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Sample records for psz-ts material irrespective

  1. A Timoshenko Piezoelectric Beam Finite Element with Consistent Performance Irrespective of Geometric and Material Configurations

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    Litesh N. Sulbhewar

    Full Text Available Abstract The conventional Timoshenko piezoelectric beam finite elements based on First-order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT do not maintain the accuracy and convergence consistently over the applicable range of material and geometric properties. In these elements, the inaccuracy arises due to the induced potential effects in the transverse direction and inefficiency arises due to the use of independently assumed linear polynomial interpolation of the field variables in the longitudinal direction. In this work, a novel FSDT-based piezoelectric beam finite element is proposed which is devoid of these deficiencies. A variational formulation with consistent through-thickness potential is developed. The governing equilibrium equations are used to derive the coupled field relations. These relations are used to develop a polynomial interpolation scheme which properly accommodates the bending-extension, bending-shear and induced potential couplings to produce accurate results in an efficient manner. It is noteworthy that this consistently accurate and efficient beam finite element uses the same nodal variables as of conventional FSDT formulations available in the literature. Comparison of numerical results proves the consistent accuracy and efficiency of the proposed formulation irrespective of geometric and material configurations, unlike the conventional formulations.

  2. Primary early correction of tetralogy of Fallot irrespective of age.

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    Kantorova, Andrea; Zbieranek, Kai; Sauer, Henning; Lilje, Christian; Haun, Christoph; Hraska, Viktor

    2008-04-01

    The policy of early repair of patients with tetralogy of Fallot, irrespective of age, as opposed to initial palliation with a shunt, remains controversial. The aim of our study was to analyze the midterm outcome of primary early correction of tetralogy of Fallot. Between 1996 and 2005, a total of 61 consecutive patients less than 6 months of age underwent primary correction of tetralogy of Fallot in two institutions. The median age at surgery was 3.3 months, and 27 patients (44%) were younger than 3 months of age, including 12 (20%) newborns. We analyzed the patients in 2 groups: those younger than 3 months of age, and those aged between 3 and 6 months. There was one early (1.6%), and one late death. Actuarial survival was 98.4%, 96.7%, 96.7% at 1, 5, and 10 years respectively, with a median follow up of 4.5 years. There was no difference in survival, bypass time, lengths of ventilation, and hospital stay between the groups. A transjunctional patch was placed significantly more often in the patients younger than 3 months (p = 0.039), with no adverse effect on survival and morbidity during the follow-up. Freedom from reoperation was 98.2%, 92.2%, and 83% at 1, 5, and 10 years respectively, with no difference between the groups. Elective primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot in asymptomatic patients is delayed beyond 3 months of age. In symptomatic patients, primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot is performed irrespective of age, weight and preoperative state. This approach is safe, and provides an excellent midterm outcome with acceptable morbidity and rates of reintervention. The long-term benefits of this approach must be established by careful follow-up, with particular emphasis on arrhythmias, right ventricular function, and exercise performance.

  3. Event-related brain potential correlates of words' emotional valence irrespective of arousal and type of task.

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    Espuny, Javier; Jiménez-Ortega, Laura; Casado, Pilar; Fondevila, Sabela; Muñoz, Francisco; Hernández-Gutiérrez, David; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

    2018-03-23

    Many Event-Related brain Potential (ERP) experiments have explored how the two main dimensions of emotion, arousal and valence, affect linguistic processing. However, the heterogeneity of experimental paradigms and materials has led to mixed results. In the present study, we aim to clarify words' emotional valence effects on ERP when arousal is controlled, and determine whether these effects may vary as a function of the type of task performed. For these purposes, we designed an ERP experiment with the valence of words manipulated, and arousal equated across valences. The participants performed two types of task: in one, they had to read aloud each word, written in black on a white background; in the other, they had to name the color of the ink in which each word was written. The results showed the main effects of valence irrespective of task, and no interaction between valence and task. The most marked effects of valence were in response to negative words, which elicited an Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) and a Late Positive Complex (LPC). Our results suggest that, when arousal is controlled, the cognitive information in negative words triggers a 'negativity bias', these being the only words able to elicit emotion-related ERP modulations. Moreover, these modulations are largely unaffected by the types of task explored here. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Limited OXPHOS capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity in laboratory mice irrespective of the glucose tolerance status

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    Theresa Schöttl

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of murine obesity irrespective of the glucose tolerance status. Impaired respiratory capacity in white adipocytes solely is not sufficient for the development of systemic glucose intolerance.

  5. Neural network and SVM classifiers accurately predict lipid binding proteins, irrespective of sequence homology.

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    Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Moradi-Shahrbabak, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-09-07

    Due to the central roles of lipid binding proteins (LBPs) in many biological processes, sequence based identification of LBPs is of great interest. The major challenge is that LBPs are diverse in sequence, structure, and function which results in low accuracy of sequence homology based methods. Therefore, there is a need for developing alternative functional prediction methods irrespective of sequence similarity. To identify LBPs from non-LBPs, the performances of support vector machine (SVM) and neural network were compared in this study. Comprehensive protein features and various techniques were employed to create datasets. Five-fold cross-validation (CV) and independent evaluation (IE) tests were used to assess the validity of the two methods. The results indicated that SVM outperforms neural network. SVM achieved 89.28% (CV) and 89.55% (IE) overall accuracy in identification of LBPs from non-LBPs and 92.06% (CV) and 92.90% (IE) (in average) for classification of different LBPs classes. Increasing the number and the range of extracted protein features as well as optimization of the SVM parameters significantly increased the efficiency of LBPs class prediction in comparison to the only previous report in this field. Altogether, the results showed that the SVM algorithm can be run on broad, computationally calculated protein features and offers a promising tool in detection of LBPs classes. The proposed approach has the potential to integrate and improve the common sequence alignment based methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Earlier saccades to task-relevant targets irrespective of relative gain between peripheral and foveal information.

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    Wolf, Christian; Schütz, Alexander C

    2017-06-01

    Saccades bring objects of interest onto the fovea for high-acuity processing. Saccades to rewarded targets show shorter latencies that correlate negatively with expected motivational value. Shorter latencies are also observed when the saccade target is relevant for a perceptual discrimination task. Here we tested whether saccade preparation is equally influenced by informational value as it is by motivational value. We defined informational value as the probability that information is task-relevant times the ratio between postsaccadic foveal and presaccadic peripheral discriminability. Using a gaze-contingent display, we independently manipulated peripheral and foveal discriminability of the saccade target. Latencies of saccades with perceptual task were reduced by 36 ms in general, but they were not modulated by the information saccades provide (Experiments 1 and 2). However, latencies showed a clear negative linear correlation with the probability that the target is task-relevant (Experiment 3). We replicated that the facilitation by a perceptual task is spatially specific and not due to generally heightened arousal (Experiment 4). Finally, the facilitation only emerged when the perceptual task is in the visual but not in the auditory modality (Experiment 5). Taken together, these results suggest that saccade latencies are not equally modulated by informational value as by motivational value. The facilitation by a perceptual task only arises when task-relevant visual information is foveated, irrespective of whether the foveation is useful or not.

  7. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Sieglinde Zelzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (n = 30 and high-fat diet (n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE, the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats.

  8. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats.

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    Zelzer, Sieglinde; Mangge, Harald; Pailer, Sabine; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Kieslinger, Petra; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Prüller, Florian; Weghuber, Daniel; Datz, Christian; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Trummer, Christian; Gostner, Johanna; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-05-21

    Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding) on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (n = 30) and high-fat diet (n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats.

  9. Unwanted road to anaemia in transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy may continue irrespective of tafamidis treatment.

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    Ikeda, Tokunori; Masuda, Teruaki; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Yamashita, Taro; Misumi, Yohei; Shinriki, Satoru; Ando, Yukio

    2018-01-01

    Background This retrospective longitudinal study was performed to determine whether tafamidis treatment leads to improvements in commonly used blood data for transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP). Methods Commonly used blood data (complete blood count [including a haemogram], total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, total bilirubin [T-Bil], creatine kinase, choline esterase, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], serum amyloid A protein, TTR, haemoglobin A1c, free triiodothyronine [FT3] and free thyroxine [FT4]) were investigated in 33 TTR-FAP patients. These values included longitudinal data at three time points: six months before or after tafamidis treatment and one year after tafamidis treatment. Longitudinal changes in each blood item were examined using a linear mixed model, adjusting for age at starting tafamidis, sex, TTR-FAP stage and value before tafamidis treatment. Results Our results show elevated TTR concentrations after tafamidis treatment. In contrast, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, T-Bil, eGFR, FT3 and FT4, gradually decreased through a reference range. There were no characteristic observations in any other items. TTR binds to thyroid hormone; therefore, FT3 and FT4 decreased in inverse proportion to increased TTR concentrations. Conclusion Unfortunately, progression to anaemia may occur regardless of tafamidis treatment. Because anaemia is sometimes present in TTR-FAP, attention should be paid to longitudinal changes in commonly used blood data, irrespective of tafamidis treatment.

  10. Olanzapine is effective for refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting irrespective of chemotherapy emetogenicity.

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    Vig, Sierra; Seibert, Laurel; Green, Myke R

    2014-01-01

    The role of olanzapine added to a dopamine antagonist and benzodiazepine for the treatment of refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is incompletely characterized in all levels of chemotherapy emetogenicity. This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy of the addition of olanzapine in adults experiencing refractory CINV stratified by chemotherapy emetogenicity. Thirty-three adults who experienced CINV refractory to guideline-recommended prophylaxis and breakthrough antiemetics (dopamine antagonists and benzodiazepines) and received at least one dose of olanzapine 5-10 mg per os were evaluated. Failure was defined as >5 emesis events in 24 h or more than 10 cumulative doses of rescue antiemetics following first olanzapine dose per treatment cycle. Post hoc analyses investigated variables impacting olanzapine efficacy. The addition of olanzapine demonstrated an overall success rate of 70 %. This success rate did not differ between chemotherapy regimens of high versus low-to-moderate emetogenicity (p = 0.79), prophylaxis with serotonin antagonist plus corticosteroid and aprepitant versus serotonin antagonist alone (p = 0.77), or age over 50 versus ≤50 years (p > 0.99). A trend toward greater benefit was seen in women (p = 0.08). The addition of olanzapine to a dopamine antagonist and benzodiazepine demonstrated high efficacy rates for refractory CINV irrespective of chemotherapy emetogenicity. The high success rates among all groups suggests that incomplete resolution of CINV with prophylactic serotonin antagonists and breakthrough dopamine antagonists plus benzodiazepine may benefit from the addition of olanzapine regardless of gender, degree of chemotherapy emetogenicity, number of prophylactic antiemetics, or age. The trend toward greater control of emesis in women merits further investigation.

  11. MET signalling in primary colon epithelial cells leads to increased transformation irrespective of aberrant Wnt signalling

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    Boon, E M J; Kovarikova, M; Derksen, P W B; van der Neut, R

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that in hereditary and most sporadic colon tumours, components of the Wnt pathway are mutated. The Wnt target MET has been implicated in the development of colon cancer. Here, we show that overexpression of wild-type or a constitutively activated form of MET in colon epithelial cells leads to increased transformation irrespective of Wnt signalling. Fetal human colon epithelial cells without aberrant Wnt signalling were transfected with wild-type or mutated MET constructs. Expression of these constructs leads to increased phosphorylation of MET and its downstream targets PKB and MAPK. Upon stimulation with HGF, the expression of E-cadherin is downregulated in wild-type MET-transfected cells, whereas cells expressing mutated MET show low E-cadherin levels independent of stimulation with ligand. This implies a higher migratory propensity of these cells. Furthermore, fetal human colon epithelial cells expressing the mutated form of MET have colony-forming capacity in soft agar, while cells expressing wild-type MET show an intermediate phenotype. Subcutaneous injection of mutated MET-transfected cells in nude mice leads to the formation of tumours within 12 days in all mice injected. At this time point, mock-transfected cells do not form tumours, while wild-type MET-transfected cells form subcutaneous tumours in one out of five mice. We thus show that MET signalling can lead to increased transformation of colon epithelial cells independent of Wnt signalling and in this way could play an essential role in the onset and progression of colorectal cancer. PMID:15785735

  12. Influence of diesel engine combustion on the rupture strength of partially stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkman, C.R.; Begun, G.M.; Cavin, O.B.; Foster, B.E.; Graves, R.L.; Kahl, W.K.; Liu, K.C.; Simpson, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported for tests on partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ-TS and MS grade) bars exposed in the combustion chambers of two operating single-cylinder 0.825-L diesel engines. Specifics of test conditions and procedures are presented. Subsequent to exposure, the bars were subjected to four-point bending and the rupture strengths determined. The TS grade showed a decrease in average strength of 32%, while the strength of the MS grade decreased by about 9% in comparison to average behavior of unaged material. Results of X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy, isothermal aging studies, and ceramographic characterization are given to define reasons for material degradation

  13. Age and Menopausal Status Affect Osteoprotegerin and Osteocalcin Levels in Women Differently, Irrespective of Thyroid Function

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    Alexander D. Shinkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoprotegerin (OPG and osteocalcin (OC are essential bone proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated that they are not secreted solely by bone cells; they play roles in the vascular function and energy metabolism, and they are influenced by multiple factors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of menopause and age on OPG and OC in women with different thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Material and Methods We studied 49 women with elevated TSH, 26 with suppressed TSH, and 67 age-matched euthyroid controls. Of them 64 were menstruating and 78 postmenopausal. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, serum TSH, free thyroxin (FT4, OPG, and OC were measured. Results Generally, both OPG and OC were higher in the postmenopausal women than in the menstruating subjects (OPG 3.85 ± 1.49 pmol/L vs. 5.84 ± 2.42 pmol/L, P < 0.001; OC 8.84 ± 3.70 ng/dL vs. 12.87 ± 6.45 ng/dL, P < 0.001, and within the two thyroid dysfunction subgroups and the controls (all P < 0.05. OPG correlated with age (postmenopausal rho = 0.57, P < 0.001; premenopausal rho = 0.31, P = 0.015. Among the premenopausal subjects, OPG was higher in those with low TSH than in the controls ( P = 0.048. OC correlated negatively with BMI and WC in the postmenopausal group (Spearman rho = –-0.25, P = 0.03 and rho = –-0.42, P < 0.001 respectively. OC was higher in the postmenopausal subjects with low TSH than in those with elevated TSH ( P = 0.024, and correlated positively with FT4 (rho = 0.40, P = 0.002 and negatively with TSH (rho = -0.29, P = 0.013. CONCLUSIONS In women, OPG and OC depended differently on age and menopause and, to a lesser extent, on the thyroid function and body composition.

  14. Ipragliflozin Improves Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice and Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Irrespective of Body Weight Reduction.

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    Chikara Komiya

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with a high incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD related to obesity and insulin resistance. Currently, medical interventions for NAFLD have focused on diet control and exercise to reduce body weight, and there is a requirement for effective pharmacological therapies. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote the urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. SGLT2 inhibitors lower blood glucose independent of insulin action and are expected to reduce body weight because of urinary calorie loss. Here we show that an SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin improves hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced and leptin-deficient (ob/ob obese mice irrespective of body weight reduction. In the obese mice, ipragliflozin-induced hyperphagia occurred to increase energy intake, attenuating body weight reduction with increased epididymal fat mass. There is an inverse correlation between weights of liver and epididymal fat in ipragliflozin-treated obese mice, suggesting that ipragliflozin treatment promotes normotopic fat accumulation in the epididymal fat and prevents ectopic fat accumulation in the liver. Despite increased adiposity, ipragliflozin ameliorates obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in epididymal fat. Clinically, ipragliflozin improves liver dysfunction in patients with T2DM irrespective of body weight reduction. These findings provide new insight into the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on energy homeostasis and fat accumulation and indicate their potential therapeutic efficacy in T2DM-associated hepatic steatosis.

  15. Materialism.

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    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. RNA localization in Xenopus oocytes uses a core group of trans-acting factors irrespective of destination.

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    Snedden, Donald D; Bertke, Michelle M; Vernon, Dominic; Huber, Paul W

    2013-07-01

    The 3' untranslated region of mRNA encoding PHAX, a phosphoprotein required for nuclear export of U-type snRNAs, contains cis-acting sequence motifs E2 and VM1 that are required for localization of RNAs to the vegetal hemisphere of Xenopus oocytes. However, we have found that PHAX mRNA is transported to the opposite, animal, hemisphere. A set of proteins that cross-link to the localization elements of vegetally localized RNAs are also cross-linked to PHAX and An1 mRNAs, demonstrating that the composition of RNP complexes that form on these localization elements is highly conserved irrespective of the final destination of the RNA. The ability of RNAs to bind this core group of proteins is correlated with localization activity. Staufen1, which binds to Vg1 and VegT mRNAs, is not associated with RNAs localized to the animal hemisphere and may determine, at least in part, the direction of RNA movement in Xenopus oocytes.

  17. Human Adult Stem Cells Maintain a Constant Phenotype Profile Irrespective of Their Origin, Basal Media, and Long Term Cultures

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    Indumathi Somasundaram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify the phenotypic marker expressions of different human adult stem cells derived from, namely, bone marrow, subcutaneous fat, and omentum fat, cultured in different media, namely, DMEM-Low Glucose, Alpha-MEM, DMEM-F12 and DMEM-KO and under long term culture conditions (>P20. We characterized immunophenotype by using various hematopoietic, mesenchymal, endothelial markers, and cell adhesion molecules in the long term cultures (Passages-P1, P3, P5, P9, P12, P15, and P20. Interestingly, data revealed similar marker expression profiles irrespective of source, basal media, and extensive culturing. This demonstrates that all adult stem cell sources mentioned in this study share similar phenotypic marker and all media seem appropriate for culturing these sources. However, a disparity was observed in the markers such as CD49d, CD54, CD117, CD29, and CD106, thereby warranting further research on these markers. Besides the aforesaid objective, it is understood from the study that immunophenotyping acts as a valuable tool to identify inherent property of each cell, thereby leading to a valuable cell based therapy.

  18. PKCepsilon overexpression, irrespective of genetic background, sensitizes skin to UVR-induced development of squamous-cell carcinomas.

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    Sand, Jordan M; Aziz, Moammir H; Dreckschmidt, Nancy E; Havighurst, Thomas C; Kim, KyungMann; Oberley, Terry D; Verma, Ajit K

    2010-01-01

    Chronic exposure to UVR is the major etiologic factor in the development of human skin cancers including squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC). We have previously shown that protein Kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) transgenic mice on FVB/N background, which overexpress PKCepsilon protein approximately eightfold over endogenous levels in epidermis, exhibit about threefold more sensitivity than wild-type littermates to UVR-induced development of SCC. To determine whether it is PKCepsilon and not the mouse genetic background that determines susceptibility to UVR carcinogenesis, we cross-bred PKCepsilon FVB/N transgenic mice with SKH-1 hairless mice to generate PKCepsilon-overexpressing SKH-1 hairless mice. To evaluate the susceptibility of PKCepsilon SKH-1 hairless transgenic mice to UVR carcinogenesis, the mice were exposed to UVR (1-2 KJ m(-2)) three times weekly from a bank of six kodacel-filtered FS40 sunlamps. As compared with the wild-type hairless mice, PKCepsilon overexpression in SKH-1 hairless mice decreased the latency (12 weeks), whereas it increased the incidence (twofold) and multiplicity (fourfold) of SCC. The SKH hairless transgenic mice were observed to be as sensitive as FVB/N transgenic mice to UVR-induced development of SCC and expression of proliferative markers (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2). The results indicate that PKCepsilon level dictates susceptibility, irrespective of genetic background, to UVR carcinogenesis.

  19. Hyperinsulinemia correlates with low levels of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in Japanese men irrespective of fat distribution

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    Nakatsuji Hideaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, a member of the natriuretic peptide family, is a cardiac-derived secretory hormone with natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities. Intraabdominal fat accumulation is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and cardiac dysfunction. Circulating BNP levels are relatively low (within the normal limits in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. However, the relationship between plasma BNP levels and visceral fat accumulation in general population has not been reported. The present study analyzed the relationships between plasma BNP levels and various clinical variables, including insulin, visceral and subcutaneous fat area (VFA and SFA, respectively, in normal Japanese men. Methods The study (Victor-J study subjects were consecutive 500 Japanese male workers, who underwent a health checkup and were measured VFA and SFA by computed tomography. Results Age-adjusted simple linear regression analysis showed that log-BNP correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol, and negatively with VFA, log-immunoreactive insulin (IRI, log-triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol, but not body mass index or SFA. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified log-IRI and HDL-cholesterol as significant determinants of log-BNP. Subjects with IRI ≥5.5 μIU/mL had lower plasma BNP levels than those with IRI 2, visceral fat accumulation (VFA, cutoff value 100 cm2 and subcutaneous fat accumulation (SFA, cutoff value 128 cm2. Conclusions Our study showed that hyperinsulinemia correlated with low levels of plasma BNP in general men, irrespective of fat distribution. Trial registration UMIN 000004318.

  20. Risk of labor dystocia increases with maternal age irrespective of parity: a population-based register study.

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    Waldenström, Ulla; Ekéus, Cecilia

    2017-09-01

    Advanced maternal age is associated with labor dystocia (LD) in nulliparous women. This study investigates the age-related risk of LD in first, second and third births. All live singleton cephalic births at term (≥ 37 gestational weeks) recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Register from 1999 to 2011, except elective cesarean sections and fourth births and more, in total 998 675 pregnancies, were included in the study. LD was defined by International Classification of Diseases, version 10 codes (O620, O621, O622, O629, O630, O631 and O639). In each parity group risks of LD at age 25-29 years, 30-34 years, 35-39 years and ≥ 40 years compared with age < 25 years were investigated by logistic regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for year of delivery, education, country/region of birth, smoking in early pregnancy, maternal height, body mass index, week of gestation, fetal presentation and infant birthweight. Rates of LD were 22.5%, 6.1% and 4% in first, second and third births, respectively. Adjusted odd ratios (OR) for LD increased progressively from the youngest to the oldest age group, irrespective of parity. At age 35-39 years the adjusted OR (95% CI) was approximately doubled compared with age 25 and younger: 2.13 (2.06-2.20) in first birth; 2.05 (1.91-2.19) in second births; and 1.81 (1.49-2.21) in third births. Maternal age is an independent risk factor for LD in first, second and third births. Although age-related risks by parity are relatively similar, more nulliparous than parous women will be exposed to LD due to the higher rate. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. The Sense of Agency Is More Sensitive to Manipulations of Outcome than Movement-Related Feedback Irrespective of Sensory Modality.

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    Nicole David

    Full Text Available The sense of agency describes the ability to experience oneself as the agent of one's own actions. Previous studies of the sense of agency manipulated the predicted sensory feedback related either to movement execution or to the movement's outcome, for example by delaying the movement of a virtual hand or the onset of a tone that resulted from a button press. Such temporal sensorimotor discrepancies reduce the sense of agency. It remains unclear whether movement-related feedback is processed differently than outcome-related feedback in terms of agency experience, especially if these types of feedback differ with respect to sensory modality. We employed a mixed-reality setup, in which participants tracked their finger movements by means of a virtual hand. They performed a single tap, which elicited a sound. The temporal contingency between the participants' finger movements and (i the movement of the virtual hand or (ii the expected auditory outcome was systematically varied. In a visual control experiment, the tap elicited a visual outcome. For each feedback type and participant, changes in the sense of agency were quantified using a forced-choice paradigm and the Method of Constant Stimuli. Participants were more sensitive to delays of outcome than to delays of movement execution. This effect was very similar for visual or auditory outcome delays. Our results indicate different contributions of movement- versus outcome-related sensory feedback to the sense of agency, irrespective of the modality of the outcome. We propose that this differential sensitivity reflects the behavioral importance of assessing authorship of the outcome of an action.

  2. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

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    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  3. The persistence of maternal vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency during pregnancy and lactation irrespective of season and supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Caroline K; Ye, Chang; Swaminathan, Balakumar; Hanley, Anthony J; Connelly, Philip W; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy and lactation comprise a critical window spanning all seasons during which maternal vitamin D status potentially may influence the long-term health of the newborn. Women typically receive calcium/vitamin D supplementation through antenatal vitamins, but there has been limited serial evaluation of maternal vitamin D status across this critical window. In this prospective observational cohort study, 467 women in Toronto, Canada, underwent measurement of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D) at mean 29·7 ± 2·9 weeks' gestation, 3 months postpartum and 12 months postpartum, enabling serial assessment across 3 seasons. At each assessment, vitamin D status was classified as deficiency (25-OH-Dl), insufficiency (25-OH-D≥50 nmol/l and l) or sufficiency (25-OH-D≥75 nmol/l). The prevalence rates of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were 31·5% and 35·1% in pregnancy, 33·4% and 35·3% at 3 months, and 35·6% and 33·8% at 12 months postpartum, respectively. These high rates remained stable over time (P = 0·49) despite declining usage of antenatal calcium/vitamin D supplementation from pregnancy to 3 months to 12 months postpartum (P vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnancy were independently associated with decrements in average 25-OH-D over time of 49·6 nmol/l and 26·4 nmol/l, respectively (both P vitamin D supplements were independently associated with changes in 25-OH-D in the range of 3-5 nmol/l (both P vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency during pregnancy and lactation, irrespective of season and supplementation, supports the emerging concept that current vitamin D supplementation in antenatal care is likely inadequate. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  5. Piperlongumine inhibits the proliferation and survival of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines irrespective of glucocorticoid resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seong-Su, E-mail: seong-su-han@uiowa.edu [Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Han, Sangwoo [Health and Human Physiology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kamberos, Natalie L. [Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • PL inhibits the proliferation of B-ALL cell lines irrespective of GC-resistance. • PL selectively kills B-ALL cells by increasing ROS, but not normal counterpart. • PL does not sensitize majority of B-ALL cells to DEX. • PL represses the network of constitutively activated TFs and modulates their target genes. • PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for GC-resistant B-ALL. - Abstract: Piperlongumine (PL), a pepper plant alkaloid from Piper longum, has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. PL selectively kills both solid and hematologic cancer cells, but not normal counterparts. Here we evaluated the effect of PL on the proliferation and survival of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), including glucocorticoid (GC)-resistant B-ALL. Regardless of GC-resistance, PL inhibited the proliferation of all B-ALL cell lines, but not normal B cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis via elevation of ROS. Interestingly, PL did not sensitize most of B-ALL cell lines to dexamethasone (DEX). Only UoC-B1 exhibited a weak synergistic effect between PL and DEX. All B-ALL cell lines tested exhibited constitutive activation of multiple transcription factors (TFs), including AP-1, MYC, NF-κB, SP1, STAT1, STAT3, STAT6 and YY1. Treatment of the B-ALL cells with PL significantly downregulated these TFs and modulated their target genes. While activation of AURKB, BIRC5, E2F1, and MYB mRNA levels were significantly downregulated by PL, but SOX4 and XBP levels were increased by PL. Intriguingly, PL also increased the expression of p21 in B-ALL cells through a p53-independent mechanism. Given that these TFs and their target genes play critical roles in a variety of hematological malignancies, our findings provide a strong preclinical rationale for considering PL as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, including B-ALL and GC-resistant B-ALL.

  6. Piperlongumine inhibits the proliferation and survival of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines irrespective of glucocorticoid resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seong-Su; Han, Sangwoo; Kamberos, Natalie L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PL inhibits the proliferation of B-ALL cell lines irrespective of GC-resistance. • PL selectively kills B-ALL cells by increasing ROS, but not normal counterpart. • PL does not sensitize majority of B-ALL cells to DEX. • PL represses the network of constitutively activated TFs and modulates their target genes. • PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for GC-resistant B-ALL. - Abstract: Piperlongumine (PL), a pepper plant alkaloid from Piper longum, has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. PL selectively kills both solid and hematologic cancer cells, but not normal counterparts. Here we evaluated the effect of PL on the proliferation and survival of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), including glucocorticoid (GC)-resistant B-ALL. Regardless of GC-resistance, PL inhibited the proliferation of all B-ALL cell lines, but not normal B cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis via elevation of ROS. Interestingly, PL did not sensitize most of B-ALL cell lines to dexamethasone (DEX). Only UoC-B1 exhibited a weak synergistic effect between PL and DEX. All B-ALL cell lines tested exhibited constitutive activation of multiple transcription factors (TFs), including AP-1, MYC, NF-κB, SP1, STAT1, STAT3, STAT6 and YY1. Treatment of the B-ALL cells with PL significantly downregulated these TFs and modulated their target genes. While activation of AURKB, BIRC5, E2F1, and MYB mRNA levels were significantly downregulated by PL, but SOX4 and XBP levels were increased by PL. Intriguingly, PL also increased the expression of p21 in B-ALL cells through a p53-independent mechanism. Given that these TFs and their target genes play critical roles in a variety of hematological malignancies, our findings provide a strong preclinical rationale for considering PL as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, including B-ALL and GC-resistant B-ALL

  7. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness Predicts Major Cardiovascular Events During 7-Year Follow-Up in 64-Year-Old Women Irrespective of Other Glucometabolic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Caroline; Bergström, Göran

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CV events are caused by atherosclerosis. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with greater carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and increased risk for CVD. The present study examined if common carotid artery IMT (CCAIMT) is predictive of CVD irrespective of glucose tolerance category and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of 639 women with different glucose tolerance categories. During 7-year follow-up, 30 events in the cardiac and 32 events in the cerebral territory were documented. Unadjusted Cox hazard models showed that CCAIMT, glucose tolerance category, and HbA1c were associated with increased risk. An adjusted and extended model, including CCAIMT, glucose tolerance category, and HbA1c, showed that CCAIMT was still associated with events with an almost unchanged hazard ratio. In conclusion, this study suggests that CCAIMT is predictive of major CV events during 7-year follow-up, irrespective of glucose tolerance category, HbA1c, and other established risk factors in a cohort of 64-year-old women.

  8. Oral supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum strain BR-108 alters cecal microbiota by stimulating gut immune system in mice irrespectively of viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makioka, Yuko; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Ijichi, Tetsuo; Inoue, Ryo

    2018-03-20

    Effect on cecal microbiota and gene expression of various cytokines in ileal Peyer's patches and cecal tissues were compared between viable and heat-killed Bifidobacterium longum strain BR-108 (BR-108) using a mouse model. Irrespectively of viability, oral supplementation of BR-108 altered the cecal microbiota and stimulated gene expression of cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-10 in ileal Peyer's patches and cecal tissue of mice. In addition, BR-108 supplementation significantly affected the relative abundance of bacterial genera and family, Oscillospira, Bacteroides and S24-7. The abundance of these bacterial genera and family strongly correlated with gene expression induced by BR-108. This study demonstrated that the effect of heat-killed BR-108 on the mouse cecal microbiota is similar to that of viable BR-108, most likely due to stimulation of the gut immune system by both heat-killed and viable BR-108 is also similar.

  9. Collagen gel contraction serves to rapidly distinguish epithelial- and mesenchymal-derived cells irrespective of alpha-smooth muscle actin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal-like cells in the stroma of breast cancer may arise as a consequence of plasticity within the epithelial compartment, also referred to as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, or by recruitment of genuine mesenchymal cells from the peritumoral stroma. Cells of both the epithelial...... compartment and the stromal compartment express alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-sm actin) as part of a myoepithelial or a myofibroblastic differentiation program, respectively. Moreover, because both epithelial- and mesenchymal-derived cells are nontumorigenic, other means of discrimination are warranted....... Here, we describe the contraction of hydrated collagen gels as a rapid functional assay for the distinction between epithelial- and mesenchymal-derived stromal-like cells irrespective of the status of alpha-sm actin expression. Three epithelial-derived cell lines and three genuine mesenchymal...

  10. SVM-Prot 2016: A Web-Server for Machine Learning Prediction of Protein Functional Families from Sequence Irrespective of Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying Hong; Xu, Jing Yu; Tao, Lin; Li, Xiao Feng; Li, Shuang; Zeng, Xian; Chen, Shang Ying; Zhang, Peng; Qin, Chu; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Zhe; Zhu, Feng; Chen, Yu Zong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of protein function is important for biological, medical and therapeutic studies, but many proteins are still unknown in function. There is a need for more improved functional prediction methods. Our SVM-Prot web-server employed a machine learning method for predicting protein functional families from protein sequences irrespective of similarity, which complemented those similarity-based and other methods in predicting diverse classes of proteins including the distantly-related proteins and homologous proteins of different functions. Since its publication in 2003, we made major improvements to SVM-Prot with (1) expanded coverage from 54 to 192 functional families, (2) more diverse protein descriptors protein representation, (3) improved predictive performances due to the use of more enriched training datasets and more variety of protein descriptors, (4) newly integrated BLAST analysis option for assessing proteins in the SVM-Prot predicted functional families that were similar in sequence to a query protein, and (5) newly added batch submission option for supporting the classification of multiple proteins. Moreover, 2 more machine learning approaches, K nearest neighbor and probabilistic neural networks, were added for facilitating collective assessment of protein functions by multiple methods. SVM-Prot can be accessed at http://bidd2.nus.edu.sg/cgi-bin/svmprot/svmprot.cgi.

  11. Cellular transport of lutein is greater from uncooked rather than cooked spinach irrespective of whether it is fresh, frozen, or canned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie; Ryan, Lisa; Aherne, S Aisling; O'Brien, Nora M

    2008-08-01

    Lutein, a carotenoid found in significant levels in spinach, has attracted a great deal of attention owing to its reported function as a shield against the photooxidative effects of blue light. Therefore, the rationale of this study was to examine the effects of various processing and cooking methods on lutein bioavailability from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) using an in vitro digestion procedure coupled with the use of a human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. Fresh, frozen, and canned spinach were analyzed uncooked and after boiling or microwave cooking. Lutein content from the uncooked and cooked digested food (digestate) and appropriate micelles was determined. Micellarized lutein from the spinach samples was adjusted to 0.1 micromol/L and added to Caco-2 cells. Cellular uptake and secretion (cellular transport) of lutein were determined. Our results showed that digestate obtained from uncooked canned spinach had greater lutein content (P canned spinach digestate and micelles compared with their uncooked counterparts. Interestingly, there were no differences in the micellarization of lutein between the cooking and processing methods. Cellular transport of lutein was greater from uncooked spinach micelles compared with boiled or microwave-cooked spinach. To conclude, although the lutein content of digesta and micelles may have been modified, its micellarization was not significantly affected by any of the cooking or processing methods tested. In general, cellular transport of lutein was greatest in uncooked spinach irrespective of whether the spinach was fresh, frozen, or canned.

  12. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria induce different patterns of cytokine production in human mononuclear cells irrespective of taxonomic relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovbjerg, Susann; Martner, Anna; Hynsjö, Lars; Hessle, Christina; Olsen, Ingar; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Tham, Wilhelm; Wold, Agnes E

    2010-01-01

    Upon bacterial stimulation, tissue macrophages produce a variety of cytokines that orchestrate the immune response that clears the infection. We have shown that Gram-positives induce higher levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) than do Gram-negatives, which instead induce more of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. Here, we study whether these patterns follows or crosses taxonomic borders. PBMCs from blood donors were incubated with UV-inactivated bacteria representing 37 species from five phyla. IL-12, TNF, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were measured in the supernatants after 24 h and IFN-gamma after 5 days. Irrespective of phylogenetic position, Gram-positive bacteria induced much more IL-12 (nine times more on average) and IFN-gamma (seven times), more TNF (three times), and slightly more IL-1beta (1.5 times) than did Gram-negatives, which instead induced more IL-6 (1.5 times), IL-8 (1.9 times), and IL-10 (3.3 times) than did Gram-positives. A notable exception was the Gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, which induced very little IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF. The results confirm the fundamental difference in innate immune responses to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which crosses taxonomic borders and probably reflects differences in cell wall structure.

  13. The HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG synergizes with doxorubicin and U0126 in anaplastic large cell lymphoma irrespective of ALK expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Georgios V; Li, Yang; Rassidakis, Georgios Z; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Younes, Anas

    2006-12-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperones and maintains the molecular integrity of a variety of signal transduction proteins, including the nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) oncogenic protein, a genetic abnormality that is frequently observed in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cells. Here we demonstrate that HSP90 is overexpressed in primary and cultured ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL cells, and we evaluate the potential role of the small molecule inhibitor of HSP90, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in treating ALCL. The antiproliferative effect of 17-AAG-cultured cells was determined by MTS assay. Apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest were determined by Annexin-V/propidium iodide and propidium iodide staining, respectively, and fluorescein-activated cell sorting analysis. Expression of HSP90 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and molecular changes were determined by Western blot. Treatment of cultured ALCL cells with 17-AAG induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, irrespective of ALK expression. At the molecular level, 17-AAG induced degradation of ALK and Akt proteins, dephosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and degraded the cell-cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1 and its cyclin-dependent kinases, CDK4 and CDK6, but had a differential effect on p27 and p53 proteins. Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation by the mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor U0126 induced cell death in all ALCL cell lines, and sublethal concentration 17-AAG showed synergistic antiproliferative effects when combined with U0126 or doxorubicin. Our data demonstrate that targeting HSP90 function by 17-AAG may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for ALCL, either as single-agent activity or by combining 17-AAG with conventional or targeted therapeutic schemes.

  14. High prevalence of abnormalities on CT and MR imaging in children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss irrespective of age or degree of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beeck Calkoen, E A; Sanchez Aliaga, E; Merkus, P; Smit, C F; van de Kamp, J M; Mulder, M F; Goverts, S T; Hensen, E F

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of causal abnormalities identified on CT and MR imaging in children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL), and the association with age and severity of hearing loss. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary referral otology/audiology center. 102 children diagnosed with USNHL between 2006 and 2016 were included. They underwent CT and/or MR imaging for the evaluation of the etiology of their hearing loss. Radiologic abnormalities of the inner ear and brain associated with USNHL. Using CT and/or MR imaging, causal abnormalities were identified in 49%, which is higher than previously reported (25-40%). The most frequently affected site was the labyrinth (29%), followed by the cochlear nerve (9%) and brain (7%). No significant difference in the number or type of abnormalities was found for the degree of hearing loss or age categories. Imaging is essential in the etiologic analysis of USNHL because of the high prevalence of causative abnormalities that can be identified with radiology, irrespective of the patients' age or degree of hearing loss. CT and MR imaging are complementary imaging options. The ideal imaging algorithm is controversial. Based on our findings, we conclude that there is limited additional diagnostic value of simultaneous dual modality imaging over sequential diagnostics. We therefore perform a stepwise radiological workup in order to maximize the diagnostic yield while minimizing impact and costs. If the primary imaging modality does not identify a cause for USNHL, performing the alternative imaging modality should be considered. Retrospective cohort study 2b. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. To relieve the sufferings of humanity, irrespective of party, politics or creed?: conflict, consensus and voluntary hospital provision in Edwardian South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Steven

    2003-08-01

    This article examines the provision of voluntary hospital facilities for injured workers in the mining valleys of Edwardian South Wales. It considers the co-operation and conflict that characterized efforts to establish hospitals, and examines the attitudes and activities of workers, employers, and other interested groups. Despite certain instances of disagreement and conflict, this article demonstrates the significant levels of co-operation and consensus that characterized the efforts of employers and workers to provide communities with hospital facilities. This co-operation was perhaps surprising considering the bitter industrial conflict and social unrest of that period. The article uses this material to question assertions that hospitals reflect the social and political milieus of the communities in which they were situated and argues that the social relations produced by hospital provision sometimes coincided with wider social and industrial relations, but at other times differed from them or transcended them. Furthermore, the article demonstrates that the co-operation between employers and workers in the provision of hospitals in Edwardian South Wales did not stabilize social and industrial relations in the way that historians of associational voluntarism in other contexts have found.

  16. Systematic and material independent variation of electrical, optical, and chemical properties of Ln-materials over the Ln-series (Ln=La,Ce,Pr,..,Lu)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kolk, E.; Dorenbos, P.

    2007-01-01

    A model is presented that successfully predicts electro-optical properties of Lanthanide materials, irrespective whether these materials are inorganic or organic, diluted or concentrated, metallic, semi-conducting or insulating. The model is firmly based on recent experimental data revealing that

  17. Presence of serum antibodies to influenza A subtypes H5 and N1 in swans and ibises in French wetlands, irrespective of highly pathogenic H5N1 natural infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niqueux, Eric; Guionie, Olivier; Schmitz, Audrey; Hars, Jean; Jestin, Véronique

    2010-03-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) subtype H5N1 (subclade 2.2) were detected in wild birds during outbreaks in France during winter 2006 and summer 2007 in la Dombes wetlands (eastern France) and in Moselle wetlands (northeastern France), respectively. Blood samples from apparently healthy wild birds were collected in 2006 and 2007 from the end of the outbreak to several weeks after the influenza A outbreak inside and outside the contaminated areas, and in 2008 outside the contaminated areas. The samples were tested for the presence and/or quantitation of serum antibodies to influenza A subtypes H5 and N1 using hemagglutination inhibition tests (HITs), a commercial N1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and virus neutralization assay. In the HIT, low pathogenicity (LP) and HP H5 AIVs (belonging to H5N1, H5N2, and H5N3 subtypes) were used as antigens. One hundred mute swans were bled in the la Dombes outbreak area in 2006. During 2007, 46 mallards, 69 common pochards, and 59 mute swans were sampled in the Moselle outbreak area. For comparison, blood samples were also collected in 2007 from 60 mute swans from the Marne department where no HP H5N1 influenza A cases have been reported, and in 2008 from 111 sacred ibises in western France where no HP H5N1 influenza A infections in wild birds have been reported either. Mute swans (irrespective of their origin and time of sampling) and sacred ibises (from an area with no known outbreaks) had the highest prevalence of positive sera in the H5 HIT (49-69% and 64%, respectively). The prevalence of anti-H5 antibodies in mallards and common pochards was lower (28% and 27%, respectively). Positive H5- and N1-antibody responses were also significantly associated in swans (irrespective of their origin and time of sampling) and in sacred ibises. However, in swans from the area without outbreaks, the HIT titer against an H5N1 LPAIV was significantly higher than against an H5N1 2.2.1 HPAIV, whereas no

  18. CD3+/CD8+ T-cell density and tumoral PD-L1 predict survival irrespective of rituximab treatment in Chinese diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunfei; Deng, Lijuan; Song, Yuqin; Lin, Dongmei; Lai, Yumei; Zhou, LiXin; Yang, Lei; Li, Xianghong

    2018-05-10

    To investigate the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating T-cell density and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). One-hundred-twenty-five Chinese DLBCL patients were enrolled in our study and provided samples; 76 of all cases were treated with rituximab (R). Tumor tissues were immunostained and analyzed for CD3+ and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating T-cell density, tumoral PD-L1, and microenvironmental PD-L1 (mPD-L1). The density of CD3 was rated as high in 33.6% cases, while 64.0% of DLBCLs were classified as high CD8 density. Of all cases, 16.8% were PD-L1+. Of the remaining PD-L1-DLBCLs, 29.8% positively expressed mPD-L1. Both CD3 high density and CD8 high density were associated with mPD-L1 positivity (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, independently, high CD3 density predicted better OS (P = 0.023), while CD8 high density and PD-L1 positivity were both associated with prolonged PFS (P = 0.013 and P = 0.036, respectively). Even in the subgroup treated with R, univariate analyses indicated that high CD3 density and PD-L1 positivity were associated with better OS (P = 0.041) and PFS (P = 0.033), respectively. The infiltrating densities of CD3+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, and PD-L1 expression are predictive of survival in DLBCLs, irrespective of R usage.

  19. Dictionary materials engineering, materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This dictionary contains about 9,500 entries in each part of the following fields: 1) Materials using and selection; 2) Mechanical engineering materials -Metallic materials - Non-metallic inorganic materials - Plastics - Composites -Materials damage and protection; 3) Electrical and electronics materials -Conductor materials - Semiconductors - magnetic materials - Dielectric materials - non-conducting materials; 4) Materials testing - Mechanical methods - Analytical methods - Structure investigation - Complex methods - Measurement of physical properties - Non-destructive testing. (orig.) [de

  20. Material Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Kim, Heung

    1987-08-15

    This book introduces material science, which includes key of a high-tech industry, new materials of dream like new metal material and semiconductor, classification of materials, microstructure of materials and characteristic. It mentions magic new materials such as shape memory alloy, fine ceramics, engineering fine ceramics, electronic ceramics, engineering plastic, glass, silicone conductor, optical fiber mixed materials and integrated circuit, challenge for new material and development of new materials.

  1. Material Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Kim, Heung

    1987-08-01

    This book introduces material science, which includes key of a high-tech industry, new materials of dream like new metal material and semiconductor, classification of materials, microstructure of materials and characteristic. It mentions magic new materials such as shape memory alloy, fine ceramics, engineering fine ceramics, electronic ceramics, engineering plastic, glass, silicone conductor, optical fiber mixed materials and integrated circuit, challenge for new material and development of new materials.

  2. Materials and material testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergens, H.

    1978-01-01

    A review based on 105 literature quotations is given on the latest state of development in the steel sector and in the field of non-ferrous metals and plastics. The works quoted also include, preparation, working, welding including simulation methods, improvement of weldability, material mechanics (explanation of defects mechanisms by means of fracture mechanics), defect causes (corrosion, erosion, hydrogen influence), mechanical-technological and non-destructive material testing. Examples from the field of reactor building are also given within there topics. (IHOE) [de

  3. Hybridized Plasmons in 2D Nanoslits: From Graphene to Anisotropic 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Xiao, Sanshui; Peres, N. M. R.

    2017-01-01

    of arbitrary width, and remains valid irrespective of the 2D conductive material (e.g., doped graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, or phosphorene). We derive the dispersion relation of the hybrid modes of a 2D nanoslit along with the corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions...

  4. Optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  5. Strategic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buhler, Carl; Burke, Adrian; Davis, Kirk; Gerhard, Michelle; Heil, Valerie; Hulse, Richard; Kwong, Ralph; Mahoney, Michael; Moran, Scott; Peek, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Some materials possess greater value than others. Materials that provide essential support for the nation's economic viability or enable critical military capabilities warrant special attention in security studies...

  6. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  7. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is mixed with water before administration liquid paste tablet When iodine-based and barium-sulfate contrast materials ... for patients with kidney failure or allergies to MRI and/or computed tomography (CT) contrast material. Microbubble ...

  8. Dirac materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wehling, T. O.; Black-Schaffer, A. M.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of materials, like d-wave superconductors, graphene, and topological insulators, share a fundamental similarity: their low-energy fermionic excitations behave as massless Dirac particles rather than fermions obeying the usual Schrodinger Hamiltonian. This emergent behavior of Dirac fermions in condensed matter systems defines the unifying framework for a class of materials we call "Dirac materials''. In order to establish this class of materials, we illustrate how Dirac fermions ...

  9. Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaldin, Nicola A.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic materials are the foundation of multi-billion dollar industries and the focus of intensive research across many disciplines. This book covers the fundamentals, basic theories and applications of magnetism and conventional magnetic materials. Based on a lecture course given by Nicola Spaldin in the Materials Department at University of California, Santa Barbara, the book is ideal for a one- semester course in magnetic materials. It contains numerous homework problems and solutions.

  10. Composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambrook, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A superconductor composite is described comprising at least one longitudinally extending superconductor filament or bundle of sub-filaments, each filament or bundle of sub-filaments being surrounded by and in good electrical contact with a matrix material, the matrix material comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending cells of a metal of high electrical conductivity surrounded by a material of lower electrical conductivity. The high electrical conductivity material surrounding the superconducting filament or bundle of sub-filaments is interrupted by a radially extending wall of the material of the lower electrical conductivity, the arrangement being such that at least two superconductor filaments or sub-filaments are circumferentially circumscribed by a single annulus of the material of high electrical conductivity. The annulus is electrically interrupted by a radially extending wall of the material of low electrical conductivity

  11. Aerospace materials and material technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wanhill, R

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of chapters on materials (both established and evolving) and material technologies that are important for aerospace systems. It considers aerospace materials in three Parts. Part I covers Metallic Materials (Mg, Al, Al-Li, Ti, aero steels, Ni, intermetallics, bronzes and Nb alloys); Part II deals with Composites (GLARE, PMCs, CMCs and Carbon based CMCs); and Part III considers Special Materials. This compilation has ensured that no important aerospace material system is ignored. Emphasis is laid in each chapter on the underlying scientific principles as well as basic and fundamental mechanisms leading to processing, characterization, property evaluation and applications. A considerable amount of materials data is compiled and presented in appendices at the end of the book. This book will be useful to students, researchers and professionals working in the domain of aerospace materials.

  12. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Materials Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials characterization of sample by incoming beam and measuring outgoing particles, with data being stored and analyzed Staff Scientist Dr. Zakutayev specializes in design of novel semiconductor materials for energy

  13. Nano Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, In Ju; Lee, Ik Mo; Kwon, Yeung Gu

    2006-02-01

    This book introduces background of nano science such as summary, plenty room at the bottom, access way to nano technique, nanoparticles using bottom-up method which are a marvel of nature, and modern alchemy : chemical synthesis of artificial nano structure, understanding of quantum mechanics, STM/AFM, nano metal powder, ceramic nanoparticles, nano structure film, manufacture of nanoparticles using reverse micelle method, carbon nano tube, sol-gel material, nano energy material, nano catalyst nano bio material technology and spintronics.

  14. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  15. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  16. Materializing Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Geismar, H.; Horst, H. A.

    2004-01-01

    The articles in this volume were originally presented in a panel entitled ‘Material Methodologies’ at the American Anthropological Association meeting in New Orleans (November 2002). The panel was devised to tie together theoretical advances in the study of the material with the creative possibilities of fieldwork practices. Through detailed ethnographic discussion, we highlighted the ways in which a focus on a specifically material world enabled us to discover new perspecti...

  17. Materials characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azali Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    Various nuclear techniques have been developed and employed by technologies and scientists worldwide to physically and chemically characterise the material particularly those that have applications in industry. These include small angle neutron scattering (SANS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) for the internal structural study of material, whereas, the x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for the chemical analysis, while the Moessbauer spectroscopy for the study on the magnetic properties and structural identity of material. Basic principle and instrumentations of the techniques are discussed in this chapter. Example of their applications in various disciplines particularly in characterisation of industrial materials also described

  18. New materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S.K.; Rao, C.N.R.; Tsuruta, T.

    1992-01-01

    The book contains the state-of-the art lectures delivered at the discussion meeting on new materials, a field in which rapid advances are taking place. The main objective of the meeting was to bring active scientists in this area from Japan and India together. The topics covered diverse aspects of modern materials including high temperature superconducting compounds. (M.G.B.)

  19. Materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    the document is a collection of papers on different aspects of materials science. It discusses many items such as semiconductors, surface properties and interfaces, construction and civil engineering, metallic materials, polymers and composites, biology and biomaterials, metallurgy etc.. - 1 - Document1 Document1

  20. Material Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    . Consequently we ask what the practice of programming and giving form to such materials would be like? How would we be able to familiarize ourselves with the dynamics of these materials and their different combinations of cause and effect? Which tools would we need and what would they look like? Will we program......, and color, but additionally being capable of sensing, actuating, and computing. Indeed, computers will not be things in and by themselves, but embedded into the materials that make up our surroundings. This also means that the way we interact with computers and the way we program them, will change...... these computational composites through external computers and then transfer the code them, or will the programming happen closer to the materials? In this feature we outline a new research program that floats between imagined futures and the development of a material programming practice....

  1. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  2. Materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Materials Science Division is engaged in research on physical properties of materials and the effects of radiation upon them. This involves solid state materials undergoing phase transitions, energy storing materials, and biomaterials. The Division also offers research facilities for M.S. and Ph.D. thesis work in the fields of physics, chemistry, materials, and radiation sciences in cooperation with the various colleges and departments of the UPR Mayaguez Campus. It is anticipated that it will serve as a catalyst in starting energy-related research programs in cooperation with UPR faculty, especially programs involving solar energy. To encourage and promote cooperative efforts, contact is maintained with former graduate students and with visiting scientists from Latin American research institutions

  3. Touching Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2012-01-01

    Dripping ink pens, colourful paint on skin, vegetables pots on a school roof. In interviews with three generations of former school pupils, memories of material objects bore a relation to everyday school life in the past. Interwoven, these objects entered the memorising processes, taking...... the interviewer and interviewee beyond an exclusively linguistic understanding of memory. This article analyses how the shifting objects of materiality in personal and generational school memories connects to material as well as sensuous experiences of everyday school life and its complex processes of learning....... Drawing on anthropological writings, the article argues that the objects of materiality are part of important but non-verbalised memories of schooling. The Dutch philosopher Eelco Runia’s notions of presence and metonymy are incorporated as tools for approaching objects of materiality in memory studies....

  4. High temperature resistant materials and structural ceramics for use in high temperature gas cooled reactors and fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.

    1992-01-01

    Irrespective of the systems and the status of the nuclear reactor development lines, the availability, qualification and development of materials are crucial. This paper concentrates on the requirements and the status of development of high temperature metallic and ceramic materials for core and heat transferring components in advanced HTR supplying process heat and for plasma exposed, high heat flux components in Tokamak fusion reactor types. (J.P.N.)

  5. BCG protects against tuberculosis irrespective of HIV status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; PrayGod, George

    2013-01-01

    While BCG vaccine protects against severe tuberculosis (TB) in children, its effect against adult TB is questionable. Furthermore, it is not known if HIV co-infection modifies the effect of BCG. Among 352 pairs of Tanzanian TB cases and matched controls, the BCG scar was associated with a reduced...

  6. Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1998, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) performed 38 inspections, 25 of them were performed in co-operation with IAEA inspectors. There is no fresh nuclear fuel at Bohunice A-1 NPP at present. Fresh fuel of Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs is inspected in the fresh fuel storage.There are 327 fresh fuel assemblies in Mochovce NPP fresh fuel storage. In addition to that, are also 71 small users of nuclear materials in Slovakia. In most cases they use: covers made of depleted uranium for non-destructive works, detection of level in production plants, covers for therapeutical sources at medical facilities. In. 1995, NRA SR issued 4 new licences for nuclear material withdrawal. In the next part manipulation with nuclear materials, spent fuel stores and illegal trafficking in nuclear materials are reported

  7. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry......, viscoelastic behavior, and internal stress states. Other physical properties considered are thermal and electrical conductivities, diffusion coefficients, dielectric constants and magnetic permeability. Special attention is given to the effect of pore shape on the mechanical and physical behavior of porous....... The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...

  8. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must be ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  9. Utopian Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard-Jensen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    In various ways, this paper makes the counter-intuitive claim that the utopian and the material are thoroughlyinterdependent, rather than worlds apart. First, through a reading of Thomas More's Utopia, it is argued thatUtopia is the product of particular kinds of relations, rather than merely...... a detachment from the known world.Second, the utopianism of a new economy firm is examined. It is argued that the physical set-up of the firm -in particular the distribution of tables and chairs - evoke a number of alternatives to ordinary work practice.In this way the materialities of the firm are crucial...... to its persuasive image of being the office of the future.The notion that utopia is achieved through material arrangements is finally related to the analysis of facts andfictions in ANT. It is argued, that even though Utopias are neither fact nor fiction, they are both material andeffective...

  10. Propulsion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Edward J. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sullivan, Rogelio A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  11. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  12. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  13. Layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  14. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  15. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  16. Parameters for Building Materials Specifications in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Oluwole Folorunso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility of specifying materials for building construction purposes within Nigeria rests on the architects. Understanding the appropriate parameters for specifying building materials that could lead to immense financial proportion is required from the architects. The level of understanding and knowledge of architects is germane to the optimum performance of buildings throughout their life cycle. The methodology applied for this research involved the administration of a structured questionnaire on professional architects within the study area to determine the basis of their decision on the materials they specify or chose for building finishes. The parameters used to measure the specification of materials for finishes are client’s choice, cost, climatic compliance, and maintenance demand of materials. Findings show that the maintenance demand of materials is the most important factor that determines the specification of materials irrespective of the choice of client and climate. However, cost occupies a prominent role in the decision process. It also shows that most architects are not fully aware about the role of climate in determining the life cycle of materials in tropical environments. The compliance of materials to ever-changing climate does not constitute a major factor in the specification of materials in the area.

  17. Supplementary Material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mraga

    1. Supplementary Material. A soluble-lead Redox Flow Battery with corrugated graphite sheet and reticulated vitreous carbon as positive and negative current collectors by A Banerjee et al (pp 163-. 170). Figure S1. SEM images for bare substrates: (a) graphite sheet, (b) 20 ppi RVC, (c) 30 ppi. RVC and (d) 45 ppi RVC.

  18. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily be und...

  19. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...

  20. Absorbant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quetier, Monique.

    1978-11-01

    Absorbants play a very important part in the nuclear industry. They serve for the control, shut-down and neutron shielding of reactors and increase the capacity of spent fuel storage pools and of special transport containers. This paper surveys the usual absorbant materials, means of obtainment, their essential characteristics relating to their use and their behaviour under neutron irradiation [fr

  1. Friction Material Composites Materials Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2012-01-01

    Friction Material Composites is the first of the five volumes which strongly educates and updates engineers and other professionals in braking industries, research and test labs. It explains besides the formulation of design processes and its complete manufacturing input. This book gives an idea of mechanisms of friction and how to control them by designing .The book is  useful for designers  of automotive, rail and aero industries for designing the brake systems effectively with the integration of friction material composite design which is critical. It clearly  emphasizes the driving  safety and how serious designers should  select the design input. The significance of friction material component like brake pad or a liner as an integral part of the brake system of vehicles is explained. AFM pictures at nanolevel illustrate broadly the explanations given.

  2. Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  3. Magnetocaloric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppesen, Stinus

    2008-10-15

    New and improved magnetocaloric materials are one of the cornerstones in the development of room temperature magnetic refrigeration. Magnetic refrigeration has been used since the 1930ies in cryogenic applications, but has since the discovery of room temperature refrigerants received enormous attention. This Ph.D. work has been mainly concerned with developing a new technique to characterize the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and using this technique in the investigations on new and improved magnetocaloric materials. For this purpose a novel differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with applied magnetic fields was developed for measuring heat capacity as function of magnetic field. Measurements using the developed DSC demonstrate a very high sensitivity, fast measurements and good agreement with results obtained by other techniques. Furthermore, two material systems have been described in this work. Both systems take basis in the mixed-valence manganite system La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} well known from research on colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The mixed-valence manganite crystallizes in the perovskite structure of general formula ABO{sub 3}. The first material system is designed to investigate the influence of low level Cu doping on the B-site. Six different samples were prepared with over-stoichiometric compositions La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1.05}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}, x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. All compositions crystallized well in the same perovskite structure, but the morphology of the samples changed drastically with doping. Investigation on the magnetocaloric properties revealed that small levels of Cu up to around 3% could improve the magnetocaloric performance of the materials. Furthermore, Cu could be used to tune the temperature interval without deteriorating the MCE, which is a much desired characteristic for potential use in magnetic refrigerators. A less comprehensive part of the work has been concerned with the investigation of doping on the A

  4. Materializing Superghosts

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Victor; Krotov, Dmitry; Losev, Andrei; Lysov, Vyacheslav

    2007-01-01

    We construct the off-shell BV realization of N=1, d=10 SYM with 7 auxillary fields. This becomes possible due to materialized ghost phenomenon. Namely, supersymmetry ghosts are coordinates on a manifold B of 10-dimensional spinors with pure spinors cut out. Auxillary fields are sections of a bundle over B, and supersymmetry transformations are nonlinear in ghosts. By integrating out axillary fields we obtain on-shell supersymmetric BV action with terms quadratic in antifields. Exactly this on...

  5. Material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotter, W.; Zirker, L.; Hancock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) facilities are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overall goal for the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Unit is to identify and establish the correct amount of waste generated so that it can be reduced. Quarterly, the INEL Pollution Prevention (P2) Unit compares the projected amount of waste generated per process with the actual amount generated. Examples of waste streams that would be addresses for our facility would include be are not limited to: Maintenance, Upgrades, Office and Scrap Metal. There are three potential sources of this variance: inaccurate identification of those who generate the waste; inaccurate identification of the process that generates the waste; and inaccurate measurement of the actual amount generated. The Materials Monitoring Program was proposed to identify the sources of variance and reduce the variance to an acceptable level. Prior to the implementation of the Material Monitoring Program, all information that was gathered and recorded was done so through an informal estimation of waste generated by various personnel concerned with each processes. Due to the inaccuracy of the prior information gathering system, the Material Monitoring Program was established. The heart of this program consists of two main parts. In the first part potential waste generators provide information on projected waste generation process. In the second part, Maintenance, Office, Scrap Metal and Facility Upgrade wastes from given processes is disposed within the appropriate bin dedicated to that process. The Material Monitoring Program allows for the more accurate gathering of information on the various waste types that are being generated quarterly

  6. Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Berkun, Isil; Schmidt, Robert D.; Luzenski, Matthew F.; Lu, Xu; Bordon Sarac, Patricia; Case, Eldon D.; Hogan, Timothy P.

    2014-06-01

    Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds are promising candidate low-cost, lightweight, nontoxic thermoelectric materials made from abundant elements and are suited for power generation applications in the intermediate temperature range of 600 K to 800 K. Knowledge on the transport and mechanical properties of Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds is essential to the design of Mg2(Si,Sn)-based thermoelectric devices. In this work, such materials were synthesized using the molten-salt sealing method and were powder processed, followed by pulsed electric sintering densification. A set of Mg2.08Si0.4- x Sn0.6Sb x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.072) compounds were investigated, and a peak ZT of 1.50 was obtained at 716 K in Mg2.08Si0.364Sn0.6Sb0.036. The high ZT is attributed to a high electrical conductivity in these samples, possibly caused by a magnesium deficiency in the final product. The mechanical response of the material to stresses is a function of the elastic moduli. The temperature-dependent Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio, acoustic wave speeds, and acoustic Debye temperature of the undoped Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds were measured using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy from 295 K to 603 K. In addition, the hardness and fracture toughness were measured at room temperature.

  7. FOREWORD: Materials metrology Materials metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Seton; Valdés, Joaquin

    2010-04-01

    It seems that so much of modern life is defined by the materials we use. From aircraft to architecture, from cars to communications, from microelectronics to medicine, the development of new materials and the innovative application of existing ones have underpinned the technological advances that have transformed the way we live, work and play. Recognizing the need for a sound technical basis for drafting codes of practice and specifications for advanced materials, the governments of countries of the Economic Summit (G7) and the European Commission signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 1982 to establish the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). This project supports international trade by enabling scientific collaboration as a precursor to the drafting of standards. The VAMAS participants recognized the importance of agreeing a reliable, universally accepted basis for the traceability of the measurements on which standards depend for their preparation and implementation. Seeing the need to involve the wider metrology community, VAMAS approached the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM). Following discussions with NMI Directors and a workshop at the BIPM in February 2005, the CIPM decided to establish an ad hoc Working Group on the metrology applicable to the measurement of material properties. The Working Group presented its conclusions to the CIPM in October 2007 and published its final report in 2008, leading to the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between VAMAS and the BIPM. This MoU recognizes the work that is already going on in VAMAS as well as in the Consultative Committees of the CIPM and establishes a framework for an ongoing dialogue on issues of materials metrology. The question of what is meant by traceability in the metrology of the properties of materials is particularly vexed when the measurement results depend on a specified procedure. In these cases, confidence in results requires not only traceable

  8. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  9. Casting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R [Xenia, OH; Dzugan, Robert [Cincinnati, OH; Harrington, Richard M [Cincinnati, OH; Neece, Faurice D [Lyndurst, OH; Singh, Nipendra P [Pepper Pike, OH

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  10. Energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2011-01-01

    In an age of global industrialisation and population growth, the area of energy is one that is very much in the public consciousness. Fundamental scientific research is recognised as being crucial to delivering solutions to these issues, particularly to yield novel means of providing efficient, ideally recyclable, ways of converting, transporting and delivering energy. This volume considers a selection of the state-of-the-art materials that are being designed to meet some of the energy challenges we face today. Topics are carefully chosen that show how the skill of the synthetic chemist can

  11. Construction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S [Orland Park, IL; Antink, Allison L [Bolingbrook, IL

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  12. Photographic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic films based on silver halides are normally handled under red or orange safelights to prevent fogging due to their sensitivity to white light. The present invention relates to ultraviolet radiation sensitive material which can be handled under virtually white light without significant fogging. The film material is comprised of a base having at least one layer of a photographic silver halide emulsion and a yellow filter dye screening the emulsion from visible radiation. The silver halide emulsion contains 50-100 mole % of silver chloride, the higher the silver chloride content, the lower the visible light sensitivity. The nature and properties of the yellow filter dye are described. When recording an X-ray image, the film is loaded into the camera under white safelight conditions from which light of wavelength shorter than 400 nm is excluded. The film is in contact with one or more phosphor screens capable when struck by X-rays of emitting ultraviolet radiation, the screens having a peak ultraviolet emission within the wavelength range of 250-380 nm. After X-ray exposure, the film is removed and developed. Two examples illustrating the invention are given. (U.K.)

  13. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  14. Functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Hong, G. W.; Lee, H. J.

    2002-05-01

    Development of fabrication process of functional ceramic materials, evaluation of characteristics and experiments for understanding of irradiation behavior of ceramics were carried out for application of ceramics to the nuclear industry. The developed processes were the SiC surface coating technology with large area for improvement of wear resistance and corrosion resistance, the fabrication technology of SiC composites for excellent irradiation resistance, performance improvement technology of SiC fiber and nano-sized powder processing by combustion ignition and spray. Typical results were CVD SiC coating with diameter of 25cm and thickness of 100μm, highly dense SiC composite by F-CVI, heat-treating technology of SiC fiber using B4C power, and nano-sized powders of ODS-Cu, Li-based breeding materials, Ni-based metal powders with primary particle diameter of 20∼50nm. Furthermore, test equipment, data productions and damage evaluations were performed to understand corrosion resistance and wear resistance of alumina, silicon carbide and silicon nitride under PWR or PHWR operation conditions. Experimental procedures and basic technologies for evaluation of irradiation behavior were also established. Additionally, highly reactive precursor powders were developed by various technologies and the powders were applied to the fabrication of 100 m long Ag/Bi-2223 multi-filamentary wires. High Tc magnets and fly wheel for energy storage were developed, as well

  15. Application of Electro Chemical Machining for materials used in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandilov, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Electro-Chemical Machining (ECM) is the generic term for a variety of electrochemical processes. ECM is used to machine work pieces from metal and metal alloys irrespective of their hardness, strength or thermal properties, through the anodic dissolution, in aerospace, automotive, construction, medical equipment, micro-systems and power supply industries. The Electro Chemical Machining is extremely suitable for machining of materials used in extreme conditions. General overview of the Electro-Chemical Machining and its application for different materials used in extreme conditions is presented.

  16. Virtual materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    as their recounts of them and 3. the consumption of other media products like movies, reality shows, YouTube videos etc. How do we theorize ‘matter’ in such dimensions? Is it possible to theorize virtual matter as ‘materiality’ in line with any real life materiality? What conceptualization will help us understand......? These questions become crucial when we follow matter in and across real life, virtual experience, recounted imagery, night dreams, YouTube videos and even further. Some may already have recognized Phillip’s skeleton army as a transport/transformation from Lord of the Rings, DVD 3, the army which Aragon calls out....... Butler, J. (1993) Bodies that Matter. On the Discursive Limits of “Sex”. London: Routledge. Durkin, K. et al. (1998) Children, Media and Agression. Current Research in Australia and New Zealand. In: Carlson, U. & von Feilitzen, C. (red): Children and Media Violence. Yearbook from the UNESCO International...

  17. Photographic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic films based on silver halides are normally handled under red or orange safelights to prevent fogging due to their sensitivity to white light. The present invention relates to ultraviolet radiation sensitive material which can be handled under virtually white light without significant fogging. A photographic, chemically sensitised silver halide emulsion is described, containing 50-100 mole % of silver chloride, the higher the silver chloride content, the lower the visible light sensitivity. The remaining silver halide, if any, is silver bromide and/or silver iodide. The silver halide grains are grown in the presence of ammonia, an excess of chloride ions and tetraazaindene growth controller. Examples illustrating the invention are given. (U.K.)

  18. Photovoltaic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational

  19. O estado de nutrição de crianças internadas por tôdas as causas em hospital assistencial do município de S. Paulo The nutritional status in children interned irrespective of diagnosis in an assistencial Hospital in the city of S. Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondina Rosenburg

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sôbre o estado de nutrição de 2.007 crianças entre 0 e 24 meses de idade, internadas num Hospital Assistencial do Município de São Paulo, revela que o percentual total de desnutridos corresponde a cêrca de 3/4 da população observada. O percentual total de distróficos foi menor em 1963 do que em 1961, mas em 1969 ultrapassou o de 1963. O maior percentual de desnutridos em grau mais avançado (D³, que se encontrava, em 1961 e 1963, no primeiro semestre do segundo ano de vida, deslocou-se em 1969, para o segundo semestre do primeiro ano de vida.The nutritional status of 2.007 children, between zero to 24 months, admitted to an Assistential Hospital of S. Paulo City irrespective of diagnosis, was studied. The total percentage of distrophics in all grades reached almost 3/4 of the supervisioned children. The percentual decrease of undernourished children observed in 1963 did not persist in 1969. The greatest percentage of children in D3 which in 1961 and 1963 was found in the first semester of the 2nd year of life, displaced itself in 1969 to the 2nd semester of the first year of life.

  20. Biointegrating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amédée, J.; Bordenave, L.; Durrieu, M.-C.; Fricain, J.-C.; Pothuaud, L.

    The extraordinary increase in human longevity explains the growing need for replacement organs. The remarkable successes of conventional transplants (associated with the development of effective antirejection drugs and improved control of their administration) are also accompanied by certain drawbacks. First on the list is an inadequate supply of replacement organs: the number of candidates for transplants grows larger, opposition to the removal of organs increases, and the number of transplants has reached a ceiling. Furthermore, it has come to light over the past few years that organ transplants carry a significant risk of transmitting pathogens. Finally, the main drawback lies in the need to pursue an immunosuppression treatment. Scientists and doctors have long been in search of alternatives to human organ transplants. According to the definition drawn up in Chester in 1986 at the Consensus Conference organised under the aegis of the European Society for Biomaterials, biomaterials are non-viable materials used in a medical device and destined to interact with biological systems, whether they contribute to the constitution of a diagnostic device, a tissue or organ substitute, or a device designed to provide functional assistance or replacement.

  1. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. The Newest Machine Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yeong Seop; Choe, Byeong Do; Bang, Meong Sung

    2005-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of machine material with classification of machine material and selection of machine material, structure and connection of material, coagulation of metal and crystal structure, equilibrium diagram, properties of metal material, elasticity and plasticity, biopsy of metal, material test and nondestructive test. It also explains steel material such as heat treatment of steel, cast iron and cast steel, nonferrous metal materials, non metallic materials, and new materials.

  3. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2018-01-09

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer material, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  4. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  5. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2016-03-29

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer resin, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  6. Towards Materials Sustainability through Materials Stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Taylor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Materials sustainability requires a concerted change in philosophy across the entire materials lifecycle, orienting around the theme of materials stewardship. In this paper, we address the opportunities for improved materials conservation through dematerialization, durability, design for second life, and diversion of waste streams through industrial symbiosis.

  7. Computational Materials Science | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational Materials Science Computational Materials Science An image of interconnecting, sphere science capabilities span many research fields and interests. Electronic, Optical, and Transport Properties of Photovoltaic Materials Material properties and defect physics of Si, CdTe, III-V, CIGS, CZTS

  8. The materials physics companion

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Materials Physics: Structure of matter. Solid state physics. Dynamic properties of solids. Dielectric Properties of Materials: Dielectric properties. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Dielectric breakdown. Applications of dielectrics. Magnetic Properties of Materials: Magnetic properties. Magnetic moment. Spontaneous magnetization. Superconductivity.

  9. Metallic composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frommeyer, G.

    1987-01-01

    The structure and properties of metallic composite materials and composite materials with metallic matrix are considered. In agreement with the morphology of constituent phases the following types of composite materials are described: dispersion-strengthened composite materials; particle-reinforced composite materials; fibrous composite materials; laminar composite materials. Data on strength and electric properties of the above-mentioned materials, as well as effect of the amount, location and geometric shape of the second phase on them, are presented

  10. Crack phantoms: localized damage correlations and failure in network models of disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiser, M; Moretti, P; Lennartz-Sassinek, S

    2015-01-01

    We study the initiation of failure in network models of disordered materials such as random fuse and spring models, which serve as idealized representations of fracture processes in quasi-two-dimensional, disordered material systems. We consider two different geometries, namely rupture of thin sheets and delamination of thin films, and demonstrate that irrespective of geometry and implementation of the disorder (random failure thresholds versus dilution disorder) failure initiation is associated with the emergence of typical localized correlation structures in the damage patterns. These structures (‘crack phantoms’) exhibit well-defined characteristic lengths, which relate to the failure stress by scaling relations that are typical for critical crack nuclei in disorder-free materials. We discuss our findings in view of the fundamental nature of failure processes in materials with random microstructural heterogeneity. (paper)

  11. Status of the material capsule irradiation and the development of the new capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Kee-Nam; Kang, Young-Hwan; Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Cho, Man-Soon; Kim, Bong-Goo

    2006-01-01

    A material capsule system including a main capsule, fixing, control, cutting, and transport systems was developed for an irradiation test of non-fissile materials in HANARO. 14 irradiation capsules (12 instrumented and 2 non-instrumented capsules) have been designed, fabricated and successfully irradiated in the HANARO CT and IR test holes since 1995. The capsules were mainly designed for an irradiation of the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel), reactor core materials, and Zr-based alloys. Most capsules were made for KAERI material research projects, but 5 capsules were made as a part of national projects for the promotion of the HANARO utilization for universities. Based on the accumulated irradiation experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, development of new instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen irrespective of the reactor operation has been performed in HANARO. (author)

  12. Composite material dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  13. Method for forming materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle, Charles R [Idaho Falls, ID; Clark, Denis E [Idaho Falls, ID; Smartt, Herschel B [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Karen S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  14. Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2 Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Günter, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2: Materials is the second of three volumes within the Springer Series in Optical Sciences. The book gives a comprehensive review of the most important photorefractive materials and discusses the physical properties of organic and inorganic crystals as well as poled polymers. In this volume, photorefractive effects have been investigated at wavelengths covering the UV, visible and near infrared. Researchers in the field and graduate students of solid-state physics and engineering will gain a thorough understanding of the properties of materials in photorefractive applications. The other two volumes are: Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 1: Basic Effects. Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 3: Applications.

  15. Potential of AlN nanostructures as hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Sun, Qiang; Jena, Puru; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2009-03-24

    The capability of AlN nanostructures (nanocages, nanocones, nanotubes, and nanowires) to store hydrogen has been studied using gradient-corrected density functional theory. In contrast to bulk AlN, which has the wurtzite structure and four-fold coordination, the Al sites in AlN nanostructures are unsaturated and have two- and three-fold coordination. Each Al atom is capable of binding one H(2) molecule in quasi-molecular form, leading to 4.7 wt % hydrogen, irrespective of the topology of the nanostructures. With the exception of AlN nanotubes, energetics does not support the adsorption of additional hydrogen. The binding energies of hydrogen to these unsaturated metal sites lie in the range of 0.1-0.2 eV/H(2) and are ideal for applications under ambient thermodynamic conditions. Furthermore, these materials do not suffer from the clustering problem that often plagues metal-coated carbon nanostructures.

  16. On stress/strain shielding and the material stiffness paradigm for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabi, Raoof; Shemtov-Yona, Keren; Rittel, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Stress shielding considerations suggest that the dental implant material's compliance should be matched to that of the host bone. However, this belief has not been confirmed from a general perspective, either clinically or numerically. To characterize the influence of the implant stiffness on its functionality using the failure envelope concept that examines all possible combinations of mechanical load and application angle for selected stress, strain and displacement-based bone failure criteria. Those criteria represent bone yielding, remodeling, and implant primary stability, respectively MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed numerical simulations to generate failure envelopes for all possible loading configurations of dental implants, with stiffness ranging from very low (polymer) to extremely high, through that of bone, titanium, and ceramics. Irrespective of the failure criterion, stiffer implants allow for improved implant functionality. The latter reduces with increasing compliance, while the trabecular bone experiences higher strains, albeit of an overall small level. Micromotions remain quite small irrespective of the implant's stiffness. The current paradigm favoring reduced implant material's stiffness out of concern for stress or strain shielding, or even excessive micromotions, is not supported by the present calculations, that point exactly to the opposite. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mechanical Material Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mun Il

    1993-01-01

    This book introduced mechanical material with introduction, basic problems about metal ingredient of machine of metal and alloy, property of metal material mechanical metal material such as categorization of metal material and high tensile structure steel, mechanic design and steel material with three important points on using of steel materials, selection and directions machine structural steel, selection and directions of steel for tool, selection and instruction of special steel like stainless steel and spring steel, nonferrous metal materials and plastic.

  18. Materials with structural hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Roderic

    1993-01-01

    The role of structural hierarchy in determining bulk material properties is examined. Dense hierarchical materials are discussed, including composites and polycrystals, polymers, and biological materials. Hierarchical cellular materials are considered, including cellular solids and the prediction of strength and stiffness in hierarchical cellular materials.

  19. Coated electroactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  20. Aerogel / Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  1. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Richard W.; Nieman, G. William; Weertman, Julia R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  2. Materials Informatics: Statistical Modeling in Material Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosipof, Abraham; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2016-12-01

    Material informatics is engaged with the application of informatic principles to materials science in order to assist in the discovery and development of new materials. Central to the field is the application of data mining techniques and in particular machine learning approaches, often referred to as Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling, to derive predictive models for a variety of materials-related "activities". Such models can accelerate the development of new materials with favorable properties and provide insight into the factors governing these properties. Here we provide a comparison between medicinal chemistry/drug design and materials-related QSAR modeling and highlight the importance of developing new, materials-specific descriptors. We survey some of the most recent QSAR models developed in materials science with focus on energetic materials and on solar cells. Finally we present new examples of material-informatic analyses of solar cells libraries produced from metal oxides using combinatorial material synthesis. Different analyses lead to interesting physical insights as well as to the design of new cells with potentially improved photovoltaic parameters. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Julian M; Ashby, Michael F; Gutowski, Timothy G; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-03-13

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations-- for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards--is likely to have a more immediate effect.

  4. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons...

  5. Multifunctional materials and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Jeon, Ki-Wan

    2017-08-22

    Forming multifunctional materials and composites thereof includes contacting a first material having a plurality of oxygen-containing functional groups with a chalcogenide compound, and initiating a chemical reaction between the first material and the chalcogenide compound, thereby replacing oxygen in some of the oxygen-containing functional groups with chalcogen from the chalcogen-containing compound to yield a second material having chalcogen-containing functional groups and oxygen-containing functional groups. The first material is a carbonaceous material or a macromolecular material. A product including the second material is collected and may be processed further to yield a modified product or a composite.

  6. Sea materials experimental plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This Seal Materials Performance Test Plan describes the plan for testing materials that will be used to seal a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The need for sealing and backfilling the repository and the use of various sealing materials are described. The seal materials include mined salt backfills, cementitious bulkheads and plugs, and earthen backfills. The laboratory testing program for characterizing the behavior and performance of these materials is described. This report includes plans for screening materials, evaluating candidate materials to be tested, and testing a representative set of materials

  7. Nanoscale materials in chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klabunde, Kenneth J; Richards, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    ...: Disordered, Porous Nanostructures Stephanie L. Brock 209 9 Ordered Microporous and Mesoporous Materials Freddy Kleitz 243 10 Applications of Microporous and Mesoporous Materials Anirban Ghosh,...

  8. Physically Functional Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    acids or peptides having azobenzenes or other physicially functional groups, e.g., photoresponsive groups, as side chains. These compounds may be synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis techniques. Materials, e.g., thin films, comprising such compounds may be used for optical storage...... of information (holographic data storage), nonlinear optics (NLO), as photoconductors, photonic band-gap materials, electrically conducting materials, electroluminescent materials, piezo-electric materials, pyroelectric materials, magnetic materials, ferromagnetic materials, ferroelectric materials......, photorefractive materials, or materials in which light-induced conformational changes can be produced. Optical anisotropy may reversibly be generated with polarized laser light whereby a hologram is formed. First order diffraction efficiencies of up to around 80% have been obtained....

  9. Functional materials - Study of process for CVD SiC/C composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Jin; Wang, Chae Chyun; Lee, Young Jin; Oh, Byung Jun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The CVD SiC coating techniques are the one of high functional material manufactures that improve the thermal, wear, oxidization and infiltration resistance of the surface of raw materials and extend the life of material. Silicon carbide films have been grown onto graphite substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using MTS(CH{sub 3}SiCl{sub 3}) as a source precursor and H{sub 2} or N{sub 2} as a diluent gas. The experiments for temperature and diluent gas addition changes were performed. The effect of temperature from 900 deg. C to 1350 deg. C and the alteration of diluent gas species on the growth rate and structure of deposits have been studied. The experimental results showed that the deposition rate increased with increasing deposition temperature irrespective of diluent gases and reactant depletion effect increased especially at H{sub 2} diluent gas ambient. As the diluent gas added, the growth rate decreased parabolically. For N{sub 2} addition, surface morphology of leaf-like structure appeared, and for H{sub 2}, faceted structure at 1350 deg. C. The observed features were involved by crystalline phase of {beta}-SiC and surface composition with different gas ambient. We also compared the experimental results of the effect of partial pressure on the growth rate with the results of theoretical approach based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. C/SiC composites were prepared by isothermal chemical vapor infiltration (ICVI). In order to fabricate the more dense C/SiC composites, a novel process of the in-situ whisker growing and filling during ICVI was devised, which was manipulated by alternating dilute gas species. The denser C/SiC composites were successfully prepared by the novel process comparing with the conventional ICVI process. 64 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  10. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  11. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  12. Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    microscopy and imaging science, interfacial and surface science, materials discovery, and thin-film material Science Materials Science Illustration with bottom row showing a ball-and-stick model and top row dense black band. State-of-the-art advances in materials science come from a combination of experiments

  13. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  14. Materials Analysis and Modeling of Underfill Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, Nicholas B [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chambers, Robert S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The thermal-mechanical properties of three potential underfill candidate materials for PBGA applications are characterized and reported. Two of the materials are a formulations developed at Sandia for underfill applications while the third is a commercial product that utilizes a snap-cure chemistry to drastically reduce cure time. Viscoelastic models were calibrated and fit using the property data collected for one of the Sandia formulated materials. Along with the thermal-mechanical analyses performed, a series of simple bi-material strip tests were conducted to comparatively analyze the relative effects of cure and thermal shrinkage amongst the materials under consideration. Finally, current knowledge gaps as well as questions arising from the present study are identified and a path forward presented.

  15. Trends in building materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapiravana, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available , steel and composites research. Analysis of the building materials market situation in South Africa identified the major building material cost drivers as cement and concrete and steel. For South Africa, research and development focus has been... in South Africa be cement and concrete, light-weight steel construction, smart tiles and composite materials. Nanotechnology materials should be used for property enhancement. The building materials developed should be modularised and/or panelised...

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  17. Irradiation behavior of graphite shielding materials for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tadashi; Kaito, Takeji; Onose, Shoji; Shibahara, Itaru

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen kinds of isotropic graphites with different density and maximum grain size were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' to fluences from 2.11 to 2.86x10 26 n/m 2 (E>0.1 MeV) at temperatures from 549 to 597degC. Postirradiation examination was carried out on dimensional change, elastic modulus, and the thermal conductivity. The result of measurement of dimensional change indicated that the graphites irradiated at lower fluences showed shrinkage upon neutron irradiation followed by increase with increasing neutron fluences, irrespective of differences in material parameters. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio increased to two to three times of unirradiated values. A large scatter found in Poisson's ratio of unirradiated materials became very small and a linear dependency on density was obtained after irradiation. The thermal conductivity decreased to one-fifth to one-tenth of unirradiated values, but the change in specific heat was negligibly small. The results of postirradiation examination indicated that the changes in physical properties of high density, isotropic graphites were mainly dominated by the irradiation condition rather than their material parameters. Namely, the effects of irradiation induced defects on physical properties of heavily neutron-irradiated graphites are much larger than that of defects associated with as-fabricated specimens. (author)

  18. Plasma-material interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma-interactive components must be resistant to erosion processes, efficient in heat removal, and effective in minimizing tritium inventory and permeation. As long as plasma edge temperatures are 50 eV, no one material can satisfy the diverse requirements imposed by these plasma materials interactions. The only solution is the design of duplex, or even more complicated, structures. The material that faces the plasma should be low atomic number, with acceptable erosion and evaporation characteristics. The substrate material must have high thermal conductivity for heat removal. Finally, materials must be selected judiciously for tritium compatibility. In conclusion, materials play a critical role in the achievement of safe and economical magnetic fusion energy. Improvements in materials have already led to many advances in present day device operation, but additional innovative materials solutions are required for the critical plasma materials interaction issues in future power reactors

  19. Corrosion control of electronic materials; Denshi zairyo no fushoku seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Y. [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.

    1995-11-20

    Electronic materials are used in wide varieties of materials starting from hightech products like large computers, information network facilities and so forth, to vehicles, home electrical appliances, OA facilities, video game. Again, even though the part itself may be comparatively simple, high reliability is required when used in high degree system. Further, their uses irrespective to indoor or outdoor environments, are spread to wide range starting from the severe corrosive environments like coastal industrial area, drainage treatment place and so forth to low corrosive environments like general housing, offices and so forth. However, the classification of materials according to the environments where they are used is not so much carried out because preference is given to the function as an electronic part different to the large mechanical construction materials. In this report, regarding the corrosion control technology of electronic materials specially approach is made from material side, and among the various types of electronic materials, aluminium cable for LSI and magnetic materials are outlined. 37 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Advancing materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, H.D.; Psaras, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The topics discussed in this volume include historical perspectives in the fields of materials research and development, the status of selected scientific and technical areas, and current topics in materials research. Papers are presentd on progress and prospects in metallurgical research, microstructure and mechanical properties of metals, condensed-matter physics and materials research, quasi-periodic crystals, and new and artifically structured electronic and magnetic materials. Consideration is also given to materials research in catalysis, advanced ceramics, organic polymers, new ways of looking at surfaces, and materials synthesis and processing

  1. Advanced energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    An essential resource for scientists designing new energy materials for the vast landscape of solar energy conversion as well as materials processing and characterization Based on the new and fundamental research on novel energy materials with tailor-made photonic properties, the role of materials engineering has been to provide much needed support in the development of photovoltaic devices. Advanced Energy Materials offers a unique, state-of-the-art look at the new world of novel energy materials science, shedding light on the subject's vast multi-disciplinary approach The book focuses p

  2. Materials science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    During FY-96, work within the Materials Science and Engineering Thrust Area was focused on material modeling. Our motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as material processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, in support of many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These studies are described in (1) Strength and Fracture Toughness of Material Interfaces; (2) Damage Evolution in Fiber Composite Materials; (3) Flashlamp Envelope Optical Properties and Failure Analysis; (4) Synthesis and Processing of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite; and (5) Room Temperature Creep Compliance of Bulk Kel-E.

  3. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified

  4. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as primary blanket materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and secondary blanket materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified. (orig.)

  5. Materials by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, J.; Hay, P.J.; Carpenter, J.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Major developments in materials characterization instrumentation over the past decade have helped significantly to elucidate complex processes and phenomena connected with the microstructure of materials and interfacial interactions. Equally remarkable advances in theoretical models and computer technology also have been taking place during this period. These latter now permit, for example, in selected cases the computation of material structures and bonding and the prediction of some material properties. Two assessments of the state of the art of instrumental techniques and theoretical methods for the study of material structures and properties have recently been conducted. This paper discusses aspects from these assessments of computational theoretical methods apply to materials

  6. Materials risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    State highway authorities routinely examine the quality of the materials used to build highway construction projects. Some : materials are tested, some are accepted through a manufacturers certification of quality or compliance, some are physicall...

  7. Smart hydrogel functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Liang-Yin; Ju, Xiao-Jie

    2014-01-01

    This book systematically introduces smart hydrogel functional materials with the configurations ranging from hydrogels to microgels. It serves as an excellent reference for designing and fabricating artificial smart hydrogel functional materials.

  8. Practical materials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Presents cross-comparison between materials characterization techniquesIncludes clear specifications of strengths and limitations of each technique for specific materials characterization problemFocuses on applications and clear data interpretation without extensive mathematics

  9. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  10. Sustainable Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce businesses, NGOs, and government officials to the concept of Sustainable Materials Management (SMM). To provide tools to allow stakeholders to take a lifecycle approach managing their materials, & to encourage them to join a SMM challenge.

  11. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  12. Materials Science and Engineering |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering? What Is Materials Science and Engineering? MSE combines engineering, physics and chemistry to solve problems in nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, energy, manufacturing, and more ,' which could replace steel. Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering Professors work together to

  13. Molecules to Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the School of Chemistry, ... Design and fabrication of molecular materials combines ... insights into materials gained through condensed matter ... The most important characteristic of liquid crystals is that they exhibit fluid nature and at the same.

  14. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  15. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  16. Bulletin of Materials Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low temperature preparation of some perovskites La2MM'O6 (M,M'=Cr,Mn,Fe ... Inorganic materials for optical data storage -- S K Date ... Dielectric and polarization studies on some organic materials -- B jagannadh and Lalitha Sirdeshmukh.

  17. Erodibility of cemented materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gass, BG

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of stabilised layers is cost effective in road construction in South Africa. Some stabilised materials have however been found to be susceptible to erosion. To identify erodible materials the Erosion Test was developed in 1989...

  18. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Majhi, Prashant

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena

  19. Materials Genome Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) project element is a cross-Center effort that is focused on the integration of computational tools to simulate manufacturing processes and materials behavior. These computational simulations will be utilized to gain understanding of processes and materials behavior to accelerate process development and certification to more efficiently integrate new materials in existing NASA projects and to lead to the design of new materials for improved performance. This NASA effort looks to collaborate with efforts at other government agencies and universities working under the national MGI. MGI plans to develop integrated computational/experimental/ processing methodologies for accelerating discovery and insertion of materials to satisfy NASA's unique mission demands. The challenges include validated design tools that incorporate materials properties, processes, and design requirements; and materials process control to rapidly mature emerging manufacturing methods and develop certified manufacturing processes

  20. Analysis of irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Papers presented at the UKAEA Conference on Materials Analysis by Physical Techniques (1987) covered a wide range of techniques as applied to the analysis of irradiated materials. These varied from reactor component materials, materials associated with the Authority's radwaste disposal programme, fission products and products associated with the decommissioning of nuclear reactors. An invited paper giving a very comprehensive review of Laser Ablation Microprobe Mass Spectroscopy (LAMMS) was included in the programme. (author)

  1. Fuels and auxiliary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svab, V.

    A brief survey is given of the problems of fuels, fuel cans, absorption and moderator materials proceeding from the papers presented at the 1971 4th Geneva Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and the 1970 IAEA Conference in New York. Attention is focused on the behaviour of fuel and fuel can materials for thermal and fast reactors during irradiation, radiation stability of absorption materials and the effects of radiation on concrete and on moderator materials. (Z.M.)

  2. Contributions to materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbeck, O.W.; Matucha, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    The ten papers presented at a festive colloquium held on November 14, 1988 in Frankfurt to honour Prof. Peter Wincierz deal with the texture and mechanical anisotropy of zirconium alloys (by E. Tenckhoff), materials for cladding tubes (H. Boehm), aluminium materials achieved by near technology (W. Bunk), dispersion-strengthened materials (H. Fischmeister), materials for plain bearings (K.H. Matucha), and the archeometallurgy of copper (H.-G. Bachmann). (MM) [de

  3. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  4. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  5. Materials Genome Initiative Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is committed to developing new materials and manufacturing methods that can enable new missions with ever increasing mission demands. Typically, the development and certification of new materials and manufacturing methods in the aerospace industry has required more than 20 years of development time with a costly testing and certification program. To reduce the cost and time to mature these emerging technologies, NASA is developing computational materials tools to improve understanding of the material and guide the certification process.

  6. Advanced energy materials (Preface)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Elby; Ventura, João; Araújo, João Pedro; Campos Gil, João

    2017-12-01

    Advances in material science make it possible to fabricate the building blocks of an entirely new generation of hierarchical energy materials. Recent developments were focused on functionality and areas connecting macroscopic to atomic and nanoscale properties, where surfaces, defects, interfaces and metastable state of the materials played crucial roles. The idea is to combine both, the top-down and bottom-up approach as well as shape future materials with a blend of both the paradigms.

  7. Computing and Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The digital is often said to bring us away from material. The adverse is true: digital design and fabrication grants new interfaces towards material and allows architectural design to engage with material on architectural scale in a way that is further reaching than ever before....

  8. Advances in dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2014-05-01

    The dental market is replete with new resorative materials marketed on the basis of novel technological advances in materials chemistry, bonding capability or reduced operator time and/or technique sensitivity. This paper aims to consider advances in current materials, with an emphasis on their role in supporting contemporary clinical practice.

  9. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  10. Materials for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Topics include a lab overview, testing and processing equipment, hemochromic hydrogen sensors, antimicrobial materials, wire system materials, CNT ink formulations, CNT ink dust screens, CNT ink printed circuitry, cryogenic materials development, fire and polymers, the importance of lighting, electric lighting systems, LED for plant growth, and carbon nanotube fiber filaments.

  11. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  12. Isotope research materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Preparation of research isotope materials is described. Topics covered include: separation of tritium from aqueous effluents by bipolar electrolysis; stable isotope targets and research materials; radioisotope targets and research materials; preparation of an 241 Am metallurgical specimen; reactor dosimeters; ceramic and cermet development; fission-fragment-generating targets of 235 UO 2 ; and wire dosimeters for Westinghouse--Bettis

  13. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics

  14. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    plate capacitor will reduce the net field to an unprecedented extent. This family of materials can form materials with dielectric values orders of... Capacitor -Increase Area (A)............8 b. Multi-layer Ceramic Capacitor -Decrease Thickness (d) .......10 c. Super Dielectric Material-Increase...circuit modeling, from [44], and B) SDM capacitor charge and discharge ...................................................22 Figure 15. Dielectric

  15. Raw material versus processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, E.A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Some brazilian aspects related with the obtainment of raw materials for advanced ceramic products are described. The necessity of import raw materials by the advanced ceramic industries is mentioned, generating dangerous depedence for the country. The brazilian mineral reserves for using in raw materials of advanced ceramic are also cited. (C.G.C.) [pt

  16. Chemicals in material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used in materials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material and diisob...

  17. Materials science and architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechthold, Martin; Weaver, James C.

    2017-12-01

    Materiality — the use of various materials in architecture — has been fundamental to the design and construction of buildings, and materials science has traditionally responded to needs formulated by design, engineering and construction professionals. Material properties and processes are shaping buildings and influencing how they perform. The advent of technologies such as digital fabrication, robotics and 3D printing have not only accelerated the development of new construction solutions, but have also led to a renewed interest in materials as a catalyst for novel architectural design. In parallel, materials science has transformed from a field that explains materials to one that designs materials from the bottom up. The conflation of these two trends is giving rise to materials-based design research in which architects, engineers and materials scientists work as partners in the conception of new materials systems and their applications. This Review surveys this development for different material classes (wood, ceramics, metals, concrete, glass, synthetic composites and polymers), with an emphasis on recent trends and innovations.

  18. Cathodoluminescence | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    shown on a computer screen; the image of a sample semiconductor material appears as a striated oval material sample shown above; the image is a high-contrast light and dark oval on a dark background and was top left of copper indium gallium selenide semiconductor material sample; the image is shown on a

  19. Physiochemical and antioxidant properties of roselle-mango juice blends; effects of packaging material, storage temperature and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of packaging materials, seasonality, storage temperature and time on physiochemical and antioxidant properties of roselle-mango juice blends. Roselle extract (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) was mixed with mango juice and stored in glass and plastic bottles at 4°C and 28°C. Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar, color, vitamin C, total monomeric anthocyanins, total phenols, and antioxidant activity (FRAP) were evaluated in freshly prepared juice, and after, 2, 4, and 6 months of storage. The results showed that total soluble solids, reducing sugars, and pH increased with storage times under different storage time, irrespective of packaging materials. The acidity, color, total monomeric anthocyanin, vitamin C, total phenols, and antioxidant activity decreased during storage irrespective of storage temperature and packaging material. Loss of anthocyanins, total phenols, and vitamin C content were higher in blends stored at 28°C than 4°C. PMID:25838888

  20. Tailored Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  1. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  2. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  3. New materials in defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sikandar S.; Khan, Shahid A.; Butt, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    National defence is very important and always needs new such materials which have technological and socio-economic development of human society. The types of materials used by a society reflect its level of sophistication. These modern materials are basically the same conventional materials but with a greater knowledge content which include superalloys, modern polymers, engineering ceramics and the advanced composite. The production and use of new materials is playing and important role in the recent development in the defence industry. (A.B.)

  4. Advanced Industrial Materials Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stooksbury, F.

    1994-06-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDA's. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  5. Methods of materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper; Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde

    2016-01-01

    that researchers should start paying attention to the material world (consisting of both human bodies and material objects) and what it means for how people live their lives. It is argued that this can be done by incorporating the concept of material presence to capture embodied and material layers of existence......This article challenges the hegemonic status of “language” as the primary substance of qualitative research in psychology, whether through interviews or recordings of naturally occurring talk. It thereby questions the overt focus on analyzing linguistic “meaning.” Instead, it is suggested...... practical guidelines for incorporating attention to materiality in qualitative research....

  6. LATE-NIGHT SALIVARY CORTISOL IS UNALTERED IN PATIENTS WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME (PCOS), IRRESPECTIVE OF DISEASE PHENOTYPE, AND IN OBESE WOMEN, IRRESPECTIVE OF THE PRESENCE OF PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Keskin, Fatma Ela; Tuten, Abdullah; Korkmaz, Ebru; Oktay, Hulya Zeynep; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2017-09-01

    To determine cutoff values of late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) using an electrochemiluminescent immunoassay and investigate whether the diagnostic performance of the assay is influenced by the presence of obesity or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 124 subjects comprising 25 patients with Cushing syndrome (CS), 44 with PCOS (22 nonobese and 22 obese), 21 with constitutional obesity (CO), and 34 healthy subjects (HS) were included in the study. Two consecutive LNSC samples were collected from all participants. The median LNSC levels of patients with CS were significantly higher than LNSC levels of HS, patients with CO, and obese and nonobese patients with PCOS, respectively (P.05 for all). The cutoff values and corresponding sensitivity and specificity were similar between the groups. The comparisons of the area under curve of the first LNSC (0.963; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.910 to 0.989), second LNSC (0.954; 95% CI, 0.898 to 0.984), and the mean of two consecutive LNSC (mLNSC) values (0.962; 95% CI, 0.909 to 0.989) did not differ significantly (P>.05 for all). A cutoff value for mLNSC of 7.45 nmol/L yielded a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.5% in HS. In conclusion, LNSC is a reliable test with high diagnostic accuracy in both HS and patients with PCOS and obesity. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone AUC = area under the curve BMI = body mass index CO = constitutional obesity CS = Cushing syndrome E2 = estradiol ECLIA = electrochemiluminescent immunoassay FPG = fasting plasma glucose FSH = follicle-stimulating hormone HOMA-IR = homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance HPA = hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal HS = healthy subjects IQR = interquartile range LH = luteinizing hormone LNSC = late-night salivary cortisol LR = likelihood ratio mLNSC = mean of two consecutive LNSC samples PCOS = polycystic ovarian syndrome ROC = receiver operating characteristic UFC = urinary free cortisol WHR = waist-to-hip ratio.

  7. Modelling of thermoelectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lasse

    In order to discover new good thermoelectric materials, there are essentially two ways. One way is to go to the laboratory, synthesise a new material, and measure the thermoelectric properties. The amount of compounds, which can be investigated this way is limited because the process is time...... consuming. Another approach is to model the thermoelectric properties of a material on a computer. Several crystal structures can be investigated this way without use of much man power. I have chosen the latter approach. Using density functional theory I am able to calculate the band structure of a material....... This band structure I can then use to calculate the thermoelectric properties of the material. With these results I have investigated several materials and found the optimum theoretical doping concentration. If materials with these doping concentrations be synthesised, considerably better thermoelectric...

  8. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  9. Articulating Material Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie

    2013-01-01

    , imitate and articulate the students’ inclusion of materials. This paper particularly discusses the experiences made and ideas generated after the execution of a material science course for second year students, with emphasis on the concept of the material selection matrix as an educational tool......This paper discusses the experiences and potentials with materials teaching at the Institute for Product Design at Kolding School of Design, using materials teaching as experiments in my PhD project. The project intents to create a stronger material awareness among product design students...... with emphasis on sustainability. The experiments aim to develop an understanding of, how product design students include materials in their design practice and how tools can be developed that further enhance this. Hence experiments are essential for the progress of the PhD project as they help to observe...

  10. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena that modify the expected device performance. These reactions have become more challenging and more difficult to control as new materials have been introduced and as device sizes have entered the deep nanoscale. To provide an overview of this field of inquiry, this issue of MRS Bulletin includes articles on gate and contact materials for Si-based devices, junction contact materials for Si-based devices, and contact materials for alternate channel substrates (Ge and III-V), nanodevices. © 2011 Materials Research Society.

  11. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  12. Multicomponent polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Sabu; Saha, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    The book offers an in-depth review of the materials design and manufacturing processes employed in the development of multi-component or multiphase polymer material systems. This field has seen rapid growth in both academic and industrial research, as multiphase materials are increasingly replacing traditional single-component materials in commercial applications. Many obstacles can be overcome by processing and using multiphase materials in automobile, construction, aerospace, food processing, and other chemical industry applications. The comprehensive description of the processing, characterization, and application of multiphase materials presented in this book offers a world of new ideas and potential technological advantages for academics, researchers, students, and industrial manufacturers from diverse fields including rubber engineering, polymer chemistry, materials processing and chemical science. From the commercial point of view it will be of great value to those involved in processing, optimizing an...

  13. Matter and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the materials used in nuclear engineering from the uranium (extraction, processing, ultimate use) to all radioactive products encountered in nuclear processes and more particularly those having particular applications or presenting particular risks in their ultimate disposal. This introduction gives a general presentation of the different topics which are developed in other chapters: nuclear materials and fuel cycle (fuel fabrication, actinides and recycling, direct storage and reprocessing of spent fuels, management of radioactive wastes, transport of radioactive materials, production and use of radioelements in the industry and medicine), moderators and coolants, other materials used in reactors (fuel cladding materials, special steels, zircaloy, neutron absorbent materials), and the mechanical behaviour of materials (steels, concretes). (J.S.)

  14. Superconductors and electrotechnical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanculescu, V

    1975-07-01

    A description is given of the properties of superconducting materials and of other materials which will be used in low temperature electrical engineering. The electrical and magnetic properties of type 1 or soft and type 2 or hard superconducting materials are analyzed. Electroinsulating and magnetic materials at low temperatures are also surveyed. Emphasis is placed on gaseous and fluid dielectric substances which retain their condition of physical aggregation at low temperatures and provide a cryogenic medium. These include helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen. As for solid dielectrics, satisfactory electroinsulating materials in terms of mechanical and electrical properties include the category of thermoplastic organic materials such as mylar, teflon, kapton, and nylon. It is also emphasized that cryoelectrical engineering requires magnetic materials with high magnetic induction at low temperatures, coercive field and low magnetic loss.

  15. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  16. Biological materials: a materials science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Marc A; Chen, Po-Yu; Lopez, Maria I; Seki, Yasuaki; Lin, Albert Y M

    2011-07-01

    The approach used by Materials Science and Engineering is revealing new aspects in the structure and properties of biological materials. The integration of advanced characterization, mechanical testing, and modeling methods can rationalize heretofore unexplained aspects of these structures. As an illustration of the power of this methodology, we apply it to biomineralized shells, avian beaks and feathers, and fish scales. We also present a few selected bioinspired applications: Velcro, an Al2O3-PMMA composite inspired by the abalone shell, and synthetic attachment devices inspired by gecko. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Materials 2014: a great success for materials sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isnard, Olivier; Crepin, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    In this work are presented the summaries of the 19 symposiums presented at the conference: 'Materials 2014' and whose topics were: eco-materials, materials for energy storage and conversion, strategic materials, rare elements and recycling, surfaces functionalization and physico-chemical characterization, interfaces and coatings, corrosion, aging, durability, damage mechanical behaviours, disordered materials, glasses and their functionalization, materials and health, functional materials, porous, granular and with a high surface area materials, nano-materials, nano-structured systems, assembling processes, carbonaceous materials, great instruments and studies of materials, materials in severe conditions, powder forming processes, metallic materials and structures lightening. (O.M.)

  18. Geochemical study of the insoluble organic material (kerogen) in the Oklo uranium ore and the associated Francevillian schists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, M.; Rouzaud, J.N.; Oberlin, A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the organic material associated with uranium ore and ore transformations undergone by it, in terms of the following problems: (1) In the natural reactor zones, evolution of the organic material in the core and as a function of the distance away from it; (2) Comparison of organic materials from a rich and a poor ore; (3) Intercomparison of organic materials in the dispersed and concentrated state; (4) Comparison of organic materials in the uranium ore zones and in the adjacent non-mineralized Francevillian. The organic material from the reactor core could not be isolated by the normal techniques of treatment with acid. It is found in other cases that the organic material is oxidized in the uranium-bearing sediments and that the nearer to the reaction zone, the greater the oxidation, irrespective of the state of dispersion of the organic material in the rock. The uranium content does not affect this phenomenon, which is attributed to the action of the water raised to a high temperature in the vicinity of the reaction zones. On the basis of the present distribution of organic material and uranium the authors suggest a pattern for the formation of the deposit that would take into account localization of the ore in the sandstones and the part played by organic material in the accumulation process. (author)

  19. The Time of Materiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrid Sørensen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While time and space form a classic duality in social science, this article demonstrates a perspective on time, space and materiality as a core trinity. As a prominent figure in contemporary discussions on materiality in the social sciences Science and Technology Studies (STS emphasizes relational approaches. STS however lacks a clear relational definition of materiality and tends instead to focus on the agency of entities, on for instance material agency. The article suggests a relational definition of materiality and notes that this move implies turning the question of the time of materiality into an empirical question. It is argued that relational materiality must be studied spatially, and thus a spatial approach describing patterns of relations is presented. Based on field work in a primary school classroom and computer lab, three materials are analyzed: the blackboard, a bed-loft and an online 3D virtual environment. The empirical descriptions depict three different materialities, and it is shown how time is formed differently in each of them. Time, it is argued, is an emergent and characterizing aspect of materialities as spatial formations. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070122

  20. Ceramic piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic piezoelectric materials conert reversibility electric energy into mechanical energy. In the presence of electric field piezoelectric materials exhibit deformations up to 0.15% (for single crystals up to 1.7%). The deformation energy is in the range of 10 2 - 10 3 J/m 3 and working frequency can reach 10 5 Hz. Ceramic piezoelectric materials find applications in many modern disciplines such as: automatics, micromanipulation, measuring techniques, medical diagnostics and many others. Among the variety of ceramic piezoelectric materials the most important appear to be ferroelectric materials such as lead zirconate titanate so called PZT ceramics. Ceramic piezoelectric materials can be processed by methods widely applied for standard ceramics, i.e. starting from simple precursors e.g. oxides. Application of sol-gel method has also been reported. Substantial drawback for many applications of piezoelectric ceramics is their brittleness, thus much effort is currently being put in the development of piezoelectric composite materials. Other important research directions in the field of ceramic piezoelectric materials composite development of lead free materials, which can exhibit properties similar to the PZT ceramics. Among other directions one has to state processing of single crystals and materials having texture or gradient structure. (author)

  1. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  2. Computational materials design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Trial and error experimentation is an extremely expensive route to the development of new materials. The coming age of reduced defense funding will dramatically alter the way in which advanced materials have developed. In the absence of large funding we must concentrate on reducing the time and expense that the R and D of a new material consumes. This may be accomplished through the development of computational materials science. Materials are selected today by comparing the technical requirements to the materials databases. When existing materials cannot meet the requirements we explore new systems to develop a new material using experimental databases like the PDF. After proof of concept, the scaling of the new material to manufacture requires evaluating millions of parameter combinations to optimize the performance of the new device. Historically this process takes 10 to 20 years and requires hundreds of millions of dollars. The development of a focused set of computational tools to predict the final properties of new materials will permit the exploration of new materials systems with only a limited amount of materials characterization. However, to bound computational extrapolations, the experimental formulations and characterization will need to be tightly coupled to the computational tasks. The required experimental data must be obtained by dynamic, in-situ, very rapid characterization. Finally, to evaluate the optimization matrix required to manufacture the new material, very rapid in situ analysis techniques will be essential to intelligently monitor and optimize the formation of a desired microstructure. Techniques and examples for the rapid real-time application of XRPD and optical microscopy will be shown. Recent developments in the cross linking of the world's structural and diffraction databases will be presented as the basis for the future Total Pattern Analysis by XRPD. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  3. Heterogeneous Materials I and Heterogeneous Materials II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, K M

    2004-01-01

    In these two volumes the author provides a comprehensive survey of the various mathematically-based models used in the research literature to predict the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of hetereogeneous materials, i.e., materials containing two or more phases such as fibre-reinforced polymers, cast iron and porous ceramic kiln furniture. Volume I covers linear properties such as linear dielectric constant, effective electrical conductivity and elastic moduli, while Volume II covers nonlinear properties, fracture and atomistic and multiscale modelling. Where appropriate, particular attention is paid to the use of fractal geometry and percolation theory in describing the structure and properties of these materials. The books are advanced level texts reflecting the research interests of the author which will be of significant interest to research scientists working at the forefront of the areas covered by the books. Others working more generally in the field of materials science interested in comparing predictions of properties with experimental results may well find the mathematical level quite daunting initially, as it is apparent that the author assumes a level of mathematics consistent with that taught in final year undergraduate and graduate theoretical physics courses. However, for such readers it is well worth persevering because of the in-depth coverage to which the various models are subjected, and also because of the extensive reference lists at the back of both volumes which direct readers to the various source references in the scientific literature. Thus, for the wider materials science scientific community the two volumes will be a valuable library resource. While I would have liked to see more comparison with experimental data on both ideal and 'real' heterogeneous materials than is provided by the author and a discussion of how to model strong nonlinear current--voltage behaviour in systems such as zinc oxide varistors, my overall

  4. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  5. Radiation protecting clothing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Kotaro; Ijiri, Yasuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide radiation protecting clothing materials excellent in mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, flexibility and flexing strength. Constitution: The radiation protecting clothing materials according to this invention has pure lead sheets comprising a thin pure lead foil of 50 to 150 μm and radiation resistant organic materials, for example, polyethylene with high neutron shielding effect disposed to one or both surfaces thereof. The material are excellent in the repeating bending fatigue and mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and flexibility and, accordingly, radiation protecting clothings prepared by using them along or laminating them also possess these excellent characteristics. Further, they are excellent in the handlability, particularly, durability to the repeated holding and extension, as well as are preferable in the physical movability and feeling upon putting. The clothing materials may be cut into an appropriate size, or stitched into clothings made by radiation-resistant materials. In this case, pure lead sheets are used in lamination. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Ultrasonic nondestructive materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is presented with consideration of the altered behavior in anisotropic and nonlinear elastic materials in comparison with isotropic and linear elastic materials. Some experimental results are described in which ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements give insight into materials microstructure and associated mechanical properties. Recent developments with laser beam non-contact generation and detection of ultrasound are presented. The results of several years of experimental measurements using high-power ultrasound are discussed, which provide substantial evidence of the inability of presently accepted theories to fully explain the interaction of ultrasound with solid materials. Finally, a special synchrotron X-ray topographic system is described which affords the possibility of observing direct interaction of ultrasonic waves with the microstructural features of real crystalline solid materials for the first time.

  7. Hysteresis in Magnetocaloric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars

    , obtained at the initial low and final high field. However, in first order materials thermal entropy hysteresis loops are obtained through characterization, corresponding to measurements done in an increasing and a decreasing temperature mode. Indirectly determining the MCE through the use of the Maxwell...... order materials, taking the magnetic and thermal history dependence of material properties into account, as well as the heat production due to hysteretic losses. MnFe(P,As) and Gd5Si2Ge2 compounds are modelled and it is found that the Preisach approach is suitable to reproduce material behavior in both......In this thesis the effects of hysteresis on magnetocaloric material properties and their performance in magnetic refrigeration devices are investigated. This is done through an experimental and model study of first order magnetocaloric materials MnFe(P,As) and Gd5Si2Ge2. The experimental...

  8. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee', S.S.; Dowker, C.L.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  9. Skateboard deck materials selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoyu; Coote, Tasha; Aiolos; Charlie

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the ideal material for a skateboard deck under 200 in price, minimizing the weight. The material must have a fracture toughness of 5 MPa/m2, have a minimum lifetime of 10, 000 cycles and must not experience brittle fracture. Both single material and hybrid solutions were explored. When further selecting to minimize weight, woods were found to be the best material. Titanium alloy-wood composites were explored to determine the optimal percentage composition of each material.A sandwich panel hybrid of 50% titanium alloy and 50% wood (Ti-Wood) was found to be the optimum material, performing better than the currently used plywood.

  10. Characterization of dielectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Danny J.; Babinec, Susan; Hagans, Patrick L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Payzant, Edward A.; Daniel, Claus; Sabau, Adrian S.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Howe, Jane Y.; Wood, III, David L.; Nembhard, Nicole S.

    2017-06-27

    A system and a method for characterizing a dielectric material are provided. The system and method generally include applying an excitation signal to electrodes on opposing sides of the dielectric material to evaluate a property of the dielectric material. The method can further include measuring the capacitive impedance across the dielectric material, and determining a variation in the capacitive impedance with respect to either or both of a time domain and a frequency domain. The measured property can include pore size and surface imperfections. The method can still further include modifying a processing parameter as the dielectric material is formed in response to the detected variations in the capacitive impedance, which can correspond to a non-uniformity in the dielectric material.

  11. Auditing nuclear materials statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1973-01-01

    A standard that may be used as a guide for persons making independent examinations of nuclear materials statements or reports regarding inventory quantities on hand, receipts, production, shipment, losses, etc. is presented. The objective of the examination of nuclear materials statements by the independent auditor is the expression of an opinion on the fairness with which the statements present the nuclear materials position of a nuclear materials facility and the movement of such inventory materials for the period under review. The opinion is based upon an examination made in accordance with auditing criteria, including an evaluation of internal control, a test of recorded transactions, and a review of measured discards and materials unaccounted for (MUF). The standard draws heavily upon financial auditing standards and procedures published by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

  12. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  13. Characterization of Nanophase Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2000-01-01

    Engineering of nanophase materials and devices is of vital interest in electronics, semiconductors and optics, catalysis, ceramics and magnetism. Research associated with nanoparticles has widely spread and diffused into every field of scientific research, forming a trend of nanocrystal engineered materials. The unique properties of nanophase materials are entirely determined by their atomic scale structures, particularly the structures of interfaces and surfaces. Development of nanotechnology involves several steps, of which characterization of nanoparticles is indespensable to understand the behavior and properties of nanoparticles, aiming at implementing nanotechnolgy, controlling their behavior and designing new nanomaterials systems with super performance. The book will focus on structural and property characterization of nanocrystals and their assemblies, with an emphasis on basic physical approach, detailed techniques, data interpretation and applications. Intended readers of this comprehensive reference work are advanced graduate students and researchers in the field, who are specialized in materials chemistry, materials physics and materials science.

  14. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  15. Joining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Messler, Robert W

    1993-01-01

    Provides an unusually complete and readable compilation of the primary and secondary options for joining conventional materials in non-conventional ways. Provides unique coverage of adhesive bonding using both organic and inorganic adhesives, cements and mortars. Focuses on materials issues without ignoring issues related to joint design, production processing, quality assurance, process economics, and joining performance in service.Joining of advanced materials is a unique treatment of joining of both conventional and advanced metals andalloys, intermetallics, ceramics, glasses, polymers, a

  16. Leaching materials from cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, T.D.; Jordan, T.W.J.

    1980-01-01

    A material is leached from a cavity by contacting the material with a liquid and subjecting the liquid to a number of pressure cycles, each pressure cycle involving a decrease in pressure to cause boiling of the liquid, followed by a rise in pressure to inhibit the boiling. The method may include the step of heating the liquid to a temperature near to its boiling point. The material may be nuclear fuel pellets or calcium carbonate pellets. (author)

  17. Micromechanics of heterogeneous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Buryachenko, Valeriy

    2007-01-01

    Here is an accurate and timely account of micromechanics, which spans materials science, mechanical engineering, applied mathematics, technical physics, geophysics, and biology. The book features rigorous and unified theoretical methods of applied mathematics and statistical physics in the material science of microheterogeneous media. Uniquely, it offers a useful demonstration of the systematic and fundamental research of the microstructure of the wide class of heterogeneous materials of natural and synthetic nature.

  18. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...... of the novel catalyst material for synthesising hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water....

  19. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  20. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  1. Superconducting composites materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerjouan, P.; Boterel, F.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J.P.; Haussonne, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The new superconductor materials with a high critical current own a large importance as well in the electronic components or in the electrotechnical devices fields. The deposit of such materials with the thick films technology is to be more and more developed in the years to come. Therefore, we tried to realize such thick films screen printed on alumina, and composed mainly of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ material. We first realized a composite material glass/YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ , by analogy with the classical screen-printed inks where the glass ensures the bonding with the substrate. We thus realized different materials by using some different classes of glass. These materials owned a superconducting transition close to the one of the pure YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ material. We made a slurry with the most significant composite materials and binders, and screen-printed them on an alumina substrate preliminary or not coated with a diffusion barrier layer. After firing, we studied the thick films adhesion, the alumina/glass/composite material interfaces, and their superconducting properties. 8 refs.; 14 figs.; 9 tabs [fr

  2. Materials Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  3. Materials characterization techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Sam; Li, L; Kumar, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    "With an emphasis on practical applications and real-world case studies, Materials Characterization Techniques presents the principles of widely used advanced surface and structural characterization...

  4. Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Materials Characterization Facility enables detailed measurements of the properties of ceramics, polymers, glasses, and composites. It features instrumentation...

  5. Smuggling special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe

    1999-01-01

    Ever since the collapse of the former Soviet Union reports have circulated with increasing frequency concerning attempts to smuggle materials from that country's civil and military nuclear programs. Such an increase obviously raises a number of concerns (outlined in the author's introduction), chief among which is the possibility that these materials might eventually fall into the hands of proliferant states or terrorist groups. The following issues are presented: significance of materials being smuggled; sources and smuggling routes; potential customers; international efforts to reduce nuclear smuggling; long-term disposition of fissile materials. (author)

  6. Materials development for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Mishan, Freda

    2015-01-01

    Materials development has become much more important in the field of TESOL in the last twenty years: modules on materials development are now commonplace on MA TESOL courses around the world. The overall aim of the book is to introduce readers to a wide range of theoretical and practical issues in materials development to enable them to make informed and principled choices in the selection, evaluation, adaptation and production of materials. The book aims to show how these choices need to be informed by an awareness of culture, context and purpose.

  7. Materials information data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, K.E.

    1978-03-01

    A major concern in the design of weapons systems is compatibility of materials with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long-term storage and must have high reliability at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is thus based on past experience and on laboratory-accelerated testing to assure this long-term reliability. To assist in materials selection, a computerized materials data bank has been established. In addition to references on personnel and documents, this data bank provides annotated information on materials so that the designer and materials engineer can draw on it for guidance in selecting materials. The primary purpose of the data bank is to provide materials compatibility data. However, the structure of the system permits the data bank to be used for storage and retrieval of general materials information. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy is discussed and procedures for information gathering are outlined. Examples of data entries and a list of search routines are presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the system

  8. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2002-04-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  9. Reactor Materials Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.

    2002-01-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel

  10. Soft-Material Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; Nurzaman, SG; Iida, Fumiya

    2017-01-01

    There has been a boost of research activities in robotics using soft materials in the past ten years. It is expected that the use and control of soft materials can help realize robotic systems that are safer, cheaper, and more adaptable than the level that the conventional rigid-material robots can achieve. Contrary to a number of existing review and position papers on soft-material robotics, which mostly present case studies and/or discuss trends and challenges, the review focuses on the fun...

  11. Material for radioactive protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  12. Materials Behavior Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to evaluate mechanical properties of materials including metals, intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, and ceramic-matrix composites under typical...

  13. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components during and after irradiation. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; and the study of dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are discussed

  14. Thermoelectric materials having porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

    2014-08-05

    A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

  15. Materials for Slack Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Traute

    1940-01-01

    This report deals with systematic experiments carried out on five diaphragm materials with different pretreatment, for the purpose of ascertaining the suitability of such materials for slack diaphragms. The relationship of deflection and load, temperature and moisture, was recorded. Of the explored materials, synthetic leather, balloon cloth, goldbeaters skin, Igelit and Buna, synthetic leather treated with castor oil is the most suitable material for the small pressure range required. Balloon cloth is nearly as good, while goldbeaters skin, Igelit and Buna were found to be below the required standards.

  16. Frontiers in Magnetic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Magnetic Materials focuses on the current achievements and state-of-the-art advancements in magnetic materials. Several lines of development- High-Tc Superconductivity, Nanotechnology and refined experimental techniques among them – raised knowledge and interest in magnetic materials remarkably. The book comprises 24 chapters on the most relevant topics written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students.

  17. The materialization of fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    to matter in ways not simply reducible to security optimization, risk management and symbolic politics? To reach this aim, I draw on material studies, mobilities design and non-representational theories to provide a rich socio-material tale of how granite stones, bollards and other counter......-terrorist materials contribute to the construction and ‘feel’ of contemporary urban tourism. How do such prominent material designs influence, both affectively, practically and emotionally, tourists? How are they re-appropriated and imbued with (inter)subjective meanings, and how may a richer understanding of how...

  18. Advanced thermal management materials

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Guosheng; Kuang, Ken

    2012-01-01

    ""Advanced Thermal Management Materials"" provides a comprehensive and hands-on treatise on the importance of thermal packaging in high performance systems. These systems, ranging from active electronically-scanned radar arrays to web servers, require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires materials capable of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility with the packaging and dye. Its coverage includes all aspects of thermal management materials, both traditional and non-traditional, with an emphasis on metal based materials. An in-depth discussion of properties and m

  19. Development of magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.

    2000-01-01

    In the paper are presented both experimental and theoretical basic results of physics of magnetic materials. The special attention is given to a problem of creation of magnetic materials for recording and reproduction of the information. The influence of fundamental scientific results on process of creation of materials with the given properties and constriction of devices and facilities of new generation, and return influence of financing of scientific researches on process of discovering of new unknown fundamental properties of magnetic materials is considered. (author)

  20. [Materials for construction sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  1. Sulcus reproduction with elastomeric impression materials: a new in vitro testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Werner J; Kurokawa, Rie; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Komatsu, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the depth reproduction of differently wide sulci with elastomeric impression materials by single- and double-mix techniques using a tooth and sulcus model, simulating clinical conditions. Impressions with one vinyl polysiloxane (VPS; FLE), two polyethers (PE; IMP and P2), and one hybrid VPS/PE elastomer (FUS) were taken from a truncated steel cone with a circumferential 2 mm deep sulcus, 50, 100 or 200 microm wide. The "root surface" was in steel and the "periodontal tissue" in reversible hydrocolloid. Single-mix impressions were taken with light-body (L) or monophase (M) pastes, double-mix impressions with L as syringe and M or heavy-body (H) as tray materials (n=8). Sulcus reproduction was determined by 3D laser topography of impressions at eight locations, 45 degrees apart. Statistical data analysis by ANOVA and multiple comparison tests (pimpression materials only: FLE=IMP>FUS=P2. At 50 and 100 microm width, significant differences were found between materials (IMP>FUS=FLE>P2) and techniques (L+H=L+M>M>L). The sulcus model is considered useful for screening evaluation of elastomeric impression materials ability to reproduce narrow sulci. All tested materials and techniques reproduced 200 microm wide sulci to almost nominal depth. Irrespective of the impression technique used, IMP showed the best penetration ability in 50 and 100 microm sulci. Double-mix techniques are more suitable to reproduce narrow sulci than single-mix techniques.

  2. Materials on the brink: unprecedented transforming materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    2013 56.00 Shenqiang Ren\\, Manfred Wuttig. Spinodal synthesis of PZT /NFO magnetoelectric, Applied Physics Letters, (08 2007): 83501. doi: 02/06/2013... PZT . This material was discovered through a combinatorial search. Rabe et al. have used first principles methods to show that this morphotropic...temperature. James et al. have suggested a new strategy for energy recovery from waste heat using this alloy. • Discovery of a new fatigue -free shape

  3. Is the materialization of architecture necessarily material?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čarapić Ana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Architectural dematerialization process has started in the first half of the previous century, and has intensively developed at the beginning of this one. Architectural form decomposition on homo­geneous envelope and dependent internal structure, affect on façade materials to liberate from the ballast of supported role, and to gain the privilege to be the main holder of symbolic and sensual dimension. Therefore, on semantic level, they became primary driving force of dematerialization of form, and architecture in the whole. With new technological development, continuity in 'relieving' of matter has been brought to the extreme. Striving for complete liberty of conventional firmness and stability (in functional and phenomenal mode architecture take over the efemer 'week' substances from nature: water, air light, sound, and turn them in it's proper frame. Therefore, the general thesis of this paper is the absurd of architectural materialization with it's on demateriality. Being brought to the turning point, this absurd transforms both architecture (as artificial matter as well as nature itself. The goal of this paper is to predicate principles of material, formal and architectural genesis, in relation to the theoretical sources, as well as by examples of two developed constructions (pavilion 'Blur building' by Diller & Skofidio, and 'Tower of sound' by Toyo Ito.

  4. Between material and ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle

    2012-01-01

    between a dynamic concept and the changing material form of the work. Combining ideas, tools, material and memory, creativity is described as a coherent, dynamic, and iterative process that navigates the space of the chosen medium, guided by the tools at hand, and by the continuously revised ideas...

  5. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  6. Materials modified by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Application of radiation in pharmaceutical sciences and cosmetology, polymer materials, food industry, environment, health camre products and packing production is described. Nano-technology is described more detailed, because it is less known as irradiation using technology. Economic influence of the irradiation on the materials value addition is shown

  7. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  8. Social character of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A; Hunt, J M; Kernan, J B

    2000-06-01

    Scores for 170 undergraduates on Richins and Dawson's Materialism scale were correlated with scores on Kassarjian's Social Preference Scale, designed to measure individuals' character structure. A correlation of .26 between materialism and other-directed social character suggested that an externally oriented reference system guides materialists' perceptions, judgments, acquisitions, and possessions.

  9. Materials testing 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The following subjects were dealt with at the meeting: Testing with vibration loads; Hardness testing; Calibration of test devices and equipment; Test technique for compound materials; Vibration strength testing and expense of experiments; Solving problems in introducing forces into samples and components and process of ambulant materials testing. There are 17 separate abstracts from among 43 lectures. (orig./PW) [de

  10. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which the experience and design of architectural lighting can be approached in research and education......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which the experience and design of architectural lighting can be approached in research and education...

  11. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Karin; Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education.......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education....

  12. Contemporary dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with experimental results of the physical characterization of several important, dielectric materials of great current interest. The experimental tools used for the analysis of these materials include X-ray diffraction, dielectric measurements, magnetic measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer, optical measurements using a UV-Visible spectrometer etc.

  13. Designing through Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    as an opportunity to connect the digital environment with the reality of materials – and use realisation and materialisation to generate architectural developments and findings through an iterative mode of thinking about the dialogue between drawing, materials and fabrication. Consequently the interest and mind...

  14. Gravitation in Material Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium…

  15. Structural and Material Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cifuentes, Gustavo Cifuentes

    This work is a small contribution to the general problem of structural and material instability. In this work, the main subject is the analysis of cracking and failure of structural elements made from quasi-brittle materials like concrete. The analysis is made using the finite element method. Three...

  16. Mechanical meta-materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The emerging concept of mechanical meta-materials has received increasing attention during the last few years partially due to the advances in additive manufacturing techniques that have enabled fabricating materials with arbitrarily complex micro/nano-architectures. The rationally designed

  17. Impacted material placement plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Impacted material placement plans (IMPP) are documents identifying the essential elements in placing remediation wastes into disposal facilities. Remediation wastes or impacted material(s) are those components used in the construction of the disposal facility exclusive of the liners and caps. The components might include soils, concrete, rubble, debris, and other regulatory approved materials. The IMPP provides the details necessary for interested parties to understand the management and construction practices at the disposal facility. The IMPP should identify the regulatory requirements from applicable DOE Orders, the ROD(s) (where a part of a CERCLA remedy), closure plans, or any other relevant agreements or regulations. Also, how the impacted material will be tracked should be described. Finally, detailed descriptions of what will be placed and how it will be placed should be included. The placement of impacted material into approved on-site disposal facilities (OSDF) is an integral part of gaining regulatory approval. To obtain this approval, a detailed plan (Impacted Material Placement Plan [IMPP]) was developed for the Fernald OSDF. The IMPP provides detailed information for the DOE, site generators, the stakeholders, regulatory community, and the construction subcontractor placing various types of impacted material within the disposal facility

  18. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs of the Netherlands, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. (Auth.)

  19. Environmental materials and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig

  20. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, V.K.; Scholz, R.; Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given for each of the following areas: (1) effects of irradiation on fusion reactor materials, (2) hydrogen permeation and materials behavior in alloys, (3) carbon coatings for fusion applications, (4) surface damage of TiB 2 coatings under energetic D + and 4 He + irradiations, and (5) neutron dosimetry

  1. Sex Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer-Magdoff, Laura

    1969-01-01

    After briefly discussing the philosophy of sex education and appraising generally the nature of the instructional methods and materials currently in use in the schools, the author provides brief but incisive reviews of a number of films, filmstrips, and other instructional materials dealing with sex. The reviews are continued in the succeeding…

  2. Scintillator material. Szintillatormaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegmund, M; Bendig, J; Regenstein, W

    1987-11-25

    A scintillator material for detection and quantitative determination of ionizing radiation is discussed consisting of an acridone dissolved in a fluid or solid medium. Solvent mixtures with at least one protogenic component or polymers and copolymers are used. The scintillator material is distinguished by an excellent stability at high energy doses.

  3. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-01-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide

  4. The Materiality of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2016-01-01

    In this feature essay, Ninna Meier reflects on the materiality of the writing – and re-writing – process in academic research. She explores the ways in which our ever-accummulating thoughts come to form layers on the material objects in which we write our notes and discusses the pleasures of co-authorship....

  5. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  6. Material Tracking Using LANMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-01-01

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  7. The Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David D.; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Nestorov, Svetlozar

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities for designing new materials based on quantum physics calculations are rapidly growing, but these design efforts lead to a significant increase in the amount of computational data created. The Computational Materials Repository (CMR) addresses this data challenge and provides...

  8. The nuclear materials contraband

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.; Woessner, P.

    1996-01-01

    Several seizures of nuclear materials carried by contraband have been achieved. Some countries or criminal organizations could manufacture atomic bombs and use them. This alarming situation is described into details. Only 40% of drugs are seized by the American police and probably less in western Europe. The nuclear materials market is smaller than the drugs'one but the customs has also less experience to intercept the uranium dispatch for instance more especially as the peddlers are well organized. A severe control of the international transports would certainly allow to seize a large part of nuclear contraband materials but some dangerous isotopes as uranium 235 or plutonium 239 are little radioactive and which prevents their detection by the Geiger-Mueller counters. In France, some regulations allow to control the materials used to manufacture the nuclear weapons, and diminish thus the risk of a nuclear materials contraband. (O.L.). 4 refs., 2 figs

  9. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  10. Recycling fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, L.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent safety and environmental advantages of fusion power in comparison with other energy sources play an important role in the public acceptance. No waste burden for future generations is therefore one of the main arguments to decide for fusion power. The waste issue has thus been studied in several documents and the final conclusion of which it is stated that there is no permanent disposal waste needed if recycling is applied. But recycling of fusion reactor materials is far to be obvious regarding mostly the very high specific activity of the materials to be handled, the types of materials and the presence of tritium. The main objective of research performed by SCK-CEN is to study the possible ways of recycling fusion materials and analyse the challenges of the materials management from fusion reactors, based on current practices used in fission reactors and the requirements for the manufacture of fusion equipment

  11. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  12. Materials and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the Materials and Nanotechnology Program is technology development related to processing, analysis, testing and characterization of materials in general. These are achieved through execution of R&D projects in engineering and materials science, cooperative projects with private and public sector companies, universities and other research institutes. Besides technology development, this Program also fosters training and human resource development in association with the University of São Paulo and many industrial sectors. This Program is divided into sub-programs in broad areas such as ceramic, composite and metallic materials as well as characterization of physical and chemical properties of materials. The sub-programs are further divided into general topics and within each topic, R&D projects. A brief description of progress in each topic during the last three years follows. (author)

  13. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  14. Lasers in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Ossi, Paolo; Zhigilei, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    This book covers various aspects of lasers in materials science, including a comprehensive overview on basic principles of laser-materials interactions and applications enabled by pulsed laser systems.  The material is organized in a coherent way, providing the reader with a harmonic architecture. While systematically covering the major current and emerging areas of lasers processing applications, the Volume provides examples of targeted modification of material properties achieved through careful control of the processing conditions and laser irradiation parameters. Special emphasis is placed on specific strategies aimed at nanoscale control of material structure and properties to match the stringent requirements of modern applications.  Laser fabrication of novel nanomaterials, which expands to the domains of photonics, photovoltaics, sensing, and biomedical applications, is also discussed in the Volume. This book assembles chapters based on lectures delivered at the Venice International School on Lasers...

  15. Of 'other' materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    within the ‘new materiality’ literature in philosophy as well as in cultural theory. Important lessons are drawn in from across different positions such as non-representational theory, the nonhuman turn, Object-Oriented-Ontology to mention a few. It is argued that to create the necessary materially......In this article, the notion of materialities is rearticulated as an important field for the future of mobilities research. We focus on the intersection between situational mobilities research and design/architecture. The vocabulary and material imaginary developed within the latter are an important...... sensitive imaginary, mobilities research should be looking to architecture and design, as well as it may profit from engaging with these new materially sensitive thinkers. The article ends with some concrete themes for future research inspired by these intersections and identifies ‘material pragmatism...

  16. Reactor pressure boundary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Lee, B. S.

    2002-04-01

    With a long-term operation of nuclear power plants, the component materials are degraded under severe reactor conditions such as neutron irradiation, high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environment. It is necessary to establish the reliable and practical technologies for improving and developing the component materials and for evaluating the mechanical properties. Especially, it is very important to investigate the technologies for reactor pressure boundary materials such as reactor vessel and pipings in accordance with their critical roles. Therefore, this study was focused on developing and advancing the microstructural/micro-mechanical evaluation technologies, and on evaluating the neutron irradiation characteristics and radiation effects analysis technology of the reactor pressure boundary materials, and also on establishing a basis of nuclear material property database

  17. Articulating Material Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the experiences and potentials with materials teaching at the Institute for Product Design at Kolding School of Design, using materials teaching as experiments in my PhD project. The project intents to create a stronger material awareness among product design students...... with emphasis on sustainability. The experiments aim to develop an understanding of, how product design students include materials in their design practice and how tools can be developed that further enhance this. Hence experiments are essential for the progress of the PhD project as they help to observe....... Furthermore the purpose is to initiate a discussion on, how to create educational tools for material awareness creation in the design education e.g. by applying objective and quantitative methods in an otherwise often subjective design process....

  18. Security of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: From the early days of discovery and experimentation with nuclear science, nuclear and radioactive materials have held extraordinary potential for being of great benefit to humankind, as well as for causing significant harm. For the past forty years, the IAEA has played an important role in ensuring that nuclear technologies and materials are used only for peaceful purposes. The Agency's safeguards programme has been providing assurances that States honour their undertakings to use nuclear facilities and materials for peaceful purposes only. The potential of nuclear materials and other radioactive materials being used in subversive activities, such as theft, illicit trafficking, sabotage and threats thereof, has been recognized by the international community. The tragic events in New York have given new light to and increased concern for this potential. No target may be considered immune from terrorism. Since 1993, States have confirmed over 370 cases of illicit trafficking. Information is also available on potential attempts of and actual acts of sabotage. For any State, the first step in ensuring the security of their materials is an effective national system. Such a system must contain multiple elements, including physical protection measures, material accountability arrangements, reliable detection capabilities, and plans for rapid and effective response when material is found to be lost, stolen or otherwise not under proper control. The system must also cover illegal waste dumping and other activities that would result in the release of radioactive material into the environment. All these measures should be based on well founded legal and regulatory structures. In many cases, the responsibility for these various elements lies with different bodies, and co-operation between them is vital to the success of the national system. The Agency's programme Security of Material aims at being of service to States in their efforts to upgrade their security

  19. Thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: The science of chemical thermodynamics has substantially contributed to the understanding of the many problems encountered in nuclear and reactor technology. These problems include reaction of materials with their surroundings and chemical and physical changes of fuels. Modern reactor technology, by its very nature, has offered new fields of investigations for the scientists and engineers concerned with the design of nuclear fuel elements. Moreover, thermodynamics has been vital in predicting the behaviour of new materials for fission as well as fusion reactors. In this regard, the Symposium was organized to provide a mechanism for review and discussion of recent thermodynamic investigations of nuclear materials. The Symposium was held in the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre, at the invitation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. The International Atomic Energy Agency has given much attention to the thermodynamics of nuclear materials, as is evidenced by its sponsorship of four international symposia in 1962, 1965, 1967, and 1974. The first three meetings were primarily concerned with the fundamental thermodynamics of nuclear materials; as with the 1974 meeting, this last Symposium was primarily aimed at the thermodynamic behaviour of nuclear materials in actual practice, i.e., applied thermodynamics. Many advances have been made since the 1974 meeting, both in fundamental and applied thermodynamics of nuclear materials, and this meeting provided opportunities for an exchange of new information on this topic. The Symposium dealt in part with the thermodynamic analysis of nuclear materials under conditions of high temperatures and a severe radiation environment. Several sessions were devoted to the thermodynamic studies of nuclear fuels and fission and fusion reactor materials under adverse conditions. These papers and ensuing discussions provided a better understanding of the chemical behaviour of fuels and materials under these

  20. Materials at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the physics, chemistry, and metallurgy of materials has been a primary focus of Los Alamos National Laboratory since its inception. In the early 1940s, very little was known or understood about plutonium, uranium, or their alloys. In addition, several new ionic, polymeric, and energetic materials with unique properties were needed in the development of nuclear weapons. As the Laboratory has evolved, and as missions in threat reduction, defense, energy, and meeting other emerging national challenges have been added, the role of materials science has expanded with the need for continued improvement in our understanding of the structure and properties of materials and in our ability to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. Materials science and engineering continues to be central to this Laboratory's success, and the materials capability truly spans the entire laboratory - touching upon numerous divisions and directorates and estimated to include >1/3 of the lab's technical staff. In 2006, Los Alamos and LANS LLC began to redefine our future, building upon the laboratory's established strengths and promoted by strongly interdependent science, technology and engineering capabilities. Eight Grand Challenges for Science were set forth as a technical framework for bridging across capabilities. Two of these grand challenges, Fundamental Understanding of Materials and Superconductivity and Actinide Science. were clearly materials-centric and were led out of our organizations. The complexity of these scientific thrusts was fleshed out through workshops involving cross-disciplinary teams. These teams refined the grand challenge concepts into actionable descriptions to be used as guidance for decisions like our LDRD strategic investment strategies and as the organizing basis for our external review process. In 2008, the Laboratory published 'Building the Future of Los Alamos. The Premier National Security Science Laboratory

  1. Radioactive waste solidifying material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Keiichi; Sakai, Etsuro.

    1989-01-01

    The solidifying material according to this invention comprises cement material, superfine powder, highly water reducing agent, Al-containing rapid curing material and coagulation controller. As the cement material, various kinds of quickly hardening, super quickly hardening and white portland cement, etc. are usually used. As the superfine powder, those having average grain size smaller by one order than that of the cement material are desirable and silica dusts, etc. by-produced upon preparing silicon, etc. are used. As the highly water reducing agent, surface active agents of high decomposing performance and comprising naphthalene sulfonate, etc. as the main ingredient are used. As the Al-containing rapidly curing material, calcium aluminate, etc. is used in an amount of less than 10 parts by weight based on 100 parts by weight of the powdery body. As the coagulation controller, boric acid etc. usually employed as a retarder is used. This can prevent dissolution or collaption of pellets and reduce the leaching of radioactive material. (T.M.)

  2. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  3. Hydrophilic nanoporous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present application discloses a method for preparing and rendering hydrophilic a nanoporous material of a polymer matrix which has a porosity of 0.1-90 percent (v/v), such that the ratio between the final water absorption (percent (w/w)) and the porosity (percent (v/v)) is at least 0.05, the ......The present application discloses a method for preparing and rendering hydrophilic a nanoporous material of a polymer matrix which has a porosity of 0.1-90 percent (v/v), such that the ratio between the final water absorption (percent (w/w)) and the porosity (percent (v/v)) is at least 0.......05, the method comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a precursor material comprising at least one polymeric component and having a first phase and a second phase; (b) removal of at least a part of the first phase of the precursor material prepared in step (a) so as to leave behind a nanoporous material...... of the polymer matrix; (c) irradiating at least a part of said nanoporous material with light of a wave length of in the range of 250-400 nm (or 200-700 nm) in the presence of oxygen and/or ozone. Corresponding hydrophilic nanoporous materials are also disclosed. L...

  4. Safeguards for special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.L.

    1979-12-01

    Safeguards, accountability, and nuclear materials are defined. The accuracy of measuring nuclear materials is discussed. The use of computers in nuclear materials accounting is described. Measures taken to physically protect nuclear materials are described

  5. Professional Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcella, A.A.; O'Leary, W.J.

    1966-01-01

    This paper describes the scope of nuclear materials management for a typical power reactor in the United States of America. Since this power reactor is financed by private capital, one of the principal obligations of the reactor operator is to ensure that the investment is protected and will furnish an adequate financial return. Because of the high intrinsic value of nuclear materials, appropriate security and accountability must be continually exercised to minimize losses beyond security and accountability for the nuclear materials. Intelligent forethought and planning must be employed to ensure that additional capital is not lost as avoidable additional costs or loss of revenue in a number of areas. The nuclear materials manager must therefore provide in advance against the following contingencies and maintain constant control or liaison against deviations from planning during (a) pre-reactor acquisition of fuel and fuel elements, (b) in-reactor utilization of the fuel elements, and (c) post-reactor recovery of fuel values. During pre-reactor planning and operations, it is important that the fuel element be designed for economy in manufacture, handling, shipping, and replaceability. The time schedule for manufacturing operations must minimize losses of revenue from unproductive dead storage of high cost materials. For in-reactor operations, the maximum achievable burn-up of the fissionable material must be obtained by means of appropriate fuel rearrangement schemes. Concurrently the unproductive down-time of the reactor for fuel rearrangement, inspections, and the like must be minimized. In the post-reactor period, when the fuel has reached a predetermined depletion of fissionable material, the nuclear materials manager must provide for the most economical reprocessing and recovery of fissionable values and by-products. Nuclear materials management is consequently an essential factor in achieving competitive fuel cycle and unit energy costs with power reactors

  6. High temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  7. Thermal fatigue. Materials modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegele, D.; Fingerhuth, J.; Mrovec, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the ongoing joint research project 'Thermal Fatigue - Basics of the system-, outflow- and material-characteristics of piping under thermal fatigue' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) fundamental numerical and experimental investigations on the material behavior under transient thermal-mechanical stress conditions (high cycle fatigue V HCF and low cycle fatigue - LCF) are carried out. The primary objective of the research is the further development of simulation methods applied in safety evaluations of nuclear power plant components. In this context the modeling of crack initiation and growth inside the material structure induced by varying thermal loads are of particular interest. Therefore, three scientific working groups organized in three sub-projects of the joint research project are dealing with numerical modeling and simulation at different levels ranging from atomistic to micromechanics and continuum mechanics, and in addition corresponding experimental data for the validation of the numerical results and identification of the parameters of the associated material models are provided. The present contribution is focused on the development and experimental validation of material models and methods to characterize the damage evolution and the life cycle assessment as a result of thermal cyclic loading. The individual purposes of the subprojects are as following: - Material characterization, Influence of temperature and surface roughness on fatigue endurances, biaxial thermo-mechanical behavior, experiments on structural behavior of cruciform specimens and scatter band analysis (IfW Darmstadt) - Life cycle assessment with micromechanical material models (MPA Stuttgart) - Life cycle assessment with atomistic and damage-mechanical material models associated with material tests under thermal fatigue (Fraunhofer IWM, Freiburg) - Simulation of fatigue crack growth, opening and closure of a short crack under

  8. Photopolymer holographic recording material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. R.; O'Neill, F. T.; Sheridan, J. T.

    Photopolymers are promising materials for use in holography. They have many advantages, such as ease of preparation, and are capable of efficiencies of up to 100%. A disadvantage of these materials is their inability to record high spatial frequency gratings when compared to other materials such as dichromated gelatin and silver halide photographic emulsion. Until recently, the drop off at high spatial frequencies of the material response was not predicted by any of the diffusion based models available. It has recently been proposed that this effect is due to polymer chains growing away from their initiation point and causing a smeared profile to be recorded. This is termed a non-local material response. Simple analytic expressions have been derived using this model and fits to experimental data have allowed values to be estimated for material parameters such as the diffusion coefficient of monomer, the ratio of polymerisation rate to diffusion rate and the distance that the polymer chains spread during holographic recording. The model predicts that the spatial frequency response might be improved by decreasing the mean polymer chain lengths and/or by increasing the mobility of the molecules used in the material. The experimental work carried out to investigate these predictions is reported here. This work involved (a) the changing of the molecular weights of chemical components within the material (dyes and binders) and (b) the addition of a chemical retarder in order to shorten the polymer chains, thereby decreasing the extent of the non-local effect. Although no significant improvement in spatial frequency response was observed the model appears to offer an improved understanding of the operation of the material.

  9. Material control evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddoups, I.G.; Anspach, D.A.; Abbott, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the Department of Energy's (DOE) scope of work have stimulated several laboratories and commercial companies to develop and apply technology to enhance nuclear material control. Accountability, inventory, radiation exposure, and insider protection concerns increase as many DOE facilities require increased storage. This paper summarizes a study of the existing material control technologies. The goal of the study is to identify, characterize, and quantify the trade-offs associated with using these technologies to provide real-time information on stored nuclear material that in turn supports decreasing the frequency of inventories conducted by site personnel

  10. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised

  11. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date text covering topics in utilizing hydrogen bonding for constructing functional architectures and supramolecular materials. The first chapter addresses the control of photo-induced electron and energy transfer. The second chapter summarizes the formation of nano-porous materials. The following two chapters introduce self-assembled gels, many of which exhibit unique functions. Other chapters cover the advances in supramolecular liquid crystals and the versatility of hydrogen bonding in tuning/improving the properties and performance of materials. This book is designed

  12. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de

  13. Electro photographic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzdugan, A.; Andries, A.; Iovu, M.

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to the creation of electro photographic materials . The invention allows to extend the material photosensitivity into the infrared range of the spectrum. An electro photographic materials contains an electro conducting base, including a dielectric base 1, for example glass, an electro conducting layer 2, for example of Al, Ni, Cr, an injecting layer 3, consisting of amorphous indium phosphide, a vitreous layer 4 of the arsenic sulphide - antimony sulphide system and a transporting layer 5 of the arsenic sulphide or arsenic selenide

  14. 'Material unaccounted for' (MUF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MUF is an item of importance in materials accounting measures now embodied in international safeguard arrangements, and in recent public debates requests have been made that the figures for MUF appearing in the Atomic Energy Authority and British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. records should be published. Joint statements issued by the UKAEA and BNFL in July 1977 are here published. These statements describe the procedures for nuclear materials accounting at AEA and BNFL sites and the nature of the inventory differences (MUF) that arise in all nuclear materials accounting operations. Figures for highly enriched U and Pu are included. (U.K.)

  15. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

  16. Treating carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-08-26

    To separate the constituents or conversion products, which are liquid or which liquefy when heated, from solid distillable carbonaceous materials such as coals, oil shales, or other bituminous substances, the initial materials are subjected to a destructive hydrogenation under mild conditions so that the formation of benzines is substantially avoided, after which the material is subjected to an extraction treatment with solvents. The constituents of high boiling point range, suitable for the production of lubricating oils and solid paraffins, obtained by the said destructive hydrogenation are separated off before or/and after the said extraction treatment.

  17. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  18. Electrically conductive composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  19. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  20. Multifunctional materials and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Korepanov, M A; Zaikov, Gennady E; Haghi, A K

    2015-01-01

    This important book presents a valuable collection of new research and new trends in nanomaterials, mesoscopy, quantum chemistry, and chemical physics processes. It highlights the development of nanomaterials as well as investigation of combustion and explosion processes. It highlights new trends in processes and methods of the treatment of polymeric materials and also covers material modification, including super small quantities of metal/carbon nanocomposites as well as new information on the modeling of processes and quantum calculations. Nonlinear kinetic appearances and their applications are highlighted as well. The chapters are divided into three major sections: computational modeling, surface and interface investigations, and nanochemistry, nanomaterials, and nanostructured materials.

  1. Materials science symposium 'materials science using accelerators'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Tetsuro; Asai, Masato; Chimi, Yasuhiro

    2005-07-01

    The facility of the JAERI-Tokai tandem accelerator and its booster has been contributing to advancing heavy-ion sciences in the fields of nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, atomic and solid-state physics and materials science, taking advantage of its prominent performance of heavy-ion acceleration. This facility was recently upgraded by changing the acceleration tubes and installing an ECR ion-source at the terminal. The radioactive nuclear beam facility (Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex, TRIAC) was also installed by the JAERI-KEK joint project. On this occasion, this meeting was held in order to provide a new step for the advancement of heavy-ion science, and to exchange information on recent activities and future plans using the tandem facility as well as on promising new experimental techniques. This meeting was held at Tokai site of JAERI on January 6th and 7th in 2005, having 24 oral presentations, and was successfully carried out with as many as 90 participants and lively discussions among scientists from all the fields of heavy-ion science, including solid-sate physics, nuclear physics and chemistry, and accelerator physics. This summary is the proceedings of this meeting. We would like to thank all the staffs of the accelerators section, participants and office workers in the Department of Materials Science for their support. The 24 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Phase-change materials handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, D. V.; Hoover, M. J.; Oneill, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Handbook describes relationship between phase-change materials and more conventional thermal control techniques and discusses materials' space and terrestrial applications. Material properties of most promising phase-change materials and purposes and uses of metallic filler materials in phase-change material composites are provided.

  3. Amniotic membranes as prosthetic material: experimental utilization data of a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariou, Z

    1997-10-01

    Prosthetic materials are applied for closing big tissue defects, the repair of traumatized organs, or hernias. Because nonabsorbable synthetic materials are rigid, possess a defined and unchangeable size, and foreign body reaction (FBR) may occur, biological materials may be an alternative. In experimental studies in rats the authors implanted the fetal parts of the human amniotic membranes and examined the utilization and FBR induced in a standardized model. In addition amnion (AM) was combined with vicryl-net (VN) for higher implant stability. Fifteen, 30 and 90 days after implantation, macroscopic appearance was examined, and light microscopy and immunohistology testing of the specimens were performed. Adhesions to parenchymal organs and omentum were present irrespective of the side facing the abdominal cavity. AM induced a rapid FBR, which diminished with time. Chorion (CH) and parts of the AM were resorbed within the examined period after infiltration with recipient cells and neovascularisation. The combined implant, AM, and VN showed best results because disadvantages of one material could be compensated for by the advantages of the other. The studies show that AM, in its anatomic definition, combined with VN proves to be a safe and reliable prosthetic material for the use in tissue defects.

  4. Electrically conductive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  5. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The norm which establishes the requirements of radiation protection and safety related to the transport of radioactive materials, aiming to keep a suitable control level of eventual exposure of personnels, materials and environment of ionizing radiation, including: specifications on radioactive materials for transport, selection of package type; specification of requirements of the design and assays of acceptance of packages; disposal related to the transport; and liability and administrative requirements, are presented. This norm is applied to: truckage, water carriage and air service; design, fabrication, assays and mantenaince of packages; preparation, despatching, handling, loading storage in transition and reception in the ultimate storage of packages; and transport of void packages which have been contained radioactive materials. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  7. Guest Editorial - Smart materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barber, Z. H.; Clyne, T. W.; Šittner, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 30, 13a (2014), s. 1515-1516 ISSN 0267-0836 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : smart materials * shape memory effect (SME) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.995, year: 2014

  8. Molecules to Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    clay and wood and the technology consisted' in reshaping and restructuring physically these ... are completely and drastically modified. Though not known ... application of these materials was based primarily on their electrical, magnetic ...

  9. Laser material processing

    CERN Document Server

    Steen, William

    2010-01-01

    This text moves from the basics of laser physics to detailed treatments of all major materials processing techniques for which lasers are now essential. New chapters cover laser physics, drilling, micro- and nanomanufacturing and biomedical laser processing.

  10. New Materials Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voth, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    Progress has been made on several projects under the Challenge Project award. In the area of high energy density materials, calculations are under way on Al atoms embedded in clusters of H2 molecule...

  11. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  12. Testing of abrasion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummert, G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of abrasion testing according to ASTM C 704-76 a is presented for steel fibre concrete mortar, fusion-cast basalt and a surface coating material and results of practical interest are mentioned. Due to the high technical demands on these materials and their specific fields of application, the very first test already supplied interesting findings. From the user's point of view, the method is an interesting alternative to the common test methods, e.g. according to DIN 52 108 (wheel test according to Boehme). In English-speaking countries, testing according to ASTM is often mandatory in the refractory industry in order to assure constant quality of refractory materials after setting. The method is characterized by good comparability and high accuracy of measurement. Only the test piece is exchanged while the test conditions remain constant, so that accurate information on the material studied is obtained. (orig.) [de

  13. Photoconductivity in Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, J. M.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials including graphene and the surface of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator, and 3D Dirac materials including 3D Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal have attracted great attention due to their linear Dirac nodes and exotic properties. Here, we use the Fermi’s golden rule and Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation to study and compare the photoconductivity of Dirac materials under different far- or mid-infrared irradiation. Theoretical results show that the photoconductivity exhibits the anisotropic property under the polarized irradiation, but the anisotropic strength is different between 2D and 3D Dirac materials. The photoconductivity depends strongly on the relaxation time for different scattering mechanism, just like the dark conductivity

  14. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  15. Nuclear material operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  16. Materials Genome Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop computational tools to assist in the manufacture, design and certification of new materials and processes. These tools will reduce the time and costs to...

  17. Advanced EDL Materials (AEDLM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Via the exploration of alternate resins and substrate materials for ablative TPS, and the development of new high heat flux resistant flexible TPS systems, we intend...

  18. Ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 32 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Fissile material proliferation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility depends on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. To effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of nuclear related sites and facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for fissile material (plutonium and highly enriched uranium)

  20. Nuclear fuel cladding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahigashi, Shigeo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To largely improve the durability and the safety of fuel cladding material. Constitution: Diffusion preventive layers, e.g., aluminum or the like are covered on both sides of a zirconium alloy base layer of thin material, and corrosion resistant layers, e.g., copper or the like are covered thereon. This thin plate material is intimately wound in a circularly tubular shape in a plurality of layers to form a fuel cladding tube. With such construction, corrosion of the tube due to fuel and impurity can be prevented by the corrosion resistant layers, and the diffusion of the corrosion resistant material to the zirconium alloy can be prevented by the diffusion preventive layers. Since a plurality of layers are cladded, even if the corrosion resistant layers are damaged or cracked due to stress corrosion, only one layer is damaged or cracked, but the other layers are not affected. (Sekiya, K.)

  1. Materials research at CMAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming

  2. Materials Sciences Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation and index of the ERDA materials sciences program is presented. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs

  3. Nuclear material operations manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1979-06-01

    This manual is intended to provide a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  4. Treating carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, T D

    1927-07-29

    Coal, lignite, shale, peat, or like carbonaceous material is heated at 70 to 300/sup 0/C with an alkaline solution of sodium, potassium, or ammonium oleate and aluminum sulfate is added in order to solidify the oleate. The solid material is separated and molded or shaped or disintegrated for use as a pigment or mixed with rubber or similar compounds such as solidified, oxidized or polymerized oils in making building blocks or tiles, tires, footwear, or other resilient material. It may be distilled with water or steam in a retort to make gas, or in porous condition can be burnt. The liquid products may be subjected to fractional distillation or mixed with bitumen, resin or oils or materials such as clay, red oxide, or barytes to give colour or body in the manufacture of waterproof heatproof dressings which may be made quick-drying by the addition of ammonia, or for mixing with or spreading over stones or on roads or concrete.

  5. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  6. Materials research at CMAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-07-01

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  7. Materials engineering data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The various types of materials related data that exist at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and compiled into databases which could be accessed by all the NASA centers and by other contractors, are presented.

  8. Educational Materials - Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  9. Biological Responses to Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James M.

    2001-08-01

    All materials intended for application in humans as biomaterials, medical devices, or prostheses undergo tissue responses when implanted into living tissue. This review first describes fundamental aspects of tissue responses to materials, which are commonly described as the tissue response continuum. These actions involve fundamental aspects of tissue responses including injury, inflammatory and wound healing responses, foreign body reactions, and fibrous encapsulation of the biomaterial, medical device, or prosthesis. The second part of this review describes the in vivo evaluation of tissue responses to biomaterials, medical devices, and prostheses to determine intended performance characteristics and safety or biocompatibility considerations. While fundamental aspects of tissue responses to materials are important from research and development perspectives, the in vivo evaluation of tissue responses to these materials is important for performance, safety, and regulatory reasons.

  10. Material Religion - Hinduism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive bibliography on material religion in Hinduism. Monographs, anthologies, anthology chapters, journal articles, web articles, documentation on cultic elements of the landscape (mountains, rivers, trees, stones), three- and two-dimensional cultic artefacts, textiles, ritual accessories...

  11. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge...... to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization...

  12. Fracture in Soft Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole

    Fracture is a phenomenon that is generally associated with solids. A key element in fracture theory is the so-called weakest link idea that fracture initiates from the largest pre-existing material imperfection. However, recent work has demonstrated that fracture can also happen in liquids, where...... surface tension will act to suppress such imperfections. Therefore, the weakest link idea does not seem immediately applicable to fracture in liquids. This presentation will review fracture in liquids and argue that fracture in soft liquids is a material property independent of pre-existing imperfections....... The following questions then emerge: What is the material description needed to predict crack initiation, crack speed and crack shape in soft materials and liquids....

  13. Evaluation of learning materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Hansen, Thomas Illum

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic framework for evaluating learning materials and designs for learning. A holistic evaluation comprises investigations of the potential learning potential, the actualized learning potential, and the actual learning. Each aspect is explained and exemplified through...

  14. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  15. Spacecraft Material Outgassing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This compilation of outgassing data of materials intended for spacecraft use were obtained at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), utilizing equipment developed...

  16. Relativistic theories of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Aldo

    1978-01-01

    The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...

  17. Moldable cork ablation material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A successful thermal ablative material was manufactured. Moldable cork sheets were tested for density, tensile strength, tensile elongation, thermal conductivity, compression set, and specific heat. A moldable cork sheet, therefore, was established as a realistic product.

  18. Fission reactors and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, B.R.T.

    1981-12-01

    The American-designed boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor dominate the designs currently in use and under construction worldwide. As in all energy systems, materials problems have appeared during service; these include stress-corrosion of stainless steel pipes and heat exchangers and questions regarding crack behavior in pressure vessels. To obtain the maximum potential energy from our limited uranium supplies is is essential to develop the fast breeder reactor. The materials in these reactors are subjected to higher temperatures and neutron fluxes but lower pressures than in the water reactors. The performance required of the fuel elements is more arduous in the breeder than in water reactors. Extensive materials programs are in progress in test reactors and in large test rigs to ensure that materials will be available to meet these conditions

  19. Foreign material exclusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Moreno, J.; Folguera Mateo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Foreign material is any element that is not part of the system as it has been designed. For example dirt, loose parts, wires, chips, etc. that may affect the operation of the system or component. (Author)

  20. Nuclear material operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.; Gassman, L.D.

    1978-04-01

    This manual is intended to provide a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations--management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of ''play-scripts'' in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  1. Mechanics of moving materials

    CERN Document Server

    Banichuk, Nikolay; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Saksa, Tytti; Tuovinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical aspects of modelling the mechanical behaviour of manufacturing, processing, transportation or other systems in which the processed or supporting material is travelling through the system. Examples of such applications include paper making, transmission cables, band saws, printing presses, manufacturing of plastic films and sheets, and extrusion of aluminium foil, textiles and other materials.   The work focuses on out-of-plane dynamics and stability analysis for isotropic and orthotropic travelling elastic and viscoelastic materials, with and without fluid-structure interaction, using analytical and semi-analytical approaches.  Also topics such as fracturing and fatigue are discussed in the context of moving materials. The last part of the book deals with optimization problems involving physical constraints arising from the stability and fatigue analyses, including uncertainties in the parameters.   The book is intended for researchers and specialists in the field, providin...

  2. Radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terpakova, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the gamma-spectrometric determination of natural radioactivity in the different building materials and wares applied in Slovakia was performed. The specific activities for potassium-40, thorium, radium as well as the equivalent specific activities are presented

  3. Construction and material specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of the : Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform Work are written as commands. For example, ...

  4. The Materiality of Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Estrid

    or postgraduate students interested in a variety of fields, including educational studies, educational psychology, social anthropology, and STS. Original ethnographic descriptions showing the fine details of how materials influence the learning process Introduces the advanced and complex Actor-Network Theory......The field of educational research lacks a methodology for the study of learning that does not begin with humans, their aims, and their interests. The Materiality of Learning seeks to overcome this human-centered mentality by developing a novel spatial approach to the materiality of learning....... Drawing on science and technology studies (STS), Estrid Sørensen compares an Internet-based 3D virtual environment project in a fourth-grade class with the class's work with traditional learning materials, including blackboards, textbooks, notebooks, pencils, and rulers. Taking into account pupils...

  5. 2002 materials report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report is the very first devoted to the researches carried out in all centres of the French atomic energy commission (CEA) in the domain of materials. Each material, technology or process is presented with some explanations. The report is divided in three chapters dealing with: 1 - the nano-materials and the engineering of surfaces: surface functionalization (new coatings for cutting tools, new CVD process for the deposition of carbon nano-tubes, nano-structured metallic films, polymerization by gaseous phase deposition, electro-chromium systems, functional coatings by sol-gel process, sol-gel processing of optical fibers, modeling of the plasma projection process); nano-particulates and emerging materials (synthesis of SiCN nano-particulates by laser pyrolysis, hot-forming of Si/C/N/O nano-metric powders by isostatic compression, synthesis of aligned carbon nano-tubes by pyrolysis of mixed aerosols, elaboration and characterization of new oxide-type materials in supercritical CO 2 phase, fluorescent semiconductor nano-crystals for labelling, fibrillary proteins and their behaviour at interfaces); 2 - materials engineering and numerical materials (simulation of the welding process by YAG laser pulses, welded joints reliability, control of precipitation microstructures by the addition of nucleating agents, optimization of pressing cycles for the forming of industrial parts by matrix compaction, mechanical and thermal pre-dimensioning of thermo-structural composites, modeling of the behaviour of thermo-structural composites, joints follow up system for innovative welding control process); joining technologies (feasibility study for the fabrication by diffusion welding of the first wall panels of ITER reactor, welding of spent fuel containers for long lasting storage, electron beam welding of aluminium 6061 and hot cracking risk, hybrid welding technology, heat source model for TIG welding, cladding of the amplifying plates of the Megajoule laser facility

  6. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  7. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...... roles of water and materials, Health, including a state-of-the-art description of the health-related effects of indoor molds, and Strategies, integrating remediation, prevention and policies....

  8. Nuclear materials management procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veevers, K.; Silver, J.M.; Quealy, K.J.; Steege, E. van der.

    1987-10-01

    This manual describes the procedures for the management of nuclear materials and associated materials at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The procedures are designed to comply with Australia's nuclear non-proliferation obligations to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), bilateral agreements with other countries and ANSTO's responsibilities under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act, 1987. The manual replaces those issued by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission in 1959, 1960 and 1969

  9. Architects and Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    . One of the reasons the digital drawing has become essential is clearly because of the level of interchange and versatility it provides. However, this is also where much capacity is still left unexplored and unused. Digital material has enormous potential to intermingle with the world, in which we live...... and for which architecture is created. Through the interface of digital drawing, data can feed into digital production, linking the architect directly to the materials. Drawing can morph directly into materialisation instead of representation....

  10. Nano semiconducting materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of the present book is the characterization of a number of nano-semiconducting materials, using such techniques as powder X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometry, Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The materials studied include ZnS, TiO2, NiO, Ga doped ZnO, Mn doped SnO2, Mn doped CeO2 and Mn doped ZrO2.

  11. Supramolecular fluorene based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Abbel, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of noncovalent interactions in order to manipulate and control the self-assembly and morphology of electroactive fluorene-based materials. The supramolecular arrangement of p-conjugated polymers and oligomers can strongly influence their electronic and photophysical properties. Therefore, a detailed understanding of such organisation processes is essential for the optimisation of the performance of these materials as applied in optoelectronic devices. In order to...

  12. Nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  13. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  14. Raw material uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, O.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper some aspects are being considered, in as far as they can contribute to a better understanding of uranium as a raw material and an energy carrier, and as they can indicate the possible ways and means open to the German Federal Republic for securing this highly desirable raw material, without becoming even more dependent on the economic and political views of the producing countries, than it is the case in respect of oil. (orig.) [de

  15. Designing Material Materialising Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designing Material Materialising Design documents five projects developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. These projects explore the idea that new designed materials might require new design methods....... Focusing on fibre reinforced composites, this book sustains an exploration into the design and making of elastically tailored architectural structures that rely on the use of computational design to predict sensitive interdependencies between geometry and behaviour. Developing novel concepts...

  16. Teaching materials physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The important role of materials and their behaviour under radiation exposure, for nuclear research and industry, is pointed out, and the development of nuclear applied metallurgy research at the Cea and in French Universities is reviewed. The teaching policy at the Cea in the field of materials science involved four action types: laboratory courses and theses, teaching outside and inside the Cea, summer schools, which allowed for a synergetic cooperation between the Cea, Universities and research centers, since the 50's

  17. Beam-Material Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high- intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target , and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and envir onment in challenging current and future application

  18. Material Response Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    models fit to vertical UX and TX data and a mean stress tension cutoff criterion. Because tests on the Kayenta sands one materials had revealed a definite...parameters. 9 This data characterizing the anisotropic response of the upper 30 feet of Kayenta material should not just be filed away; it should be used...9. Johnson, J. N., et al, "Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Kayenta Sandstone (MIXED COMPANY Site) for Ground Motion Calculations," Terra Tek TR

  19. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Data are given for each of the following areas: (1) depth distribution of bubbles in 20-keV 4 He + irradiated nickel, (2) surface damage of Al irradiated with 4 He + to high doses, (3) secondary photon emission from ion bombarded surfaces, (4) dosimetry and damage analysis work in support of the MFE materials program, (5) hydrogen permeation and materials behavior in alloys, (6) radiation damage of diagnostic windows in TFTR, and (7) fast neutron irradiations of superconducting Nb 3 Sn

  20. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  1. Preparation of thermoluminescent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Thermoluminescent materials have been found to be suitable for measuring long term exposures to low level ionizing radiation. Oxyhalides of lanthanum, gadolinium and yttrium, including the oxychlorides and oxybromides are activated with terbium and have been found to be most efficient oxygendominated phosphors having thermoradiant efficiencies with excitation by low level ionizing radiation. Thermoluminescence response increases when the previous materials have hafnium and zirconium additives

  2. Modeling multiphase materials processes

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    ""Modeling Multiphase Materials Processes: Gas-Liquid Systems"" describes the methodology and application of physical and mathematical modeling to multi-phase flow phenomena in materials processing. The book focuses on systems involving gas-liquid interaction, the most prevalent in current metallurgical processes. The performance characteristics of these processes are largely dependent on transport phenomena. This volume covers the inherent characteristics that complicate the modeling of transport phenomena in such systems, including complex multiphase structure, intense turbulence, opacity of

  3. Calibration of thermoluminiscent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, A.J.J.

    1989-07-01

    In this report the relation between exposure and absorbed radiation dose in various materials is represented, on the base of recent data. With the help of this a calibration procedure for thermoluminescent materials, adapted to the IRI radiation standard is still the exposure in rontgen. In switching to the air kerma standard the calibration procedure will have to be adapted. (author). 6 refs.; 4 tabs

  4. Beam-Material Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Cerutti, F. [CERN

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high-intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target, and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and environment in challenging current and future applications.

  5. Biomimetic hydrogel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mukkamala, Ravindranath; Chen, Qing; Hu, Hopin; Baude, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

  6. Radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  7. Nanostructured Materials for Magnetoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikailzade, Faik

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of nanometer-scale magnetism and focuses on the investigation of the basic properties of magnetic nanostructures. It describes a wide range of physical aspects together with theoretical and experimental methods. A broad overview of the latest developments in this emerging and fascinating field of nanostructured materials is given with emphasis on the practical understanding and operation of submicron devices based on nanostructured magnetic materials.

  8. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, C A

    1924-04-15

    In apparatus of the kind set forth for distilling solid carbonaceous materials, a rotary retort in the form of a tubular, hollow cylindrical, or other similar hollow body, of small diameter, having a thin wall is provided to which the heat is applied externally, with means operative within it adapted, not only for cleaning the internal wall of the retort but also for distributing the heat throughout the mass of materials under treatment, substantially as described.

  9. Materials in machine, plant, and apparatus construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenauer, H.; Hampe, E.; Hoehne, D.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered under the following headings: principles of materials economy and selection, designation of materials, general construction materials; materials for tools, materials for low temperatures, materials for high temperatures, materials for corrosive stress, materials with high wear resistance and friction materials, sliding and bearing materials, materials for spring load, materials for joints, and materials for nuclear reactors

  10. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ironside, T G

    1921-09-01

    In the distillation of carbonaceous material such as shale, coal, lignite, wood or liquid hydrocarbons, the material is mixed with a heated granular substance such as sand which supplies the necessary heat. The shale or the like, which may be preheated, is fed from a hopper by a worm conveyer to a tube leading into a retort, and the heated granular material such as sand is supplied from a jacketed container through a tube. On the lower end of a rotary shaft are radial arms to which are fixed angularly disposed blades which serve to mix the shale and hot sand and deliver the residue to a central discharge pipe closed at the bottom by a conical valve which opens when the weight of the superimposed material is sufficient. The distillates are taken off by an outlet. Steam vapor or gas may be supplied to the retort, preferably through a hollow shaft leading to hollow stirrers perforated to permit of the gas passing into the material. The retort may be externally heated by hot gases in the space surrounding the retort, and the latter may be divided by horizontal floors so that the material is caused to funnel from the periphery to the center of the floor, then through a central opening on to the floor next below, and from the center to the periphery of this floor, and so on.

  11. Shape memory materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Compared with piezoelectric ceramics and magnetostrictive materials, the shape memory materials possess larger recoverable strain and recovery stress but slower response to external field. It is expected that the magneto-shape memory materials may develop considerable strain as well as rapid and precise shape control. Pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect (SME) resulted from martensitic transformation and its reverse transformation in shape memory materials were generally described. The requirements of appearing the shape memory effect in materials and the criteria for thermoelastic martensitic transformation were given. Some aspects concerning characteristics of martensitic transformation, and factors affecting SME in Ni-Ti, Cu-Zn-Al and Fe-Mn-Si based alloys as well as ZrO2 containing ceramics were briefly reviewed. Thermodynamic calculation of Ms temperature as function of grain size and parent ordering in Cu-Zn-Al was presented. The works on prediction of Ms in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys and in ZrO2-CeO2 were mentioned. Magnetic shape memory materials were briefly introduced.

  12. LDEF materials data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the accompanying experiments were composed of and contained a wide variety of materials representing the largest collection of materials flown in low Earth orbit (LEO) and retrieved for ground based analysis to date. The results and implications of the mechanical, thermal, optical, and electrical data from these materials are the foundation on which future LEO space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been charged with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the spacecraft user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. This paper discusses the format and content of the three data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task. The hardware and software requirements for each of these three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases. This paper also serves as a user's guide to the MAPTIS LDEF Materials Data Base.

  13. Electronic Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene, Eugene A.

    2005-02-01

    A thorough introduction to fundamental principles and applications From its beginnings in metallurgy and ceramics, materials science now encompasses such high- tech fields as microelectronics, polymers, biomaterials, and nanotechnology. Electronic Materials Science presents the fundamentals of the subject in a detailed fashion for a multidisciplinary audience. Offering a higher-level treatment than an undergraduate textbook provides, this text benefits students and practitioners not only in electronics and optical materials science, but also in additional cutting-edge fields like polymers and biomaterials. Readers with a basic understanding of physical chemistry or physics will appreciate the text's sophisticated presentation of today's materials science. Instructive derivations of important formulae, usually omitted in an introductory text, are included here. This feature offers a useful glimpse into the foundations of how the discipline understands such topics as defects, phase equilibria, and mechanical properties. Additionally, concepts such as reciprocal space, electron energy band theory, and thermodynamics enter the discussion earlier and in a more robust fashion than in other texts. Electronic Materials Science also features: An orientation towards industry and academia drawn from the author's experience in both arenas Information on applications in semiconductors, optoelectronics, photocells, and nanoelectronics Problem sets and important references throughout Flexibility for various pedagogical needs Treating the subject with more depth than any other introductory text, Electronic Materials Science prepares graduate and upper-level undergraduate students for advanced topics in the discipline and gives scientists in associated disciplines a clear review of the field and its leading technologies.

  14. Characterization of susceptibility of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietzel, W.

    1999-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of three different material/environment combinations was investigated in an inter-laboratory test programme using five different SCC test methods, with special emphasis laid on a new rising displacement test method which was to be further developed in the course of this project. The degree of reliability that could be obtained with each of the test methods and their usability were assessed. In all cases the experimental data characterising the occurrence of SCC show considerable scatter, irrespective of the test method. Based on the experience gained in the test programme, a draft for a new part of the ISO standard 7539 was elaborated and has meanwhile attained the status of an ISO Draft International Standard (ISO/DIS). (orig.) [de

  15. The technology development for surveillance test of RPV materials 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Lee, Sam Lai; Kim, Byoung Chul; Choi, Sun Pil; Choi, Kwen Jai

    1998-12-01

    Irradiation-induced changes in mechanical properties and magnetic parameters were measured and compared to explore possible correlations for Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel surveillance specimens which were irradiated to a neutron fluence of 2.4 x 10 1 9n/cm 2 (E≥1.0 MeV) in a typical pressurized water reactor environment at about 288 deg C. For mechanical property parameters, microvickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact test were performed and Barkhausen Noise(BN) amplitude, coercivity, maximum induction were measured for magnetic parameters, respectively. Results of mechanical property measurements showed an increase in yield and tensil strength, microvickers hardness 41J indexed RT NDT and a decrease in upper shelf energy irrespective of base and weld metals. In the case of magnetic measurements, it is found that magnetic remanence, BN amplitude, BN energy have dropped significantly but coercivity has increased rapidly after irradiation. For isothermally heat treated condition of irradiated specimen, BN energy has increased while Vickers microhardness has decreased. Results of BNE and Vickers microhardness are reversed to the results on irradiated condition. All these consistent changes in magnetic parameter and Vickers microhardness measurement, which are thought to be resulted from the interaction between irradiation-induced defects and dislocation, and magnetic domain, respectively, show a possibility that magnetic measurement may be used to the evaluation of material degradation and recovery due to neutron irradiation and heat treatment, respectively, if a relevant large database is prepared. (author). 49 refs., 7 tabs., 23 figs

  16. Pavement maintenance procedures with and without milling materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul A. Tarefder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates maintenance treatment followed by different Districts of New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT. In addition, two case studies on the use of old pavement materials, called the “millings”, in maintenance projects are reported. Based on this study, it is observed that none of the Districts have a written procedure for maintenance work. Rather Districts rely on the experience of the maintenance crew for conducting maintenance projects. All Districts prefer to use chip seal for maintenance irrespective of distress conditions of the pavements. Patching and crack sealing are usually done before chip sealing to extend the life of the chip seals. Sand seal, scrub seal, and slurry seal projects are not done by District maintenance crews but by outside contractors. It is also observed that all Districts are interested in using millings in maintenance projects and most have already used millings in at least one maintenance project with some success and failure. Most of the Districts have used coarse fraction of millings in chip seal projects successfully. However, they failed to find a proper way to process the fine fractions of millings. Case Study I shows that fine millings can be used to construct thin overlay when mixed with emulsion in pug mill or hot drums. Case Study II concludes that fine millings can be used as fine/sand seal successfully following the same procedure and using the same equipment as chip seal. Keywords: Millings, Maintenance, Emulsion, Rutting, Pug-mill

  17. Material for desulphurisation. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, F; Maus, W

    1979-07-19

    The invention concerns a material in pellet formm for desulphurisation of gases with a high CO/sub 2/ content, particularly sewer gas, where the material consists mainly of iron oxide hydrate, to which a loosening material, binding material and additional materials such as calcium carbonate and furnace slack are added, and which contains combined water. Chemically active iron oxide hydrate material such as material which occurs as remnant in pyrogenic bauxite treatment in aluminium manufacture, bog iron ore, material from water works and similar materials can be used as iron oxide hydrate. Sawdust or turf can be used as loosening material to increase the open porosity.

  18. Visualizing Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.

    2016-12-01

    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  19. Tribological comparison of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing

    Approximately 600,000 total joint replacement surgeries are performed each year in the United States. Current artificial joint implants are mainly metal-on-plastic. The synthetic biomaterials undergo degradation through fatigue and corrosive wear from load-bearing and the aqueous ionic environment of the human body. Deposits of inorganic salts can scratch weight-bearing surfaces, making artificial joints stiff and awkward. The excessive wear debris from polyethylene leads to osteolysis and potential loosening of the prosthesis. The lifetime for well-designed artificial joints is at most 10 to 15 years. A patient can usually have two total joint replacements during her/his lifetime. Durability is limited by the body's reaction to wear debris of the artificial joints. Wear of the artificial joints should be reduced. A focus of this thesis is the tribological performance of bearing materials for Total Replacement Artificial Joints (TRAJ). An additional focus is the scaffolds for cell growth from both a tissue engineering and tribological perspective. The tribological properties of materials including Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) coated materials were tested for TRAJ implants. The DLC coatings are chemically inert, impervious to acid and saline media, and are mechanically hard. Carbon-based materials are highly biocompatible. A new alternative to total joints implantation is tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is the replacement of living tissue with tissue that is designed and constructed to meet the needs of the individual patient. Cells were cultured onto the artificial materials, including metals, ceramics, and polymers, and the frictional properties of these materials were investigated to develop a synthetic alternative to orthopedic transplants. Results showed that DLC coated materials had low friction and wear, which are desirable tribological properties for artificial joint material. Cells grew on some of the artificial matrix materials, depending on the

  20. Supply of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    Any large-scale atomic energy programme is inherently dependent on the availability of materials that can be used as fuel in reactors, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, at its inception, was intended to act as a bank for the flow of materials between Member States. According to its Statute, one of its primary functions is to provide materials 'to meet the needs of research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful purposes, including the production of electric power, with due consideration for the needs of the under-developed areas of the world'. If the Agency is to fulfil its Statutory function, it would be essential for it to have not only some ready sources of supply, but also an established framework of general terms and conditions on which it could secure the supplies. The latter would eliminate the need for going through elaborate procedural formalities whenever the Agency receives a new request for materials. Such a framework has now been established with the signing of broad agreements with three countries which had offered to supply various quantities of special fissionable materials to the Agency. These agreements, signed in Vienna on 11 May 1959, with the USSR, the UK and the USA, lay down the basic terms and conditions on which these three countries will make nuclear materials available when needed by the Agency. The USSR has agreed to make available to the Agency 50 kg of uranium-235, the UK 20 kg and the USA 5 000 kg. The material will be supplied in the form of enriched uranium in any concentration up to 20 per cent; the amounts mentioned relate to the 235-isotope content of the materials. The UK and the USA have agreed that the parties to a particular supply agreement may decide on higher enrichment of uranium to be used for research reactors, material testing reactors or for other research purposes. The USA has also agreed to make available to the Agency such additional supplies as would match in amount

  1. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  2. Building Materials Reclamation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weggel, David C.; Chen, Shen-En; Hilger, Helene; Besnard, Fabien; Cavalline, Tara; Tempest, Brett; Alvey, Adam; Grimmer, Madeleine; Turner, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C and D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C and D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C and D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C and D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  3. Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...systems are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions

  4. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In a process of distilling solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery, the time factor and the temperature gradient during the distillation period are so controlled that a temperature difference exceeding 150/sup 0/C is avoided between the temperatures at the center and periphery of any suitable size of material or thickness of fuel bed. The material is heated by direct contact with an inert gas, such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gases, which is passed in counterflow to the material and whose volume is such as to lower the vapor tension or partial pressure of the volatilizable oils and to withdraw the oils without cracking of the oil vapors. The material may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment by gases containing 2 to 3 percent of free oxygen to reduce its coking properties, and free oxygen may be added either to the heating gases during the heat treatment, or to the retort and heating gases and vapors to polymerize resinous bodies prior to condensation or during condensation and while the oils are still wholly or partially in the vapor state.

  5. Neutron shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodaka, M.; Iida, T.; Taniuchi, H.; Yosimura, K.; Nagahama, H.

    1993-01-01

    From among the neutron shielding materials of the 'kobesh' series developed by Kobe Steel, Ltd. for transport and storage packagings, silicon rubber base type material has been tested for several items with a view to practical application and official authorization, and in order to determine its adaptability to actual vessels. Silicon rubber base type 'kobesh SR-T01' is a material in which, from among the silicone rubber based neutron shielding materials, the hydrogen content is highest and the boron content is most optimized. Its neutron shielding capability has been already described in the previous report (Taniuchi, 1986). The following tests were carried out to determine suitability for practical application; 1) Long-term thermal stability test 2) Pouring test on an actual-scale model 3) Fire test The experimental results showed that the silicone rubber based neutron shielding material has good neutron shielding capability and high long-term fire resistance, and that it can be applied to the advanced transport packaging. (author)

  6. Thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The first session of the symposium discussed in general the thermodynamic properties of actinides, including thorium, uranium and Plutonium which provide reactor fuel. The second session was devoted to applications of thermodynamic theory to the study of nuclear materials, while the experimental techniques for the determination of thermodynamic data were examined at the next session. The thermodynamic properties of alloys were considered at a separate session, and another session was concerned with solids other than alloys. Vaporization processes, which are of special interest in the development of high-temperature reactors, were discussed at a separate session. The discussions on the methods of developing the data and ascertaining their accuracy were especially useful in highlighting the importance of determining whether any given data are reliable before they can be put to practical application. Many alloys and refractory materials (i. e. materials which evaporate only at very high temperatures) are of great importance in nuclear technology, and some of these substances are extremely complex in their chemical composition. For example, until recently the phase composition of the oxides of thorium, uranium and plutonium had been only very imperfectly understood, and the same was true of the carbides of these elements. Recent developments in experimental techniques have made it possible to investigate the phase composition of these complex materials as well as the chemical species of these materials in the gaseous phase. Recent developments in measuring techniques, such as fluorine bomb calorimetry and Knudsen effusion technique, have greatly increased the accuracy of thermodynamic data

  7. Materials Science Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the Department of Energy in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research. The Director of this office is appointed by the President with Senate consent. The Director advises the Secretary on the physical research program; monitors the Department's R ampersand D programs; advises the Secretary on management of the laboratories under the jurisdiction of the Department, excluding those that constitute part of the nuclear weapon complex; and advises the Secretary on basic and applied research activities of the Department. The research covers a spectrum of scientific and engineering areas of interest to the Department of Energy and is conducted generally by personnel trained in the disciplines of Solid State Physics, Metallurgy, Ceramics, Chemistry, Polymers and Materials Science. The Materials Sciences Division supports basic research on materials properties and phenomena important to all energy systems. The aim is to provide the necessary base of materials knowledge required to advance the nation's energy programs. This report contains a listing of research underway in FY 1989 together with a convenient index to the Division's programs

  8. Alternative geochemical barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    Previous investigations of the effects of neutralization and reduction on uranium mill tailings pore fluids by the Technical Support Contractor indicated that arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum continue to remain in solution in all but reducing conditions. These hazardous constituents are present in groundwaters as oxyanions and, therefore, are not expected to be removed by adsorption into clays and most other soil constituents. It was decided to investigate the attenuation capacity of two commonly available crystalline iron oxides, taconite and scoria, and a zeolite, a network aluminosilicate with a cage structure. Columns of the candidate materials were exposed to solutions of individual constituents, including arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and, uranium, and to the spiked tailings pore fluid from the Bodo Canyon disposal cell near Durango, Colorado. In addition to the single material columns, a homogeneous blend of the three materials and layers of the materials were exposed to spiked tailings pore fluids. The results of these experiments indicate that with the exception of molybdenum, the constituents of concern are attenuated by the taconite; however, they are not sufficiently attenuated to meet the groundwater protection standards applicable to the UMTRA Project. Therefore, the candidate barrier materials did not prove to be useful to the UMTRA Project for the cleanup of groundwaters

  9. EDITORIAL: Electroactive polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Kim, Kwang J.; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk; Madden, John D. W.

    2007-04-01

    Imitating nature's mechanisms offers enormous potential for the improvement of our lives and the tools we use. This field of the study and imitation of, and inspiration from, nature's methods, designs and processes is known as biomimetics. Artificial muscles, i.e. electroactive polymers (EAPs), are one of the emerging technologies enabling biomimetics. Polymers that can be stimulated to change shape or size have been known for many years. The activation mechanisms of such polymers include electrical, chemical, pneumatic, optical and magnetic. Electrical excitation is one of the most attractive stimulators able to produce elastic deformation in polymers. The convenience and practicality of electrical stimulation and the continual improvement in capabilities make EAP materials some of the most attractive among activatable polymers (Bar-Cohen Y (ed) 2004 Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles—Reality, Potential and Challenges 2nd edn, vol PM136 (Bellingham, WA: SPIE Press) pp 1-765). As polymers, EAP materials offer many appealing characteristics that include low weight, fracture tolerance and pliability. Furthermore, they can be configured into almost any conceivable shape and their properties can be tailored to suit a broad range of requirements. These capabilities and the significant change of shape or size under electrical stimulation while being able to endure many cycles of actuation are inspiring many potential possibilities for EAP materials among engineers and scientists in many different disciplines. Practitioners in biomimetics are particularly excited about these materials since they can be used to mimic the movements of animals and insects. Potentially, mechanisms actuated by EAPs will enable engineers to create devices previously imaginable only in science fiction. For many years EAP materials received relatively little attention due to their poor actuation capability and the small number of available materials. In the last fifteen

  10. Applied bioactive polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Carraher, Charles; Foster, Van

    1988-01-01

    The biological and biomedical applications of polymeric materials have increased greatly in the past few years. This book will detail some, but not all, of these recent developments. There would not be enough space in this book to cover, even lightly, all of the major advances that have occurred. Some earlier books and summaries are available by two of this book's Editors (Gebelein & Carraher) and these should be consul ted for additional information. The books are: "Bioactive Polymeric Systems" (Plenum, 1985); "Polymeric Materials In Medication" (Plenum, 1985); "Biological Acti vi ties of Polymers" (American Chemical Society, 1982). Of these three, "Bioacti ve Polymeric Systems" should be the most useful to a person who is new to this field because it only contains review articles written at an introductory level. The present book primarily consists of recent research results and applications, with only a few review or summary articles. Bioactive polymeric materials have existed from the creation of life...

  11. Fire Resistant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  12. Macrocyclic fragrance materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvito, Daniel; Lapczynski, Aurelia; Sachse-Vasquez, Christen

    2011-01-01

    A screening-level aquatic environmental risk assessment for macrocyclic fragrance materials using a “group approach” is presented using data for 30 macrocyclic fragrance ingredients. In this group approach, conservative estimates of environmental exposure and ecotoxicological effects thresholds....../L and for macrocyclic lactones/lactides is 2.7 μg/L. The results of this screening-level aquatic ecological risk assessment indicate that at their current tonnage, often referred to as volumes of use, macrocyclic fragrance materials in Europe and North America, pose a negligible risk to aquatic biota; with no PEC...... for compounds within two subgroups (15 macrocyclic ketones and 15 macrocyclic lactones/lactides) were used to estimate the aquatic ecological risk potential for these subgroups. It is reasonable to separate these fragrance materials into the two subgroups based on the likely metabolic pathway required...

  13. Nuclear material accounting handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The handbook documents existing best practices and methods used to account for nuclear material and to prepare the required nuclear material accounting reports for submission to the IAEA. It provides a description of the processes and steps necessary for the establishment, implementation and maintenance of nuclear material accounting and control at the material balance area, facility and State levels, and defines the relevant terms. This handbook serves the needs of State personnel at various levels, including State authorities, facility operators and participants in training programmes. It can assist in developing and maintaining accounting systems which will support a State's ability to account for its nuclear material such that the IAEA can verify State declarations, and at the same time support the State's ability to ensure its nuclear security. In addition, the handbook is useful for IAEA staff, who is closely involved with nuclear material accounting. The handbook includes the steps and procedures a State needs to set up and maintain to provide assurance that it can account for its nuclear material and submit the prescribed nuclear material accounting reports defined in Section 1 and described in Sections 3 and 4 in terms of the relevant agreement(s), thereby enabling the IAEA to discharge its verification function as defined in Section 1 and described in Sections 3 and 4. The contents of the handbook are based on the model safeguards agreement and, where applicable, there will also be reference to the model additional protocol. As a State using The handbook consists of five sections. In Section 1, definitions or descriptions of terms used are provided in relation to where the IAEA applies safeguards or, for that matter, accounting for and control of nuclear material in a State. The IAEA's approach in applying safeguards in a State is also defined and briefly described, with special emphasis on verification. In Section 2, the obligations of the State

  14. Optimized nanoporous materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Paul V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ong, Markus D.; Narayan, Roger J. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Pierson, Bonnie E. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Gittard, Shaun D. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Robinson, David B.; Ham, Sung-Kyoung (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Chae, Weon-Sik (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Gough, Dara V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Wu, Chung-An Max; Ha, Cindy M.; Tran, Kim L.

    2009-09-01

    Nanoporous materials have maximum practical surface areas for electrical charge storage; every point in an electrode is within a few atoms of an interface at which charge can be stored. Metal-electrolyte interfaces make best use of surface area in porous materials. However, ion transport through long, narrow pores is slow. We seek to understand and optimize the tradeoff between capacity and transport. Modeling and measurements of nanoporous gold electrodes has allowed us to determine design principles, including the fact that these materials can deplete salt from the electrolyte, increasing resistance. We have developed fabrication techniques to demonstrate architectures inspired by these principles that may overcome identified obstacles. A key concept is that electrodes should be as close together as possible; this is likely to involve an interpenetrating pore structure. However, this may prove extremely challenging to fabricate at the finest scales; a hierarchically porous structure can be a worthy compromise.

  15. Heat-resistant materials

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  16. Inflammable materials stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandagopan, V.

    2017-01-01

    A new Inflammable Materials Stores has been constructed by A and SED, BARC near Gamma Field for storage of inflammable materials falling into Petroleum Class ‘A’ ‘B’ and “C” mainly comprising of oils and lubricants, Chemicals like Acetone, Petroleum Ether etc. which are regularly procured by Central Stores Unit (CSU) for issue to the various divisions of BARC. The design of the shed done by A and SED, BARC was duly got approved from Petroleum and Explosive Safety Organization (PESO) which is a mandatory requirement before commencement of the construction. The design had taken into account various safety factors which is ideally required for an inflammable materials stores

  17. Radiation shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Isobe, Eiji.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the shielding capacity of the radiation shielding material having an abundant flexibility. Constitution: A mat consisting of a lead or lead alloy fibrous material is covered with a cloth, and the two are made integral by sewing in a kilted fashion by using a yarn. Thereafter, the system is covered with a gas-tight film or sheet. The shielding material obtained in this way has, in addition to the above merits, advantages in that (1) it is free from restoration due to elasticity so that it can readily seal contaminants, (2) it can be used in a state consisting of a number of overlapped layers, (3) it fits the shoulder well and is readily portable and (4) it permits attachment of fasteners or the like. (Ikeda, J.)

  18. Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Robert; Herrera, Rafael; Archer, Lynden A.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2008-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer matrix) have been the subject of intense research for almost two decades in both academic and industrial settings. This interest has been fueled by the ability of nanocomposites to not only improve the performance of polymers, but also by their ability to introduce new properties. Yet, there are still challenges that polymer nanocomposites must overcome to reach their full potential. In this Research News article we discuss a new class of hybrids termed nanoparticle ionic materials (NIMS). NIMS are organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprising a nanoparticle core functionalized with a covalently tethered ionic corona. They are facilely engineered to display flow properties that span the range from glassy solids to free flowing liquids. These new systems have unique properties that can overcome some of the challenges facing nanocomosite materials. © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Material and Virtuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Through tangible experiments this paper discusses the dialogues between digital architectural drawing and the process of materialisation. The paper sets op the spans between virtual and actual and control and uncertainty making these oppositions a combined spaces where information between a digital...... world and a physical world can interchange. The paper suggest an approach where an overlapping of virtuality and the tangible material output from digital fabrication machines create a method of using materialisation tools as instruments to connect the reality of materials and to an exploring process...... through these experiments is both tangible and directly connected to real actions in digital drawing or material processing but also the base for theoretical contemplations of the relation between virtual and actual and control and uncertainty....

  20. Micromechanics of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, George

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a broad exposition of analytical and numerical methods for modeling composite materials, laminates, polycrystals and other heterogeneous solids, with emphasis on connections between material properties and responses on several length scales, ranging from the nano and microscales to the macroscale. Many new results and methods developed by the author are incorporated into a rich fabric of the subject, which has been explored by several researchers over the last 40 years.   The first  part of the book reviews anisotropic elasticity theory, and then it describes the frequently used procedures and theorems for bounding and estimating overall properties, local fields and energy changes in elastic inhomogeneities, heterogeneous media, fiber composites and functionally graded materials.  Those are caused by mechanical loads and by phase eigenstrains, such as thermal, transformation and inelastic strains, and also by cavities and cracks.    Worked examples show that the eigendeformations may...

  1. Insulating materials for optoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agullo-Lopez, F.

    1990-01-01

    Optoelectronics is an interdisciplinary field. Basic functions of an optoelectronic system include the generator of the optical signal, its transmission and handling and, finally, its detection, storage and display. A large variety of semiconductor and insulating materials are used or are being considered to perform those functions. The authors focus on insulating materials, mostly oxides. For signal generation, tunable solid state lasers, either vibronic or those based oon colour centres are briefly described, and their main operating parameters summarized. Reference is made to some developments on fiber and waveguide lasers. Relevant physical features of the silica fibres used for low-loss, long-band, optical transmission are reviewed, as well as present efforts to further reduce attenuation in the mid-infrared range. Particular attention is paid to photorefractive materials (LiNbO 3 , BGO, BSO, etc.), which are being investigated

  2. Diffusion in reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, G.B.; Smirnov, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The monograph contains a brief description of the principles underlying the theory of diffusion, as well as modern methods of studying diffusion. Data on self-diffusion and diffusion of impurities in a nuclear fuel and fissionable materials (uranium, plutonium, thorium, zirconium, titanium, hafnium, niobium, molybdenum, tungsten, beryllium, etc.) is presented. Anomalous diffusion, diffusion of components, and interdiffusion in binary and ternary alloys were examined. The monograph presents the most recent reference material on diffusion. It is intended for a wide range of researchers working in the field of diffusion in metals and alloys and attempting to discover new materials for application in nuclear engineering. It will also be useful for teachers, research scholars and students of physical metallurgy

  3. A new material practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The first generation of digital architecture was fascinated with the extension of digital possibilities into the physical world. Today, we are seeing the emergence of a new material practice. This practice is focusing on a design and production process that is seeking an understanding of the aggr......The first generation of digital architecture was fascinated with the extension of digital possibilities into the physical world. Today, we are seeing the emergence of a new material practice. This practice is focusing on a design and production process that is seeking an understanding...... of the aggregated behavior of matter in an environment. Advances in material science and in computational tools are creating new opportunities within architectural design. However, these approaches are challenging the current practices of design and representation....

  4. Building materials. Stichwort Baustoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohwer, W

    1981-01-01

    To handle building materials properly, one must know about their characteristics. This pocket book will be of help: structured like a glossary, it gives brief descriptions of the most common building materials. It is small and handy enough to be a constant companion to resident engineers, foremen, gangers, building tradesmen, and construction workers and an aid in their training. The following groups of building materials are discussed: Natural stone; units for brick walls, floors, and roofs; mortar and concrete (definitions, binders, aggregates, additives, admixtures, mixing water); special types of plaster and rendering; light-weight building boards and wood wool basis; multilayer light-weight building boards; gypsum plasterboards; chimney construction; sewers; thermal insulation and sound section; structural steels; plastics.

  5. Materials and test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    The industrial specification for production of the G-10CR grade of cryogenic high-pressure laminate has been revised and accepted by US manufacturers. The objective was to make the specification as generic as possible without adversely affecting performance and to add a material performance criteria to the specification. G-10CR and G-11CR products have been produced by five US industrial laminating forms. No significant differences in cryogenic mechanical properties were found among G-10CR material produced by these manufacturers. This indicates that the specifications are fulfilling their intended purpose. An efficient system for producing research materials for systematic screening of the parameters influencing cryogenic radiation resistance was devised. Laboratories in Japan and England have agreed to actively cooperate with NBS in further development of this system

  6. Porous material neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, Yacouba [Oak Ridge, TN; Kocsis, Menyhert [Venon, FR

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

  7. Organic optoelectronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yongfang

    2015-01-01

    This volume reviews the latest trends in organic optoelectronic materials. Each comprehensive chapter allows graduate students and newcomers to the field to grasp the basics, whilst also ensuring that they have the most up-to-date overview of the latest research. Topics include: organic conductors and semiconductors; conducting polymers and conjugated polymer semiconductors, as well as their applications in organic field-effect-transistors; organic light-emitting diodes; and organic photovoltaics and transparent conducting electrodes. The molecular structures, synthesis methods, physicochemical and optoelectronic properties of the organic optoelectronic materials are also introduced and described in detail. The authors also elucidate the structures and working mechanisms of organic optoelectronic devices and outline fundamental scientific problems and future research directions. This volume is invaluable to all those interested in organic optoelectronic materials.

  8. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  9. Photoactive energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, David E.; Hanson, Susan Kloek; Scharff, Robert Jason; Veauthier, Jacqueline Marie; Myers, Thomas Winfield

    2018-02-27

    Energetic materials that are photoactive or believed to be photoactive may include a conventional explosive (e.g. PETN, nitroglycerine) derivatized with an energetic UV-absorbing and/or VIS-absorbing chromophore such as 1,2,4,5-tetrazine or 1,3,5-triazine. Absorption of laser light having a suitably chosen wavelength may result in photodissociation, decomposition, and explosive release of energy. These materials may be used as ligands to form complexes. Coordination compounds include such complexes with counterions. Some having the formula M(L).sub.n.sup.2+ were synthesized, wherein M is a transition metal and L is a ligand and n is 2 or 3. These may be photoactive upon exposure to a laser light beam having an appropriate wavelength of UV light, near-IR and/or visible light. Photoactive materials also include coordination compounds bearing non-energetic ligands; in this case, the counterion may be an oxidant such as perchlorate.

  10. Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Robert

    2008-11-18

    Polymer nanocomposites (nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer matrix) have been the subject of intense research for almost two decades in both academic and industrial settings. This interest has been fueled by the ability of nanocomposites to not only improve the performance of polymers, but also by their ability to introduce new properties. Yet, there are still challenges that polymer nanocomposites must overcome to reach their full potential. In this Research News article we discuss a new class of hybrids termed nanoparticle ionic materials (NIMS). NIMS are organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprising a nanoparticle core functionalized with a covalently tethered ionic corona. They are facilely engineered to display flow properties that span the range from glassy solids to free flowing liquids. These new systems have unique properties that can overcome some of the challenges facing nanocomosite materials. © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  12. Materials for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Kamath, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The improved performance of present generation nuclear reactors and the realization of advanced reactor concepts, both, require development of better materials. Physical metallurgy/materials science principles which have been exploited in meeting the exacting requirements of nuclear reactor materials (fuels and structural materials), are outlined citing a few specific examples. While the incentive for improvement of traditional fuels (e.g., UO 2 fuel) is primarily for increasing the average core burn up, the development of advanced fuels (e.g., MOX, mixed carbide, nitride, silicide and dispersion fuels) are directed towards better utilization of fissile and fertile inventories through adaptation of innovative fuel cycles. As the burn up of UO 2 fuel reaches higher levels, a more detailed and quantitative understanding of the phenomena such as fission gas release, fuel restructuring induced by radiation and thermal gradients and pellet-clad interaction is being achieved. Development of zirconium based alloys for both cladding and pressure tube applications is discussed with reference to their physical metallurgy, fabrication techniques and in-reactor degradation mechanisms. The issue of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is covered drawing a comparison between the western and eastern specifications of RPV steels. The search for new materials which can stand higher rates of atomic displacement due to radiation has led to the development of swelling resistant austenitic and ferritic stainless steels for fast reactor applications as exemplified by the development of the D-9 steel for Indian fast breeder reactor. The presentation will conclude by listing various materials related phenomena, which have a strong bearing on the successful development of future nuclear energy systems. (author)

  13. Correlation monitor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corwin, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    This task has been established with the explicit purpose of ensuring the continued availability of the pedigreed and extremely well-characterized material now required for inclusion in all additional and future surveillance capsules in commercial light-water reactors. During this reporting period, concrete was poured and pallets storage racks were installed to provide adequate room for the storage of the correlation monitor material being transferred from its location at the Y-12 Plant to its archival storage location at ORNL. The racks came from surplus material storage at ORNL and hence were obtained at no cost to the HSSI Program. Inquiries into cost-effective means of sheltering the blocks of correlation monitor materials from further weather-related deteriorization were initiated. The most likely approach would be to procure a turn-key sheet metal building installed over the storage racks by an outside contractor to minimize costs. Most of the material has now been transferred from Y-12 to the ORNL storage area. It has been repositioned on new storage pallets and placed into the storage racks, An update of the detailed material inventory was initiated to ascertain the revised location of all blocks. Pieces of HSST plate O3 were distributed to participants in the ASTM cross-comparison exercise on subsize specimen testing technology. The use of the HSST O3 will provide for data from the many varieties of tests to be performed to be compared with the standardized data previously developed. The testing techniques will focus on ways to measure transition temperature and fracture toughness

  14. Material characterization models and test methods for historic building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Møller, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    Predictions of long term hygrothermal performance can be assessed by dynamic hygrothermal simulations, in which material parameters are crucial input. Material parameters for especially historic materials are often unknown; therefore, there is a need to determine important parameters, and simple...

  15. Gravitation in material media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium is herein derived on the basis of classical, Newtonian gravitational theory and by a general relativistic use of Archimedes' principle. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate students and those undergraduate students having prior experience with vector analysis and potential theory.

  16. Materials for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The ideal material for superconducting cavities should exhibit a high critical temperature, a high critical field, and, above all, a low surface resistance. Unfortunately, these requirements can be conflicting and a compromise has to be found. To date, most superconducting cavities for accelerators are made of niobium. The reasons for this choice are discussed. Thin films of other materials such as NbN, Nb 3 Sn, or even YBCO compounds can also be envisaged and are presently investigated in various laboratories. It is shown that their success will depend critically on the crystalline perfection of these films. (author)

  17. Transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    The increasing use of radioactive substances, not only in reactor operations but also in medicine, industry and other fields, is making the movement of these materials progressively wider, more frequent and larger in volume. Although regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials have been in existence for many years, it has now become necessary to modify or supplement the existing provisions on an international basis. It is essential that the regulations should be applied uniformly by all countries. It is also desirable that the basic regulations should be uniform for all modes of transport so as to simplify the procedures to be complied with by shippers and carriers

  18. Lasers in materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.; Rockower, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    A status report on the uranium Laser Isotope Separation (LIS) Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented. Prior to this status report, process economic analysis is presented so as to understand how the unique properties of laser photons can be best utilized in the production of materials and components despite the high cost of laser energy. The characteristics of potential applications that are necessary for success are identified, and those factors that have up to now frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser induced chemical and physical process for the production of new or existing materials are pointed out

  19. Heavy fermion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Cooke, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The heavy-fermion ground state occurs in a few select metallic compounds as a result of interactions between f-electron and conduction-electron spins. A characteristically large electronic heat capacity at low temperature indicates that the effective electron mass of these materials is more than two orders of magnitude greater than that expected for a free-electron metal. This heavy-fermion ground state can become superconducting or antiferromagnetic, exhibiting very unusual properties. These materials and the role of muon spin rotation in their study are briefly discussed

  20. Adhesive dental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlu, N.

    2005-01-01

    Two main classes of material are involved, the glass-ionomer cements and the composite resins. This investigation describes the way they are bonded to the tooth and highlights their differences. Glass ionomers develop a zone of interaction with the tooth as they age which ultimately gives an extremely strong bond, and results in excellent retention rates. By contrast, bonding of composite resins is more complicated and possibly less effective, though these materials have better wear resistance and better aesthetics than glass ionomers. Assessment of bond durability is difficult. This is because a dental restorative can fail by a number of mechanisms apart from de bonding: for example, through wear or fracture

  1. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  2. Corrosion of reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    Much operational experience and many experimental results have accumulated in recent years regarding corrosion of reactor materials, particularly since the 1958 Geneva Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, where these problems were also discussed. It was, felt that a survey and critical appraisal of the results obtained during this period had become necessary and, in response to this need, IAEA organized a Conference on the Corrosion of Reactor Materials at Salzburg, Austria (4-9 June 1962). It covered many of the theoretical, experimental and engineering problems relating to the corrosion phenomena which occur in nuclear reactors as well as in the adjacent circuits

  3. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, M J

    1925-06-29

    Carbonaceous materials such as coal, oil shale, peat, or wood are destructively distilled while being subjected to the action of superheated steam and hydrogen, the latter being provided by dissociating a part of the superheated steam. The materials are charged into a retort heated by a burner and superheated steam and hydrogen are passed in by a pipe and nozzles. The distillates enter a dust extractor through openings and escape through openings shielded by cones into an outlet pipe leading to condensers. The dust which settles in the bottom of the apparatus is periodically removed.

  4. Radioactive material generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaplinski, T.V.; Bolter, B.J.; Heyer, R.E.; Bruno, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive material generator includes radioactive material in a column, which column is connected to inlet and outlet conduits, the generator being embedded in a lead casing. The inlet and outlet conduits extend through the casing and are topped by pierceable closure caps. A fitting, containing means to connect an eluent supply and an eluate container, is adapted to pierce the closure caps. The lead casing and the fitting are compatibly contoured such that they will fit only if properly aligned with respect to each other

  5. Automated nuclear materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacak, P.; Moravec, J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated state system of accounting for nuclear materials data was established in Czechoslovakia in 1979. A file was compiled of 12 programs in the PL/1 language. The file is divided into four groups according to logical associations, namely programs for data input and checking, programs for handling the basic data file, programs for report outputs in the form of worksheets and magnetic tape records, and programs for book inventory listing, document inventory handling and materials balance listing. A similar automated system of nuclear fuel inventory for a light water reactor was introduced for internal purposes in the Institute of Nuclear Research (UJV). (H.S.)

  6. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  7. Microstructure of irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of the symposium was on the changes produced in the microstructure of metals, ceramics, and semiconductors by irradiation with energetic particles. the symposium brought together those working in the different material systems, which revealed that there are a remarkable number of similarities in the irradiation-produced microstructures in the different classes of materials. Experimental, computational and theoretical contributions were intermixed in all of the sessions. This provided an opportunity for these groups, which should interact, to do so. Separate abstracts were prepared for 58 papers in this book

  8. Fracture mechanical materials characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, K.; Planman, T.; Nevalainen, M.

    1998-01-01

    The experimental fracture mechanics development has been focused on the determination of reliable lower-bound fracture toughness estimates from small and miniature specimens, in particular considering the statistical aspects and loading rate effects of fracture mechanical material properties. Additionally, materials aspects in fracture assessment of surface cracks, with emphasis on the transferability of fracture toughness data to structures with surface flaws have been investigated. Further a modified crack-arrest fracture toughness test method, to increase the effectiveness of testing, has been developed. (orig.)

  9. Materials for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana

    Energy priorities are changing nowadays. As mankind will probably have to face energy crisis, factors such as energy independence, energy security, stability of energy supply and the variety of energy sources become much more vital these days. Photovoltaics is exceptional compared to other renewable sources of energy due to its wide opportunity to gain energetic and environmental benefits. An overview of the present state of knowledge of the materials aspects of photovoltaic cells will be given, and new semiconductor materials, including nanomaterials, with potential for application in photovoltaic devices will be identified.

  10. Corrosion of Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1999-01-01

    Non-oxide ceramics are promising materials for a range of high temperature applications. Selected current and future applications are listed. In all such applications, the ceramics are exposed to high temperature gases. Therefore it is critical to understand the response of these materials to their environment. The variables to be considered here include both the type of ceramic and the environment to which it is exposed. Non-oxide ceramics include borides, nitrides, and carbides. Most high temperature corrosion environments contain oxygen and hence the emphasis of this chapter will be on oxidation processes.

  11. Structure - materials - production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Gammel, Peder; Busch, Jens

    2002-01-01

    For the last six years th Aarhus School of Architecture has introduced the first year students (there are about 200 students admitted each year) to structure, materials, design and production through a five week course in collaboration with a group of local companies.......For the last six years th Aarhus School of Architecture has introduced the first year students (there are about 200 students admitted each year) to structure, materials, design and production through a five week course in collaboration with a group of local companies....

  12. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  13. Materiality, Practice and Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Skovbjerg-Karoff, Helle

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the interaction between human and technology, the relationship must be emphasized as a triangulation between materiality, body and practice. By introducing play situations from a just finished empirical study in three bigger cities in Denmark, this paper will address...... the interplay from the human‟s point of view, as a body doing a certain practice, which is constantly produced by taking approaches which comes from phenomenology and practice theory. We introduce aspects of play understood as a dynamic between materiality, body and practice with the goal of inspiring not only...

  14. Thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    A report is presented of the Fourth International Symposium on Thermodynamics of Nuclear Materials held in Vienna, 21-25 October 1974. The technological theme of the Symposium was the application of thermodynamics to the understanding of the chemistry of irradiated nuclear fuels and to safety assessments for hypothetical accident conditions in reactors. The first four sessions were devoted to these topics and they were followed by four more sessions on the more basic thermodynamics, phase diagrams and the thermodynamic properties of a wide range of nuclear materials. Sixty-seven papers were presented

  15. Materials selection in mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M.F.; Cebon, D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape. (orig.)

  16. Materials selection in mechanical design

    OpenAIRE

    Ashby , M.; Cebon , D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape.

  17. Reference materials and measurement traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear materials safeguards within the U.S.A. are accomplished by the integration of activities involving physical protection, material control and material accountability. Material accountability requires both sound measurement technology and well-defined accounting procedures to provide final evidence that physical protection and materials control have achieved their purpose. 5 refs

  18. Supercapacitors specialities - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreja, Vasile V. N.

    2014-06-01

    The electrode material is a key component for supercapacitor cell performance. As it is known, performance comparison of commercial available batteries and supercapacitors reveals significantly lower energy storage capability for supercapacitor devices. The energy density of commercial supercapacitor cells is limited to 10 Wh/kg whereas that of common lead acid batteries reaches 35-40 Wh/kg. For lithium ion batteries a value higher than 100 Wh/kg is easily available. Nevertheless, supercapacitors also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors have other advantages in comparison with batteries. As a consequence, many efforts have been made in the last years to increase the storage energy density of electrochemical capacitors. A lot of results from published work (research and review papers, patents and reports) are available at this time. The purpose of this review is a presentation of the progress to date for the use of new materials and approaches for supercapacitor electrodes, with focus on the energy storage capability for practical applications. Many reported results refer to nanostructured carbon based materials and the related composites, used for the manufacture of experimental electrodes. A specific capacitance and a specific energy are seldom revealed as the main result of the performed investigation. Thus for nanoprous (activated) carbon based electrodes a specific capacitance up to 200-220 F/g is mentioned for organic electrolyte, whereas for aqueous electrolyte, the value is limited to 400-500 F/g. Significant contribution to specific capacitance is possible from fast faradaic reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface in addition to the electric double layer effect. The corresponding energy density is limited to 30-50 Wh/kg for organic electrolyte and to 12-17 Wh/kg for aqueous electrolyte. However such performance indicators are given only for the carbon material used in electrodes. For a supercapacitor cell, where two electrodes

  19. Supercapacitors specialities - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obreja, Vasile V. N. [National Research and Development Institute for Microtechnologies (IMT-Bucuresti), Bucharest, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, 077190 (Romania)

    2014-06-16

    The electrode material is a key component for supercapacitor cell performance. As it is known, performance comparison of commercial available batteries and supercapacitors reveals significantly lower energy storage capability for supercapacitor devices. The energy density of commercial supercapacitor cells is limited to 10 Wh/kg whereas that of common lead acid batteries reaches 35-40 Wh/kg. For lithium ion batteries a value higher than 100 Wh/kg is easily available. Nevertheless, supercapacitors also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors have other advantages in comparison with batteries. As a consequence, many efforts have been made in the last years to increase the storage energy density of electrochemical capacitors. A lot of results from published work (research and review papers, patents and reports) are available at this time. The purpose of this review is a presentation of the progress to date for the use of new materials and approaches for supercapacitor electrodes, with focus on the energy storage capability for practical applications. Many reported results refer to nanostructured carbon based materials and the related composites, used for the manufacture of experimental electrodes. A specific capacitance and a specific energy are seldom revealed as the main result of the performed investigation. Thus for nanoprous (activated) carbon based electrodes a specific capacitance up to 200-220 F/g is mentioned for organic electrolyte, whereas for aqueous electrolyte, the value is limited to 400-500 F/g. Significant contribution to specific capacitance is possible from fast faradaic reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface in addition to the electric double layer effect. The corresponding energy density is limited to 30-50 Wh/kg for organic electrolyte and to 12-17 Wh/kg for aqueous electrolyte. However such performance indicators are given only for the carbon material used in electrodes. For a supercapacitor cell, where two electrodes

  20. Supercapacitors specialities - Materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obreja, Vasile V. N.

    2014-01-01

    The electrode material is a key component for supercapacitor cell performance. As it is known, performance comparison of commercial available batteries and supercapacitors reveals significantly lower energy storage capability for supercapacitor devices. The energy density of commercial supercapacitor cells is limited to 10 Wh/kg whereas that of common lead acid batteries reaches 35-40 Wh/kg. For lithium ion batteries a value higher than 100 Wh/kg is easily available. Nevertheless, supercapacitors also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors have other advantages in comparison with batteries. As a consequence, many efforts have been made in the last years to increase the storage energy density of electrochemical capacitors. A lot of results from published work (research and review papers, patents and reports) are available at this time. The purpose of this review is a presentation of the progress to date for the use of new materials and approaches for supercapacitor electrodes, with focus on the energy storage capability for practical applications. Many reported results refer to nanostructured carbon based materials and the related composites, used for the manufacture of experimental electrodes. A specific capacitance and a specific energy are seldom revealed as the main result of the performed investigation. Thus for nanoprous (activated) carbon based electrodes a specific capacitance up to 200-220 F/g is mentioned for organic electrolyte, whereas for aqueous electrolyte, the value is limited to 400-500 F/g. Significant contribution to specific capacitance is possible from fast faradaic reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface in addition to the electric double layer effect. The corresponding energy density is limited to 30-50 Wh/kg for organic electrolyte and to 12-17 Wh/kg for aqueous electrolyte. However such performance indicators are given only for the carbon material used in electrodes. For a supercapacitor cell, where two electrodes

  1. Biocompatibility of biomaterials - Lessons learned and considerations for the design of novel materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Gottfried; Galler, Kerstin M

    2017-04-01

    Biocompatibility of dental materials has gained increasing interest during recent decades. Meanwhile, legal regulations and standard test procedures are available to evaluate biocompatibility. Herein, these developments will be exemplarily outlined and some considerations for the development of novel materials will be provided. Different aspects including test selection, release of substances, barriers, tissue healing, antibacterial substances, nanoparticles and environmental aspects will be covered. The provided information is mainly based on a review of the relevant literature in international peer reviewed journals, on regulatory documents and on ISO standards. Today, a structured and systematic approach for demonstrating biocompatibility from both a scientific and regulatory point of view is based on a clinical risk assessment in an early stage of material development. This includes the analysis of eluted substances and relevant barriers like dentin or epithelium. ISO standards 14971, 10993, and 7405 specify the modes for clinical risk assessment, test selection and test performance. In contact with breached tissues, materials must not impair the healing process. Antibacterial effects should be based on timely controllable substances or on repellant surfaces. Nanoparticles are produced by intraoral grinding irrespective of the content of nanoparticles in the material, but apparently at low concentrations. Concerns regarding environmental aspects of mercury from amalgam can be met by amalgam separating devices. The status for other materials (e.g. bisphenol-A in resin composites) needs to be evaluated. Finally, the public interest for biocompatibility issues calls for a suitable strategy of risk communication. A wise use of the new tools, especially the clinical risk assessment should aim at preventing the patients, professionals and the environment from harm but should not block the development of novel materials. However, biocompatibility must always be

  2. A new approach for assessing the wear resistance of soft ductile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.; Banna, M.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are the most versatile and attractive metallic materials which have been used for many decades in many engineering applications specially in the automobile and airspace industries due to their high strength-to- weight ratio, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, corrosion and wear resistances. Wear is the loss of material from a surface caused by interaction with another material. The main mechanisms of interaction are applied loads and relative motion, which can cause adhesion or/and abrasion, all of which leads to material loss. Therefore, most of the suggested methods, theoretical and empirical, for estimating the wear resistance of material is based on the mass loss, irrespective of the material or type of existing wear. Experimental observations reveal that in some situations, especially for soft and ductile materials, the tested specimen showed little or no mass loss while its dimensions and shape have suffered from plastic deformation which causes more damage than mass loss. Similar phenomenon was observed during electric spot welding of aluminum and zinc coated steels at the area beneath the electrode where plastic deformation takes place, causing increase in area which reduces the current density, will be also discussed in the paper. The amount of the plastic deformation, even when mentioned in some publications, was neglected in assessing wear resistance. In this paper, a model based on the plastic deformation at the worn end together with the mass loss is forwarded and discussed. The model was tested qualitatively using commercially pure aluminum of 99.97% purity in the as supplied condition and in grain refined conditions by some rare earth materials e.g. titanium and titanium plus boron, which are normally used in industry for improving its hardness and mechanical behavior. The wear tests were carried out under different loads and speeds (the main parameters in assessing wear resistance) and the data was used for

  3. Increased Lymph Node Yield Is Associated with Improved Survival in Rectal Cancer Irrespective of Neoadjuvant Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jakob; Jess, Per; Roikjaer, Ole

    2015-01-01

    patients in Denmark who were diagnosed with International Union Against Cancer stage I to III adenocarcinoma of the rectum and so treated in the period from 2003 to 2011 were included in the analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was overall survival. RESULTS: The observed percentages...

  4. Human macrophages primed with angiogenic factors show dynamic plasticity, irrespective of extracellular matrix components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Diana T. A.; van Putten, Sander M.; Koerts, Jasper A.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    Macrophages are important in inflammation as well as in tissue repair processes. They can be activated by various stimuli and classified into two major groups: M1 (classically activated) or M2 (alternatively activated). Inflammation, angiogenesis and matrix remodeling play a major role in tissue

  5. Directed attention reduces processing of emotional distracters irrespective of valence and arousal level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Stefan; Syrjänen, Elmeri

    2013-09-01

    Emotional stimuli tend to capture attention, and this so-called motivated attention is commonly measured using the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP). We hypothesized that voluntary, directed attention reduces motivated attention more strongly for highly than moderately arousing pleasant or unpleasant pictures. Participants were instructed to direct their attention to either a picture at fixation or the letters flanking the picture. Pictures varied substantially in arousal and valence. When the pictures were attended to, EPN and LPP increased linearly with arousal. When the letters were attended to, these linear effects decreased in the EPN for pleasant and unpleasant pictures and in the LPP for pleasant pictures. Thus, directed attention decreases processing of emotional distracters more strongly for highly than moderately arousing pleasant and unpleasant pictures. These results are consistent with the view that directed attention decreases emotion effects on sensory gain. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescent alcohol use reflects community-level alcohol consumption irrespective of parental drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2013-01-01

    Risk factors for adolescent alcohol use are typically conceptualized at the individual level, and school- and community-level risk factors have received little attention. Based on the theoretical understanding of youth alcohol consumption as a reflection of community social practice, we analyzed...... whether adolescent drunkenness was related to community-level adult alcohol use (AAC), when taking individual and school-level risk factors for drunkenness into account. Furthermore, we investigated whether the association between community-level AAC and adolescent drunkenness was attenuated after...

  7. Compression stockings significantly improve hemodynamic performance in post-thrombotic syndrome irrespective of class or length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, Christopher R; Azzam, Mustapha; Kalodiki, Evi; Makris, Gregory C; Geroulakos, George

    2013-07-01

    Graduated elastic compression (GEC) stockings have been demonstrated to reduce the morbidity associated with post-thrombotic syndrome. The ideal length or compression strength required to achieve this is speculative and related to physician preference and patient compliance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic performance of four different stockings and determine the patient's preference. Thirty-four consecutive patients (40 legs, 34 male) with post-thrombotic syndrome were tested with four different stockings (Mediven plus open toe, Bayreuth, Germany) of their size in random order: class 1 (18-21 mm Hg) and class II (23-32 mm Hg), below-knee (BK) and above-knee thigh-length (AK). The median age, Venous Clinical Severity Score, Venous Segmental Disease Score, and Villalta scale were 62 years (range, 31-81 years), 8 (range, 1-21), 5 (range, 2-10), and 10 (range, 2-22), respectively. The C of C0-6EsAs,d,pPr,o was C0 = 2, C2 = 1, C3 = 3, C4a = 12, C4b = 7, C5 = 12, C6 = 3. Obstruction and reflux was observed on duplex in 47.5% legs, with deep venous reflux alone in 45%. Air plethysmography was used to measure the venous filling index (VFI), venous volume, and time to fill 90% of the venous volume. Direct pressure measurements were obtained while lying and standing using the PicoPress device (Microlab Elettronica, Nicolò, Italy). The pressure sensor was placed underneath the test stocking 5 cm above and 2 cm posterior to the medial malleolus. At the end of the study session, patients stated their preferred stocking based on comfort. The VFI, venous volume, and time to fill 90% of the venous volume improved significantly with all types of stocking versus no compression. In class I, the VFI (mL/s) improved from a median of 4.9 (range, 1.7-16.3) without compression to 3.7 (range, 0-14) BK (24.5%) and 3.6 (range, 0.6-14.5) AK (26.5%). With class II, the corresponding improvement was to 4.0 (range, 0.3-16.2) BK (18.8%) and 3.7 (range, 0.5-14.2) AK (24.5%). Median stocking pressure (mm Hg) as measured with the PicoPress in class I was 23 (range, 12-33) lying and 27 (range, 19-39) standing (P AK-GEC stocking. Compression significantly improved all hemodynamic parameters on air plethysmography. However, the hemodynamic benefit did not significantly change with the class or length of stocking. These results support the liberal selection of a GEC stocking based on patient preference. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumers’ versatile buying behavior irrespective to high and low involvement products

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Syed Akif; Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms. Amber

    2012-01-01

    The consumers of today are impulse and cautious buyers at the same time. This study basically comprehends the concept of non-linearity towards the consumer purchase behavior for either high or low involvement of products. The research was interesting to note the consumption patterns of different product classes. The peculiarity of this study found the same non-linearity wavelengths between the high and low involvement products’ that was shaped by the consumers buying intention and actions. AD...

  9. Hepatitis C impairs survival following liver transplantation irrespective of concomitant hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melum, Espen; Friman, Styrbjörn; Bjøro, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Liver transplantation (LTX) is the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease caused by hepatitis C (HCV). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common in patients with HCV cirrhosis. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-two HCV patients listed for LTX in the Nordic countries...

  10. Atypical sensory profiles as core features of adult ADHD, irrespective of autistic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlenga, D; Tjon-Ka-Jie, J Y M; Schuijers, F; Kooij, J J S

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal sensory sensitivity is a feature of autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but is also reported in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In many cases, ADHD and ASD are comorbid. This study investigated the prevalence of sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity among adults with ADHD, controlling for autistic symptoms. One hundred and sixteen adults diagnosed with ADHD completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile-NL (AASP-NL) and the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaires. Prevalences of hyper- and hyposensitivity and autism-spectrum symptoms were compared to norm values. Multivariate binary logistic regressions were used to determine the association of autistic symptoms, age, gender, ADHD subtype, self-reported severity of ADHD symptoms, comorbid disorders, and use of medication on the sensory hypo- and hypersensitivity in adults with ADHD. Adults with ADHD had more autistic symptoms, and they had both more hyper- and hyposensitivity compared to norm groups. This was especially apparent in the Activity level and Auditory sensory modalities. Sensory hypo- and hypersensitivity were both related to an increased ADHD score, even showing a dose-response relationship, but not to any autistic symptom or comorbid disorder. As much as 43% of the females with ADHD reported sensory hypo- and/or hypersensitivity, compared to 22% of the men. Sensory hypo- and hypersensitivity may be viewed as key features of adult ADHD, especially in females, regardless of any autistic symptoms. Future research should be directed at the implications of this sensory dysregulation for the understanding of the pathophysiology of (female) ADHD, and on the usefulness of assessment of atypical sensory profiles in the diagnostic procedure of ADHD in adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. High frequency of streptococcal bacteraemia during childhood AML therapy irrespective of dose of cytarabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Katrine Helle; Handrup, Mette Møller; Lausen, Birgitte Frederiksen

    2013-01-01

    of cytarabine and more chemotherapy series (n = 6) than other protocols with the potential increased risk of severe VGS infections. PROCEDURE: Medical records of all Danish children enrolled on the NOPHO-AML-2004 protocol between January 2004 and September 2011 (n = 45) were retrospectively reviewed and all...... rate of VGS seemed independent of high-dose cytarabine but was more likely caused by the intensive chemotherapy treatment leading to severe mucositis and neutropenia....

  12. A Rapid Subcortical Amygdala Route for Faces Irrespective of Spatial Frequency and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, Jessica; Mermillod, Martial; Mattingley, Jason B; Halász, Veronika; Garrido, Marta I

    2017-04-05

    There is significant controversy over the existence and function of a direct subcortical visual pathway to the amygdala. It is thought that this pathway rapidly transmits low spatial frequency information to the amygdala independently of the cortex, and yet the directionality of this function has never been determined. We used magnetoencephalography to measure neural activity while human participants discriminated the gender of neutral and fearful faces filtered for low or high spatial frequencies. We applied dynamic causal modeling to demonstrate that the most likely underlying neural network consisted of a pulvinar-amygdala connection that was uninfluenced by spatial frequency or emotion, and a cortical-amygdala connection that conveyed high spatial frequencies. Crucially, data-driven neural simulations revealed a clear temporal advantage of the subcortical connection over the cortical connection in influencing amygdala activity. Thus, our findings support the existence of a rapid subcortical pathway that is nonselective in terms of the spatial frequency or emotional content of faces. We propose that that the "coarseness" of the subcortical route may be better reframed as "generalized." SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The human amygdala coordinates how we respond to biologically relevant stimuli, such as threat or reward. It has been postulated that the amygdala first receives visual input via a rapid subcortical route that conveys "coarse" information, namely, low spatial frequencies. For the first time, the present paper provides direction-specific evidence from computational modeling that the subcortical route plays a generalized role in visual processing by rapidly transmitting raw, unfiltered information directly to the amygdala. This calls into question a widely held assumption across human and animal research that fear responses are produced faster by low spatial frequencies. Our proposed mechanism suggests organisms quickly generate fear responses to a wide range of visual properties, heavily implicating future research on anxiety-prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/373864-11$15.00/0.

  13. Distinctiveness enhances long-term event memory in non-human primates, irrespective of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy; Call, Josep; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-08-01

    Non-human primates are capable of recalling events that occurred as long as 3 years ago, and are able to distinguish between similar events; akin to human memory. In humans, distinctiveness enhances memory for events, however, it is unknown whether the same occurs in non-human primates. As such, we tested three great ape species on their ability to remember an event that varied in distinctiveness. Across three experiments, apes witnessed a baiting event in which one of three identical containers was baited with food. After a delay of 2 weeks, we tested their memory for the location of the baited container. Apes failed to recall the baited container when the event was undistinctive (Experiment 1), but were successful when it was distinctive (Experiment 2), although performance was equally good in a less-distinctive condition. A third experiment (Experiment 3) confirmed that distinctiveness, independent of reinforcement, was a consistent predictor of performance. These findings suggest that distinctiveness may enhance memory for events in non-human primates in the same way as in humans, and provides further evidence of basic similarities between the ways apes and humans remember past events. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Equally increased hypercoagulability irrespective of using minimized or conventional ECC systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbrüchel, Ann S; Johansson, Pär I; Rafiq, Sulman

    2012-01-01

    Minimized extracorporeal circulation systems in coronary artery bypass may have less impairing effect on hematological parameters and bleeding compared to conventional systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of mini systems does result in an increased postoperative...

  15. Superinfection occurs in Anaplasma phagocytophilum infected sheep irrespective of infection phase and protection status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström Karin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in domestic ruminants is widespread in the coastal areas of southern Norway. The bacteria may persist in mammalian hosts. Several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum exist. In the present study, we investigate whether superinfection occurs in the acute and persistent phase of the infection. Methods Five-month-old lambs of the Norwegian Dala breed were experimentally infected with two 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum, i.e. A. phagocytophilum variant 1 (GenBank accession number M73220 and variant 2 (GenBank acc. no. AF336220. Eighteen lambs were used, two lambs in each group. Eight groups were experimentally inoculated with either variant 1 or 2 on day 0. Six of these groups were then challenged with the other variant on either days 7, 42 or 84, respectively. One group was left uninfected. The occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in blood samples was determined using semi-nested PCR analysis and gene sequencing. Specific antibodies were measured by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA. Results A. phagocytophilum variant 1 and 2 differed significantly with regards to clinical reaction and cross-immunity in infected lambs. Both variants were found in the blood after challenge. However, variant 1 was detected most frequently. Conclusion The present experiment indicates that superinfection of different genotypes occurs during the acute as well as the persistent phase of an A. phagocytophilum infection, even in lambs protected against the challenged infection.

  16. [Reduced risk of stroke recurrence due to hypotensive medication, irrespective of the initial blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.

    2002-01-01

    The 'Perindopril protection against recurrent stroke study' (PROGRESS) demonstrated that for patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack during the previous 5 years, a blood-pressure-lowering regimen based on the combination of a diuretic and an angiotensin-converting enzyme

  17. Tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation is enhanced following delivery irrespective of the mode of delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, K.; den Hollander, I. A.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of thrombosis is clearly increased in the postpartum period. Mice with a targeted deletion of the transmembrane domain of tissue factor (TF) develop serious activation of blood coagulation and widespread thrombosis after delivery. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We hypothesized that TF,

  18. LED lighting increases the ecological impact of light pollution irrespective of color temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, S M; Bader, M K-F

    Recognition of the extent and magnitude of night-time light pollution impacts on natural ecosystems is increasing, with pervasive effects observed in both nocturnal and diurnal species. Municipal and industrial lighting is on the cusp of a step change where energy-efficient lighting technology is driving a shift from “yellow” high-pressure sodium vapor lamps (HPS) to new “white” light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We hypothesized that white LEDs would be more attractive and thus have greater ecological impacts than HPS due to the peak UV-green-blue visual sensitivity of nocturnal invertebrates. Our results support this hypothesis; on average LED light traps captured 48% more insects than were captured with light traps fitted with HPS lamps, and this effect was dependent on air temperature (significant light × air temperature interaction). We found no evidence that manipulating the color temperature of white LEDs would minimize the ecological impacts of the adoption of white LED lights. As such, large-scale adoption of energy-efficient white LED lighting for municipal and industrial use may exacerbate ecological impacts and potentially amplify phytosanitary pest infestations. Our findings highlight the urgent need for collaborative research between ecologists and electrical engineers to ensure that future developments in LED technology minimize their potential ecological effects.

  19. Pregabalin Improves Pain Scores in Patients with Fibromyalgia Irrespective of Comorbid Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argoff, Charles E; Emir, Birol; Whalen, Ed; Ortiz, Marie; Pauer, Lynne; Clair, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain disorder with patients frequently suffering from comorbid conditions, including osteoarthritis (OA). Data on how FM patients with comorbid OA respond to recommended therapies (such as pregabalin) could help their treatment. This was a pooled exploratory analysis of three randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of pregabalin in FM patients to assess the impact of comorbid OA on the response to pregabalin. Patients were divided into those with and without comorbid OA. Difference in change in least squares (LS) mean pain score at endpoint (assessed by 0-10 numeric rating scale, controlled for baseline pain score) with pregabalin (300 mg/day and 450 mg/day) vs placebo was assessed. Changes in Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) responders and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) total score were also assessed. There were 1665 patients in the analysis set (558, placebo; 552, pregabalin 300 mg/day; 555, pregabalin 450 mg/day), including 296 with comorbid OA. Pregabalin 450 mg/day significantly improved the LS mean (95% confidence interval) difference in pain score vs placebo in patients with (0.99 [0.44, 1.55], P FIQ total score were observed in patients with and without comorbid OA. FM patients with or without comorbid OA respond to treatment with pregabalin 450mg/day with significant improvements in pain intensity scores. These data could provide guidance to healthcare professionals treating these patients. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Supramolecular fluorene based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbel, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of noncovalent interactions in order to manipulate and control the self-assembly and morphology of electroactive fluorene-based materials. The supramolecular arrangement of p-conjugated polymers and oligomers can strongly influence their electronic and photophysical

  1. Review on Superconducting Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hott, Roland; Kleiner, Reinhold; Wolf, Thomas; Zwicknagl, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    Short review of the topical comprehension of the superconductor materials classes Cuprate High-Temperature Superconductors, other oxide superconductors, Iron-based Superconductors, Heavy-Fermion Superconductors, Nitride Superconductors, Organic and other Carbon-based Superconductors and Boride and Borocarbide Superconductors, featuring their present theoretical understanding and their aspects with respect to technical applications.

  2. Phase change materials handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, D. V.; Hoover, M. J.; Oneill, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide theory and data needed by the thermal design engineer to bridge the gap between research achievements and actual flight systems, within the limits of the current state of the art of phase change materials (PCM) technology. The relationship between PCM and more conventional thermal control techniques is described and numerous space and terrestrial applications of PCM are discussed. Material properties of the most promising PCMs are provided; the purposes and use of metallic filler materials in PCM composites are presented; and material compatibility considerations relevant to PCM design are included. The engineering considerations of PCM design are described, especially those pertaining to the thermodynamic and heat transfer phenomena peculiar to PCM design. Methods of obtaining data not currently available are presented. The special problems encountered in the space environment are described. Computational tools useful to the designer are discussed. In summary, each aspect of the PCM problem important to the design engineer is covered to the extent allowed by the scope of this effort and the state of the art.

  3. Disposition of excess material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the means available to an enrichment customer to dispose of excess material scheduled for delivery under a fixed-commitment contract, other than through termination of the related separative work. The methods are as follows: (1) sales; (2) use in facilities covered by other DOE contracts; and (3) assignment

  4. Tritium Storage Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, Donald F.; Luo, Weifang; Smugeresky, John E.; Robinson, David B.; Fares, Stephen James; Ong, Markus D.; Arslan, Ilke; Tran, Kim L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Sartor, George B.; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Clift, W. Miles

    2008-01-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 nm pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a commercial Pd black were measured.

  5. RECON training materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection of materials for use in a DOE/RECON training session includes information about terminal commands, logging on, document availability, search strategy models, and some of the data bases available on DOE/RECON. An evaluation questionnaire is included

  6. Materials and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gockel, E.; Simon, J.

    1998-01-01

    New materials and the processes for their economical fabrication and use are the factors which drive innovation in totally different fields of technology, such as energy engineering, transport, and information. But they also open up new fields of technology such as micro systems or medicine technology. Five out of a total of twelve articles are separately listed in the ENERGY database [de

  7. Molecules To Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rials, Vo1.3, July 1998. Please Note in port 2. ... which such processes can be carried out efficiently are called. NLO materials. .... play in the world of photonics. Though .... A wide variety of modifications on the nitroaniline framework have been ...

  8. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CATALOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.

    THE TITLE, IDENTIFICATION NUMBER, DATE OF PUBLICATION, PAGINATION, A BRIEF DESCRIPTION, AND PRICE ARE GIVEN FOR EACH OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS INCLUDED IN THIS CATALOG. TOPICS COVERED ARE FIELD CORPS, HORTICULTURE, ANIMAL SCIENCE, SOILS, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, AND FARMING PROGRAMS. AN ORDER FORM IS INCLUDED. (JM)

  9. PLATO Esperanto Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Judith

    1981-01-01

    A summary is presented of types of Esperanto materials available on PLATO--a general overview section, a picture introduction, lessons that accompany a textbook, vocabulary drills, crossword puzzles, dictation drills, reading practice, and a concentration game. The general overview lesson gives a comprehensive summary of the history and…

  10. Renewable material resource potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weenen, H.; Wever, R.; Quist, J.; Tukker, A.; Woudstra, J.; Boons, F.A.A.; Beute, N.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable material resources, consist of complex systems and parts. Their sub-systems and sub-sub-systems, have unique, specific, general and common properties. The character of the use that is made of these resources, depends on the availability of knowledge, experience, methods, tools, machines

  11. Materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, K.; Kaletta, D.

    1978-03-01

    The following report describes five papers which were given during the IMF seminar series summer 1977. The purpose of this series was to discuss especially the irradiation behaviour of materials intended for the first wall of future fusion reactors. The first paper deals with the basic understanding of plasma physics relating to the fusion reactor and presents the current state of art of fusion technology. The next two talks discuss the metals intended for the first wall and structural components of a fusion reactor. Since 14 MeV neutrons play an important part in the process of irradiation damage their role is discussed in detail. The question which machines are presently available to simulate irradiation damage under conditions similar to the ones found in a fusion reactor are investigated in the fourth talk which also presents the limitations of the different methods of simulation. In this context also discussed is the importance future intensive neutron sources and materials test reactors will have for this problem area. The closing paper has as a theme the review of the present status of research of metallic and non-metallic materials in view of the quite different requirements for different fusion systems; a closing topic is the world supply on rare materials required for fusion reactors. (orig) [de

  12. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  13. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials is dependent of transport regulations. In practice integrated doses for personnel during transport are very low but are more important during loading or unloading a facility (reactor, plant, laboratory, ...). Risks occur also if packagings are used outside specifications. Recommendations to avoid these risks are given [fr

  14. Bulletin of Materials Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of the presence of Fe2+ ion in nickel-zinc ferrite -- C M Srivastava, ... Investigation of hydrogenous materials using neutrons -- B A Dasannacharya and P S Goyal ... of potassium gold-cyanide -- Indira Rajagopal and S R Rajagopalan .... A novel method of RF powder sputtering -- K Solomon Harshavardhanan and ...

  15. GRAPHENE: A NEW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the properties of a new but allready known material – graphene. Graphene is a 2-dimensional network of carbon atoms. Are presented the estonished characteristics of this form of carbon, alongwith some interesting field of use.

  16. Improvement of turbine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobeit, W.; Pfeifer, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Materials for turbine blades and rotors are discussed with a view to the following subjects: Long period creep behaviour, gas/metal reactions, fatigue behaviour in long-term and creep strength testing, fracture mechanics testing, creep/fatigue interactions, development of a turbine blade of TZM, jointing of TZM, decontamination. (orig./IHOE) [de

  17. New ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, R.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article is to provide a new ceramic materials in which, with a control of their processing and thus their microstructural properties, you can get ceramic approaching ever closer to a metal, both in its structural behavior at low as at high temperatures. (Author) 30 refs.

  18. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrow, J R

    1921-04-16

    To obtain an increased yield of by-products such as oils, ammonia, and gas from coal, oil shale, wood, peat, and the like by low and medium temperature processes, the requisite quantity of hot producer gas from a gas producer, is caused to travel, without ignition, through the material as it passes in a continuous manner through the retort so that the sensible heat of the producer gas is utilized to produce distillation of the carbonaceous material, the gases passing to a condenser, absorption apparatus, and an ammonia absorber respectively. In a two-stage method of treatment of materials such as peat or the like, separate supplies of producer gas are utilized for a preliminary drying operation and for the distillation of the material, the drying receptacle and the retort being joined together to render the process continuous. The gas from the drying receptacle may be mixed with the combined producer and retort gas from the retort, after the hydrocarbon oils have deen removed therefrom.

  19. Bulletin of Materials Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -organic chemical vapour deposited (MOCVD) gamma iron oxide thin film for ... V2)5-Te)2 glasses using heterogeneous conductor model -- M Pal, S K Saha and ... The hardness-flow stress correlation in metallic materials -- G Soundararajan ...

  20. Thermoelectricity: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, S.; Mathonnet, P.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief recall of the basic principles of thermoelectricity, the essential characteristics intervening in the different thermoelectric devices operating modes are defined. Properties of the materials the most used nowadays and performances of the apparatus that they allow to realize are indicated. Advantages and drawbacks of the principal applications in the form of electrical generators, refrigerators and heat pumps are pointed out [fr

  1. Radiation resistant lining material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Koki; Okagawa, Seigo; Tamaki, Hidehiro.

    1990-01-01

    Rigidity, viscoelasticity, flexibility, radiation resistance, leaching resistance, rust-proofness, endurance, etc. are required for the lining materials to wall surfaces and floor surfaces of facilities used under the effect of radiation rays and for the inner surface protection of vessels for radioactive wastes. The present invention provides radiation resistant lining material capable of satisfying such various requirements in a well-balanced manner. That is, the material contains (A) 100 parts by weight of rapidly curing cement, (B) 50 to 300 % by weight of aggregate, and (C) 80 to 120 parts by weight of polymer emulsion. As the specific example, the ingredient (A) is commercially available under the trade name of Jet Cement. The aggregate of the ingredient (B) has preferably from about 0.6 to 0.2 mm of size and is made of material, preferably, silicon or iron grains. As the ingredient (C), acrylic resin emulsion is preferred. As a result of example, these ingredient constitutions can satisfy each of the required performance described above. (I.S.)

  2. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-08-01

    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  3. Chemistry and Materials Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Thrust areas of the weapons-supporting research are growth, structure, and reactivity of surfaces and thin films; uranium research; physics and processing of metals; energetic materials; etc. The laboratory-directed R and D include director's initiatives and individual projects, and transactinium institute studies

  4. Concrete deck material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The two-fold focus of this study was (a) to develop an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for causing : cracking in the concrete; and (b) to study the influence of the local materials on the performance of NYSDOTs HP : concrete mixture. R...

  5. Reactor Materials Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.

    2001-01-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  6. Encapsulated microenergetic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jeffery James; Aines, Roger D.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vandersall, Kevin S.

    2017-02-07

    Providing high energy materials that can be placed in previously created fractures and activating them in place to extend or change an existing fracture system. Also detecting the location of fractures or permeable pathways and a means to assess the extent and efficiency of proppant emplacement.

  7. Encapsulated microenergetic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jeffery James; Aines, Roger D.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vandersall, Kevin S.

    2018-02-20

    Providing high energy materials that can be placed in previously created fractures and activating them in place to extend or change an existing fracture system. Also detecting the location of fractures or permeable pathways and a means to assess the extent and efficiency of proppant emplacement.

  8. Corrosion resistant composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanin, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Foundations for corrosion-resistant composite materials design are considered with account of components compatibility. Fibrous and lamellar composites with metal matrix, dispersion-hardened steels and alloys, refractory metal carbides-, borides-, nitrides-, silicides-based composites are described. Cermet compositions and fields of their application, such as protective coatings for operation in agressive media at high temperatures, are presented

  9. Molecules to Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 1 of this series of articles the historical background of the development of molecular materials was presented. The subtle interactions exploited in their design and the various methods of fabrication were reviewed. Part 2 provided an overview ofliquid crystals and molecular semiconductors, conductors and.

  10. Nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Various methods of nuclear materials transportation at different stages of the fuel cycle (U 3 O 8 , UF 6 production enrichment, fuel element manufacturing, storage) are considered. The advantages and drawbacks of railway, automobile, maritime and air transport are analyzed. Some types of containers are characterized

  11. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    of multiscale biological systems have been investigated and new research methods for automated Rietveld refinement and diffraction scattering computed tomography developed. The composite nature of biological materials was investigated at the atomic scale by looking at the consequences of interactions between...

  12. New Materialism: Interviews & Cartographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tuin, I.; Dolphijn, R.

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first monograph on the theme of “new materialism,” an emerging trend in 21st century thought that has already left its mark in such fields as philosophy, cultural theory, feminism, science studies, and the arts. The first part of the book contains elaborate interviews with some of

  13. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  14. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    The use femtosecond pulses for materials processing results in very precise cutting and drilling with high efficiency. Energy deposited in the electrons is not coupled into the bulk during the pulse, resulting in negligible shock or thermal loading to adjacent areas

  15. Stimuli-Adaptable Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    The work presented in this Thesis deals with the development of a stimuli-adaptable polymer material based on the UV-induced dimerisation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. It is in the nature of an adhesive to adhere very well to its substrate and therefore problems can arise upon removal...

  16. Weightless Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Gravity affects everything we do. Only in very recent years have we been able to carry out experiments in orbit around the Earth and see for the first time how things behave in its absence. This has allowed us to understand fundamental processes better and to design new materials using this knowledge. (Contains 6 figures.)

  17. Package for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rossem, H.

    1983-01-01

    A holder for use with a labelled vial containing a radiopharmaceutical or other dangerous material is claimed. It comprises a hollow body with a closed bottom and an open top. There is at least one transparent portion through which the labelled vial may be inspected, and a holding means to secure the vial in the holder

  18. Magnetism and magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    It describes the actual status of physics in Brazil concerning the study of magnetism and magnetic materials. It gives an overview of different research groups in Brazil, their needs, as well as the investments needed to improve the area. (A.C.A.S.)

  19. Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David

    , different abstraction levels and enables users to analyze their own results, and allows to share data with collaborators. The approach of the Computational Materials Repository (CMR) is to convert data to an internal format that maintains the original variable names without insisting on any semantics...

  20. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary