie und percutaner transluminaler Angioplastie (PTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, L.; Czempiel, H. (Staedtisches Krankenhaus Schwabing, Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz, Muenchen (Germany)); Gfirtner, H. (Klinikum Passau, Medizinische Physik (Germany)); Gohlke, H. (Elisabeth-Krankenhaus GmbH, Radiologische Abt., Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz, Straubing (Germany)); Loessl, H.J. (Aerztliche Stelle bei der Bayerischen Landesaerztekammer, Muenchen (Germany)); Maier, W. (Zentralklinikum Augsburg, Radiologisches Zentrum (Germany)); Schaetzl, M. (Klinikum Grosshadern, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)); Schmidt, T.; Wucherer, M. (Radiologisches Zentrum der Stadt Nuernberg, Abt. fuer Medizinische Physik (Germany))


    The occupational radiation exposure of medical personnel responsible for diagnostic procedures should be of general concern so as to ensure that full use is made of the available methods of radioprotection. If appropriate precautions are taken, the radioactive burden from such exposures will remain below the dose limits set in this field. (orig.).


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Various strains of Bacillus subtilis (natto) contain small cryptic plasmids that replicate via the rolling-circle mechanism. Like plasmids from other Gram-positive bacteria, these plasmids are composed of several distinct structural modules. A new structural module was identified on the B. subtilis

  15. Interdependence in ASEAN: An Assessment of the ASEAN Preferential Trading Agreements (PTA)


    Caoyonan, Elisa T.


    This article examines whether the ASEAN Preferential Trading Arrangements have increased the level of interdependence among ASEAN countries in the area of trade. Specifically, whether such interdependence has brought about institutional and economic changes such as tariff reduction and nontariff barriers among ASEAN countries.

  16. PTA and TPR: A Comprehension Based Approach in a Public Elementary School. (United States)

    Schneider, Judith Morganroth


    Describes a pilot program offering conversational Spanish to elementary school students. The "Total Physical Response" technique was used initially, followed by an emphasis on comprehension and the creation of a natural language environment, all as means of facilitating second language acquisition at the children's level. (SL)

  17. TR-20PTA-3螺纹套管的设计研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇辉; 王永生; 刘邦发


    目前,世界上大多数国家的石油套管都采用美国石油学会(API Spec 5CT)标准,螺纹则采用美国石油学会(API Spec 5B)标准.随着石油开采向地层处的开发对,石油套管的要求越来越南,而API套管采用短圆螺纹、长圆螺纹、偏梯形和直连形形式,存在螺纹连接强度不高,各扣牙受力很不均匀,限制了其作业能力;同时12米长左右的套管端部直接加工螺纹,要达到螺纹密封,对机加工设备的要求很高,目前国内大部分公司不具备加工能力;另外这些螺纹采用单头螺纹,上紧时旋转的圈数较多,作业效率低.

  18. Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity evaluation of dried Euglena gracilis ATCC PTA-123017. (United States)

    Simon, Ryan R; Vo, Trung D; Levine, Robert


    Euglena gracilis is a microalga capable of synthesizing various nutrients of interest in human and animal nutrition. When cultivated aerobically in the dark, Euglena synthesize paramylon, a storage polysaccharide comprised of high molecular weight beta-1,3-D-glucose polymers organized in cytoplasmic granules. Beta-glucans have been shown to have immune modulation effects, including anti-microbial, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant properties, and metabolic effects, such as regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Preparations of E. gracilis and paramylon may therefore have potential utility as functional food ingredients for human and animal nutrition. A battery of toxicological studies was conducted on a dried preparation of E. gracilis and paramylon to support their safe food use. The dried alga was not genotoxic in a bacterial reverse mutation test and mammalian micronucleus test. In the subchronic toxicity study, rats were provided E. gracilis in the diet at levels of 0, 12,500, 25,000 or 50,000 ppm. Paramylon was provided at a concentration of 50,000 ppm. No effects that could be attributable to treatment were observed in clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, hematology and clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and macroscopic and microscopic findings. A NOAEL of 50,000 ppm in the diet was determined for both ingredients.

  19. Rolling-circle plasmids from Bacillus subtilis : complete nucleotide sequences and analyses of genes of pTA1015, pTA1040, pTA1050 and pTA1060, and comparisons with related plasmids from Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.J.; Schuurs-Wisman, Bea; Terpstra, P; Thorsted, P.; Thomas, C.M.; Holsappel, S; Venema, G; Bron, S

    Most small plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria use the rolling-circle mechanism of replication and several of these have been studied in considerable detail at the DNA level and for the function of their genes. Although most of the common laboratory Bacillus subtilis 168 strains do not contain

  20. PTA clad (Cr,Fe)7C3/γ-Fe in situ ceramal composite coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junbo Liu; Limei Wang; Jihua Huang


    A wear-resistant (Cr, Fe)7C3/γ-Fe in situ ceramal composite coating was fabricated on the substrate of 0.45wt%C carbon steel by a plasma-transferred arc cladding process using the Fe-Cr-C elemental powder blends. The microstructure, microhardness, and dry-sliding wear resistance of the coating were evaluated. The results indicate that the microstructure of the coating, which was composed of (Cr, Fe)7C3 primary phase uniformly distributed in the γ-Fe, and the (Cr, Fe)7C3 eutectic matrix was metallurgically bonded to the 0.45wt%C carbon steel substrate. From substrate to coating, the microstructure of the coating exhibited an evident epitaxial growth character. The coating, indehiscent and tack-free, had high hardness and appropriate gradient. It had excellent wear resistance under the dry sliding wear test condition.

  1. Production test PTA-002, increased graphite temperature limit -- B, C and D Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, A.


    The fundamental objective of the graphite temperature limit is to prevent excessive oxidation of the graphite moderator blocks with carbon dioxide and water vapor in the reactor atmosphere. Laboratory tests have shown that 10% uniform oxidation of graphite results in a loss in strength of approximately 50%. Production Test IP-725 was conducted at F Reactor for a period of six months at graphite temperatures approximately 50 and 100 C higher than the present graphite temperature limit of 650 C. The results from the F Reactor test suggest that an increase in the graphite temperature limit from 650 C to 700 C is technically feasible from the standpoint of oxidation of the graphite moderator with CO{sub 2}. Any significant additional increase was shown to lead to excessively high oxidation rates and is therefore not considered feasible. The objective of this test, therefore, is to extend the higher temperature investigations to B, C, and D Reactors. For the duration of this test, the graphite temperature limit will be increased from 650 C and 700 C, corresponding to an increase in the graphite stringer temperature limit from 735 C to 790 C. The test is expected to last for approximately six months but may be terminated early on any or all the reactors.

  2. Analysis of PTA hardfacing with CoCrWC and CoCrMoSi alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Scheid


    Full Text Available CoCrWC alloys are widely used to protect components that operate under wear and high temperature environments. Enhanced performance has been achieved with the CoCrMoSi alloys but processing this alloy system is still a challenge due to the presence of the brittle Laves phase, particularly when welding is involved. This work evaluated Plasma Transferred Arc coatings processed with the Co-based alloy CoMoCrSi - Tribaloy T400, reinforced with Laves phase, comparing its weldability to the CoCrWC - Stellite 6, reinforced with carbides. Coatings were also analyzed regarding the response to temperature exposure at 600°C for 7 days and subsequent effect on microstructure and sliding abrasive wear. Coatings characterization was carried out by light and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers hardness. CoCrWC coatings exhibited a Cobalt solid solution dendritic microstructure and a thin interdendritic region with eutectic carbides, while CoCrMoSi deposits exhibit a large lamellar eutectic region of Laves phase and Cobalt solid solution and a small fraction of primary Laves phase. Although phase stability was observed by X-ray diffraction, coarsening of the microstructure occurred for both alloys. CoCrMoSi showed thicker lamellar Laves phase and CoCrWC coarser eutectic carbides. Coatings stability assessed by wear tests revealed that although the wear rate of the as-deposited CoCrMoSi alloy was lower than that of CoCrWC alloy its increase after temperature exposure was more significant, 22% against 15%. Results were discussed regarding the protection of industrial components in particular, bearings in 55AlZn hot dip galvanizing components.

  3. Determination PTA content with potentiometry%电位法测试PTA含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟昊; 王忠利



  4. Technical improvement of DMT/PTA process%DMT/PTA工艺的技术改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manfred Stepanski; Klaus Fiedler; Anton Schoengen


    改进的DMT/PTA工艺技术是由苏尔寿化工有限公竞虷&G Hegmanns公司联合开发的.该技术对Witten-Katzschmann工艺进行了大量改进,并结合了苏尔寿公司的环境友好熔融结晶技术.改进的工艺包括:氧化反应部分(有效回收了副产品和能量);粗酯和副产品蒸馏;采用熔融结晶技术精制DMT.

  5. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of supra-aortic arteries especially the internal carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachel, R.; Basche, S. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik); Heerklotz, I.; Grossmann, K. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin); Endler, S. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Neurologie und Psychiatrie)


    We present our experience with 105 patients in whom percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed in 112 stenosed or occluded supra-aortic arteries. Symtoms of cerebrovascular and/or vertebrobasilar insufficiency were present in 104 of the 105 patients. The angioplasty was successful in 35 stenoses of the internal carotid artery, 2 stenoses of the common carotid artery, 1 stenosis of the external carotid artery, 15 stenoses of the vertebral artery, 3 stenoses of the innominate artery and 44 stenoses of the subclavian artery. There were only 4 minor-complications (2 haematomas, 1 transient ischemic attack, 1 small thrombus of the internal carotid artery which was detected by 111-indium platelet scintigraphy and treated by thrombendarterectomy before the appearance of neurological symptoms). All patients were symptom free after angioplasty. During the observations period of 3 to 109 months (average 58 months) there were only two cases with re-stenosis after subclavian angioplasty. The results of more than 700 personal and international published percutaneous transluminal angioplasties of supra-aortic arteries are presented. The results suggest that angioplasty of supra-aortic arteries is an effective method. On strict definition of the indications, the complication rate for angioplasty of the supra-aortic arteries is not likely to be higher than that for operative treatment. (orig.).

  6. Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: Environment and Galaxy Host Properties of PTA and eLISA sources

    CERN Document Server

    Palafox, Eva Martínez; Colín, Pedro; Gottlöber, Stefan


    Supermassive black hole (BH) binaries would comprise the strongest sources of gravitational waves (GW) once they reach <<1 pc separations, for both pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) and space based (SB) detectors. While BH binaries coalescences constitute a natural outcome of the cosmological standard model and galaxy mergers, their dynamical evolution is still poorly understood and therefore their abundances at different stages. We use a dynamical model for the decay of BH binaries coupled with a cosmological simulation and semi-empirical approaches to the occupation of haloes by galaxies and BHs, in order to follow the evolution of the properties distribution of galaxies hosting BH binaries candidates to decay due to GWs emission. Our models allow us to relax simplifying hypothesis about the binaries occupation in galaxies and their mass, as well as redshift evolution. Following previously proposed electromagnetic (EM) signatures of binaries in the subpc regime, that include spectral features and variabilit...

  7. Below the knee PTA in critical limb ischemia results after 12 months: Single center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer, Joern O., E-mail: balzerjo@t-online.d [Dept. for Radiology and Nuclear medicine, Catholic Clinic Mainz, An der Goldgrube 11, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Khan, Verena [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic Nurnberg North (Germany); Thalhammer, Axel; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Clinic, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main (Germany)


    Purpose: Evaluation of angioplasty with bare metal stents in infrapopliteal occlusions or severe stenoses in patients with critical limb ischemia. Material and methods: Percutaneous stent angioplasty was performed in 58 limbs in 47 patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) in Rutherford stage 4-6. Lesions with up to 5 cm in length with at least one patent vessel below the obstruction were treated. 121 bare metal stents (diameter of 2.5-4 mm; length of 18-38 mm) were implanted. Follow-up examinations were performed up to 12 months postinterventionally using clinical examination, ABI calculation, and color-coded duplex sonography. Patency rates were calculated on the basis of the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Technical success was achieved in 100%. Minor complications (hematoma, distal emboli, vessel dissection) were documented in 5.17% (n = 3) limbs, respectively. The 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year primary patency rate was 93.0%, 78.9% and 66.7%, respectively. 86.9% of the lesions healed postinterventionally. The cumulative limb salvage rate was 96.6%. Conclusion: Stent angioplasty in infrapopliteal arteries is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of patients with CLI. By consequent clinical monitoring high secondary patency rates can be achieved. The use of a bare metal stent seems to result in high limb salvage, primary and secondary patency rates in the mid-term follow-up.

  8. Rolling-circle plasmids from Bacillus subtilis : complete nucleotide sequences and analyses of genes of pTA1015, pTA1040, pTA1050 and pTA1060, and comparisons with related plasmids from Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.J.; Schuurs-Wisman, Bea; Terpstra, P; Thorsted, P.; Thomas, C.M.; Holsappel, S; Venema, G; Bron, S


    Most small plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria use the rolling-circle mechanism of replication and several of these have been studied in considerable detail at the DNA level and for the function of their genes. Although most of the common laboratory Bacillus subtilis 168 strains do not contain plasmi

  9. Accurate Quantification of Site-specific Acetylation Stoichiometry Reveals the Impact of Sirtuin Deacetylase CobB on the E. coli Acetylome. (United States)

    Weinert, Brian Tate; Satpathy, Shankha; Hansen, Bogi Karbech; Lyon, David; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Choudhary, Chunaram


    Lysine acetylation is a protein posttranslational modification (PTM) that occurs on thousands of lysine residues in diverse organisms from bacteria to humans. Accurate measurement of acetylation stoichiometry on a proteome-wide scale remains challenging. Most methods employ a comparison of chemically acetylated peptides to native acetylated peptides, however, the potentially large differences in abundance between these peptides presents a challenge for accurate quantification. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the most widely used quantitative proteomic methods. Here we show that serial dilution of SILAC-labeled peptides (SD-SILAC) can be used to identify accurately quantified peptides and to estimate the quantification error rate. We applied SD-SILAC to determine absolute acetylation stoichiometry in exponentially-growing and stationary-phase wild-type and Sirtuin deacetylase CobB-deficient cells. To further analyze CobB-regulated sites under conditions of globally increased or decreased acetylation, we measured stoichiometry in phophotransacetylase (ptaΔ) and acetate kinase (ackAΔ) mutant strains in the presence and absence of the Sirtuin inhibitor nicotinamide. We measured acetylation stoichiometry at 3,669 unique sites and found that the vast majority of acetylation occurred at a low stoichiometry. Manipulations that cause increased nonenzymatic acetylation by acetyl-phosphate (AcP), such as stationary-phase arrest and deletion of ackA, resulted in globally increased acetylation stoichiometry. Comparison to relative quantification under the same conditions validated our stoichiometry estimates at hundreds of sites, demonstrating the accuracy of our method. Similar to Sirtuin deacetylase 3 (SIRT3) in mitochondria, CobB suppressed acetylation to lower than median stoichiometry in WT, ptaΔ, and ackAΔ cells. Together, our results provide a detailed view of acetylation stoichiometry in E. coli

  10. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian


    strains reveal that AckA1 has a higher capacity for acetate production which allows faster growth in an environment with high acetate concentration. Meanwhile, AckA2 is important for fast acetate-dependent growth at low concentration of acetate. The results demonstrate that the two ACKs have complementary...


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Palazzotto, Emilia


    , regulatory cascades and primary metabolism shift-down trigger the accumulation of protein components involved in nitrogen and phosphate metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis/maturation, lipid metabolism, osmotic stress response, multi-drug resistance, and NAI-107 transport. The stimulating role on physiological...... differentiation of a TetR-like regulator, originally identified in this study, was confirmed by the construction of an over-expressing strain. Finally, the possible role of cellular response to membrane stability alterations and of multi-drug resistance ABC transporters as additional self-resistance mechanisms...

  13. Acetone production with metabolically engineered strains of Acetobacterium woodii. (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Gerdom, Marzena; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Linder, Sonja; Flüchter, Sebastian; Öztürk, Hatice; Blümke, Wilfried; May, Antje; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Bahl, Hubert; Dürre, Peter


    Expected depletion of oil and fossil resources urges the development of new alternative routes for the production of bulk chemicals and fuels beyond petroleum resources. In this study, the clostridial acetone pathway was used for the formation of acetone in the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The acetone production operon (APO) containing the genes thlA (encoding thiolase A), ctfA/ctfB (encoding CoA transferase), and adc (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase) from Clostridium acetobutylicum were cloned under the control of the thlA promoter into four vectors having different replicons for Gram-positives (pIP404, pBP1, pCB102, and pCD6). Stable replication was observed for all constructs. A. woodii [pJIR_actthlA] achieved the maximal acetone concentration under autotrophic conditions (15.2±3.4mM). Promoter sequences of the genes ackA from A. woodii and pta-ack from C. ljungdahlii were determined by primer extension (PEX) and cloned upstream of the APO. The highest acetone production in recombinant A. woodii cells was achieved using the promoters PthlA and Ppta-ack. Batch fermentations using A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] in a bioreactor revealed that acetate concentration had an effect on the acetone production, due to the high Km value of the CoA transferase. In order to establish consistent acetate concentration within the bioreactor and to increase biomass, a continuous fermentation process for A. woodii was developed. Thus, acetone productivity of the strain A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] was increased from 1.2mgL(-1)h(-1) in bottle fermentation to 26.4mgL(-1)h(-1) in continuous gas fermentation.

  14. Amino Acid Catabolism in Staphylococcus aureus and the Function of Carbon Catabolite Repression (United States)

    Halsey, Cortney R.; Lei, Shulei; Wax, Jacqueline K.; Lehman, Mckenzie K.; Nuxoll, Austin S.; Steinke, Laurey; Sadykov, Marat


    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus must rapidly adapt to a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources during invasion of a host. Within a staphylococcal abscess, preferred carbon sources such as glucose are limiting, suggesting that S. aureus survives through the catabolism of secondary carbon sources. S. aureus encodes pathways to catabolize multiple amino acids, including those that generate pyruvate, 2-oxoglutarate, and oxaloacetate. To assess amino acid catabolism, S. aureus JE2 and mutants were grown in complete defined medium containing 18 amino acids but lacking glucose (CDM). A mutation in the gudB gene, coding for glutamate dehydrogenase, which generates 2-oxoglutarate from glutamate, significantly reduced growth in CDM, suggesting that glutamate and those amino acids generating glutamate, particularly proline, serve as the major carbon source in this medium. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies confirmed this supposition. Furthermore, a mutation in the ackA gene, coding for acetate kinase, also abrogated growth of JE2 in CDM, suggesting that ATP production from pyruvate-producing amino acids is also critical for growth. In addition, although a functional respiratory chain was absolutely required for growth, the oxygen consumption rate and intracellular ATP concentration were significantly lower during growth in CDM than during growth in glucose-containing media. Finally, transcriptional analyses demonstrated that expression levels of genes coding for the enzymes that synthesize glutamate from proline, arginine, and histidine are repressed by CcpA and carbon catabolite repression. These data show that pathways important for glutamate catabolism or ATP generation via Pta/AckA are important for growth in niches where glucose is not abundant, such as abscesses within skin and soft tissue infections. PMID:28196956

  15. The two-component system CpxR/A represses the expression of Salmonella virulence genes by affecting the stability of the transcriptional regulator HilD (United States)

    De la Cruz, Miguel A.; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Palacios, Irene J.; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Calva, Edmundo; Bustamante, Víctor H.


    Salmonella enterica can cause intestinal or systemic infections in humans and animals mainly by the presence of pathogenicity islands SPI-1 and SPI-2, containing 39 and 44 genes, respectively. The AraC-like regulator HilD positively controls the expression of the SPI-1 genes, as well as many other Salmonella virulence genes including those located in SPI-2. A previous report indicates that the two-component system CpxR/A regulates the SPI-1 genes: the absence of the sensor kinase CpxA, but not the absence of its cognate response regulator CpxR, reduces their expression. The presence and absence of cell envelope stress activates kinase and phosphatase activities of CpxA, respectively, which in turn controls the level of phosphorylated CpxR (CpxR-P). In this work, we further define the mechanism for the CpxR/A-mediated regulation of SPI-1 genes. The negative effect exerted by the absence of CpxA on the expression of SPI-1 genes was counteracted by the absence of CpxR or by the absence of the two enzymes, AckA and Pta, which render acetyl-phosphate that phosphorylates CpxR. Furthermore, overexpression of the lipoprotein NlpE, which activates CpxA kinase activity on CpxR, or overexpression of CpxR, repressed the expression of SPI-1 genes. Thus, our results provide several lines of evidence strongly supporting that the absence of CpxA leads to the phosphorylation of CpxR via the AckA/Pta enzymes, which represses both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 genes. Additionally, we show that in the absence of the Lon protease, which degrades HilD, the CpxR-P-mediated repression of the SPI-1 genes is mostly lost; moreover, we demonstrate that CpxR-P negatively affects the stability of HilD and thus decreases the expression of HilD-target genes, such as hilD itself and hilA, located in SPI-1. Our data further expand the insight on the different regulatory pathways for gene expression involving CpxR/A and on the complex regulatory network governing virulence in Salmonella. PMID:26300871

  16. Intestinal short-chain fatty acids alter Salmonella typhimurium invasion gene expression and virulence through BarA/SirA. (United States)

    Lawhon, Sara D; Maurer, Russell; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Altier, Craig


    Salmonella typhimurium causes enteric and systemic disease by invading the intestinal epithelium of the distal ileum, a process requiring the invasion genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). BarA, a sensor kinase postulated to interact with the response regulator SirA, is required for the expression of SPI-1 invasion genes. We found, however, that a barA null mutation had little effect on virulence using the mouse model for septicaemia. This confounding result led us to seek environmental signals present in the distal ileum that might supplant the need for BarA. We found that acetate restored the expression of invasion genes in the barA mutant, but had no effect on a sirA mutant. Acetate had its effect only at a pH that allowed its accumulation within the bacterial cytoplasm and not with the deletion of ackA and pta, the two genes required to produce acetyl-phosphate. These results suggest that the rising concentration of acetate in the distal ileum provides a signal for invasion gene expression by the production of acetyl-phosphate in the bacterial cytoplasm, a pathway that bypasses barA. We also found that a Delta(ackA-pta) mutation alone had no effect on virulence but, in combination with Delta(barA), it increased the oral LD50 24-fold. Thus, the combined loss of the BarA- and acetate-dependent pathways is required to reduce virulence. Two other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), propionate and butyrate, present in high concentrations in the caecum and colon, had effects opposite to those of acetate: neither restored invasion gene expression in the barA mutant, and both, in fact, reduced expression in the wild-type strain. Further, a combination of SCFAs found in the distal ileum restored invasion gene expression in the barA mutant, whereas colonic conditions failed to do so and also reduced expression in the wild-type strain. These results suggest that the concentration and composition of SCFAs in the distal ileum provide a signal for productive


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In this paper we describe the isolation and characterization of single strand origins (SSOs) of several cryptic Bacillus subtilis plasmids which use the rolling-circle mechanism of replication, The plasmids used in this study involved pTA1015, pTA1020, pTA1030, pTA1040, pTA1050 and pTA1060, The SSO

  18. GenBank blastx search result: AK060500 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060500 001-017-F08 AF115391.1 Lactobacillus sakei LaaA (laaA) gene, partial cds; LaaB (laa...B), putative acetate kinase AckA (ackA), LaaC (laaC) genes, complete cds; rbs operon, complete sequence; and LaaE (laaE) gene, partial cds.|BCT BCT 4e-19 +1 ...

  19. GenBank blastx search result: AK289019 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289019 J090090B03 AF115391.1 AF115391 Lactobacillus sakei LaaA (laaA) gene, partial cds; LaaB (laa...B), putative acetate kinase AckA (ackA), LaaC (laaC) genes, complete cds; rbs operon, complete sequence; and LaaE (laaE) gene, partial cds. BCT 2e-11 0 ...

  20. Application of capacity increase in off-gas unit for PTA plant%PTA装置氧化尾气系统增容改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    分析了250 kt/aPTA装置中尾气系统在130%增容改造后存在的问题,提出了采用ADV高性能浮阀塔板改造高压尾气吸收塔,及充分利用尾气资源的尾气系统改造方案.方案实施后达到了预期的效果.

  1. Optimization of hydrogenation reaction condition on YPC-PTA plant%扬子PTA装置加氢反应条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    对扬子PTA装置改造后加氢精制工艺条件的优化进行了探讨,确定了主要工艺参数:反应压力7.0~7.25 MPa,反应温度282~283 ℃,配料质量分数27%~28%,催化剂充填量10 500 ~11 000 kg.综合其他改造后,使PTA装置达到年产60万 t,能耗比原设计有较大降低.

  2. Microstructure and Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Fe-Based (Cr, Fe)7C3 Composite Coating Fabricated by PTA Welding Process (United States)

    Yuan, Y. L.; Li, Z. G.


    Using Cr3C2 and Fe-CrNiBSi powder blends as raw materials, an α-Fe matrix composite coating reinforced by in situ (Cr, Fe)7C3 rods, with a thickness of about 3.6 mm, was fabricated on the surface of AISI A36 low carbon steel by means of plasma-transferred arc welding. The results of microstructural analysis show that in the coating, a large number of carbides, (Cr, Fe)7C3, in rod shape grow, and radiate around some half-dissolved Cr3C2 particles. The results of dry sliding wear tests at loads 100, 200, and 300 N show that the wear resistances of (Cr, Fe)7C3-reinforced coating, respectively, are about 6.9, 14.9, and 17 times higher than that of nonreinforced pure Fe-CrNiBSi alloy coating; the average value and fluctuation range of friction coefficient (FC) of (Cr, Fe)7C3-reinforced coating are less than those of pure Fe-CrNiBSi alloy coating; the main wear mechanisms of pure Fe-CrNiBSi alloy coating are ploughing, deformation, and adhesive wear, whereas those of (Cr, Fe)7C3-reinforced coating are microcutting, abrasive, and oxidation wear; the cracks on surfaces of (Cr, Fe)7C3 rods increased with the increasing loads; and the matrix α-Fe can prevent them from extending further in the composite coating.

  3. PTA semi-continous process modification of DMT batch equipment%DMT间歇装置的PTA半连续工艺改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦华江; 魏文良



  4. DMT法连续缩聚装置的PTA路线改造%The Reformation from DMT Way to PTA Way of PET Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐振发; 郜宪洪; 孔旭



  5. XRF法测定PTA生产中Co(Ⅲ)和Co(Ⅱ)含量%XRF determination of Co(Ⅲ) and Co( Ⅱ ) contents during PTA production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛月霞; 李人杰


    Co( Ⅲ ) and Co( Ⅱ ) can be separated by extraction process due to the different water solubility of their chelates obrained by reacting with acetylacetone. The Co( Ⅲ ) and Co( Ⅱ ) contents of p -xylene (PX) liquid phase oxidation system were determined by X-ray fluorescene spectrometry (XRF). The results showed that the recovery of standard addition was 92% 109% and the relative standard deviation was 3.5% -4.2% when the operating current and time were 20 μA and 100 s, respectively. This XRF analysis method can be applied in the practical production due to its high accuracy and precision.%利用Co(Ⅱ)、Co(Ⅲ)与乙酰丙酮生成的螯合物的不同水溶性,通过萃取将Co(Ⅱ)、Co(Ⅲ)进行分离,应用X射线荧光光谱仪(XRF)测定对二甲苯(PX)液相氧化反应中的Co(Ⅱ)和Co(Ⅲ)含量.结果表明:XRF的操作电流为20μA,测试时间为100 s时,测定PX中的Co(Ⅱ)和Co(Ⅲ)含量,其加标回收率为92%~109%,相对标准偏差为3.5%~4.2%.该XRF分析方法准确度和精密度较高,可应用于生产实际中.

  6. 放射性液位计在PTA结晶器中的应用%The Application of the Gammasilometer in the PTA Crystalliser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  7. Leakage Analysis of the Oxidation Reactor for PTA Production%PTA氧化反应器泄漏失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令雷; 陈玲


    The leakage analysis of the oxidation reactor was performed, it was found that the defects in the welds such as incomplete penetrations and slag inclusions and combining with the persistent erosion from materials containing solid particles had caused serious thinning of fillet welds, then tearing of the fillet welds occurred under heavy loads at elevated temperature and pressure. Effective precautions to such failure are introduced at the end to avoid similar accidents.%分析了氧化反应器泄漏失效的原因。由于制造时焊缝内部存在未焊透、夹渣等缺陷,加上长期受含固体颗粒物料的冲刷,造成角焊缝严重减薄。在开车时升温升压工况下,角焊缝承受载荷时撕裂。提出了有效的预防措施,可避免类似事故的发生。

  8. Metabolic transcription analysis of engineered Escherichia coli strains that overproduce L-phenylalanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosset Guillermo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rational design of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe overproducing microorganisms has been successfully achieved by combining different genetic strategies such as inactivation of the phosphoenolpyruvate: phosphotransferase transport system (PTS and overexpression of key genes (DAHP synthase, transketolase and chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase, reaching yields of 0.33 (g-Phe/g-Glc, which correspond to 60% of theoretical maximum. Although genetic modifications introduced into the cell for the generation of overproducing organisms are specifically targeted to a particular pathway, these can trigger unexpected transcriptional responses of several genes. In the current work, metabolic transcription analysis (MTA of both L-Phe overproducing and non-engineered strains using Real-Time PCR was performed, allowing the detection of transcriptional responses to PTS deletion and plasmid presence of genes related to central carbon metabolism. This MTA included 86 genes encoding enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentoses phosphate, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fermentative and aromatic amino acid pathways. In addition, 30 genes encoding regulatory proteins and transporters for aromatic compounds and carbohydrates were also analyzed. Results MTA revealed that a set of genes encoding carbohydrate transporters (galP, mglB, gluconeogenic (ppsA, pckA and fermentative enzymes (ldhA were significantly induced, while some others were down-regulated such as ppc, pflB, pta and ackA, as a consequence of PTS inactivation. One of the most relevant findings was the coordinated up-regulation of several genes that are exclusively gluconeogenic (fbp, ppsA, pckA, maeB, sfcA, and glyoxylate shunt in the best PTS- L-Phe overproducing strain (PB12-ev2. Furthermore, it was noticeable that most of the TCA genes showed a strong up-regulation in the presence of multicopy plasmids by an unknown mechanism. A group of genes exhibited transcriptional responses to

  9. Ukrainkam vporu estonskaja moda / Taras Burnos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Burnos, Taras


    Silvano Fashion Group tütarfirma PTA Ukraina loob Ukrainas kaubandusketi PTA&Oblicie, kuhu kuuluvad kauplused, mis pakuvad Läti pesufirma Lauma, Valgevene pesufirma Milavitsa ja Eesti naisterõivaste tootja PTA Grupp toodangut

  10. Crystal Structures of the Iron–Sulfur Cluster-Dependent Quinolinate Synthase in Complex with Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate, Iminoaspartate Analogues, and Quinolinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenwick, Michael K. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Ealick, Steven E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    The quinolinate synthase of prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, NadA, contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster with unknown function. We report crystal structures of Pyrococcus horikoshii NadA in complex with dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), iminoaspartate analogues, and quinolinate. DHAP adopts a nearly planar conformation and chelates the [4Fe-4S] cluster via its keto and hydroxyl groups. The active site architecture suggests that the cluster acts as a Lewis acid in enediolate formation, like zinc in class II aldolases. The DHAP and putative iminoaspartate structures suggest a model for a condensed intermediate. The ensemble of structures suggests a two-state system, which may be exploited in early steps.

  11. Comparing Prospectively Recorded Posttraumatic Amnesia Duration With Retrospective Accounts. (United States)

    Roberts, Caroline M; Spitz, Gershon; Ponsford, Jennie L


    Limited research has been conducted comparing different methods for determining the duration of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA). This study compared prospectively recorded PTA duration (P-PTA) with retrospective reports of the return of continuous memory (R-PTA). Fifty-nine individuals admitted to a head injury rehabilitation unit with a traumatic brain injury who had their PTA duration recorded using the Westmead Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale. Participants were between 6 months and 6 years postinjury at the time of study. P-PTA was determined on the basis of Westmead Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale responses. R-PTA was ascertained using a semistructured telephone interview. Although the PTA measures were significantly positively correlated (r = 0.76), mean R-PTA was significantly longer than mean P-PTA. In 34 cases (57.6%), R-PTA was longer than P-PTA (13 participants moved to a higher injury severity band), and in 22 cases (37.3%), R-PTA was shorter than P-PTA (8 participants moved to a lower injury severity band). The difference between P-PTA and R-PTA was not significantly associated with age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, overall PTA duration, or the number of days postinjury of the retrospective interview. Prospective and retrospective estimates of PTA duration were not comparable within the present sample. Further research comparing the two methods is needed.

  12. (Artemisia iwayomogi Kitamura) on the pig Longissimus dorsi mus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 24, 2011 ... Kelch-related protein 1, SLA-7, glycine amidinotransferase, and Tpi 1. The other three spots ..... dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol- .... identification by two-dimensional electrophoresis and amino acid analysis.

  13. Autotoxicity and allelopathy of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone isolated from Picea schrenkiana needles. (United States)

    Ruan, Xiao; Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An; Wang, G Geoff


    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the diethyl ether fraction of a water extract of Picea schrenkiana needles led to the isolation of the phenolic compound 3,4-dihydroxy- acetophenone (DHAP). The allelopathic effects of DHAP were evaluated under laboratory conditions on P. schrenkiana, rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.). DHAP significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of P. schrenkiana at concentrations of 2.5 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). Soil analysis revealed that P. schrenkiana forest soils contained exceptionally high DHAP concentrations (mean = 0.51 ± 0.03 mg/g dry soil), sufficient to inhibit natural P. schrenkiana recruitment. DHAP also exhibited strong allelopathic potential. It significantly inhibited wheat and lettuce seed germination at concentrations of 1 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). The active compound also completely inhibited root growth of the six test species at high concentrations. Our results suggest a dual role of DHAP, both as an allelochemical and as an autotoxicant. The potential for a single plant needle-leached compound to influence both inter- and intra-specific interactions emphasized the complex effects that plant secondary metabolites might have on plant population and community structure.

  14. Autotoxicity and Allelopathy of 3,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone Isolated from Picea schrenkiana Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Hui Li


    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of the diethyl ether fraction of a water extract of Picea schrenkiana needles led to the isolation of the phenolic compound 3,4-dihydroxy- acetophenone (DHAP. The allelopathic effects of DHAP were evaluated under laboratory conditions on P. schrenkiana, rice (Oryza sativa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., radish (Raphanus sativus L., lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. and mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.. DHAP significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of P. schrenkiana at concentrations of 2.5 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05. Soil analysis revealed that P. schrenkiana forest soils contained exceptionally high DHAP concentrations (mean = 0.51 ± 0.03 mg/g dry soil, sufficient to inhibit natural P. schrenkiana recruitment. DHAP also exhibited strong allelopathic potential. It significantly inhibited wheat and lettuce seed germination at concentrations of 1 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05. The active compound also completely inhibited root growth of the six test species at high concentrations. Our results suggest a dual role of DHAP, both as an allelochemical and as an autotoxicant. The potential for a single plant needle-leached compound to influence both inter- and intra-specific interactions emphasized the complex effects that plant secondary metabolites might have on plant population and community structure.

  15. PTA (H3PO4·12WO3·xH2O: An eco-friendly catalyst for the synthesis of new Schiff-bases containing benzimidazole moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha U. Vernekar


    Full Text Available In this study H3PO4·12WO3·xH2O is found to catalyze the preparation of Schiff bases from the reaction of 3-(1H-Benzimidazol-2-ylnaphthalene-2-amine with different aldehydes efficiently in ethanol. The advantages of this environmental friendly and mild method are such as simplicity of the reaction procedure, the elimination of solvents, simple work-up, high product yields and short reaction times. The products were characterized by FT-IR 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis.

  16. 浅议某项目中2000m3PTA料仓的设计%Discuss on the Design of 2000m3PTA Silo in A Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    结合了一项设计施工完成并已经投产使用的料仓工程,对该料仓的结构特点和设计方法进行探讨。%Combined a silo design construction which had been completed and put into use, to discussing the silo's structural characteristics and the design method.

  17. PTA螺旋输送机主轴断裂事故分析及改造%Cause analysis of and improvement to cracked main shaft of PTA screw conveyor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳兆文; 潘传九



  18. 洛阳PTA装置基于径基函数网络的4-CBA软测量%4-CBA soft sensor of Luoyang PTA plant based on Radial Basis Function Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国正; 颜学峰



  19. Introduction of the Ti tube welding know-how used in a PTA project%大连逸盛大化120万t/aPTA装置中钛管道焊接技巧浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传友; 唐元生




    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍了用PTA(对苯二甲酸)废料合成聚酯树脂、重芳烃为溶剂、聚氨酯为固化剂的防腐抗静电涂料的工艺和涂料的性能,以及该涂料的应用前景。%Process,performance and application prospect of anti-corrosion and anti-static paint including polyester resin from PTA,heavy aromatic solvent and polyurethane solidifier are described。

  1. Formal Analysis of Gossip Protocol-based Publish/subscribe Systems Using the PTA Model%用PTA模型形式化分析基于Gossip协议的发布/订阅系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on the study of traditional publish/subscribe message middleware, we study the publish/subscribe message middleware with the combination of the characteristics of Gossip Protocol. Finally we use the PRISM simulation tools to formally analyze the simulation model with the formal methods. The experimental results show that the real-time performance of the publish/subscribe message middleware system is affected by the message generation rate, and under the two condition of each subscriber subscribe the same messages or different messages, the network characteristics show different changes, but ultimately decreases with the increase of the message generation speed. The reliability decreases with the increase of the message generation speed, and increases with the increase of subscriber's receive buffer, but the increase rate will become increasingly smaller. The experimental model and experimental methods will certainly help for studying the publish/subscribe message middleware system and adjusting the system parameter in the real environment.%在研究传统的发布/订阅消息中间件系统的基础之上,结合Gossip协议的特点来研究发布/订阅消息中间件,最后运用形式化方法,通过PRISM仿真工具,对仿真的模型进行形式化分析.实验结果表明,发布/订阅消息中间件系统的实时性受消息产生速度的影响,在各个订阅者订阅相同消息和不同消息两种情况之下网络特性展现不同的变化,但最终都是随着消息产生速度的增加而减小.可靠性随着消息产生速度的增加而减小,并且订阅者的接收缓存越大可靠性越高,但增幅率会越来越小.该实验模型和实验方法对于发布/订阅消息中间件系统的研究,以及在现实环境中配置系统的相关参数有一定的帮助.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐源; 王利勇; 蒋阳月; 陈英文; 祝社民; 沈树宝


    将微生物电解池应用于PTA废水的处理,系统研究PTA降解程度及同步产氢情况,并通过伏安曲线对电子传递机制进行研究.实验结果表明,微生物电解池可实现PTA废水的同步处理及产氢,当底物COD浓度为l000mg/L时,在外加电压0.900V的条件下,微生物电解池运行43h后,TA降解率和COD去除率分别为92.0%和80.3%,氢气产率为0.04m3/(m3 ·d),库仑效率为29%.

  3. SAVVY球囊行PTA治疗下肢动脉流出道硬化闭塞症%Treatment of arteriosclerosis obliterations of outflow tract of lower extremity artery by PTA with SAVVY balloon catheter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋天鹏; 周石; 李兴; 宋杰; 向贤宏


    目的 观察SAVVY球囊治疗下肢动脉流出道硬化闭塞症的近期疗效.方法 回顺性分析2008年9月~2009年12月间采用SAVVY球囊行下肢动脉流出道血管PTA的15例共22条患肢,其中男12例,女3例,年龄26~88岁.糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症11例(18支),非糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症4例(4支),AB10.1~0.3有9条,0.3以上13条.球囊直径选择2~4mm,长度10cm.术后低分子肝素皮下注射7d并长期口服阿司匹林或氯吡格雷.监测术后7d及1个月后ABI变化情况,随访半年后复查超声,或根据症状复发情况及时复查血管造影.结果 手术技术成功率90.9%(20/22).4例伴皮肤溃疡或足趾坏疽的肢体最终单侧截肢,其中1例为感染性病变致血管闭塞病例治疗失败,扩张狭窄段后造影管腔末显示开通,再次扩张仍无效;另1例为非糖尿病动脉硬化闭塞症高龄患者多节段狭窄,扩张后管腔狭窄无变化.术中末出现与球囊结构相关的并发症.术后7dABI在14条血管中升高超过0.5,3条超过0.3,3条超过0.1.随访时间平均7.2个月,有5例复发不同程度静息痛.术后7dABI平均为0.74,1个月平均为0.66.结论 使用SAVVY长球囊行PTA治疗膝下动脉缺血性病变安全、有效,短期疗效肯定.

  4. Сенат Франции празднует двадцатилетие Балтийского пути / Наталья Семёнова

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Семёнова, Наталья


    Prantsusmaa senatis tähistati Balti keti aastapäeva. Vastavast seminarist võtsid osa ka Mart Laar, Ene Ergma, Sandra Kalniete, Vytautas Landsbergis, Gundars Daudze, Vygaudas Ušackas, Irena Degutiene ja Denis Badre. Mart Laari vastus küsimusele Eesti-Vene suhetest

  5. Foreign Minister resigns / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.


    Leedu parteitu välisminister Vygaudas Ušackas astus tagasi, kuna president Dalia Grybauskaite on väitnud, et nende vaated välispoliitikale on erinevad. Välisministri kandidaadiks pakuti välja Andronius Azubalist

  6. Сенат Франции празднует двадцатилетие Балтийского пути / Наталья Семёнова

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Семёнова, Наталья


    Prantsusmaa senatis tähistati Balti keti aastapäeva. Vastavast seminarist võtsid osa ka Mart Laar, Ene Ergma, Sandra Kalniete, Vytautas Landsbergis, Gundars Daudze, Vygaudas Ušackas, Irena Degutiene ja Denis Badre. Mart Laari vastus küsimusele Eesti-Vene suhetest

  7. Recombinant human dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyl-transferase characterization as an integral monotopic membrane protein. (United States)

    Piano, Valentina; Nenci, Simone; Magnani, Francesca; Aliverti, Alessandro; Mattevi, Andrea


    Although the precise functions of ether phospholipids are still poorly understood, significant alterations in their physiological levels are associated either to inherited disorders or to aggressive metastatic cancer. The essential precursor, alkyl-dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), for all ether phospholipids species is synthetized in two consecutive reactions performed by two enzymes sitting on the inner side of the peroxisomal membrane. Here, we report the characterization of the recombinant human DHAP acyl-transferase, which performs the first step in alkyl-DHAP synthesis. By exploring several expression systems and designing a number of constructs, we were able to purify the enzyme in its active form and we found that it is tightly bound to the membrane through the N-terminal residues. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genotoxic activity and inhibition of soil respiration by ptaquiloside, a bracken fern carcinogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjørn; Rasmussen, L.H.; Svendsen, Gitte Winkel


    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a natural toxin produced by bracken (Pteridium aquilinum [L.] Kuhn). Assessment of PTA toxicity is needed because PTA deposited from bracken to soil may leach to surface and groundwater. Inhibition of soil respiration and genotoxic activity of PTA was determined by a soil...... microbial carbon transformation test and an umu test, respectively. In the carbon transformation test, sandy loam soil was incubated at five different initial concentrations of PTA for a period of 28 d, after which glucose was added and respiration measured for 12 consecutive hours. The tests were performed...... at 20 degrees C and Soil moisture content of approximately 15%. For soil material sampled in the autumn, initial PTA concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 40.6 mu g PTA/g dry soil were tested. From fitting of data by a sigmoidal function, a 10% effect dose (ED10) was estimated to 13 jig PTA/g dry soil...

  9. Resolution of disorientation and amnesia during post-traumatic amnesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tate, R L; Pfaff, A; Jurjevic, L


    ...) determine if the method of measuring the memory component affected the duration of PTA. The sample comprised 31 severely injured patients admitted to a brain injury rehabilitation unit who were examined daily until they emerged from PTA...

  10. Adsorptive Separation and Recovery of Organic Compounds from Purified Terephthalic Acid Plant Effluent


    Khachane, P.K.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, G. F.; Pangarkar, V.G.


    Several organic impurities formed in the p-xylene oxidation process for manufacture of terephthalic acid are carried into the aqueous effluent from the crystallization section of PTA plant of crystallizers for purified terephthalic acid (PTA). These compounds impose a burden on the effluent treatment plant. Due to the presence of these impurities the recycle of aqueous effluent from crystallization section of PTA plant to the PTA crystallizer is not possible. The aim of this study is to check...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhu; Chang-wang Pan; Ling Tong; Han Yan; Jian Shen; Si-cong Lin


    In order to improve the nonthrombogenicity of chitin, a new monomer, N, N-dimethyl(β-hydroxyethyloxyethyl)ammonium propanesulfonate (DHAPS) was designed, synthesized and grafted onto the chitin membrane by using hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as a coupling agent. Surface analysis of the grafted membranes by ATR-FTIR and XPS confirms that DHAPS has been successfully grafted onto the membrane surface. The platelet resistant property of the grafted membranes was evaluated by a platelet-rich plasma adhesion method. The results showed that platelet-adhesive resistance of the modified membrane has been greatly improved.

  12. Inclusivity. (United States)

    Williams, Sheri


    This article stresses the importance of local PTA involving all parents in their programs, especially parents from minority groups. This article includes a checklist for rating local PTA. Also included is a brief case study of one PTA's successful efforts to increase the ethnic and language diversity of its membership. (IAH)

  13. Ptaquiloside in Pteridium aquilinum subsp. aquilinum and corresponding soils from the South of Italy: influence of physical and chemical features of soils on its occurrence. (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Cavoski, Ivana; Costi, Roberta; Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Traversa, Andreina; Miano, Teodoro M


    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, one of the most common plant species on Earth, produces a wide range of secondary metabolites including the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA). Several studies are present in literature about eco-toxicological aspects related to PTA, whereas results about the effect of growth conditions and soil properties on the production and mobility of PTA are sometimes conflicting and further investigations are needed. The aim of the present work is to investigate the occurrence and possible fate of PTA in soils showing different physical and chemical features, and collected in several areas of the South of Italy. The PTA content was determined in both soil and fern samples by GC-MS; both the extraction protocol and recovery were previously tested through incubation studies. Soils samples were also characterized from the physical and chemical points of view in order to correlate the possible influence of soil parameters on PTA production and occurrence. PTA concentration in P. aquilinum fern seemed to be significantly affected by the availability of nutrients (mainly P) and soil pH. At the same time, PTA concentration in soil samples was always undetectable, independent of the PTA concentration in the corresponding Pteridium samples and pedo-climatic conditions. This seems to suggest the degradation of the PTA by indigenous soil microbial community, whereas incubation studies underlined a certain affinity of PTA for both organic colloids and clay/silt particles.

  14. Three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded supramolecular assembly in tetrakis(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantanecopper(I chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando J. L. Pombeiro


    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, [Cu(PTA4]Cl·6H2O (PTA is 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane, C6H12N3P, is composed of discrete monomeric [Cu(PTA4]+ cations, chloride anions and uncoordinated water molecules. The CuI atom exhibits tetrahedral coordination geometry, involving four symmetry-equivalent P–bound PTA ligands. The structure is extended to a regular three-dimensional supramolecular framework via numerous equivalent O—H...N hydrogen bonds between all solvent water molecules (six per cation and all PTA N atoms, thus simultaneously bridging each [Cu(PTA4]+ cation with 12 neighbouring units in multiple directions. The study also shows that PTA can be a convenient ligand in crystal engineering for the construction of supramolecular architectures.

  15. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. Doug.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast showcases Doug, a man living with HIV, as he tells his story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  16. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. Denise.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast showcases Denise, a woman living with HIV, as she tells her story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  17. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. ODell.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast showcases ODell, a man living with HIV, as he tells his story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  18. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. Pamela.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast showcases Pamela, a woman living with HIV, as she tells her story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  19. SwissProt search result: AK119872 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119872 002-179-D03 (P98192) Dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1....42) (DHAP-AT) (DAP-AT) (Glycerone-phosphate O-acyltransferase) (Acyl-CoA:dihydroxyacetonephosphateacyltransferase) GNPAT_MOUSE 8e-56 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK119872 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119872 002-179-D03 (Q9ES71) Dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1....42) (DHAP-AT) (DAP-AT) (Glycerone-phosphate O-acyltransferase) (Acyl-CoA:dihydroxyacetonephosphateacyltransferase) GNPAT_RAT 1e-55 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK119872 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119872 002-179-D03 (O15228) Dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1....42) (DHAP-AT) (DAP-AT) (Glycerone-phosphate O-acyltransferase) (Acyl-CoA:dihydroxyacetonephosphateacyltransferase) GNPAT_HUMAN 9e-55 ...

  2. 75 FR 24962 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Disaster Assistance Program... (United States)


    .... ADDRESSES: Interest persons are invited to submit comments regarding this proposal. Comments should refer to... proposed use: To assist households displaced by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the Disaster Housing Assistance... displaced families from September 1, 2007, through February 28, 2009. DHAP was implemented in phases,...

  3. Defect-Related Luminescent Hydroxyapatite-Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via an ATP-Induced cAMP/PKA Pathway. (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Cuimiao; Sun, Jiadong; Feng, Weipei; Liang, Xing-Jie; Wang, Shuxiang; Zhang, Jinchao


    Novel defect-related hydroxyapatite (DHAP), which combines the advantages of HAP and defect-related luminescence, has the potential application in tissue engineering and biomedical area, because of its excellent capability of monitoring the osteogenic differentiation and material biodegradation. Although the extracellular mechanism of DHAP minerals and PO4(3-) functioning in osteogenic differentiation has been widely studied, the intracellular molecular mechanism through which PO4(3-) mediates osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is not clear. We examined a previously unknown molecular mechanism through which PO4(3-) promoted osteogenesis of BMSCs with an emphasis on adenosine-triphosphate (ATP)-induced cAMP/PKA pathway. Our studies showed that DHAP could be uptaken into lysosome, in which PO4(3-) was released from DHAP, because of the acid environment of lysosome. The released PO4(3-) interacted with ADP to form ATP, and then degraded into adenosine, an ATP metabolite, which interacted with A2b adenosine receptor to activate the cAMP/PKA pathway, resulting in the high expression of osteogenesis-related genes, such as Runx2, BMP-2, and OCN. These findings first revealed the function of ATP-metabolism in bone physiological homeostasis, which may be developed to cure bone metabolic diseases.

  4. Structure of a Class I Tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate Aldolase - Investigation into an Apparent Loss of Stereospecificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LowKam, C.; Liotard, B; Sygusch, J


    Tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Streptococcus pyogenes is a class I aldolase that exhibits a remarkable lack of chiral discrimination with respect to the configuration of hydroxyl groups at both C3 and C4 positions. The enzyme catalyzes the reversible cleavage of four diastereoisomers (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), psicose 1,6-bisphosphate, sorbose 1,6-bisphosphate, and tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate with high catalytic efficiency. To investigate its enzymatic mechanism, high resolution crystal structures were determined of both native enzyme and native enzyme in complex with dihydroxyacetone-P. The electron density map revealed a ({alpha}/{beta}){sub 8} fold in each dimeric subunit. Flash-cooled crystals of native enzyme soaked with dihydroxyacetone phosphate trapped a covalent intermediate with carbanionic character at Lys{sup 205}, different from the enamine mesomer bound in stereospecific class I FBP aldolase. Structural analysis indicates extensive active site conservation with respect to class I FBP aldolases, including conserved conformational responses to DHAP binding and conserved stereospecific proton transfer at the DHAP C3 carbon mediated by a proximal water molecule. Exchange reactions with tritiated water and tritium-labeled DHAP at C3 hydrogen were carried out in both solution and crystalline state to assess stereochemical control at C3. The kinetic studies show labeling at both pro-R and pro-S C3 positions of DHAP yet detritiation only at the C3 pro-S-labeled position. Detritiation of the C3 pro-R label was not detected and is consistent with preferential cis-trans isomerism about the C2-C3 bond in the carbanion as the mechanism responsible for C3 epimerization in tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase.

  5. Biochemical and molecular-genetic characterization of SFD1’s involvement in lipid metabolism and defense signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eLorenc-Kukula


    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis thaliana SFD1 (SUPPRESSOR OF FATTY ACID DESATURASE DEFICIENCY1 gene (also known as GLY1 is required for accumulation of 34:6 (i.e., 18:3-16:3 monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG and for the activation of systemic acquired resistance (SAR, an inducible defense mechanism that confers resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens. SFD1, which has been suggested to be involved in lipid-based signaling in SAR, contains a putative chloroplast transit peptide and has glycerol-3-phosphate synthesizing dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP reductase (also referred as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. The goals of this study were to determine if the DHAP reductase activity and chloroplast localization are required for SFD1’s involvement in galactolipid metabolism and SAR signaling. The crystal structure of a Leishmania mexicana glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was used to model SFD1 structure and identify Lys194, Lys279 and Asp332 as potential catalytic site residues in SFD1. Mutational analysis of SFD1 confirmed that Lys194, Lys279 and Asp332 are critical for SFD1’s DHAP reductase activity, and its involvement in SAR. SFD1 proteins with these residues individually substituted by Ala lacked DHAP reductase activity and were unable to complement the SAR defect of the sfd1 mutant. SFD1-Ala279 was unable to restore 34:6-MGDG content when expressed in the sfd1 mutant. In vivo imaging of a GFP-tagged SFD1 protein demonstrated that SFD1 is targeted to the chloroplast. The N-terminal 43 amino acids, which are required for proper targeting of SFD1 to the chloroplast, are also required for SFD1’s function in lipid metabolism and SAR. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SFD1s DHAP reductase activity is required in the chloroplast for lipid metabolism and defense signaling.

  6. Development of cesium phosphotungstate salt and chitosan composite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells. (United States)

    Xiao, Yanxin; Xiang, Yan; Xiu, Ruijie; Lu, Shanfu


    A novel composite membrane has been developed by doping cesium phosphotungstate salt (CsxH3-xPW12O40 (0≤x≤3), Csx-PTA) into chitosan (CTS/Csx-PTA) for application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Uniform distribution of Csx-PTA nanoparticles has been achieved in the chitosan matrix. The proton conductivity of the composite membrane is significantly affected by the Csx-PTA content in the composite membrane as well as the Cs substitution in PTA. The highest proton conductivity for the CTS/Csx-PTA membranes was obtained with x=2 and Cs2-PTA content of 5 wt%. The value is 6×10(-3) S cm(-1) and 1.75×10(-2) S cm(-1) at 298 K and 353 K, respectively. The methanol permeability of CTS/Cs2-PTA membrane is about 5.6×10(-7), 90% lower than that of Nafion-212 membrane. The highest selectivity factor (φ) was obtained on CTS/Cs2-PTA-5 wt% composite membrane, 1.1×10(4)/Scm(-3)s. The present study indicates the promising potential of CTS/Csx-PTA composite membrane as alternative proton exchange membranes in direct methanol fuel cells.

  7. Language and cognitive communication disorder during post-traumatic amnesia: Profiles of recovery after TBI from three cases. (United States)

    Steel, Joanne; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Togher, Leanne


    There has been limited empirical speech-language pathology (SLP) study of language and cognitive communication during post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and the early stages after TBI. The purpose of the current research was to explore the potential means and utility of assessing cognitive communication during PTA and the post-acute recovery period. This research used a longitudinal mixed methods design to describe language and cognitive communication assessment and recovery profiles of three patients with TBI. Cognitive communication was assessed with repeated standardised and non-standardised methods during PTA (rated with Westmead PTA Scale) and at follow-up 3 months after PTA emergence. All participants demonstrated a profile of language and cognitive communication strengths and weaknesses during PTA and the post-acute period, also evident at follow-up. Improvement occurred gradually throughout PTA, although with individual fluctuation across test occasions. There was no marked change in communication function immediately before and after PTA emergence, indicating that cognitive communication ability and those functions measured on the Westmead PTA Scale (memory and orientation) did not recover at the same rate. It was feasible to assess language and cognitive communication throughout PTA and the post-acute period, and early assessment results were relevant to the patient's ongoing communicative function. It is suggested that early and repeated SLP assessment may contribute to the prediction of persisting cognitive communication issues.

  8. Neoplasias uroteliais papilíferas superficiais da bexiga (pTa e pT1: correlação da expressão do p53, KI-67 E CK20 com grau histológico, recidiva e progressão tumoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cury Ogata

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a expressão imunoistoquímica dos marcadores p53, Ki-67, CK20 em neoplasias uroteliais papilíferas superficiais da bexiga e correlacionar com o grau histológico, progressão tumoral e recidiva. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas amostras de 43 pacientes portadores de carcinoma de células transicionais superficiais da bexiga. Elas foram distribuídas em dois grupos, um denominado recorrente, de 18 indivíduos e outro não recorrente, com 25 casos. Foram confeccionados blocos multiamostrais. A técnica imunoistoquímica empregada foi de imunoperoxidase e os anticorpos foram: p53 (clone DO7, o Ki-67 (clone SP6 e CK20. RESULTADOS: A expressão do p53 foi observada em 11 casos, todos tumores de alto grau (p=0,0001. A progressão histológica ocorreu em seis indivíduos (p=0,0076. Dos 18 casos recorrentes, seis apresentaram imunorreação para o p53 e 12 foram negativos para este anticorpo (p=0,1715. O Ki-67 foi positivo em 17 dos 18 casos do grupo recorrente (p=0,0001 e dos 20 tumores de alto grau, 18 apresentaram reação para este anticorpo (p=0,0001. Dos 18 indivíduos que tiveram recorrência, 13 apresentaram expressão anômala para CK20 (p=0,0166. Nos carcinomas de alto grau, dos 20 casos, 16 apresentaram expressão anômala para este anticorpo, enquanto que 18 dos 23 indivíduos com tumores de baixo grau mostraram expressão habitual para a CK20 (p=0,0002. CONCLUSÃO: O p53 mostrou boa correlação com a progressão histológica e grau histológico. O Ki-67 apresentou forte associação com a recidiva e grau histológico, e a CK20 também associou-se com estas variáveis.

  9. Photoelectrocatalytic Oxidation of Formic Acid at Titania@Polyoxometalate/Gold Nanocomposite Material Modified Electrode. (United States)

    Pandiyarajan, Chinnappan; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Ramaraj, Ramasamy


    Amine functionalized silicate sol-gel stabilized titania (P25)-polyoxometalate (PTA)-gold (Au) nanocomposite materials (APS/(P25-PTA-Au)(NCM)) were prepared by a simple chemical reduction method and were used to fabricate modified photoelectrode for the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid. The APS/(P25-PTA-Au)(NCM) photoelectrode showed synergistic photoelectrocatalytic behavior towards the oxidation of formic acid. The photoresponse of the APS/(P25-PTA-Au)(NCM) modified photoelectrode was found to be higher when compared to the controlled photoelectrodes. The present study shows that the loading of Au(nps) on APS/P25-PTA is more beneficial to enhance the photoinduced interfacial charge transfer process, which leads to increased photocurrent generation. The present study concludes that the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid at the APS/(P25-PTA-Au)(NCM) photoelectrode will boost the formic acid fuel cell performance.

  10. Determination of ptaquiloside and pterosin B derived from bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) in cattle plasma, urine and milk. (United States)

    Aranha, Paulo César Reis; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Strobel, Bjarne W; Friis, Christian


    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a toxin from bracken fern (Pteridium sp.) with genotoxic effects. Hydrolysis of PTA leads to the non-toxic and aromatised indanone, pterosin B (PTB). Here we present a sensitive, fast, simple and direct method, using SPE cartridges to clean and pre-concentrate PTA and PTB in plasma, urine and milk followed by LC-MS quantification. The average recovery of PTA in plasma, urine, and milk was 71, 88 and 77%, respectively, whereas recovery of PTB was 75, 82 and 63%. The method LOQ for PTA and PTB in plasma was 1.2 and 3.7ngmL(-1), 52 and 33ngmL(-1) for undiluted urine and 5.8 and 5.3ngmL(-1) for milk. The method is repeatable within and between days, with RSD values lower than 15% (PTA) and 20% (PTB). When PTA and PTB spiked samples were stored at -18°C for 14 days both compounds remained stable. In contrast, the PTA concentration was reduced by 15% when PTA spiked plasma was left for 5h at room temperature before SPE clean-up, whereas PTB remained stable. The method is the first to allow simultaneous quantification of PTA and PTB in biological fluids in a relevant concentration range. After intravenous administration of 0.092mg PTA per kgbw in a heifer, the plasma concentration was more than 300ngmL(-1) PTA and declined to 9.8ngmL(-1) after 6h, PTB was determined after 10min at 50ngmL(-1.)

  11. Eu(III) complexation of phenyltrisalanine and phenylbisalanine in aqueous solution studied by photoluminescence and UV spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu, R.D. E-mail:; Frejd, T


    The Eu(III)-coordination of phenyltrisalanine (Pta) 1, in aqueous solution was investigated. The photoluminescence data suggested that the chelating effect of Pta places the metal ion on the face of the aromatic ring as proposed in 4. Furthermore, Eu(III) is usually used as a substitute for Ca(II) in spectroscopic studies and the formation of a 1:1 complex between Pta and Eu(III) indicated the possibility that Pta may be used as a Ca(II) binder. For comparison, phenylbisalanine (Pba) 2, was subjected to similar studies and was found to behave more like phenylalanine.

  12. Heteropoly acid encapsulated into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for Friedel–Crafts acylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammar, Muhammad; Jiang, Sai; Ji, Shengfu, E-mail:


    A new strategy has been developed for the encapsulation of the phosphotungstic heteropoly acid (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} denoted as PTA) into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage and the PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts with different PTA content were prepared. The structure of the catalysts was characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, FT-IR, ICP-AES and TG. The catalytic activity and recovery properties of the catalysts for the Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride were evaluated. The results showed that 14.6–31.7 wt% PTA were encapsulated in the ZIF-67 cage. The PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts had good catalytic activity for Friedel-Crafts acylation. The conversion of anisole can reach ~100% and the selectivity of the production can reach ~94% over 26.5 wt% PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalyst under the reaction condition of 120 °C and 6 h. After reaction, the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture by the centrifugation. The recovered catalyst can be reused five times and the selectivity can be kept over 90%. - Graphical abstract: The PTA@ZIF-67 catalysts with different PTA content were prepared by encapsulating the PTA into ZIF-67 cage and the as-synthesized catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity for the Friedel–Craft acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride.

  13. Kinetics of ptaquiloside hydrolysis in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala-Luis, Karina B.; Bildsøe Hansen, Pernille; Rasmussen, Lars Holm;


    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a well-known toxin produced by the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn). It is proposed that PTA from bracken stands can leach through soil and sediments into drinking-water reservoirs, thus representing a concern for human health. To predict the persistence of the t......Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a well-known toxin produced by the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn). It is proposed that PTA from bracken stands can leach through soil and sediments into drinking-water reservoirs, thus representing a concern for human health. To predict the persistence...

  14. Language and cognitive communication during post-traumatic amnesia: A critical synthesis. (United States)

    Steel, Joanne; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Togher, Leanne


    There is minimal speech pathology literature on communication presentation during post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and the early recovery period after traumatic brain injury. While a body of research reports on other cognitive and behavioural functions during PTA, language and/or cognitive communication are not routinely the primary focus of current research literature. This critical synthesis provides an overview of research to date on communication during PTA to inform speech pathology assessment practice and to assist with information provision to the multidisciplinary team and family members. A search was conducted of studies reporting on language, cognition, and cognitive communication during the acute, inpatient and early recovery period after TBI. These were examined for relevance to speech pathology practice during PTA and acute confusional state. Historic and recent literature has described types of language and communication impairment during PTA and early recovery after TBI. Recently, aspects of communication impairment during PTA have been found relevant for outcome prediction. Few studies were found originating from speech pathology on communication during PTA. Communication disruption forms a key feature of PTA. Existing literature indicates that speech pathology monitoring of communication during PTA may be of benefit as part of multidisciplinary team management during early recovery.

  15. Below knee angioplasty in elderly patients: Predictors of major adverse clinical outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N


    To determine predictors of clinical outcome following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in elderly patients with below knee atherosclerotic lesions causing intermittent claudication (IC) or critical limb ischaemia (CLI).

  16. Dual activity of quinolinate synthase: triose phosphate isomerase and dehydration activities play together to form quinolinate. (United States)

    Reichmann, Debora; Couté, Yohann; Ollagnier de Choudens, Sandrine


    Quinolinate synthase (NadA) is an Fe4S4 cluster-containing dehydrating enzyme involved in the synthesis of quinolinic acid (QA), the universal precursor of the essential coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The reaction catalyzed by NadA is not well understood, and two mechanisms have been proposed in the literature that differ in the nature of the molecule (DHAP or G-3P) that condenses with iminoaspartate (IA) to form QA. In this article, using biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that DHAP is the triose that condenses with IA to form QA. The capacity of NadA to use G-3P is due to its previously unknown triose phosphate isomerase activity.

  17. Living with HIV: Patients Perspective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast showcases three people who are living with HIV. The patients share their experiences of being diagnosed with HIV, of the treatments they are undergoing, and on taking responsibility for their health.  Created: 6/4/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/4/2009.

  18. Characteristics of Triose Phosphate/Phosphate Translocator from Wheat and Its Role in the Distribution of Assimilates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNJin-Yue; WANGQing-Mei; CHENJia; WANGXue-Chen


    In plants, triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT) is the first regulation point forpartitioning of photosynthate between source and sink. Studies on the characteristic of TPT and itsregulation on the distribution of assimilates are critical for improving the utilization rate of photosyntheticassimilates. Chloroplasts with intactness of more than 91% and high purity were isolated from wheat( Triticurn aestivurn L. cv. Jing 411) leaves. Analysis of SDS-PAGE and labeling with an irreversible specificinhibitor, [H3]2-DIDS (4, 4'-diisothiocyano-2, 2'-stilbenedisulfonate, DIDS) demonstrated that wheat TPTwas a chloroplast membrane protein with a 35 kD molecular weight, which comprised about 15% of the totalmembrane proteins of chloroplasts. Western blotting analysis showed that wheat TPT is uniquelydistributed in the envelope membrane of chloroplasts, but not detected in the membranes of vacuoles andmitochondria. The silicone-oil-layer centrifugation system was employed to study the kinetic properties ofTPT. The results showed that the maximal transport activity of TPT was the highest for dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP)/inorganic phosphate (Pi), then for phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)/Pi and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P)/Pi. The Km value of TPT was the lowest for DHAP, followed by Pi, PEP and G6P,therefore the most preferred substrate of TPT is DHAP. The transport of wheat TPT to DHAP was stronglyinhibited by DIDS with a degree of 95%. Inhibition of TPT transport activity led to an obvious accumulationof starch in chloroplasts, therefore the TPT protein of wheat controls the export of TP out of chloroplastsinto cytosol. Except for the need of participating in the Calvin cycle, the ratio of TP exported out ofchloroplast to the one used for synthesizing starch was at least 93.6:6.4. The TPT protein from wheat hasmuch high transport efficiency, which plays an important role in the regulation of the distribution ofassimilates in wheat chloroplasts.

  19. Synthesis and applications of {sup 13}C glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocking, E.; Khalsa, O.; Martinez, R.A.; Silks, L.A. III [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)


    Due in part to the use of labeled glycerol for the {sup 13}C enrichment of biomolecules, we are currently developing new synthetic routes to various isotopomers of glycerol. Judging from our experience, traditional methods of glycerol synthesis are not easily adapted for isotopic enrichment and/or have poor overall yields (12 to 15%). Furthermore, the use of glycerol for enrichment can be prohibitively expensive and its availability is limited by the level of demand. We are presently developing a short de novo synthesis of glycerol from carbon dioxide ({approximately}53% overall yield for four steps) and are examining the feasibility of synthesizing site-specific {sup 13}C-labeled glycerol and dihydroxyacetone (DHA) from labeled methanol and carbon dioxide. One application of {sup 13}C glycerol we have examined is enzymatic conversion of glycerol to glyceraldehyde-3-monophosphate or dihydroxyacetone monophosphate (DHAP) with yields ranging from 25 to 50% (as determined by NMR spectroscopy). We are also pursuing the chemical conversion of {sup 13}C-labeled DHA to DHAP. We are especially interested in {sup 13}C-labeled DHAP because we are investigating its use as a chemo-enzymatic precursor for both labeled 2-deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribonucleic acids.

  20. Increased ethanol production by deletion of HAP4 in recombinant xylose-assimilating Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Hoshino, Tamotsu


    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAP4 gene encodes a transcription activator that plays a key role in controlling the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial respiration and reductive pathways. This work examines the effect of knockout of the HAP4 gene on aerobic ethanol production in a xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strain. A hap4-deleted recombinant yeast strain (B42-DHAP4) showed increased maximum concentration, production rate, and yield of ethanol compared with the reference strain MA-B42, irrespective of cultivation medium (glucose, xylose, or glucose/xylose mixtures). Notably, B42-DHAP4 was capable of producing ethanol from xylose as the sole carbon source under aerobic conditions, whereas no ethanol was produced by MA-B42. Moreover, the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield (0.44 g/g) from the detoxified hydrolysate of wood chips was markedly improved in B42-DHAP4 compared to MA-B42. Thus, the results of this study support the view that deleting HAP4 in xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strains represents a useful strategy in ethanol production processes.

  1. Effect and outcome of balloon angioplasty and stenting of the iliac arteries evaluated by intravascular ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K J; Rasmussen, John Bøje Grønvall; Just, S;


    To document the mechanism of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting of the iliac arteries, and to relate the effect to patency.......To document the mechanism of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting of the iliac arteries, and to relate the effect to patency....

  2. Triumfalnoje vozvrashtshenije 60-h / Airika Soome, Jaanika Sootna, Merike Pääro...[jt.] ; interv. Valeria Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Eesti tuntuimate kaubamärkide PTA, Monton, Bastion, Ivo Nikkolo ja Mosaic moekunstnike nägemused moest kevad-suveks 2007. PTA - Airika Soome, Monton - Jaanika Sootna, Bastion - Merike Pääro, Ivo Nikkolo - Eve Hanson ja Mosaic - Evelin Lill

  3. Adsorptive Separation and Recovery of Organic Compounds from Purified Terephthalic Acid Plant Effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachane, P.K.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, G.F.; Pangarkar, V.G.


    Several organic impurities formed in the p-xylene oxidation process for manufacture of terephthalic acid are carried into the aqueous effluent from the crystallization section of PTA plant of crystallizers for purified terephthalic acid (PTA). These compounds impose a burden on the effluent treatmen

  4. A commercially viable route to polymerization grade phenylterephthalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshel, G.N.; Koshel, S.G.; Rudkovsky, E.K. [Yaroslav, Yaroslav State Technical University (Russian Federation). Dept. of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry; Poli, G.; Vitolo, S.; Magagnini, P. [Pisa, Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Chimica, Chimica Industriale e Scienza dei materiali


    Phenylterephthalic acid (PTA) has a potential as comonomer for the production of high performance liquid-crystalline polyesters. The available synthetic routes to PTA are reviewed, and a new, commercially viable process based on the use of cheap raw materials, such as p-xylene and cyclohexene, is described.

  5. Successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery stenosis using intravascular ultrasound virtual histology. (United States)

    Takayama, Katsutoshi; Taoka, Toshiaki; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Myouchin, Kaoru; Wada, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Fukusumi, Akio; Iwasaki, Satoru; Kurokawa, Shinichiro; Kichikawa, Kimihiko


    This is the first report of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of an intracranial artery applying intravascular ultrasound virtual histology (IVUS-VH), which has been recently developed for tissue characterization of coronary artery plaque. We report a case of successful PTA and stenting for symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery stenosis using IVUS-VH.

  6. Stop looking up the ladder: analyzing the impact of participatory technology assessment from a network perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeber, A.; Griessler, E.; Versteeg, W.


    Alongside the gradual increase in use of participatory technology assessment (PTA), a tool to democratize decision-making on controversial technologies, a growing body of literature on how to assess the impact of PTA has developed. A distinction can be made between two generations of impact assessme

  7. Distribution of the carcinogenic terpene ptaquiloside in Bracken fronds, rhizomes (Pteridium aquilinum) and litter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Jensen, Lasse Sander; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun


    The distribution of ptaquiloside (PTA) was studied in four Danish bracken populations in order to evaluate the transfer of PTA from ferns to soil. Populations showed statistically significant differences in PTAcontents of fronds and rhizomes despite large in-site variations. The highest concentra...

  8. Determination of ptaquiloside and pterosin B derived from bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) in cattle plasma, urine and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aranha, Paulo Cesar Reis; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun; Rasmussen, Lars Holm


    in plasma, urine andmilk followed by LC–MS quantification. The average recovery of PTA in plasma, urine, and milk was 71,88 and 77%, respectively, whereas recovery of PTB was 75, 82 and 63%. The method LOQ for PTA andPTB in plasma was 1.2 and 3.7 ng mL−1, 52 and 33 ng mL−1for undiluted urine and 5.8 and 5.......3 ng mL−1for milk. The method is repeatable within and between days, with RSD values lower than 15% (PTA)and 20% (PTB). When PTA and PTB spiked samples were stored at −18◦C for 14 days both compoundsremained stable. In contrast, the PTA concentration was reduced by 15% when PTA spiked plasma wasleft...... for 5 h at room temperature before SPE clean-up, whereas PTB remained stable. The method is thefirst to allow simultaneous quantification of PTA and PTB in biological fluids in a relevant concentrationrange. After intravenous administration of 0.092 mg PTA per kg bw in a heifer, the plasma...

  9. A rare cause of hyperprolactinemia: persistent trigeminal artery with stalk-section effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekinci, G.; Baltacioglu, F.; Cimsit, C.; Akpinar, I.; Erzen, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Marmara University, Altunizade Istanbul (Turkey); Kilic, T.; Pamir, N. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Marmara University, Altunizade Istanbul (Turkey)


    The primitive trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal, and proatlantal intersegmental arteries are fetal anastomoses between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most frequent embryonic communication between the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems in adults. We report a case of PTA compressing the left side of the pituitary gland and stalk, in a patient with elevated blood prolactin level. (orig.)

  10. APOE genotype and verbal memory recovery during and after emergence from post-traumatic amnesia. (United States)

    Noé, E; Ferri, J; Colomer, C; Moliner, B; Chirivella, J


    To determine if APOE genotype is linked to memory function after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eighty-two patients in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and 107 patients who had emerged from PTA were selected from 239 consecutive patients admitted to the facility. Verbal memory assessments, including the Spanish version of the California Verbal Learning Test and the Working-Memory Index of the WAIS-III, were conducted immediately after PTA resolution or during the first week after admission for patients who were out of PTA. Both groups were reassessed 6 months after inclusion in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme. Patients with the APOE-epsilon 4 allele (n = 17 in the PTA group and n = 9 in the out of PTA group) entered rehabilitation at a more impaired level, but made remarkable progress during follow-up. Fifty-five patients from the initial sample emerged from PTA during the follow-up period. Age, GOAT at admission and chronicity, but not APOE genotype or initial trauma severity, were significant predictors of emergence from PTA. APOE genotype seems to be associated with the trajectory of cognitive recovery after TBI, but does not play a determinant role in the efficacy of memory rehabilitation in this population.

  11. Influence of Wildland Fire on the Recovery of Endangered Plant Species Study Project. (United States)


    mint family ( Lamiaceae ). It is the last remaining extant member of the genus and is only found at PTA and the Parker Ranch. Shaw (1995) estimated that...and stoloniferous perennial plant. It also belongs to the mint family ( Lamiaceae ) and is found over much of the west side of PTA and at several

  12. Interactive Technology Assessment in the Real World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marris, Claire; Joly, Pierre-Benoit; Rip, Arie


    Participatory Technology Assessment (pTA) initiatives have usually been analyzed as if they existed in a social and political vacuum. This article analyzes the linkages that occur, in both directions, between the microcosm set up by a pTA exercise and the real world outside. This dual-dynamics persp

  13. Gclust Server: 106868 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 106868 Rpal_RPA4567=pta Cluster Sequences - 471 phosphate acetyltransferase 1 1.00e...+00 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.67 0.0 0.0 Show 106868 Cluster ID 106868 Sequence ID Rpal_RPA4567=pta Link to cluster sequ

  14. Biocompatible and biodegradable poly(Tannic Acid) hydrogel with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. (United States)

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Silan, Coskun; Aktas, Nahit; Turk, Mustafa


    A novel resourceful bulk poly(Tannic Acid) (p(TA)) hydrogel was prepared by crosslinking TA molecules with an epoxy crosslinker, trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TMPGDE), in an autoclave at 90°C for 2h. The obtained p(TA) hydrogels were in disk form and have highly porous morphology. The swelling characteristics of p(TA) hydrogels were investigated in wound healing pH conditions of pH 5.4, 7.4, and 9 at 37.5°C, and the hydrogels showed good swelling and moisture content behavior. Especially, p(TA) hydrogels were found to be sensitive to pH 9 with 1669% maximum swelling. P(TA) hydrogels were completely degraded at pH 9 hydrolytically in 9 days. Total phenol contents and the effects of scavenging ABTS(+) radicals of degraded p(TA) hydrogels at pH 5.4, 7.4, and 9 were evaluated and calculated in terms of gallic acid equivalent and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, respectively, and found to be very effective. Moreover, degraded p(TA) hydrogels display strong antimicrobial behavior against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria strains and Candida albicans fungus strain. The WST-1 results indicated that bulk p(TA) hydrogels have no cyctotoxicity to the L929 fibroblast cell line in vitro.

  15. Effects of Articular Cartilage Constituents on Phosphotungstic Acid Enhanced Micro-Computed Tomography (United States)

    Karhula, Sakari S.; Finnilä, Mikko A.; Lammi, Mikko J.; Ylärinne, Janne H.; Kauppinen, Sami; Rieppo, Lassi; Pritzker, Kenneth P. H.; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Saarakkala, Simo


    Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (CEμCT) with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) has shown potential for detecting collagen distribution of articular cartilage. However, the selectivity of the PTA staining to articular cartilage constituents remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of PTA for the collagen content in bovine articular cartilage. Adjacent bovine articular cartilage samples were treated with chondroitinase ABC and collagenase to degrade the proteoglycan and the collagen constituents in articular cartilage, respectively. Enzymatically degraded samples were compared to the untreated samples using CEμCT and reference methods, such as Fourier-transform infrared imaging. Decrease in the X-ray attenuation of PTA in articular cartilage and collagen content was observed in cartilage depth of 0–13% and deeper in tissue after collagen degradation. Increase in the X-ray attenuation of PTA was observed in the cartilage depth of 13–39% after proteoglycan degradation. The X-ray attenuation of PTA-labelled articular cartilage in CEμCT is associated mainly with collagen content but the proteoglycans have a minor effect on the X-ray attenuation of the PTA-labelled articular cartilage. In conclusion, the PTA labeling provides a feasible CEμCT method for 3D characterization of articular cartilage. PMID:28135331

  16. Adsorptive Separation and Recovery of Organic Compounds from Purified Terephthalic Acid Plant Effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachane, P.K.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, G.F.; Pangarkar, V.G.


    Several organic impurities formed in the p-xylene oxidation process for manufacture of terephthalic acid are carried into the aqueous effluent from the crystallization section of PTA plant of crystallizers for purified terephthalic acid (PTA). These compounds impose a burden on the effluent treatmen

  17. High rate treatment of terephthalic acid production wastewater in a two-stage anaerobic bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Beckers, J.; Pol, L.W.H.; Lettinga, G.


    The feasibility was studied of anaerobic treatment of wastewater generated during purified terephthalic acid (PTA) production in two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system. The artificial influent of the system contained the main organic substrates of PTA-wastewater: acetate, be

  18. Characterization of Clostridium thermocellum strains with disrupted fermentation end product pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Veen, Douwe [ORNL; Lo, Jonathan [Dartmouth College; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Argyros, Aaron [Mascoma Corporation; Van den Berg, Robert A [Katholieke University Leuven, Belgium; Caiazza, Nicky [Mascoma Corporation; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth


    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, cellulolytic anaerobe that is a candidate microorganism for industrial biofuels production. Strains with mutations in genes associated with production of Llactate ( ldh) and/or acetate ( pta) were characterized to gain insight into the intracellular processes that convert cellobiose to ethanol and other fermentation end products. Cellobiose-grown cultures of the ldh strain had identical biomass accumulation, fermentation end products, transcription profile and intracellular metabolite concentrations compared to its parent strain (DSM1313 hpt spo0A). The pta-deficient strain grew slower and had 30% lower final biomass concentration compared to the parent strain, yet produced 75% more ethanol. A ldh pta double mutant strain evolved for faster growth had growth rate and ethanol yield comparable to the parent strain, whereas its biomass accumulation was comparable to pta. Free amino acids were secreted by all examined strains, with both pta strains secreting higher amounts of alanine, valine, isoleucine, proline, glutamine, and threonine. Valine concentration for ldh pta reached 5 mM by the end of growth, or 2.7% of the substrate carbon utilized. These secreted amino acid concentrations correlate with increased intracellular pyruvate concentrations, up to 6-fold in the pta and 16-fold in the ldh pta strain. We hypothesize that the deletions in fermentation end product pathways result in an intracellular redox imbalance, which the organism attempts to relieve, in part by recycling NADP+ through increased production of amino acids.

  19. The Relationship between Physical Therapist Assistant Faculty Characteristics and Program Outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination (United States)

    Novak, Malorie Kosht


    Background. There is a paucity of published literature regarding the correlation between faculty characteristics and outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (NPTE-PTA). Purpose. To determine if there was a relationship between faculty characteristics in PTA educational programs and program outcomes…

  20. Short- and long-term functional effects of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in hemodialysis vascular access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Linden, J; Smits, JHM; Wolterbeek, DW; Zijlstra, JJ; De Jong, GHT; Van den Dorpel, MA; Blankestijn, PJ


    The efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is usually expressed as the angiographic result. Access flow (Qa) measurements offer a means to quantify the functional effects. This study was performed to evaluate the short-term functional and angiographic effects of PTA and to determine

  1. Ptaquiloside from bracken in stream water at base flow and during storm events. (United States)

    Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Ramwell, Carmel; Hansen, Hans Chr B; Strobel, Bjarne W


    The bracken fern (Pteridium spp.) densely populates both open and woodland vegetation types around the globe. Bracken is toxic to livestock when consumed, and a group of potent illudane-type carcinogens have been identified, of which the compound ptaquiloside (PTA) is the most abundant. The highly water soluble PTA has been shown to be leachable from bracken fronds, and present in the soil and water below bracken stands. This has raised concerns over whether the compound might pose a risk to drinking water sources. We investigated PTA concentrations in a small stream draining a bracken-infested catchment at base flow and in response to storm events during a growth season, and included sampling of the bracken canopy throughfall. Streams in other bracken-dominated areas were also sampled at base flow for comparison, and a controlled pulse experiment was conducted in the field to study the in-stream dynamics of PTA. Ptaquiloside concentrations in the stream never exceeded 61 ng L(-1) in the base flow samples, but peaked at 2.2 μg L(-1) during the studied storm events. The mass of PTA in the stream, per storm event, was 7.5-93 mg from this catchment. A clear temporal connection was observed between rainfall and PTA concentration in the stream, with a reproducible time lag of approx. 1 h from onset of rain to elevated concentrations, and returning rather quickly (about 2 h) to base flow concentration levels. The concentration of PTA behaved similar to an inert tracer (Cl(-)) in the pulse experiment over a relative short time scale (minutes-hours) reflecting no PTA sorption, and dispersion and dilution considerably lowered the observed PTA concentrations downstream. Bracken throughfall revealed a potent and lasting source of PTA during rainfall, with concentrations up to 169 μg L(-1), that did not decrease over the course of the event. In the stream, the throughfall contribution to PTA cannot be separated from a possible below-ground input from litter, rhizomes

  2. Democratic Theory and Citizen Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegelbauer, Peter; Hansen, Janus


    Citizen participation in terms of participatory technology assessment (PTA) has caused a lot of debate in science and technology policy. However, there are still many open questions: What is the actual impact of PTA on policy-making? On which normative theory of democracy is the evaluation of PTA...... based and does it make a difference which theory is used? Which framework is appropriate to evaluate the often fuzzy impact of PTA on policy-making? Is PTA actually a central element for policy-making or are other factors much more relevant such as politicians' involvement or the presence of industry...... interests? What is the ‘nature’ of the public in different national and institutional contexts? How are expectations of policy-makers played out in the perceived need for regulation? These issues are addressed in a series of comparative papers in this issue which focus on the regulation...

  3. Conversion of cellulose and cellobiose into sorbitol catalyzed by ruthenium supported on a polyoxometalate/metal-organic framework hybrid. (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhu; Wang, Shengpei; Huang, Jing; Chen, Limin; Ma, Longlong; Huang, Xing


    Cellulose and cellobiose were selectively converted into sorbitol over water-tolerant phosphotungstic acid (PTA)/metal- organic-framework-hybrid-supported ruthenium catalysts, Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr), under aqueous hydrogenation conditions. The goal was to investigate the relationship between the acid/metal balance of bifunctional catalysts Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) and their performance in the catalytic conversion of cellulose and cellobiose into sugar alcohols. The control of the amount and strength of acid sites in the supported PTA/MIL-100(Cr) was achieved through the effective control of encapsulated-PTA loading in MIL-100(Cr). This design and preparation method led to an appropriately balanced Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) in terms of Ru dispersion and hydrogenation capacity on the one hand, and acid site density of PTA/MIL-100(Cr) (responsible for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis) on the other hand. The ratio of acid site density to the number of Ru surface atoms (nA /nRu ) of Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) was used to monitor the balance between hydrogenation and hydrolysis functions; the optimum balance between the two catalytic functions, that is, 8.84sorbitol of 57.9% at complete conversion of cellulose, and 97.1% yield in hexitols with a selectivity for sorbitol of 95.1% at complete conversion of cellobiose) were obtained using a Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) catalyst with loadings of 3.2 wt % for Ru and 16.7 wt % for PTA. This research thus opens new perspectives for the rational design of acid/metal bifunctional catalysts for biomass conversion.

  4. Impact of maturity rate of daughters on genetic ranking of Holstein bulls. (United States)

    Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Powell, R L; Vanraden, P M


    If genetic evaluations are calculated with a single-trait repeatability model, evaluation changes may be attributed in part to bulls that have daughters that deviate considerably from the typical response to aging. Differences in maturity rate of bull daughters were examined to determine whether they influence change in bull evaluations. Standardized milk records for Holsteins that first calved between 1960 and 1998 were used to calculate 12 tailored predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for each bull. Predicted transmitting abilities were tailored from combinations of 4 annual cut-off dates and 3 parities. Date screening selected cows first calving before January of 1996, 1997, 1998, or 1999. Parity screening selected milk records from the first 1, 2, or 3 parities. Therefore, 4 evaluations (PTA1) included only first-parity records available for daughters and contemporaries prior to the respective years designated. Four more evaluations (PTA(1,2)) included the records from the first 2 parities for cows first calving prior to those same year cutoffs; likewise, the last 4 evaluations (PTA(1,2,3)) included records from the first 3 parities. Stability of bull evaluations (standard deviations of differences as well as correlations between bull evaluations) across time was compared. Bulls born after 1984 with > or =500 daughters were of interest because of the high precision of evaluations and recent activity. Tailored PTA of those bulls had more uniformity across years in mean records per daughter than did official USDA PTA. Standard deviation of differences in PTA1, PTA(1,2), and PTA(1,2,3) for milk between evaluation years 1996 and 1997 were 28, 28, and 27 kg compared with 63 kg for official evaluations; similarly, between 1996 and 1999, SD were 36, 32, and 32 kg compared with 80 kg. Results suggested that a modification to the current evaluation model to account for maturity rate should reduce fluctuations in individual bull PTA across time and may improve accuracy

  5. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria (United States)

    Zani, Babalwa; Gathu, Michael; Donegan, Sarah; Olliaro, Piero L; Sinclair, David


    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This review aims to assist the decision-making of malaria control programmes by providing an overview of the relative effects of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-P) versus other recommended ACTs. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of DHA-P compared to other ACTs for treating uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in adults and children. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS, and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) up to July 2013. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing a three-day course of DHA-P to a three-day course of an alternative WHO recommended ACT in uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed primary outcomes in line with the WHO 'Protocol for assessing and monitoring antimalarial drug efficacy’ and compared drugs using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Secondary outcomes were effects on gametocytes, haemoglobin, and adverse events. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 27 trials, enrolling 16,382 adults and children, and conducted between 2002 and 2010. Most trials excluded infants aged less than six months and pregnant women. DHA-P versus artemether-lumefantrine In Africa, over 28 days follow-up, DHA-P is superior to artemether-lumefantrine at preventing further parasitaemia (PCR-unadjusted treatment failure: RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.39, nine trials, 6200 participants, high quality evidence), and although PCR-adjusted treatment failure was below 5% for both ACTs, it was consistently lower

  6. Peritonsillar abscess: clinical aspects of microbiology, risk factors, and the association with parapharyngeal abscess. (United States)

    Klug, Tejs Ehlers


    PTA is a collection of pus located between the tonsillar capsule and the pharyngeal constrictor muscle. It is considered a complication of acute tonsillitis and is the most prevalent deep neck infection (approximately 2000 cases annually in Denmark) and cause of acute admission to Danish ENT departments. Teenagers and young adults are most commonly affected and males may predominate over females. However, no studies of age- and gender-stratified incidence rates have previously been published. Furthermore, smoking may be associated with increased risk of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) development, although the magnitude of the association has not been estimated. Complications are relatively rare. They include parapharyngeal abscess (PPA), upper airway obstruction, Lemierre´s syndrome, necrotizing fasciitis, mediastinitis, erosion of the internal carotid artery, brain abscess, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The treatment consists of abscess drainage and antimicrobial therapy. There are three accepted methods of surgical intervension: needle aspiration, incision and drainage (ID), and acute tonsillectomy (á chaud). Internationally, there is a strong trend towards less invasive surgical approach to PTA treatment with avoidance of acute tonsillectomy, needle aspiration instead of ID, and in some cases even antibiotic treatment without surgical drainage. The preferred antibiotic regimen varies greatly between countries and centers. Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the only established pathogen in PTA. However, GAS is only recovered from approximately 20% of PTA patients. The pathogens in the remaining 80% are unknown. Culturing of PTA pus aspirates often yields a polymicrobial mixture of aerobes and anaerobes. As the tonsils of healthy individuals are already heavily and diversely colonized, the identification of significant pathogens is challenging. In addition, when studying PTA microbiology, one must consider diagnostic precision, collection, handling, and

  7. Utilizing Monte Carlo Simulations to Optimize Institutional Empiric Antipseudomonal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Tennant


    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections with increasing resistance to a limited arsenal of antibiotics. Monte Carlo simulation provides antimicrobial stewardship teams with an additional tool to guide empiric therapy. We modeled empiric therapies with antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotic regimens to determine which were most likely to achieve probability of target attainment (PTA of ≥90%. Microbiological data for P. aeruginosa was reviewed for 2012. Antibiotics modeled for intermittent and prolonged infusion were aztreonam, cefepime, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs from institution-specific isolates, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters from previously published studies, a 10,000-subject Monte Carlo simulation was performed for each regimen to determine PTA. MICs from 272 isolates were included in this analysis. No intermittent infusion regimens achieved PTA ≥90%. Prolonged infusions of cefepime 2000 mg Q8 h, meropenem 1000 mg Q8 h, and meropenem 2000 mg Q8 h demonstrated PTA of 93%, 92%, and 100%, respectively. Prolonged infusions of piperacillin/tazobactam 4.5 g Q6 h and aztreonam 2 g Q8 h failed to achieved PTA ≥90% but demonstrated PTA of 81% and 73%, respectively. Standard doses of β-lactam antibiotics as intermittent infusion did not achieve 90% PTA against P. aeruginosa isolated at our institution; however, some prolonged infusions were able to achieve these targets.

  8. The usefulness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the middle cerebral artery stenosis in patients with transient ischemic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Chul; Lim, Hyo Soon; Kim, Jae Kyu; Seo, Jeong Jin; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National Univ. Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty(PTA) of atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery(MCA) stenosis in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Ten patients with TIA who had undergone PTA were retrospectively investigated. In all ten, angiography revealed stenosis of the MCA. Mechanical dilatation was performed at the stenotic portion, and the angiographic findings after PTA, as well as peri/post-angioplastic complications, were evaluated. Four to 64 (mean, 23.5) months later, neurologic symptoms and the nature and timing of recurrent attacks were also assessed. The degree of stenosis before PTA was 50-75% in six patients and greater than 75% in four. Complete or partial angiographic recanalization of the stenotic segment occurred in nine patients (90%). During follow-up, seven patients recovered without recurrent TIA or cerebral stroke; one reported a tingling sensation and one experienced vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Motor aphasia developed in one patient after PTA, but after systemic heparinization, improved within 24 hours. One patient who suffered intracranial hemorrhage due to vascular rupture during PTA did three days later. PTA for atherosclerotic MCA stenosis in patients with TIA is an effective therapeutic method.

  9. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  10. Comparison between auditory steady-state responses and pure-tone audiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komazec Zoran


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A more recent method, the auditory steadystate response (ASSR, has become more and more important test method due to difference that was found in previous investigations between hearing thresholds determined by the ASSR and the pure-tone audiometry (PTA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the ASSR in determining the frequency specific hearing thresholds by establishing a correlation between the thresholds determined by PTA, as well as to evaluate the reliability of ASSR in determining the hearing threshold with respect to the level of hearing loss and the configuration of the PTA findings. Methods. The prospective study included 46 subjects (92 ears which were assigned to groups based on their level of hearing loss and audiometric configuration. All the subjects underwent determination of hearing thresholds by PTA and ASSR without insight into their previously obtained PTA results. Results. The overall sample differences between the ASSR and PTA thresholds were 4.1, 2.5, 4.4, and 4.2 dB at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz, respectively. A high level of correlation was achieved in groups with different configurations of PTA findings. The correlation coefficients between the hearing thresholds determined by ASSR and PTA were significant in subjects with all levels of hearing loss. The differences between hearing thresholds determined by ASSR and PTA were less than 10 dB in 85% of subjects (ranging from 4 dB for moderately severe hearing loss to 7.2 dB for normal hearing. Conclusion. The ASSR is an excellent complementary method for the determination of hearing thresholds at the 4 carrier frequencies, as well as determination of the level of hearing loss and the audiometric configuration.

  11. Resolution of disorientation and amnesia during post-traumatic amnesia. (United States)

    Tate, R L; Pfaff, A; Jurjevic, L


    Despite the growing number of instruments for the prospective measurement of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) after traumatic brain injury, fundamental issues about the natural history of its resolution and methods of examination remain unresolved. The aims of the present study were to: (1) examine the sequence of resolution of disorientation and amnesia, and (2) determine if the method of measuring the memory component affected the duration of PTA. The sample comprised 31 severely injured patients admitted to a brain injury rehabilitation unit who were examined daily until they emerged from PTA. They were administered a composite PTA scale, covering orientation and memory items from standard PTA scales. Patients were consecutively allocated to one of two groups according to the method of measuring the memory component. Each group was administered identical materials with a different procedure. The most common sequence for resolution of disorientation in both groups was person, followed by place, then time. Overall, amnesia resolved before disorientation in 94% of cases. Correlation coefficients between return of components of orientation and memory were all highly significant, ranging from r=0. 81 to 0.93. Significant variability occurred in the number of days to emerge from PTA according to the scale used. There was evidence that the method of measuring memory influenced the patient's capacity to consistently sustain criterion scores on the scale. These results are contrary to findings in mildly injured patients, in whom orientation usually returns before memory. They also demonstrate that the duration of PTA will be dictated by the method used. These findings raise validity issues with respect to the prospective measurement of PTA, and in particular determining when an individual patient has emerged from PTA, which require further investigation.

  12. Intragraft pressures predict outcomes in hemodialysis patients with graft outflow lesions undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. (United States)

    Lai, Chi-Cheng; Chung, Hsiao-Min; Tsai, Han-Lin; Mar, Guang-Yuan; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn; Liu, Chun-Peng


    This study is to introduce intragraft pressure (IGP) as intraprocedural parameter for outcome survey in hemodialysis patients with graft outflow lesions undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The role of IGP on procedural endpoint and patency is unknown. Seventy-five participants with graft outflow lesions receiving PTA were enrolled. Procedural data regarding IGP and angiographic findings were collected and the 1-year graft patency through collaboration with hemodialysis units. Analyses and comparisons among IGP, angiographic findings, and patency were conducted. Using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, we intended to detect significance and the cut-off points of IGP for patency prediction, and difference in patency between the two groups divided by using the cut-off points. Pre-PTA and post-PTA IGP were significantly associated with 1-year patency (both significance IGP were closer to 106 and 47 mm Hg for prediction of 1-year patency (sensitivity = 0.76, specificity = 0.69; sensitivity = 0.79, specificity = 0.69, respectively; 95% CI). Significant reductions in 1-year patency were shown in the subjects with greater than the cut-off values, either pre-PTA or post-PTA IGP, compared with those with smaller than these values (both log rank test IGP might be useful to evaluate procedural endpoints and predict patency outcomes in hemodialysis patients with graft outflow lesions undergoing PTA. Patients with the greater pre-PTA or post-PTA IGP, to some level, seem to have the shorter patency. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for atherosclerotic stenosis of the intracranial cerebral arteries. initial results and long-term follow-up. (United States)

    Hyodo, A; Kato, N; Nakai, Y; Anno, I; Sato, H; Okazaki, M; Matsumaru, Y; Nose, T


    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was carried out 52 times for 49 lesions in 47 cases of atheroscrelotic stenosis of the intracranial or skull base cerebral arteries. The stenotic lesions involved the middle cerebral artery in 21 cases, the basilar artery in eight cases, the internal carotid artery (petrous-supraclinoid portion) in 15 cases, and the intracranial vertebral artery in five cases. Nearly all cases were symptomatic, such as TIA or stroke, and the degree of stenosis ranged from 70 to 99 percent, with a mean of 80 percent. PTA was performed using a STEALTH balloon angioplasty catheter. In these trials, PTA was successfully performed (as indicated by a residual stenosis under 50%) 41 times. The initial success rate was 79% and stenosis was reduced from 80% to 25%. Clinical follow-up was performed from 7 to 84 months with a mean of 44 months. During this period, death due to myocardial infarction or pneumonia occurred in five cases, stroke related to previous PTA occurred ih one case (due to re-stenosis) and stroke unrelated tl? previous PTA occurred in two cases. Angiographic follow-up was performed in 31 cases after 41 successful PTA procedures. Re-stenosis was seen in 20% of the cases, symptomrltic complications occurred in 6%, and asymptomatic complications occurred in 6% of the cases. One case suffered severe subarachnoid hemorrhage just after the PTA due to preexisting aneurysm rupture and he died a week after the PTA. So mortality in this series was 2%. From the results described here, we may conclude that PTA of the intracranial or skull base cerebral artery is technically feasible, and it can be performed with relatively low risk. From our results, it may be a useful method and effective for long-term survival of patients. But results from a larger number of patients and more long-term follow-up data are still necessary in order to evaluate the safety and usefulness of this method.

  14. Utility of liver biopsy in predicting clinical outcomes afterpercutaneous angioplasty for hepatic venous obstruction inliver transplant patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM To determine utility of transplant liver biopsyin evaluating efficacy of percutaneous transluminalangioplasty (PTA) for hepatic venous obstruction(HVOO).METHODS: Adult liver transplant patients treated withPTA for HVOO (2003-2013) at a single institution werereviewed for pre/post-PTA imaging findings, manometry(gradient with right atrium), presence of HVOO on pre-PTA and post-PTA early and late biopsy (EB and LB, 〈or 〉 60 d after PTA), and clinical outcome, defined asgood (no clinical issues, non-HVOO-related death) orpoor (surgical correction, recurrent HVOO, or HVOOrelateddeath).RESULTS: Fifteen patients meeting inclusion criteriaunderwent 21 PTA, 658 ± 1293 d after transplant.In procedures with pre-PTA biopsy (n = 19), nodifference was seen between pre-PTA gradient in 13/19procedures with HVOO on biopsy and 6/19 procedureswithout HVOO (8 ± 2.4 mmHg vs 6.8 ± 4.3 mmHg; P= 0.35). Post-PTA, 10/21 livers had EB (29 ± 21 d) and9/21 livers had LB (153 ± 81 d). On clinical follow-up(392 ± 773 d), HVOO on LB resulted in poor outcomesand absence of HVOO on LB resulted good outcomes.Patients with HVOO on EB (3/7 good, 4/7 poor) andno HVOO on EB (2/3 good, 1/3 poor) had mixedoutcomes.CONCLUSION: Negative liver biopsy greater than 60d after PTA accurately identifies patients with goodclinical outcomes.

  15. Using Post-Traumatic Amnesia To Predict Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury. (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie L; Spitz, Gershon; McKenzie, Dean


    Duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) has emerged as a strong measure of injury severity after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite the growing international adoption of this measure, there remains a lack of consistency in the way in which PTA duration is used to classify severity of injury. This study aimed to establish the classification of PTA that would best predict functional or productivity outcomes. We conducted a cohort study of 1041 persons recruited from inpatient admissions to a TBI rehabilitation center between 1985 and 2013. Participants had a primary diagnosis of TBI, emerged from PTA before discharge from inpatient hospital, and engaged in productive activities before injury. Eight models that classify duration of PTA were evaluated-six that were based on the literature and two that were statistically driven. Models were assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as well as model-based Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) statistics. All categorization models showed longer PTA to be associated with a greater likelihood of being nonproductive at 1 year after TBI. Classification systems with a greater number of categories performed better than two-category systems. The dimensional (continuous) form of PTA resulted in the greatest AUC, and lowest AIC as well as BIC, of the classification systems examined. This finding indicates that the greatest accuracy in prognosis is likely to be achieved using PTA as a continuous variable. This enables the probability of productive outcomes to be estimated with far greater precision than that possible using a classification system. Categorizing PTA to classify severity of injury may be reducing the precision with which clinicians can plan the treatment of patients after TBI.

  16. Effect of tumor volume on the enhancement pattern of parathyroid adenoma on parathyroid four-dimensional CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Kyoung [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Goyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Ji-hoon; Kang, Koung Mi; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul-Ho [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu Eun; Kim, Su-jin [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Jae-Kyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of tumor volume on the enhancement pattern of parathyroid adenoma (PTA) on four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). We analyzed the enhancement patterns of PTA on four-phase 4D-CT in 44 patients. Dependency of the changes of Hounsfield unit values (ΔHU) on the tumor volumes and clinical characteristics was evaluated using linear regression analyses. In addition, an unpaired t test was used to compare ΔHU of PTAs between PTA volume ≥1 cm{sup 3} and <1 cm{sup 3}, thyroid gland, and lymph node. PTA volume based on CT was the strongest factor on the ΔHU{sub Pre} {sub to} {sub Arterial} and ΔHU{sub Arterial} {sub to} {sub Venous} and ΔHU{sub Arterial} {sub to} {sub Delayed} (R {sup 2} = 0.34, 0.25, and 0.32, respectively, P < 0.001 for both). PTA ≥1 cm {sup 3} had statistically significant greater enhancement between the unenhanced phase and the arterial phase than PTA <1 cm {sup 3} (mean values ± standard deviations (SDs) of ΔHU{sub Pre} {sub to} {sub Arterial}, 102.7 ± 33.7 and 57.5 ± 28.8, respectively, P < 0.001). PTA ≥1 cm {sup 3} showed an early washout pattern on the venous phase, whereas PTA <1 cm {sup 3} showed a progressive enhancement pattern on the venous phase (mean values ± SDs of ΔHU{sub Arterial} {sub to} {sub Venous}, -13.2 ± 31.6 and 14.4 ± 32.7, respectively; P = 0.009). The enhancement pattern of PTA on 4D-CT is variable with respect to PTA volume based on CT. Therefore, the enhancement pattern of PTA on 4D-CT requires careful interpretation concerning the tumor volume, especially in cases of PTA <1 cm {sup 3}. (orig.)

  17. Behandling af peritonsillær absces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Trolle, Waldemar


    Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is associated with high morbidity and can cause serious and life-threatening complications. In Denmark, the most commonly isolated bacteria are Fusobacterium necrophorum and Streptococcus pyogenes gr. A. The incidence of PTA in Denmark is 41/100,000/year, the highest...... incidence ever reported for PTA. There is no definite consensus on the treatment. We recommend most patients treated with puncture and antibiotics as outpatients, and if necessary acute tonsillectomy instead of interval tonsillectomy. Steroids may be of value....

  18. Aldehyde-alcohol reactions catalyzed under mild conditions by chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic framework (MIL-101) and phosphotungstic acid composites. (United States)

    Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan


    Porous materials based on chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic frameworks (MIL-101) and their composites with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) were studied as heterogeneous acid catalysts in aldehyde-alcohol reactions exemplified by acetaldehyde-phenol (A-P) condensation and dimethylacetal formation from benzaldehyde and methanol (B-M reaction). The MIL-101 was synthesized solvothermically in water, and the MIL101/PTA composite materials were obtained by either impregnation of the already prepared MIL-101 porous matrix with phosphotungstic acid solution or by solvothermic treatment of aqueous mixtures of Cr(NO(3))(3), and terephthalic and phosphotungstic acids. The MIL101/PTA materials appeared to be effective catalysts for both A-P and B-M reactions occurring at room temperature, with half-lives ranging from 0.5 h (A-P) to 1.5-2 h (B-M) and turnover numbers over 600 for A-P and over 2900 for the B-M reaction, respectively. A synergistic effect of the strong acidic moieties (PTA) addition to mildly acidic Brønsted and Lewis acid cites of the MIL-101 was observed with the MIL101/PTA composites. The ability of the PTA and MIL101/PTA materials to strongly absorb and condense acetaldehyde vapors was discovered, with the MIL101/PTA absorbing over 10-fold its dry weight of acetaldehyde condensate at room temperature. The acetaldehyde was converted rapidly to crotonaldehyde and higher-molecular-weight compounds while in contact with MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA materials. The stability of the MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA catalysts was assessed within four cycles of the 1-day alcohol-aldehyde reactions in terms of the overall catalyst recovery, PTA or Cr content, and reaction rate constants in each cycle. The loss of the catalyst over 4 cycles was approximately 10 wt % for all tested catalysts due to the incomplete recovery and minute dissolution of the components. The reaction rates in all cycles remained unchanged and the catalyst losses stopped after the third cycle. The developed

  19. Intravascular ultrasound for iliac artery imaging. Clinical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K G; Schroeder, T V


    PTA. Structures such as rupture, intimal flaps and dissection are better visualized with IVUS. In stenotic iliac arteries IVUS has been able to evaluate the effect of PTA and stenting and relating the effect to the morphology of the plaque. IVUS measurements seem to be important predictors...... of the patency of iliac PTA. The ability of IVUS to evaluate the adaptation of stents to the arterial wall makes it particularly suited as a control procedure for the deployment of endovascular stented grafts. Finally IVUS has the ability to disclose insufficiency of endarterecomy, by visualizing remaining...

  20. Propfan test assessment testbed aircraft stability and control/performance 1/9-scale wind tunnel tests (United States)

    Little, B. H., Jr.; Tomlin, K. H.; Aljabri, A. S.; Mason, C. A.


    One-ninth scale wind tunnel model tests of the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft were performed in three different NASA facilities. Wing and propfan nacelle static pressures, model forces and moments, and flow field at the propfan plane were measured in these tests. Tests started in June 1985 and were completed in January 1987. These data were needed to assure PTA safety of flight, predict PTA performance, and validate analytical codes that will be used to predict flow fields in which the propfan will operate.

  1. Benchmarking of the construct of dimensionless correlations regarding batch bubble columns with suspended solids: Performance of the Pressure Transform Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hristov, Jordan


    Benchmark of dimensionless data correlations pertinent to batch bubble columns (BC) with suspended solids has been performed by the pressure transform approach (PTA). The main efforts have addressed the correct definition of dimensionless groups referring to the fact that solids dynamics and the bubble dynamics have different velocity and length scales. The correct definition of the initial set of variable in the classical dimensional analysis depends mainly on the experience of the investigator while the pressure transform approach (PTA) avoids errors at this initial stage. PTA addresses the physics of the phenomena occurring in complex systems involving many phases and allows straightforward definitions of dimensionless numbers.

  2. Binding equilibrium study of phosphotungstic acid and HSA or BSA with UV spectrum, fluorescence spectrum and equilibrium dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Jin(黄瑾); YUAN; Yuzhou(袁余洲); LIANG; Hong(梁宏)


    The binding equilibrium between phosphotungstic acid (H7[P(W2O7)6]@XH2O;PTA) and human serum albumin (HSA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by UV-Vis, fluorescence spectroscopies and equilibrium dialysis. It has been observed that UV absorption enhanced and the fluorescence quenched as the PTA binding to HSA or BSA at physiological pH 7.43( ± 0.02). The Scatchard analysis indicated that there exists a strong binding site of PTA in both HSA and BSA, and the successive stability constants of these two systems are obtained by nonlinear least-squares methods fitting Bjerrum formula.

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Secondary Schools, Home Economics teachers, Effective implementation. Introduction. Education ... Alyward (1980) defined nutrition education as a summary of food and nutrition and training to ensure ..... companies. The PTA meetings will ...

  4. Histamine derived from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri suppresses TNF via modulation of PKA and ERK signaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C.M.G.; Hong, T.; Pijkeren, J.P. van; Hemarajata, P.; Trinh, D.V.; Hu, W.; Britton, R.A.; Kalkum, M.; Versalovic, J.


    Beneficial microbes and probiotic species, such as Lactobacillus reuteri, produce biologically active compounds that can modulate host mucosal immunity. Previously, immunomodulatory factors secreted by L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 were unknown. A combined metabolomics and bacterial genetics strategy was

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Larger You are here Home Search library Topic Type 2013 PSA Featuring Katie Couric Adolfo Diaz, PTA, ... Parkinson's Disease Patients with a Depression Diagnosis? What Type of Exercise or Exercise Programs Are Recommended? What ...

  6. Reciprocity-based reasons for benefiting research participants: most fail, the most plausible is problematic. (United States)

    Sofaer, Neema


    A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access (PTA) to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: (1) most are false. (2) The most plausible principle, which is also problematic, applies only when participants experience significant net risks or burdens. (3) Seldom does reciprocity support PTA for participants or give researchers stronger reason to benefit participants than equally needy non-participants. (4) Reciprocity fails to explain the common view that it is bad when participants in a successful trial have benefited from the trial intervention but lack PTA to it.

  7. Logical error rate in the Pauli twirling approximation. (United States)

    Katabarwa, Amara; Geller, Michael R


    The performance of error correction protocols are necessary for understanding the operation of potential quantum computers, but this requires physical error models that can be simulated efficiently with classical computers. The Gottesmann-Knill theorem guarantees a class of such error models. Of these, one of the simplest is the Pauli twirling approximation (PTA), which is obtained by twirling an arbitrary completely positive error channel over the Pauli basis, resulting in a Pauli channel. In this work, we test the PTA's accuracy at predicting the logical error rate by simulating the 5-qubit code using a 9-qubit circuit with realistic decoherence and unitary gate errors. We find evidence for good agreement with exact simulation, with the PTA overestimating the logical error rate by a factor of 2 to 3. Our results suggest that the PTA is a reliable predictor of the logical error rate, at least for low-distance codes.

  8. Cruise noise of an advanced single-rotation propeller measured from an adjacent aircraft (United States)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.; Ranaudo, Richard J.


    Results are reported from flight measurements of the noise from a full-scale SR-7L advanced single-rotation turbofan model mounted on the wing of the NASA Lewis Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft (a modified Gulfstream II). Data obtained on the PTA with an outboard microphone boom and by the NASA Lewis acoustically instrumented Learjet flying along several sidelines relative to the PTA are presented in tables and graphs and briefly discussed. It is found that the PTA-boom and Learjet sound levels are in good agreement at Mach 0.69 and altitude 20,000 ft, but the Learjet values are significantly lower than the boom levels at Mach 0.79 and altitude 36,000 ft.

  9. Process of chemical recycling of post-consumer PET using a factorial design; Processo de reciclagem quimica do PET pos-consumo empregando o planejamento fatorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Carlos Eduardo de O.; Almeida, Yeda Medeiros B. de; Vinhas, Gloria M., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    The present study investigated important variables in the depolymerization reaction of post-consumer poly (ethylene terephthalate) - PET via alkaline hydrolysis. Through this reaction is obtained terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer, which when purified, is used for the production of PET resin. The study was based on a 2{sup 2} factorial design in which the independent variables were the concentration of NaOH solution and the reaction time, and the dependent variable was the yield of PTA obtained. The experiments that generated the best results, 100 % of yield, were obtained with the higher values of the independent variables. Statistical analysis showed that the concentration of NaOH solution is the variable that most influences in the process. The PTA obtained was analyzed by NMR ¹H technique, confirming the strong resemblance to commercial PTA obtained by petrochemical way. (author)

  10. MRI and MR angiography of persistent trigeminal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotin, M. [Departments of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besancon (France); Miralbes, S. [Departments of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besancon (France); Cattin, F. [Departments of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besancon (France); Marchal, H. [Departments of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besancon (France); Amor-Sahli, M. [Departments of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besancon (France); Moulin, T. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Besancon (France); Bonneville, J.F. [Departments of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besancon (France)


    We describe the MRA and MR angiography (MRA) features of persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) found incidentally in eight patients, with special attention to its origin, site and course. The different patterns of posterior communicating arteries were also noted. The PTA were shown on sagittal, coronal and axial MRI and on MRA. In four cases, the PTA arose from the lateral aspect of the intracavernous internal carotid artery, ran caudally, passing round the bottom of the dorsum sellae to join the basilar artery. In the other four cases, it arose from the medial aspect, ran caudally through the sella turcica and pierced the dorsum sellae to join the basilar artery. The posterior communicating arteries were present unilaterally in five cases and bilaterally in one, and absent bilaterally in two. Identification of a PTA with a trans-sellar course is crucial if a trans-sphenoidal surgery is planned. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  11. Ablation of succinate production from glucose metabolism in the procyclic trypanosomes induces metabolic switches to the glycerol 3-phosphate/dihydroxyacetone phosphate shuttle and to proline metabolism. (United States)

    Ebikeme, Charles; Hubert, Jane; Biran, Marc; Gouspillou, Gilles; Morand, Pauline; Plazolles, Nicolas; Guegan, Fabien; Diolez, Philippe; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Portais, Jean-Charles; Bringaud, Frédéric


    Trypanosoma brucei is a parasitic protist that undergoes a complex life cycle during transmission from its mammalian host (bloodstream forms) to the midgut of its insect vector (procyclic form). In both parasitic forms, most glycolytic steps take place within specialized peroxisomes, called glycosomes. Here, we studied metabolic adaptations in procyclic trypanosome mutants affected in their maintenance of the glycosomal redox balance. T. brucei can theoretically use three strategies to maintain the glycosomal NAD(+)/NADH balance as follows: (i) the glycosomal succinic fermentation branch; (ii) the glycerol 3-phosphate (Gly-3-P)/dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) shuttle that transfers reducing equivalents to the mitochondrion; and (iii) the glycosomal glycerol production pathway. We showed a hierarchy in the use of these glycosomal NADH-consuming pathways by determining metabolic perturbations and adaptations in single and double mutant cell lines using a combination of NMR, ion chromatography-MS/MS, and HPLC approaches. Although functional, the Gly-3-P/DHAP shuttle is primarily used when the preferred succinate fermentation pathway is abolished in the Δpepck knock-out mutant cell line. In the absence of these two pathways (Δpepck/(RNAi)FAD-GPDH.i mutant), glycerol production is used but with a 16-fold reduced glycolytic flux. In addition, the Δpepck mutant cell line shows a 3.3-fold reduced glycolytic flux compensated by an increase of proline metabolism. The inability of the Δpepck mutant to maintain a high glycolytic flux demonstrates that the Gly-3-P/DHAP shuttle is not adapted to the procyclic trypanosome context. In contrast, this shuttle was shown earlier to be the only way used by the bloodstream forms of T. brucei to sustain their high glycolytic flux.

  12. Effects of climate warming on plant autotoxicity in forest evolution: a case simulation analysis for Picea schrenkiana regeneration. (United States)

    Ruan, Xiao; Pan, Cun-De; Liu, Run; Li, Zhao-Hui; Li, Shu-Ling; Jiang, De-An; Zhang, Jing-Chi; Wang, Geoff; Zhao, Yin-Xian; Wang, Qiang


    In order to explore how plant autotoxicity changes with climate warming, the autotoxicity of P. schrenkiana needles' water extract, organic extract fractions, and key allelochemical DHAP was systemically investigated at the temperature rising 2 and 4°C based on the data-monitored soil temperature during the last decade in the stage of Schrenk spruce regeneration (seed germination and seedling growth). The results showed that the criterion day and night temperatures were 12°C and 4°C for seed germination, and 14°C and 6°C for seedling growth, respectively. In the presence of water extract, the temperature rise of 2°C significantly inhibited the germination vigor and rate of P. Schrenkiana seed, and a temperature rise of 4°C significantly increased the inhibition to the seedling growth (P < 0.05). Among the three organic fractions, the low-polar fraction showed to be more phytotoxic than the other two fractions, causing significant inhibitory effects on the seed germination and growth even at low concentration of 0.1 mg/mL, and the inhibition effect was enhanced as temperature increased. The temperature rise significantly enhanced the promotion effect of DHAP, while the inhibition effect of temperature rise became less important with increasing concentration of DHAP. This investigation revealed that autotoxicity of P. schrenkiana was affected by the climate warming. As expected, it provided an insight into the mechanism and effectiveness of allelopathy in bridging the causal relationship between forest evolution and climate warming.

  13. Regulation of dual glycolytic pathways for fructose metabolism in heterofermentative Lactobacillus panis PM1. (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji


    Lactobacillus panis PM1 belongs to the group III heterofermentative lactobacilli that use the 6-phosphogluconate/phosphoketolase (6-PG/PK) pathway as their central metabolic pathway and are reportedly unable to grow on fructose as a sole carbon source. We isolated a variant PM1 strain capable of sporadic growth on fructose medium and observed its distinctive characteristics of fructose metabolism. The end product pattern was different from what is expected in typical group III lactobacilli using the 6-PG/PK pathway (i.e., more lactate, less acetate, and no mannitol). In addition, in silico analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding most of critical enzymes in the Embden-Meyerhof (EM) pathway. These observations indicated that fructose was metabolized via two pathways. Fructose metabolism in the PM1 strain was influenced by the activities of two enzymes, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (PGI). A lack of TPI resulted in the intracellular accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) in PM1, the toxicity of which caused early growth cessation during fructose fermentation. The activity of PGI was enhanced by the presence of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP), which allowed additional fructose to enter into the 6-PG/PK pathway to avoid toxicity by DHAP. Exogenous TPI gene expression shifted fructose metabolism from heterolactic to homolactic fermentation, indicating that TPI enabled the PM1 strain to mainly use the EM pathway for fructose fermentation. These findings clearly demonstrate that the balance in the accumulation of GAP and DHAP determines the fate of fructose metabolism and the activity of TPI plays a critical role during fructose fermentation via the EM pathway in L. panis PM1.

  14. Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidegger S


    Full Text Available Simon Heidegger,1 Ambros Beer,2 Eva Geissinger,3 Andreas Rosenwald,3 Christian Peschel,1 Ingo Ringshausen,1 Ulrich Keller11III Medical Department, 2Nuclear Medicine Department, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; 3Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, GermanyAbstract: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone. However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis.Keywords: anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, refractory/relapsed lymphoma, anti-CD30 drug conjugate, DHAP

  15. Assessment of Biomarkers Associated with Joint Injury and Subsequent Post Traumatic Arthritis (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0621 TITLE: Assessment of Biomarkers Associated with Joint Injury and Subsequent Post- Traumatic Arthritis PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER OR110100 Assessment of Biomarkers Associated with Joint Injury and Subsequent Post-Traumatic Arthritis 5b...articular fracture that may be predictive of the development of post-traumatic arthritis (PTA). PTA is a clinically important complication of joint

  16. Synergistic Catalytic Action of Cobalt(Ⅱ) Hydroxamates and N-Hydroxyphthalimide in the Aerobic Oxidation of p-Xylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LIANG; Jian Zhang LI; Bo ZHOU; Sheng Ying QIN


    The catalytic performance of a series of cobalt( Ⅱ ) hydroxamates (CoL2) and the synergistic catalytic action of the cobalt complexes combined with N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) in the aerobic oxidation ofp-xylene to p-toluic acid (PTA) were investigated. The results showed that the existing synergistic action in the catalytic oxidation can shorten the induction period of the radical reaction and improve the yield of PTA.

  17. Aviation Landing Zones Environmental Assessment (United States)


    domesticus), feral dogs (Canis familiaris), and feral cats (Felis catus). On the PTA, these species are considered a nuisance, and mitigation...mongoose, and feral dogs and cats (U.S. Army 2013a). Ungulate control is maintained through recreational hunting, fencing, and trapping. Predator mammal...hunting of birds and feral ungulates. 3.2.3 Land-Use Planning Districts Hawai‘i County has nine land-use districts, with PTA located primarily within the

  18. An arabinogalactan protein associated with secondary cell wall formation in differentiating xylem of loblolly pine. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Brown, Garth; Whetten, Ross; Loopstra, Carol A; Neale, David; Kieliszewski, Marcia J; Sederoff, Ronald R


    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are abundant plant proteoglycans implicated in plant growth and development. Here, we report the genetic characterization, partial purification and immunolocalization of a classical AGP (PtaAGP6, accession number AF101785) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). A PtaAGP6 full-length cDNA clone was expressed in bacteria. PtaAGP6 resembles tomato LeAGP-1 and Arabidopsis AtAGP17-19 in that they all possess a subdomain composed of basic amino acids. The accessibility of this domain in the glycoprotein makes it possible to label the PtaAGP6 epitopes on the cell surface or in the cell wall with polyclonal antibodies raised against this subdomain. The antibodies recognize the peptide of the basic subdomain and bind to the intact protein molecule. A soluble protein-containing fraction was purified from the differentiating xylem of pine trees by using beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent (beta-glcY) and was recognized by antibodies against the basic subdomain. Immunolocalization studies showed that the PtaAGP6 epitopes are restricted to a file of cells that just precede secondary cell wall thickening, suggesting roles in xylem differentiation and wood formation. The location of apparent labeling of the PtaAGP6 epitopes is separated from the location of lignin deposition. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in EST variants. Denaturing HPLC analysis of PCR products suggests that PtaAGP6 is encoded by a single gene. Mobility variation in denaturing gel electrophoresis was used to map PtaAGP6 SNPs to a site on linkage group 5.

  19. Reasons Why Post-Trial Access to Trial Drugs Should, or Need not be Ensured to Research Participants: A Systematic Review


    Sofaer, Neema; Strech, Daniel


    Background: researchers and sponsors increasingly confront the issue of whether participants in a clinical trial should have post-trial access (PTA) to the trial drug. Legislation and guidelines are inconsistent, ambiguous or silent about many aspects of PTA. Recent research highlights the potential importance of systematic reviews (SRs) of reason-based literatures in informing decision-making in medicine, medical research and health policy. Purpose: to systematically review reasons why drug ...

  20. Pulsar Timing Arrays


    Joshi, Bhal Chandra


    In the last decade, the use of an ensemble of radio pulsars to constrain the characteristic strain caused by a stochastic gravitational wave background has advanced the cause of detection of very low frequency gravitational waves significantly. This electromagnetic means of gravitational wave detection, called Pulsar Timing Array(PTA), is reviewed in this article. The principle of operation of PTA, the current operating PTAs and their status is presented along-with a discussion of the main ch...

  1. Prospects of Gravitational Wave Detection Using Pulsar Timing Array for Chinese Future Telescopes (United States)

    Lee, K. J.


    In this paper, we estimate the sensitivity of gravitational wave (GW) detection for future Chinese pulsar timing array (PTA) projects. The calculation of sensitivity is based on the well-known Crámer-Rao bound idea. The red noise and dispersion measure (DM) variation noise has be included in the modeling. We demonstrate that the future Chinese telescope can be very valuable for future PTA experiments and GW detection efforts.

  2. Pinellia ternata agglutinin expression in chloroplasts confers broad spectrum resistance against aphid, whitefly, Lepidopteran insects, bacterial and viral pathogens. (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong; Daniell, Henry


    Broad spectrum protection against different insects and pathogens requires multigene engineering. However, such broad spectrum protection against biotic stress is provided by a single protein in some medicinal plants. Therefore, tobacco chloroplasts were transformed with the agglutinin gene from Pinellia ternata (pta), a widely cultivated Chinese medicinal herb. Pinellia ternata agglutinin (PTA) was expressed up to 9.2% of total soluble protein in mature leaves. Purified PTA showed similar hemagglutination activity as snowdrop lectin. Artificial diet with purified PTA from transplastomic plants showed marked and broad insecticidal activity. In planta bioassays conducted with T0 or T1 generation PTA lines showed that the growth of aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was reduced by 89%-92% when compared with untransformed (UT) plants. Similarly, the larval survival and total population of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on transplastomic lines were reduced by 91%-93% when compared with UT plants. This is indeed the first report of lectin controlling whitefly infestation. When transplastomic PTA leaves were fed to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens) or the beet armyworm (spodoptera exigua), 100% mortality was observed against all these three insects. In planta bioassays revealed Erwinia population to be 10,000-fold higher in control than in PTA lines. Similar results were observed with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) challenge. Therefore, broad spectrum resistance to homopteran (sap-sucking), Lepidopteran insects as well as anti-bacterial or anti-viral activity observed in PTA lines provides a new option to engineer protection against biotic stress by hyper-expression of an unique protein that is naturally present in a medicinal plant.

  3. The pituitary-thyroid axis set point in women is uninfluenced by X chromosome inactivation pattern? A twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas H; Hansen, Pia S; Kyvik, Kirsten O


    The pituitary-thyroid axis (PTA) set point is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, despite considerable efforts to characterize the background, the causative genes as well as environmental factors are not well established. Theoretically, as shown for autoimmune...... thyroid disease, the pattern of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) could offer a novel explanation for the observed variability of the PTA set point in women....

  4. New HIV Testing Algorithm: Promising Tool in the Fight Against HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Phil Peters discusses the new HIV testing algorithm and how this latest technology can improve the diagnosis of acute HIV infection. Early detection of HIV is critical to saving lives, getting patients into treatment, and preventing transmission.  Created: 9/21/2016 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), • Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP).   Date Released: 9/21/2016.

  5. α-青心酮对损伤的脑线粒体Na+,K+-ATPase活性和脑细胞耗氧的作用%Effect of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone on Na +, K +-ATPase activity of injured mitochondria and the oxygen consumption of brain cells of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路雪雅; 陈惟昌


    目的研究α-青心酮对抗坏血酸和硫酸亚铁诱导脑线粒体Na+,K+-ATPase活性和脑细胞耗氧的作用.方法采用无机磷法测定Na+,K+-ATPase活性,分光光度法检测脑线粒体膨胀和脂质过氧化物,氧电极法测定脑细胞耗氧量.结果在抗坏血酸和硫酸亚铁的作用下,鼠脑线粒体Na+,K+-ATPase活性降低,线粒体膨胀和脑细胞脂质过氧化物升高.α-青心酮抑制其抗坏血酸和硫酸亚铁诱导脑线粒体和细胞的损伤,增加Na+,K+-ATPase活性,降低脑线粒体膨胀和脑细胞脂质过氧化物生成.α-青心酮还具有减少ADP刺激的脑细胞耗氧的作用.结论α-青心酮通过清除自由基和抗氧化作用保护脑细胞结构和功能的完整.%Aim To investigate the effect of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone (α-DHAP) on Na +, K +-ATPase activity of injured brain mitochondria induced by ascorbate-FeSO4 and the oxygen consumption of rat brain cells stimulated by ADP. Methods Na +, K+-ATPase activity was determined according to the method of inorganic phosphate. Swelling of the brain mitochondria was detected with the method of spectrophotometer. Lipid peroxidation was detected according to the thiobarbituric acid method of spectrophotometer. Oxygen consumption was measured by oxygen electrode method. Results The decrease of Na +, K +-ATPase activity, mitochondria swelling and formation of lipid peroxidation were shown in rat brain mitochondria and cells induced by ascorbate-FeSO4. α-DHAP was shown to increase the activity of Na+, K+-ATPase, decrease the mitochondria swelling and inhibit the production of lipid peroxidation of brain mitochondria and cells induced by ascorbate and FeSO4. α-DHAP can also reduce the oxygen consumption of brain cells stimulated by ADP. Conclusion α-DHAP can protect the structure and the function of brain mitochondria and cells by scavenging the free radical and resisting the reaction of lipid peroxidation.

  6. Three-dimensional imaging of the mouse heart and vasculature using micro-CT and whole-body perfusion of iodine or phosphotungstic acid. (United States)

    Dunmore-Buyze, P Joy; Tate, Elsbeth; Xiang, Fu-li; Detombe, Sarah A; Nong, Zengxuan; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Drangova, Maria


    Recent studies have investigated histological staining compounds as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) contrast agents, delivered by soaking tissue specimens in stain and relying on passive diffusion for agent uptake. This study describes a perfusion approach using iodine or phosphotungstic acid (PTA) stains, delivered to an intact mouse, to capitalize on the microvasculature as a delivery conduit for parenchymal staining and direct contact for staining artery walls. Twelve C57BL/6 mice, arterially perfused with either 25% Lugol's solution or 5% PTA solution were scanned intact and reconstructed with 26 µm isotropic voxels. The animals were fixed and the heart and surrounding vessels were excised, embedded and scanned; isolated heart images were reconstructed with 13 µm isotropic voxels. Myocardial enhancement and artery diameters were measured. Both stains successfully enhanced the myocardium and vessel walls. Interestingly, Lugol's solution provided a significantly higher enhancement of the myocardium than PTA [2502 ± 437 vs 656 ± 178 Hounsfield units (HU); p Lugol's, 1036 ± 635 HU; PTA, 738 ± 124 HU; p = 0.29), but coronary arteries were more effectively segmented from the PTA-stained hearts, enabling segmented imaging of fifth- order coronary artery branches. The combination of whole mouse perfusion delivery and use of heavy metal-containing stains affords high-resolution imaging of the mouse heart and vasculature by micro-CT. The differential imaging patterns of Lugol's- and PTA-stained tissues reveals new opportunities for micro-analyses of cardiac and vascular tissues.

  7. Microbial degradation and impact of Bracken toxin ptaquiloside on microbial communities in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Pernille; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Rasmussen, Lars Holm


    The carcinogenic and toxic ptaquiloside (PTA) is a major secondary metabolite in Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) and was hypothesized to influence microbial communities in soil below Bracken stands. Soil and Bracken tissue were sampled at field sites in Denmark (DK) and New Zealand (......-level physiological profiles. Our results demonstrate that PTA stimulates microbial activity and that microorganisms play a predominant role for rapid PTA degradation in Bracken-impacted soils.......The carcinogenic and toxic ptaquiloside (PTA) is a major secondary metabolite in Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) and was hypothesized to influence microbial communities in soil below Bracken stands. Soil and Bracken tissue were sampled at field sites in Denmark (DK) and New Zealand (NZ......). PTA contents of 2.1 ± 0.5 mg g1 and 37.0 ± 8.7 mg g1 tissue were measured in Bracken fronds from DK and NZ, respectively. In the two soils the PTA levels were similar (0–5 lg g1 soil); a decrease with depth could be discerned in the deeper B and C horizons of the DK soil (weak acid sandy Spodosol...

  8. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease Does Not Affect Circulating Monocyte Subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Maga


    Full Text Available Monocytes are mononuclear cells characterized by distinct morphology and expression of CD14 and CD16 surface receptors. Classical, quiescent monocytes are positive for CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor but do not express Fc gamma receptor III (CD16. Intermediate monocytes coexpress CD16 and CD14. Nonclassical monocytes with low expression of CD14 represent mature macrophage-like monocytes. Monocyte behavior in peripheral arterial disease (PAD and during vessel wall directed treatment is not well defined. This observation study aimed at monitoring of acute changes in monocyte subpopulations during percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA in PAD patients. Patients with Rutherford 3 and 4 PAD with no signs of inflammatory process underwent PTA of iliac, femoral, or popliteal segments. Flow cytometry for CD14, CD16, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD11c, and CD45RA antigens allowed characterization of monocyte subpopulations in blood sampled before and after PTA (direct angioplasty catheter sampling. Patients were clinically followed up for 12 months. All 61 enrolled patients completed 12-month follow-up. Target vessel failure occurred in 12 patients. While absolute counts of monocyte were significantly lower after PTA, only subtle monocyte activation after PTA (CD45RA and β-integrins occurred. None of the monocyte parameters correlated with long-term adverse clinical outcome. Changes in absolute monocyte counts and subtle changes towards an activation phenotype after PTA may reflect local cell adhesion phenomenon in patients with Rutherford 3 or 4 peripheral arterial disease.

  9. The ossified pterygoalar ligament: an anatomical study with pathological and surgical implications. (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Piagkou, Maria; Skotsimara, Georgia; Totlis, Trifon; Apostolidis, Stylianos; Panagiotopoulos, Nikitas-Apollon; Skandalakis, Panagiotis


    Mandibular nerve entrapment has great significance, as it may be responsible for the appearance of several neurological pathologies, such as chewing disorders, taste loss, facial or tongue paraesthesia and neuralgia. The ossified pterygoalar (Pta) bar is the result of calcification and/or ossification of the ligament extending from the pterygospinous process of the lateral pterygoid lamina to the infratemporal surface of the sphenoid bone. The ossified bar may act as the cause for this entrapment. One hundred and forty-five Greek adult dry skulls were examined for the existence of a complete or incomplete Pta bar and a relative foramen. The Pta bar appeared in 31.7% of the skulls, in total, in 4.1% completely and in 27.6% incompletely ossified. The mean sagittal and transverse diameters of Pta foramen were 3.21 ± 1.70 and 4.79 ± 1.39 mm, respectively. There was no statistical significant difference between the presence of Pta bar and the side or gender. Apart from the neurological interest, this study highlights the importance of the existence of Pta bar in neurosurgery, anaesthesiology, oral and maxillofacial surgery. The passage of the needle through the foramen ovale for the injection of anaesthetics, as a treatment for trigeminal neuralgia may not be achieved due to this anatomical obstacle. In this case, intra- or postoperative radiologic investigation may be helpful.

  10. Residual stenosis after conventional balloon angioplasty for hemodialysis shunt failure: treatment with metallic stent placement and post-balloon dilatation. (United States)

    Kariya, Shuji; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Komemushi, Atsushi; Shiraishi, Tomokuni; Kawanaka, Toshiaki; Sawada, Satoshi


    The usefulness of metallic stent placement and post-balloon dilatation was investigated for patients with residual stenosis after conventional percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (balloon PTA) of dialysis shunt vessels. Among 92 patients who had received balloon PTA for dialysis shunt vessels, seven patients who showed a residual waist on the balloon even under maximum inflation were enrolled in this study. In these patients with residual stenosis after balloon PTA, we inserted a stent in the residual stenosis, and post-balloon dilatation was immediately applied using the same balloon catheter. After balloon PTA, the average percent diameter stenosis declined to 45.5 +/- 7.30%, and the stenosis was further improved to an average of 19.3 +/- 7.09% after the placement of a stent and the additional balloon PTA. The average percent diameter dilatation of the balloon before the placement of a stent was 65.8 +/- 12.7%, while the average dilatation increased to 84.1 +/- 8.96% after the placement of a stent. Dialysis became possible immediately after the procedure in all cases. Metallic stent placement and post-balloon dilatation was effective for patients with residual stenosis after conventional balloon PTA of dialysis shunt vessels.

  11. Radiologic management of hepatic arterial stenosis or thrombosis following liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Byung Suck; Sung, Kyu Bo; Lim, Soo Mee; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Song, Ho Young [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To assess the results and usefulness of interventional procedures for hepatic arterial stenosis or thrombosis following liver transplantation. During the past five years, eight patients aged 1-59 (mean, 39) years among 187 liver transplant recipients showed elevated of liver enzyme levels (AST/ALT) and decreased arterial flow at Doppler ultrasound. Hepatic arteriography revealed luminal stenosis or occlusion at the proper hepatic artery, and six patients, one of whom required thrombolysis before the procedure, underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) using a balloon. In two with thrombosis, thrombolysis without PTA was performed. In order to increase hepatic arterial flow, four patients underwent additional coil embolization of the gastroduodenal or splenic artery. Hepatic arterial flow recovered in all six patients after PTA. Three required repeat PTA for restenosis and one of these needed stent placement after repeated PTA. At follow-up, 6-17 months later, the three had good hepatic function. Within four days, the other three expired due to graft failure, hepatorenal syndrome and sepsis. One of the patients who underwent thrombolysis without PTA expired and the other required retransplantation. In this case there were no procedure - related complications. Radiologic interventions are useful for treatment of hepatic arterial stensis or thrombosis in patients with liver transplantations.

  12. The effects of live, taped, and no music on people experiencing posttraumatic amnesia. (United States)

    Baker, F


    This study compared the effects of live, taped, and no music, on agitation and orientation levels of people experiencing posttraumatic amnesia (PTA). Participants (N = 22) were exposed to all 3 conditions, twice over 6 consecutive days. Songs used in the live and taped music conditions were identical and were selected based on participants' own preferred music. Pre and posttesting was conducted for each condition using the Agitated Behavior Scale (Corrigan, 1989) and the Westmead PTA Scale (Shores, Marosszeky, Sandanam, Batchelor, 1986). Participants' memory for the music used was also tested and compared with their memory for pictorial material presented in the Westmead PTA Scale. Results indicate that music significantly reduced agitation (p music was not significant (p =.7). The mean number of pictures in the Westmead PTA scale recalled was 0.84 and the mean number of music selections recalled was 1.22 but this difference was not significant (p =.7). However, the trend suggests that music selections are more easily encoded in memory and then retrieved on request, than that of pictures. Analysis of responses in a follow-up assessment questionnaire showed that 77% of participants recalled the music program while in PTA, indicating that it reached the memory threshold. Sixty-four percent recalled the live music and 55% recalled the taped music condition however this difference was not significant (p =.7). Results suggest that music therapy programs have an important role to play in the management of people in PTA.

  13. Deign of Experiment and Optimization of Plasma Transferred Arc Hardfacing on Structural Steel with Titanium Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balamurugan


    Full Text Available The aim of the Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA hardfacing process is improving a technical surface locally with a dedicated material; Hardfacing became an issue of intense development related to wear resistant application. The hardfacing procedures can be differentiated by the intensity of mixture with the base body, which is usually increasing along with an increasing fusion efficiency rate. Nearly all kinds of weldable materials can be hardfaced and mostly all types of known wear resistant metals in combination can be used as hardfacing materials. The PTA hardfacing process has been widely employed due to several advantages such as higher volume of metal deposition rates and achieving very low dilution level. Heat input which influences dilution can be controlled by proper selection of PTA process parameters. In this study, an attempt has been made to analyze PTA hardfacing of IS: 2062 structural steel with Titanium Carbide (TiC. Experiments were conducted based on a fully replicable five-factor, five-level central composite rotatable design. Mathematical models were developed using response surface methodology to study the effects of PTA hardfacing process parameters such as welding current, welding speed ,powder feed rate, oscillation width and pre heat temperature on bead geometry parameters like penetration, reinforcement, bead width and dilution. Direct and interaction effects of PTA process parameters on bead geometry were analyzed. From mathematical model, the process parameters were optimized.

  14. Relation between peritonsillar infection and acute tonsillitis: myth or reality? (United States)

    Kordeluk, Sofia; Novack, Lena; Puterman, Moshe; Kraus, Mordechai; Joshua, Ben-Zion


    To investigate the relationship between tonsillar and peritonsillar infections. Retrospective population-based study and a retrospective case series review. Tertiary academic medical facility. All individuals hospitalized with peritonsillar abscess (PTA) or peritonsillar cellulitis (PTC) during 2004-2008 were reviewed. Patient age, gender, diagnosis of PTA or PTC, recurrence, and date of presentation were recorded. In addition, a database of patients diagnosed in the community with acute tonsillitis (AT) was reviewed for the same time period. The weekly number of patients with AT was recorded, and a comparison between incidence of tonsillar infections and peritonsillar infection was performed. A total of 685 patients were hospitalized with either PTA (467) or PTC (218). Incidence of both upper respiratory infections and AT peaked in January and February of every year with a nadir in August. In contrast, PTA and PTC showed a consistent rate of infection throughout the year. Likewise, assessment based on weekly intervals showed that peaks of PTA and PTC did not follow those of acute tonsillitis with a 1 to 2 weekly lag as would be expected if peritonsillar infection is a complication of AT. Rather, an association between peritonsillar infection and tonsillitis was found within the same week (P = .04). Higher rates of occurrence of PTA or PTC following AT outbreaks were not found. These results lend further support to the theory that peritonsillar infection is associated not only with complications of AT but may occur from infection of Weber glands or other unknown causes.

  15. The amrG1 gene is involved in the activation of acetate in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN; Hong; R.; Gerstmeir; S.; Schnicke; B.J.; Eikmanns


    During growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on acetate as its carbon and energy source, the expression of the pta-ack operon is induced, coding for the acetate-activating enzymes, which are phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and acetate kinase (AK). By transposon rescue, we identified the two genes amrG1 and amrG2 found in the deregulated transposon mutant C. glutamicum G25. The amrG1 gene (NCBI-accession: AF532964) has a size of 732 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 243 amino acids and apparently is partially responsible for the regulation of acetate metabolism in C. glutamicum. We constructed an in-frame deletion mutant and an overexpressing strain of amrG1 in the C. glutamicum ATCC13032 wildtype. The strains were then analyzed with respect to their enzyme activities of PTA and AK during growth on glucose, acetate and glucose or acetate alone as carbon sources. Compared to the parental strain, the amrG1 deletion mutant showed higher specific AK and PTA activities during growth on glucose but showed the same high specific activities of AK and PTA on medium containing acetate plus glucose and on medium containing acetate. In contrast to the gene deletion, overexpression of the amrG1 gene in C. glutamicum 13032 had the adverse regulatory effect. These results indicate that the amrG1 gene encodes a repressor or co-repressor of the pta-ack operon.

  16. High Residual Collagen-Induced Platelet Reactivity Predicts Development of Restenosis in the Superficial Femoral Artery After Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Claudicant Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, Thomas, E-mail: [Medical University of Graz, Division of Angiology, Department of Internal Medicine (Austria); Prüller, Florian, E-mail:; Raggam, Reinhard, E-mail: [Medical University of Graz, Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics (Austria); Mahla, Elisabeth, E-mail: [Medical University of Graz, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Austria); Eller, Philipp, E-mail:; Hafner, Franz, E-mail:; Brodmann, Marianne, E-mail: [Medical University of Graz, Division of Angiology, Department of Internal Medicine (Austria)


    PurposeAlthough platelet reactivity is routinely inhibited with aspirin after percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries, the restenosis rate in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is high. Interaction of activated platelets and the endothelium in the region of intervention could be one reason for this as collagen in the subendothelium activates platelets.Materials and MethodsA prospective study evaluating on-site platelet reactivity during PTA and its influence on the development of restenosis with a total of 30 patients scheduled for PTA of the SFA. Arterial blood was taken from the PTA site after SFA; platelet function was evaluated with light transmission aggregometry. After 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, duplex sonography was performed and the restenosis rate evaluated.ResultsEight out of 30 patients developed a hemodynamically relevant restenosis (>50 % lumen narrowing) in the PTA region during the 24-month follow-up period. High residual collagen-induced platelet reactivity defined as AUC >30 was a significant predictor for the development of restenosis [adjusted odds ratio 11.8 (9.4, 14.2); P = .04].ConclusionsHigh residual collagen-induced platelet reactivity at the interventional site predicts development of restenosis after PTA of the SFA. Platelet function testing may be useful for identifying patients at risk.

  17. Expression and regulation of phosphate stress inducible genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti. (United States)

    Summers, M L; Elkins, J G; Elliott, B A; McDermott, T R


    Sinorhizobium meliloti 104A14 was mutated with transposon Tn5B22, which creates lacZ transcriptional fusions when inserted in the correct orientation relative to the promoter. This promoter reporter allowed us to identify six phosphate stress inducible (psi) genes in S. meliloti that are up-regulated in response to inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation. The transposon and flanking DNA were cloned from each psi::Tn5B22 reporter mutant and the junction DNA sequenced. High identity/similarity of the inferred peptides with those in major data bases allowed identification of the following genes: dnaK, expC, pssB, ackA, vipC, and prkA. The prkA homolog was also found to be up-regulated in response to carbon starvation and when nitrate replaced ammonium as the nitrogen source. Through allele replacement techniques, PhoB- mutants were generated for the expC, ackA, vipC, and pssB reporter strains. Loss of a functional PhoB resulted in the absence of Pi-sensitive induction in all four genes. These experiments suggest the Pho regulon in S. meliloti includes genes that presumably are not directly linked to Pi acquisition or assimilation. The psi strains were tested for their symbiotic properties under growth conditions that were Pi-limiting or Pi-nonlimiting for the host plant. All were Nod+ and Fix+ except the reporter strain of dnaK transcription, which was less effective than the wild-type strain under both P treatments, indicating DnaK is required for optimum symbiotic function.

  18. Hydroxyl functionalized polytriazole-co-polyoxadiazole as substrates for forward osmosis membranes. (United States)

    Duong, Phuoc H H; Chisca, Stefan; Hong, Pei-Ying; Cheng, Hong; Nunes, Suzana P; Chung, Tai-Shung


    Hydroxyl functionalized polytriazole-co-polyoxadiazole (PTA-POD) copolymers have been synthesized and cast as promising highly thermally stable, chemically resistant, and antiorganic/biological fouling porous substrates for the fabrication of thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes. The roles of PTA/POD ratios in the membrane substrates, TFC layers, and FO membrane performance have been investigated. This study demonstrates that the substrate fabricated from the copolymer containing 40 mol % PTA is optimal for the TFC membranes. Compared to the POD-TFC membrane, the 40 mol % PTA-TFC membrane exhibits a remarkable decrease in structural parameter (S) of more than 3.3 times. In addition, the 40 mol % PTA-TFC membrane is characterized by high water fluxes of 24.9 LMH and 47.2 LMH using 1 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed under FO and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) modes, respectively. Compared to a polysulfone (PSU) supported TFC-FO membrane under similar fabrication conditions, the 40% mol PTA-TFC membrane shows better FO performance and enhanced antifouling properties on the support (lower protein binding propensity and improved bacterial inhibition). Moreover, the performance of the 40 mol % PTA supported TFC-FO membrane can be improved to 37.5 LMH (FO mode)/78.4 LMH (PRO mode) and potentially higher by optimizing the support morphology, the TFC formation, and the post-treatment process. Hence, the use of newly developed hydroxyl functionalized polytriazole-co-polyoxadiazole copolymers may open up a new class of material for FO processes.

  19. Hydroxyl functionalized polytriazole-co-polyoxadiazole as substrates for forward osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Phuoc H H


    Hydroxyl functionalized polytriazole-co-polyoxadiazole (PTA-POD) copolymers have been synthesized and cast as promising highly thermally stable, chemically resistant, and antiorganic/biological fouling porous substrates for the fabrication of thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes. The roles of PTA/POD ratios in the membrane substrates, TFC layers, and FO membrane performance have been investigated. This study demonstrates that the substrate fabricated from the copolymer containing 40 mol % PTA is optimal for the TFC membranes. Compared to the POD-TFC membrane, the 40 mol % PTA-TFC membrane exhibits a remarkable decrease in structural parameter (S) of more than 3.3 times. In addition, the 40 mol % PTA-TFC membrane is characterized by high water fluxes of 24.9 LMH and 47.2 LMH using 1 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed under FO and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) modes, respectively. Compared to a polysulfone (PSU) supported TFC-FO membrane under similar fabrication conditions, the 40% mol PTA-TFC membrane shows better FO performance and enhanced antifouling properties on the support (lower protein binding propensity and improved bacterial inhibition). Moreover, the performance of the 40 mol % PTA supported TFC-FO membrane can be improved to 37.5 LMH (FO mode)/78.4 LMH (PRO mode) and potentially higher by optimizing the support morphology, the TFC formation, and the post-treatment process. Hence, the use of newly developed hydroxyl functionalized polytriazole-co-polyoxadiazole copolymers may open up a new class of material for FO processes.

  20. Persistent trigeminal artery associated with trigeminal neuralgia: hypothesis of neurovascular compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondt, Bert-Jan de [University Hospital Maastricht, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Stokroos, Robert [University Hospital Maastricht, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Casselman, Jan [AZ St. Jan, Department of Radiology, Bruges (Belgium)


    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) associated with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). From January 1998 to January 2004, 288 MRI scans of patients examined for trigeminal deficits were retrospectively evaluated. MRI was performed at 1.5 T. Scan protocols included cerebral TSE T2-weighted imaging, contrast enhanced SE T1-weighted imaging and thin-section 3D T2-weighted imaging of the temporal bones, 3D TOF pre- and postcontrast MR angiography. TN was defined as episodes of intense stabbing, electric shock-like pain in areas of the face supplied by the trigeminal branches. Neurovascular compression (NVC) was assumed to be present if the patient showed clinical features of TN, if there was contact between an artery and the trigeminal nerve on the affected side, and if other pathology had been excluded. The prevalence and confidence intervals were calculated (95% CI of the prevalence was based on the exact binomial distribution). Of 288 patients, 136 matched the criteria for TN. In this series a PTA was detected in three patients, which in all patients was on the same side as the TN. The prevalence of a PTA in patients presenting with TN was 2.2% (CI 0.005-0.06). Previous studies have shown PTA as an incidental finding in 0.1-0.6% of cerebral angiograms. The prevalence of a PTA in patients with TN was 2.2%. With respect to the clinical significance, a PTA has to be considered in TN and the diagnosis of a PTA can easily be made using MR imaging/angiography. (orig.)

  1. A study on stability analysis of atrial repolarization variability using ARX model in sinus rhythm and atrial tachycardia ECGs. (United States)

    Sivaraman, J; Uma, G; Langley, P; Umapathy, M; Venkatesan, S; Palanikumar, G


    The interaction between the PTa and PP interval dynamics from the surface ECG is seldom explained. Mathematical modeling of these intervals is of interest in finding the relationship between the heart rate and repolarization variability. The goal of this paper is to assess the bounded input bounded output (BIBO) stability in PTa interval (PTaI) dynamics using autoregressive exogenous (ARX) model and to investigate the reason for causing instability in the atrial repolarization process. Twenty-five male subjects in normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and ten male subjects experiencing atrial tachycardia (AT) were included in this study. Five minute long, modified limb lead (MLL) ECGs were recorded with an EDAN SE-1010 PC ECG system. The number of minute ECGs with unstable segments (Nus) and the frequency of premature activation (PA) (i.e. atrial activation) were counted for each ECG recording and compared between AT and NSR subjects. The instability in PTaI dynamics was quantified by measuring the numbers of unstable segments in ECG data for each subject. The unstable segments in the PTaI dynamics were associated with the frequency of PA. The presence of PA is not the only factor causing the instability in PTaI dynamics in NSR subjects, and it is found that the cause of instability is mainly due to the heart rate variability (HRV). The ARX model showed better prediction of PTa interval dynamics in both groups. The frequency of PA is significantly higher in AT patients than NSR subjects. A more complex model is needed to better identify and characterize healthy heart dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Size measurement uncertainties of near-monodisperse, near-spherical nanoparticles using transmission electron microscopy and particle-tracking analysis (United States)

    De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Verleysen, Eveline; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Mast, Jan


    Particle-tracking analysis (PTA) in combination with systematic imaging, automatic image analysis, and automatic data processing is validated for size measurements. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with a systematic selection procedure for unbiased random image collection, semiautomatic image analysis, and data processing is validated for size, shape, and surface topology measurements. PTA is investigated as an alternative for TEM for the determination of the particle size in the framework of the EC definition of nanomaterial. The intra-laboratory validation study assessing the precision and accuracy of the TEM and PTA methods consists of series of measurements on three gold reference materials with mean area-equivalent circular diameters of 8.9 nm (RM-8011), 27.6 nm (RM-8012), and 56.0 nm (RM-8013), and two polystyrene materials with modal hydrodynamic diameters of 102 nm (P1) and 202 nm (H1). By obtaining a high level of automation, PTA proves to give precise and non-biased results for the modal hydrodynamic diameter in size range between 30 and 200 nm, and TEM proves to give precise and non-biased results for the mean area-equivalent circular diameter in the size range between 8 and 200 nm of the investigated near-monomodal near-spherical materials. The expanded uncertainties of PTA are about 9 % and are determined mainly by the repeatability uncertainty. This uncertainty is two times higher than the expanded uncertainty of 4 % obtained by TEM for analyses on identical materials. For the investigated near-monomodal and near-spherical materials, PTA can be used as an alternative to TEM for measuring the particle size, with exception of 8.9 nm gold, because this material has a size below the detection limit of PTA.

  3. Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. (United States)

    Heidegger, Simon; Beer, Ambros J; Geissinger, Eva; Rosenwald, Andreas; Peschel, Christian; Ringshausen, Ingo; Keller, Ulrich


    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone) was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis.

  4. Engineering of a Synthetic Metabolic Pathway for the Assimilation of (d)-Xylose into Value-Added Chemicals. (United States)

    Cam, Yvan; Alkim, Ceren; Trichez, Debora; Trebosc, Vincent; Vax, Amélie; Bartolo, François; Besse, Philippe; François, Jean Marie; Walther, Thomas


    A synthetic pathway for (d)-xylose assimilation was stoichiometrically evaluated and implemented in Escherichia coli strains. The pathway proceeds via isomerization of (d)-xylose to (d)-xylulose, phosphorylation of (d)-xylulose to obtain (d)-xylulose-1-phosphate (X1P), and aldolytic cleavage of the latter to yield glycolaldehyde and DHAP. Stoichiometric analyses showed that this pathway provides access to ethylene glycol with a theoretical molar yield of 1. Alternatively, both glycolaldehyde and DHAP can be converted to glycolic acid with a theoretical yield that is 20% higher than for the exclusive production of this acid via the glyoxylate shunt. Simultaneous expression of xylulose-1 kinase and X1P aldolase activities, provided by human ketohexokinase-C and human aldolase-B, respectively, restored growth of a (d)-xylulose-5-kinase mutant on xylose. This strain produced ethylene glycol as the major metabolic endproduct. Metabolic engineering provided strains that assimilated the entire C2 fraction into the central metabolism or that produced 4.3 g/L glycolic acid at a molar yield of 0.9 in shake flasks.

  5. Green tea catechins: inhibitors of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Cheng; Wu, Bo-Tsung; Tsuei, Yi-Wei; Shih, Li-Jane; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Kao, Yung-Hsi


    Green tea catechins, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are known to regulate obesity and fat accumulation. We performed a kinetic analysis in a cell-free system to determine the mode of inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH; EC by EGCG. GPDH catalyzes the beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to yield glycerol-3-phosphate, which serves as one of the major precursors of triacylglycerols. We found that EGCG dose-dependently inhibited GPDH activity at a concentration of approximately 20 muM for 50 % inhibition. The IC (50) values of other green tea catechins, such as (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epigallocatechin, were all above 100 microM. This suggests a catechin type-dependent effect. Based on double-reciprocal plots of the kinetic data, EGCG was a noncompetitive inhibitor of the GPDH substrates, NADH and DHAP, with respective inhibition constants (Ki) of 18 and 31 microM. Results of this study possibly support previous studies that EGCG mediates fat content. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  6. Particle production in reflection and transmission mode laser ablation: implications for laserspray ionization. (United States)

    Musapelo, Thabiso; Murray, Kermit K


    Particles were ablated from laser desorption and inlet ionization matrix thin films with a UV laser in reflection and transmission geometries. Particle size distributions were measured with a combined scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) system that measured particles in the size range from 10 nm to 20 μm. The matrixes investigated were 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), sinapic acid (SA), 2,5-dihydroxy-acetophenone (DHAP), and 2-nitrophloroglucinol (NPG). Nanoparticles with average diameters between 20 and 120 nm were observed in both transmission and reflection geometry. The particle mass distribution was significantly different in reflection and transmission geometry. In reflection geometry, approximately equal mass was distributed between particles in the 20 to 450 nm range of diameters and particles in the 450 nm to 1.5 μm diameter range. In transmission mode, the particle mass distribution was dominated by large particles in the 2 to 20 μm diameter range. Ablation of inlet ionization matrices DHAP and NPG produced particles that were 3 to 4 times smaller compared with the other matrices. The results are consistent with ion formation by nanoparticle melting and breakup or melting and breakup of the large particles through contact with heated inlet surfaces. ᅟ

  7. Harmonic decomposition of two particle angular correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV (United States)

    Aamodt, K.; Abelev, B.; Abrahantes Quintana, A.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Aguilar Salazar, S.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahn, S. U.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaráz Aviña, E.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldit, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergmann, C.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biolcati, E.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, N.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bombonati, C.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bortolin, C.; Bose, S.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Böttger, S.; Boyer, B.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Bugaiev, K.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Caselle, M.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Coccetti, F.; Coffin, J.-P.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Constantin, P.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M. E.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Alaniz, E.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Erasmo, G. D.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Azevedo Moregula, A.; de Barros, G. O. V.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Del Castillo Sanchez, E.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Demanov, V.; Dénes, E.; Deppman, A.; di Bari, D.; di Giglio, C.; di Liberto, S.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Dietel, T.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domínguez, I.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Driga, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Dutta Majumdar, M. R.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erdal, H. A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fearick, R.; Fedunov, A.; Fehlker, D.; Felea, D.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Ferretti, R.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Fini, R.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Fragkiadakis, M.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Girard, M. R.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez, R.; González-Trueba, L. H.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerra Gutierrez, C.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Gutbrod, H.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Harmanova, Z.; Harris, J. W.; Hartig, M.; Hasegan, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hille, P. T.; Hippolyte, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Huber, S.; Humanic, T. J.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jancurová, L.; Jangal, S.; Janik, M. A.; Janik, R.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jirden, L.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jung, W.; Jusko, A.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalisky, M.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kanaki, K.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Koch, K.; Köhler, M. K.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Kour, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kraus, I.; Krawutschke, T.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Rocca, P.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lakomov, I.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Larsen, D. T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. C.; Lefèvre, F.; Lehnert, J.; Leistam, L.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Lévai, P.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, L.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohn, S.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luquin, L.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Martashvili, I.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez Davalos, A.; Martínez García, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastromarco, M.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z. L.; Matyja, A.; Mayani, D.; Mayer, C.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Michalon, A.; Midori, J.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Müller, H.; Muhuri, S.; Munhoz, M. G.; Musa, L.; Musso, A.; Nagle, J. L.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Naumov, N. P.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Obayashi, H.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S. K.; Oleniacz, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Ortona, G.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Otwinowski, J.; Øvrebekk, G.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira de Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piuz, F.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Punin, V.; Putiš, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Radomski, S.; Räihä, T. S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramírez Reyes, A.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Ricaud, H.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Santo, R.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schreiner, S.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P. A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Sgura, I.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siciliano, M.; Sicking, E.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Son, H.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Stefanini, G.; Steinbeck, T.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhorukov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szostak, A.; Tagridis, C.; Takahashi, J.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Tosello, F.; Traczyk, T.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urbán, J.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Kolk, N.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernekohl, D. C.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vikhlyantsev, O.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wan, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L.; Yang, H.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J.; Yu, W.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Alice Collaboration


    Angular correlations between unidentified charged trigger (t) and associated (a) particles are measured by the ALICE experiment in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV for transverse momenta 0.25 pTa. The shapes of the pair correlation distributions are studied in a variety of collision centrality classes between 0 and 50% of the total hadronic cross section for particles in the pseudorapidity interval | η | 0.8, and are referred to as "long-range correlations". Fourier components VnΔ ≡ are extracted from the long-range azimuthal correlation functions. If particle pairs are correlated to one another through their individual correlation to a common symmetry plane, then the pair anisotropy VnΔ (pTt ,pTa) is fully described in terms of single-particle anisotropies vn (pT) as VnΔ (pTt ,pTa) =vn (pTt)vn (pTa). This expectation is tested for 1 ⩽ n ⩽ 5 by applying a global fit of all VnΔ (pTt ,pTa) to obtain the best values vn { GF } (pT). It is found that for 2 ⩽ n ⩽ 5, the fit agrees well with data up to pTa ˜ 3- 4 GeV / c, with a trend of increasing deviation as pTt and pTa are increased or as collisions become more peripheral. This suggests that no pair correlation harmonic can be described over the full 0.25 pTa < 4 GeV / c. For the n = 1 harmonic, however, a single v1 (pT) curve is not obtained even within the reduced range pTa < 4 GeV / c.

  8. Intratympanic steroid injection as a first-line therapy in uremia patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. (United States)

    Tsai, Hsun-Tien; Hsueh, Naiwei; Huang, Chih-Ming; Lin, Hung-Ching


    ITSI as a first-line therapy in uremia patients with SSNHL offers a valid and safe treatment compared with intravenous systemic steroid treatment. A specific pathophysiology caused by possible sodium pump paralysis may be explained for uremia patients with SSNHL. To compare the efficacy of intratympanic steroid injection (ITSI) with that of systemic intravenous steroids as a first-line therapy in uremia patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). A total of 23 consecutive uremia patients with SSNHL were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: the ITSI group (n = 15) and the non-ITSI group (n = 8), in which patients received intravenous systemic steroid treatment. The two groups were homogeneous in all respects. The hearing improvement and relative gain were statistically significant between the two groups. The value of hearing gain (ΔPTA = PTA pre - PTA post) in the ITSI group and the non-ITSI group was 24.6 ± 16.4dB and 8.4 ± 19.3dB. The value of relative gain (ΔPTA/PTApre) in the ITIS group and the non-ITSI group was 31.1 ± 22% and 9.4 ± 20.5%. In the ITSI group, 11 patients (73.3%) exhibited hearing recovery (ΔPTA > 10 dB).

  9. Peritonsillar abscess and cellulitis and their relation to a positive antigen detection test for streptococcal infection. (United States)

    Risberg, Stefan; Engfeldt, Peter; Hugosson, Svante


    The microbiological cause of peritonsillar abscess and the role of group A β-haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) are unclear. We performed a retrospective study at the ear, nose and throat clinic (ENT) of Orebro University Hospital, Sweden, and included 376 events of peritonsillitis between 2002 and 2004. We determined if the patients had visited a primary healthcare centre (PHCC) within 30 days prior to inclusion. The results of the rapid antigen detection test for GAS (Strep A) taken at the PHCC were compared with the occurrence of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) and peritonsillar cellulitis (PTC). A Strep A test was performed in 61% (229/376) of the events studied. Strep A was positive in 22% of PTA events and in 35% of PTC events (p = 0.036). Of 48,000 Strep A tests taken in primary healthcare, mainly for sore throat, 22% were positive. We examined the relationship between age, the incidence of PTA, and positive Strep A tests. We also determined if there was a monthly correlation between number of positive Strep A tests and number of PTA events. We found no significant correlations. In conclusion, our findings indicate that GAS does not play a major role in the development of PTA/PTC.

  10. Potential Role of Acetyl-CoA Synthetase (acs) and Malate Dehydrogenase (mae) in the Evolution of the Acetate Switch in Bacteria and Archaea. (United States)

    Barnhart, Elliott P; McClure, Marcella A; Johnson, Kiki; Cleveland, Sean; Hunt, Kristopher A; Fields, Matthew W


    Although many Archaea have AMP-Acs (acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase) and ADP-Acs, the extant methanogenic genus Methanosarcina is the only identified Archaeal genus that can utilize acetate via acetate kinase (Ack) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). Despite the importance of ack as the potential urkinase in the ASKHA phosphotransferase superfamily, an origin hypothesis does not exist for the acetate kinase in Bacteria, Archaea, or Eukarya. Here we demonstrate that Archaeal AMP-Acs and ADP-Acs contain paralogous ATPase motifs previously identified in Ack, which demonstrate a novel relation between these proteins in Archaea. The identification of ATPase motif conservation and resulting structural features in AMP- and ADP-acetyl-CoA synthetase proteins in this study expand the ASKHA superfamily to include acetyl-CoA synthetase. Additional phylogenetic analysis showed that Pta and MaeB sequences had a common ancestor, and that the Pta lineage within the halophilc archaea was an ancestral lineage. These results suggested that divergence of a duplicated maeB within an ancient halophilic, archaeal lineage formed a putative pta ancestor. These results provide a potential scenario for the establishment of the Ack/Pta pathway and provide novel insight into the evolution of acetate metabolism for all three domains of life.

  11. Biodegradability enhancement of purified terephthalic acid wastewater by coagulation-flocculation process as pretreatment. (United States)

    Karthik, Manikavasagam; Dafale, Nishant; Pathe, Pradyumna; Nandy, Tapas


    In this work, the coagulation-flocculation process was used as pretreatment for purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater with the objective of improving its overall biodegradability. PTA production generates wastewaters with toxicants p-xylene [1,4-dimethyl-benzene (C8H10)], a major raw material used in the production process, along with some of the intermediates, viz., p-toluic acid, benzoic acid, 4-carboxybenzaldehyde, phthalic acid and terephthalic acid. These compounds affect the bio-oxidation process of wastewater treatment; hence removal of these constituents is necessary, prior to conventional aerobic treatment. This paper addresses the application of coagulation-flocculation process using chemical coagulants, viz., aluminium sulphate (alum), polyaluminium chloride (PAC), ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride in combination with anionic polyelectrolyte. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in conjunction with lime and polyelectrolyte removed about 63.1% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 45.2% biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from PTA wastewater. Coagulation-flocculation process coupled with aerobic bio-oxidation treatment of PTA wastewater achieved, COD & BOD removals of 97.4% and 99.4%, respectively. The biodegradability enhancement evaluated in terms of the BOD5/COD ratio, increased from 0.45 to 0.67 at the optimum conditions. The results obtained from these studies indicate that the coagulation-flocculation process could be a suitable pretreatment method in reducing toxicity of PTA wastewater whilst enhancing biodegradability for aerobic biological treatment scheme.

  12. Comparisons of particles thermal behavior between Fe-base alloy and boron carbide during plasma transferred-arc powder surfacing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Comparisons of particle's thermal behavior between Fe-base alloy and boron carbide in plasma transferred-arc (PTA) space was made based on theoretical evaluation results in this article. It was found that most of the Fe base particles would be fully melted while they transporting through the central plasma field with 200 A surfacing currents. And the particles with a diameter less than 0.5×10-4 m might be fully evaporated. However, for the boron carbide (B4C) particles, only the one with a diameter less than 0.5×10-4 m could be melted in the same PTA space. Most of B4C particles are only preheated at its solid state when they were fed through the central field of PTA plasma when the surfacing current is equal to or less than 200 A. When the arc current was smaller than100 A, only the particles smaller than 0.5×10-4 m could be melted in the PTA space for the Fe-base alloy. Almost none of the discussed B4C particles could be melted in the 100 A PTA space.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Safety, Efficacy, and Cost of Islet Versus Pancreas Transplantation in Nonuremic Patients With Type 1 Diabetes. (United States)

    Moassesfar, S; Masharani, U; Frassetto, L A; Szot, G L; Tavakol, M; Stock, P G; Posselt, A M


    Few current studies compare the outcomes of islet transplantation alone (ITA) and pancreas transplantation alone (PTA) for type 1 diabetes (T1D). We examined these two beta cell replacement therapies in nonuremic patients with T1D with respect to safety, graft function and cost. Sequential patients received PTA (n = 15) or ITA (n = 10) at our institution. Assessments of graft function included duration of insulin independence; glycemic control, as measured by hemoglobin A1c; and elimination of severe hypoglycemia. Cost analysis included all normalized costs associated with transplantation and inpatient management. ITA patients received one (n = 6) or two (n = 4) islet transplants. Mean duration of insulin independence in this group was 35 mo; 90% were independent at 1 year, and 70% were independent at 3 years. Mean duration of insulin independence in PTA was 55 mo; 93% were insulin independent at 1 year, and 64% were independent at 3 years. Glycemic control was comparable in all patients with functioning grafts, as were overall costs ($138 872 for ITA, $134 748 for PTA). We conclude that with advances in islet isolation and posttransplant management, ITA can produce outcomes similar to PTA and represents a clinically viable option to achieve long-term insulin independence in selected patients with T1D. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Ptaquiloside-induced cytotoxicity in Crandall feline kidney and HGC-27 cells. (United States)

    Yurdakok, Begum; Kismali, Gorkem; Ozen, Dogukan


    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a potent genotoxic carcinogenic compound, which is found in bracken ferns and predominantly causes gastric tumors in humans, as well as bladder tumors and chronic enzootic hematuria in cattle. The underlying molecular mechanisms of PTA remain a topic for interdisciplinary investigation. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible cytotoxic effect of 24 h of PTA exposure in Crandall feline kidney (CrFK) and human gastric cells (the HGC-27 cell line) using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) analysis. The cytotoxic effects of PTA (0.0005-500 μg/ml) were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner, whereby the half maximal inhibitory concentration values were 11.17 and 11.86 μg/ml in the CrFK cells, and 2.03 and 2.56 μg/ml in the HGC-27 cells, by LDH and MTT assay, respectively. The results of the present study are consistent with those of previous studies associated with the cytotoxicity of PTA; however, cytotoxicity was identified to occur at significantly lower doses. This cytotoxic effect in vitro at particularly high doses may be linked to the initiation of carcinogenesis as a result of oxidative stress.

  15. Angioscopic assessment of various percutaneous treatments for arteriosclerosis obliterance (United States)

    Kusaba, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shiraishi, Shohzo; Sato, Takashi; Koga, Nobuhiko


    We have evaluated the angioscopic findings before and after various percutaneous techniques to treat 39 lesions in 32 cases of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). We applied a laser (CL50: SLT, Japan), percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), and atherectomy -- either singly or in combination, with angioscopic luminal observation (angioscope: PF14L & PF18L Olympus, Japan) recorded before and after the treatments. In the case of a complete obstruction, we employed PTA as the first choice. We used a laser prior to PTA when the PTA guide-wire failed to penetrate the lumen. For eccentric and calcified lesions atherectomy was applied. A sufficient enlargement was obtained initially in 37 of the 39 lesions. The angioscopic observations after treatment revealed carbonization (3/5) and attachment of small thrombi (3/5) after using the laser, intimal rupture (3/8), dissection (2/8), flap formation (2/8), and attachment of small thrombi (4/8) after PTA, and attachment of small thrombi (9/19), flap formation (6/19), and dissection (2/19) after atherectomy. We established the efficacy of angioscopic assessment demonstrating beneficial clinical results. The angioscopic findings suggest that attachment of small thrombi may be responsible for a poor prognosis. Additional angioscopic observations with angiography are recommended for improved understanding of the luminal changes.

  16. Photothermal ablation therapy for cancer based on metal nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROZANOVA; Nadejda


    Besides conventional surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, which all tend to have side-effects and damage normal tissues, new medical strategies, such as photothermal sensitization and photo-thermal ablation therapy (PTA) with near-IR laser light, have been explored for treating cancer. Much of the current excitement surrounding nanoscience is directly connected to the promise of new nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and therapy. The basic principle behind PTA is that heat generated from light can be used to destroy cancer cells. Strong optical absorption and high efficiency of photothermal conversion at the cancer sites are critical to the success of PTA. Because of their unique optical properties, e.g., strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption, noble metal nanomaterials, such as gold and silver, have been found to significantly enhance photothermal conversion for PTA applications. Substantial effort has been made to develop metal nanostructures with optimal structural and photothermal properties. Ideal metal nanostructures should have strong and tunable SPR, be easy to deliver, have low toxicity, and be convenient for bioconjugation for actively targeting specific cancer cells. This review would highlight some gold nanostructures with various shapes and properties, including nanoparticles (NPs), nanorods (NRs), nanoshells, nanocages, and hollow nanospheres, which have been studied for PTA applications. Among these structures, hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) exhibit arguably the best combined properties because of their small size (30―50 nm), spherical shape, and strong, narrow, and tunable SPR absorption.

  17. Photothermal ablation therapy for cancer based on metal nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROZANOVA Nadejda; ZHANG JinZhong


    Besides conventional surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, which all tend to have side-effects and damage normal tissues, new medical strategies, such as photothermal sensitization and photothermal ablation therapy (PTA) with near-IR laser light, have been explored for treating cancer. Much of the current excitement surrounding nanoscience is directly connected to the promise of new nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and therapy. The basic principle behind PTA is that heat generated from light can be used to destroy cancer cells. Strong optical absorption and high efficiency of photothermal conversion at the cancer sites are critical to the success of PTA. Because of their unique optical properties, e.g., strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption, noble metal nanomaterials, such as gold and silver, have been found to significantly enhance photothermal conversion for PTA applications. Substantial effort has been made to develop metal nanostructures with optimal structural and photothermal properties. Ideal metal nanostructures should have strong and tunable SPR, be easy to deliver, have low toxicity, and be convenient for bioconjugation for actively targeting specific cancer cells. This review would highlight some gold nanostructures with various shapes and properties, including nanoparticles (NPs), nanorods (NRs), nanoshells, nanocages, and hollow nanospheres, which have been studied for PTA applications. Among these structures, hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) exhibit arguably the best combined properties because of their small size (30-50 nm), spherical shape, and strong, narrow, and tunable SPR absorption.

  18. Self-expanding nitinol stents for treatment of infragenicular arteries following unsuccessful balloon angioplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepe, Gunnar; Heller, Stephan; Wiskirchen, Jakub; Fischmann, Arne; Claussen, Claus D. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Zeller, Thomas [Heart Center, Bad Krotzingen (Germany); Coerper, Stephan; Beckert, Stefan [University of Tuebingen, Department of Surgery, Tuebingen (Germany); Balletshofer, Bernd [University of Tuebingen, Department of Angiology, Tuebingen (Germany)


    The feasibility of self-expanding nitinol stents for treatment of infragenicular arteries following unsuccessful balloon angioplasty was assessed. Options for lower limb percutaneous revascularization are limited, especially for complex vessel obstruction. Depending on the lesion and the experience of the interventionalist, the failure rate of balloon angioplasty (PTA) ranges between 10 and 40%. Until recently, no self-expanding stent for the use in the infragenicular arteries was available. This is the first report of the results for 18 consecutive patients who received 4F sheath compatible self-expanding nitinol stents following unsuccessful PTA or early restenosis. Twenty-four stents were implanted in 21 lesions for various indications residual stenosis >50% due to heavy calcification, flow-limiting dissection, occluding thrombus resistant to thrombolyis, thrombaspiration, and PTA, and early restenosis after previous PTA. Stent implantation was feasible in all cases. No complications occurred. After the stent implantation, all primarily unsuccessful interventions could be transformed into successful procedures with no residual stenosis >30% in any case. After 6 {+-} 2 months, two of the 18 patients died, and 14 of the 16 remaining patients improved clinically. At follow-up, the patency could be assessed in 14 stented arteries. Three stents were occluded, one stent showed some neointimal hyperplasia (50-70% restenosis), the remaining ten stents showed no restenosis (0-30%). The use of self-expanding nitinol stents in tibioperoneal and popliteal arteries is a safe and feasible option for the treatment of unsuccessful PTA. The 6-months patency is high. (orig.)

  19. Does age influence the success of intra-tympanic steroid treatment in idiopathic sudden deafness? (United States)

    Attanasio, Giuseppe; Covelli, Edoardo; Cagnoni, Laura; Masci, Eleonora; Rosati, Davide; Di Porto, Edoardo; Barbara, Maurizio; Monini, Simonetta; Filipo, Roberto


    The present study shows that AGE, DELAY, and PTA_PRE may be considered factors influencing therapeutic success in intra-tympanic steroid therapy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the therapeutic success of intra-tympanic prednisolone therapy and age, in patients affected by idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL), considering the influence of factors such as delay, gender, and pure tone average (PTA) pre-therapy. This retrospective study involved 402 consecutive patients, affected by unilateral ISSNHL between January 2009 and January 2014. Patients were divided into two groups based on age: group one with 94 patients aged over 65 years and group two with all 402 patients enrolled in the study, including those over 65. PTA recorded before the beginning of the therapy (PTA_PRE) in group one was worse than for group two. In both groups the therapy was significantly effective in improving hearing thresholds, even if PTA_PRE was significant and negatively correlated with success rate. This effect disappeared within the population over 65. On average, each day of DELAY from the onset of hearing loss to the beginning of therapy cuts almost 2% of the possibility to recover. AGE was negative and significant when specified continuously for group two.

  20. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting in the management of chronic mesenteric angina: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tixon Thomas


    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of our study was to review the results of percutaneous angioplasty (PTA/stenting in the treatment of patients who presented with symptoms and angiographic findings of chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 13 consecutive patients from a single institution who underwent PTA/stenting for the treatment of symptoms suggestive of CMI. Results: All 13 patients in our study were men, and most common presenting symptoms were weight loss and postprandial pain. Atherosclerosis was the most common cause. PTA and stenting was performed in 9 patients and PTA alone was done in 4 patients. Primary technical success rate was 92% with complete resolution of symptoms within 2 weeks in all patients. No statistical difference was noted in primary clinical success rate based on the number of vessels treated or the method of treatment. However, in patients whom SMA was treated had longer duration of symptom-free survival as compared to other vessels. Conclusion: PTA and stenting are very effective therapeutic options for patients presenting with CMI symptoms. It should be considered as the first-line of management in such patients.

  1. Construction and optical properties of infinite Cd and finite Cu molecules stairs (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Mao, Wutao; Shen, Zhi; Wang, Qinghong; Zhou, Qian


    Two coordination complexes, namely [(hpdq)(pta)Cd]n (1) and [(pptp)(pta)Cu2Cl] (2) have been synthesized by solvothermal method based on two polypyridyl ligands, 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis- (2-pyridyl)dipyrazino[2,3-f:2‧,3‧-h]quinoxaline) (hpdq), 4‧-(4- (3H-pyrrol-3-yl)phenyl)- 2,2‧:6‧,2″- terpyridine (pptp) and auxiliary ligand p-phthalic acid (pta), respectively. Single crystal x-ray diffraction analyses reveal that complexes 1 and 2 assembled based on distinct asymmetric unit comprising one and two respective polypyridyl ligands but one Cd(II) and two Cu(I)ions, respectively. Among them, The asymmetric units in 1 was extended to one dimensional chain via the link of auxiliary ligand pta, just like infinite layers of stairs that connected by cadmium ions as the node. While that in 2 to Zero dimensional tetranuclear structure via the link of auxiliary ligand pta, just like finite four layers of stairs that Copper ion as the node connection. Furthermore, solid fluorescence spectra properties of two complexes were also investigated, and the result shows the fluorescence intensity of complex 1 is stronger than that of the hpdq ligand, but the fluorescence intensity of complex 2 is weaker than that of the pptp ligand. CCDC number of 1and 2 are 1483301 and 1483302.

  2. Chemical recycling of post-consumer PET: structural characterization of terephthalic acid and the effect of Alkaline Hydrolysis at low temperature; Reciclagem quimica do PET pos-consumo: caracterizacao estrutural do acido tereftalico e efeito da hidrolise alcalina em baixa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Talitha Granja; Almeida, Yeda Medeiros Bastos de; Vinhas, Gloria Maria, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica


    Due to the environmental impact caused by PET packaging disposal, this material recycling has been thoroughly discussed and evaluated. In particular, chemical recycling enables achievement of the monomers that are used in PET resin manufacture: ethylene glycol (EG) and terephthalic acid (PTA). Therefore, studies for this process optimization are important from environmental and economic points of view. The present study investigated certain parameters that influence the depolymerization reaction of PET post-consumer via alkaline hydrolysis in order to obtain PTA. Assays were performed at 70 °C by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide and the reaction time. The best results were obtained at 10.82 mol L{sup -1} NaOH and 9 h reaction time. Consequently, it was possible to prove this process viability, once analyses by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed that PTA was obtained in all reactions performed. (author)

  3. Dynamic modeling and control of industrial crude terephthalic acid hydropurification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi; Zhong, Weimin; Liu, Yang; Luo, Na; Qian, Feng [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)


    Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) is critical to the development of the polyester industry. PTA production consists of p-xylene oxidation reaction and crude terephthalic acid (CTA) hydropurification. The hydropurification process is necessary to eliminate 4-carboxybenzaldehyde (4-CBA), which is a harmful byproduct of the oxidation reaction process. Based on the dynamic model of the hydropurification process, two control systems are studied using Aspen Dynamics. The first system is the ratio control system, in which the mass flows of CTA and deionized water are controlled. The second system is the multivariable predictive control-proportional-integral-derivative cascade control strategy, in which the concentrations of 4-CBA and carbon monoxide are chosen as control variables and the reaction temperature and hydrogen flow are selected as manipulated variables. A detailed dynamic behavior is investigated through simulation. Results show that the developed control strategies exhibit good control performances, thereby providing theoretical guidance for advanced control of industry-scale PTA production.

  4. Approaches and methods for econometric analysis of market power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Glauben, Thomas; Grings, Michael


    in agricultural and food markets. We provide a framework that may help researchers to evaluate and improve structural models of market power. Starting with the specification of the approaches in question, we compare published empirical studies of market power with respect to the choice of the applied approach......, functional forms, estimation methods and derived estimates of the degree of market power. Thereafter, we use our framework to evaluate several structural models based on PTA and GIM to measure oligopsony power in the Ukrainian dairy industry. The PTA-based results suggest that the estimated parameters......This study discusses two widely used approaches in the New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) literature and examines the strengths and weaknesses of the Production-Theoretic Approach (PTA) and the General Identification Method (GIM) for the econometric analysis of market power...

  5. The influence of midsole cushioning on mechanical and hematological responses during a prolonged downhill run. (United States)

    Hardin, E C; Hamill, J


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of midsole durometer on mechanical and hematological responses during a prolonged downhill run. Twenty-four men completed a 30-min downhill run (-12% grade) wearing either soft, medium, or hard midsole shoes. Data describing mean peak tibial acceleration (PTA), stride frequency, plasma free hemoglobin, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and creatine kinase (CK) were collected. While there were no significant differences in PTA among midsole durometer shoes, PTA increased by 20% after the first 5 min of the run over all other time intervals during the run (p run (p <. 05). Downhill running, irrespective of midsole durometer, showed increased levels of legshock, hemolysis, and muscle damage over values that are present in the literature for a level running protocol.

  6. Topical analgesic added to paraffin enhances paraffin bath treatment of individuals with hand osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Myrer, Joseph William; Johnson, Aaron Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike H; Measom, Gary J; Fellingham, Gilbert W


    To compare treating patients with symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (OA) with paraffin baths only (PO) (100% wax) or paraffin baths 80% wax with 20% topical analgesic (PTA). Subjects met criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for classifying symptomatic hand OA and had a Dreiser's index score >5 points. Current and average pain at rest and with movement was assessed with visual analogue scales. Hand function was assessed by the functional index for hand OA (FIHOA). Both groups had a significant reduction in their 'current' pain 15 min after the first and twelfth treatments compared to pre-treatment but there was no difference between groups (t = 0.10, p > 0.05). The PTA group had greater improvement over the 12 treatment sessions for their pain at rest (t = 2.92, p paraffin produced significantly greater pain relief at rest and during movement than paraffin baths alone after 12 treatments. Additionally, the PTA group experienced greater improved hand function.

  7. Progress in the research and development of p-xylene liquid phase oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lijun; CHENG Youwei; WANG Qinbo; LI Xi


    The process of p-xylene liquid phase oxidation to produce purified terephthalic acid (PTA) involves a series of liquid phase radical reactions,chemical absorption,reactive crystallization,and evaporation.A commercial PTA production flow sheet includes a number of unit operations,which construct a complex process system.In this paper,a review of research and development (R & D) works on PTA process carried out in Zhejiang University during recent years is introduced.The works cover the oxidation and crystallization kinetics,gas-liquid mass transfer and evaporation,reactor modeling,database development,novel reactor design,process modeling,simulation,and optimization.The author emphasizes the viewpoint through this case study that chemical reaction engineering should be developed to process system engineering to extend its scope,and particular attention should be paid on reactor and process modeling.

  8. Comparative ultracytochemical study of the acrosome in four different Veneroida species from the Turkish coast. (United States)

    Erkan, M; Sousa, M; Baldaia, L


    Cytoplasmic acidic phosphoproteins and complex polysaccharides were stained with ammoniacal silver nitrate-formalin and phosphotungstic acid-chromic acid, respectively. In Cerastoderma glaucum (Cardiacea), acrosomal vesicle contents are differentiated into an apical intermediate-dense component and a basal dense region. PTA stained the apical component and silver stained the basal region and the apex of the acrosome. In Spisula subtruncata (Mactracea) the acrosome showed a PTA-stained apical component and a silver-positive basal dense region. In the Veneracea, Chamelea gallina and Pitar rudis show a tripartite acrosomal vesicle, with apical light, outer dense and inner intermediate-dense regions. In both species, the apical and inner components were stained by PTA, whereas silver stained all regions of the acrosomal vesicle in C. gallina and the apical and outer regions in P. rudis. In midpiece, only C. glaucum showed a positive silver reaction at the centriolar fossa.

  9. Selection bias in dynamically-measured super-massive black hole samples: consequences for pulsar timing arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sesana, A; Bernardi, M; Sheth, R K


    Supermassive black hole -- host galaxy relations are key to the computation of the expected gravitational wave background (GWB) in the pulsar timing array (PTA) frequency band. It has been recently pointed out that standard relations adopted in GWB computations are in fact biased-high. We show that when this selection bias is taken into account, the expected GWB in the PTA band is a factor of about three smaller than previously estimated. Compared to other scaling relations recently published in the literature, the median amplitude of the signal at $f=1$yr$^{-1}$ drops from $1.3\\times10^{-15}$ to $4\\times10^{-16}$. Although this solves any potential tension between theoretical predictions and recent PTA limits without invoking other dynamical effects (such as stalling, eccentricity or strong coupling with the galactic environment), it also makes the GWB detection more challenging.

  10. Transluminal Angioplasty of Transplanted Renal Artery Stenosis: A Review of the Literature for Its Safety and Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polytimi Leonardou


    Full Text Available Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS is a well-known cause of posttransplant hypertension accompanied by possible graft dysfunction and is potentially curable when is diagnosed early. Colour Doppler Ultrasonography (CDU is the screening procedure of choice in most studies whereas some centers employ Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA, if available. Although both CDU and MRA can arouse suspicion of disease in less symptomatic cases, angiographic techniques are essential for confirmation of TRAS. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA is a good and widespread therapeutic approach for the treatment of TRAS due to its acceptable complication rate and high technical success rate. The purpose of this paper is to assess the safety and efficacy of PTA in the treatment of TRAS, to compare the long-term outcomes between different reports, and to examine the role of PTA with stenting in inhibiting recurrence of the disease.

  11. AMS INSIGHT--absorbable metal stent implantation for treatment of below-the-knee critical limb ischemia: 6-month analysis. (United States)

    Bosiers, Marc; Peeters, Patrick; D'Archambeau, Olivier; Hendriks, Jeroen; Pilger, Ernst; Düber, Christoph; Zeller, Thomas; Gussmann, Andreas; Lohle, Paul N M; Minar, Erich; Scheinert, Dierk; Hausegger, Klaus; Schulte, Karl-Ludwig; Verbist, Jürgen; Deloose, Koen; Lammer, J


    Endoluminal treatment of infrapopliteal artery lesions is a matter of controversy. Bioabsorbable stents are discussed as a means to combine mechanical prevention of vessel recoil with the advantages of long-term perspectives. The possibility of not having a permanent metallic implant could permit the occurrence of positive remodeling with lumen enlargement to compensate for the development of new lesions. The present study was designed to investigate the safety of absorbable metal stents (AMSs) in the infrapopliteal arteries based on 1- and 6-month clinical follow-up and efficacy based on 6-month angiographic patency. One hundred seventeen patients with 149 lesions with chronic limb ischemia (CLI) were randomized to implantation of an AMS (60 patients, 74 lesions) or stand-alone percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA; 57 patients, 75 lesions). Seven PTA-group patients "crossed over" to AMS stenting. The study population consisted of patients with symptomatic CLI (Rutherford categories 4 and 5) and de novo stenotic (>50%) or occlusive atherosclerotic disease of the infrapopliteal arteries who presented with a reference diameter of between 3.0 and 3.5 mm and a lesion length of <15 mm. The primary safety endpoint was defined as absence of major amputation and/or death within 30 days after index intervention and the primary efficacy endpoint was the 6-month angiographic patency rate as confirmed by core-lab quantitative vessel analysis. The 30-day complication rate was 5.3% (3/57) and 5.0% (3/60) in patients randomized for PTA alone and PTA followed by AMS implantation, respectively. On an intention-to-treat basis, the 6-month angiographic patency rate for lesions treated with AMS (31.8%) was significantly lower (p = 0.013) than the rate for those treated with PTA (58.0%). Although the present study indicates that the AMS technology can be safely applied, it did not demonstrate efficacy in long-term patency over standard PTA in the infrapopliteal vessels.

  12. The impact of prior tonsillitis and treatment modality on the recurrence of peritonsillar abscess: a nationwide cohort study. (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Piao; Wang, Mao-Che; Lin, Hung-Ching; Chou, Pesus


    Studies suggest an increased risk of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) recurrence in patients with prior tonsillitis. However, this association is inconsistent and could be confounded by different treatment modalities. This study aimed to assess the risk of recurrence among PTA patients with different degrees of prior tonsillitis and treatment modalities, and the role of tonsillectomy in current practice. All in-patients with peritonsillar abscess between January 2001 and December 2009 were identified in a nationwide, retrospective cohort study. Recurrence was defined as the first occurrence of PTA ≧30 days from the initial PTA. Factors independently associated with recurrence were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for demographic and clinical data. There were 28,837 patients, with a 5.15% recurrence rate and 4.74 years of follow-up. The recurrence rates were significantly higher among subjects with more than five prior tonsillitis or 1-4 prior tonsillitis compared to those without prior tonsillitis (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.82 [95% confidence interval, 2.39-3.33] and 1.59 [95% CI: 1.38-1.82]). The adjusted HR in patients treated with needle aspiration was 1.08 compared to those treated with incision & drainage (95% CI: 0.85-1.38). After age stratification, the adjusted HRs of more than five prior tonsillitis increased to 2.92 and 3.50 in patients aged ≦18 and 19-29 years respectively. The adjusted HR of needle aspiration only increased in patients ≦18 years old (aHR: 1.98 [95% CI: 0.99-3.97]). The overall tonsillectomy rate was 1.48% during our study period. The risk of PTA recurrence increases with higher degrees of prior tonsillitis in all age groups and management by needle aspiration only in the pediatric population. Patients younger than 30 years old with PTA and more than five prior tonsillitis have the greatest risk of recurrence.

  13. The Suzuki Reaction in Aqueous Media Promoted by P, N Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip W. Gingrich


    Full Text Available The synthesis and structure of palladium complexes of trisubstituted PTA derivatives, PTAR3, are described. Water-soluble phosphine ligands 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadmantane (PTA, tris(aminomethylphosphine trihydrobromide, tri(aminomethyl phosphine, 3,7-dimethyl-1,5,7-triaza-3-phosphabicyclo[3,3,1]nonane (RO-PTA, 3,7-diacetyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (DAPTA, lithium 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane-6-carboxylate (PTA-CO2Li, 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo []decane, and 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[]decane were used as ligands for palladium catalyzed Suzuki reactions in aqueous media. RO-PTA in combination with palladium acetate or palladium chloride was the most active catalyst for Suzuki cross coupling of aryl bromides and phenylboronic acid at 80 °C in 1:1 water:acetonitrile. The activity of Pd(II complexes of RO-PTA is comparable to PPh2(m-C6H4SO3Na (TPPMS and P(m-C6H4SO3Na3 (TPPTS and less active than tri(4,6-dimethyl-3-sulfonatophenylphosphine trisodium salt (TXPTS. Activated, deactivated, and sterically hindered aryl bromides were examined, with yields ranging from 50% to 90% in 6 h with 5% palladium precatalyst loading. X-ray crystal structures of (RO-PTAPdCl2, (PTAR32PdCl2 (R = Ph, p-tert-butylC6H5, and PTAR3 (R = p-tert-butylC6H5 are reported.

  14. Comparison of the effectiveness of monitoring Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity with extended high-frequency pure-tone audiometry or distortion-product otoacoustic emission. (United States)

    Yu, Kwang Kyu; Choi, Chi Ho; An, Yong-Hwi; Kwak, Min Young; Gong, Soo Jung; Yoon, Sang Won; Shim, Hyun Joon


    To compare the effectiveness of monitoring cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in adult patients using extended high-frequency pure-tone audiometry (EHF-PTA) or distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DP-OAE) and to evaluate the concurrence of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity in cisplatin-treated patients. EHF-PTA was measured at frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11.2, 12.5, 14, 16, 18, and 20 kHz and DP-OAE at frequencies of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz in cisplatin-treated patients (n=10). Baseline evaluations were made immediately before chemotherapy and additional tests were performed before each of six cycles of cisplatin treatment. Laboratory tests to monitor nephrotoxicity were included before every cycle of chemotherapy. Four of 10 patients showed threshold changes on EHF-PTA. Five of 10 patients showed reductions in DP-OAE, but one was a false-positive result. The results of EHF-PTA and DP-OAE were consistent in two patients. Only one patient displayed nephrotoxicity on laboratory tests after the third cycle. In our study, the incidence rate of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity was 40% with EHF-PTA or DP-OAE. Although both EHF-PTA and DP-OAE showed the same sensitivity in detecting ototoxicity, they did not produce the same results in all patients. These two hearing tests could be used to complement one another. Clinicians should use both tests simultaneously in every cycle of chemotherapy to ensure the detection of ototoxicity.

  15. Evaluating the Need for and Effect of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty on Arteriovenous Fistulas by Using Total Recirculation Rate per Dialysis Session (“Clearance Gap”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The functioning of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF used for vascular access during hemodialysis has been assessed mainly by dilution methods. Although these techniques indicate the immediate recirculation rate, the results obtained may not correlate with Kt/V. In contrast, the clearance gap (CL-Gap method provides the total recirculation rate per dialysis session and correlates well with Kt/V. We assessed the correlation between Kt/V and CL-Gap as well as the change in radial artery (RA blood flow speed in the fistula before percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA in 45 patients undergoing continuous hemodialysis. The dialysis dose during the determination of CL-Gap was 1.2 to 1.4 Kt/V. Patients with a 10% elevation or more than a 10% relative increase in CL-Gap underwent PTA (n=45, and the values obtained for Kt/V and CL-Gap before PTA were compared with those obtained immediately afterward. The mean RA blood flow speed improved significantly (from 52.9 to 97.5cm/sec after PTA, as did Kt/V (1.07 to 1.30 and CL-Gap (14.1% to -0.2%. A significant correlation between these differences was apparent (r=-0.436 and p=0.003. These findings suggest that calculating CL-Gap may be useful for determining when PTA is required and for assessing the effectiveness of PTA, toward obtaining better dialysis.

  16. Venous rupture complicating hemodialysis access angioplasty: percutaneous treatments and outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La, Young Jong; Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyoung; Hong, Hyun Suk; Kwon, Gui Hyang; Choi, Duk Lin; Ynag, Sung Boo [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the usefulness of percutaneous management and prognosis in venous rupture during angioplasty of hemodialytic arteriovenous fistulas. Among 814 patients who underwent angioplasty on account of inadequate hemodialysis, 63(39 women and 24 men aged 20-78 (mean, 55.8) years) were included in this study. All 63 had peripheral venous stenosis. Venous rupture was diagnosed when contrast leakage was seen at venography after percutaneous angioplasty (PTA). In order to manage venous rupture, the sites at which this occurred were compressed manually for 3-5 minutes or blood flow was blocked with a balloon catheter for the same period. In one case, a stent was inserted at the rupture site. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, we investigated the patency rate of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in cases of successful PTA. We also compared PTA patency rates in cases with and without peripheral venous rupture. Venous rupture occurred in 38 cephalic, 16 brachial, and 9 basilic veins. In 63 patients, bleeding stopped and in 54 (85.7 %) of thee, PTA was successful. Among the nine failed cases, dilatation was incomplete in five, though bleeding had stopped. In patients with brachial and cephalic vein rupture the venous tract at the rupture site was not located. Two patients underwent surgery: one of these experienced brachial venous rupture, with incontrollable bleeding, and the other had nerve compression symptoms due to hematoma. Among 54 patients in whom PTA was successful, the primary and secondary six-months rates for angioaccess were 47.9% and 81.2%, and the mean patency period was 6.1 and 15.8 months, respectively. In cases of non-venous rupture, the mean patency period was 9.6 months, significantly longer than in cases involving venous rupture (p=0.02). Venous rupture occurring during the PTA of hemodialytic AVF can be managed percutaneously.

  17. Endovascular dialysis interventions in the era of DOQI. (United States)

    Greenberg, Joshua I; Suliman, Ahmed; Angle, Niren


    The National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes and Quality Initiative (DOQI) recommends autogenous fistulae as the preferred access for new dialysis procedures. Unfortunately, despite superior patency rates compared to prosthetic grafts, even autogenous access durability is often undermined by venous stenosis due to intimal hyperplasia at the outflow vein or by central venous stenosis due to long-standing central venous catheters. Salvage interventions, in the form of endovascular treatments such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and/or stenting, are increasingly utilized for access salvage and maintenance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular dialysis interventions in the era of DOQI. A retrospective review of a database of endovascular interventions for dialysis access during 36 months at an academic medical center was performed. Both central venous and access outflow lesions were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank analysis were used to assess and compare time-dependent variables. Forty-five patients with dialysis access underwent 72 endovascular interventions for access maintenance. There were 27 central venous and 32 outflow endovascular interventions with 98% follow-up. Primary and assisted primary patency rates for outflow balloon PTA were 50% and 72% at 12 months, respectively. There were 1.1 reinterventions required per index outflow PTA procedure. Postintervention primary patency rates for central venous PTA were 30% and 9% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Postintervention assisted patency for central venous PTA was 100% at 12 months, requiring 1.8 reinterventions per index PTA. Central venous and venous outflow interventions extended overall access patency by 38.5 and 33 months, respectively (p dialysis access. Despite the need for multiple reinterventions and close surveillance, catheter-based interventions positively contribute to dialysis access durability in accordance with

  18. Identification and characterization of a putative human platelet thromboxane A/sub 2//prostaglandin H/sub 2/ receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saussy, D.L. Jr.


    The thromboxane A/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2/) analog, 9,11-dimethylmethano-11,12-methano-16-(3-iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-13,14-dihydro-13-aza-15..cap alpha beta..-omega-tetranor TXA/sub 2/ (I-PTA-OH) was characterized as a competitive antagonist of TXA/sub 2/ mimetic-induced platelet aggregation, with a K/sub d/ of 190 nM in platelet rich plasma. This antagonism was specific for the putative thromboxane A/sub 2//prostaglandin H/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2//PGH/sub 2/) receptor, since I-PTA-OH had no inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation stimulated by agonists which act independently of TXA/sub 2//PGH/sub 2/, and did not inhibit platelet TXA/sub 2/ synthesis. (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding to a particulate fraction from human platelets was saturable, displaceable, and linear with protein concentration. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding revealed a single class of high affinity binding sites, with a K/sub d/ of 30 +/- 4 nM and a B/sub max/ of 1.8 +/- 0.3 pmol/mg protein. Kinetic analysis yielded a k/sub 1/ of 1.35 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/ and a k..sqrt../sub 1/ of 0.032 min/sup -1/, K/sub d/ = k..sqrt../sub 1//k/sub 1/ = 24 nM. The subcellular localization of the putative TXA/sub 2//PGH/sub 2/ receptor was determined using (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. (/sup 125/I)-PTA-OH binding, was coenriched with markers for plasma membranes and dense tubular system; but not with markers for cytoplasmic constituents, mitochondria, or granules.

  19. Predicting Factors for Successful Maturation of Autogenous Haemodialysis Fistulas After Salvage Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Diabetic Nephropathy: A Study on Follow-Up Doppler Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Maturation failure of autogenous arteriovenous fistula (aAVF has been increasing after surgical procedures and the salvage percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (sPTA for immature aAVF has been identified as an effective treatment modality. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify factors predicting successful aAVF maturation and to determine positive technical aspects of sPTA. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records and radiological images of 59 patients who had undergone sPTA for non-maturing aAVFs. We analysed images from pre-surgical mapping Doppler ultrasonography, angiography, and angioplasty and follow-up Doppler ultrasonography performed within two weeks after sPTA. We assessed the following factors, for their ability to predict successful aAVF maturation: 1 patient factors (age; sex; co-morbidities; and aAVF age, side and type; 2 vessel factors (cephalic vein diameter and depth, presence of accessory veins, and pre- and postoperative radial artery disease; 3 lesion factors (stenosis number, location and severity; and 4 technical factors (presence of residual stenosis and anatomic success ratio (ASR on follow-up Doppler ultrasonography. Results The technical and clinical success rates were both 94.9% (56/59; the mean ASR was 0.84. An ASR of ≥ 0.7 and no significant residual stenosis (< 30% (both P < 0.001 on two-week follow-up Doppler ultrasonography predicted successful aAVF maturation. Conclusion For more precise prediction of successful aAVF maturation after sPTA, short-term follow-up Doppler ultrasonography (< 2 weeks was useful. If the ASR was < 0.7 or if residual stenosis was ≥ 30%, immediate repeat sPTA is recommended.

  20. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty Versus Balloon Angioplasty as Treatment for Short Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Superficial Femoral Artery: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncyljusz, Wojciech, E-mail:; Falkowski, Aleksander, E-mail: [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology (Poland); Safranow, Krzysztof, E-mail:; Rac, Monika, E-mail: [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry (Poland); Zawierucha, Dariusz, E-mail: [Interventional Radiology, Sacred Heart Medical Center, River Bend (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate the treatments of a short-segment atherosclerotic stenosis in the superficial femoral arteries with the cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) versus conventional balloon angioplasty [percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)] in a randomized controlled trial. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 60 patients (33 men, 27 women; average age 64 years) with a short ({<=}5 cm) focal SFA de novo atherosclerotic stenosis associated with a history of intermittent claudication or rest pain. The primary end point of this study was the rate of binary restenosis in the treated segment 12 months after the intervention. All patients were evenly randomized to either the PTA or CBA treatment arms. Follow-up angiograms and ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurements were performed after 12 months. The evaluation of the restenosis rates and factors influencing its occurrence were calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results: In the intention-to-treat analysis, restenosis rates after 2-month follow-up were 9 of 30 (30 %) in the PTA group and 4 of 30 (13 %) in the CBA group (p = 0.117). In the actual treatment analysis, after exclusion of patients who required nitinol stent placement for a suboptimal result after angioplasty alone (5 patients in the PTA group and none in the CBA group), restenosis rates were 9 of 25 (36 %) and 4 of 30 (13 %), respectively (p = 0.049). In the intention-to-treat analysis there were also significant differences in ABI values between the PTA and CBA groups at 0.77 {+-} 0.11 versus 0.82 {+-} 0.12, respectively (p = 0.039), at 12 months. Conclusion: Based on the presented results of the trial, CBA seems to be a safer and more effective than PTA for treatment of short atherosclerotic lesions in the superior femoral artery.

  1. Intravaskulaer ultralyd og perkutan transluminal angioplastik. Praeliminaere resultater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Rasmussen, John Bøje Grønvall; Just, S R;


    Intravascular ultrasound is a new imaging modality which enables cross-sectional images of blood vessels. These preliminary results of intravascular ultrasound used before and after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in 19 patients, confirm earlier reports of the ability to distinguish...... by measuring the reduction of stenosis and increment of the luminal area. The increased luminal area following PTA was partly due to stretching of the artery and partly due to compression of the atheroma. We found a correlation between the amount of calcium in the plaque and the size of the dissection after...

  2. Using Pulsar Timing observations to understand the formation and evolution of supermassive black hole binaries (United States)

    Cornish, Neil; Sampson, Laura; McWilliams, Sean


    The astrophysical processes that form and harden supermassive black hole binaries impart distinct features that may be observed in the gravitational-wave spectrum within the sensitive frequency range of Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTA). We investigate how well the various formation and hardening mechanisms can be constrained by applying Bayesian inference to simulated PTA data sets. We find that even without strong priors on the merger rate, any detection of the signal will place interesting constraints on the astrophysical models. Folding in priors on the merger rate allows us to place interesting constraints on the astrophysical models even before a detection is made.

  3. Potential consequences of selection to change gestation length on performance of Holstein cows. (United States)

    Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Miller, R H


    Genetic evaluations for gestation length (GL) for Holstein service sires were studied to determine their effectiveness in predicting GL in an independent data set. Consequences of selection on GL were also assessed by examining correlated changes in milk and fitness traits. Holstein bulls with ≥ 300 calvings between 1998 and 2005 were stratified into the following 7 groups using predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for service sire GL: <-3.00, -3.00 to -2.01, …, 1.00 to 1.99, and ≥ 2.00 d. An independent set of 261,598 first-parity cows mated later to the same bulls and calving between 2006 and 2009 were segregated by the service sire PTA GL groups (group had 8,317 to 73,324 gestations), and these mates' GL were examined to determine effectiveness of service sire PTA GL. The model included fixed effects for herd-year and service sire group, plus covariates for conception dates to account for time opportunity among mates. Mean GL for mates by service sire group (from lowest to highest PTA GL) were 275.3, 276.5, 277.8, 278.6, 279.5, 280.6, and 281.7 d. Thus, service sire PTA GL was effective in identifying bulls that modified GL. Subsequent yield and fitness traits were also examined for the (independent) mates with the same service sire groups. Intermediate service sire PTA GL was optimal for yield traits and days open; performance for productive life and culling generally became less favorable as service sire PTA GL increased. A second examination was made by replacing service sire PTA GL groups in the model with phenotypic cow GL groups. Relationships between GL and subsequent performance for milk yield and fitness traits were examined using 9 phenotypic cow GL groups: ≤ 271, 272-273, …, 284-285, and ≥ 286 d. Performance generally improved for subsequent lactation yield as cow GL increased; however, intermediate GL was optimal for productive life, calving ease, stillbirth, culling, and days open. Results indicated that neither shortening nor increasing

  4. [Percutaneous angioscopy of the iliac and femoral arteries]. (United States)

    Cécile, J P; Foucart, H; Carlier, C; Baudrillard, J C; Varloteaux, M C; Servais, B; Bourgois, L


    Very few papers about peripheral angioscopy are reported in literature. Percutaneous angioscopy (P.T.A.) of 25 peripheral arteries (21 iliac and 4 femoral arteries) have been performed by the authors without surgery and without anesthesia. Three observations are selected. The first one demonstrates an eccentric stenosis altering its diameter during pulsations; an irregular ulcerated atheroma is observed. The second case shows the signs of a centric atheroma with an intimal fragment. The last one is an intimal dissection due to PTA. The prospective aspects of this new technique are discussed.

  5. Persistent truncus arteriosus with intact ventricular septum diagnosed by echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-qi; SHEN Rong; SUN Kun; ZHONG Shu-wen; WU Yu-rong


    Persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly, and has an incidence of about 0.5 to 0.9 per 10 000 live births. Almost all cases described in the literatures had a large ventricular septal defect, only few rare cases were reported with intact ventricular septum. From June 1998 to December 2008, cardiac angiography were performed in 10 880 patients with congenital heart disease in our hospital, 47 patients with PTA were diagnosed, one case with tricuspid atresia,hypoplastic right ventricle, and intact ventricular septum was encountered.

  6. Phenotypic variability in a seven-generation Swedish family segregating autosomal dominant hearing impairment due to a novel EYA4 frameshift mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frykholm, Carina; Klar, Joakim; Arnesson, Hanna;


    -sectional and longitudinal deterioration of pure tone average (PTA) once the process of hearing deterioration had started, and no gender, parent-of-origin or family branch differences on PTA could be found. Age at onset varied between the family branches. In summary, this is the ninth published genetically verified DFNA10...... family. The results imply that unidentified factors, genetic or environmental, other than the EYA4 mutation, are of importance for the age at onset of DFNA10, and that mutation early in the variable region of the EYA4 protein can occur in the absence of dilated cardiomyopathy....

  7. Application of myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion in the hearing rehabilitation of children with secretory otitis media%鼓膜切开置管术在儿童分泌性中耳炎听力康复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗英章; 步桂清; 张秀者; 荣宏; 张勋


    AIM: To study the role of the myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion inthe hearing rehabilitation of the children with secretory otitis media(SOM).METHODS: Myringotomy and ventilation tube insertions were performed in56 children with chronic SOM. RESULTS: The pure-tone threshold average(PTA) of six months after operation in 50 cases(91 ears) was improvedsignificantly compared with the preoperative PTA( P < 0. 01 ). The effectiverate of myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion was 92. 3%. CONCLU-SION: As a therapeutic method in the hearing rehabilitation of the childrenwith chronic SOM, the myringotomy and veptilation tube insertion should beused as primary surgical therapy.

  8. Terephthalic acid wastewater treatment by using two-stage aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the tests between anoxic and aerobic process, the two-stage aerobic process with a biological selector was chosen to treat terephthalic acid wastewater (PTA). By adopting the two- stage aerobic process, the CODCr in PTA wastewater could be reduced from 4000-6000 mg/L to below 100 mg/L; the COD loading in the first aerobic tank could reach 7.0-8.0 kgCODCr/(m3.d) and that of the second stage was from 0.2 to 0.4 kgCODCr/(m3.d). Further researches on the kinetics of substrate degradation were carried out.

  9. Stent graft versus balloon angioplasty for failing dialysis access grafts: a long-awaited advance in the treatment of permanent hemodialysis access. (United States)

    Dolmatch, Bart L


    Arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) for hemodialysis have a high failure rate, often due to the development of stenosis at the graft-to-vein anastomosis. Angioplasty (PTA) has been used for over two decades to treat AVG stenosis, with good technical success but limited AVG patency. Results of a prospective multi-center randomized trial, comparing stent graft to PTA in AVGs, has demonstrated superior access circuit patency for the stent graft group. Recent publication of this clinical study brings us into an exciting new era of dialysis access management using covered stents to improve durability of catheter-based therapy.

  10. HEART's Original [症例] 肘部上腕動脈からのアプローチを用いた鼠径部動脈狭窄への経皮的血管形成術の経験

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    阿部, 秀年; 上小澤, 護; 伊藤, 篤; 鈴木, 順; 山崎, 恭平


    総腸骨動脈より末梢の病変に対する経皮的血管形成術(percutaneous transluminal angioplasty:以下PTA)は,多くは大腿動脈穿刺により行われる. 病変が大腿動脈穿刺部付近にある場合のPTA は, 対側の大腿動脈穿刺から施行することが多い.その場合,...

  11. [Role of high-dose BEAM-chemotherapy and autologous hemopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of drug-resistant Hodgkin disease]. (United States)

    Uss, A L; Zmachinskiĭ, V A; Milanovich, N F; Skriagin, A E; Dziuba, E V; Vlasenkova, S V; Solov'eva, N S; Batan, Z E; Mitskevich, P B; Zavgorodniaia, I L; Aleĭnikova, O V; Zhavrid, E A


    In 1995-1999, 67 patients with relapsed Hodgkin's disease or refractory to chemotherapy (group A--first relapse, B--primary refractory disease, and C--repeated relapse) received cytoreductive (dexaBEAM, DHAP) therapy followed by high-dose BEAM chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow or blood cell transplantation. Early postoperative transplant-related mortality rate was 4.5%. At day 100, complete remission rates were: group A--95.6%; B--74.1%; and C--76.5%. Survival for all patients was: overall--61.9%; event-free--43.9%; disease-free--46%; and relapse-free survival--49.5%. Such factors as primary refractory disease, age over 30 years and response to cytoreductive therapy had significant influence on overall survival prognosis.

  12. Biosynthesis of 2-phenylethanol from glucose with genetically engineered Kluyveromyces marxianus. (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Yeon; Lee, Sang-Woo; Oh, Min-Kyu


    2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is an aromatic alcohol with a rose scent, which is used in the cosmetics, fragrance and food industries. 2-PE is produced in a few yeast strains by Ehrlich pathway. In this study, Kluyveromyces marxianus was genetically engineered for overproduction of 2-PE from glucose. About 1.0g/L of 2-PE was produced by overexpressing phenylpyruvate decarboxylase (ARO10) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2) genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A similar level of 2-PE was also produced from evolved K. marxianus, which was resistant to the phenylalanine analog, p-fluorophenylalanine. aroG(fbr) from Klebsiella pneumoniae encoding a feedback resistant mutant of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DHAP) synthase was overexpressed in the evolved K. marxianus. Finally, 1.3g/L of 2-PE was produced from 20g/L glucose without addition of phenylalanine in the medium.

  13. An International Collaborative Study of Outcome and Prognostic Factors in Patients with Secondary CNS Involvement By Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Cheah, Chan Yoon; Bendtsen, Mette Dahl


    .3). The median post-SCNS OS was 4 months (interquartile range 2-13) and the 2yr survival rate was 20% (95% CI 15-25) for the entire cohort. Associations between clinicopathologic features, management strategy, and post-SCNS survival are shown in Table 1, which excludes patients who did not receive any treatment...... and CNS involvement by DLBCL were associated with inferior outcomes. Upfront CNS prophylaxis did not influence post-SCNS OS. High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) and/or platinum based treatment regimens (i.e. ICE, DHAP, or GDP [+/- IT treatment and/or radiotherapy], N=163) for SCNS were associated with reduced...... Myers Squib: Research Funding; NanoString Technologies: Research Funding; F Hoffmann-La Roche: Research Funding; Millennium Takeda: Research Funding; Seattle Genetics: Research Funding. Sehn: roche/genentech: Consultancy, Honoraria; amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria; seattle genetics: Consultancy, Honoraria...

  14. Active Site Loop Dynamics of a Class IIa Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegan, Scott D. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States); Rukseree, Kamolchanok [National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), Tha Khlong (Thailand); Capodagli, Glenn C. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States); Baker, Erica A. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States); Krasnykh, Olga [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Franzblau, Scott G. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Mesecar, Andrew D. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    The class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs, EC comprises one of two families of aldolases. Instead of forming a Schiff base intermediate using an ε-amino group of a lysine side chain, class II FBAs utilize Zn(II) to stabilize a proposed hydroxyenolate intermediate (HEI) in the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, forming glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). As class II FBAs have been shown to be essential in pathogenic bacteria, focus has been placed on these enzymes as potential antibacterial targets. Although structural studies of class II FBAs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtFBA), other bacteria, and protozoa have been reported, the structure of the active site loop responsible for catalyzing the protonation–deprotonation steps of the reaction for class II FBAs has not yet been observed. We therefore utilized the potent class II FBA inhibitor phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH) as a mimic of the HEI- and DHAP-bound form of the enzyme and determined the X-ray structure of the MtFBA–PGH complex to 1.58 Å. Remarkably, we are able to observe well-defined electron density for the previously elusive active site loop of MtFBA trapped in a catalytically competent orientation. Utilization of this structural information and site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies conducted on a series of residues within the active site loop revealed that E169 facilitates a water-mediated deprotonation–protonation step of the MtFBA reaction mechanism. Furthermore, solvent isotope effects on MtFBA and catalytically relevant mutants were used to probe the effect of loop flexibility on catalytic efficiency. Additionally, we also reveal the structure of MtFBA in its holoenzyme form.

  15. Single amino acid mutation alters thermostability of the alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus: thermodynamics and temperature dependence. (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Yang, Qingjun; Feng, Hong


    Dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP) from Bacillus pumilus BA06 has been demonstrated to have high catalytic efficiency and good thermostability, with potential application in leather processing. In order to get insights into its catalytic mechanism, two mutants with single amino acid substitution according to the homology modeling and multiple sequence alignment were characterized in thermodynamics of thermal denaturation and temperature dependence of substrate hydrolysis. The results showed that both mutants of V149I and R249E have a systematic increase in catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) in a wide range of temperatures, mainly due to an increase of k1 (substrate diffusion) and k2 (acylation) for V149I and of k2 and k3 (deacylation) for R249E. In comparison with the wild-type DHAP, the thermostability is increased for V149I and decreased for R249E. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the free energy (ΔGa°) of activation for thermal denaturation may govern the thermostability. The value of ΔGa° is increased for V149I and decreased for R249E. Based on these data and the structural modeling, it is suggested that substitution of Val149 with Ile may disturb the local flexibility in the substrate-binding pocket, leading to enhancement of binding affinity for the substrate. In contrast, substitution of Arg249 with Glu leads to interruption of interaction with the C-terminal of enzyme, thus resulting in less thermostability. This study indicates that amino acid residues in the active center or in the substrate-binding pocket may disturb the catalytic process and can be selected as the target for protein engineering in the bacterial alkaline proteases.

  16. Long-term hearing loss after chemoradiation in patients with head and neck cancer. (United States)

    Theunissen, Eleonoor A R; Zuur, Charlotte L; Bosma, Sophie C J; Lopez-Yurda, Marta; Hauptmann, Michael; van der Baan, Sieberen; de Boer, Jan Paul; van der Molen, Lisette; Rasch, Coen R N; Dreschler, Wouter A; Balm, Alfons J M


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether concomitant chemoradiation (CCRT)-induced hearing loss is progressive over time or not. Long-term (LT) follow-up study. Between 1999 and 2004, 158 patients with head and neck cancer were treated with intravenous (IV) CCRT (n = 80) or intraarterial CCRT (n = 78). Audiometry was performed before, short-term (ST), and LT posttreatment. Differences in hearing were assessed with a multivariable linear regression analysis, incorporating the effect of aging. Long-term audiometry (median 4.5 years) was available in 67 patients (42%). At ST follow-up, a deterioration of 21.6 decibel was seen compared to baseline at pure-tone averages (PTA) 8-10-12.5 kHz. At LT follow-up, this deterioration further increased with 5 decibel (P = 0.005). Only in CCRT-IV patients was a significant progressive treatment-induced hearing loss seen, at PTA 8-10-12.5 kHz (P = 0.005), PTA 1-2-4 kHz air conduction (P = 0.014), and PTA 0.5-1-2 kHz bone conduction (P = 0.045). CCRT-induced hearing impairment was progressive over time, especially in higher frequencies and only in CCRT-IV patients, with a modest deterioration of 5 decibel 4.5 years post-treatment. 4. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Framingham Risk Score as a Prognostic Predictor of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Preliminary Study. (United States)

    Chang, Young-Soo; Choi, Ji Eun; Ahn, Jungmin; Ryu, Nam-Gyu; Moon, Il Joon; Hong, Sung Hwa; Cho, Yang-Sun; Chung, Won-Ho


    Predicting the prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) remains challenging. This investigation aimed to apply Framingham Risk Scores (FRS) to assess the combination of prognostic factors following ISSHL and investigate the predictive role of FRS in patients with multiple comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Retrospective study. Twenty-one patients presenting with unilateral idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and multiple comorbidities were surveyed. Framingham Risk Score was calculated, and patients were assigned into high-risk (FRS ≥20%) and low-risk (FRS hearing outcomes following established criteria were investigated. All patients were treated with the same protocol of oral methylprednisolone. Overall successful recovery rate (complete + marked recovery) was 23.81%. The mean PTA threshold of the low-risk group showed significant improvement (mean PTA ± standard error, SE: pretreatment, 73.23 ± 11.80; posttreatment, 54.89 ± 10.25, P = .002), while the high-risk group did not show significant improvement in mean PTA threshold (mean PTA ± SE: pretreatment, 71.94 ± 11.77; posttreatment, 68.89 ± 12.81, P = .73). Framingham Risk Scores may be useful in predicting outcomes for ISSHL patients with multiple comorbidities.

  18. Does Technical Success of Angioplasty in Dysfunctional Hemodialysis Accesses Correlate with Access Patency? (United States)

    Sidhu, Arshdeep; Tan, Kong T; Noel-Lamy, Maxime; Simons, Martin E; Rajan, Dheeraj K


    To study if technical success. A prospective observational study was performed between January 2009 and December 2012, wherein 76 patients underwent 154 PTA events in 56 prosthetic grafts (AVG) and 98 autogenous fistulas (AVF). Data collected included patient age, gender, lesion location and laterality, access type and location, number of prior interventions, and transonic flow rates pre- and postintervention. Impact of technical outcome on access patency was assessed. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the impact of variables on technical success with significant factors assessed with a multiple variable model. Technical success rates of PTA in AVFs and AVGs were 79.6 and 76.7 %, respectively. Technical failures of PTA were associated with an increased risk of patency loss among circuits with AVFs (p technical successes and failures at three and 6 months were 74.4 versus 61.9 % (p = 0.3) and 53.8 versus 23.8 % (p technical successes and failures at three and six months were 72.1 versus 53.9 % (p = 0.5) and 33.6 versus 38.5 % (p = 0.8), respectively. Transonic flow rates did not significantly differ among technically successful or failed outcomes at one or three months. Technical failures of PTA had a significant impact on access patency among AVFs with a trend toward poorer access patency within AVGs.

  19. Femoral artery recanalisation with percutaneous angioplasty and segmentally enclosed plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Tønnesen, K H; Bülow, J;


    To establish whether re-occlusion of the femoral artery could be prevented, in 6 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for superficial femoral artery occlusion the recanalised segment was isolated, with a 7-French double-balloon catheter. 5 mg recombined human...

  20. Late hemodynamic failure following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for long and multifocal femoropopliteal stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Tønnesen, K H; Holstein, P


    The outcome of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was evaluated for treatment of 87 limbs with femoropopliteal stenoses, including 55 short stenoses (2.4 +/- 1.6 cm, mean +/- SD), seven single long stenoses (10.4 +/- 2.0 cm), and 25 multifocal stenoses (2.1 +/- 1.6 cm), where two to four...

  1. Early rethrombosis in femoropopliteal occlusions treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Meisner, S; Holstein, P;


    One hundred and thirty-seven consecutive percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTA) were performed for femoropopliteal vascular disease including 58 stenoses and 79 total occlusions. Nine occlusions could not be crossed with the guidewire, but in the remaining 128 the haemodynamic and clinical...

  2. Prolonged binding of radiolabeled recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator after angioplasty and enclosed thrombolysis of the femoropopliteal arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Vinberg, N; Folkenborg, O


    The authors measured the binding of indium-111-labeled recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within the recanalized femoropopliteal segment after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and enclosed thrombolysis. In patients with long occlusions (n = 3), 91 micrograms of rt...

  3. Canine stifle stability following cranial cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscal release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tanja Vedel; Kristiansen, Signe Søndergaard; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    Introduction: The patellar tendon angle (PTA), describing the relationship of the patellar tendon to the tibial plateau, is biomechanically significant for canine stifle stability. The crossover point, at which the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) becomes the primary stifle stabilizer, has been p...

  4. Degradation kinetics of ptaquiloside in soil and soil solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Rikke Gleerup; Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun


    by clay silicates. Ptaquiloside appeared to be stable in all soil solutions, in which no degradation was observed within a period of 28 d, in strong contrast to previous studies of hydrolysis rates in artificial aqueous electrolytes. The present study predicts that the risk of PTA leaching is controlled...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    normal levels (_<_ 4 IUIL) corresponded with non recurrence of tumor and the persistence of ... Table 1: Tumor Grade and Stage in 120 Patients with Human Urothelial Carcinoma. pTa pT1 T2 ..... gonadotropin~like substance secreted by lung.

  6. How to Maximize the Advantages of Interior Lines at the Operational Level. (United States)


    ars Ct~fF ** **. A. 1II .%4.u4IN4 ’ Vlex ft..e.*1 V ~ ~~~~~~~~ I~tifIR 4?PtaTAY.AC!R l ..Ar~a ..........0 ....... . .. .. .... .. L~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ToRior

  7. Ptaquiloside from bracken in stream water at base flow and during storm events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Ramwell, Carmel; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun


    water soluble PTA has been shown to be leachable from bracken fronds, and present in the soil and water below bracken stands. This has raised concerns over whether the compound might pose a risk to drinking water sources. We investigated PTA concentrations in a small stream draining a bracken......-infested catchment at base flow and in response to storm events during a growth season, and included sampling of the bracken canopy throughfall. Streams in other bracken-dominated areas were also sampled at base flow for comparison, and a controlled pulse experiment was conducted in the field to study the in......-stream dynamics of PTA. Ptaquiloside concentrations in the stream never exceeded 61 ng L(-1) in the base flow samples, but peaked at 2.2 μg L(-1) during the studied storm events. The mass of PTA in the stream, per storm event, was 7.5-93 mg from this catchment. A clear temporal connection was observed between...

  8. Effectiveness of genetic predictions of Holstein gestation length and relationship to lactation yield for the subsequent lactation (United States)

    To determine if genetic evaluations of gestation length (GL) were reliable and repeatable, Holstein bulls used to develop those evaluations were stratified into 7 groups according to predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for service-sire GL based on calvings from 1998 through 2004: <=-3.00, -3.00 to ...

  9. Cimentación de una torre deshidratadora mediante pilotes


    Hormigo Delgado, Alberto


    El presente proyecto tiene por objeto la realización de la cimentación para el sustento de una torre deshidratadora que formará parte de las instalaciones necesarias del complejo industrial de Cepsa Química Guadarranque, permitiendo la obtención de Ácido Tereftálico Purificado (PTA).

  10. School Governance, Teacher Incentives, and Pupil-Teacher Ratios: Experimental Evidence from Kenyan Primary Schools. NBER Working Paper No. 17939 (United States)

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael


    We examine a program that enabled Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) in Kenya to hire novice teachers on short-term contracts, reducing class sizes in grade one from 82 to 44 on average. PTA teachers earned approximately one-quarter as much as teachers operating under central government civil-service institutions but were absent one day per week…

  11. Improving Parent Involvement. The National Standards for Parent/Family Involvement Programs. (United States)

    Sullivan, Patricia


    In 1997, the National PTA developed and adopted National Standards for Parent/Family Involvement Programs to help schools, communities, and parenting groups implement effective parent involvement. Six standards are essential for optimum results (communicating, parenting, student learning, volunteering, school decision making and advocacy, and…

  12. Three Steps to Engage Volunteers in Membership Marketing (United States)

    Rossell, Tony


    There is a big world out there, and volunteers can make a significant impact in helping one reach out to others and grow his/her PTA membership. In fact, word-of-mouth marketing tied for the top spot as the most effective method of new member recruitment in Marketing General's 2010 Membership Marketing Benchmarking Report. So getting volunteers'…

  13. Combined intratympanic and systemic use of steroids for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Liu, Dong


    The main objective of the meta-analysis was to investigate whether intratympanic steroid injections in combination with systemic steroids would provide an additional advantage over systemic steroid therapy (SST) alone in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). The results will provide a meaningful suggestion in clinical therapy of ISSNHL. The electronic database search was based on the database in OVID Medline, Embase and PubMed up to December 15, 2015 with the goal of identifying all available observational studies examining the effects of combination therapy and SST in ISSNHL patients. Observational studies that compared the pure tone average (PTA) improvement and recovery rate between combination therapy and SST group in ISSNHL patients were selected. Finally we have identified eight eligible studies that focused on comparing the combination therapy and SST in ISSNHL from designated researches. In the PTA improvement group, seven studies have been analyzed to compare the pooled mean differences between two therapy modalities and subgroups based on initial hearing loss and treatment delay. In the recovery rate group, six studies were calculated for pooled risk ratios and subgroup analysis was also conducted. Through our meta-analysis, we have reached the conclusion that combination therapy exhibited better outcomes in PTA improvement than SST alone, especially in severe-profound initial hearing loss cases. Combination therapy also showed advantages in recovery rate. Whether time of treatment delay would influence the PTA improvement and recovery rate requires further researches.

  14. A novel cyanide-selective colorimetric and fluorescent chemosensor: first molecular security keypad lock based on phosphotungstic acid and CN- inputs. (United States)

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid


    Rhodamine B (RhB) an available dye has been developed as novel and efficient colorimetric and fluorometric chemosensor for cyanide ions in an absolutely aqueous media. The UV-vis absorption and fluorescent emission titrations experiments have been employed to study the sensing process. RhB could act as an efficient "ON-OFF" fluorescent response for phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40 or PTA) based on an ion associate process. Also (RhB(+))3 · PTA(3-) could operate as an "OFF-ON" fluorescent sensor for cyanide anions based on a ligand substitution process. It has been identified as highly sensitive probe for CN(-) which responds at 0.3 and 0.04 μmol L(-1) concentration levels by absorption and fluorescent method respectively. Depending upon the sequence of addition of PTA and CN(-) ions into the solution, RhB could be as a molecular security keypad lock with PTA and CN(-) inputs. The ionic inputs to new fluorophore have been mimicked as a superimposed electronic molecular keypad lock. The results were compared successfully (>96%) with the data of a spectrophotometry approved method (EPA 9014-1) for cyanide ions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. School Governance, Teacher Incentives, and Pupil-Teacher Ratios: Experimental Evidence from Kenyan Primary Schools. NBER Working Paper No. 17939 (United States)

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael


    We examine a program that enabled Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) in Kenya to hire novice teachers on short-term contracts, reducing class sizes in grade one from 82 to 44 on average. PTA teachers earned approximately one-quarter as much as teachers operating under central government civil-service institutions but were absent one day per week…

  16. PRiorities In School Mathematics. Final Report on Data from the PRISM Project and Appendices A and B. (United States)

    Osborne, Alan R.; And Others

    Results of a national survey to determine preferences and priorities for school mathematics in the 1980's are reported. Responses were obtained from samples of nine populations, including teachers, supervisors, and other professionals in mathematics education, plus principals, school board members, and PTA presidents. First-round surveys concerned…

  17. Ototoxicity screening of patients treated with streptomycin using distortion product otoacoustic emissions. (United States)

    Md Daud, M K; Mohamadl, H; Haron, A; Rahman, N A


    Pure tone audiometry (PTA) is currently widely used to monitor ototoxicity, but this method is time-consuming. Here we validate distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) as an instrument for early detection of ototoxicity. A cohort study was performed on newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients who were treated with streptomycin. The patients underwent hearing assessment using conventional PTA and high-frequency DPOAE (8, 9 and 10 kHz) on days 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 of streptomycin treatment. Detection of ototoxicity according to the duration of streptomycin treatment was compared between DPOAE and PTA. Of 96 newly diagnosed patients treated with streptomycin, 50 completed the study. During the treatment period, 62.5% of the patients had vertigo, while 37.5% complained of tinnitus. DPOAE detected ototoxicity in 47.7% of the cases at day 7, 66.0% at day 14, 70.0% at day 28 and 77.1% at day 56 of streptomycin treatment. The higher frequencies were affected more by ototoxicity, with significant differences at 8 vs. 9 kHz on all testing days and at 9 vs. 10 kHz except on days 7 and 56 (p ototoxicity. Use of DPOAE rather than PTA to screen for ototoxicity could reduce screening time and would allow clinical monitoring of more patients.

  18. [Percutaneous renal angioplasty. Experience of the Radiodiagnostic Service of the Hotel-Dieu of France]. (United States)

    Atallah, N; Smayra, T; Slaba, S; Menassa, L


    We report on a series of 42 renal artery stenosis treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). From January 1988 to June 1996, these 42 renal artery stenoses were found in 33 patients (17 males and 16 females) who had a balloon dilation (with 3 stent deployment); 9 of these lesions were bilateral and 7 on a single kidney. Initially, 32 patients had a high blood pressure and 6 a progressive renal failure. Twenty-two patients presented an atheromatous pathology, 7 a fibromuscular dysplasia. One patient had a Takayasu arteritis, and 3 others a stenosis of the renal graft artery. We find a complete initial success in 86% of the patients, a partial success in 14% without any catheterization failure. Global success rate of PTA is 90% at 29 months mean follow-up. A benefit of PTA regarding blood pressure was found in 84.4% of the patients. The renal function became normal in half the patients with renal insufficiency. PTA is an efficient treatment for renal artery stenosis. A satisfactory improvement of blood pressure and renal function is found in a high number of patients.

  19. Prediction of behavioural and cognitive deficits in patients with traumatic brain injury at an acute rehabilitation setting. (United States)

    de Guise, E; LeBlanc, J; Feyz, M; Lamoureux, J; Greffou, S


    The goal of this study was to identify factors that would predict short-term neuropsychological outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) hospitalized in an acute rehabilitation setting. Data was collected in the context of an acute early rehabilitation setting of a trauma centre. A brief neuropsychological assessment was carried out for 348 patients within a month following their trauma. Length of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) was the best predictor of behavioural, memory and executive function variables within a month post TBI. The odds of being agitated, labile, irritable and disinhibited at one month post trauma were almost six times higher for those with PTA that lasted more than 7 days compared to those with a PTA of less than 24 hours. Also, the odds of having a higher mental manipulation score (less significant executive function impairment) were almost two times lower for those with frontal lesions, and three to six times lower for those with PTA of more than 24 hours. In addition, TBI severity, education and age were considered good predictors of some aspects of neuropsychological outcome. This model may help clinicians and administrators recognize the probable post-traumatic deficits as quickly as possible and to plan interventions as well as post-acute discharge orientation accordingly and early on.

  20. Return of memory and sleep efficiency following moderate to severe closed head injury. (United States)

    Makley, Michael J; Johnson-Greene, Lisa; Tarwater, Patrick M; Kreuz, Andrew J; Spiro, J; Rao, V; Celnik, Pablo A


    Sleep disturbance is common in the subacute recovery phase following brain injury. A previous study from the authors' group found 68% of patients with closed head injury (CHI) had disrupted sleep on a rehabilitation unit. In the present study, the authors investigated whether improvement in sleep efficiency correlates with duration of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) after CHI. Fourteen CHI patients were enrolled and followed prospectively. Mechanism of injury included motor vehicle accident, fall, and blunt assault. An actigraph was placed on each subject's wrist within 72 hours of admission to the rehabilitation unit and recorded data for the duration of their stay. A minimum of 7 days of continuous actigraphy data was obtained on all subjects. PTA was measured daily using the Orientation Log (O-LOG). Seventy-eight percent of subjects had mean week-1 sleep efficiency scores of amnesia (P = .032). For those patients admitted with ongoing PTA, each 10-unit increase in sleep efficiency score correlated with 1 unit increase in O-LOG score (P = .056). Disrupted sleep is common in the postacute stage following CHI. Improved sleep efficiency correlates with resolution of PTA. Decreased sleep efficiency may negatively affect memory return after traumatic brain injury. Actigraphy is uniquely suited to study the sleep patterns of these patients.

  1. Natural sequence of recovery from child post-traumatic amnesia: A retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Briggs, Rachel; Birse, Jason; Tate, Robyn; Brookes, Naomi; Epps, Adrienne; Lah, Suncica


    The aim of this study was to determine the sequence of skills recovery during post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) in children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Fifty children aged 8 to 15 years consecutively admitted to a children's hospital with TBI and PTA>24 were tested in a retrospective cohort study where the main measure was the Westmead PTA Scale (WPTAS). The group analyses show that orientation to time took longer to recover than orientation to person and place, but not memory, while the individual analyses revealed that when orientation to time was grouped with memory, 94% of children recovered orientation to person and place before orientation to time and memory (examiner and pictures). Correlation coefficients between age and the number of days taken to recover skills were not found to be significant. It was established that, in terms of the natural sequence of skills recovery in children aged 8 to 15 years following moderate to severe TBI, recovery of orientation to time is more closely aligned to memory than to orientation to person and place. It was also established that WPTAS items are developmentally appropriate for children aged 8 to 15 years who have sustained TBI. These findings are clinically important because monitoring recovery from PTA both impacts the rehabilitation offered to individuals during acute care and aids discharge planning.

  2. Combined treatment of tyrosine kinase inhibitor labeled gold nanorod encapsulated albumin with laser thermal ablation in a renal cell carcinoma model (United States)

    This manuscript served to characterize and evaluate Human Serum Albumin-encapsulated Nanoparticles (NPs) for drug delivery of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor combined with induction of photothermal ablation (PTA) combination therapy of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC). RCC is the most common type of kidney c...

  3. A longitudinal evaluation of hearing and ventilation tube insertion in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Nicolai; Alanin, Mikkel Christian; von Buchwald, Christian;


    audiometries were evaluated. The median number of audiometries per patient was 3 (range 1-29) and the median follow-up was 60 months (range 0-351 months). The mean PTA was 34 dB HL in patients below six years of age and improved significantly (p

  4. Synthesis, Structure, and Anticancer Activity of Arene-Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Acylpyrazolones Bearing Aliphatic Groups in the Acyl Moiety. (United States)

    Palmucci, Jessica; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Pettinari, Claudio; Scopelliti, Rosario; Riedel, Tina; Therrien, Bruno; Galindo, Agustin; Dyson, Paul J


    A series of neutral ruthenium(II) arene complexes [(arene)Ru(Q(R))Cl] (arene = p-cymene (cym) or hexamethylbenzene (hmb)) containing 4-acyl-5-pyrazolonate Q(R) ligands with different electronic and steric substituents (R = 4-cyclohexyl, 4-stearoyl, or 4-adamantyl) and related ionic complexes [(arene)Ru(Q(R))(PTA)][PF6] (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy (IR, UV-vis, ESI-MS, and (1)H and (13)C NMR), elemental analysis, X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory studies. The cytotoxicity of the proligands and metal complexes was evaluated in vitro against human ovarian carcinoma cells (A2780 and A2780cisR), as well as against nontumorous human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. In general the cationic PTA-containing complexes are more cytotoxic than their neutral precursors with a chloride ligand in place of the PTA. Moreover, the complexes do not show cross-resistance and are essentially equally cytotoxic to both the A2780 and A2780cisR cell lines, although they only show limited selectivity toward the cancer cell lines.

  5. Enlisting Parents' Help with Mathematics. (United States)

    Kahn, Ann P.


    A new national PTA kit, "Math Matters; Kids Are Counting on You," can help all parents make a difference in their children's education. Suggested home activities include doubling cookie recipes, surveying and graphing family ice cream flavor preferences, filling in football "stat" charts, and other tasks easily performed on a…

  6. A Day at the Museum (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2007


    Field trips are not just for the school year. End the year right by encouraging parents and caregivers to continue working children's brains throughout the summer months. For example, the National Parent Teacher Association (PTA) recommends taking children of all ages--preschoolers, children, tweens and teens--to museums. Whether it is a two-hour…

  7. Pulsar Timing Array Based Search for Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in the Square Kilometer Array Era. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D


    The advent of next generation radio telescope facilities, such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), will usher in an era where a pulsar timing array (PTA) based search for gravitational waves (GWs) will be able to use hundreds of well timed millisecond pulsars rather than the few dozens in existing PTAs. A realistic assessment of the performance of such an extremely large PTA must take into account the data analysis challenge posed by an exponential increase in the parameter space volume due to the large number of so-called pulsar phase parameters. We address this problem and present such an assessment for isolated supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) searches using a SKA era PTA containing 10^{3} pulsars. We find that an all-sky search will be able to confidently detect nonevolving sources with a redshifted chirp mass of 10^{10}  M_{⊙} out to a redshift of about 28 (corresponding to a rest-frame chirp mass of 3.4×10^{8}  M_{⊙}). We discuss the important implications that the large distance reach of a SKA era PTA has on GW observations from optically identified SMBHB candidates. If no SMBHB detections occur, a highly unlikely scenario in the light of our results, the sky-averaged upper limit on strain amplitude will be improved by about 3 orders of magnitude over existing limits.

  8. Surprises of electron microscopic imaging of proteins and polymers covering gold nanoparticles layer by layer. (United States)

    Pyshnaya, Inna A; Razum, Kristina V; Dolodoev, Anton S; Shashkova, Valeriya V; Ryabchikova, Elena I


    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are used in complicated nanoconstructions, and their preparation implies careful analysis of the intermediate and resulting products, including visualisation of the NPs. Visualisation of protein and/or organic polymer covers on GNPs using electron microscopy (EM) was a goal of this study. We covered GNPs with human serum albumin or PEG, and then added a second layer of branched or linear polyethyleneimine. EM studies were supplemented with dynamic light scattering, spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis, which confirmed the presence and integrity of a cover on GNPs in mixtures with uranylacetate (UA) or phosphotungstic acid (PTA). Covered GNPs were contrasted 'on a drop' or in suspension with UA (pH 4.5) or PTA (pH 0.5, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0), and studied by transmission EM. A cover on GNPs becomes visible as the result of direct interaction of UA or PTA with the components of a layer. The same NPs could look 'naked' or demonstrate a distinct cover of average electron density. The most distinct images of the layers were obtained using PTA at pH 0.5. Thus, visualisation of protein and/or polymeric layers covering the GNPs by EM depends on the type of contrasting reagent and contrasting conditions, but does not depend on surface charge of the NPs and the chemical nature of a cover.

  9. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of malfunctioning Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistula: analysis of factors adversely affecting long-term patency. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koji; Higashino, Takanori; Kuwata, Yoichiro; Imanaka, Kazufumi; Hirota, Shozo; Sugimura, Kazuro


    Our objective was to identify the factors adversely affecting long-term patency after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for hemodialysis Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistulas. Between November 1995 and March 2000, 91 PTA procedures were performed on 50 patients with 57 Brescia-Cimino fistulas. A retrospective study based on the chart review was performed. The initial technical success rate for all procedures and the primary and secondary patency rates for all fistulas were calculated. Regarding fistulas successfully maintained by the primary PTA, the primary and secondary patency rates were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method between two patient groups. They were classified on the basis of several factors, including age (older, over 70 years, and younger group), age of the fistulas (older, over 6 months, and younger group), with or without diabetes mellitus (DM), solitary or multiple lesions, long or short segment lesion, stenosis or occlusion, and with or without arterial and/or anastomotic lesions. Initial technical success rates for all procedures and fistulas were 91.2 and 89.5%, respectively. Cumulative primary and secondary patency rates at 1 year were 47.3 and 67.3%, respectively. In the comparative study, the secondary patency rate for the older group was lower than that of the younger group with statistical significance ( p=0.029). The higher age is the only factor that reduces the long-term patency rate after PTA.

  10. Searching for a written patient feedback instrument for patient-medical student consultations. (United States)

    Hogan, Nicola; Li, Henry; Pezaro, Carmel; Roberts, Noel; Schmidt, Erica; Martin, Jenepher


    The Patient Teaching Associate (PTA) program at Eastern Health Clinical School uses volunteer patients with chronic illnesses in consultation-based medical student education. The PTA program aims to develop students' patient-centeredness and associated skills. Our study aims, 1) to identify key desirable characteristics of written patient feedback to doctors and/or students that focuses on patient-centeredness in consultations, and 2) to critically evaluate existing instruments to identify any suitable instrument for use for medical student teaching. We reviewed our experience with the PTA program and explored the literature on patient-centeredness and patient feedback to identify desirable characteristics of written feedback for our program. A systematic search was conducted to identify existing patient feedback instruments. These were then evaluated in light of criteria based on desirable characteristics. Eight instruments met the inclusion criteria. While all were designed for patient use, none were ideal for the PTA program. The Doctors' Interpersonal Skills Questionnaire (DISQ), while not used with medical students, is the closest fit to criteria. The lack of instruments specifically designed for written patient feedback to medical students highlights a gap in the current literature. The DISQ provides a good basis for developing a new feedback instrument focused on patient-centeredness in medical students.

  11. Cutting balloon angioplasty for resistant venous stenoses of dialysis access: immediate and patency results. (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Cheng; Wen, Szu-Chi


    To evaluate the technical success, safety and patency of cutting balloon angioplasty for the treatment of resistant dialysis access stenoses. Cutting balloon angioplasty has been proposed to be useful in treating resistant dialysis access stenoses. However, they are based on experience with very limited cases and formal patency data is insufficient. The author retrospectively reviewed 896 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) procedures for the treatment of dysfunctional or thrombotic dialysis access. Thirty-seven of 623 patients with native fistulas and 23 of 273 patients with synthetic grafts had residual stenoses of more than 30% after conventional PTA at an inflation pressure of 24 atm for 60 sec. In these 60 patients, additional cutting balloon PTA was performed. The overall technical success rate was 96.7% and clinical success rate was 98.3%. Only one patient experienced mild local extravasation. The postintervention primary patency rates for native fistula group (N = 37) were 100%, 86.4%, and 67.5% at 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month; the postintervention primary patency rates for synthetic graft group (N = 23) were 87.0%, 60.9%, and 34.2% at 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month respectively. For resistant venous stenoses of dialysis access, cutting balloon PTA is effective, safe, and seems to provide comparative primary patency as suggested by guidelines. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of a non-mainstream venous route to restore an occluded hemodialysis fistula. (United States)

    Miyayama, Shiro; Yamashiro, Masashi; Ikuno, Masaya; Okumura, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Miki; Kato, Tamayo; Ushiogi, Yasuyuki


    To report the usefulness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of a non-mainstream venous route in an occluded native hemodialysis fistula when a mainstream outflow vein could not be traversed. This cohort included seven patients with an occulted hemodialysis fistula with difficulty in traversing via a mainstream route. A non-mainstream vein near the occluded portion was traversed until it connected with a proximal large-sized vein and the route was dilated using a 4- or 5-mm balloon catheter. Metallic stent placement was performed, if necessary. Technical aspects and long-term patency was evaluated. PTA could be performed in all patients; however, stent placement was required in two because of residual stenosis and clotting. The clinical success rate of fistula restoration was 100 %. Fistula dysfunction recurred in six patients 17-668 days (mean ± standard deviation 229.3 ± 225.0) later. PTA was repeated in four patients, but not in two. The mean duration of the primary patency was 336.6 ± 417.2 days (range 17-1,190) and that of the secondary patency was 897.1 ± 801.4 days (range 17-2,230). PTA of a non-mainstream venous route is useful for restoring an occluded hemodialysis fistula when the mainstream outflow vein cannot be traversed.

  13. Field Demonstration of Biologically Active Zone Enhancement (BAZE) for In Situ RDX Degradation in Groundwater (United States)


    microorganisms include Rhizobium rhizogenes, Burkholderia sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides (ATCC 66669). Strains of these microorganisms have been...deposited. The strain designated A1 has been deposited as Rhizobium rhizogenes BL (ATCC PTA-4110) and the strain designated C8 has been deposited as

  14. 78 FR 24734 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Construction and Operation of an Infantry Platoon... (United States)


    ...-HI) propose to construct and operate a modern Infantry Platoon Battle Course (IPBC) and associated infrastructure that is compliant with current Army training requirements at P hakuloa Training Area (PTA), Hawai... Reserve, and Hawai`i Army National Guard, as well as other Service components that are stationed or...

  15. On the Structure and Dissolution Properties of Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide): Effect of Solvent Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, H.P.


    Poly-p-phenylenetherephthalamide (PpPTA) is a high performance, semi flexible polymer. Commercially it is mainly sold in the form of fibres under the trade names Twaron and Kevlar. The polymerization is performed in an amide(NMP)-salt(CaCl2) solution and afterwards spun into fibres from a sulphuric

  16. Cardioembolic occlusion of the internal carotid artery presented with infarction in the posterior cerebral artery territory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Su-fang; JIA Jian-ping


    @@ Posterior circulation stroke may rarely be associated with occlusive disease in the anterior circulation, such as in the context of a direct (fetal) origin of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) from the internal carotid artery (ICA), or in the presence of a persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) or persistent hypoglossal artery (PHA).1,2

  17. Factors Associated With Rehabilitation Outcomes After Traumatic Brain Injury: Comparing Functional Outcomes Between TBIMS Centers Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. (United States)

    Dahdah, Marie N; Hofmann, Melissa; Pretz, Christopher; An, Viktoriya; Barnes, Sunni A; Bennett, Monica; Dreer, Laura E; Bergquist, Thomas; Shafi, Shahid

    To examine differences in patient outcomes across Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) rehabilitation centers and factors that influence these differences using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Sixteen TBIMS centers. A total of 2056 individuals 16 years or older with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who received inpatient rehabilitation. Multicenter observational cohort study using HLM to analyze prospectively collected data. Functional Independence Measure and Disability Rating Scale total scores at discharge and 1 year post-TBI. Duration of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) demonstrated a significant inverse relationship with functional outcomes. However, the magnitude of this relationship (change in functional status for each additional day in PTA) varied among centers. Functional status at discharge from rehabilitation and at 1 year post-TBI could be predicted using the slope and intercept of each TBIMS center for the duration of PTA, by comparing it against the average slope and intercept. HLM demonstrated center effect due to variability in the relationship between PTA and functional outcomes of patients. This variability is not accounted for in traditional linear regression modeling. Future studies examining variations in patient outcomes between centers should utilize HLM to measure the impact of additional factors that influence patient rehabilitation functional outcomes.

  18. Feasibility of the Positive Thoughts and Actions Prevention Program for Middle Schoolers at Risk for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. McCarty


    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adolescent depression, few school-based prevention programs have been developed and tested in the United States with middle school populations. This study examined the acceptability and changes in targeted outcomes for a new preventative program, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA. Sixty-seven 7th grade students with elevated depressive symptoms were recruited from public schools and randomized to the 12-week PTA program with a parent-component or to a school-as-usual control group. The PTA prevention program was well received by students and parents, yielding high rates of participation and satisfaction among those randomized to receive the intervention. However, analyses of the efficacy of the program in changing depressive symptoms were not significant. In terms of our proximal program targets, most differences were not statistically significant, though effect sizes suggested advantage of PTA over control group in coping, cognitive style, and parent-child communication. This preliminary research highlights a need for further testing of programs for school-based prevention of depression and promotion of positive emotional health.

  19. 75 FR 80799 - Preparation of the PEIS for Modernization of Training Infrastructure at Pōhakuloa Training Area, HI (United States)


    ... infrastructure (roads and utilities), and training support facilities in the cantonment area at P hakuloa... PTA's long-term vision for modernizing training ranges, training support infrastructure, and the... consider modernizing the training ranges, training support infrastructure, and the cantonment area at...

  20. Identification and structural analysis of ricin inhibitors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertus, J.D.


    Ricin is a potent cytotoxin which has been used by governments and terrorists as a poison. The three-dimensional structure of this toxic molecule was solved by X-ray crystallography, including an atomic description of its active site. The goal of this project was to use computer searches and other molecular modeling techniques to identify an inhibitor or ricin A chain (RTA). The program CHEM-X was used to predict that pteroic acid (PTA) would bind to RTA. This was shown to be the case by kinetic assays, where PTA protected ribosomes against the action of RTA, and by X-ray crystallography. The affinity of PTA is weak, with a Ki estimated at 600 Micrometers. The pterin group of PTA was observed to make many polar interactions with RTA within the specificity site of the enzyme, and to bind more strongly than the natural substrate adenine. Further work will be required to increase the binding affinity of this class of inhibitors, and to improve their solubility if efficacious antidotes are to be designed from this lead.

  1. The Impact of Elementary Teachers' Perceptions and Practices to Promote Parental Involvement (United States)

    Lattimore, Myra T.


    Parental involvement, defined as the educational engagement of parents in activities such as involvement in PTA, volunteering, and Science/Math night, promotes academic success. Lack of parental involvement is associated with lower academic performance. The purpose of this correlational study was to determine the relationship between parent…

  2. Colloidal particles derived from a complex of phosphotungstic Acid and ethoxylated surfactants. (United States)

    Sweeney, Maura A; Smith, Thomas W; Croucher, Melvin; Langner, Andreas; Miri, Massoud; Klymachyov, Alex; Kaplan, Sam; Tshudy, Dwight


    Stable, colloidal sols of submicron size were prepared by titration of aqueous solutions of alkylene oxide surfactants with phosphotungstic acid, H(3)PW(12)O(40) (PTA), followed by neutralization with ammonium or potassium hydroxide. The stoichiometry of the complex between phosphotungstic acid and the ethoxylated surfactant was determined by (1)H and (31)P NMR and was dependent upon the degree of ethoxylation. For example, in the ethoxylated octylphenol having 9-10 ethylene oxide units, Triton X-100, the mole ratio of surfactant to PTA was 4.5. In the ethoxylated octylphenol having 70 ethylene oxide units, Triton X-705, the mole ratio of surfactant to PTA was 1. Prior to nucleation of particles, phosphotungstic acid forms an apparent yellow charge transfer complex with ethoxylated alkylphenol surfactants, typified by Triton X-405. This complex is characterized by an absorption spectrum that is the sum of the spectra of Triton X-405 and PTA with a very weak shoulder at 400-500 nm. Particles were nearly monodisperse and their size was dependent on the nonionic surfactant employed, the heteropolyacid, and the rate of addition of heteropolyacid solution.

  3. New Class of Half-Sandwich Ruthenium(II) Arene Complexes Bearing the Water-Soluble CAP Ligand as an in Vitro Anticancer Agent. (United States)

    Guerriero, Antonella; Oberhauser, Werner; Riedel, Tina; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Dyson, Paul J; Gonsalvi, Luca


    Ruthenium(II) arene complexes of 1,4,7-triaza-9-phosphatricyclo[]tridecane (CAP) were obtained. Cytotoxicity studies against cancer cell lines reveal higher activity than the corresponding PTA analogues and, in comparison to the effects on noncancerous cells, the complexes are endowed with a reasonable degree of cancer cell selectivity.

  4. Function and Regulation of the Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-l in TNF-Stimulated Endothelial Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Pietersma (Anna)


    textabstractThe accumulation of circulating monocytes in the vessel wall is an important aspect of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and allied problems such as restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Three distinct steps can be distinguished in the stimulated accumulation of

  5. Reduction of the radiation exposure of patients caused by selected interventional and angiographic procedures; Reduzierung der Strahlenexposition von Patienten bei ausgewaehlten interventionellen und angiographischen Massnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H. [Universitaetskliniken des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie, Radiologische Physik; El-Jamal, A.; Roth, R.; Urbancyzk, K.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetskliniken des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Radiologische Klinik, Abt. fuer Radiodiagnostik


    Purpose: To reduce patient doses caused by selected interventional and angiographic procedures using the digital C-arm unit ''Multiskop''. Materials and methods: After a patient study done previously, physical measurements with test phantoms were carried out, and physical-technical parameters such as distance between focus and image intensifier, additional filtration, and radiation dose per image were optimised. Then, the dose-area product (DAP) and the fluoroscopic time were measured for 130 percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTA), 40 PTA with stent implantation, 61 embolisations, and 302 digital subtraction angiographies (DSA). In the cases of 16 PTA, 9 embolisations, and 38 DSA the number of radiographs was determined, and the DAP was divided into two parts, fluoroscopy and radiography. The measuring values were compared with data of the patient study done previously. Results: The median values of the DAP and the fluoroscopic time amounted to 25 Gy cm{sup 2} and 9.7 min for PTA, 97 Gy cm{sup 2} and 8.5 min for PTA with stent implantation, 88 Gy cm{sup 2} and 17.2 min for embolisation as well as 54 Gy cm{sup 2} and 2.8 min for DSA. For the relation between DAP caused by fluoroscopy and radiography, and the number of radiographs, median values of 0.76 and 63 for PTA, 0.81 and 123 for embolisation as well as 1.85 and 134 for DSA were determined. In comparison to the patient study done previously the median values of the DAP were reduced by 31% for PTA, 26% for PTA with stent implantation, 55% for embolisation, and 38% for DSA. Conclusions: The comparison between the patient studies done previously and recently indicates the great potential of dose reduction for interventional and angiographic procedures. Although the X-ray equipment is ten years old the patient dose can be reduced by organizational and physical-technical modifications to such an extent that preliminary national reference dose values will not be exceeded. For further

  6. Bilateral peritonsillar abscess: A case report and pertinent literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim AlAwadh


    Conclusion: Based on our case and literature review, we recommend airway management as the first step, followed by further examinations, especially contrast-enhanced computed tomography, in cases of bilateral PTA. This condition lacks the hallmark of unilateral disease and may mimic many conditions, which will have different management approaches.

  7. Short- and long-term functional effects of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in hemodialysis vascular access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Linden (Joke); J.H. Smits (Johannes); J.H. Assink (Jan Hendrik); D.W. Wolterbeek (Derk); J.J. Zijlstra (Jan); G.H.T. de Jong (Gijs); M.A. van den Dorpel; P.J. Blankestijn (Peter)


    textabstractThe efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is usually expressed as the angiographic result. Access flow (Qa) measurements offer a means to quantify the functional effects. This study was performed to evaluate the short-term functional and angiographic e

  8. Adult Hearing Screening : Follow-Up and Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thodi, C.; Parazzini, M.; Kramer, S. E.; Davis, A.; Stenfelt, S.; Janssen, T.; Smith, P.; Stephens, D.; Pronk, M.; Anteunis, L. I.; Schirkonyer, V.; Grandori, F.


    Purpose: To screen hearing and evaluate outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. Method: Three thousand and twenty-five adults responded to an invitation to be screened by questionnaire, otoscopy, and pure-tone audiometry. Pure-tone average (PTA) >35 dB HL in the worse ear, unilateral hearing lo

  9. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (United States)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David


    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  10. Assessing the Impacts of Citizen Participation in Science Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus; Allansdottir, Agnes


    In this paper we explore new avenues of analysis on the thorny issue of the impact of participatory technology assessment (PTA). We apply qualitative comparative analysis to data abstracted from a series of detailed country case studies of policy-making on xenotransplantation to explore which fac...

  11. Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.


    Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the

  12. The Speech Intelligibility Index and the Pure-Tone Average as Predictors of Lexical Ability in Children Fit with Hearing Aids (United States)

    Stiles, Derek J.; Bentler, Ruth A.; McGregor, Karla K.


    Purpose: To determine whether a clinically obtainable measure of audibility, the aided Speech Intelligibility Index (SII; American National Standards Institute, 2007), is more sensitive than the pure-tone average (PTA) at predicting the lexical abilities of children who wear hearing aids (CHA). Method: School-age CHA and age-matched children with…

  13. Randomized trial of Legflow® paclitaxel eluting balloon and stenting versus standard percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting for the treatment of intermediate and long lesions of the superficial femoral artery (RAPID trial): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Karimi; S.W. de Boer (Sanne W.); D.A.F. Van Den Heuvel; B. Fioole (Bram); D. Vroegindeweij (Dammis); J.M.M. Heyligers (Jan); P.N.M. Lohle (Paul N.M.); O.E. Elgersma (Otto E.); R.P.T. Nolthenius (Rudolf ); J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); J.-P.P.M. de Vries (Jean-Paul)


    textabstractBackground: Restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) may occur in 45% of patients at 2 years follow-up. Paclitaxel-coated balloons have been found to reduce neointimal hyperplasia, and thus reduce restenosis. Recently, the Legfl

  14. Assessing the Impacts of Citizen Participation in Science Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus; Allansdottir, Agnes


    In this paper we explore new avenues of analysis on the thorny issue of the impact of participatory technology assessment (PTA). We apply qualitative comparative analysis to data abstracted from a series of detailed country case studies of policy-making on xenotransplantation to explore which...

  15. Predicting Success: A Study of Admission Processes and Passing the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (United States)

    Shaab, Kathryn R.


    In order to practice physical therapy, physical therapist assistants (PTAs) must graduate from an accredited academic program and pass the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (PTA-NPTE). The primary objective of academic programs is to prepare students to successfully complete these two milestones to become…

  16. Self-Esteem: The Key to a Child's Success and Happiness. (United States)

    Cutright, Melitta C.


    The article discusses self-esteem as the key to parenting a successful, happy child. It notes ways parents can help foster self-esteem starting at a very early age. Ten suggestions for building a child's self-esteem, developed by the National PTA, are listed. (SM)

  17. Self-Esteem: The Key to a Child's Success and Happiness. (United States)

    Cutright, Melitta C.


    The article discusses self-esteem as the key to parenting a successful, happy child. It notes ways parents can help foster self-esteem starting at a very early age. Ten suggestions for building a child's self-esteem, developed by the National PTA, are listed. (SM)

  18. Holmium laser fulguration of superficial urothelial carcinoma of the pendulous urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Liss


    Full Text Available Urothelial carcinoma may occur anywhere in the urinary tract including the pendulous urethra. To prevent urethral stricture after resection and monopolor fulguration we describe the use of the holmium laser to fulgurate recurrent pTa UC from the urethra. The surgical approach was staged and provided excellent long term results for management of superficial UC.

  19. Mustelidae are natural hosts of Staphylococcus delphini group A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Schmidt, Kristina Runge; Petersen, Tina Steiner


    158 SIG isolates from less studied animal species belonging to the order Carnivora, including mink (n=118), fox (n=33), badger (n=6) and ferret (n=1). Species identification was performed by nuc PCR in combination with sodA sequence analysis and pta PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP...

  20. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of malfunctioning Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistula: analysis of factors adversely affecting long-term patency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Koji; Hirota, Shozo; Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-Ku, 650-0017, Kobe (Japan); Higashino, Takanori; Kuwata, Yoichiro; Imanaka, Kazufumi [Department of Radiology, Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, 5-7-1 Koji-dai, Nishi-ku, 651-2273, Kobe (Japan)


    Our objective was to identify the factors adversely affecting long-term patency after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for hemodialysis Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistulas. Between November 1995 and March 2000, 91 PTA procedures were performed on 50 patients with 57 Brescia-Cimino fistulas. A retrospective study based on the chart review was performed. The initial technical success rate for all procedures and the primary and secondary patency rates for all fistulas were calculated. Regarding fistulas successfully maintained by the primary PTA, the primary and secondary patency rates were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method between two patient groups. They were classified on the basis of several factors, including age (older, over 70 years, and younger group), age of the fistulas (older, over 6 months, and younger group), with or without diabetes mellitus (DM), solitary or multiple lesions, long or short segment lesion, stenosis or occlusion, and with or without arterial and/or anastomotic lesions. Initial technical success rates for all procedures and fistulas were 91.2 and 89.5%, respectively. Cumulative primary and secondary patency rates at 1 year were 47.3 and 67.3%, respectively. In the comparative study, the secondary patency rate for the older group was lower than that of the younger group with statistical significance (p =0.029). The higher age is the only factor that reduces the long-term patency rate after PTA. (orig.)

  1. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David


    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  2. Percutaneous Aspiration Thrombectomy for the Treatment of Arterial Thromboembolic Occlusions Following Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleder, Stephan, E-mail: [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Diekmann, Matthias [Radiology Center Rahlstedt (Germany); Manke, Christoph [General Hospital Fulda, Department of Radiology (Germany); Heiss, Peter [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)


    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the technical success and the early clinical outcome of patients undergoing percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy (PAT) for the treatment of arterial thromboembolism following percutaneous infrainguinal transluminal angioplasty (PTA).MethodsIn this single-center study, during a period of 7 years retrospectively, 47 patients (22 male, 47 %) with a mean age of 73 (range 53–96) years were identified in whom PAT was performed for the treatment of thromboembolic complications of infrainguinal PTA. Primary technical success was defined as residual stenosis of <50 % in diameter after sole PAT, whereas secondary technical success was defined as residual stenosis of <50 % in diameter after PAT and additional PTA and/or stenting. Clinical outcome parameters (e.g., need for further intervention, minor/major amputation) were evaluated for the 30-day postinterventional period.ResultsPrimary technical success was achieved in 64 % of patients (30/47); secondary technical success was obtained in 96 % of patients (45/47). Clinical outcome data were available in 38 patients. In 87 % of patients (33/38), there was no need for further intervention within the 30-day postinterventional period. In three patients, minor amputations were conducted due to preexisting ulcerations (Rutherford Category 5 respectively).ConclusionsPAT enables endovascular treatment of iatrogenic thromboembolic complications after PTA with good technical and early clinical results and minimal morbidity.

  3. Effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty on the stenosis of autogenous radiocephalic ateriovenous fistula for hemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Min; Kim, Jeong Ho; Byun, Sung Su; Kang, Jin MMo; Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye Young [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seonam University College of Medicine, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on stenosis of autogenous radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCF) for hemodialysis and to determine the factors influencing patency. This retrospective study included 136 patients referred for PTA of RCF stenosis between March 2005 and July 2014. The technical success rate, complications, and patency rate were evaluated. The following factors were analyzed as they might influence patency: age, gender, site and duration of arteriovenous fistula, underlying disease, body mass index, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, peripheral artery or coronary artery occlusive disease, stenosis length/grade, cutting balloon, and balloon size. The initial technical success rate was 91.9% (125/136). Complications included vessel rupture (n = 2) and vessel dissection (n = 2). The patency rates at 6, 12, 24, and 48 months after PTA were 81.9, 67.1, 52.7, and 42.3%, respectively. The patency rate was higher in cases with longer (> 3 cm) stenosis (p = 0.04). Use of cutting balloon and larger size of balloon catheter made the patency longer, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.637, 0.258). PTA is a safe and effective way to manage stenosis in RCF. The length of stenosis was the only factor which affected the patency rate in this study.

  4. Advocates: What Did "You" Do on Your Summer Vacation? (United States)

    Ajemian, Lana


    The closing days of the school year typically bring with them an insane pace of year-end meetings, elections, installations, and well-deserved celebrations. Exhausting, right? Yet, at the same time, PTAs also begin to build the framework for the organizational work of the incoming PTA board and the next school year. A critical part of the early…

  5. Remediation of Explosives in Groundwater Using Zero-Valent Iron In Situ Treatment Wells (United States)


    ppb parts per billion PPE Personal Protective Equipment PRB permeable reactive barriers PTA Pilot Test Area PVC Polyvinyl Chloride QAPP...materials (e.g., nano iron, carbon substrates, etc.) Demonstration Design This report evaluates an approach in which granular iron was placed

  6. AcEST: DK946098 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ng domain-containing ... 30 5.3 sp|Q5U3U6|BORA_DANRE Protein aurora borealis OS=Danio rerio GN=b... 30 6.9 >... H ERE+ P+TA G G Sbjct: 251 QDLERAG-LRQRE---RRGRRLQEHAERESQPATATGAAQG 287 >sp|Q5U3U6|BORA_DANRE Protein aurora borealis

  7. SwissProt search result: AK112005 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK112005 006-202-F10 (P03951) Coagulation factor XI precursor (EC (Plasma thromboplastin antecede...nt) (PTA) (FXI) [Contains: Coagulation factor XIa heavy chain; Coagulation factor XIa light chain] FA11_HUMAN 1e-19 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK112119 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK112119 006-303-H09 (P03951) Coagulation factor XI precursor (EC (Plasma thromboplastin antecede...nt) (PTA) (FXI) [Contains: Coagulation factor XIa heavy chain; Coagulation factor XIa light chain] FA11_HUMAN 4e-20 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK061101 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061101 006-207-A12 (Q91Y47) Coagulation factor XI precursor (EC (Plasma thromboplastin antecede...nt) (PTA) (FXI) [Contains: Coagulation factor XIa heavy chain; Coagulation factor XIa light chain] FA11_MOUSE 6e-34 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK109059 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109059 002-154-F02 (Q91Y47) Coagulation factor XI precursor (EC (Plasma thromboplastin antecede...nt) (PTA) (FXI) [Contains: Coagulation factor XIa heavy chain; Coagulation factor XIa light chain] FA11_MOUSE 1e-26 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK112119 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK112119 006-303-H09 (Q91Y47) Coagulation factor XI precursor (EC (Plasma thromboplastin antecede...nt) (PTA) (FXI) [Contains: Coagulation factor XIa heavy chain; Coagulation factor XIa light chain] FA11_MOUSE 2e-21 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK061101 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061101 006-207-A12 (P03951) Coagulation factor XI precursor (EC (Plasma thromboplastin antecede...nt) (PTA) (FXI) [Contains: Coagulation factor XIa heavy chain; Coagulation factor XIa light chain] FA11_HUMAN 1e-31 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK109059 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109059 002-154-F02 (P03951) Coagulation factor XI precursor (EC (Plasma thromboplastin antecede...nt) (PTA) (FXI) [Contains: Coagulation factor XIa heavy chain; Coagulation factor XIa light chain] FA11_HUMAN 1e-23 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK112005 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK112005 006-202-F10 (Q91Y47) Coagulation factor XI precursor (EC (Plasma thromboplastin antecede...nt) (PTA) (FXI) [Contains: Coagulation factor XIa heavy chain; Coagulation factor XIa light chain] FA11_MOUSE 5e-21 ...

  15. Organic Chemicals Went down

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Acetic acid In early July 2007, due to the demand shrink for acetic acid in downstream PTA sector,the prices of acetic acid decreased. In Jiangsu province of East China, the market price of acetic acid dropped to RMB6 800/t.

  16. Does acute sensorineural deafness befall to urgent conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čvorović Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL is one of the most controversial issues in otology. The aim of this study was to determine whether a delay in treatment has any influence on hearing recovery in ISSHL. Method. This study was designed as a retrospective evaluation of an electronic patient data base of the University Hospital Zürich from January 1995 to August 2006. Five hundred and forty one patients with a sudden hearing loss were identified. The standard treatment was carbogen inhalation (95% O2 and 5% CO2 eight times per day in the duration of 30 minutes and prednisone orally (100 mg in one morning dose for 7 days. Factor that was analyzed included the interval between the onset of symptoms and the beginning of the treatment. The initial hearing loss was described using the pure tone average (PTA in dB hearing level at 4 frequencies (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz. Hearing gain was expressed either as absolute hearing gain (dB values from initial PTA minus dB values from final PTA or as relative hearing gain (absolute hearing gain divided by initial PTA minus baseline PTA × 100. Significant recovery of hearing was defined as the final PTA ≤ 30 dB (or same as PTA of the opposite ear. Results. An absolute hearing gain between the initial audiogram and the final audiogram was 15.1 dB. The mean relative hearing gain was 47%. Three hundred one (57% patients had a significant recovery of hearing, and 228 (43% had not. If the patients received treatment in the first 24 hours after onset of symptoms, then the rate of significant recovery was 56%, and no significant difference existed between this group and the patients who received the therapy after 24 hours, but within seven days (χ2 = 0.007, DF = 1, p > 0.01. Conclusion. These results suggest that it is not critical to begin the treatment of ISSHL immediately as an emergency, but within seven days.

  17. Evaluation of safe surgical treatment of peritonsillar abscess using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kasumi; Aramaki, Hajime; Arai, Yasuko; Uchimura, Kanako; Okabe, Kunihiko; Nishida, Motoko; Yoda, Keiko [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan). Daini Hospital


    With the development of new antimicrobial agents, the incidence of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is on the decline. PTA is still often encountered in general practice, however, where it requires immediate diagnosis and treatment. Because the internal carotid artery runs medially to the medial parapharyngeal space, damage to nearby vascular or other structures is a surgical risk of PTA. We used contrast computed tomography (CT) from PTA patients to investigate the anatomical relationship between the abscess and parapharyngeal space, and to determine safe surgical sites. We observed 31 patients with PTA, 19 men and 12 women, between February 1997 and April 1999, all examined by contrast CT and undergoing drainage or incision. The average age was 30.7 years (range: 12-54 years). The abscess was on the right side in 20 cases and on the left side in 11. We determined the sites of the abscess and carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and surrounding soft tissue density area including nerves in the parapharyngeal space based on the angle and distance from recognizable anatomical structures in CT scans. The anterior margin of the parapharyngeal space was 29{+-}5 mm posterior from the upper posterior alveolar margin. The medial margin of that space was at 15{+-}2 deg laterally from the midline of the incisors, and 24{+-}4 mm laterally from the midline sagittal plane. The internal carotid artery was located medially to the parapharyngeal space, running on the sagittal plane containing the upper posterior alveolar margin. The distance from the anterior margin of the parapharyngeal space to the posterior wall of the PTA was 9{+-}4 mm, and the distance to the anterior wall of the abscess (including the pharyngeal mucosa) was 31{+-}5 cm. The relationship between the upper posterior alveolar margin and midline sagittal plane was useful for determining the site of the parapharyngeal space. Because the internal carotid artery is located on the same sagittal plane as the upper

  18. Endovascular brachytherapy to prevent restenosis after angioplasty; Endovaskulaere Brachytherapie in der Restenoseprophylaxe nach Angioplastie und Stentimplantation: Eine Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, W.A.; Bohndorf, K. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie


    Endovascular radiotherapy is the first effective prophylaxis of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting. The FDA recently approved two devices for the delivery of intracoronary radiation following coronary artery stenting. Published multicenter, double-blind, randomized trials of intracoronary radiation therapy report good results for preventing in-stent restenosis, while the data for the peripheral circulation are still inconclusive. Beta-emitters are easier applicable and probably also safer, whereas gamma-emitters have been more extensively evaluated clinically so far. Primary indication for endovascular brachytherapy are patients at high risk for restenosis, such as previous restenoses, in-stent hyperplasia, long stented segment, long PTA lesion, narrow residual vascular lumen and diabetes. Data from coronary circulation suggest a safety margin of at least 4 to 10 mm at both ends of the angioplastic segment to avoid edge restenosis. To prevent late thrombosis of the treated coronary segment, antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin are recommended for at least 6 months after PTA and for 12 months after a newly implanted stent. An established medication regimen after radiotherapy of peripheral arteries is still lacking. (orig.) [German] Die endovaskulaere Radiotherapie stellt das erste erfolgreiche Therapiekonzept in der Restenoseprophylaxe nach PTA und Stentimplantation dar. Am 3.11.2000 hat die amerikanische Food and Drug Administration erstmalig zwei Brachytherapiegeraete zur Restenoseprophylaxe nach Koronararterien-Stenting zugelassen. Grosse multizentrische, kontrollierte Studien wurden fuer das koronare Stromgebiet mit positiven Ergebnissen publiziert, die Datenlage im peripheren Stromgebiet ist noch ungenuegend. Beta-Strahler bieten Vorteile in der Anwendung, moeglicherweise auch in der Sicherheit, Gamma-Strahler dagegen sind besser klinisch evaluiert. Die primaere Indikation zur endovaskulaeren Brachytherapie

  19. Clinical usefulness of doppler ultrasonography before percutaneous transluminal angioplasty immature native arteriovenous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital, College of Medicine, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Kwon; Sim, Jae Chan; Lee, So Young; Sung, Su Ah; Hwang, Young Hwan [Eulji General Hospital, College of Medicine, Eulji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To report the clinical efficacy of preprocedural doppler ultrasound examination for the treatment of immature arteriovenous fistula by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and the efficacy of PTA about its treatment. From November 2008 to May 2013, 28 patients who were diagnosed with immature arteriovenous fistula using doppler ultrasound examination and obtained successful maturation of it after PTA were included in this study. A retrospective comparative analysis was performed according to the findings between doppler ultrasound examination and fistulography during the procedure. The success rate of PTA and patency of fistula were evaluated in each patient Doppler ultrasound examination revealed stenosis in twenty three patients and thrombotic total occlusion in five patients. Stenosis was located in the proximal cephalic vein 2 cm from the anastomosis in 67.8% (19/28). In the five cases of thrombotic total occlusion, the lesions were long lesions from the anastomosis to the entire proximal cephalic vein at the elbow joint level. Fistulography revealed 5 patients with thrombotic total occlusion and 24 stenosis sites in 23 patients, respectively. The location and characteristics of all lesions were consistent on doppler ultrasound examination. Only four cases were observed as non-thrombotic total occlusion on fistulography, which had more than 90% stenosis on doppler ultrasound examination. The initial success rate of PTA for immature arteriovenous fistula was 96.4% (27/28). In three patients, clinical success was obtained after four times of additional PTA. Six additional PTAs were performed during follow-up, no complications related to the procedures were found. The primary patency rate was 92.9% at 3 months, 60.7% at 6 months and 39.3% at 12 months. The estimated mean survival of arteriovenous fistula was 347.9 days and the estimated median survival was 232 days. Also, the 12 months primary patency rates between the stenosis group and occlusion

  20. Interventions in infrainguinal bypass grafts; Interventionen an infrainguinalen Bypaessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoder, M.; Cejna, M.; Lammer, J. [Univ. Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Angiographie und Interventionelle Radiologie


    The long-term success of infrainguinal bypass grafts depends on meticulous surgical technique and a periodic program of postoperative surveillance. Duplex scanning is the method of choice for the detection of stenotic lesions that threaten graft patency. As an alternative to surgery, PTA is gaining increasing acceptance for the treatment of non-recurrent, short, and single stenotic lesions, despite somewhat controversial opinions. The initial technical success rates for PTA were reported to be up to 100%, and a 5-year primary assisted patency rate of up to 65% has been achieved. Some authors favorize intra-arterial infusion of fibrinolytic agents for the treatment of bypass graft occlusion with technical success rates of up to 92%. In addition to a reduced trauma compared to surgical thrombectomy, of the venous wall the advantage of thrombolytic therapy is clot lysis in run-off vessels, and uncovering of the stenotic lesions. This stenosis may then be treated by an endovascular or surgical approach. (orig.) [German] Der Langzeiterfolg infrainguinaler Bypaesse wird vor allem durch Anastomosenstenosen, seltener durch Stenosen im Bypass selbst, bestimmt. Neben exakten Operationstechniken ist deshalb eine regelmaessige postoperative Ueberwachung des Bypasses zur Verbesserung der Langzeitdurchgaengigkeit allgemein akzeptiert. Zur Identifizierung von bypassgefaehrdenden Stenosen hat die Duplexsonographie als Untersuchungsmodalitaet der Wahl einen fixen Stellenwert erlangt. Die perkutane transluminale Angioplastie (PTA) ist eine sinnvolle, minimal invasive Alternative zur offenen chirurgischen Revision von erstmalig aufgetretenen kurzstreckigen und singulaeren Bypassstenosen respektive Anastomosenstenosen. Primaer technische Erfolgsraten nach PTA werden bis zu 100%, primaer assistierte 5-Jahres-Offenheitsraten bis zu 65% angegeben. Die intraarterielle Thrombolyse bei Bypassthrombosen ist mit bis zu 92%iger technischer Erfolgsrate von manchen Arbeitsgruppen als primaere

  1. Endovascular brachytherapy (EVBT) with rhenium-188 for restenosis prophylaxis after angioplasty of infrainguinal lesions. Early experience; Endovaskulaere Brachytherapie (EVBT) mit Rhenium-188 zur Restenoseprophylaxe nach Angioplastie infrainguinaler Laesionen. Erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leissner, G.G.; Winterstein, A.; Bohndorf, K.; Wohlgemuth, W.A. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Wengenmair, H. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz; Sciuk, J. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Woelfle, K.D. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Gefaesschirurgie; Weinrich, K. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). II. Medizinische Klinik, Angiologie


    Purpose: Restenosis remains a major problem in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of peripheral arteries. The aim of this feasibility study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of a new endovascular brachytherapy (EVBT) device with Rhenium-188 in restenosis prophylaxis of infrainguinal arteries. Materials and Methods: From March 2006 to April 2009, 52 patients with 71 infrainguinal arterial lesions were treated with Re-188 to prevent restenosis after PTA. 40 patients with 53 lesions (24 de-novo lesions and 29 restenoses) were reexamined (clinic, color-coded duplex ultrasound) after a mean follow-up period of 12.7 months (2.6 to 25.1 months). The liquid beta-emitter Re-188 was introduced to the target lesion via an EVBT certified PTA balloon and a tungsten applicator. After the calculated irradiation time, Re-188 was aspirated back into the tungsten applicator. A dose of 13 Gy was applied at a depth of 2 mm into the vessel wall. Results: After a mean follow-up of 12.7 months, the overall restenosis rate after Re-PTA was 15.1 % (8/53 lesions). The restenosis rate for de-novo lesions was 20.8 % (5/24) and 10.3 % for restenoses (3/29). In 4 patients reintervention was necessary (3 PTAs and 2 major amputations). No periprocedural complications were observed. No elevated radiation dose for the patient or the interventionalist was measured. Conclusion: EVBT with a Re-188 filled balloon catheter was technically feasible and safe after PTA of infrainguinal arterial lesions with restenosis rates lower than expected compared to published results. Treatment of restenoses seems to be more effective than de-novo lesions. (orig.)

  2. Total knee arthroplasty for treatment of post-traumatic arthritis: Systematic review (United States)

    Saleh, Hesham; Yu, Stephen; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Schwarzkopf, Ran


    AIM To review and report functional outcomes, complications, and survivorship associated with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the treatment of post-traumatic arthritis (PTA). METHODS We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS in December 2015 for English-language clinical research studies, both prospective and retrospective, examining the use of TKA for the treatment of PTA. All relevant articles were accessed in full. The manual search included references of retrieved articles. We extracted data on patients’ demographics and clinical outcomes, including preoperative diagnosis and pre- and post-operative functional scores. We summarized the data and reported the results in tables and text. RESULTS Sixteen studies, four prospective and ten retrospective, examined patients who underwent TKA for PTA due to fractures of the proximal tibia, patella, and/or distal femur. Eleven studies utilized the Knee Society Scores criteria to assess functional outcomes. All studies utilizing these criteria reported an improvement in functional and knee scores of patients following TKA. Further, studies reported an increased range of motion (ROM) and reduction of pain following surgery. The most commonly reported complications with TKA included infection, stiffness, wound complications, intraoperative rupture of tendons, and osteolysis/polyethylene wear. The overwhelming majority of these complications occurred within the first two years following surgery. Six studies examined the survivorship of TKA with subsequent revision for any reason as an endpoint. Compared to patients with osteoarthritis, patients with PTA required more revisions, the majority for polyethylene wear. CONCLUSION Although associated with higher complication rates, TKA is an effective treatment for PTA, as it improves ROM, pain and functional outcomes. PMID:27672572

  3. Investigating atmospheric photochemistry in the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity using a box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra S.M. Lourens


    Full Text Available Urban air pollution has become a major concern over the past decades. One of the largest conurbations in Sub-Saharan Africa is developed around the cities of Johannesburg and Pretoria (Jhb-Pta megacity. In this study, a photochemical box model with a detailed representation of ozone (O3 formation chemistry was used to investigate the state of current air quality and photochemical processes in the Jhb-Pta megacity, as well as scenarios that could possibly mitigate air pollution. Results indicated that the Jhb-Pta megacity is within a VOC-limited (or NOx-saturated regime. Major sources of NOx include transport from the Mpumalanga Highveld and local traffic emissions. O3 levels in the Jhb-Pta megacity will be more effectively reduced if VOC (volatile organic compound emissions are decreased. A reduction of NOx emissions leads to an increase in O3 because of a decrease in titration through the reaction with NO. The same effect was observed in various cities worldwide where O3 levels increased when NOx emissions were reduced during emission control strategies. The effect of reducing vehicular emissions in the Jhb-Pta megacity on the production of O3 was also investigated. A significant increase of approximately 23 ppb O3 was observed when emissions of VOCs, NOx and CO were reduced by changing from Euro-0 to Euro-3 vehicles. It is therefore recommended that VOC emissions are decreased together with the implementation of Euro-3 and cleaner vehicles in the future.

  4. Counterexample representation for probabilistic timed automata model checking%基于概率时间自动机的模型检测反例表示研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 张广泉


    近年来,概率系统在实际中应用越来越广泛,其中模型检测基于概率系统的反例生成问题,已引起人们的广泛关注,现有的工作主要围绕模型检测Markov链反例生成展开.概率时间自动机(PTA)是Markov链的不确定性和系统时钟的扩展,针对模型检测PTA的反例表示问题,首先将PTA的语义表示为Markov决策过程(MDP),通过策略解决MDP不确定性,将MDP转换为离散时间Markov链(DTMC);然后将DTMC转换为带权有向图,则PTA中最小反例问题转化为带权有向图中最短路径问题;最后采用正则表达式表示求得的反例.%Recently, probabilistic systems have been widely used, people have drawn attention to counterexample generation for probabilistic system model checking. Current works are mainly focusing on the counterexample generation for Markov chains. Probabilistic timed automata ( PTA) is the extension of Markov chain with non-determinism and system clocks. This paper focuses on counterexample representation while model checking PTA. Firstly, the semantic of PTA can be regarded as Markov decision process ( MDP) ; secondly, we use adversary to convert MDP into discrete-time Markov chain ( DTMC) ; thirdly, we convert DTMC into weighted graph, counterexample generation for PTA can be converted into shortest path problem for weighted digraph ; finally , we use regular expressions to represent the counterexample.

  5. Long-Term Hearing Results After Ossiculoplasty. (United States)

    Cox, Matthew D; Trinidade, Aaron; Russell, James Shep; Dornhoffer, John L


    To determine if the OOPS index is predictive of long-term hearing results after ossiculoplasty. Case series with retrospective chart review. Tertiary care otology practice. Adult and pediatric patients (3-88 years of age). Ossiculoplasty with cartilage tympanoplasty, with or without mastoidectomy. Primary outcome measures included short-term hearing results (pure-tone average air-bone gap [PTA-ABG] measured between 60 days and 1 year after surgery), long-term hearing results (PTA-ABG measured ≥5 years after surgery), and the rate of successful ABG closure to ≤20 dB. Secondary measures included the need for revision surgery, delayed tympanic membrane graft failure, worsening conductive hearing loss (after an initially satisfactory hearing result), and recurrence of cholesteatoma. There was no significant difference between adults and children for short-term hearing results (average post-op PTA-ABG was 18.9 dB vs. 19.8 dB, respectively; p = 0.544), long-term hearing results (average final PTA-ABG was 19.3 dB vs. 19.4 dB, respectively; p = 0.922), or rate of ABG closure to less than 20 dB (63.1% vs. 58.0%, p = 0.282). Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) identified a strong positive correlation between OOPS index score and average post-operative PTA-ABG (ρ = 0.983; p hearing outcomes in adult and pediatric patients undergoing ossiculoplasty in both the short term and the long term.

  6. Impact of genetic merit for milk somatic cell score of sires and maternal grandsires on herd life of their daughters. (United States)

    Miller, R H; Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Cole, J B


    A retrospective study of the impact of the estimated breeding values of sires and maternal grandsires for somatic cell score (SCS) on productive life (PL) of Holsteins and Jerseys was conducted. Data included records from 2,626,425 Holstein and 142,725 Jersey cows. The sires and maternal grandsires of cows were required to have been available through artificial insemination and to have predicted transmitting ability (PTA) SCS evaluations based on 35 or more daughters. A weighted function (WPTA) of sire and maternal grandsire PTA for SCS was used: (sire PTA + 0.5 maternal grandsire PTA)/1.5. The 3 dependent variables were PL, frequency of cows culled for mastitis, and first-lactation SCS. The model included effects of herd, birth year, and WPTA (WPTA was categorized into groups: or =3.30). For analysis of first-lactation SCS, calving year and calving month were substituted for birth year. Differences among WPTA groups were highly significant: as WPTA increased, PL decreased, whereas percentage culled for mastitis and first-lactation SCS increased. The range in PL from lowest to highest WPTA was 5.07 mo for Holsteins and 4.73 mo for Jerseys. Corresponding differences for percentage culled for mastitis were 7.0 and 5.6% and for SCS were 0.95 and 1.04 (for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively). Although phenotypic studies suggest that cows with extremely low SCS were less resistant to mastitis, our results showed consistent improvements in PL, percentage culled for mastitis, and SCS of daughters when bulls were chosen for low PTA SCS.

  7. High-frequency audiometry reveals high prevalence of aminoglycoside ototoxicity in children with cystic fibrosis. (United States)

    Al-Malky, Ghada; Dawson, Sally J; Sirimanna, Tony; Bagkeris, Emmanouil; Suri, Ranjan


    Intravenous aminoglycoside (IV AG) antibiotics, widely used in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), are known to have ototoxic complications. Despite this, audiological monitoring is not commonly performed and if performed, uses only standard pure-tone audiometry (PTA). The aim of this study was to investigate ototoxicity in CF children, to determine the most appropriate audiological tests and to identify possible risk factors. Auditory assessment was performed in CF children using standard pure tone audiometry (PTA), extended high-frequency (EHF) audiometry and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). 70 CF children, mean (SD) age 10.7 (3.5) years, were recruited. Of the 63 children who received IV AG, 15 (24%) children had ototoxicity detected by EHF audiometry and DPOAE. Standard PTA only detected ototoxicity in 13 children. Eleven of these children had received at least 10 courses of IV AG courses. A 25 to 85 dBHL hearing loss (mean±SD: 57.5±25.7 dBHL) across all EHF frequencies and a significant drop in DPOAE amplitudes at frequencies 4 to 8 kHz were detected. However, standard PTA detected a significant hearing loss (>20 dBHL) only at 8 kHz in 5 of these 15 children and none in 2 subjects who had significantly elevated EHF thresholds. The number of courses of IV AG received, age and lower lung function were shown to be risk factors for ototoxicity. CF children who had received at least 10 courses of IV AG had a higher risk of ototoxicity. EHF audiometry identified 2 more children with ototoxicity than standard PTA and depending on facilities available, should be the test of choice for detecting ototoxicity in children with CF receiving IV AG. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression profile of peripheral tissue antigen genes in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is dependent on mRNA levels of autoimmune regulator (Aire). (United States)

    Oliveira, Ernna H; Macedo, Claudia; Donate, Paula B; Almeida, Renata S; Pezzi, Nicole; Nguyen, Catherine; Rossi, Marcos A; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T; Donadi, Eduardo A; Passos, Geraldo A


    In the thymus of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, the expression of the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene varies with age, and its down-regulation in young mice precedes the later emergence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). In addition, the insulin (Ins2) peripheral tissue antigen (PTA) gene, which is Aire-dependent, is also deregulated in these mice. Based in these findings, we hypothesized that the imbalance in PTA gene expression in the thymus can be associated with slight variations in Aire transcript levels. To test this, we used siRNA to knockdown Aire by in vivo electro-transfection of the thymus of BALB/c mice. The efficiency of the electro-transfection was monitored by assessing the presence of irrelevant Cy3-labeled siRNA in the thymic stroma. Importantly, Aire-siRNA reached medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) down-regulating Aire. As expected, the in vivo Aire knockdown was partial and transient; the maximum 59% inhibition occurred in 48 h. The Aire knockdown was sufficient to down-regulate PTA genes; however, surprisingly, several others, including Ins2, were up-regulated. The modulation of these genes after in vivo Aire knockdown was comparable to that observed in NOD mice before the emergence of T1D. The in vitro transfections of 3.10 mTEC cells with Aire siRNA resulted in samples featuring partial (69%) and complete (100%) Aire knockdown. In these Aire siRNA-transfected 3.10 mTECs, the expression of PTA genes, including Ins2, was down-regulated. This suggests that the expression profile of PTA genes in mTECs is affected by fine changes in the transcription level of Aire. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for stage-specific modulation of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA processing components in zygotic embryo and female gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). (United States)

    Oh, Thomas J; Wartell, Roger M; Cairney, John; Pullman, Gerald S


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate plant development, but have not been studied in gymnosperm seed tissues. The presence and characteristics of several miRNAs were examined in zygotic embryos (ZEs) and female gametophytes (FGs) of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Evidence for miRNAs was obtained using northern analyses and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) mediated with poly(A) polymerase. Partial sequences of two miRNAs were verified. Three regions of putative mRNA targets were analyzed by qRT-PCR to monitor the occurrence of stage-dependent miRNA-mediated cleavage. Five miRNAs were identified in ZEs and FGs along with partial sequences of Pta-miR166 and Pta-miR167. Both miRNAs showed differing degrees of tissue-specific and stage-specific modulation. Analysis of HB15L mRNA (a potential Pta-miR166 target) suggested miRNA-guided cleavage in ZEs and FGs. Analysis of ARF8L mRNA (a potential Pta-miR167 target) implied cleavage in ZEs but not in FGs. Argonaute9-like mRNA (ptAGO9L) showed stage-specific modulation of expression in ZEs that appeared to be inverted in the corresponding FGs. MicroRNAs and argonaute genes varied spatiotemporally during seed development. The peak levels of Pta-miR166 in FGs and ptAGO9L in embryos occurred at stage 9.1, a critical transition point during embryo development and a point where somatic embryo maturation often stops. MicroRNAs identified in FG tissue may play a role in embryogenesis.

  10. Daily variations in the influence of noradrenaline on preferred ambient temperature of the Siberian hamster. (United States)

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał; Tegowska, Eugenia


    Daily variations in sensitivity to noradrenaline (NA) and the activation of nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) are important for survival under a potentially wide range of environmental conditions. However, little is known regarding the ability of the Siberian hamster and other species to activate NST in the day and night when they may be subjected to marked variations in environmental temperature. In this study, the effects of acclimation temperature and time of day on the behavioral thermoregulatory response to NA injections in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) was investigated. Hamsters were acclimated for 4 weeks to 23 degrees C and a L:D 12:12 h photoperiod. After acclimation, preferred ambient temperatures (PT(a)) in saline- and NA-injected animals were measured continuously in the temperature gradient system. NA (0.6 mg/kg; s.c.) was given every 4 h while PT(a) was monitored. After NA injections there was a rapid drop in PT(a), decreasing to approximately 15 degrees C within 10-20 min after each NA injection. Following 4 weeks of acclimation to 10 degrees C and a L:D 8:16 h photoperiod, the same hamsters were re-tested in the temperature gradient system. Cold acclimation led to an accentuation in the behavioral response with a decrease in PT(a) of approximately 10 degrees C. The maximal decrease in preferred ambient temperatures was recorded during the light phase of the day and during the second part of the night. Lowering of PT(a) after NA allows for rapid dissipation of the heat from NST. Overall, the behavioral response reflects the daily changes in brown adipose tissue sensitivity to NA and thus capacity for NST.

  11. Hearing threshold estimation by auditory steady-state responses with narrow-band chirps and adaptive stimulus patterns: implementation in clinical routine. (United States)

    Seidel, David Ulrich; Flemming, Tobias Angelo; Park, Jonas Jae-Hyun; Remmert, Stephan


    Objective hearing threshold estimation by auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) can be accelerated by the use of narrow-band chirps and adaptive stimulus patterns. This modification has been examined in only a few clinical studies. In this study, clinical data is validated and extended, and the applicability of the method in audiological diagnostics routine is examined. In 60 patients (normal hearing and hearing impaired), ASSR and pure tone audiometry (PTA) thresholds were compared. ASSR were evoked by binaural multi-frequent narrow-band chirps with adaptive stimulus patterns. The precision and required testing time for hearing threshold estimation were determined. The average differences between ASSR and PTA thresholds were 18, 12, 17 and 19 dB for normal hearing (PTA ≤ 20 dB) and 5, 9, 9 and 11 dB for hearing impaired (PTA > 20 dB) at the frequencies of 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, respectively, and the differences were significant in all frequencies with the exception of 1 kHz. Correlation coefficients between ASSR and PTA thresholds were 0.36, 0.47, 0.54 and 0.51 for normal hearing and 0.73, 0.74, 0.72 and 0.71 for hearing impaired at 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, respectively. Mean ASSR testing time was 33 ± 8 min. In conclusion, auditory steady-state responses with narrow-band-chirps and adaptive stimulus patterns is an efficient method for objective frequency-specific hearing threshold estimation. Precision of threshold estimation is most limited for slighter hearing loss at 500 Hz. The required testing time is acceptable for the application in everyday clinical routine.

  12. Normative data for the Maryland CNC Test. (United States)

    Mendel, Lisa Lucks; Mustain, William D; Magro, Jessica


    The Maryland consonant-vowel nucleus-consonant (CNC) Test is routinely used in Veterans Administration medical centers, yet there is a paucity of published normative data for this test. The purpose of this study was to provide information on the means and distribution of word-recognition scores on the Maryland CNC Test as a function of degree of hearing loss for a veteran population. A retrospective, descriptive design was conducted. The sample consisted of records from veterans who had Compensation and Pension (C&P) examinations at a Veterans Administration medical center (N = 1,760 ears). Audiometric records of veterans who had C&P examinations during a 10 yr period were reviewed, and the pure-tone averages (PTA4) at four frequencies (1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz) were documented. The maximum word-recognition score (PBmax) was determined from the performance-intensity functions obtained using the Maryland CNC Test. Correlations were made between PBmax and PTA4. A wide range of word-recognition scores were obtained at all levels of PTA4 for this population. In addition, a strong negative correlation between the PBmax and the PTA4 was observed, indicating that as PTA4 increased, PBmax decreased. Word-recognition scores decreased significantly as hearing loss increased beyond a mild hearing loss. Although threshold was influenced by age, no statistically significant relationship was found between word-recognition score and the age of the participants. RESULTS from this study provide normative data in table and figure format to assist audiologists in interpreting patient results on the Maryland CNC test for a veteran population. These results provide a quantitative method for audiologists to use to interpret word-recognition scores based on pure-tone hearing loss. American Academy of Audiology.

  13. Gold nanoparticle-decorated keggin ions/TiO2 photococatalyst for improved solar light photocatalysis. (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew; Jani, Harit; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh; Bhargava, Suresh K; Bansal, Vipul


    We demonstrate a facile localized reduction approach to synthesizing a Au nanoparticle-decorated Keggin ion/TiO(2) photococatalyst for improved solar light photocatalysis application. This has been achieved by exploiting the ability of TiO(2)-bound Keggin ions to act as a UV-switchable, highly localized reducing agent. Notably, the approach proposed here does not lead to contamination of the resultant cocatalyst with free metal nanoparticles during aqueous solution-based synthesis. The study shows that for Keggin ions (phosphotungstic acid, PTA), being photoactive molecules, the presence of both Au nanoparticles and PTA on the TiO(2) surface in a cocatalytic system can have a dramatic effect on increasing the photocatalytic performance of the composite system, as opposed to a TiO(2) surface directly decorated with metal nanoparticles without a sandwiched PTA layer. The remarkable increase in the photocatalytic performance of these materials toward the degradation of a model organic Congo red dye correlates to an increase of 2.7-fold over that of anatase TiO(2) after adding Au to it and 4.3-fold after introducing PTA along with Au to it. The generalized localized reduction approach to preparing TiO(2)-PTA-Au cocatalysts reported here can be further extended to other similar systems, wherein a range of metal nanoparticles in the presence of different Keggin ions can be utilized. The composites reported here may have wide potential implications toward the degradation of organic species and solar cell applications.

  14. Plasma levels following application of paclitaxel-coated balloon catheters in patients with stenotic or occluded femoropopliteal arteries

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    Freyhardt, Patrick; Kroencke, T.J.; Schreiter, N.F.; Sixt, S.; Rastan, A. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde; Zeller, T.; Schwarzwaelder, U. [Herzzentrum Bad Krozingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Klinische und Interventionelle Angiologie; Stiepani, H.; Werk, M. [Martin-Luther-Krankenhaus, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin


    Purpose: Paclitaxel-coated balloon catheters inhibit restenosis after coronary and peripheral angioplasty (PCI,PTA). The aim of this study was to investigate paclitaxel plasma levels and laboratory parameters following PTA with paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCB) in peripheral arteries. Materials and Methods: This single treatment arm, multicenter study included 14 patients with Rutherford stage 1 - 5 with occlusions of up to 5 cm or {>=} 70 % diameter stenosis of the superficial femoral or popliteal arteries (SFA, PA). PTA was performed using up to three PCB catheters. The paclitaxel plasma levels and safety laboratory parameters were determined by collecting blood samples pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 hours and 1 and 4 weeks post-intervention (p. i.). Vital signs were monitored to assess clinical safety. Results: PTA was performed successfully in all patients. Paclitaxel plasma levels were always below a level and duration known to cause systemic side effects. A mean peak paclitaxel plasma level (40 ng/ml) was reached immediately p. i. and decreased rapidly below detectable levels in more than half of the patients already 2 hours p. i. The paclitaxel plasma concentrations returned to values below detectable levels at 24 hours p. i. in all patients. Laboratory parameters and vital signs did not give any reason for safety concerns. No adverse events associated with balloon coating were observed. Conclusion: The results of 14 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease show no systemic bioavailability of paclitaxel > 24 hours after PTA with one or more PCB catheters, indicating that the PCB catheter is safe with regard to possible systemic effects. (orig.)

  15. Effects of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty on muscle BOLD-MRI in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease: preliminary results

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    Huegli, Rolf W. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)]|[Kantonsspital Bruderholz, Department of Radiology, Bruderholz (Switzerland); Schulte, Anja-Carina [University of Basel, Biocenter, Basel (Switzerland); Aschwanden, Markus; Thalhammer, Christoph [University Hospital Basel, Department of Angiology, Basel (Switzerland); Kos, Sebastian; Jacob, Augustinus L.; Bilecen, Deniz [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)


    The purpose was to evaluate the effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) on the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal change in the calf musculature of patients with intermittent claudication. Ten patients (mean age, 63.4 {+-} 11.6 years) with symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) caused by SFA stenoses were investigated before and after PTA. Patients underwent BOLD-MRI 1 day before and 6 weeks after PTA. A T2*-weighted single-shot multi-echo echo-planar MR-imaging technique was applied. The BOLD measurements were acquired at mid-calf level during reactive hyperaemia at 1.5 T. This transient hyperperfusion of the muscle tissue was provoked by suprasystolic cuff compression. Key parameters describing the BOLD signal curve included maximum T2*(T2*{sub max}), time-to-peak to reach T2*{sub max} (TTP) and T2* end value (EV) after 600 s of hyperemia. Paired t-tests were applied for statistic comparison. Between baseline and post-PTA, T2*{sub max} increased from 11.1{+-}3.6% to 12.3{+-}3.8% (p=0.51), TTP decreased from 48.5{+-}20.8 s to 35.3{+-}11.6 s (p=0.11) and EV decreased from 6.1{+-}6.4% to 5.0{+-}4.2% (p=0.69). In conclusion, BOLD-MRI reveals changes of the key parameters T2*{sub max}, TTP, and EV after successful PTA of the calf muscles during reactive hyperaemia. (orig.)

  16. Dichotic multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses in evaluating the hearing thresholds of occupational noise-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Fen Hsu


    Full Text Available An objective, fast, and reasonably accurate assessment test that allows for easy interpretation of the responses of the hearing thresholds at all frequencies of a conventional audiogram is needed to resolve the medicolegal aspects of an occupational hearing injury. This study evaluated the use of dichotic multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses (Mf-ASSR to predict the hearing thresholds in workers exposed to high levels of noise. The study sample included 34 workers with noise-induced hearing impairment. Thresholds of pure-tone audiometry (PTA and Mf-ASSRs at four frequencies were assessed. The differences and correlations between the thresholds of Mf-ASSRs and PTA were determined. The results showed that, on average, Mf-ASSR curves corresponded well with the thresholds of the PTA contours averaged across subjects. The Mf-ASSRs were 20±8 dB, 16±9 dB, 12±9 dB, and 11±12 dB above the thresholds of the PTA for 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz, respectively. The thresholds of the PTA and the Mf-ASSRs were significantly correlated (r=0.77–0.89. We found that the measurement of Mf-ASSRs is easy and potentially time saving, provides a response at all dichotic multiple frequencies of the conventional audiogram, reduces variability in the interpretation of the responses, and correlates well with the behavioral hearing thresholds in subjects with occupational noise-induced hearing impairment. Mf-ASSR can be a valuable aid in the adjustment of compensation cases.

  17. Persistence of intrasellar trigeminal artery and simultaneous pituitary adenoma: description of two cases and their importance for the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions. (United States)

    Machado, Marcio Carlos; Kodaira, Sergio; Musolino, Nina Rosa Castro


    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most frequent embryonic communication between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. However, hormonal changes or the association of PTA with other sellar lesions, such as pituitary adenomas, are extremely rare. The aim of the present study was to report two patients with intrasellar PTA and simultaneous pituitary adenoma in order to emphasize the importance of differential diagnoses for sellar lesions. Case 1. A female patient, 41 years old, was admitted with a history of chronic headache (> 20 years). Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a rounded lesion in the left portion of the pituitary gland suggestive of adenoma (most likely clinically non-functioning adenoma). In addition to this lesion, the MRI demonstrated ecstasy of the right internal carotid artery and imaging suggestive of an intrasellar artery that was subsequently confirmed by an angio-MRI of the cerebral vessels as PTA. Case 2. A female patient, 42 years old, was admitted with a history of amenorrhea and galactorrhea in 1994. Laboratorial investigation revealed hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary MRI showed a small hyposignal area in the anterior portion of pituitary gland suggestive of a microadenoma initiated by a dopaminergic agonist. Upon follow-up, aside from the first lesion, the MRI showed a well delineated rounded lesion inside the pituitary gland, similar to a vessel. Angio-MRI confirmed a left primitive PTA. Failure to recognize these anomalous vessels within the sella might lead to serious complications during transsphenoidal surgery. Therefore, although their occurrence is uncommon, a working knowledge of vascular lesions in the sella turcica or pituitary gland is important for the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions, especially pituitary adenomas.

  18. Synthesis of terephthalic acid via Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and oxidized variants of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. (United States)

    Pacheco, Joshua J; Davis, Mark E


    Terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is obtained by the oxidation of petroleum-derived p-xylene. There is significant interest in the synthesis of renewable, biomass-derived PTA. Here, routes to PTA starting from oxidized products of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that can be produced from biomass are reported. These routes involve Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and avoid the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Oxidized derivatives of HMF are reacted with ethylene over solid Lewis acid catalysts that do not contain strong Brønsted acids to synthesize intermediates of PTA and its equally important diester, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). The partially oxidized HMF, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furoic acid (HMFA), is reacted with high pressure ethylene over a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework tin (Sn-Beta) to produce the Diels-Alder dehydration product, 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (HMBA), with 31% selectivity at 61% HMFA conversion after 6 h at 190 °C. If HMFA is protected with methanol to form methyl 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carboxylate (MMFC), MMFC can react with ethylene in the presence of Sn-Beta for 2 h to produce methyl 4-(methoxymethyl)benzenecarboxylate (MMBC) with 46% selectivity at 28% MMFC conversion or in the presence of a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework zirconium (Zr-Beta) for 6 h to produce MMBC with 81% selectivity at 26% MMFC conversion. HMBA and MMBC can then be oxidized to produce PTA and DMT, respectively. When Lewis acid containing mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and amorphous silica, or Brønsted acid containing zeolites (Al-Beta), are used as catalysts, a significant decrease in selectivity/yield of the Diels-Alder dehydration product is observed.

  19. Analysis of the BarA/UvrY two-component system in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

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    Lucas Binnenkade

    Full Text Available The BarA/UvrY two-component system is well conserved in species of the γ-proteobacteria and regulates numerous processes predominantly by controlling the expression of a subset of noncoding small RNAs. In this study, we identified and characterized the BarA/UvrY two-component system in the gammaproteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Functional interaction of sensor kinase BarA and the cognate response regulator UvrY was indicated by in vitro phosphotransfer studies. The expression of two predicted small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs, CsrB1 and CsrB2, was dependent on UvrY. Transcriptomic analysis by microarrays revealed that UvrY is a global regulator and directly or indirectly affects transcript levels of more than 200 genes in S. oneidensis. Among these are genes encoding key enzymes of central carbon metabolism such as ackA, aceAB, and pflAB. As predicted of a signal transduction pathway that controls aspects of central metabolism, mutants lacking UvrY reach a significantly higher OD than the wild type during aerobic growth on N-acetylglucosamine (NAG while under anaerobic conditions the mutant grew more slowly. A shorter lag phase occurred with lactate as carbon source. In contrast, significant growth phenotypes were absent in complex medium. Based on these studies we hypothesize that, in S. oneidensis MR-1, the global BarA/UvrY/Csr regulatory pathway is involved in central carbon metabolism processes.

  20. Abundance of the multiheme c-type cytochrome OmcB increases in outer biofilm layers of electrode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille S Stephen

    Full Text Available When Geobacter sulfurreducens utilizes an electrode as its electron acceptor, cells embed themselves in a conductive biofilm tens of microns thick. While environmental conditions such as pH or redox potential have been shown to change close to the electrode, less is known about the response of G. sulfurreducens to growth in this biofilm environment. To investigate whether respiratory protein abundance varies with distance from the electrode, antibodies against an outer membrane multiheme cytochrome (OmcB and cytoplasmic acetate kinase (AckA were used to determine protein localization in slices spanning ∼25 µm-thick G. sulfurreducens biofilms growing on polished electrodes poised at +0.24 V (vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode. Slices were immunogold labeled post-fixing, imaged via transmission electron microscopy, and digitally reassembled to create continuous images allowing subcellular location and abundance per cell to be quantified across an entire biofilm. OmcB was predominantly localized on cell membranes, and 3.6-fold more OmcB was detected on cells 10-20 µm distant from the electrode surface compared to inner layers (0-10 µm. In contrast, acetate kinase remained constant throughout the biofilm, and was always associated with the cell interior. This method for detecting proteins in intact conductive biofilms supports a model where the utilization of redox proteins changes with depth.

  1. Endovascular gamma-irradiation for prevention of restenosis after angioplasty of femoropopliteal de-novo-stenoses. Long-term results of a feasibility study; Die endovaskulaere {gamma}-Bestrahlung zur Praevention der Restenose nach Perkutaner Transluminaler Angioplastie von de-novo-Stenosen femoropoplitealer Arterien. Langzeitergebnisse einer Pilotstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, K.; Zaehringer, M.; Schulte, O.; Lackner, K. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Bendel, M.; Bongartz, R.; Nolte, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany)


    Objectives: To evaluate the performance and efficacy of endovascular irradiation after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of de-novo femoropopliteal stenoses in a pilot study. Methods: 6 patients received non-centered endovascular irradiation (12 Gray at surface of the vessel wall) immediately after angioplasty of de-novo femoropopliteal stenosis, 1 patient was given centered endovascular irradiation using 192-iridium (12 Gray at surface of the vessel wall) Centered irradiation was considered for two other patients. Duplex sonographies and interviews were performed the day before and after PTA and after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months up to 4 years. Intraarterial angiography was performed in symptomatic patients. Results: Non-centered endovascular irradiation was possible in all patiens without problems or complications. Centered irradiation was not possible in two patients with the cross-over approach. One thromboembolic complication occurred during centered irradiation. Both restenosis and new stenosis at the edge of irradiated distance occurred in 1/7 patiens. No other side effects were observed during follow-up. Conclusions: In our pilot study endovascular irradiation after angioplasty of de-novo femoropopliteal stenosis was possible with low rates of complications and restenosis and taking vessel anatomy into account. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Mit einer Pilotstudie sollten Probleme bei der Durchfuehrung sowie die Effektivitaet der endovaskulaeren Bestrahlung nach PTA von de-novo-Stenosen der Oberschenkelarterien untersucht werden. Methode: Bei 6 Patienten wurde unmittelbar nach PTA einer de-novo-Stenose der A. femoralis superficialis eine nicht-zentrierte, bei 1 Patienten eine zentrierte endovaskulaere gamma-Bestrahlung mit 192 Iridium durchgefuehrt. Die Strahlendosis betrug 12 Gray an der Intima. 2 weitere Patienten waren fuer eine zentrierte Bestrahlung vorgesehen. Im Follow-up erfolgten eine standardisierte Anamnese und eine farbkodierte

  2. The impact of prior tonsillitis and treatment modality on the recurrence of peritonsillar abscess: a nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Piao Wang

    Full Text Available Studies suggest an increased risk of peritonsillar abscess (PTA recurrence in patients with prior tonsillitis. However, this association is inconsistent and could be confounded by different treatment modalities. This study aimed to assess the risk of recurrence among PTA patients with different degrees of prior tonsillitis and treatment modalities, and the role of tonsillectomy in current practice.All in-patients with peritonsillar abscess between January 2001 and December 2009 were identified in a nationwide, retrospective cohort study. Recurrence was defined as the first occurrence of PTA ≧30 days from the initial PTA. Factors independently associated with recurrence were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for demographic and clinical data.There were 28,837 patients, with a 5.15% recurrence rate and 4.74 years of follow-up. The recurrence rates were significantly higher among subjects with more than five prior tonsillitis or 1-4 prior tonsillitis compared to those without prior tonsillitis (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.82 [95% confidence interval, 2.39-3.33] and 1.59 [95% CI: 1.38-1.82]. The adjusted HR in patients treated with needle aspiration was 1.08 compared to those treated with incision & drainage (95% CI: 0.85-1.38. After age stratification, the adjusted HRs of more than five prior tonsillitis increased to 2.92 and 3.50 in patients aged ≦18 and 19-29 years respectively. The adjusted HR of needle aspiration only increased in patients ≦18 years old (aHR: 1.98 [95% CI: 0.99-3.97]. The overall tonsillectomy rate was 1.48% during our study period.The risk of PTA recurrence increases with higher degrees of prior tonsillitis in all age groups and management by needle aspiration only in the pediatric population. Patients younger than 30 years old with PTA and more than five prior tonsillitis have the greatest risk of recurrence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Fousekis


    Full Text Available Kicking and cutting skills in soccer are clearly unilateral, require asymmetrical motor patterns and lead to the development of asymmetrical adaptations in the musculoskeletal function of the lower limbs. Assuming that these adaptations constitute a chronicity-dependent process, this study examined the effects of professional training age (PTA on the composite strength profile of the knee and ankle joint in soccer players. One hundred soccer players (n=100 with short (5-7 years, intermediate (8-10 years and long (>11 years PTA were tested bilaterally for isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles. Knee flexion-extension was tested concentrically at 60°, 180° and 300 °/sec and eccentrically at 60° and 180 °/sec. Ankle dorsal and plantar flexions were tested at 60 °/sec for both the concentric and eccentric mode of action. Bilaterally averaged muscle strength [(R+L/2] increased significantly from short training age to intermediate and stabilized afterwards. These strength adaptations were mainly observed at the concentric function of knee extensors at 60°/sec (p = 0. 023, knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.042 and 180°/sec (p = 0.036, and ankle plantar flexors at 60o/sec (p = 0.044. A linear trend of increase in isokinetic strength with PTA level was observed for the eccentric strength of knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.02 and 180°/sec (p = 0.03. Directional (R/L asymmetries decreased with PTA, with this being mainly expressed in the concentric function of knee flexors at 180°/sec (p = 0.04 and at 300 °/sec (p = 0.03. These findings confirm the hypothesis of asymmetry in the strength adaptations that take place at the knee and ankle joint of soccer players mainly along with short and intermediate PTA. Players with a longer PTA seem to adopt a more balanced use of their lower extremities to cope with previously developed musculoskeletal asymmetries and possibly reduce injury risk. This has certain

  4. Structural analysis of ruthenium-arene complexes using ion mobility mass spectrometry, collision-induced dissociation, and DFT. (United States)

    Czerwinska, Izabella; Far, Johann; Kune, Christopher; Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos; Delaude, Lionel; De Pauw, Edwin


    Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) techniques were used to investigate the influence of the phosphine ligand on the physicochemical properties of [RuCl2(p-cymene)(PCy3)] (), [RuCl2(p-cymene)(PPh3)] (), and [RuCl2(p-cymene)(PTA)] () in the gas phase (PTA is 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane). Electrospray ionization of complexes and led to the corresponding [RuCl(p-cymene)(PR3)](+) ions via the dissociation of a chlorido ligand, whereas RAPTA-C () afforded two molecular ions by in-source oxidation ([Ru(III)Cl2(p-cymene)(PTA)](+)) or protonation ([RuCl2(p-cymene)(PTA+H)](+)). Control experiments showed that the balance between these two ionization paths was strongly influenced by the nature of the solvent used for infusion. Collision cross sections (CCSs) of the four molecular ions accurately reflected the variations of steric bulk inferred from the Tolman steric parameters (θ) of the phosphine ligands. Moreover, DFT calculations combined with a model based on the kinetic theory of gases (the trajectory method of the IMoS software) afforded reliable CCS predictions. The almost two times higher dipole moment of [RuCl2(p-cymene)(PTA+H)](+) (μ = 13.75 D) compared to [Ru(III)Cl2(p-cymene)(PTA)](+) (μ = 7.18 D) was held responsible for increased ion-induced dipole interactions with a polarizable drift gas such as N2. Further experiments with He and CO2 confirmed that increasing the polarizability of the buffer gas improved the separation between the two molecular ions derived from complex . The fragmentation patterns of complexes were determined by CID. The sequence of collision voltages at which 50% of a precursor ion dissociates (V50) recorded for the molecular ions derived from compounds was in good agreement with simple electronic considerations based on the donor strength of the phosphine ligand. Thus, the CCS and V50 parameters used to determine the shape and stability of ionic species in the gas phase are complementary

  5. Lower limb strength in professional soccer players: profile, asymmetry, and training age. (United States)

    Fousekis, Konstantinos; Tsepis, Elias; Vagenas, George


    Kicking and cutting skills in soccer are clearly unilateral, require asymmetrical motor patterns and lead to the development of asymmetrical adaptations in the musculoskeletal function of the lower limbs. Assuming that these adaptations constitute a chronicity-dependent process, this study examined the effects of professional training age (PTA) on the composite strength profile of the knee and ankle joint in soccer players. One hundred soccer players (n=100) with short (5-7 years), intermediate (8-10 years) and long (>11 years) PTA were tested bilaterally for isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles. Knee flexion-extension was tested concentrically at 60°, 180° and 300 °/sec and eccentrically at 60° and 180 °/sec. Ankle dorsal and plantar flexions were tested at 60 °/sec for both the concentric and eccentric mode of action. Bilaterally averaged muscle strength [(R+L)/2] increased significantly from short training age to intermediate and stabilized afterwards. These strength adaptations were mainly observed at the concentric function of knee extensors at 60°/sec (p = 0. 023), knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.042) and 180°/sec (p = 0.036), and ankle plantar flexors at 60o/sec (p = 0.044). A linear trend of increase in isokinetic strength with PTA level was observed for the eccentric strength of knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.02) and 180°/sec (p = 0.03). Directional (R/L) asymmetries decreased with PTA, with this being mainly expressed in the concentric function of knee flexors at 180°/sec (p = 0.04) and at 300 °/sec (p = 0.03). These findings confirm the hypothesis of asymmetry in the strength adaptations that take place at the knee and ankle joint of soccer players mainly along with short and intermediate PTA. Players with a longer PTA seem to adopt a more balanced use of their lower extremities to cope with previously developed musculoskeletal asymmetries and possibly reduce injury risk. This has certain implications

  6. 降低精对苯二甲酸溶剂系统醋酸消耗的研究%Research and Implementation of Decreasing the Acetic Acid Consumption in Purified Terephthalic Acid Solvent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐圆; 朱群雄


    Decreasing the acetic acid consumption in purified terephthalic acid(PTA) solvent system has become a hot issue with common concern.In accordance with the technical features.the electrical conductivity is in direct proportion to the acetic acid content.General regression neural network(GRNN)is used to establish the model of electrical conductivity on the basis of mechanism analysis,and then particle swarm optimization (PSO)algorithm with the improvement of mertia weight and population diversity is proposed to regulate the operatmg conditions.Thus.the method of decreasing the acid lossS is derived and applied to PTA solvent system in a chemical plant.Cases studies show that the precision of modeling and optimization are higher.The results also provide the optimal operating conditions,which decrease the cost and improve the profit.

  7. Endovascular treatment strategies for supra-aortic arterial occlusive disease. (United States)

    Peeters, P; Verbist, J; Deloose, K; Bosiers, M


    Because of the focal nature of stenoses or occlusions in the supra-aortic vasculature, the high blood-pressures in this area and the very low morbidity rates related to percutaneous therapy have largely replaced surgical revascularization as the initial treatment of choice for patients with supra-aortic arterial occlusive disease. The initial technical success and durability of percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) and stenting in these lesions is excellent. Nevertheless several factors can make PTA and stenting a complex procedure that requires advanced endovascular skills for a successful outcome. Profound knowledge of surgical reconstruction techniques or extra-anatomic bypasses remains mandatory, as it is occasionally required for failure of endovascular techniques or if contraindications exist.

  8. Impregnation of 12-tungstophosphoric acid on silica - part II: effect of different solvents on the impregnation and catalytic activity in methyl esterification of stearic acid; Impregnacao do acido 12-tungstofosforico em silica - parte II: efeito de diferentes solventes na impregnacao e atividade catalitica na esterificacao metilica de acido estearico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scroccaro, Karine Isabel; Yamamoto, Carlos I., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Tanobe, Valcineide O. de A.; Oliveira, Alan Antonio de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia e Tecnologia Florestal; Wypych, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica


    Materials obtained by the immobilization of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (PTA) on silica using the method of impregnation with excess solution in distinct solvents (aqueous HCl, methanol:H{sub 2}O, and acetonitrile) were evaluated for use as catalysts in the methyl esterification of stearic acid. Optimum conditions were established for the impregnation of 0.5 g (w/w) of PTA on amorphous silica, under stirring at 150 rpm for 24 h, using 20 mL of 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HCl as the solvent. After calcination at 200 deg C, high conversions were obtained under mild reaction conditions, resulting in high turnover numbers. The catalyst was evaluated in ten catalytic cycles of use, where the activity was reduced only slightly, attesting its stability and the possibility to apply it to industrial production of methylesters. (author)

  9. Effects of Connecting Ligands on Photoinduced Electron Transfer Properties of Functionalized Self-assembled Solid Films%配体对功能自组装薄膜的光致电子转移特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦天新; 史环环; 黄春辉; 于小峰; 黄慧忠; 吴念祖


    A strategy for fabricating the functionalized self-assembled films is proposed. Through the comparison of three self-assembled films of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTA) with different connecting ligands, i.e.oxalic acid (Ox), succinic acid (Su), or terephthalic acid (Tp), it was found that the optimal system was composed of oxalic acid, Ce4+ and 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid,which was much better than simple covalent connecting PTA films and the connecting ligands played an important role for the properties of self-assembled (SA)films. All these films were characterized by contact angle, UV spectra, cyclic voltammetry and XPS. The phoof dye-sensitized indium tin oxide (ITO) systems. The effects of light intensity, bias voltage, and electron donor on photoinduced electron transfer properties were also studied. The possible mechanism of electron transfer is proposed.

  10. 胫腓动脉血管成形术治疗下肢严重缺血35例%Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of tibioperoneal arteries for severe limb ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆信武; 李维敏; 陆民; 黄新天; 刘晓兵; 殷敏毅; 赵海光; 蒋米尔


    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the technical feasibility, safety and effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)for the treatment of severe limb ischemia caused by tibioperoneal arteries occlusion. Methods From June 2004 to May 2007,35 patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI)were treated on an intention-to-treat basis with tibioperoneal arterial PTA. Main outcome measures were technical success rate, primary patency rate, limb salvage rate and complications. Results The technical success rate of tibioperoneal arterial PTA Was 83%.Mean follow-up time was 11.5 months, primary patency rate and limb salvage rate were 57%and 82%,respectively.Mean length of tibioperoneal arterial PTA was 9.5 cm(4.5~14 cm),concurrent treatment of iliac artery or femoral-popliteal artery was carried out in 19 patients via either angioplasty or combined with stenting.There were three complications including arterial spasm and thrombosis in one, which Was relieved by thrombolysis and antispasmodics, and artery perforation in 2 cases, which was treated conservatively. Conclusion In tibioperoneal arterial occlusions in CLI patients, PTA is feasible with a high initial technical success rate and high limb salrage rate,tibioperoneal arterial PTA carries a lower morbidity and less severe complications. PTA is a safe, effective and good treatment alternative for CLI patients of tibioperoneal arterial occlusions.%目的 评价胫腓动脉经皮血管腔内成形术(percutaneous transluminal angioplasty,PTA)治疗下肢严重缺血的可行性、安全性和有效性.方法 对2004年6月至2007年5月收治的35例胫腓动脉闭塞的下肢严重缺血(critical limb ischemia,CLI)患者应用PTA治疗.评价的主要参数为:胫腓动脉PTA技术成功率、通畅率、救肢率和并发症.结果 胫腓动脉PTA的技术成功率为83%,平均随访11.5个月,通畅率为57%,救肢率82%.胫腓动脉平均扩张长度9.5 cm(4.5~14 cm),19例患者同时行

  11. High dimension feature extraction based visualized SOM fault diagnosis method and its application in p-xylene oxidation process☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Tian; Wenli Du; Feng Qian


    Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) is an important chemical raw material. P-xylene (PX) is transformed to terephthalic acid (TA) through oxidation process and TA is refined to produce PTA. The PX oxidation reaction is a complex process involving three-phase reaction of gas, liquid and solid. To monitor the process and to im-prove the product quality, as wel as to visualize the fault type clearly, a fault diagnosis method based on self-organizing map (SOM) and high dimensional feature extraction method, local tangent space alignment (LTSA), is proposed. In this method, LTSA can reduce the dimension and keep the topology information simultaneously, and SOM distinguishes various states on the output map. Monitoring results of PX oxidation reaction process in-dicate that the LTSA–SOM can wel detect and visualize the fault type.

  12. Diagnosis and management of trigemino-cavernous fistulas: case reports and review of the literature. (United States)

    Miller, Timothy R; Jindal, Gaurav; Mohan, Suyash; Fortes, Manuel; Hurst, Robert; Pukenas, Bryan; Gandhi, Dheeraj


    Although usually asymptomatic, a persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) can rarely be associated with a direct fistula to the cavernous sinus (ie, trigemino-cavernous fistula). We present three patients with trigemino-cavernous fistulas; two were subsequently treated using modern endovascular techniques while the third initially declined therapy. We then review the literature of reported cases of this unusual entity. The aberrant anatomy associated with a PTA presents unique challenges to the management of these lesions, and must be well delineated prior to treatment. Finally, conservative management of trigemino-cavernous fistulas, either de novo or recurrent, may be considered if they demonstrate no evidence of cortical venous reflux and patient symptoms are tolerable.

  13. The influence of acetyl phosphate on DspA signalling in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullineaux Conrad W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dspA (hik33 gene, coding for a putative sensory histidine kinase, is conserved in plastids (ycf26 and cyanobacteria. It has been linked with a number of different stress responses in cyanobacteria. Results We constructed an insertional mutant of dspA (ycf26 in Synechocystis 6803. We found little phenotypic effect during nitrogen starvation. However, when the mutation was combined with deletion of the pta gene coding for phosphotransacetylase, a more significant phenotype was observed. Under nitrogen starvation, the pta/dspA double mutant degrades its phycobilisomes less than the wild type and still has about half of its chlorophyll-protein complexes. Conclusion Our data indicates that acetyl-phosphate-dependent phosphorylation of response regulator(s overlaps with DspA-dependent signalling of the degradation of chlorophyll-protein complexes (and to a lesser extent phycobilisomes in Synechocystis 6803.

  14. Low Cost Propulsion Technology at the Marshall Space Flight Center: Fastrac Engine and the Propulsion Test Article (United States)

    Fisher, Mark F.; Ise, Michael R.


    The need for low cost access to space has initiated the development of low cost liquid rocket engine and propulsion system hardware at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The engine, the 60,000 lbf, RP-1 and LOX Fastrac Engine has been designed as a robust, low cost liquid rocket engine with applications for X-34 as well as future low cost booster systems. The engine is a turbopump fed, gas generator cycle, rocket motor with an ablative nozzle. The Propulsion Test Article (PTA) is a test bed for low cost propulsion system hardware including a composite RP-1 tank, flight feedlines and pressurization system, stacked in a booster configuration. A general description of the PTA and the Fastrac engine is given, with emphasis on the technical specification of the hardware including flow rates, pressures and other operating conditions. The process which has been used for the design and integration of this hardware is described.

  15. Anthracene-tethered ruthenium(II) arene complexes as tools to visualize the cellular localization of putative organometallic anticancer compounds. (United States)

    Nazarov, Alexey A; Risse, Julie; Ang, Wee Han; Schmitt, Frederic; Zava, Olivier; Ruggi, Albert; Groessl, Michael; Scopelitti, Rosario; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Hartinger, Christian G; Dyson, Paul J


    Anthracene derivatives of ruthenium(II) arene compounds with 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[]decane (pta) or a sugar phosphite ligand, viz., 3,5,6-bicyclophosphite-1,2-O-isopropylidene-α-d-glucofuranoside, were prepared in order to evaluate their anticancer properties compared to the parent compounds and to use them as models for intracellular visualization by fluorescence microscopy. Similar IC(50) values were obtained in cell proliferation assays, and similar levels of uptake and accumulation were also established. The X-ray structure of [{Ru(η(6)-C(6)H(5)CH(2)NHCO-anthracene)Cl(2)(pta)] is also reported.

  16. [Start-up characteristics of the anaerobic reactor seeded with immobilized microorganisms]. (United States)

    Wu, Bing-tao; Zhou, Wei-li; Zhang, Zhen-jia; Cheng, Xue-hang; Dong, Ya-mei; Chi, Li-na


    In order to overcome the disadvantages of the anaerobic reactor such as slow growth and long start-up, the flocculent anaerobic sludge was embedded and used as the seed sludge in the anaerobic treatment of PTA wastewater with the objective of keeping biomass in the reactor. The start-up characteristics of the UASB reactor were investigated. During the 136 days' running, COD removal rate of PTA wastewater achieved 75%-85% at the volumetric loading rate (COD) of 3 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3-4 day. The anaerobic system had good stability and biomass retaining ability. On the other hand, variations of EPS, SEM observation and methanogens DNA in sludge granules verified the growth of immobilized bacteria in both quantity and microorganism morphology, although mass transfer through the immobilization media was to some degree limited.

  17. Homeostatic Disorders in Acute Poisoning by Psychotropic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Belova


    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the impact of the degree of oxidative stress on homeostatic parameters in critically ill patients with acute poisoning by psychotropic agents (PTA.Materials and methods. The components of lipid peroxidation (LPO and the antioxidative system (AOS, blood rheological and immunological parameters, and the markers of endogenous intoxication were studied in 43 patients with severe acute PTA intoxication before and during intensive detoxification therapy.Results. The first hours of poisoning were marked by LPO-AOS imbalance with a significant preponderance of peroxidation processes, by impaired blood viscous properties, the manifestations of secondary immunodeficiency and endogenous intoxication. There were changes in the study parameters during detoxification therapy and at the early somatogenic stage of the disease.Conclusion. In patients with acute poisoning-induced critical conditions, the degree of oxidative stress affects the time course of homeostatic changes and determines the severity of endotoxicosis at all stages of the disease. 

  18. New Treatments for Infrapopliteal Disease: Devices, Techniques, and Outcomes So Far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Ondina; Chalmers, Nicholas, E-mail: [Manchester Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)


    The use of endovascular treatment of infrapopliteal disease has increased in popularity in recent years. An improvement in technical success rates due to the availability of newer devices has fuelled an increased interest in the subject. The pathogenesis, indications for treatment, and outcome measures of infrapopliteal disease differ from larger vessel intervention. Diabetes and renal failure are prevalent. Neuropathy and venous disease contribute to the etiology of ulceration. Most interventions are undertaken for critical limb ischemia rather than claudication. Therefore, a range of conservative, pharmacological, and invasive therapies are provided. Conventional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) using modern low-profile systems is associated with high technical success rates. However, initial data from recent randomized, controlled trials suggest that drug-eluting stents are consistently achieving improved patency over PTA alone or over bare metal stents. This review summarizes recent advances in the treatment of infrapopliteal disease.

  19. Anaerobic degradation of purified terephthalic acid wastewater using a novel, rapid mass-transfer circulating fluidized bed. (United States)

    Feng, Yangyang; Lu, Beibei; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Yinwen; Shen, Shubao


    The anaerobic treatability of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater in a novel, rapid mass-transfer fluidized bed reactor using brick particles as porous carrier materials was investigated. The reactor operation was stable after a short 34 day start-up period, with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency between 65 and 75%, terephthalate (TA) removal efficiency between 60% and 70%, and system organic loading rate (OLR) increasing from 7.37 to 18.52 kg COD/m(3) d. The results demonstrate that the reactor is very efficient, and requires a low hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h to remove both TA and COD from the high-concentration PTA wastewater. The system also has high resistance capacity to varied OLR.

  20. Thermohydrogel Containing Melanin for Photothermal Cancer Therapy. (United States)

    Kim, Miri; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Min Ah; Ryu, Hyanghwa; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lee, Chang-Moon


    Melanin is an effective absorber of light and can extend to near infrared (NIR) regions. In this study, a natural melanin is presented as a photothermal therapeutic agent (PTA) because it provides a good photothermal conversion efficiency, shows biodegradability, and does not induce long-term toxicity during retention in vivo. Poloxamer solution containing melanin (Pol-Mel) does not show any precipitation and shows sol-gel transition at body temperature. After irradiation from 808 nm NIR laser at 1.5 W cm(-2) for 3 min, the photothermal conversion efficiency of Pol-Mel is enough to kill cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The tumor growth of mice bearing CT26 tumors treated with Pol-Mel injection and laser irradiation is suppressed completely without recurrence postirradiation. All these results indicate that Pol-Mel can become an attractive PTA for photothermal cancer therapy.

  1. A functional material based photodiode for solar tracking systems (United States)

    Dere, A.; Tataroğlu, A.; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; El-Tantawy, F. Farid; Farooq, W. A.; Yakuphanoglu, F.


    To prepare phosphotungstic acid (PTA) thin film was used drop-coating method. The film was dropped on p-Si having ohmic contact. The electrical and photovoltaic properties the fabricated Al/p-Si/phospotungstic acid(PTA)/Al photodiode were investigated. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out under dark and various illumination intensities. Under illumination, the photocurrent of the photodiode was found to be higher than the dark current. The prepared photodiode exhibited photovoltaic behavior. Also, the transient photocurrent measurement confirms that the photocurrent is sensitive to the illumination intensities. In addition, the capacitance/conductance-voltage (C/G-V) measurements were studied in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz. The capacitance decreases with increasing frequency, suggesting a continuous distribution of interface states. As result, the prepared photodiode can be used in optoelectronic device applications.

  2. Influences of the microstructure on the wear resistance of cobalt-based ahoy coatings obtained by plasma transferred arc process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Qingyu; GAO Jiasheng


    The microstructure, substructure, and wear characteristic of cobalt-based alloy coatings obtained by plasma transferred arc (PTA) process were investigated using optical metallurgical microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and dry sand abrasion tester (DSAT). The aging effect on the structure and wear resistance of the cobalt-based PTA coating was also studied. The results show that the as-welded coating consists of cobalt-based solid solution with face-centered cubic structure and hexagonal (Cr, Fe)7C3. There are a lot of stacking faults existing in the cobalt-based solid solution. After aging at 600℃ for 60 h, the microstructure becomes coarse, and another carbide (Cr, Fe)23C6 precipitates. As a result, the wear mass loss of the aged sample is higher than that of the as-welded sample.

  3. Constraints on Black Hole/Host Galaxy Co-evolution and Binary Stalling Using Pulsar Timing Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Joseph


    Pulsar timing arrays are now setting increasingly tight limits on the gravitational wave background from binary supermassive black holes. But as upper limits grow more constraining, what can be implied about galaxy evolution? We investigate which astrophysical parameters have the largest impact on strain spectrum predictions and provide a simple framework to directly translate between measured values for the parameters of galaxy evolution and PTA limits on the gravitational wave background of binary supermassive black holes. We find that the most influential observable is the relation between a host galaxy's central bulge and its central black hole, $\\mbox{$M_{\\bullet}$-$M_{\\rm bulge}$}$, which has the largest effect on the mean value of the characteristic strain amplitude. However, the variance of each prediction is dominated by uncertainties in the galaxy stellar mass function. Using this framework with the best published PTA limit, we can set limits on the shape and scatter of the $\\mbox{$M_{\\bullet}$-$M_{...

  4. Effects of different factors on the formation of nanorods and nanosheets of silver(I) coordination polymer (United States)

    Shahangi Shirazi, Fatemeh; Akhbari, Kamran; Kawata, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Ryuta


    In order to evaluation the effects of solvent, concentration of initial reagents and ultrasonic irradiations on formation different morphologies of [Ag2(pta)(H2O)]n (1), [H2pta = phthalic acid], nanostructures, we design some experiments and synthesized six sample of 1 under different conditions. nanorods and nanosheets of a silver(I) coordination polymer, were synthesized under these conditions. These nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and elemental analyses. If we arrange the order of these three factors upon their importance in formation compound 1 nanostructures, first we can select the type of solvent as the effective factor, then the concentration of initial reagents and finally the existence of ultrasonic irradiation which can change the morphology of 1 in low concentration of initial reagents. Thermal stability of these six samples was also studied by thermo gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA).

  5. Persistent Truncus Arteriosus With Intact Ventricular Septum: Clinical, Hemodynamic and Short-term Surgical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Ajami


    Full Text Available Introduction: Truncus arteriosus with intact ventricular septum is a rare and unique variant of persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA which usually presents with central cyanosis and congestive heart failure in neonate and early infancy. Associated cardiac and non-cardiac anomalies may affect morbidity and mortality of these patients. Case Presentation: We describe clinical presentation, echocardiography and angiographic features of a 7-month old boy with PTA and intact ventricular septum who underwent surgical repair of the anomaly at our institution. Operative findings, surgical procedure and short-term outcome are reported. Conclusions: While our patient had systemic pulmonary arterial pressure at the time of complete surgical repair, it was improved after surgery.

  6. Detecting the gravitational wave background from primordial black hole dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Clesse, Sebastien


    The black hole merging rates inferred after the gravitational-wave detection by Advanced LIGO/VIRGO and the relatively high mass of the progenitors are consistent with models of dark matter made of massive primordial black holes (PBH). PBH binaries emit gravitational waves in a broad range of frequencies that will be probed by future space interferometers (LISA) and pulsar timing arrays (PTA). The amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background expected for PBH dark matter is calculated taking into account various effects such as initial eccentricity of binaries, PBH velocities, mass distribution and clustering. It allows a detection by the LISA space interferometer, and possibly by the PTA of the SKA radio-telescope. Interestingly, one can distinguish this background from the one of non-primordial massive binaries through a specific frequency dependence, resulting from the maximal impact parameter of binaries formed by PBH capture, depending on the PBH velocity distribution and their clustering pro...

  7. X-ray microtomography of collagen and polylactide scaffolds in liquids. (United States)

    Hannula, Markus; Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Tamminen, Ilmari; Aula, Antti; Kellomaki, Minna; Hyttinen, Jari


    Methods to image and assess the microstructure of polymer based biomaterials in liquid phase, for example cell culture medium, are well warranted. X-ray microtomography could provide a mean to visualize and analyze such structures. However, the density of such polymers is close to that of water and hence the X-ray contrast is poor. Moreover, if the biomaterials contain cells and are dried, the cell morphology may be distorted. In this paper we test phosphotungstic acid (PTA) staining to improve the contrast. We imaged collagen and PLA samples with μCT in air, water and alcohol. The methods were compared visually and with contrast to noise ratio calculated from the images. Our results demonstrate that with alcohol the PLA can be imaged also in liquid phase. PTA staining seems to be a good method to increase the contrast for collagen in μCT imaging.

  8. Participating despite questions: toward a more confident participatory technology assessment : commentary on: "Questioning 'participation': a critical appraisal of its conceptualization in a Flemish participatory technology assessment". (United States)

    Guston, David H


    While the important challenges of public deliberations on emerging technologies are crucial to keep in mind, this paper argues that scholars and practitioners have reason to be more confident in their performance of participatory technology assessments (pTA). Drawing on evidence from the 2008 National Citizens' Technology Forum (NCTF) conducted by the Center for Nanotechnology in Society at Arizona State University, this paper describes how pTA offers a combination of intensive and extensive qualities that are unique among modes of engagement. In the NCTF, this combination led to significant learning and opinion changes, based on what can be characterized as a high-quality deliberation. The quality of the anticipatory knowledge required to address emerging technologies is always contested, but pTAs can be designed with outcomes in mind-especially when learning is understood as an outcome.

  9. [A Case of Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis Presented with Limb-Shaking TIA]. (United States)

    Uno, Junji; Mineta, Haruyuki; Ren, Nice; Takagishi, Sou; Nagaoka, Shintarou; Kameda, Katsuharu; Maeda, Kazushi; Ikai, Yoshiaki; Gi, Hidefuku


    Involuntary movement is a rare clinical manifestation of transient ischemic attack (TIA). However, limb-shaking TIA is well described presentation of carotid occlusive disease. We present the case of a patient who developed limb-shaking TIA associated with high-grade stenosis of middle cerebral artery (M1), which was treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The procedure was performed successfully without complication and the symptom disappeared immediately after the procedure. The patient remained free of symptoms at the 38-month follow-up. There was no tendency of restenosis of M1. In this case, PTA was technically feasible and beneficial for limb-shaking TIA with M1 stenosis. Limb-shaking TIA can be a symptom of high-grade stenosis of M1.

  10. Role of acetyl-phosphate in activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Xu

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, dramatically alters its transcriptome and proteome as it cycles between the arthropod vector and mammalian host. During this enzootic cycle, a novel regulatory network, the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway (also known as the σ(54-σ(S sigma factor cascade, plays a central role in modulating the differential expression of more than 10% of all B. burgdorferi genes, including the major virulence genes ospA and ospC. However, the mechanism(s by which the upstream activator and response regulator Rrp2 is activated remains unclear. Here, we show that none of the histidine kinases present in the B. burgdorferi genome are required for the activation of Rrp2. Instead, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that supports the hypothesis that activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway occurs via the small, high-energy, phosphoryl-donor acetyl phosphate (acetyl∼P, the intermediate of the Ack-Pta (acetate kinase-phosphate acetyltransferase pathway that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA. Supplementation of the growth medium with acetate induced activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, the overexpression of Pta virtually abolished acetate-induced activation of this pathway, suggesting that acetate works through acetyl∼P. Overexpression of Pta also greatly inhibited temperature and cell density-induced activation of RpoS and OspC, suggesting that these environmental cues affect the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway by influencing acetyl∼P. Finally, overexpression of Pta partially reduced infectivity of B. burgdorferi in mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that acetyl∼P is one of the key activating molecule for the activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway and support the emerging concept that acetyl∼P can serve as a global signal in bacterial pathogenesis.

  11. Intraspecific Polymorphisms of Cytogenetic Markers Mapped on Chromosomes of Triticum polonicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kwiatek

    Full Text Available Triticum genus encloses several tetraploid species that are used as genetic stocks for expanding the genetic variability of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Although the T. aestivum (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD and T. durum (2n = 4x = 28, AABB karyotypes were well examined by chromosome staining, Giemsa C-banding and FISH markers, other tetraploids are still poorly characterized. Here, we established and compared the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH patterns on chromosomes of 20 accessions of T. polonicum species using different repetitive sequences from BAC library of wheat 'Chinese Spring'. The chromosome patterns of Polish wheat were compared to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28, AABB Triticum species: T. durum, T. diccocon and T. turanicum, as well. A combination of pTa-86, pTa-535 and pTa-713 probes was the most informative among 6 DNA probes tested. Probe pTa-k374, which is similar to 28S rDNA sequence enabled to distinguish signal size and location differences, as well as rDNA loci elimination. Furthermore, pTa-465 and pTa-k566 probes are helpful for the detection of similar organized chromosomes. The polymorphisms of signals distribution were observed in 2A, 2B, 3B, 5B, 6A and 7B chromosomes. Telomeric region of the short arm of 6B chromosome was the most polymorphic. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of T. polonicum genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for wheat. Collection and characterization of this germplasm can contribute to the wheat biodiversity safeguard.

  12. Endovascular therapy as the primary approach for limb salvage in patients with critical limb ischemia: experience with 443 infrapopliteal procedures. (United States)

    Bosiers, Marc; Hart, Joseph P; Deloose, Koen; Verbist, Jurgen; Peeters, Patrick


    Endovascular strategies for the treatment of critical infrageniculate peripheral arterial occlusive disease exist and are becoming the primary methodology for such lesions at many centers. Although technically feasible for experienced operators, the evidence to support this strategy for below the knee (BTK) interventions is still evolving. We studied the 6-month and 1-year outcomes of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone, PTA with stenting, and excimer laser recanalization for BTK lesions in patients with critical limb ischemia. Between September 2002 and June 2005, 443 patients (355 Rutherford category 4, 82 category 5, 6 category 6) underwent intervention for 681 BTK lesions. Follow-up was performed at 6-month intervals after index intervention: limb salvage data were recorded and duplex ultrasonography was performed to measure the patency of treated areas. The primary patency and limb salvage rates of the entire population were 85.2% and 97.0% and 74.2% and 96.6% at 6 months and 1 year, respectively. Stratified for the treatment strategy (PTA alone in 79, PTA with stenting in 300 patients, and excimer laser in 64), 1-year primary patency rates were 68.6%, 75.5%, and 75.4%, whereas the limb salvage rates were 96.7%, 98.6%, and 87.9% for each modality, respectively. Endovascular intervention will become the primary treatment for BTK lesions in patients with critical limb ischemia, with 1-year primary patency and limb salvage rates that compare favorably with published surgical data. Prospective, randomized, multicenter trials will be needed to further establish the role of endovascular intervention in this challenging patient group.

  13. Effects of upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle on patellofemoral indices using magnetic resonance imaging in patients with patellofemoral instability. (United States)

    Becher, Christoph; Fleischer, Benjamin; Rase, Marten; Schumacher, Thees; Ettinger, Max; Ostermeier, Sven; Smith, Tomas


    This study analysed the effects of upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle on patellofemoral indices, determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with patellofemoral instability (PI). Healthy volunteers (control group, n = 9) and PI patients (PI group, n = 16) were scanned in an open-configuration MRI scanner during upright weight bearing and supine non-weight bearing positions at full extension (0° flexion) and at 15°, 30°, and 45° flexion. Patellofemoral indices included the Insall-Salvati Index, Caton-Deschamp Index, and Patellotrochlear Index (PTI) to determine patellar height and the patellar tilt angle (PTA), bisect offset (BO), and the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance to assess patellar rotation and translation with respect to the femur and alignment of the extensor mechanism. A significant interaction effect of weight bearing by flexion angle was observed for the PTI, PTA, and BO for subjects with PI. At full extension, post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed a significant effect of weight bearing on the indices, with increased patellar height and increased PTA and BO in the PI group. Except for the BO, no such changes were seen in the control group. Independent of weight bearing, flexing the knee caused the PTA, BO, and TT-TG distance to be significantly reduced. Upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle affected patellofemoral MRI indices in PI patients, with significantly increased values at full extension. The observations of this study provide a caution to be considered by professionals when treating PI patients. These patients should be evaluated clinically and radiographically at full extension and various flexion angles in context with quadriceps engagement. Explorative case-control study, Level III.

  14. Enhanced delivery of the RAPTA-C macromolecular chemotherapeutic by conjugation to degradable polymeric micelles. (United States)

    Blunden, Bianca M; Lu, Hongxu; Stenzel, Martina H


    Macromolecular ruthenium complexes are a promising avenue to better and more selective chemotherapeutics. We have previously shown that RAPTA-C [RuCl2(p-cymene)(PTA)], with the water-soluble 1,3,5-phosphaadamantane (PTA) ligand, could be attached to a polymer moiety via nucleophilic substitution of an available iodide with an amide in the PTA ligand. To increase the cell uptake of this macromolecule, we designed an amphiphilic block copolymer capable of self-assembling into polymeric micelles. The block copolymer was prepared by ring-opening polymerization of d,l-lactide (3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione) using a RAFT agent with an additional hydroxyl functionality, followed by the RAFT copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) and 2-chloroethyl methacrylate (CEMA). The Finkelstein reaction and reaction with PTA led to polymers that can readily react with the dimer of RuCl2(p-cymene) to create a macromolecular RAPTA-C drug. RAPTA-C conjugation, micellization, and subsequent cytotoxicity and cell uptake of these polymeric moieties was tested on ovarian cancer A2780, A2780cis, and Ovcar-3 cell lines. Confocal microscopy images confirmed cell uptake of the micelles into the lysosome of the cells, indicative of an endocytic pathway. On average, a 10-fold increase in toxicity was found for the macromolecular drugs when compared to the RAPTA-C molecule. Furthermore, the cell uptake of ruthenium was analyzed and a significant increase was found for the micelles compared to RAPTA-C. Notably, micelles prepared from the polymer containing fewer HEA units had the highest cytotoxicity, the best cell uptake of ruthenium and were highly effective in suppressing the colony-forming ability of cells.

  15. Data Gap Analysis and Database Expansion of Parameters for Munitions Constitutents (United States)


    toluidinoanthraquinone (PTA) solvent green 3 128-80-3 biocides/dyes 14 1-butanol 71-36-3 alchohols /ketones 15 1-butene 106-98-9 hydrocarbons 16 1-chloro-2-methylbenzene...More information about the mechanisms and models of bioaccumulation can be found in Jager and Hamers (1997). The currently used regression equations...of the calculation methods. Air degradation is considered to be a molecular- mechanical process. The PBT profiler calculates an atmospheric half-life

  16. Data Gap Analysis and Database Expansion of Parameters for Munitions Constituents (United States)


    toluidinoanthraquinone (PTA) solvent green 3 128-80-3 biocides/dyes 14 1-butanol 71-36-3 alchohols /ketones 15 1-butene 106-98-9 hydrocarbons 16 1-chloro-2...parameters. More information about the mechanisms and models of bioaccumulation can be found in Jager and Hamers (1997). The currently used regression...explanation of the calculation methods. Air degradation is considered to be a molecular- mechanical process. The PBT profiler calculates an atmospheric

  17. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users’ preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNeher


    Full Text Available Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1 performance on a measure of reading span (RS is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR strength, (2 similar relations exist for two different, nonverbal measures of executive function, (3 pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and microphone directionality (DIR also influence preferred NR strength, and (4 preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker relations between worse performance on one nonverbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings.

  18. Morse Theory for Flows in Presence of a Symmetry Group. (United States)


    n. 2534. [15] J. J. Rotman , An Introduction to Homological Algebra , Academic Press, New York (1979). (16] S. H. Spanier, Algebraic Topology, McGraw... algebra , a method of treating finite groups is described. I ~-- *. --- ptA The responsibility for the wording and views expressed in this descriptive...Aut A. The definition of a G-module A, essentially means that there is an action of G on A which also considers the algebraic structure of A. In

  19. Bulgaria’s Quest for Security After the Cold War (United States)


    40. 85. FBIS Vienna Cable AU2101202492, R212024Z January 92. Lalumiere Predicts Council of Europe Membership by May, Sofia PTA English Service, 1521...December 20. 1991, p. 40. 85. FBIS Vienna Cable AU2101202492, R212024Z January 92. Lalumiere Predicts Council of Europe Membership by May. Sofia BTA...Howard G. DeWoilf SDI and Arms Control, November 1989 5. Martin C. Libicki, What Makes Industries Strategic, November 1989 6. Melvin A. Goodman

  20. Spontaneous Vesicle Formation in Mixed Aqueous Solution of Poly-tailed Cationic and Anionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Spontaneous vesicles from the mixed aqueous solution of poly-tailed cationic surfactant PTA and anionic surfactant AOT are firstly obtained. Vesicle formation and characterizations are demonstrated by negative-staining TEM and dynamic light scattering. A monodisperse vesicle system is obtained with a polydispersity of 0.082. Ultrasonication can promote the vesicle formation. Mechanism of vesicle formation is discussed from the viewpoint of molecular interaction.

  1. Quantitative Tractography and Volumetric MRI in Blast and Blunt Force TBI: Predictors of Neurocognitive and Behavioral Outcome (United States)


    JHTR-D-13-00184 May 30, 2014 17:19 J Head Trauma Rehabil Copyright c© 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Relationship Between...text of the culture and value systems in which he/she lives and Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article...self-report. No Glasgow Coma Scale scores were avail- able for this study, and all information (LOC, PTA, Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams

  2. Leaf Disk Transformation of Lactuca sativa Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens




    Reliable methods of transferring cloned genes into plants are essential for engineering crops with desired traits. In order to induce sap-sucking insect resistance Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 4404 (1065) strain containing the binary vector pMOG 23 and hypervirulent pTOK 47 plasmid was used. pta (Pinellia ternata agglutinin), salmon ct (calcitonin) and cgrp (calcitonin gene related protein) genes were successfully integrated into Lactuca sativa plants. This genetic modification conferred let...

  3. The Mid-Term Clinical Follow-Up Using Drug-Eluting Balloons on Tibial Artery "De Novo" Lesions in Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia: A Cohort Study. (United States)

    Tolva, Valerio; Casana, Renato; Huibers, Anne; Parati, Gianfranco; Bianchi, Paolo; Cireni, Lea; Ferrero, Emanuele; Halliday, Allison


    Restenosis due to intimal hyperplasia (IH) is a major clinical issue that affects the success of lower limb endovascular surgery. After 1 year, restenosis occurs in 40% to 60% of the treated vessels. The possibility to reduce IH using local antiproliferative drugs, such as taxols, has been the rationale for the clinical applications of drug-eluting stents and drug-eluting balloons (DEBs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and instrumental efficacy of DEBs versus simple percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients affected by chronic limb ischemia (CLI) with tibial artery "de novo" lesions. A retrospective analysis was performed and included all consecutive patients who underwent endovascular treatment for CLI in our centers between January 2011 and March 2013. Inclusion criteria were (1) "de novo" tibial artery stenosis and (2) Rutherford class >4. Lesions were further divided by TransAtlantic Inter-Societal Consensus (TASC) classification into groups A, B, C, and D. Between January 2010 and March 2013, a total of 138 patients underwent simple PTA or DEB for CLI, and the groups were clinically and demographically homogenous. We decided to use DEBs in 70 cases. An improvement in the Rutherford Scale in cumulative and single TASC lesions classification was better in the DEB group (74% vs 51%; P = .024) at 24 months than in the PTA group. In the DEB group, the increase in ankle-brachial index was significantly higher than in the PTA group (P = .039). Our experience in addition to the existing literature supports the use of DEB in patients with CLI Rutherford class >3. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. De novo transcriptomic analysis and development of EST-SSR markers in the Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). (United States)

    Lu, Taofeng; Sun, Yujiao; Ma, Qin; Zhu, Minghao; Liu, Dan; Ma, Jianzhang; Ma, Yuehui; Chen, Hongyan; Guan, Weijun


    The Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, is an endangered species, and much more work is needed to protect this species, which is still vulnerable to extinction. Conservation efforts may be supported by the genetic assessment of wild populations, for which highly specific microsatellite markers are required. However, only a limited amount of genetic sequence data is available for this species. To identify the genes involved in the lung transcriptome and to develop additional simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the Siberian tiger, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq to characterize the Siberian tiger transcriptome in lung tissue (designated 'PTA-lung') and a pooled tissue sample (designated 'PTA'). Approximately 47.5 % (33,187/69,836) of the lung transcriptome was annotated in four public databases (Nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, and COG). The annotated genes formed a potential pool for gene identification in the tiger. An analysis of the genes differentially expressed in the PTA lung, and PTA samples revealed that the tiger may have suffered a series of diseases before death. In total, 1062 non-redundant SSRs were identified in the Siberian tiger transcriptome. Forty-three primer pairs were randomly selected for amplification reactions, and 26 of the 43 pairs were also used to evaluate the levels of genetic polymorphism. Fourteen primer pairs (32.56 %) amplified products that were polymorphic in size in P. tigris altaica. In conclusion, the transcriptome sequences will provide a valuable genomic resource for genetic research, and these new SSR markers comprise a reasonable number of loci for the genetic analysis of wild and captive populations of P. tigris altaica.

  5. Endovascular procedures in the treatment of obstructive lesions of brachiocephalic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagić Dragan


    Full Text Available Background. To assess the early effects, possible risks, and long term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA of brachiocephalic trunk (BT and subclavian arteries (SA. Methods. During the period of 11 years, in 92 patients (57 males - 62%, mean age 53,5 ± 7,8 years 93 PTA of SA/BT were performed; 70 (75% lesions were stenosis, while 23 (25% lesions were occlusions with mean diameter stenosis percent of 83,1 ± 6,2%. Clinical indications were: vertebrobasilar insufficiency (n=57, upper limb ischemia (n=40, coronary steal syndrome (n=4 and scheduled aorto-coronary bypass, using internal thoracic artery (ITA (n=4 asymptomatic patients. Mean lesion length was 22 ± 8 mm. Results. Eighty one (87% out of 93 lesions were successfully dilated; all of 12 (13% failures were due to unsuccessful recanalisation of occluded arteries. In 10 patients 10 stents were implanted (2 in BT and 8 in left SA. There were 6 (6.5% procedural complications: 1 dissection, 1 thrombosis of the left SA, transient ischemic attack in 2 patients, and 2 cases of dislocation of atheromatous plaque from the right SA into the right common carotid artery. During the follow-up of 48 ± 3 months, 16 (20% restenoses were treated by PTA (n=7 or operatively (n=9. Primary and secondary patency for all lesions treated during 11 years was 87% and 80%, respectively (stenosis: 97% and 89%; occlusions: 58% and 58%. Conclusion. PTA with or without stenting was relatively simple, efficient and safe procedure. It required short hospitalization with low treatment costs. If any of suboptimal results or chronic occlusions were present, the implantation of endovascular stents should have been considered.

  6. Variations of Developing Conduction System in Bis-diamine Induced Malformed Rat Heart Recognized by HNK-1 Immunohistochemistry


    Ohtani, Hiroshi


    To clarify the abnormal development of the cardiac conduction system in congenital heart anomalies, HNK-1 distribution of bis-diamine induced malformed hearts was studied in rat embryos. All the embryos showed not only conotruncal anomalies, such as persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) and pulmonary hypoplasia with overriding aorta (comparable to tetralogy of Fallot), but also incomplete absorption of sinus venosus. In the malformed hearts, the middle internodal tract passing through the dorsa...

  7. NiTi intermetallic surface coatings by laser metal deposition for improving wear properties of Ti-6Al-4V substrates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokgalaka, MN


    Full Text Available properties [9–13]. Stainless steel surfaces were coated with NiTi to enhance mechanical properties and corrosion resis- tance using different deposition techniques, including plasma Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Materials Science... (PTA), plasma welding, plasma spray coating, and sputtering process, all with different degrees of success [14–17]. Ozel et al. [18] studied microstructure characteristic of NiTi coating on stainless steel by transferred arc process. When the arc...

  8. Treatment of purified terephthalic acid wastewater using a bio-waste-adsorbent bagasse fly ash (BFA). (United States)

    Verma, Shilpi; Prasad, Basheshwar; Mishra, Indra Mani


    Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) plant of a petrochemical unit generates wastewater having high pollution load. Acid treatment of this wastewater reduces the chemical oxygen demand (COD) load by more than 50%, still leaving substantial COD load (>1500 mg/L) which should be removed. The present study reports on the use of a bio-waste-adsorbent bagasse fly ash (BFA) for the reduction of COD and other recalcitrant acids from this wastewater. The BFA showed basic character and was mesoporous with a BET specific surface area of 82.4 m(2)/g. Optimum conditions for the adsorptive treatment of acid-pretreated PTA wastewater were found to be as follows: initial pH (pHi) = 4, BFA dosage = 15 g/L, and contact time = 3 h. Adsorption treatment resulted in 58.2% removal of COD, 96.3% removal of terephthalic acid (TA), and 99.9% removal of benzoic acid (BA). TA and BA were removed from the pretreated PTA wastewater through precipitation and sedimentation of un-dissociated acid molecules inside the mesopores of the BFA. The results showed that the COD removed by the BFA followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Equilibrium sorption data were best correlated by the Freundlich isotherm. The process of adsorptive removal of COD was found to be exothermic. The change in the Gibbs free energy was found to be negative, suggesting that the adsorption process is spontaneous and feasible for the treatment of PTA wastewater.

  9. Dissemination and Application of New Technology Relating to Catalytic Rectification/Hydrolysis of Methyl Acetate Developed by Fuzhou University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The new process for catalytic rectification/hydrolysis of methyl acetate developed by the Chemistry and Chemical Engineering College of Fuzhou University has been dissemi-nated and applied. This process adopts the new integrated technology of catalytic rectification which not only has tack-led the problem of low rate of hydrolysis of methyl acetate obtained in the course of PVA manufacture, but is also be-ing applied in the PTA industry to realize the utilization of byproducts of methyl acetate.

  10. Incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of popliteal artery embolization in the superficial femoral artery interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTA + stent has gained acceptance as a primary treatment modality for the superficial femoral artery (SFA diseases. Popliteal artery embolization (PAE is a severe complication in SFA interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of PAE in primary SFA PTA + stent. METHODS: Chronic SFA arteriosclerosis cases that underwent primary PTA + stent were reviewed from a retrospectively maintained database. Runoff vessels were evaluated in all cases before and after the interventions for PAE detection. The primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using log-rank analysis. Cox multivariate regression was performed to evaluate predictors of patency and limb salvage rates. RESULTS: There were 436 lesions treated in 388 patients with 10 PAE events (2.3% in total. PAE rate was significantly higher in Transatlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC C/D group compared with TASC A/B group (OR = 8.91, P = .002, in chronic total occlusion (CTO lesions compared with stenotic lesions (P<.0001, and in group with history of cerebral ischemic stroke (OR = 6.11, P = .007. PAE rates were not significantly affected by age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and runoff status. The binary logistic regression showed that only the TASC C/D was an independent predictor of PAE (P = .031. The 12-month and 24-month primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage rates in PAE group showed no significant differences comparing with non-PAE group. CONCLUSIONS: PAE is a rare event in primary SFA PTA + stent. TASC C/D lesion, CTO and cerebral ischemic stroke history are risk factors for PAE. PAE is typically reversible by comprehensive techniques. If the popliteal flow is restored in time, PAE has no significant effect on long-term patency and limb

  11. Estimation of Uranium in Some Edible and Commercial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choudhury


    Full Text Available The trace contents of uranium have been estimated in some edible and commercial plants by PTA method. The groups of food plants studied are cereals, pulses, underground vegetables, leafy vegetables, and fruit vegetables. The commercial plants and ingredients taken are betel leaves, tobacco leaves, areca nuts, and lime. Among the different samples studied, the average uranium content, in general, is found to vary from 0.25 to 2.67 ppm

  12. A randomized trial of the Positive Thoughts and Action program for depression among early adolescents. (United States)

    McCarty, Carolyn A; Violette, Heather D; Duong, Mylien T; Cruz, Rick A; McCauley, Elizabeth


    This study was conducted to compare the outcomes of a group-based cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention (Positive Thoughts and Actions [PTA]) tailored to youth in middle school with a brief, individually administered supportive intervention (Individual Support Program [ISP]). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 120 early adolescents (72 girls, 48 boys; age = 11-15 years) who had elevated depressive symptoms and were selected from a school-based population. Measures of internalizing problems, externalizing problems, personal adjustment, school problems, and interpersonal relations were obtained from parents, youth, and/or teachers at preintervention (Time 1) and postintervention (Time 2, 5-7 months after preintervention). General linear model repeated measures analyses yielded a significant Group × Time interaction on youth-reported, but not parent-reported, depressive symptoms and internalizing symptoms. Youth in the PTA group showed greater decreases following intervention compared to youth who received ISP, yielding effect sizes (Cohen's d) of 0.36 for depressive symptoms, 95% CI [-.02, .73], and 0.44, 95% CI [.05, .82], for internalizing symptoms. PTA youth also showed improvements in their personal adjustment (sense of inadequacy, self-esteem), and parent-reported social skills, but no differences emerged between groups for externalizing symptoms, school problems, or interpersonal relationships. Cognitive-behavioral preventive interventions in which youth engage in personal goal-setting and practice social-emotional skills, such as PTA, may be beneficial for the reduction of depressive symptoms over and above general support and empathy.

  13. Increased immediate postoperative hemorrhage in older and obese children after outpatient tonsillectomy. (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Rijul; Mahboubi, Hossein; Moriyama, Derek; Ajose-Popoola, Olubunmi; Pham, Nguyen S; Ahuja, Gurpreet S


    Postoperative hemorrhage is one of the serious complications of adenotonsillar surgery. This study seeks to investigate the relationship between post-tonsillectomy/adenotonsillectomy hemorrhage in the pediatric population and obesity, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH), chronic tonsillitis (CT), and peritonsillar abscess (PTA) in the immediate post-operative setting. The California Ambulatory Surgery Data for the years 2005-2011 were reviewed. The records of patients aged less than 18 years undergoing tonsillectomy (T) or adenotonsillectomy (AT) were extracted using relevant ICD-9 diagnosis codes. The association between hemorrhage and obesity, OSA, AH, CT, PTA, and patients' demographics among surgeries performed in the outpatient setting was evaluated. A total of 138,998 procedures, 22,478 Ts and 116,520 ATs, were performed during 2005-2011, of which 3.0% were performed on obese children. Hemorrhage occurred in 156 cases (0.1%), and was associated with an age from 9 to 18 years (p=0.01), and obesity (p=0.02). There was no association between hemorrhage and gender (p=0.8), OSA (p=0.6), ATH (p=0.5), CT (p=0.35), PTA (p=0.47), or T versus AT (p=0.3). Multivariate analysis revealed that hemorrhage was about 2.3 times more likely to occur in obese children (odds ratio [OR]=2.3; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.1-5.1; p=0.03). Obesity and older age are associated with an increased risk of immediate post-operative hemorrhage following tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy in the outpatient setting. Gender, OSA, ATH, CT, PTA, and T versus AT did not alter the risk of post-operative hemorrhage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of Chlamydia trachomatis in Military Women; Prevalence, Risk Factors, and a Cost Benefit Analysis of Early Diagnosis and Treatment (United States)


    these infections may be asymptromatic. the effectiveness of fever. Her LMP was 10 days PTA. She had had varicella and Hlerpes labialis . but no Herpes ...treatment. 606 Prevalence And Risk Factors Of C. trac/romotisn And N. gonorrhocae Infectioni In Male, 609 File-Hlugh-Curtis-Like Syndrome Caused t3v Herpes ...presented with Fitz-Hitgh-Currtis-like syndromte caused by Herpes C. trachomtatis and N. goiror-rhoeuc urogenital infections are associated with

  15. Stenting for Atherosclerotic Stenosis of the Intracranial or Skull Base Cerebral Arteries: Effectiveness and Problems


    Harakuni, T.; Hyodo, A.; Shingaki, T.; Kugai, M.; Kinjyo, T.; Tsuchida, H.; Sugimoto, K.; Yoshii, Y.; Matsumaru, Y.


    Since May 1992, we have performed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) or stenting 70 times for 65 lesions in 62 patients with atherosclerotic stenosis of the intracranial or skull base cerebral arteries. Stenting was carried out nine times for nine lesions in nine cases. Stenting was performed on patients with an average age of 62. The patients were eight men and one woman. The stenotic lesions involved the internal carotid artery (petrous portion) in four cases, the internal carotid ...

  16. Application of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling and simulation for the prediction of target attainment of ceftobiprole against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using minimum inhibitory concentration and time-kill curve based approaches. (United States)

    Barbour, April M; Schmidt, Stephan; Zhuang, Luning; Rand, Kenneth; Derendorf, Hartmut


    The purpose of this report was to compare two different methods for dose optimisation of antimicrobials. The probability of target attainment (PTA) was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation to predict the PK/PD target of fT>MIC or modelling and simulation of time-kill curve data. Ceftobiprole, the paradigm compound, activity against two MRSA strains was determined, ATCC 33591 (MIC=2mg/L) and a clinical isolate (MIC=1mg/L). A two-subpopulation model accounting for drug degradation during the experiment adequately fit the time-kill curve data (concentration range 0.25-16× MIC). The PTA was calculated for plasma, skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue based on data from a microdialysis study in healthy volunteers. A two-compartment model with distribution factors to account for differences between free serum and tissue interstitial space fluid concentration appropriately fit the pharmacokinetic data. Pharmacodynamic endpoints of fT>MIC of 30% or 40% and 1- or 2-log kill were used. The PTA was >90% in all tissues based on the PK/PD endpoint of fT>MIC >40%. The PTAs based on a 1- or 2-log kill from the time-kill experiments were lower than those calculated based on fT>MIC. The PTA of a 1-log kill was >90% for both MRSA isolates for plasma and skeletal muscle but was slightly below 90% for subcutaneous adipose tissue (both isolates ca. 88%). The results support a dosing regimen of 500mg three times daily as a 2-h intravenous infusion. This dose should be confirmed as additional pharmacokinetic data from various patient populations become available.

  17. Development of Intra-Articular Drug Delivery to Alter Progression of Arthritis Following Joint Injury (United States)


    Arthritis Following Joint Injury Steven A. Olson, M.D. W81XWH-10-1-0890 Duke University Durham, NC 27705 15 September 2011 - 14 March ...4 Appendices – Abstract accepted for presentation at ORASI ( Osteoarthritis Research Society International) meeting in...NC 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC PURPOSE: Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) is a form of osteoarthritis (OA

  18. Tracking Interstellar Space Weather Toward Timing-Array Millisecond Pulsars (United States)

    Bhat, N. D. R.; Ord, S. M.; Tremblay, S. E.; Shannon, R. M.; van Straten, W.; Kaplan, D. L.; Macquart, J.-P.; Kirsten, F.


    The recent LIGO detection of milli-Hertz gravitational wave (GW) signals from black-hole merger events has further reinforced the important role of Pulsar timing array (PTA) experiments in the GW astronomy. PTAs exploit the clock-like stability of fast-spinning millisecond pulsars (MSPs) to make a direct detection of ultra-low frequency (nano-Hertz) gravitational waves, and this is a key science objective for the SKA. The science enabled by PTAs is highly complementary to that possible with LIGO-like detectors. PTA efforts of the past few years clearly suggest that interstellar propagation effects on pulsar signals may ultimately limit the detection sensitivity of PTAs if they are not accurately measured and corrected for in timing measurements. Interstellar medium (ISM) effects are much stronger at lower radio frequencies and therefore the MWA presents an exciting and unique opportunity to calibrate interstellar propagation delays. This will potentially lead to enhanced sensitivity and scientific impact of PTA projects. Since our demonstration early this year of our ability to form a coherent (tied-array) beam by re-processing the recorded VCS data (Bhat et al. 2016), we have successfully ported the full processing pipeline on to the Galaxy cluster of Pawsey and also demonstrated the value of high-sensitivity multi-band pulsar observations that are now possible with the MWA. Here we propose further observations of three most promising PTA pulsars that will be nightly objects in the 2017A period. The main science driver is to characterise the nature of the turbulent ISM through high-quality scintillation and dispersion studies including the investigation of chromatic (frequency-dependent) DMs. Success of these efforts will define the breadth and scope of a more ambitious program in the future, bringing in a new science niche for MWA and SKA-low.

  19. World Wide Viewsに対する市民参加型アセスメント


    山内, 保典


    Not only technology which natural science offers, but also one which social science offers can be an object of participatory technology assessment (pTA). In this paper, "World Wide Views on Global warming (WWViews)" which is the globe-encompassing democratic deliberation was assessed by citizen participants. The participants of WWViews are little interested in global warming. Therefore, their assessment is useful to develop a participatory method which can involve wider range of public. This ...

  20. Endovascular Management of the Arteria Profunda Femoralis: Long-Term Angiographic and Clinical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnabatidis, Dimitrios, E-mail:; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Pastromas, Georgios; Katsanos, Kostantinos; Siablis, Dimitrios [Patras University Hospital, School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Greece)


    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the long-term angiographic and clinical outcomes of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the arteria profunda femoralis (PFA), in a series of patients suffering from critical limb ischemia (CLI) or severe intermittent claudication (IC). Methods: Our department's database was searched to identify patients who underwent PTA or bail-out stenting of the PFA. Among the study's inclusion criteria were Rutherford categories 3-6 and {>=}70% stenosis of the PFA. Only de novo stenotic lesions were assessed. Primary endpoints were technical success, angiographic lesion primary patency, angiographic binary in-lesion restenosis, and target lesion recanalization (TLR) rates. Secondary endpoints included patient survival, limb salvage, and complication rates. Patient's baseline demographics, lesion, and procedural details were analyzed. Results: Between 2001 and 2011, 20 consecutive patients (17 males) with a mean age of 73 {+-} 9 (range 53-87) years underwent PTA or bail-out stenting in 23 PFA lesions. Critical limb ischemia was the indication in eight of 20 patients (40%). The mean lesion length was 31 {+-} 9.5 mm. The procedural technical success was 100% (23/23), whereas mean time angiographic and clinical follow-up was 26.8 {+-} 24.6 months. According to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, primary patency and binary restenosis rate were 95 and 86.1% respectively up to 8 years follow-up. No TLR procedures were performed. The 8-year patient survival and limb salvage rates were 87.5 and 84.7% respectively. Conclusions: PTA or stenting of focal, stenotic, PFA lesions, in patients suffering from CLI or IC, exhibit high long-term primary patency rates, as well as low binary restenosis and TLR rates. Large, multicenter studies are required to validate these results.