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Sample records for psyllid hemiptera psylloidea

  1. New geographic records for the Nearctic psyllid Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford) with biological notes and descriptions of the egg and fifth-instar nymph (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae)

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    The Nearctic psyllid Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford) is one of only four known species of Psylloidea worldwide whose primary hosts are species of Convolvulaceae. Taxonomic syntheses of the Nearctic Psylloidea list B. maculipennis only from California and Utah. Our surveys of field bindweed, Co...

  2. Rare diploid females coexist with rare males: a novel finding in triploid parthenogenetic populations in the psyllid Cacopsylla myrtilli (W. Wagner, 1947) (Hemiptera, Psylloidea) in northern Europe.

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    Nokkala, C; Kuznetsova, V G; Nokkala, S

    2015-10-01

    Using a cytological approach, diploid females were found coexisting with rare males in triploid apomictic parthenogenetic populations of the psyllid Cacopsylla myrtilli (W. Wagner, 1947) in Norway, Sweden, Finland and northwest Russia. Diploid females were easily distinguished from triploid apomictic females by the presence of 13 chiasmate bivalents instead of 39 univalent chromosomes at metaphase I. Abundance equaled that of males, but the proportion of males and diploid females was significantly greater in high altitude compared with low altitude populations. Males mated with females but showed no mating preference for diploid females. Lack of genuine bisexual reproduction owing to either asynaptic meiosis in males, or rarity of males with normal meiosis, suggests that diploids are produced in every generation by parthenogenetic females as reversals from triploidy, with their production being enhanced by environmental factor(s) associated with high altitude. This is further supported by the observation that within a population the COI haplotype found in rare males was the same as that in parthenogenetic triploid females. Thus, in northern Europe parthenogenesis in C. myrtilli is obligate, geographic parthenogenesis. Bisexual populations of C. myrtilli should be looked for in Central and Southern Europe. From the evolutionary point of view, the presence of males and diploid females with normal meiosis in parthenogenetic populations could be significant as they exhibit the potential to re-evolve either a new sexual species of parthenogenetic ancestry or a new parthenogenetic species by contagious parthenogenesis.

  3. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

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    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  4. [First record of Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), in Tipuana tipu (Benth.), from Brazil].

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    Santana, Dalva L Q; Burckhardt, Daniel; Aguiar, António M F

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, Acizzinae), is reported for the first time, in Brazil. The psyllid was observed causing injuries on leaves and shoots of Tipuana tipu (Benth.), in urban areas of Paraná State. P. nigrivirga are tiny sap-sucking insects that feed on phloem and cause curling, stains and fall of leaves. The excrements of these insects accumulate on the leaves propitiating fungus growth on the leaves, or they fall in great amount on the cars dirtying them as if they were sparkling of white and sticky ink.

  5. Biology and systematics of gall-inducing triozids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) associated with Psidium spp. (Myrtaceae).

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    Carneiro, René G S; Burckhardt, Daniel; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2013-01-01

    Psidium myrtoides (Myrtaceae) shelters the gall inducer Nothotrioza myrtoidis gen. et sp. n. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) which is described and illustrated here. Nothotrioza belongs to the family Triozidae and is probably most closely related to Neolithus, a monotypic Neotropical genus associated with Sapiun (Euphorbiaceae). Three species are recognized within Nothotrioza: the type species N. myrtoidis sp. n. associated with Psidium myrtoides, N. cattleiani sp. n. (misidentified by Butignol & Pedrosa-Macedo as Neotrioza tavaresi) with Psidium cattleianum, and N. tavaresi (Crawford) comb. n. (from Neotrioza) with an unidentified species of Malpighiaceae, respectively. A lectotype is designated here for Neotrioza tavaresi. Also, the diversity of insect galls associated with P. myrtoides and the biology of N. myrtoidis were examined. N. myrtoidis presents five instars and an annual life cycle synchronised with the phenology of P. myrtoides. Gall size was proportional to the insect developmental stages, and rates of parasitism and mortality were 15.7 % and 29.8 %, respectively. The red colour is an important macroscopic diagnostic feature of the gall that could be associated with parasite-free condition of the galling insect. The biological features presented by the system Psidium myrtoides--Nothotrioza myrtoidis are in accordance with other systems involving sucking galling insects, however, it is exceptional by its univoltine life cycle associated with a perennial plant in the Neotropics. The galls induced by the three known Nothotrioza spp. are morphologically similar, i.e. closed, globoid and unilocular, as well as the opening mechanism for releasing the adults.

  6. Other Hemiptera Sternorrhyncha (Aleyrodidae, Phylloxeroidea, and Psylloidea and Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha. Chapter 9.4

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    David Mifsud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from aphids and scales, 52 additional Sternorrhyncha hemipteran species alien to Europe have been identified within Aleyrodidae (27 whitefly species, Phylloxeroidea (9 adelgids, 2 phylloxerans and Psylloidea (14 species of jumping plant-lice in addition to 12 Auchenorrhyncha species (mostly Cicadellidae- 8 species. At present, the alien species represent 39% of the total whitefly fauna and 36% of the total adelgid fauna occuring in Europe. The proportion is insignificant in the other groups. The arrival of alien phylloxerans and adelgids appeared to peak during the first part of the 20th century. In contrast, the mean number of new records per year of alien aleyrodids, psylloids and Auchenorrhyncha increased regularly after the 1950s. For these three groups, an average of 0.5–0.6 new alien species has been recorded per year in Europe since 2000. The region of origin of the alien species largely differs between the different groups. Alien aleyrodids and psylloids mainly originated from tropical regions whilst the adelgids and phylloxerans came equally from North America and Asia. A major part of the alien Auchenorrhyncha originated from North American. Most of these alien species are presently observed in man-made habitats, especially in parks and gardens but alien adelgids are mainly observed in forests because of their association with conifer trees used for afforestation.

  7. Anoeconeossa bundoorensis sp. n., a new psyllid (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) from Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae) from Southeast Australia.

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    Taylor, Gary S; Farnier, Kevin; Burckhardt, Daniel; Steinbauer, Martin J

    2013-01-30

    Anoeconeossa bundoorensis sp. n. is described from Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae) from southern Victoria in Southeast Australia. It is placed in the A. communis Taylor species-group as the paramere lacks combs of black rods. It differs from other members of the species-group, A. communis and A. bullata Taylor as it lacks an anterobasal expansion on the paramere and from A. unicornuta Taylor as the inner horn-shaped process of the paramere is reduced to a short spine and the apical expansion is more elongate, with a corresponding greater length of equidistant setae. Taxonomically relevant morphological details are illustrated and the species is diagnosed from other eucalypt inhabiting congeners. In-formation on the biology is presented.

  8. The jumping plant-lice of the Neotropical genus Tainarys (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) associated with Anacardiaceae.

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    Burckhardt, Daniel; Queiroz, Dalva L

    2017-02-20

    The Neotropical psyllid genus Tainarys Brèthes, 1920 is revised to include 14 extant and one fossil species from Dominican amber. Eight species are described as new, viz. Tainarys aroeira sp. nov., T. atra sp. nov., T. hapla sp. nov., T. myracrodrui sp. nov., T. nigricornis sp. nov., T. didyma sp. nov. and T. orientalis sp. nov. from Brazil, the last two also from Uruguay, as well as T. lozadai sp. nov. from Peru. The fifth instar immatures are described for nine species. †Vicinilura Klimaszewski, 1996, erected for the fossil †V. reposta Klimaszewski, 1996 and previously synonymised with Leurolophus Tuthill, 1942, is synonymised here (syn. nov.) with Tainarys and †V. reposta is transferred to become †Tainarys reposta (Klimaszewski), comb. nov. The descriptions are supplemented by illustrations and keys for the identification of adults and immatures. Phylogenetic relationships between species are investigated with a cladistic analysis using 22 adult and six immature morphological characters. The analysis resulted in a single most parsimonious, fully resolved tree. The fossil species is nested within the genus rather than being the sister taxon of the remainder of species. The extant species are restricted to the subtropical and temperate parts of South America. Three pairs of sister clades display an east‒west South American and one a midwest‒southern Brazilian geographical vicariance. Host plants are confirmed for nine and likely for another four species. They are Astronium, Haplorhus, Myracrodruon, Schinopsis and Schinus (Anacardiaceae). All Tainarys species appear to be oligophagous inducing irregular leaf curls on their hosts.

  9. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

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    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  10. New corological and biological data of the Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 in Italy (Hemiptera, Psyllidae

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    Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 is a psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pest of Eucalyptus, native toAustralia and first recorded in Europe: Spain in 2008 and more recently (2010 in Italy. The present paper dealswith recent research, carried out in central Italy, with new data on the distribution and biology of this species.

  11. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

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    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used ele...

  12. Deep Characterization of the Microbiomes of Calophya spp. (Hemiptera: Calophyidae Gall-Inducing Psyllids Reveals the Absence of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Three Dominant Endosymbionts.

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    Will A Overholt

    Full Text Available Bacteria associated with sap-feeding insect herbivores include not only symbionts that may increase their hosts' fitness but also harmful plant pathogens. Calophya spp. gall-inducing psyllids (Hemiptera: Calophyidae are being investigated for their potential as biological control agents of the noxious weed, Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia, in Florida. Although there are no examples of plant pathogen transmission by members of the family Calophyidae, several insects in the superfamily Psylloidea are known to transmit pathogenic bacteria in the genera Candidatus Liberibacter and Candidatus Phytoplasma. To determine whether Calophya spp. harbor potentially harmful plant pathogenic bacteria, we sequenced small subunit (SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene amplicons generated from individuals from four Calophya spp. populations: All microbial SSU gene sequences fell into the bacterial domain, with 98-99% belonging to the Proteobacteria. The Calophya microbiomes contained a relatively simple community, with 49-79 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% detected, and only 5-8 OTUs with greater than 1% abundance. Candidatus Carsonella showed the highest relative abundance, with OTUs from this candidate genus representing between 51-65% of all recovered sequences. The next most abundant clade observed was an unclassified Enterobacteriacae group closely related to bacteria from the genera Buchnera and Blochmannia that ranged from 20-31% in relative abundance. Wolbachia populations were the third most abundant group and represented 7-27% of the diversity in microbial OTUs. No SSU rRNA gene sequences from putative pathogenic bacteria from the genera Ca. Liberibacter or Ca. Phytoplasma were detected in the microbiomes of the four Calophya populations. The probability that infected psyllids were present in our colonies, but were not sampled, was extremley low (1.39 x 10(-10. As far as we are aware, our study is the first to characterize the microbiome of

  13. Wolbachia infection density in populations of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

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    Hoffmann, M; Coy, M R; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Pelz-Stelinski, K S

    2014-10-01

    The symbiotic relationships between bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) and their arthropod hosts are diverse and can range from mutualism to parasitism. Whereas effects of Wolbachia on host biology are well investigated, little is known about diversity and abundance of Wolbachia in their natural hosts. The phloem-feeding Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). In the current study, we calculated the within-host density of Wolbachia in Florida D. citri populations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detection of the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene, wsp. Gene quantities were normalized to the D. citri wingless gene (Wg) to estimate Wolbachia abundance in individual D. citri. Using this method, significant geographic differences in Wolbachia densities were detected among Florida D. citri populations, with higher infection levels occurring in male versus female hosts.

  14. Organization of the mitochondrial genomes of whiteflies, aphids, and psyllids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha)

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    Thao, MyLo L; Baumann, Linda; Baumann, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Background With some exceptions, mitochondria within the class Insecta have the same gene content, and generally, a similar gene order allowing the proposal of an ancestral gene order. The principal exceptions are several orders within the Hemipteroid assemblage including the order Thysanoptera, a sister group of the order Hemiptera. Within the Hemiptera, there are available a number of completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes that have a gene order similar to that of the proposed ancestor. None, however, are available from the suborder Sternorryncha that includes whiteflies, psyllids and aphids. Results We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of six species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid. Two species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid have mitochondrial genomes with a gene order very similar to that of the proposed insect ancestor. The remaining four species of whiteflies had variations in the gene order. In all cases, there was the excision of a DNA fragment encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit III(COIII)-tRNAgly-NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3(ND3)-tRNAala-tRNAarg-tRNAasn from the ancestral position between genes for ATP synthase subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5. Based on the position in which all or part of this fragment was inserted, the mitochondria could be subdivided into four different gene arrangement types. PCR amplification spanning from COIII to genes outside the inserted region and sequence determination of the resulting fragments, indicated that different whitefly species could be placed into one of these arrangement types. A phylogenetic analysis of 19 whitefly species based on genes for mitochondrial cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, and 16S ribosomal DNA as well as cospeciating endosymbiont 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA indicated a clustering of species that corresponded to the gene arrangement types. Conclusions In whiteflies, the region of the mitochondrial genome

  15. Organization of the mitochondrial genomes of whiteflies, aphids, and psyllids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha

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    Baumann Paul

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With some exceptions, mitochondria within the class Insecta have the same gene content, and generally, a similar gene order allowing the proposal of an ancestral gene order. The principal exceptions are several orders within the Hemipteroid assemblage including the order Thysanoptera, a sister group of the order Hemiptera. Within the Hemiptera, there are available a number of completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes that have a gene order similar to that of the proposed ancestor. None, however, are available from the suborder Sternorryncha that includes whiteflies, psyllids and aphids. Results We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of six species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid. Two species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid have mitochondrial genomes with a gene order very similar to that of the proposed insect ancestor. The remaining four species of whiteflies had variations in the gene order. In all cases, there was the excision of a DNA fragment encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit III(COIII-tRNAgly-NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3(ND3-tRNAala-tRNAarg-tRNAasn from the ancestral position between genes for ATP synthase subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5. Based on the position in which all or part of this fragment was inserted, the mitochondria could be subdivided into four different gene arrangement types. PCR amplification spanning from COIII to genes outside the inserted region and sequence determination of the resulting fragments, indicated that different whitefly species could be placed into one of these arrangement types. A phylogenetic analysis of 19 whitefly species based on genes for mitochondrial cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, and 16S ribosomal DNA as well as cospeciating endosymbiont 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA indicated a clustering of species that corresponded to the gene arrangement types. Conclusions In whiteflies, the region of the

  16. Synchronism between Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae resources allocation and the establishment of the gall inducer Pseudophacopteron sp. Hemiptera: Psylloidea

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    Ariane C Castro¹

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. Psylloidea was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues.

  17. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae.

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    Tariq Mustafa

    Full Text Available The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc (Hemiptera: Triozidae, is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso, the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used electrical penetration graph (EPG technology to compare stylet probing behaviors and efficiency of Lso transmission of three haplotypes of potato psyllid (Central, Western, Northwestern. All haplotypes exhibited the full suite of stylet behaviors identified in previous studies with this psyllid, including intercellular penetration and secretion of the stylet pathway, xylem ingestion, and phloem activities, the latter comprising salivation and ingestion. The three haplotypes exhibited similar frequency and duration of probing behaviors, with the exception of salivation into phloem, which was of higher duration by psyllids of the Western haplotype. We manipulated how long psyllids were allowed access to potato ("inoculation access period", or IAP to examine the relationship between phloem activities and Lso transmission. Between 25 and 30% of psyllids reached and salivated into phloem at an IAP of 1 hr, increasing to almost 80% of psyllids as IAP was increased to 24 h. Probability of Lso-transmission was lower across all IAP levels than probability of phloem salivation, indicating that a percentage of infected psyllids which salivated into the phloem failed to transmit Lso. Logistic regression showed that probability of transmission increased as a function of time spent salivating into the phloem; transmission occurred as quickly as 5 min following onset of salivation. A small percentage of infected psyllids showed extremely long salivation events but nonetheless failed to transmit Lso, for unknown reasons. Information from these studies increases our understanding of Lso transmission by potato psyllid, and demonstrates the value of EPG technology in

  18. Unusual Behaviour — Unusual Morphology: Mutualistic Relationships between Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Diaphorina enderleini (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), Associated with Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Désirée Chantal Aléné; Champlain Djiéto-Lordon; Daniel Burckhardt

    2011-01-01

    .... The lack of wax deprives them of the protection common in various free-living psyllids. Consequently the psyllid is involved in an unusual mutualistic interaction with the ants Pheidole megacephala and Crematogaster striatula...

  19. Field survey of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) infestations associated with six cultivars of Poncirus trifoliata

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    The Asian citrus psyllid is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium responsible for huanglongbing, also known as citrus greening disease. Insecticidal control of the psyllid is a key tactic used to manage the disease, but host plant resistance may hold some promise as an alternative. Resu...

  20. New excised-leaf assay method to test inoculativity of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus huanglongbing disease.

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    Ammar, El-Desouky; Walter, Abigail J; Hall, David G

    2013-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) associated with huanglongbing, or citrus greening, the most devastating citrus (Citrus spp.) disease worldwide. Here, we developed a new "excised-leaf assay" that can speed up Las-inoculativity tests on Asian citrus psyllid from the current 3-12 mo (when using whole citrus seedlings for inoculation) to only 2-3 wk. Young adults of Asian citrus psyllid that had been reared on Las-infected plants were caged on excised healthy sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves for a 1-2-wk inoculation access periods (IAP), and then both psyllids and leaves were tested later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When single adults were tested per leaf, percentages of Las-positive leaves averaged 2-6% by using HLBaspr primers and 10-20% by using the more sensitive LJ900 primers. Higher proportions of Las-positive leaves were obtained with 1) higher densities of inoculating psyllids (5-10 adults per leaf), 2) longer IAPs, and 3) incubation of leaves for 1 wk postinoculation before PCR. Logistic regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between Las titer in Asian citrus psyllid adults tested singly and the probability of detecting Las in the inoculated leaves, correlations that can be very useful in epidemiological studies. Comparison between excised leaves and whole seedlings, inoculated consecutively for 1 wk each by one or a group of psyllids, indicated no significant difference between Las detection in excised leaves or whole plants. This new excised-leaf assay method saves considerable time, materials, and greenhouse space, and it may enhance vector relation and epidemiological studies on Las and potentially other Liberibacter spp. associated with huanglongbing disease.

  1. Effects of soil-applied imidacloprid on Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) feeding behavior

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    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is one of the most important pests of citrus due to its status as a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) disease. The use of insecticides for vector control is the primary method of managing...

  2. Monitoring for Insecticide Resistance in Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Florida.

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    Kanga, Lambert H B; Eason, Julius; Haseeb, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad; Stansly, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The development of insecticide resistance in Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, populations is a serious threat to the citrus industry. As a contribution to a resistance management strategy, we developed a glass vial technique to monitor field populations of Asian citrus psyllid for insecticide resistance. Diagnostic concentrations needed to separate susceptible genotypes from resistant individuals were determined for cypermethrin (0.5 μg per vial), malathion (1.0 μg per vial), diazinon (1.0 μg per vial), carbaryl (1.0 μg per vial), carbofuran (0.1 μg per vial), methomyl (1.0 μg per vial), propoxur (1.0 μg per vial), endosulfan (1.0 μg per vial), imidacloprid (0.5 μg per vial), acetamiprid (5.0 μg per vial), chlorfenapyr (2.5 μg per vial), and fenpyroximate (2.5 μg per vial). In 2014, resistance to two carbamate insecticides (carbaryl and carbofuran), one organophosphate (malathion), one pyrethroid (cypermethrin), and one pyrazole (fenpyroximate) was detected in field populations of Asian citrus psyllid in Immokalee, FL. There was no resistance detected to diazinon, methomyl, propoxur, endosulfan, imidacloprid, and chlorfenapyr. The levels of insecticide resistance were variable and unstable, suggesting that resistance could be successfully managed. The results validate the use of the glass vial bioassay to monitor for resistance in Asian citrus psyllid populations and provide the basis for the development of a resistance management strategy designed to extend the efficacy of all classes of insecticides used for control of the Asian citrus psyllid.

  3. The genetic structure of an invasive pest, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae.

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    Aline S Guidolin

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri is currently the major threat to the citrus industry as it is the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease (HLB. D. citri is native to Asia and now colonizes the Americas. Although it has been known in some countries for a long time, invasion routes remain undetermined. There are no efficient control methods for the HLB despite the intensive management tools currently in use. We investigated the genetic variability and structure of populations of D. citri to aid in the decision making processes toward sustainable management of this species/disease. We employed different methods to quantify and compare the genetic diversity and structure of D. citri populations among 36 localities in Brazil, using an almost complete sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene. Our analyses led to the identification of two geographically and genetically structured groups. The indices of molecular diversity pointed to a recent population expansion, and we discuss the role of multiple invasion events in this scenario. We also argue that such genetic diversity and population structure may have implications for the best management strategies to be adopted for controlling this psyllid and/or the disease it vectors in Brazil.

  4. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on the honeydew and waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae.

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    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the primary vector of the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening, the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. Psyllids and other hemipterans produce large amounts of honeydew, which has been used previously as an indicator of phloem sap composition and insect feeding or metabolism. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on ACP, its honeydew and waxy secretions showed important differences between nymphs, males and females, and suggested some mechanisms by which the psyllids, especially nymphs and adult females, can minimize their contamination with honeydew excretions. The anal opening in ACP, near the posterior end of the abdomen, is on the ventral side in nymphs and on the dorsal side in adult males and females. Video recordings showed that adult males produce clear sticky droplets of honeydew gently deposited behind their body on the leaf surface, whereas adult females produce whitish honeydew pellets powerfully propelled away from the female body, probably to get their excretions away from eggs and newly hatched nymphs. ACP nymphs produce long ribbons or tubes of honeydew that frequently stay attached to the exuviae after molting, or drop when feeding on the lower side of citrus leaves. Furthermore, honeydew excretions of both nymphs and adult females are covered with a thin layer of whitish waxy material ultrastructurally composed of a convoluted network of long fine filaments or ribbons. This material is extruded from intricate arrays of wax pores in the circumanal ring (around the anus that is found in nymphs and females but not in males of ACP or other psyllid species. Infrared microscopy and mass spectroscopy revealed that, in addition to various sugars, honeydew excretions of ACP nymphs and females are covered with a thin layer of wax similar in profile to ester waxes.

  5. Insecticidal Activity of Entomopathogenic Fungi (Hypocreales) for Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae): Development of Bioassay Techniques, Effect of Fungal Species and Stage of the Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), is a pest of potato, tomato, and some other solanaceous vegetables and has also been incriminated in the transmission of a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, resulting in a serious disease known as “zebra chip”. Although there...

  6. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Emily H; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-07-14

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices.

  7. Insecticide sprays, natural enemy assemblages and predation on Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzo, C; Qureshi, J A; Stansly, P A

    2014-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is considered a key citrus pest due to its role as vector of 'huanglongbing' (HLB) or citrus greening, probably the most economically damaging disease of citrus. Insecticidal control of the vector is still considered a cornerstone of HLB management to prevent infection and to reduce reinoculation of infected trees. The severity of HLB has driven implementation of intensive insecticide programs against ACP with unknown side effects on beneficial arthropod fauna in citrus agroecosystems. We evaluated effects of calendar sprays directed against this pest on natural enemy assemblages and used exclusion to estimate mortality they imposed on ACP populations in citrus groves. Predator exclusion techniques were used on nascent colonies of D. citri in replicated large untreated and sprayed plots of citrus during the four major flushing periods over 2 years. Population of spiders, arboreal ants and ladybeetles were independently assessed. Monthly sprays of recommended insecticides for control of ACP, adversely affected natural enemy populations resulting in reduced predation on ACP immature stages, especially during the critical late winter/early spring flush. Consequently, projected growth rates of the ACP population were greatest where natural enemies had been adversely affected by insecticides. Whereas, this result does not obviate the need for insecticidal control of ACP, it does indicate that even a selective regimen of sprays can impose as yet undetermined costs in terms of reduced biological control of this and probably other citrus pests.

  8. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily H. Kuhns

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices.

  9. Sampling Methods for Detection and Monitoring of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzo, C; Arevalo, H A; Jones, M M; Vanaclocha, P; Croxton, S D; Qureshi, J A; Stansly, P A

    2015-06-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is a key pest of citrus due to its role as vector of citrus greening disease or "huanglongbing." ACP monitoring is considered an indispensable tool for management of vector and disease. In the present study, datasets collected between 2009 and 2013 from 245 citrus blocks were used to evaluate precision, sensitivity for detection, and efficiency of five sampling methods. The number of samples needed to reach a 0.25 standard error-mean ratio was estimated using Taylor's power law and used to compare precision among sampling methods. Comparison of detection sensitivity and time expenditure (cost) between stem-tap and other sampling methodologies conducted consecutively at the same location were also assessed. Stem-tap sampling was the most efficient sampling method when ACP densities were moderate to high and served as the basis for comparison with all other methods. Protocols that grouped trees near randomly selected locations across the block were more efficient than sampling trees at random across the block. Sweep net sampling was similar to stem-taps in number of captures per sampled unit, but less precise at any ACP density. Yellow sticky traps were 14 times more sensitive than stem-taps but much more time consuming and thus less efficient except at very low population densities. Visual sampling was efficient for detecting and monitoring ACP at low densities. Suction sampling was time consuming and taxing but the most sensitive of all methods for detection of sparse populations. This information can be used to optimize ACP monitoring efforts.

  10. Volatile profiles of young leaves of Rutaceae spp. varying in susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid,(Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant volatiles were identified from six species in the family Rutaceae. These species had varying degrees of susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid as determined by direct counts of life stages. Using a push system involving charcoal-filtered humidified air, volatiles were adsorbed on SuperQ pa...

  11. Two-Spotted Ladybeetle Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A Commercially Available Predator to Control Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Stansly, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. The increased use of insecticides for control of D. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. The two-spotted ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is found in some crop and forest ecosystems of Asia, Europe and North America and available commercially. It is known to attack aphids and mealybugs but there are no published records of feeding on psyllids. We evaluated suitability and preference of A. bipunctata for nymphs of D. citri compared to corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) a global pest of cereal crops and prey for many predaceous insects. We also compared development and reproduction of A. bipunctata on these two species with frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 25°C. Initially, more D. citri than R. maidis nymphs were consumed in the no-choice tests although final consumption by larva and adult of A. bipunctata did not differ in the choice and no-choice tests. Larval development was prolonged by one day on D. citri compared to R. maidis nymphs but did not differ between either of these diets and E. kuehniella. Larval survival to adult averaged 93–100% and was not impacted by diet. Adult life span did not differ between diets although those on D. citri and R. maidis nymphs weighed less and produced fewer but more fertile eggs than on E. kuehniella eggs. Significant reduction of D. citri nymphs averaging 54% was observed in colonies caged with adult A. bipunctata on field planted citrus. R° (net reproductive rate) was least for beetles fed R. maidis, but otherwise there were no significant differences in demographic parameters. Successful

  12. Two-Spotted Ladybeetle Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A Commercially Available Predator to Control Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azhar A; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Afzal, Muhammad; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. The increased use of insecticides for control of D. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. The two-spotted ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is found in some crop and forest ecosystems of Asia, Europe and North America and available commercially. It is known to attack aphids and mealybugs but there are no published records of feeding on psyllids. We evaluated suitability and preference of A. bipunctata for nymphs of D. citri compared to corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) a global pest of cereal crops and prey for many predaceous insects. We also compared development and reproduction of A. bipunctata on these two species with frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 25°C. Initially, more D. citri than R. maidis nymphs were consumed in the no-choice tests although final consumption by larva and adult of A. bipunctata did not differ in the choice and no-choice tests. Larval development was prolonged by one day on D. citri compared to R. maidis nymphs but did not differ between either of these diets and E. kuehniella. Larval survival to adult averaged 93-100% and was not impacted by diet. Adult life span did not differ between diets although those on D. citri and R. maidis nymphs weighed less and produced fewer but more fertile eggs than on E. kuehniella eggs. Significant reduction of D. citri nymphs averaging 54% was observed in colonies caged with adult A. bipunctata on field planted citrus. R° (net reproductive rate) was least for beetles fed R. maidis, but otherwise there were no significant differences in demographic parameters. Successful

  13. Repellency of a kaolin particle film to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), on tomato under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Linian; Trumble, John T; Munyaneza, Joseph E; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2011-07-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, causing several diseases in solanaceous crops. Laboratory and field no-choice and choice experiments were conducted to evaluate the repellency of kaolin particle film on adults of B. cockerelli on tomato plants that had been sprayed with kaolin particle film on the upper surface only, on the lower surface only and on both leaf surfaces. In no-choice tests in the laboratory, the numbers of adults on leaves were not different between the kaolin particle film and the water control, regardless of which leaf surface(s) were treated, but numbers of eggs were lower on the leaves treated with kaolin particle film than on those treated with water. In choice tests on plants treated with water/plants treated with kaolin particle film at ratios of 1:1, 6:3 or 8:1, fewer adults and eggs were found on the leaves treated with kaolin particle film than on leaves treated with water. Under field conditions, in caged no-choice or choice tests, fewer adults, eggs and nymphs were found on plants treated with kaolin particle film than on plants treated with water. In an uncaged test under field conditions, plants sprayed with kaolin particle film had fewer psyllids than those sprayed with water. Even though potato psyllid adults could land on plants treated with kaolin particle film when no choice was given, fewer eggs were laid. When given a choice, the psyllids avoided plants treated with kaolin particle film under laboratory and field conditions. Kaolin particle film treatment may be a useful alternative for management of potato psyllids under field conditions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Global genetic variation in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and the endosymbiont Wolbachia: links between Iran and the USA detected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Manzari, Shahab; Sahragard, Ahad; Malagnini, Valeria; Boykin, Laura M; Hosseini, Reza

    2014-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is one of the most serious pests of citrus in the world, because it transmits the pathogen that causes citrus greening disease. To determine genetic variation among geographic populations of D. citri, microsatellite markers, mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) and the Wolbachia-Diaphorina, wDi, gene wsp sequence data were used to characterize Iranian and Pakistani populations. Also, a Bayesian phylogenetic technique was utilized to elucidate the relationships among the sequences data in this study and all mtCOI and wsp sequence data available in GenBank and the Wolbachia database. Microsatellite markers revealed significant genetic differentiation among Iranian populations, as well as between Iranian and Pakistani populations (FST  = 0.0428, p Mexico, Florida and Texas (USA) are similar. Wolbachia, wDi, wsp sequences were similar among Iranian populations, but different between Iranian and Pakistani populations. The South West Asia (SWA) group is the most likely source of the introduced Iranian populations of D. citri. This assertion is also supported by the sequence similarity of the Wolbachia, wDi, strains from the Florida, USA and Iranian D. citri. These results should be considered when looking for biological controls in either country. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hentz, Matthew; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of 'naturally waxed' and 'dewaxed' nymphs (cleaned from wax) revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

  16. Living on the Edges: Spatial Niche Occupation of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae, in Citrus Groves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009-2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees.

  17. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid.

  18. Molecular detection of aster yellows phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrots affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: triozidae) in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) causes considerable damage to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in many parts of Europe. It was recently established that the new bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” is associated with carrot psyllid and plants affected by this insect pest. No other path...

  19. Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Joseph M; Stockton, Dara; Meikle, William G; Sétamou, Mamoudou; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Adamczyk, John J

    2014-11-19

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits Huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. A better understanding of the psyllid's host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. Since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult D. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli from host and non-host-plant sources. Response was measured as the frequency of salivary sheaths, the residue of psyllid probing activity, in a line of emulsified wax on the surface of a test arena. The psyllids displayed both appetitive and aversive conditioning to two different chemosensory stimuli. They could also be conditioned to recognize a blue-colored probing substrate and their response to neutral visual cues was enhanced by chemosensory stimuli. Conditioned psyllids were sensitive to the proportion of chemosensory components present in binary mixtures. Naïve psyllids displayed strong to moderate innate biases to several of the test compounds. While innate responses are probably the psyllid's primary behavioral mechanism for selecting host-plants, conditioning may enhance its ability to select host-plants during seasonal transitions and dispersal.

  20. Enhanced Acquisition Rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in the Presence of Vegetative Flush Growth in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Alabi, Olufemi J; Kunta, Madhurababu; Jifon, John L; da Graça, John V

    2016-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid preferentially feeds and exclusively reproduces on young, newly emerged flush shoots of citrus. Asian citrus psyllid nymphs feed and complete their life stages on these flush shoots. Recent studies conducted under greenhouse conditions have shown that the transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the putative causal agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus, are enhanced when flush shoots are present. However, it is unclear if CLas acquisition by migrant adult Asian citrus psyllids is similarly enhanced. To address this knowledge gap, cohorts of Asian citrus psyllid adults were allowed 1-wk acquisition access period (AAP) on flushing and nonflushing shoots of qPCR-tested symptomatic (CLas+) and asymptomatic (CLas-) 10-yr-old sweet orange trees under field conditions. After the AAP, they were tested for CLas by qPCR. Progeny Asian citrus psyllid adults that emerged 4 wk post-AAP were similarly retrieved and tested. Eighty percent of flushing and 30% of nonflushing CLas+ trees produced infective Asian citrus psyllid adults, indicating that flush shoots have greater potential to be inoculum sources for CLas acquisition. Concomitantly, 21.1% and 6.0% infective adults were retrieved, respectively, from flushing and nonflushing CLas+ trees, indicating that Asian citrus psyllid adults acquire CLas more efficiently from flush shoots relative to mature shoots. In addition, 12.1% of infective Asian citrus psyllid adult progeny were obtained from 70% of flushing CLas+ trees. Significantly lower mean Ct values were also obtained from infective adults retrieved from flushing relative to nonflushing trees. The results underscore the role of flush shoots in CLas acquisition and the need to protect citrus trees from Asian citrus psyllid infestations during flush cycles.

  1. Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and

  2. Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae, Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Patt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri transmits Huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. A better understanding of the psyllid’s host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. Since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult D. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli from host and non-host-plant sources. Response was measured as the frequency of salivary sheaths, the residue of psyllid probing activity, in a line of emulsified wax on the surface of a test arena. The psyllids displayed both appetitive and aversive conditioning to two different chemosensory stimuli. They could also be conditioned to recognize a blue-colored probing substrate and their response to neutral visual cues was enhanced by chemosensory stimuli. Conditioned psyllids were sensitive to the proportion of chemosensory components present in binary mixtures. Naïve psyllids displayed strong to moderate innate biases to several of the test compounds. While innate responses are probably the psyllid’s primary behavioral mechanism for selecting host-plants, conditioning may enhance its ability to select host-plants during seasonal transitions and dispersal.

  3. Bionomics of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) associated with orange jasmine hedges in southest central Florida, with special reference to biological control by Tamarixia radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it vectors bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is one of ACP’s favorite host plants and is widely grown as an orn...

  4. Effect of Cyantraniliprole, a Novel Insecticide, on the Inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus Associated with Citrus Huanglongbing by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G; Alvarez, Juan M

    2015-04-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is the principal vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) associated with huanglongbing (HLB), the most serious citrus disease worldwide. New control measures including pesticides are urgently needed to combat HLB, especially to protect young or newly planted citrus trees from CLas-inoculation by vector psyllids. Here, we tested CLas-inoculation by D. citri adults (CLas-exposed, reared on infected plants) by feeding them for 7 d on excised healthy citrus leaves with dry residues of cyantraniliprole (Exirel), a novel insecticide, in comparison with fenpropathrin (Danitol 2.4EC), an insecticide commonly used against D. citri. Fewer adults settled (putatively feeding or probing) on leaves treated with cyantraniliprole than those treated with fenpropathrin or water controls. Also, psyllid adults died at a slower rate on leaves treated with cyantraniliprole than those treated with fenpropathrin, although the final cumulative mortality did not differ between the two treatments. In quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction tests, 59.0-65.3% of the CLas-exposed psyllid adults were proven to be CLas-positive. Inoculation rates of CLas (using 10 adults per leaf) into untreated healthy citrus leaves (47.5-85%) were significantly higher than rates into leaves treated with cyantraniliprole or fenpropathrin (2.5-12.5%). Reduced inoculation rates to leaves treated with cyantraniliprole probably occurred as a result of reduced feeding or probing by D. citri. The excised leaf assay method, which took only a few weeks compared with up to a year or longer using whole plants, can be an effective tool for testing the effect of new pesticides or other treatments in reducing CLas inoculation or transmission by psyllid vectors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by a US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Compatibility of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae Blastospores with Agricultural Chemicals Used for Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae

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    Pasco B. Avery

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Biorational insecticides are being increasingly emphasized for inclusion in integrated pest management programs for invasive insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, can be used to help manage the Asian citrus psyllid with minimal impact on beneficial arthropods, but its effectiveness may be compromised by agrochemicals used to control concurrent arthropod pests and diseases. We evaluated the compatibility of I. fumosorosea blastospores with a range of spray oils and copper-based fungicides registered for use in citrus groves. Results of laboratory and greenhouse tests showed a range of responses of the fungus to the different materials, including compatibility and incompatibility. Overall, I. fumosorosea growth in vitro was reduced least by petroleum-based materials and most by botanical oils and borax, and some of the copper-based fungicides, suggesting that tank mixing of I. fumosorosea with these latter products should be avoided. However, equivalent negative effects of test materials on fungal pathogenicity were not always observed in tests with adult psyllids. We hypothesize that some oils enhanced adherence of blastospores to the insect cuticle, overcoming negative impacts on germination. Our data show that care should be taken in selecting appropriate agrochemicals for tank-mixing with commercial formulations of entomopathogenic fungi for management of citrus pests. The prospects of using I. fumosorosea for managing the invasive Asian citrus psyllid and other citrus pests are discussed.

  6. Description of the male of Psyllaephagus euphyllurae (Masi (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae, a parasitoid of the olive psylla, Euphyllura olivina (Costa (Hemiptera, Liviidae, with notes on its reproductive traits and hyperparasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Triapitsyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A colony of the encyrtid wasp Psyllaephagus euphyllurae (Masi (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae has been established in the quarantine laboratory at the University of California, Riverside, California, USA as part of a classical biological control program against its invasive host, the olive psylla, Euphyllura olivina (Costa (Hemiptera, Psylloidea, Liviidae, an important pest of olives in some parts of the world. The colony originators were reared from the same host found on abandoned, commercial olives in Catalonia, Spain; additional collections were made in Murcia. The parasitoid reproduces primarily by thelytoky; however, a few occasional males have been found in the field in Spain, but not in colonies reared under quarantine or laboratory conditions. Here, the female of P. euphyllurae is redescribed and its male is described and illustrated for the first time; the only previous mention of male P. euphyllurae was from Tunisia, reared from the same psyllid host but without any details on its morphology. A lectotype is designated for Encyrtus euphyllurae Masi. Information is given on the results of genetic matching between the two sexes of the parasitoid and also on the presence of the bacterial Wolbachia symbiont that apparently is affecting reproduction of this species, including its sex ratio in the field. Two species of hyperparasitoids have also emerged from the parasitized olive psylla nymphs from Catalonia: numerous specimens of Apocharips trapezoidea (Hartig (Hymenoptera, Figitidae and one specimen of a Pachyneuron sp. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae.

  7. Analyses of mitogenome sequences revealed that Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) from California was related to those from Florida but different from those in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama; Hemiptera: Liviidae) transmits “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas), an unculturable alpha-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease, also called citrus greening disease). HLB is threatening citrus prod...

  8. Related but not alike: not all Hemiptera are attracted to yellow

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    Kevin eFarnier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most innate responses to color stimuli lead herbivorous insects to orient to green and yellow surfaces. Early research showed that aphid orientation to plants is influenced by foliar pigments and leads them to alight on leaves of a specific physiological state regardless of whether or not it is their actual host. In this study, we quantified the color preferences of four psyllids specialized on young to recently expanded leaves of different Eucalyptus hosts presenting distinct between (inter-specific and within canopy (ontogenic optical characteristics. Color preferences of Ctenarytaina eucalypti and C. bipartita were similar to those observed in aphids with more frequent selection of yellow and green stimuli, consistent with the coloration of their host leaves. However, attraction of Anoeconeossa bundoorensis and Glycaspis brimblecombei to a red stimulus contrasts strongly with the literature for hemipteran and herbivorous insects generally for which attraction to red is peculiar. Interestingly, both red-attracted species occur on the same host eucalypt, which expresses anthocyanic (red young leaves. Our experiments demonstrate that these two species are sensitive to long wavelength radiation. Behavioral work and modeling of putative aphid-like photoreceptors were conducted to investigate whether achromatic vision mediates perception of red. Our results do not provide strong evidence for an intensity-dependant type of attraction. Nevertheless, the current knowledge of photoreceptors in Hemiptera identifies the achromatic as the most likely mechanism for detecting long wavelengths. Thus, our findings highlight the need for physiological work with Psylloidea to dissect the mechanisms responsible for such atypical responses. We discuss the ecological implications of our work in relation to red foliar pigments in expanding leaves of perennial plants which differs greatly from the thoroughly studied aphid-autumnal leaves system involving senescing

  9. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  10. Gender differences and effect of photophase on Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), thought to be primarily a phloem-feeding insect, transmits the presumptive pathogen for Huanglongbing, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’. Because this bacterium is restricted to the phloem and bacterial transmission is the res...

  11. Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause HLB. Laboratory and field studies were cond...

  12. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of Bactericera cockerelli and Comparison with Three Other Psylloidea Species.

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    Fengnian Wu

    Full Text Available Potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli is an important pest of potato, tomato and pepper. Not only could a toxin secreted by nymphs results in serious phytotoxemia in some host plants, but also over the past few years B. cockerelli was shown to transmit "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum", the putative bacterial pathogen of potato zebra chip (ZC disease, to potato and tomato. ZC has caused devastating losses to potato production in the western U.S., Mexico, and elsewhere. New knowledge of the genetic diversity of the B. cockerelli is needed to develop improved strategies to manage pest populations. Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome sequencing provides important knowledge about insect evolution and diversity in and among populations. This report provides the first complete B. cockerelli mitogenome sequence as determined by next generation sequencing technology (Illumina MiSeq. The circular B. cockerelli mitogenome had a size of 15,220 bp with 13 protein-coding gene (PCGs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs, 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs, and a non-coding region of 975 bp. The overall gene order of the B. cockerelli mitogenome is identical to three other published Psylloidea mitogenomes: one species from the Triozidae, Paratrioza sinica; and two species from the Psyllidae, Cacopsylla coccinea and Pachypsylla venusta. This suggests all of these species share a common ancestral mitogenome. However, sequence analyses revealed differences between and among the insect families, in particular a unique region that can be folded into three stem-loop secondary structures present only within the B. cockerelli mitogenome. A phylogenetic tree based on the 13 PCGs matched an existing taxonomy scheme that was based on morphological characteristics. The available complete mitogenome sequence makes it accessible to all genes for future population diversity evaluation of B. cockerelli.

  13. A new genus and twenty new species of Australian jumping plant-lice (Psylloidea: Triozidae) from Eremophila and Myoporum (Scrophulariaceae: Myoporeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gary S; Fagan-Jeffries, Erinn P; Austin, Andy D

    2016-02-05

    The Triozidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of jumping plant-lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) from an exceptionally diverse range of plant families, but with few described Australian species. As a direct outcome of the Australian Biological Resources Study Bush Blitz species discovery program, many new Psylloidea from novel host plants in remote localities have been revealed. In this study a new genus Myotrioza Taylor gen. nov. and 20 new species are described from southern and central Australia which also establishes the first host plant records from Eremophila and Myoporum (Scrophulariaceae: Myoporeae). New species, delineated using a combination of morphological and mitochondrial COI sequence data, are: Myotrioza clementsiana sp. nov., M. darwinensis sp. nov., M. desertorum sp. nov., M. eremi sp. nov., M. eremophili sp. nov., M. flindersiana sp.nov., M. gawlerensis sp. nov., M. insularis sp. nov., M. interioris sp. nov., M. interstantis sp. nov., M. longifoliae sp. nov., M. markmitchelli sp. nov., M. myopori sp. nov., M. oppositifoliae sp. nov., M. pantonii sp. nov., M. platycarpi sp. nov., M. remota sp. nov., M. scopariae sp. nov., M. serrulatae sp. nov., and M. telowiensis sp. nov. Genetic divergence data, host associations, biogeographic data, diagnoses and a key to species are presented. Myotrioza appears to be particularly diverse in ephemeral southern Australia, especially in inland Western Australia and South Australia, matching regions of high diversity of the host genera; some species are likely to be short range endemics.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  15. First records of parasitoids attacking the Asian citrus psyllid in Ecuador

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    Diego E. Portalanza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT First records of parasitoids attacking the Asian citrus psyllid in Ecuador. The objective of the current study was to investigate the presence of natural enemies of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae (the Asian citrus psyllid in Ecuador. Incidence of parasitoid Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae was assessed between November 2015 and March 2016, in Letamendi, Febres-Cordero and Tarqui, urban districts of Guayaquil. Highest incidence of parasitism occurred in those regions and seasons of the year with the highest temperatures commensurate with increase of citrus plant shoots. Similar to their host, these parasitoids appear to have established in Ecuador by accident, and were not the result of purposeful introduction. This fortuitous introduction is a potentially helpful tool in controlling the Asian citrus psyllid, and potentially Huanglongbing.

  16. Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hem.: Psyllidae, the invasive red gum lerp psyllid recorded in Italy

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    Garonna AP

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During 2010 in central and southern Italy (Campania, Basilicata and Latium, the invasive red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, has been recorder for the first time in Italy. The psyllid was detected on Eucalyptus camaldulensis in several sampling sites. The host plant, like other species of the genus Eucalyptus, is very common in Italy as ornamental and forest species. The native country of G. brimblecombei is Australia, from which the psyllid spread throughout the world in the last decade. In the Palaearctic Region the species was first collected from the Iberian Peninsula in 2007. In this note we report some observations on the biology and distribution of this species in the new colonized Italian areas. Generalist predators, such as wasps and pirate bugs, were observed attacking G. brimblecombei, however no parasitoid activity has been detected.

  17. Description of the male of Psyllaephagus euphyllurae (Masi) (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of the olive psylla, Euphyllura olivina (Costa) (Hemiptera, Liviidae), with notes on its reproductive traits and hyperparasitoids

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A colony of the encyrtid wasp Psyllaephagus euphyllurae (Masi) (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) has been established in the quarantine laboratory at the University of California, Riverside, California, USA as part of a classical biological control program against its invasive host, the olive psylla, Euphyllura olivina (Costa) (Hemiptera, Psylloidea, Liviidae), an important pest of olives in some parts of the world. The colony originators were reared from the same host found on abandoned, commercial ...

  18. Retracted stylets in nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid are held externally against the clypeus by a special paired organ not found in the adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in ultrastructure of the mouthparts in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Psyllidae), vector of the bacterium associated with citrus huanglongbing disease, were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The number of sensilla on the labial tip in...

  19. Geographic Distribution of Habitat, Development, and Population Growth Rates of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J.; Robles-García, Pedro L.; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses...

  20. Gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the p...

  1. Wolbachia infection differs among divergent mitochondrial haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four mitochondrial (cytrochrome oxidase I) haplotypes of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (S'ulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), have been identified in North America: western, central, northwestern,and southwestern. A recent study found that females of the northwestern haplotype mated by males o...

  2. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research.

  3. A revision of the Chinese species of Cyamophiliopsis (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Psyllidae) associated with Spiraea (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinyu; Li, Fasheng; Cai, Wanzhi

    2015-03-20

    Cyamophiliopsis is a small genus restricted to the Palaearctic Region and associated with Spiraea spp. (Rosaceae). In the present work, following five species are recognized in China: C. pseudofasciata sp. nov., C. sarmatica, C. spinosa sp. nov., C. xinjiangana sp. nov. and C. zaisani. Cyamophiliopsis is diagnosed, redescribed in detail, and its phylogenetic relationships are discussed. All the species are described or redescribed, and the fifth instar immature of C. zaisani is described for the first time. Nomenclatorial problems are discussed concerning the Far East Russian Psylla spiraee which is transferred to Cyamophiliopsis as C. spiraee comb. nov.

  4. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  5. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

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    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  6. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  7. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  8. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  9. Characterization of a recombinant Cathepsin B-Like cysteine peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A putative target control of citrus huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) spread by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Among the control strategies for H...

  10. Gut Content Analysis of a Phloem-Feeding Insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Rodney; Horton, David R; Unruh, Thomas R; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-08-01

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the psyllid regularly occurs on numerous uncultivated annual and perennial species within the Solanaceae. A better understanding of landscape-level ecology of B. cockerelli would substantially improve our ability to predict which potato fields are most likely to be colonized by infected psyllids. We developed three PCR-based methods of gut content analysis to identify what plant species B. cockerelli had previously fed upon. These methods included-1) sequencing PCR amplicons of regions of plant-derived internal transcribed spacer (ITS) or the chloroplast trnL gene from psyllids, 2) high-resolution melting analysis of ITS or trnL real-time PCR products, and 3) restriction enzyme digestion of trnL PCR product. Each method was used to test whether we could identify psyllids that had been reared continuously on potato versus psyllids reared continuously on the perennial nightshade, Solanum dulcamara. All three methods of gut content analysis correctly identified psyllids from potato and psyllids from S. dulcamara Our study is the first to demonstrate that plant DNA can be detected in a phloem-feeding insect. Gut content analysis, in combination with other landscape ecology approaches, could help elucidate patterns in landscape-level movements and host plant associations of B. cockerelli. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  11. Brachygastra mellifica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Predation preference and feeding behavior on Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Rosas, M. A.; Loera-Gallardo, J.; López-Arroyo, J. I.; Buck, M.

    2014-01-01

    In previous field studies in Northern Mexico, we found the wasp Brachygastra mellifica (Say 1837) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) preying voraciously the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the vector of the bacteria Ca. Liberibacter spp., the putative agent of Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating citrus disease in the world.   As in Mexico, the ACP management considers the use of pest biological control, the availability of potential agents for the con...

  12. Asian citrus psyllid RNAi pathway : RNAi evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Olivier Christiaens; Guy Smagghe

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if t...

  13. Acquisition, Replication and Inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus following Various Acquisition Periods on Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Ramos, John E; Hall, David G; Dawson, William O; Shatters, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) implicated as causative agent of citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Las is transmitted by D. citri in a persistent-circulative manner, but the question of replication of this bacterium in its psyllid vector has not been resolved. Thus, we studied the effects of the acquisition access period (AAP) by nymphs and adults of D. citri on Las acquisition, multiplication and inoculation/transmission. D. citri nymphs or adults (previously non-exposed to Las) were caged on Las-infected citrus plants for an AAP of 1, 7 or 14 days. These 'Las-exposed' psyllids were then transferred weekly to healthy citrus or orange jasmine plants, and sampled via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis 1-42 days post-first access to diseased plants (padp); all tested nymphs became adults 7-14 days padp. Our results indicate that following 1 or 7 day AAP as nymphs 49-59% of Las-exposed psyllids became Las-infected (qPCR-positive), whereas only 8-29% of the psyllids were infected following 1-14 day AAP as adults. Q-PCR analysis also indicated that Las titer in the Las-exposed psyllids (relative to that of the psyllid S20 ribosomal protein gene) was: 1) significantly higher, and increasing at a faster rate, following Las acquisition as nymphs compared to that following Las acquisition as adults; 2) higher as post-acquisition time of psyllids on healthy plants increased reaching a peak at 14-28 days padp for nymphs and 21-35 days padp for adults, with Las titer decreasing or fluctuating after that; 3) higher with longer AAP on infected plants, especially with acquisition as adults. Our results strongly suggest that Las multiplies in both nymphs and adults of D. citri but attains much higher levels in a shorter period of time post-acquisition when acquired by nymphs than when acquired by adults

  14. Acquisition, Replication and Inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus following Various Acquisition Periods on Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae, is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las implicated as causative agent of citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening, currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Las is transmitted by D. citri in a persistent-circulative manner, but the question of replication of this bacterium in its psyllid vector has not been resolved. Thus, we studied the effects of the acquisition access period (AAP by nymphs and adults of D. citri on Las acquisition, multiplication and inoculation/transmission. D. citri nymphs or adults (previously non-exposed to Las were caged on Las-infected citrus plants for an AAP of 1, 7 or 14 days. These 'Las-exposed' psyllids were then transferred weekly to healthy citrus or orange jasmine plants, and sampled via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR analysis 1-42 days post-first access to diseased plants (padp; all tested nymphs became adults 7-14 days padp. Our results indicate that following 1 or 7 day AAP as nymphs 49-59% of Las-exposed psyllids became Las-infected (qPCR-positive, whereas only 8-29% of the psyllids were infected following 1-14 day AAP as adults. Q-PCR analysis also indicated that Las titer in the Las-exposed psyllids (relative to that of the psyllid S20 ribosomal protein gene was: 1 significantly higher, and increasing at a faster rate, following Las acquisition as nymphs compared to that following Las acquisition as adults; 2 higher as post-acquisition time of psyllids on healthy plants increased reaching a peak at 14-28 days padp for nymphs and 21-35 days padp for adults, with Las titer decreasing or fluctuating after that; 3 higher with longer AAP on infected plants, especially with acquisition as adults. Our results strongly suggest that Las multiplies in both nymphs and adults of D. citri but attains much higher levels in a shorter period of time post-acquisition when acquired by nymphs than when acquired by

  15. A comparison of plant species for rearing Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...

  16. Biology and management of Asian citrus psyllid, vector of the huanglongbing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Stansly, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the most important pest of citrus worldwide because it serves as a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter" species (Alphaproteobacteria) that cause huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). All commercially cultivated citrus is susceptible and varieties tolerant to disease expression are not yet available. Onset of disease occurs following a long latent period after inoculation, and thus the pathogen can spread widely prior to detection. Detection of the pathogen in Brazil in 2004 and Florida in 2005 catalyzed a significant increase in research on D. citri biology. Chemical control is the primary management strategy currently employed, but recently documented decreases in susceptibility of D. citri to several insecticides illustrate the need for more sustainable tools. Herein, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of D. citri biology and behavior, pathogen transmission biology, biological control, and chemical control with respect to "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus." Our goal is to point toward integrated and biologically relevant management of this pathosystem.

  17. Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raiinder S.Mann; Russell L.Rouseff; Jack Smoot; Nandikeswara Rao; Wendy L.Meyer; Stephen L.Lapointe; Paul S.Robbins

    2013-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide.The Asian citrus psyllid,Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera:Psyllidae),is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium,Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,which is presumed to cause HLB in Florida citrus.Laboratory and field studies were conducted to examine the behavioral responses of male and female D.citri to their cuticular extracts.In olfactometer assays,more male D.citri were attracted to one,five,or 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units than blank controls.The results were confirmed in field studies in which clear or yellow traps baited with 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units attracted proportionately more males than clear traps baited with male cuticular extract or unbaited traps.Analyses of cuticular constituents of male and female D.citri revealed differences between the sexes in chemical composition of their cuticular extracts.Laboratory bioassays with synthetic chemicals identified from cuticular extracts indicated that dodecanoic acid attracted more males than clean air.Traps baited with dodecanoic acid did not increase total catch of D.cirri as compared with blank traps at the dosages tested; however,the sex ratio of psyllid catch was male biased on traps baited with the highest lure loading dosage tested (10.0 mg).

  18. Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rajinder S; Rouseff, Russell L; Smoot, Jack; Rao, Nandikeswara; Meyer, Wendy L; Lapointe, Stephen L; Robbins, Paul S; Cha, Dong; Linn, Charles E; Webster, Francis X; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2013-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause HLB in Florida citrus. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to examine the behavioral responses of male and female D. citri to their cuticular extracts. In olfactometer assays, more male D. citri were attracted to one, five, or 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units than blank controls. The results were confirmed in field studies in which clear or yellow traps baited with 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units attracted proportionately more males than clear traps baited with male cuticular extract or unbaited traps. Analyses of cuticular constituents of male and female D. citri revealed differences between the sexes in chemical composition of their cuticular extracts. Laboratory bioassays with synthetic chemicals identified from cuticular extracts indicated that dodecanoic acid attracted more males than clean air. Traps baited with dodecanoic acid did not increase total catch of D. citri as compared with blank traps at the dosages tested; however, the sex ratio of psyllid catch was male biased on traps baited with the highest lure loading dosage tested (10.0 mg). © 2012 The Authors Insect Science © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Bactericera cockerelli and its comparison with three other psylloidea species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato-tomato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is an important pest of potatoes, tomato and peppers. A toxin secreted by nymphs results in serious phytotoxemia in some host plants. Over the past few years, B. cockerelli was shown to transmit “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”, the putative bacte...

  20. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Meenal; Fisher, Tonja W; He, Ruifeng; Nelson, William; Yin, Guohua; Cicero, Joseph M; Willer, Mark; Kim, Ryan; Kramer, Robin; May, Greg A; Crow, John A; Soderlund, Carol A; Gang, David R; Brown, Judith K

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB). The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence protein-protein interactions essential for ACP-mediated CLas invasion and transmission. To identify psyllid interactor-bacterial effector combinations associated with psyllid-CLas interactions, cDNA libraries were constructed from CLas-infected and CLas-free ACP adults and nymphs, and analyzed for differential expression. Library assemblies comprised 24,039,255 reads and yielded 45,976 consensus contigs. They were annotated (UniProt), classified using Gene Ontology, and subjected to in silico expression analyses using the Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW) (http://www.sohomoptera.org/ACPPoP/). Functional-biological pathway interpretations were carried out using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Differentially expressed contigs in adults and/or nymphs represented genes and/or metabolic/pathogenesis pathways involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, development-related, immunity, nutrition, stress, and virulence. Notably, contigs involved in gene silencing and transposon-related responses were documented in a psyllid for the first time. This is the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of ACP adults and nymphs infected and uninfected with CLas. The results provide key initial insights into host-parasite interactions involving CLas effectors that contribute to invasion-virulence, and to host nutritional exploitation and immune-related responses that appear to be essential for successful ACP-mediated circulative, propagative CLas transmission.

  1. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal Vyas

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas, the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB. The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence protein-protein interactions essential for ACP-mediated CLas invasion and transmission. To identify psyllid interactor-bacterial effector combinations associated with psyllid-CLas interactions, cDNA libraries were constructed from CLas-infected and CLas-free ACP adults and nymphs, and analyzed for differential expression. Library assemblies comprised 24,039,255 reads and yielded 45,976 consensus contigs. They were annotated (UniProt, classified using Gene Ontology, and subjected to in silico expression analyses using the Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW (http://www.sohomoptera.org/ACPPoP/. Functional-biological pathway interpretations were carried out using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Differentially expressed contigs in adults and/or nymphs represented genes and/or metabolic/pathogenesis pathways involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, development-related, immunity, nutrition, stress, and virulence. Notably, contigs involved in gene silencing and transposon-related responses were documented in a psyllid for the first time. This is the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of ACP adults and nymphs infected and uninfected with CLas. The results provide key initial insights into host-parasite interactions involving CLas effectors that contribute to invasion-virulence, and to host nutritional exploitation and immune-related responses that appear to be essential for successful ACP-mediated circulative, propagative CLas

  2. Plant resistance within the Rutaceae to Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA-ARS recently initiated research on host plant resistance to the Asian citrus psyllid. The psyllid is an important invasive pest of citrus in the United States because it transmits a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening). There is no cure for this bacterial disease. ...

  3. Restriction digestion method for haplotyping the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    A restriction digestion method has been developed for haplotyping the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc., an economically important pest of solanaceous crops. This method differentiates the four known potato psyllid haplotypes by utilizing restriction enzyme digestion of a portion of the ...

  4. Behavioral assay on Asian citrus psyllid attraction to orange jasmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. We report on a...

  5. Impacts of the Psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on Invasive French Broom in Relation to Plant Size and Psyllid Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Brian N; Moran, Patrick J; Smith, Lincoln

    2017-06-01

    The impacts of weed biological control agents may vary with plant ontogeny. As plants grow, structural and chemical changes can alter plant resistance, which may reduce herbivory via chemical or structural defenses, and plant tolerance, which may enable plants to maintain fitness despite attack. Resistance and tolerance generally increase as plants grow. Nonetheless, prerelease tests of agent efficacy often overlook plant ontogeny. Here, we assess the performance and impacts of a candidate biocontrol agent, the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Loginova), in relation to the age of its host plant, the invasive shrub French broom, Genista monspessulana. We also examined whether the psyllid can consistently kill plants when its densities are sufficiently high. Survival of psyllids to adulthood and the timing of adult emergence did not differ between plant sizes, indicating that performance of nymphs was not influenced by plant size. However, adult psyllid survival was reduced on small plants, suggesting that nymphs and adults responded differently to ontogenetic changes in plant quality. Psyllids affected the growth of small and large plants similarly; all measured plant growth parameters were lower in the presence of psyllids regardless of plant size. In a separate experiment, effects on plant survival depended on psyllid density, as higher realized densities of ∼9 psyllids per cm stem length were necessary to consistently kill plants. Thus, results suggest that the psyllid would be equally effective on a range of plant sizes, particularly at high densities, and show the potential of the psyllid to help control French broom in California. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Annotation of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Reveals a Reduced Innate Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Alex P; Hunter, Wayne B; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S

    2016-01-01

    Citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing. The citrus greening bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Hemipterans characterized to date lack a number of insect immune genes, including those associated with the Imd pathway targeting Gram-negative bacteria. The D. citri draft genome was used to characterize the immune defense genes present in D. citri. Predicted mRNAs identified by screening the published D. citri annotated draft genome were manually searched using a custom database of immune genes from previously annotated insect genomes. Toll and JAK/STAT pathways, general defense genes Dual oxidase, Nitric oxide synthase, prophenoloxidase, and cellular immune defense genes were present in D. citri. In contrast, D. citri lacked genes for the Imd pathway, most antimicrobial peptides, 1,3-β-glucan recognition proteins (GNBPs), and complete peptidoglycan recognition proteins. These data suggest that D. citri has a reduced immune capability similar to that observed in A. pisum, P. humanus, and R. prolixus. The absence of immune system genes from the D. citri genome may facilitate CLas infections, and is possibly compensated for by their relationship with their microbial endosymbionts.

  7. Asian Citrus Psyllid RNAi Pathway – RNAi evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Eduardo C. Andrade; Hunter, Wayne B.; Olivier Christiaens; Guy Smagghe

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if t...

  8. Asian Citrus Psyllid RNAi Pathway – RNAi evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C. de; Hunter, Wayne B.; Christiaens, Olivier; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if t...

  9. Asian Citrus Psyllid RNAi Pathway – RNAi evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Christiaens, Olivier; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if the RNAi machinery could be exploited to develop a management strategy for this pest. Analyses of RNAi-related genes in the Asian citrus psyllid genome showed an absence of sequences encoding R2D2, a dsRNA-binding protein that functions as a cofactor of Dicer-2 in Drosophila. Nevertheless, bioassays using an in Planta System showed that the Asian citrus psyllid was very sensitive to ingested dsRNA, demonstrating a strong RNAi response. A small dose of dsRNA administered through a citrus flush was enough to trigger the RNAi mechanism, causing significant suppression of the targeted transcript, and increased psyllid mortality. This study provides evidence of a functional RNAi machinery, which could be further exploited to develop RNAi based management strategies for the control of the Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:27901078

  10. Wavelength and polarization affect phototaxis of the Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, D. citri, is a primary pest for citrus production due to its status as a vector of the citrus disease, huanglongbing. We investigated phototactic behavior of D. citri to evaluate effects of light of specific wavelength or polarization using a horizontal bioassay arena. Wave...

  11. Entomopathogenic Fungi (Hypocreales) for Control of Potato Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory and field trials of the four isolates of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae were conducted to evaluate their potential for control of the potato psyllid. In the laboratory, 2 ml aqueous suspension of 107conidia/ml in a of each isolate applied in a Potte...

  12. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  13. Geographic distribution of habitat, development, and population growth rates of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J; Robles-García, Pedro L; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion.

  14. Pengaruh Jenis Mangsa dan Suhu pada Perkembangan Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae dan Peranannya dalam Pengendalian Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tris Haris Ramadhan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the vector of citrus greening (Huanglongbing bacterium and the most serious impediment to citrus culture. Classical biological control of this psyllid vector should contribute to suppress their population. This research was conducted to determine the performance of Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae when they were fed with D. citri. The larval performance index of M. sexmaculatus on D. citri compared with Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae diet was 1.3.M. sexmaculatus fed with D. citri had lower fitness than those fed with A. craccivora as shown by longer larval stadium, lower adult dry weight, less number of egg produced and lower percentage of egg hatched. M. sexmaculatus grew best at the temperature of 27oC. Employing the exclusion procedure under field condition,M. sexmaculatus could reduce the population of D. citri up to 90%. These findings showed that theM. sexmaculatus could be a potential predator in reducing D. citri, particularly when the more preferred prey A. craccivora was not present.   Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae merupakan kelompok Psyllid yang menularkan penyebab penyakit Huanglongbing yang sangat berbahaya pada tanaman jeruk. Pengendalian hayati klasik telah banyak memberikan kontribusi dalam pengendalian di lapangan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melihat penampilan Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae dengan pakan D. citri. Indeks penampilan larva M. sexmaculatus dengan pakan D. citri dibandingkan dengan Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae adalah 1,3. M. sexmaculatus yang diberi pakan D. citri menunjukkan penurunan kebugaran dibandingkan jika diberi pakan A. craccivora seperti yang ditunjukkan dengan stadium larva lebih lama, penurunan berat kering serangga dewasa, telur yang dihasilkan lebih sedikit, dan penurunan jumlah telur yang menetas. Menggunakan metode eksklusi pada kondisi

  15. Repellency of selected biorational insecticides to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactericera cockerelli has recently become a major concern because of its direct feeding and vectoring of bacterial diseases in many solanaceous crops. The repellency of four biorational insecticides, MOI-201 (a Chinese medicine plant extract), Requiem (a plant extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides), ...

  16. Insecticidal suppression of Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) vector of huanglongbing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Jawwad A; Kostyk, Barry C; Stansly, Philip A

    2014-01-01

    Diaphorina citri vectors pathogens that cause 'huanglongbing' or citrus greening disease which poses a serious threat to citrus production worldwide. Vector suppression is critical to reduce disease spread. Efficacy is a main concern when choosing an insecticide. Insecticidal treatments of 49 products or 44 active ingredients (a.i) labeled or experimental were field tested between 2005-2013 as foliar sprays (250 treatments, 39 a.i) or soil applications (47 treatments, 9 a.i) to control D. citri in citrus. A combined effect of nymphal and adult suppression in response to sprays of 23 insecticides representing 9 modes of action (MoA) groups and 3 unknown MoA provided more than 90% reduction of adult D. citri over 24-68 days. Observable effects on nymphs were generally of shorter duration due to rapid maturation of flush. However, reduction of 76-100% nymphs or adults over 99-296 days was seen on young trees receiving drenches of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiamethoxam or clothianidin (MoA 4A) and a novel anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole (MoA 28). Effective products identified for foliar sprays to control D. citri provide sufficient MoA groups for rotation to delay evolution of insecticide resistance by D. citri and other pests. However, cyantraniliprole is now the only available alternative for rotation with neonicotinoids in soil application to young trees. Sprays of up to eight of the most effective insecticides could be rotated over a year without repetition of any MoA and little or no recourse to neonicotinoids or cyantraniliprole, so important for protection of young trees. Other considerations effecting decisions of what and when to spray include prevalence of huanglongbing, pest pressure, pre-harvest intervals, overall budget, equipment availability, and conservation of beneficial arthropods. Examples of spray programs utilizing broad-spectrum and relatively selective insecticides are provided to improve vector management and may vary depending on individual or regional assessment of all factors.

  17. Insecticidal suppression of Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae vector of huanglongbing pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawwad A Qureshi

    Full Text Available Diaphorina citri vectors pathogens that cause 'huanglongbing' or citrus greening disease which poses a serious threat to citrus production worldwide. Vector suppression is critical to reduce disease spread. Efficacy is a main concern when choosing an insecticide. Insecticidal treatments of 49 products or 44 active ingredients (a.i labeled or experimental were field tested between 2005-2013 as foliar sprays (250 treatments, 39 a.i or soil applications (47 treatments, 9 a.i to control D. citri in citrus. A combined effect of nymphal and adult suppression in response to sprays of 23 insecticides representing 9 modes of action (MoA groups and 3 unknown MoA provided more than 90% reduction of adult D. citri over 24-68 days. Observable effects on nymphs were generally of shorter duration due to rapid maturation of flush. However, reduction of 76-100% nymphs or adults over 99-296 days was seen on young trees receiving drenches of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiamethoxam or clothianidin (MoA 4A and a novel anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole (MoA 28. Effective products identified for foliar sprays to control D. citri provide sufficient MoA groups for rotation to delay evolution of insecticide resistance by D. citri and other pests. However, cyantraniliprole is now the only available alternative for rotation with neonicotinoids in soil application to young trees. Sprays of up to eight of the most effective insecticides could be rotated over a year without repetition of any MoA and little or no recourse to neonicotinoids or cyantraniliprole, so important for protection of young trees. Other considerations effecting decisions of what and when to spray include prevalence of huanglongbing, pest pressure, pre-harvest intervals, overall budget, equipment availability, and conservation of beneficial arthropods. Examples of spray programs utilizing broad-spectrum and relatively selective insecticides are provided to improve vector management and may vary depending on individual or regional assessment of all factors.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Adults of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Guava Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, M C S; Barbosa, J C

    2016-04-01

    The psyllid Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest in guava, feeding primarily on new shoots. Despite its importance, there are no studies on the spatial distribution of T. limbata on guava. Such studies are needed to establish sequential sampling plans for decision making in pest control. Thus, an experiment was carried out in a 9-year-old commercial guava orchard divided into 100 sampling units or plots. Double-sided yellow sticky traps were placed on one plant per plot (sample unit) to capture and monitor T. limbata adults from April 2011 to May 2012. To determine the insect distribution in the area, we calculated the variance-to-mean ratio index (I), the Morisita index (I δ ), Green's coefficient (Cx), and the k exponent of the negative binomial distribution. Most of the samples showed that the adults had a moderate to highly aggregated distribution. Statistical models were also used to study the pest spatial distribution by fitting the number of adults captured to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution model best fitted the data of the number of adult psyllids captured by the traps, which is consistent with an aggregated distribution.

  19. Matrimony vine and potato psyllid in the Pacific Northwest: a worrisome marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing where the psyllid is before arriving in Washington potato...

  20. Male Psyllids Differentially Learn in the Context of Copulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara G. Stockton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, stimulatory cuticular hydrocarbons act as sex pheromone attractants. Male psyllids locate aggregations of females using those olfactory cues, as well as vibrational communication on the plant surface. Although previous research has indicated that learning plays a role in modulating female reproductive behaviors in psyllids, it is unknown whether males similarly use learning to increase the likelihood of copulatory success. We used an olfactometer-based bio-assay to study the effects of experience on male response to female odor. First, we compared male attraction to female odor in virgin and previously mated males. Second, we tested the effect of several modes of experience with a novel odor, vanillin, to determine whether mating, feeding, or general environmental exposure elicited a learned response. We found that male attraction to female odor significantly increased after mating experience. In addition, we found that males learn about odor specifically in the context of mating, rather than feeding or general exposure. Electrophysiological measurements of antennal response to odorants confirmed that mating status did not affect the sensitivity of the peripheral nervous system to volatile stimuli implicating learning at the level of the central nervous system. These results suggest that male response to female odor is not an entirely innate behavior. Males may require mating experience with female conspecifics to develop attraction to those olfactory cues produced by the female and in association with the female’s habitat. This adaptive plasticity may allow males to detect females in an ever-changing environment and promote diversification and further specialization on different host genotypes.

  1. Male Psyllids Differentially Learn in the Context of Copulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Dara G.; Martini, Xavier; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2017-01-01

    In the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, stimulatory cuticular hydrocarbons act as sex pheromone attractants. Male psyllids locate aggregations of females using those olfactory cues, as well as vibrational communication on the plant surface. Although previous research has indicated that learning plays a role in modulating female reproductive behaviors in psyllids, it is unknown whether males similarly use learning to increase the likelihood of copulatory success. We used an olfactometer-based bio-assay to study the effects of experience on male response to female odor. First, we compared male attraction to female odor in virgin and previously mated males. Second, we tested the effect of several modes of experience with a novel odor, vanillin, to determine whether mating, feeding, or general environmental exposure elicited a learned response. We found that male attraction to female odor significantly increased after mating experience. In addition, we found that males learn about odor specifically in the context of mating, rather than feeding or general exposure. Electrophysiological measurements of antennal response to odorants confirmed that mating status did not affect the sensitivity of the peripheral nervous system to volatile stimuli implicating learning at the level of the central nervous system. These results suggest that male response to female odor is not an entirely innate behavior. Males may require mating experience with female conspecifics to develop attraction to those olfactory cues produced by the female and in association with the female’s habitat. This adaptive plasticity may allow males to detect females in an ever-changing environment and promote diversification and further specialization on different host genotypes. PMID:28178203

  2. Bacteria of the genus Erwinia found in the spermatheca of the laurel psyllid Trioza alacris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Daniela; Ciolfi, Silvia; Gottardo, Marco; Marri, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Psylloidea are economically important insects causing serious damage to plants by direct feeding and/or vectoring bacterial pathogens. Results reported here indicate the presence of extracellular bacteria in the spermatheca of egg-laying Trioza alacris females. One phylotype, sharing 99 % identity with the non-phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia tasmaniensis, was identified regardless of methods applied or insect sampling year and location. This is the first study, achieved by ultrastructural, cultural, and 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, of an insect spermatheca microbiota.

  3. Annotation of the Asian citrus psyllid genome reveals a reduced innate immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing. The citrus greening bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuway...

  4. Age at reproductive maturity and effect of age and time of day on sex attraction in the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christelle Guédot; David R.Horton; Peter J.Landolt

    2012-01-01

    The potato psyllid,Bactericera (=Paratrioza) cockerelli ((S)ulc) (Hemiptera:Triozidae),is a major pest of potato.Studies were conducted to determine the age at which both males and females reach reproductive maturity and the effect of age and time of day on sex attraction.Adult B.cockerelli reach reproductive maturity within 48 h post-eclosion,with females being mature on the day of eclosion and males at 1 day post-eclosion.Oviposition generally began 2 days after mating but was delayed when females mated within 2 days post-eclosion.In laboratory olfactometer assays,the age of females used as odor sources and the age of males assayed to these odors did not affect sex attraction,with both younger (1-4-day-old) and older (8-10-day-old) males being attracted to females,regardless of female age (1-4-day-old or 8-10-day-old).Males assayed to live females at different times during the photophase (between 8:00 and 20:00 hours) were attracted to females between 11:00 and 17:00 hours,showing a temporal periodicity in sex attraction with B.cockerelli at least during the photophase.

  5. Elucidating genetic variation in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus transmission between Asian citrus psyllid isofemale lines

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Danielle; Kruse, Annie; Ramsey, John; Hosmani, Prashant; Hall, David; Saha, Surya; Ammar, El-Desouky; Cilia, Michelle; Mueller, Lukas A

    2017-01-01

    Citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) is an epidemic bacterial infection that has devastated citrus industries across the globe. HLB leads to a reduction in fruit quality, decrease in overall fruit production and eventual death of the citrus tree.The disease is associated with this bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP).Objective 1: Improve the current psyllid genome through manual curation.Objective 2: Characterize genet...

  6. 75 FR 28233 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Asian citrus psyllid infestations. We... continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Asian citrus psyllid... include chemical control and the release of an alternative biological control agent, an encyrtid...

  7. Roles of olfactory cues, visual cues, and mating status in orientation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to four different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, Erik J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Hall, David G

    2009-02-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors bacteria (Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) responsible for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). We examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated D. citri of both sexes to odors from host plants in a Y-tube olfactometer, with and without visual cues. The host plants tested were 'Duncan' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden), sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), navel orange (C. sinensis L.), and Murraya paniculata L. Jack. Responses varied by plant species, psyllid sex and mating status, and the presence of a visual cue. Evidence of attraction generally was stronger in females and in mated individuals of both sexes relative to virgins. The presence of a visual cue typically enhanced attractiveness of olfactory cues; in no case did unmated individuals show evidence of attraction to host plant odors in the absence of avisual cue. In the absence of visual cues, mated females and males showed evidence of attraction only to odors from sour orange and navel orange, respectively. Psyllids exhibited anemotactic responses when assayed with plant odors alone but showed strong evidence of attraction only when olfactory and visual cues were combined, suggesting that olfactory cues facilitate orientation to host plants but may be insufficient alone. Antennal responses to citrus volatiles were confirmed by electroantennogram. The results reported here provide evidence that D. citri uses olfactory and visual cues in orientation to host plants and suggest the possibility of using plant volatiles in monitoring and management of this pest.

  8. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Lashkari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae, vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB, is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida. The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1, Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1, and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6, to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001. The body length (BL, circumanal ring length (CL, antenna length (AL, forewing length (WL and Rs vein length of forewing (RL were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1 Iran, (2 USA (Florida and (3 Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations.

  9. Toxicological and biochemical characterizations of AChE in phosalone-susceptible and resistant populations of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Ali; Talebi-Jahromi, Khalil; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Ghadamyari, Mohammad

    2014-02-05

    The toxicological and biochemical characteristics of acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in nine populations of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were investigated in Kerman Province, Iran. Nine A. pistaciae populations were collected from pistachio orchards, Pistacia vera L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), located in Rafsanjan, Anar, Bam, Kerman, Shahrbabak, Herat, Sirjan, Pariz, and Paghaleh regions of Kerman province. The previous bioassay results showed these populations were susceptible or resistant to phosalone, and the Rafsanjan population was most resistant, with a resistance ratio of 11.3. The specific activity of AChE in the Rafsanjan population was significantly higher than in the susceptible population (Bam). The affinity (K(M)) and hydrolyzing efficiency (Vmax) of AChE on acetylthiocholine iodide, butyrylthiocholine iodide, and propionylthiocholine odide as artificial substrates were clearly lower in the Bam population than that in the Rafsanjan population. These results indicated that the AChE of the Rafsanjan population had lower affinity to these substrates than that of the susceptible population. The higher Vmax value in the Rafsanjan population compared to the susceptible population suggests a possible over expression of AChE in the Rafsanjan population. The in vitro inhibitory effect of several organophosphates and carbamates on AChE of the Rafsanjan and Bam populations was determined. Based on I50, the results showed that the ratios of AChE insensitivity of the resistant to susceptible populations were 23 and 21.7-fold to monocrotophos and phosphamidon, respectively. Whereas, the insensitivity ratios for Rafsanjan population were 0.86, 0.8, 0.78, 0.46, and 0.43 for carbaryl, eserine, propoxur, m-tolyl methyl carbamate, and carbofuran, respectively, suggesting negatively correlated sensitivity to organophosphate-insensitive AChE. Therefore, AChE from the Rafsanjan population showed negatively

  10. Stylet morphometrics and citrus leaf vein structure in relation to feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS) associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified) feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial) side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial) or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled 'fibrous ring' (sclerenchyma) around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80-90%) of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10-20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition). However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation) into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports.

  11. Stylet morphometrics and citrus leaf vein structure in relation to feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening, considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled 'fibrous ring' (sclerenchyma around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80-90% of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10-20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition. However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports.

  12. Risk assessment of various insecticides used for management of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri in Florida citrus, against honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue Dong; Gill, Torrence A; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2017-01-23

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a major pest of citrus trees worldwide. A wide variety of insecticides are used to manage D. citri populations within citrus groves in Florida. However, in areas shared by citrus growers and beekeepers the use of insecticides may increase the risks of Apis mellifera  L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) loss and contaminated honey. The objective of this research was to determine the environmental toxicity of insecticides, spanning five different modes of action used to control D. citri, to A. mellifera. The insecticides investigated were imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, spinetoram and diflubenzuron. In laboratory experiments, LD50 values were determined and ranged from 0.10 to 0.53 ng/μl for imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate and spinetoram. LD50 values for diflubenzuron were >1000 ng/μl. Also, a hazard quotient was determined and ranged from 1130.43 to 10893.27 for imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, and spinetoram. This quotient was mellifera 3 and 7 days after application. Spinetoram and imidacloprid were moderately toxic to A. mellifera at the recommended rates for D. citri. Diflubenzuron was not toxic to A. mellifera in the field as compared with untreated control plots. Phenoloxidase (PO) activity of A. mellifera was higher than in untreated controls when A. mellifera were exposed to 14 days old residues. The results indicate that diflubenzuron may be safe to apply in citrus when A. mellifera are foraging, while most insecticides used for management of D. citri in citrus are likely hazardous under various exposure scenarios.

  13. Factors affecting transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as Asiatic huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program...

  14. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in 70-80% of commercial fields and experimental plots in southeastern Norway from late July to mid-September 2011; al...

  15. H NMR analyses of Citrus macrophylla subjected to Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is a phloem feeding insect that can host and transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which is the putative causative agent of the economically important citrus disease, Huanglongbing (HLB). ACP are widespread in Florida, and are spreading in Ca...

  16. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those of the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” damage were observed in 70% of commercial fields in southern Sweden in August 2011; all cultivars grown were affected, at about 1 to 45% symptomatic plants pe...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Putative Densovirus of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Jared C; Nouri, Shahideh; Falk, Bryce W

    2016-07-28

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a putative densovirus of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Diaphorina citri densovirus (DcDNV) was originally identified through metagenomics, and here, we obtained the complete nucleotide sequence using PCR-based approaches. Phylogenetic analysis places DcDNV between viruses of the Ambidensovirus and Iteradensovirus genera.

  18. Incidence of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in a Florida population of Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence of a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in a Florida population of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. The bacterium is the presumed causal agent of Asiatic huanglongbing, a serious citrus disease also known as citrus greening or yel...

  19. Current statewide updates regarding the battle of the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious economic disease of citrus, vectored by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP). The disease and its vector have become established in the United States in the last few decades. This submission reviews recent developments for pest control industry professionals. The submissio...

  20. Bindweed Psyllid: Biology, Natural History, and Interactions with the Zebra Chip Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactericera maculipennis is a native psyllid that commonly occurs on field bindweed in the western United States. We have found that Pacific Northwest populations of B. maculipennis carry Liberibacter solanacearum, the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease of potato. In North America, this p...

  1. Correlation of an electrical penetration graph waveform with walking by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring is being used to study how feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) changes in response to insecticides, in an effort to improve the efficacy of widespread insecticide treatments against the insect in Florida citrus....

  2. Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Surya [Cornell University

    2012-06-01

    Surya Saha on "Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  3. Titers of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' in Murraya paniculata and Murraya-reared Diaphorina citri Are Much Lower than in Citrus and Citrus-reared Psyllids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walter, Abigail; Duan, Y; Hall, David G

    2012-01-01

    Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, is associated with the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in North America...

  4. Maintenance of primary cell cultures of immunocytes from Cacopsylla sp. psyllids: a new in vitrio tool for the study of pest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psyllid species are major vectors of plant pathogens, such as phytoplasmas and Liberibacter bacteria, which threaten economic stability of fruit tee crops and vegetable production worldwide. Primary cell cultures of immunocytes have been developed from the three psyllid species, Cacopsylla melanone...

  5. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  6. Solanum habrochaites, a potential source of resistance against Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julien; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia

    2014-06-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, also known as tomato psyllid, is a serious pest of solanaceous plants. Its host selection criteria are poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether the Solanum habrochaites (PI127826), a wild solanaceous plant known for its property to repel whiteflies, was repellent to potato psyllids. Using a combination of nonchoice assays and choice assays on different psyllid stages, we demonstrated that S. habrochaites is both repelling and toxic to potato psyllids compared with Solanum lycopersicum. However, those properties were not sufficient to avoid. transmission of the plant bacterial pathogen "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" vectored by potato psyllids, the causative agent of potato zebra chip disease. However, a lower bacterial transmission rate to S. habrochaites was observed compared with S. lycopersicum.

  7. Seasonal Population Dynamics of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L.C. Teck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Effective control of phytophagous pests requires a thorough understanding of their seasonal population dynamics, dispersion behavior, natural enemy activity and climate. To date, although very little detail information had been published on the ecology of Diaphorina citri. The objective of this investigation was to test through field experiment the hypothesis that the major factors influencing local D. citri populations particularly their seasonal population dynamics in Sarawak are (a flushing cycles, (b climate and (c the impact of the primary parasitoids namely Tamarixia radiata and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis. Approach: Seasonal abundance D. citri was studied weekly from March 1998 to December 2000 in the 1-ha citrus honey mandarin (Citrus aurantium L. commercial orchard at Jemukan (1° 33'N, 110° 41'E, Kota Samarahan Division, Southwest Sarawak, in Malaysia. Results: Field studies on citrus trees showed that the D. citri population fluctuates throughout the year on citrus honey mandarin in Sarawak. Generations overlapped but adult and egg population peaks for a short period generally coincided with three annual flushing cycles, in August-September, February-March and June-July between March 1998 and December 2000. Conclusion: Psyllid population levels are positively related to the availability of new shoot flushes. Psyllid populations are adversely affected by weather conditions and parasitoids. Adult psyllid populations increased exponentially during periods of flush growth and migration and dispersal of the adults was also related to flushing cycles. Dispersal and colonization of new trees is greatest in September-October, at the onset of the rainy season.

  8. Multimodal cues drive host-plant assessment in Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Joseph M; Meikle, William G; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Sétamou, Mamoudou; Mangan, Robert; Yang, Chenghai; Malik, Nasir; Adamczyk, John J

    2011-12-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits the causal agent of Huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus trees. In this study we measured behavioral responses of D. citri to combinations of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli in test arenas. Stimuli were presented to the psyllids in droplets or lines of an emulsified wax formulation in two different arena types in no-choice tests. First, when placed on a colored ring situated halfway between the center and perimeter of a petri dish, D. citri spent more time on yellow versus gray rings; however, this response disappeared when either gray or yellow wax droplets were applied. When the psyllids were presented with droplets scented with terpenes, the response to both scent and color was increased. The addition of a dilute (≍0.1 M) sucrose solution to the wax droplets increased the magnitude of D. citri responses. Next, groups of D. citri were placed on plastic laboratory film covering a sucrose solution, to mimic a leaf surface. Test stimuli were presented via two 'midribs' made from lines of emulsified wax formulation. Probing levels were measured as a function of color saturation and scent composition, and concentration. The test scents were based on qualitatively major volatiles emitted by Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. The highest probing response was observed on the middle concentration (20-μl scent/10 ml wax formulation) of the C. aurantifolia-scented wax lines. Results indicate that there are interactive effects between the different sensory modalities in directing host-plant assessment behavior.

  9. Zebra chip disease incidence on potato is influenced by timing of potato psyllid infestation,but not by the host plants on which they were reared

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; John Jifon; Xiangbing Yang; Tong-Xian Liu

    2009-01-01

    The Zebra chip (ZC) syndrome is an emerging disease of potato and a major threat to the potato industry.The potato psyllid,Bactericerca cockerelli (Sulc) is believed to be a vector of the ZC pathogen,which is now thought to be Candidatus Liberibacter,a bacterium.To further understand the relationship between potato psyllid infestation and ZC disease expression,healthy potato plants at different growth stages (4,6 and 10 weeks after germination) were exposed separately to potato psyllids that were separately reared on four solanaceons hosts plants (potato,tomato,eggplant or bell pepper) for more than 1 year.ZC symptoms,leaf rates and total nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation in leaves and tubers of healthy and psyllid-infested plants were monitored and recorded.Typical ZC symptoms were observed in leaves and tubers of all plants exposed to potato psyllids regardless of the host plant on which they were reared.This was also accompanied by significant reductions in net photosynthetic rate.Caged potato plants without exposure to potato psyllids (uninfested controls) did not show any ZC symptom in both foliage and in harvested tubers.Foliage damage and ZC expression were most severe in the potato plants that were exposed to potato psyllids 4 weeks after germination compared to plants infested at later growth stages.Tubers from potato psyllid-infested plants had significantly higher levels of reducing sugars (glucose) and lower levels of starch than those in healthy plants,indicating that potato psyllid infestation interfered with carbohydrate metabolism in either leaves or tubers,resulting in ZC expression.

  10. Presencia de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae en el Noroeste Argentino (NOA Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in North West Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Augier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is expanded to North West Argentina.

  11. Degradation products of citrus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) acting as phagostimulants that increase probing behavior of Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile phytochemicals play a role in orientation by phytophagous insects. We studied antennal and behavioral responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vector of the citrus greening disease pathogen. Little or no response to citrus leaf volatiles was detected by electroanten...

  12. Localized autoinoculation and dissemination of Isaria fumosorosea for control of the Asian citrus psyllid in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the causal organism of citrus greening disease. Integrated strategies are needed to control D. citri in south Texas. Control approaches involving entomopathogenic fungi may be useful on ornamental and abandoned citrus and other rutaceous...

  13. Toxicity of insecticidal soaps to the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and two of its natural enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticidal soaps (hereafter “soaps”) are labeled for use by homeowners and also can be used in citrus grown for the organic market. Soaps control some insect pests and therefore might be an alternative to conventional pesticides for control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (...

  14. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is present in orange jasmine and Asian citrus psyllid reared from jasmine at low titers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a common horticultural plant in Florida, and an alternate host of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Orange jasmine has also been reported to harbor the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease. We ...

  15. Molecular characterization of Wolbachia strains associated with the invasive Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolin, A S; Cônsoli, F L

    2013-02-01

    Wolbachia is a symbiont intensively studied due to its ability to interfere with their host's reproduction, and it has been recently proposed as an alternative tool to control insect pests or vectors of diseases. The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri is an important pest of citrus since it vectors the bacterium that causes the "Huanglongbing" disease in citrus. The frequency and diversity of Wolbachia associated with D. citri is unknown, limiting the utilization of Wolbachia as an alternative strategy for insect management. Thus, we aimed to determine the natural rate of infection, to characterize the Wolbachia strains associated with this psyllid by "multilocus sequencing typing" (MLST) and wsp analysis, and to verify the association of the symbiont to particular genotypes of the host. Analysis indicated Wolbachia infects 100 % of all specimens tested from all 15 sampled populations. MLST revealed the occurrence of five new sequence types (STs) of Wolbachia, while analysis based on the wsp sequences indicated only four different types of Wolbachia. ST-173 was predominant, while the remaining STs were population specific. Analysis of the host-symbiont relationship did not reveal any particular association of Wolbachia and haplotypes or a decrease in nucleotide diversity of D. citri in populations in which more than one ST was recorded. The consequences of the diversity of STs reported are still unknown, but the fact that Wolbachia infection is fixed and that there is one ST with a broad distribution highlights the use of this symbiont as an alternative strategy to control D. citri.

  16. Resistance Management for Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Dong Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayma, is one of the most important pests in citrus production. The objective of this study was to evaluate D. citri resistance management with three insecticide rotations and compare them with no rotation and an untreated check. The different insecticides (modes of action tested were: dimethoate, imidacloprid, diflubenzuron, abamectin 3% + thiamethoxam 13.9%, and fenpropathrin. Eggs, nymph, and adult psyllids were counted weekly. Five insecticide applications were made in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility was determined by direct comparison with a laboratory susceptible population and field populations before and after all treatments were applied. Rankings of eggs, nymphs, and adults counted in treated plots were significantly lower than in the untreated control plots after each application. Initially, the resistance ratio (RR50 for each rotation model, as compared with laboratory susceptible strain and the field population before application, was less than 5.76 and 4.31, respectively. However, after five applications with dimethoate, the RR50 using the laboratory and pre-treatment field populations was 42.34 and 34.74, respectively. Our results indicate that effectively rotating modes of action can delay and/or prevent development of insecticide resistance in populations of D. citri.

  17. Differential responses to feeding by the tomato/potato psyllid between two tomato cultivars and their implications in establishment of injury levels and potential of damaged plant recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DEGUANG LIU; LINDSEY JOHNSON; JOHN T. TRUMBLE

    2006-01-01

    An invasive new biotype of the tomato/potato psyllid (Bactericera [Paratrioza] cockerelli [Sulc.]) (Homoptera: Psyllidae) recently has caused losses exceeding 50% on fresh market tomatoes in western North America. Despite these extensive losses, little is known regarding the threshold levels at which populations must be suppressed in order to prevent economic losses. A series of experiments were therefore designed using combinations of two common tomato cultivars (QualiT 21 and Yellow Pear), five pest-densities (0, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nymphs/plant), and three feeding-duration (5 days, 10 days, and lifetime) treatments to test the relative importance of pest density, feeding period, and cumulative psyllid-days to establish economic threshold levels for psyllids. The cultivars differed considerably in their response to the toxin injected by the psyllid nymphs. 'Yellow Pear' plants could recover from feeding by up to 40 nymphs for as long as 10 d, whereas 'QualiT 21' plants were irreparably damaged by densities of 20 nymphs feeding for only 5 days. On 'Yellow Pear', all plant measurements such as the number of yellow leaves and plant height were significantly better correlated with cumulative psyllid-days than with either pest density or feeding duration. On 'QualiT 21', all plant measurements other than the number of yellow leaflets and leaves were significantly better correlated with pest density than with feeding duration or cumulative psyllid-days, and pest density was a better predictor of psyllid damage. Potential reasons for the variable responses between cultivars and the implications for psyllid sampling and integrated pest management are discussed.

  18. Oral delivery of double-stranded RNAs and siRNAs induces RNAi effects in the potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericerca cockerelli.

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    Hada Wuriyanghan

    Full Text Available The potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericerca cockerelli (B. cockerelli, and the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (D. citri, are very important plant pests, but they are also vectors of phloem-limited bacteria that are associated with two devastating plant diseases. B. cockerelli is the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (solanacearum, which is associated with zebra chip disease of potatoes, and D. citri is the vector of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, which is associated with the Huanglongbing (citrus greening disease that currently threatens the entire Florida citrus industry. Here we used EST sequence information from D. citri to identify potential targets for RNA interference in B. cockerelli. We targeted ubiquitously expressed and gut-abundant mRNAs via injection and oral acquisition of double-stranded RNAs and siRNAs and were able to induce mortality in recipient psyllids. We also showed knockdown of target mRNAs, and that oral acquisition resulted primarily in mRNA knockdown in the psyllid gut. Concurrent with gene knockdown was the accumulation of target specific ∼ 21 nucleotide siRNAs for an abundant mRNA for BC-Actin. These results showed that RNAi can be a powerful tool for gene function studies in psyllids, and give support for continued efforts for investigating RNAi approaches as possible tools for psyllid and plant disease control.

  19. Daily and seasonal patterns in abdomen color in Diaphoria citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, a psyllid vector of huanglongbing (citrus greening disease), exhibits three more or less distinct abdomen colors in the adult psyllid: gray/brown, blue/green, and orange/yellow. We explored the daily (in individuals in the laboratory) and seasonal (in a field population) p...

  20. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

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    Zhongzhen Wu

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 46 odorant receptors (ORs, 20 gustatory receptors (GRs, 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs, 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs: 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs, 12 esterase (ESTs, and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9, 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12, 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35, and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57 were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this

  1. Evaluation of six different groups of insecticides for the control of citrus psylla Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmin Gul

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the efficacy of different insecticides against citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae were carried out at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Six insecticides viz. Actara 25 WG, (thiamethoxam Cascade 10 DC (Flufenoxuron, Match 050 EC (lufenuron, Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan, Karate 2.5 EC (α-cyhalothrin, and Supracide 40 EC (methidathion, were tested for their effectiveness against D. citri. After first spray overall mean population of D. citri was 3.63, 4.75, 5.59, 6.66, 7.47, 8.11 per six inches tender shoot on Actara 25 WG, Cascade 10 DC, Match 050 EC, Thiodan 35 EC, Karate 2.5 EC and Supracide 40 EC treated plants respectively, while on control plants the population was 12.39. Similarly, after the second spray of each of the same insecticides the population of D. citri was 2.65, 4.23, 5.61, 6.41, 7.35 and 8.73 respectively. Where in controls there were 15.18 psyllids. Percent decrease of D. citri population in comparison to control after the first spray was highest in Actara 25 WG (72.20 followed by Cascade 10 DC (62.91, Match 050 EC (54.07, Thiodan 35 EC (47.61, Karate 2.5 EC (38.94 and Supracide 40 EC (35.74. After the second spray percent decrease over control recorded was highest in Actara 25 WG (83.54, followed by Cascade 10 DC (71.08, Match 050 EC (63.94, Thiodan 35 EC (60.79, Karate 2.5 EC (52.52 and Supracide 40 EC (45.62.

  2. Odor coding in a disease-transmitting herbivorous insect, the Asian citrus psyllid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; McInally, Shane; Forster, Lisa; Luck, Robert; Ray, Anandasankar

    2014-07-01

    Olfactory systems discriminate odorants very efficiently and herbivorous insects use them to find hosts in confounding and complex odor landscapes. The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, feeds on citrus flush and transmits Candidatus Liberibacter that causes citrus greening disease globally. Here, we perform a systematic analysis of odor detection in the ACP antenna using single-unit electrophysiology of rhinarial plate sensilla to a large panel of odorants from plants. We identify neurons that respond strongly to odorants found in the host citrus plants. Comparisons with the generalist yeast-feeding Drosophila melanogaster and specialist anthropophilic Anopheles gambiae reveal differences in odor-coding strategies for the citrus-seeking ACP. These findings provide a foundation for understanding host-odor coding in herbivorous insects.

  3. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), due to its potential to vector the pathogen causing citrus greening disease or huanglongbing, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide. While optimal plant cultivars for ACP oviposition and development have been determined, little is known of the influence of...

  4. Attraction of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) to colored light

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most devasting disease of citrus, huanglongbing (HLB), is spread by the insect vector the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP). Although ACP are known to respond to visual cues, previous studies have not documented the specific wavelengths of light attractive to ACP. The objectives of this study were to...

  5. A new synonymy in Alitocoris Sailer (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Discocephalinae

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    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new synonymy in Alitocoris Sailer (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Discocephalinae. Alitocoris manni Sailer is considered a junior synonym of Alitocoris brunneus Sailer after the comparison of the holotypes with specimens from Mexico, El Salvador and Honduras.

  6. Influence of Host Plant Species and Flush Growth Stage on the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama

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    Stephen L.C. Teck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In order to establish the important host range of D. citri, the performance of this psyllid on different rutacous host plants was assessed. Apparent regional differences in host preferences of D. citri as noted above and the need for empirical knowledge of its host preferences in Malaysia where it is lacking. Approach: Experiments on host plant preference between citrus, jasmine orange and curry leaf were conducted over a period of 14 days in the field cage in October 1998 at the agricultural research centre, Semonggok, 15 km from Kuching, Kuching Division, Sarawak in Malaysia. Results: A comparative life cycle study of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama on three different Rutaceous plant hosts namely citrus, jasmine orange and curry leaf plants was conducted inside the temperature controlled growth chamber maintain at 26 ± 1°C temperature, 75-80% relative humidity with artificial illumination intensity of 10,000 lux equipped with a photoperiod of 14:10 h light: dark regime to permit normal growth. Conclusion: The screenhouse studies confirmed that D. citri can colonise and breed on citrus, jasmine orange and curry leaf plant and that jasmine orange is the preferred host. It is also confirmed that females prefer to oviposit on immature flush 3-10 mm in length. In growth chamber experiments the life cycle of the psyllid was 18.5 days on jasmine orange, 19.0 days on citrus and 23.0 days on curry leaf.

  7. Influence of carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) feeding or exogenous limonene or methyl jasmonate treatment on composition of carrot (Daucus carota) leaf essential oil and headspace volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissinen, Anne; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kainulainen, Pirjo; Tiilikkala, Kari; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2005-11-02

    The effect of carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) feeding and limonene and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments on the essential oil composition and headspace volatiles of carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus), cvs. Parano and Splendid, leaves was studied. Carrot psyllid feeding significantly increased the concentrations of sabinene, beta-pinene, and limonene, whereas limonene treatment increased the concentration of (Z)-beta-ocimene in the leaves of both cultivars. The limonene treatment significantly increased the concentration of total phenolics in the leaves of both cultivars, and MeJA treatment increased phenolic concentration in the leaves of Parano. Exogenous limonene spray did not decrease the number of carrot psyllid eggs laid either 2 or 24 h after treatment. The results suggest that carrot psyllid feeding induces changes in the endogenous monoterpene pool in the carrot leaves. Limonene and MeJA treatments affect some induced defenses of the carrot, but the exogenous limonene spray is not an effective oviposition deterrent against carrot psyllid.

  8. [First record of Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on adults of the Paraguay tea psyllid, Gyropsylla spegazziniana Lizer & Trelles (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luis F A; Leite, Luis G; Oliveira, Daian G P de

    2009-01-01

    We report the first occurrence of Zoophthora radicans infecting adults of Gyropsylla spegazziniana Lizer & Trelles in a commercial Paraguay tea plantation (Ilex paraguariensis), in Cascavel, PR, Brazil. The fungus prevalence was high (90% of mortality), considered a natural epizooty.

  9. Use of micro-CT to elucidate details of the anatomy and feeding of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908 (Insecta: Hemiptera, Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease, is caused by plant-infecting bacteria. The most prominent pathogen within the Americas: United States of America, Mexico, and Brazil, is Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which affects plants of the Family: Rutaceae, in particularly citrus...

  10. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

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    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  11. Odorants for surveillance and control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri.

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    Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, can transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter while feeding on citrus flush shoots. This bacterium causes Huanglongbing (HLB, a major disease of citrus cultivation worldwide necessitating the development of new tools for ACP surveillance and control. The olfactory system of ACP is sensitive to variety of odorants released by citrus plants and offers an opportunity to develop new attractants and repellents. RESULTS: In this study, we performed single-unit electrophysiology to identify odorants that are strong activators, inhibitors, and prolonged activators of ACP odorant receptor neurons (ORNs. We identified a suite of odorants that activated the ORNs with high specificity and sensitivity, which may be useful in eliciting behavior such as attraction. In separate experiments, we also identified odorants that evoked prolonged ORN responses and antagonistic odorants able to suppress neuronal responses to activators, both of which can be useful in lowering attraction to hosts. In field trials, we tested the electrophysiologically identified activating odorants and identified a 3-odor blend that enhances trap catches by ∼230%. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a set of odorants that can be used to develop affordable and safe odor-based surveillance and masking strategies for this dangerous pest insect.

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the Southern California Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayles, Brett R; Thomas, Shyam M; Simmons, Gregory S; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Daugherty, Mathew P

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions are governed by spatial processes that tend to be distributed in non-random ways across landscapes. Characterizing the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the introduction, establishment, and spread of non-native insect species is a key aspect of effectively managing their geographic expansion. The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), a vector of the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB), poses a serious threat to commercial and residential citrus trees. In 2008, D. citri first began expanding northward from Mexico into parts of Southern California. Using georeferenced D. citri occurrence data from 2008-2014, we sought to better understand the extent of the geographic expansion of this invasive vector species. Our objectives were to: 1) describe the spatial and temporal distribution of D. citri in Southern California, 2) identify the locations of statistically significant D. citri hotspots, and 3) quantify the dynamics of anisotropic spread. We found clear evidence that the spatial and temporal distribution of D. citri in Southern California is non-random. Further, we identified the existence of statistically significant hotspots of D. citri occurrence and described the anisotropic dispersion across the Southern California landscape. For example, the dominant hotspot surrounding Los Angeles showed rapid and strongly asymmetric spread to the south and east. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative invasive insect risk assessment with the application of a spatial epidemiology framework.

  13. Seasonal variation of natural mortality factors of the guava psyllid Triozoida limbata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeão, A A; Martins, J C; Picanço, M C; Chediak, M; da Silva, E M; Silva, G A

    2012-12-01

    It is important to understand how components of the agroecosystem interfere with the attack of a pest species and their seasonality in order to use these components in IPM programs. This study focused on the evaluation of the seasonality of natural control factors associated with the guava psyllid Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) in Brazil. Life-table data were collected from an experimental guava orchard during four periods that roughly represented four seasons. Natural mortality was monitored daily through the immature stages, and the relative importance of each natural mortality factor and its seasonality was determined. Significant statistical differences were observed in the mortality during the four periods (P analysis (PCA) showed some trends in the relationship of natural control agents and weather conditions. For example, the occurrence of predatory wasps was positively correlated with temperature and occurrence of winds; the occurrence of syrphids and Psyllaephagus sp. were negatively correlated with temperature and winds; and the occurrence of other generalist predators were negatively correlated with the occurrence of rainfall and photoperiod. The results showed the importance of natural mortality factors for the management of T. limbata and their changes through the different seasons which should be considered when implementing IPM programs in guava orchards.

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the Southern California Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shyam M.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E.; Daugherty, Mathew P.

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions are governed by spatial processes that tend to be distributed in non-random ways across landscapes. Characterizing the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the introduction, establishment, and spread of non-native insect species is a key aspect of effectively managing their geographic expansion. The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), a vector of the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB), poses a serious threat to commercial and residential citrus trees. In 2008, D. citri first began expanding northward from Mexico into parts of Southern California. Using georeferenced D. citri occurrence data from 2008–2014, we sought to better understand the extent of the geographic expansion of this invasive vector species. Our objectives were to: 1) describe the spatial and temporal distribution of D. citri in Southern California, 2) identify the locations of statistically significant D. citri hotspots, and 3) quantify the dynamics of anisotropic spread. We found clear evidence that the spatial and temporal distribution of D. citri in Southern California is non-random. Further, we identified the existence of statistically significant hotspots of D. citri occurrence and described the anisotropic dispersion across the Southern California landscape. For example, the dominant hotspot surrounding Los Angeles showed rapid and strongly asymmetric spread to the south and east. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative invasive insect risk assessment with the application of a spatial epidemiology framework. PMID:28278188

  15. Economic injury level of the psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae, on Pistachio, Pistacia vera cv. Ohadi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza Hassani, Mohammad; Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Izadi, Hamzeh; Shojai, Mahmoud; Basirat, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    The pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a major pest of pistachio trees, Pistacia vera L. (Sapindalis: Anacardiaceae) throughout pistachio-producing regions in Iran. Different density levels of A. pistaciae nymphs were maintained on pistachio trees by different insecticide dosages to evaluate the relationship between nymph density and yield loss (weight of 1000 nuts). Psylla nymph densities were monitored weekly by counting nymphs on pistachio terminal leaflets. There was a significant reduction in weight of 1000 nuts as seasonal averages of nymphs increased. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between nymph density and weight of 1000 nuts. The economic injury levels varied as a function of market values, management costs, insecticide efficiency and yield loss rate and ranged from 7.7 to 30.7 nymphal days per terminal leaflet, based on weight of 1000 nuts.

  16. First records of Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) and Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, Aphalaridae) in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Malumphy, Chris; Perović, Tatjana; Hrnčić, Snježana; RADONJIĆ, SANJA; RAIČEVIĆ, MILORAD

    2013-01-01

    Albizia psyllid, Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama), and red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, were found in Montenegro for the first time during 2009 and 2012 respectively. Acizzia jamatonica is native to East Asia, and has spread rapidly in Europe since it was first reported from Italy in 2002. It was first collected from Albizzia julibrissin in Podgorica, September 2009, and subsequently from Albizzia sp. and A. julibrissin in Herceg Novi, October 2010, and June and October 2012,...

  17. Effect of silicon application to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the population of Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz; Joelma Melissa Malherbe Camargo; Renato Antonio Dedecek; Edilson Batista de Oliveira; Keti Maria Rocha Zanol; Raul Cesar Nogueira Melido; Daniel Burckhardt

    2016-01-01

    The use of silicon in forestry has increased recently as it is directly related to improved resistance to insect pests. The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, occurs in all eucalypt producing regions in Brazil. Two field experiments were conducted to study the effect of silicon applied to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the psyllid population. In the first experiment, the applications were made via soil (calcium silicate) and leaves (potassium silicate) in a nine months old E. camaldu...

  18. Characterization of a Recombinant Cathepsin B-Like Cysteine Peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A Putative Target for Control of Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Taíse Fernanda da Silva; Schneider, Vanessa Karine; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Carmona, Adriana Karaoglanovic; Alves, Marcio Fernando Madureira; Belasque-Júnior, Jose; Rosa, José César; Hunter, Wayne Brian; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; Soares-Costa, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Huanglonbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and the psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of disease, that transmits the bacterium associated with HLB. The control of disease can be achieved by suppressing either the bacterium or the vector. Among the control strategies for HLB disease, one of the widely used consists in controlling the enzymes of the disease vector, Diaphorina citri. The insect Diaphorina citri belongs to the order Hemiptera, which frequently have cysteine peptidases in the gut. The importance of this class of enzymes led us to search for enzymes in the D. citri transcriptome for the establishment of alternatives strategies for HLB control. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a cathepsin B-like cysteine peptidase from D. citri (DCcathB). DCcathB was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris, presenting a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa. The enzyme hydrolyzed the fluorogenic substrate Z-F-R-AMC (Km = 23.5 μM) and the selective substrate for cathepsin B, Z-R-R-AMC (Km = 6.13 μM). The recombinant enzyme was inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitors E64 (IC50 = 0.014 μM) and CaneCPI-4 (Ki = 0.05 nM) and by the selective cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 (IC50 = 0.095 nM). RT-qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of the DCcathB in nymph and adult was approximately 9-fold greater than in egg. Moreover, the expression of this enzyme in the gut was 175-fold and 3333-fold higher than in the remaining tissues and in the head, respectively, suggesting that DCcathB can be a target for HLB control.

  19. Characterization of a Recombinant Cathepsin B-Like Cysteine Peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae: A Putative Target for Control of Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taíse Fernanda da Silva Ferrara

    Full Text Available Huanglonbing (HLB is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas and the psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of disease, that transmits the bacterium associated with HLB. The control of disease can be achieved by suppressing either the bacterium or the vector. Among the control strategies for HLB disease, one of the widely used consists in controlling the enzymes of the disease vector, Diaphorina citri. The insect Diaphorina citri belongs to the order Hemiptera, which frequently have cysteine peptidases in the gut. The importance of this class of enzymes led us to search for enzymes in the D. citri transcriptome for the establishment of alternatives strategies for HLB control. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a cathepsin B-like cysteine peptidase from D. citri (DCcathB. DCcathB was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris, presenting a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa. The enzyme hydrolyzed the fluorogenic substrate Z-F-R-AMC (Km = 23.5 μM and the selective substrate for cathepsin B, Z-R-R-AMC (Km = 6.13 μM. The recombinant enzyme was inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitors E64 (IC50 = 0.014 μM and CaneCPI-4 (Ki = 0.05 nM and by the selective cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 (IC50 = 0.095 nM. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of the DCcathB in nymph and adult was approximately 9-fold greater than in egg. Moreover, the expression of this enzyme in the gut was 175-fold and 3333-fold higher than in the remaining tissues and in the head, respectively, suggesting that DCcathB can be a target for HLB control.

  20. Sclerenchymatous ring as a barrier to phloem feeding by Asian citrus psyllid: Evidence from electrical penetration graph and visualization of stylet pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) feeding behaviors play a significant role in the transmission of the phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) bacteria that cause citrus greening disease. Sustained phloem ingestion by ACP on CLas infected plants is very important in pathogen acquisition and...

  1. First Report of "Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous" (synonym "Ca. L. solanacearum") Associated with 'Tomato Vein-Greening' and 'Tomato psyllid yellows' Diseases in Commercial Greenhouses in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2006-2007, tomato plants in two independent, commercial greenhouses in Arizona were infested with potato psyllid Paratrioza cockerelli. Over 60% and ~20% of plants in GH-1 and GH-2, respectively, exhibited leaf curling, stunting, and shortened internodes, and GH-1 plants also showed vein-gree...

  2. Comparison of Potato and Asian Citrus Psyllid Adult and Nymph Transcriptomes Identified Vector Transcripts with Potential Involvement in Circulative, Propagative Liberibacter Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonja W. Fisher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potato psyllid (PoP Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc and Asian citrus psyllid (ACP Diaphorina citri Kuwayama are the insect vectors of the fastidious plant pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso and Ca. L. asiaticus (CLas, respectively. CLso causes Zebra chip disease of potato and vein-greening in solanaceous species, whereas, CLas causes citrus greening disease. The reliance on insecticides for vector management to reduce pathogen transmission has increased interest in alternative approaches, including RNA interference to abate expression of genes essential for psyllid-mediated Ca. Liberibacter transmission. To identify genes with significantly altered expression at different life stages and conditions of CLso/CLas infection, cDNA libraries were constructed for CLso-infected and -uninfected PoP adults and nymphal instars. Illumina sequencing produced 199,081,451 reads that were assembled into 82,224 unique transcripts. PoP and the analogous transcripts from ACP adult and nymphs reported elsewhere were annotated, organized into functional gene groups using the Gene Ontology classification system, and analyzed for differential in silico expression. Expression profiles revealed vector life stage differences and differential gene expression associated with Liberibacter infection of the psyllid host, including invasion, immune system modulation, nutrition, and development.

  3. Correlation of electronic monitoring and stylet pathways elucidate the role of sclerenchymatous ring as a barrier to phloem feeding on citrus leaves by Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina. citri) feeding behaviors play a significant role in the transmission of the phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) bacterium that causes the economically devastating citrus greening disease. Recent studies have shown a fibrous ring of thick-wal...

  4. Titers of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' in Murraya paniculata and Murraya-reared Diaphorina citri are much lower than in citrus and citrus-reared psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, is associated with the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in North America. Murraya paniculata is a common ornamental plant that is an alternate host of Ca. L. asiaticus an...

  5. Bionomics of Asian citrus psyllid associated with orange jasmine hedges in Florida, with special reference to biological control by Tamarixia radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important invasive citrus pest because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. Orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is a favored alternate ACP host plant and is widely grown as an ornamental plant in urban ar...

  6. Cloning and expressing a highly functional and substrate specific farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase from the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, transmits a phloem-limited bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus greening disease. Because juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in adult and nymphal development, we studied the final steps in juvenile hormone biosynthesis...

  7. Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid and of huanglongbing disease in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-06-01

    By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Silencing abnormal wing disc gene of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri disrupts adult wing development and increases nymph mortality.

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    Ibrahim El-Shesheny

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP, the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas, the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5(th of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application of dsRNA to 5(th instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP.

  9. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Nonghui; Zhang, Yongyan; Hu, Minlun; Zhong, Guangyan

    2016-07-02

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata) mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi) and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi) using digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria.

  10. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection

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    Yun Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi using digital gene expression (DGE profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria.

  11. Transmission Rates of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Asian Citrus Psyllid Are Enhanced by the Presence and Developmental Stage of Citrus Flush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David G; Albrecht, Ute; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-04-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) putatively responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) (citrus greening disease). The psyllid and disease have invaded many citrus-growing regions including the United States, where the disease is seriously jeopardizing the Florida citrus industry. We recently concluded research that showed CLas transmission rates are increased when citrus flush is present. Flush is any new leaf growth ranging in development from first emergence up until the leaves are fully expanded yet still tender. In an experiment with seedlings of a rootstock cultivar ‘US-942’, a 1-wk infestation of 20 Asian citrus psyllids from an infected colony resulted in 53–60% of seedlings becoming infected when flush was present compared with only 7% when no flush was present. In a second experiment with ‘US-942’, 77–97% of seedlings became infected when flush was present compared with 40% when no flush was present. A similar experiment with ‘Valencia’ sweet orange resulted in 23, 80, and 3% seedlings becoming infected when young, older, or no flush was present, respectively. Young plants are therefore more likely to contract HLB if flush is present, with older flush promoting higher infection rates under the conditions of this study. Based on this finding, healthy citrus should be protected from Asian citrus psyllid infestations throughout a flush. To evaluate germplasm for CLas resistance, inoculations using infected Asian citrus psyllid would best be achieved if flush is present.

  12. Nested-quantitative PCR approach with improved sensitivity for the detection of low titer levels of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, M R; Hoffmann, M; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Kuhns, E H; Pelz-Stelinski, K S; Stelinski, L L

    2014-07-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is a phloem-limited bacterium transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, and the presumptive causal agent of citrus greening disease. The current method of detection for CLas within plant and insect samples is by a presence/absence qPCR assay using the CLas 16S rDNA gene target. Although qPCR is highly sensitive, low bacterial titers or suboptimal qPCR conditions can result in false-negatives. Using a nested qPCR assay, we determined the false-negative rate of the 16S presence/absence qPCR assay was greater than 50%. Studies to determine the performance parameters of the qPCR assays for CLas 16S and Wingless (Wg), the D. citri endogenous gene, using plasmid and psyllid DNA, revealed suboptimal and variable performance of the 16S assay in psyllid samples. Average efficiencies and sensitivity limits of the plasmid assays were 99.0% and 2.7 copies of template for Wg, respectively, and 98.5% and 2.2-22.1 copies for 16S, respectively. Variability in efficiency was significantly greater in psyllid samples for both gene targets compared to the corresponding plasmid assays, and efficiencies as low as 76% were obtained for 16S. A secondary structure analysis revealed the formation of two stem-loop structures that block the forward and probe binding sites in the 16S template, which could hinder amplification. In summary, our results suggest that suboptimal qPCR efficiency is not uncommon for the 16S presence/absence qPCR assay, which combined with lowCLas titers in some samples, could contribute significantly to the under-reporting of CLas infection in psyllid and plant samples.

  13. Molecular and physiological properties associated with zebra complex disease in potatoes and its relation with Candidatus Liberibacter contents in psyllid vectors.

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    Veria Y Alvarado

    Full Text Available Zebra complex (ZC disease on potatoes is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLs, an α-proteobacterium that resides in the plant phloem and is transmitted by the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc. The name ZC originates from the brown striping in fried chips of infected tubers, but the whole plants also exhibit a variety of morphological features and symptoms for which the physiological or molecular basis are not understood. We determined that compared to healthy plants, stems of ZC-plants accumulate starch and more than three-fold total protein, including gene expression regulatory factors (e.g. cyclophilin and tuber storage proteins (e.g., patatins, indicating that ZC-affected stems are reprogrammed to exhibit tuber-like physiological properties. Furthermore, the total phenolic content in ZC potato stems was elevated two-fold, and amounts of polyphenol oxidase enzyme were also high, both serving to explain the ZC-hallmark rapid brown discoloration of air-exposed damaged tissue. Newly developed quantitative and/or conventional PCR demonstrated that the percentage of psyllids in laboratory colonies containing detectable levels of CLs and its titer could fluctuate over time with effects on colony prolificacy, but presumed reproduction-associated primary endosymbiont levels remained stable. Potato plants exposed in the laboratory to psyllid populations with relatively low-CLs content survived while exposure of plants to high-CLs psyllids rapidly culminated in a lethal collapse. In conclusion, we identified plant physiological biomarkers associated with the presence of ZC and/or CLs in the vegetative potato plant tissue and determined that the titer of CLs in the psyllid population directly affects the rate of disease development in plants.

  14. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  15. Vibrational communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the substrate-borne vibrational signals used in communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (an economically devastating disease of citrus), in an anechoic chamber and an olfactometer. Males and females both primarily pro...

  16. Release and establishment of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was recently developed as a classical biological control agent for waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, and released in Florida. Releases were conducted at 10 sites around the state every 4-6 weeks until late fall then halted until t...

  17. Developing resistance for watermelon against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive (over 1,000) number of plant species. Watermelon (Cit...

  18. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  19. Influence of field attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) on sensory quality, antioxidant capacity and content of terpenes, falcarindiol and 6-methoxymellein of carrots (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljåsen, Randi; Vogt, Gjermund; Olsen, Elisabeth; Lea, Per; Høgetveit, Lars Arne; Tajet, Torgeir; Meadow, Richard; Bengtsson, Gunnar B

    2013-03-20

    The effect of different degrees of attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) on quality parameters of carrots was studied in field experiments for two years. Treatments were different degrees of physical insect protection by floating row cover. An increasing attack level of psyllids showed an enhancement effect on the antioxidant capacity (ORAC), content of falcarindiol, 6-methoxymellein, and terpenes, and scores for bitter taste, chemical flavor, terpene flavor, and toughness. Carrot psyllid attack decreased the yield, total sugar, fructose, glucose, and sensory attributes sweet taste, color hue, color strength, crispiness, and juiciness. Carrot plants at 8-10 weeks of age tolerated attack by psyllids at low levels (2% leaves with curling or discoloration).

  20. DNA barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera.

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    Robert G Foottit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage.

  1. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe like setae on a species of Phylloxera (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, ...

  2. Effect of silicon application to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the population of Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae

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    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of silicon in forestry has increased recently as it is directly related to improved resistance to insect pests. The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, occurs in all eucalypt producing regions in Brazil. Two field experiments were conducted to study the effect of silicon applied to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the psyllid population. In the first experiment, the applications were made via soil (calcium silicate and leaves (potassium silicate in a nine months old E. camaldulensis plantation. In the second experiment, we evaluated silicon on seedlings, incorporating it into the substrate (soil or applying it on leaves (foliar. Monthly, for 24 months, the number of psyllid eggs and immatures were counted on leaf samples. The plant height was measured at 9, 12, 16 and 24 months (experiment 1 and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months (experiment 2 after application. The numbers of eggs and immatures were lower in periods of higher precipitation, indicating less psyllid attack during the rainy season. The psyllid population was lower in treatments with application of silicon both foliar and via soil compared to control. No significant differences were found in the height of E. camaldulensis plants.

  3. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

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    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Diaphorina citri-associated C virus, a Novel Putative RNA Virus of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Shahideh; Salem, Nidà; Falk, Bryce W

    2016-07-21

    We present here the complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a novel putative RNA virus identified in field populations of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, through sequencing of the transcriptome followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). We tentatively named this virus Diaphorina citri-associated C virus (DcACV). DcACV is an unclassified positive-sense RNA virus.

  5. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P; Miller, Gary L; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid.

  6. An overview on the ecology of Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Cleber; Justi, Silvia A

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, the American trypanosomiasis, is an important neglected tropical illness caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) and transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Here we provide an overview on the current knowledge about Triatominae ecology, its association with human, T. cruzi infection and the immediate consequences of habitat fragmentation. We also discuss the geographic distribution of the species and the importance of predicting their distributions to control programs.

  7. The Use of GIS Methodology in Jumping Plant Lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidae Studies in Serbia

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    Dušanka Jerinić-Prodanović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomofaunistic studies contain a large number of data regarding the number ofcollected species, the number of individuals within species, time of collection, localities,species biology and morphology natural enemies and hosts. Besides thematic andtemporal components this kind of studies include spatial component which is crucialfor the use of GIS methodology and advanced possibilities of geospatial analysis. Duringour studies on jumping plant lice (Psylloidea fauna and their natural enemies on theterritory of Serbia which lasted for several years, a large number of spatially referenceddata related to this group of insects were collected. The process of collecting, archivingand classifying the data on each species was improved by applying the GIS methodologicalapproach after which the data were entered into database. The analysis of datausing thematic and spatial queries, as well as graphic, numeric and textual display of theresults from studies enabled simpler and more complete survey of horizontal and verticaldistribution of jumping plant lice, their biology and relationship with plants, predatorsand parasitoids.

  8. (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE SOBRE FRÍJOL

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    Luisa Fernanda SUAREZ GONZALEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La biología y ecología de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyroridae, se encuentra ampliamente documentada. Sin embargo, hasta el momento no hay reportes acerca de la tasa de consumo de alimento por este fitófago, un parámetro necesario para modelos de simulación. Por tal motivo, el objetivo de esta investigación fue la medición indirecta del consumo de alimento por el adulto e instares inmaduros de T. vaporariorum basado en metodologías encontradas en la literatura científica. La estimación de la tasa de consumo de alimento por adultos se realizó bajo condiciones de laboratorio, utilizando como unidad experimental una planta de fríjol de dos semanas de edad. El experimento consistió de dos tratamientos: (T1 plantas libres de cualquier fitófago y (T2 plantas sometidas a infestaciones con T. vaporariorum , cada tratamiento con 20 repeticiones y una réplica en el tiempo de todo el experimento. Se registró el peso fresco diariamente en ambos tratamientos. Para el caso de los inmaduros, la unidad experimental consistió en una hoja cotiledónea de fríjol, infestada con una población determinada de inmaduros de cada instar de mosca blanca teniendo así cinco tratamientos (Instar I, II, III, IV y Control cada uno con 17 repeticiones. Se registró diariamente el peso fresco de las hojas. Se obtuvo un consumo promedio de alimento por el adulto de 0,277 ± 0,0042 mg.dia -1 . Para los dos primeros instares ninfales se estimó una tasa de consumo de 0,052 mg.dia -1 , en el tercer instar de 0,14 mg.dia -1 , y para el cuarto instar de 0,19 mg.dia -1 . Un adulto de mosca blanca puede consumir en un día seis veces su peso y un inmaduro ocho veces, gracias a su rápido metabolismo y la constante excreción de mielecilla.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Xing, Lu; Zhi-Teng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yu; Yu-Zhou, Du

    2017-03-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The 16 170 bp long genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 20 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region. The A. dispersus mitogenome also includes a cytb-like non-coding region and shows several variations relative to the typical insect mitogenome. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using the 13 protein-coding genes of 12 related species from Hemiptera. Our results would contribute to further study of phylogeny in Aleyrodidae and Hemiptera.

  10. Material tipo de insectos en el Laboratorio de Sanidad Vegetal, SENASA, Lima, Perú

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    Pedro W. Lozada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la lista de material tipo de Insecta depositado en la colección del Laboratorio de Sanidad Vegetal, Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria (SENASA, Lima, Perú, comprendiendo 21 especies de Psylloidea (Hemiptera, 4 de Cicadellidae (Hemiptera, 4 de Curculionidae (Coleoptera y 2 de Tachinidae (Diptera, todas provenientes de localidades peruanas. Los tipos de Tachinidae descritos por Charles Townsend no han sido incluidos en esta relación.

  11. Population ecology and phenology of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in two Florida citrus groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted during 2005 and 2006 to assess population densities and phenology of the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama in citrus within east central Florida. Young, irrigated grapefruit and mature, non-irrigated orange trees were sampled weekly for eggs, nymphs and adults on flush shoots;...

  12. Effects of temperature, photoperiod, and rainfall on morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenotypic plasticity provides a mechanism by which an organism can adapt to new or changing environments. Earlier studies have demonstrated the variability of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Asian citrus psyllid) population dynamics, but no analysis of morphological changes induced by seasonal or artifi...

  13. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  14. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  15. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

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    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  16. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  17. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  18. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid;

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages, the relationsh...

  19. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  20. Metalized polyethylene mulch to repel Asian citrus psyllid, slow spread of huanglongbing and improve growth of new citrus plantings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxton, Scott D; Stansly, Philip A

    2014-02-01

    Greening or huanglongbing (HLB) is a debilitating disease of citrus caused by Candidatus Liberibactor asiaticus and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. HLB now occurs worldwide in all major citrus growing regions except the Mediterranean and Australia. Management relies principally on insecticidal control of the ACP vector, but is insufficient, even for young trees which are most susceptible to the disease. We tested the ability of metalized polyethylene mulch to repel adult ACP as well as effects on incidence of HLB and early tree growth. Metalized mulch significantly reduced ACP populations and HLB incidence compared to whiteface mulch or bare ground. In addition, metalized mulch, together with the associated drip irrigation and fertigation system, increased soil moisture, reduced weed pressure, and increased tree growth rate. Metalized mulch slows spread of ACP and therefore HLB pressure on young citrus trees. Metalized mulch can thereby augment current control measures for young trees based primarily on systemic insecticides. Additional costs could be compensated for by increased tree growth rate which would shorten time to crop profitability. These advantages make a compelling case for large-scale trials using metalized mulch in young citrus plantings threatened by HLB. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Insecticide resistance of adults and nymphs of Asian citrus psyllid populations from Apatzingán Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Saúl; Martínez, Ana M; Figueroa, José I; Chavarrieta, Juan M; Viñuela, Elisa; Rebollar-Alviter, Ángel; Miranda, Mario A; Valle, Javier; Pineda, Samuel

    2017-07-18

    Control of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the most important pest of citrus worldwide, is based on the use of insecticides, though unsatisfactory results have recently been reported. In this study, insecticide resistance of D. citri to three insecticides (bifenthrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos) was examined. Three populations (designated Dci-CParácuaro, Dci-El Junco, and Dci-Antúnez) of both adults and fourth-instar D. citri individuals were collected in 2014 at two different times and on one occasion, respectively, from three locations (Crucero de Parácuaro, El Junco, and Antúnez). These locations represent the major commercial Mexican lemon production areas in the Apatzingán Valley in the state of Michoacán, Mexico. The three populations of D. citri adults and fourth-instar nymphs at the different collection times showed low levels of resistance (≤7-fold) to bifenthrin, but were very resistant to malathion (≤345- and ≤432-fold for adults and fourth instars, respectively) and chlorpyrifos (≤2435- and ≤1424-fold for adults and fourth instars, respectively). Resistance levels to the tested insecticides were highly variable but homogeneous among seasons and localities. Resistance management programmes that include crop sanitation, use of biological and cultural control practices, and rotation of insecticide classes should be established, particularly in areas where D. citri has developed resistance to malathion and chlorpyrifos. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Oral delivery of double-stranded RNAs induces mortality in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdeano, Diogo Manzano; Breton, Michèle Claire; Lopes, João Roberto Spotti; Falk, Bryce W.

    2017-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most important citrus pests. ACP is the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter americanus and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agents of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). The management of HLB is based on the use of healthy young plants, eradication of infected plants and chemical control of the vector. RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a promising tool to control pests and explore gene functions. Recently, studies have reported that target mRNA knockdown in many insects can be induced through feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In the current study, we targeted the cathepsin D, chitin synthase and inhibitor of apoptosis genes of adult and nymph ACP by feeding artificial diets mixed with dsRNAs and Murraya paniculata leaves placed in dsRNAs solutions, respectively. Adult ACP mortality was positively correlated with the amount of dsRNA used. Both nymphs and adult ACP fed dsRNAs exhibited significantly increased mortality over time compared with that of the controls. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated RNAi effects on target mRNAs. These results showed that RNAi can be a powerful tool for gene function studies in ACP and perhaps for HLB control. PMID:28282380

  3. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Its Profftella Symbiont: An Achilles' Heel of the Citrus Greening Insect Vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Ramsey

    Full Text Available 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas, the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including 'Candidatus Profftella armatura', are likely to impact transmission of CLas. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of CLas(+ and CLas(- populations of D. citri, and found that proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis by the endosymbiont Profftella were up-regulated in CLas(+ insects. Mass spectrometry analysis of the Profftella polyketide diaphorin in D. citri metabolite extracts revealed the presence of a novel diaphorin-related polyketide and the ratio of these two polyketides was changed in CLas(+ insects. Insect proteins differentially expressed between CLas(+ and CLas(- D. citri included defense and immunity proteins, proteins involved in energy storage and utilization, and proteins involved in endocytosis, cellular adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling which are associated with microbial invasion of host cells. Insight into the metabolic interdependence between the insect vector, its endosymbionts, and the citrus greening pathogen reveals novel opportunities for control of this disease, which is currently having a devastating impact on citrus production worldwide.

  4. Horizontal gene acquisition of Liberibacter plant pathogens from a bacteriome-confined endosymbiont of their psyllid vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Nakabachi

    Full Text Available he Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri is a notorious agricultural pest that transmits the phloem-inhabiting alphaproteobacterial 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and allied plant pathogens, which cause the devastating citrus disease called Huanglongbing or greening disease. D. citri harbors two distinct bacterial mutualists in the symbiotic organ called bacteriome: the betaproteobacterium 'Candidatus Profftella armatura' in the syncytial cytoplasm at the center of the bacteriome, and the gammaproteobacterium 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii' in uninucleate bacteriocytes. Here we report that a putative amino acid transporter LysE of Profftella forms a highly supported clade with proteins of L. asiaticus, L. americanus, and L. solanacearum. L. crescens, the most basal Liberibacter lineage currently known, lacked the corresponding gene. The Profftella-Liberibacter subclade of LysE formed a clade with proteins from betaproteobacteria of the order Burkholderiales, to which Profftella belongs. This phylogenetic pattern favors the hypothesis that the Liberibacter lineage acquired the gene from the Profftella lineage via horizontal gene transfer (HGT after L. crescens diverged from other Liberibacter lineages. K A/K S analyses further supported the hypothesis that the genes encoded in the Liberibacter genomes are functional. These findings highlight the possible evolutionary importance of HGT between plant pathogens and their insect vector's symbionts that are confined in the symbiotic organ and seemingly sequestered from external microbial populations.

  5. New Midwestern state records of aquatic Hemiptera (Corixidae: Notonectidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Chapman, Eric G.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chriscinske, Margret A.; Stewart, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent aquatic Hemiptera collections have yielded 15 new state records distributed among four midwestern States. These records include two species of water boatmen (Palmacorixa gillettei and Sigara mathesoni) new for Indiana, four water boatmen species (Cenocorixa utahensis, Corisella inscripta, Hesperocorixa laevigata, S. decorata), including one genus (Cenocorixa) new for Michigan, four water boatmen species (Corisella edulis, Trichocorixa macroceps, S. decoratella, S. mathesoni) and one backswimmer species (Notonecta indica) new for Ohio, and four water boatmen species (H. kennicotti, H. semilucida, S. compressoidea, S. variabilis) new for Pennsylvania.

  6. Diaspididae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea in sori of two fern species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2015-12-01

    Duas Espécies de Cochonilhas (Hemiptera: Diaspididae Associadas com Soros de Samambaias Resumo. A presente comunicação relata a presença de duas espécies de cochonilhas Hemiberlesia palmae (Cockerell e Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley (Coccoidea, Diaspididae, associadas respectivamente com Asplenium serratum L. (Aspleniaceae e Niphidium crassifolium (L. Lellinger (Polypodiaceae. É o primeiro registro de uma samambaia como planta hospedeira de Hemiberlesia palmae.  Nas duas espécies de samambaias, os diaspidídeos encontravam-se concentrados principalmente ao redor dos soros.

  7. Sclerenchymatous ring as a barrier to phloem feeding by Asian citrus psyllid: Evidence from electrical penetration graph and visualization of stylet pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Justin; Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G; Lapointe, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) feeding behaviors play a significant role in the transmission of the phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) bacterium that causes the economically devastating citrus greening disease. Sustained phloem ingestion by D. citri on CLas infected plants is required for pathogen acquisition and transmission. Recent studies have shown a fibrous ring of thick-walled sclerenchyma around the phloem in mature, fully expanded citrus leaves that is more prominent on the abaxial compared with the adaxial side. The composition and thickness of this fibrous ring may have an important role in selection of feeding sites by D. citri based on leaf age and leaf surface, which in turn can affect pathogen acquisition and transmission. We measured feeding behavior using electrical penetration graph (EPG) recordings of individual D. citri adults placed on abaxial or adaxial surfaces of young or mature Valencia orange leaves to study the role of the sclerenchymatous ring in modifying D. citri feeding behavior. Feeding sites on the same leaf tissues were then sectioned and examined by epifluorescence microscopy. The duration of phloem ingestion (E2 waveform) by psyllids was significantly reduced on mature compared with young leaves, and on abaxial compared with adaxial leaf surfaces. The longest duration of phloem ingestion was observed from psyllids placed on the adaxial side of young leaves that had the least developed sclerenchyma. Bouts of phloem salivation (E1 waveform), however, were significantly longer on mature leaves compared with young leaves. D. citri adults made consecutive phloem feeding attempts (bouts) on the abaxial side of mature leaves and those bouts resulted in unsuccessful or shorter periods of phloem ingestion. Adults also made more frequent and longer bouts of xylem ingestion on mature leaves compared with adult psyllids placed on young leaves. Epifluorescence microscopy showed that the fibrous ring in young

  8. Evaluation of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides for the management of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri on containerized citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Frank J; Daugherty, Matthew P; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Bethke, James A; Morse, Joseph G

    2017-03-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate uptake and retention of three systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, dinotefuran, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, in potted citrus nursery plants treated at standard label rates. Infestation of these plants placed at a field site with moderate levels of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) was monitored for 14 weeks following treatments, and insecticide residues in leaf tissue were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bioassays were conducted using leaves harvested on various dates post-treatment to compare the efficacies of residues against adult ACP. Residues of the three neonicotinoids were detected in leaf tissues within 1 week after treatment. Peak concentrations established at 1 week for imidacloprid and dinotefuran and at 2 weeks for thiamethoxam. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam outperformed the control and dinotefuran treatments at protecting trees from infestations by ACP eggs and nymphs. For a given insecticide concentration in leaf tissue, thiamethoxam induced the highest mortality of the three insecticides, and dinotefuran was the least toxic. If the time needed to achieve effective thresholds of a systemic neonicotinoid is known, treatments at production facilities could be scheduled that would minimize unnecessary post-treatment holding periods and ensure maximum retention of effective concentrations after the plants have shipped to retail outlets. The rapid uptake of the insecticides and retention at effective concentrations in containerized citrus suggest that the current 30 day post-treatment shipping restriction from production facilities to retail outlets outside of quarantine could be shortened to 14 days. Thiamethoxam should be added to the list of approved nursery treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. RNA Interference towards the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, Is Induced in Plants Infected with Recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hada Wuriyanghan

    Full Text Available The potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (B. cockerelli, is an important plant pest and the vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (solanacearum, which is associated with the zebra chip disease of potatoes. Previously, we reported induction of RNA interference effects in B. cockerelli via in vitro-prepared dsRNA/siRNAs after intrathoracic injection, and after feeding of artificial diets containing these effector RNAs. In order to deliver RNAi effectors via plant hosts and to rapidly identify effective target sequences in plant-feeding B. cockerelli, here we developed a plant virus vector-based in planta system for evaluating candidate sequences. We show that recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV containing B. cockerelli sequences can efficiently infect and generate small interfering RNAs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum plants, and more importantly delivery of interfering sequences via TMV induces RNAi effects, as measured by actin and V-ATPase mRNA reductions, in B. cockerelli feeding on these plants. RNAi effects were primarily detected in the B. cockerelli guts. In contrast to our results with TMV, recombinant Potato virus X (PVX and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV did not give robust infections in all plants and did not induce detectable RNAi effects in B. cockerelli. The greatest RNA interference effects were observed when B. cockerelli nymphs were allowed to feed on leaf discs collected from inoculated or lower expanded leaves from corresponding TMV-infected plants. Tomatillo plants infected with recombinant TMV containing B. cockerelli actin or V-ATPase sequences also showed phenotypic effects resulting in decreased B. cockerelli progeny production as compared to plants infected by recombinant TMV containing GFP. These results showed that RNAi effects can be achieved in plants against the phloem feeder, B. cockerelli, and the TMV

  10. Economic injury levels for Asian citrus psyllid control in process oranges from mature trees with high incidence of huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzo, Cesar; Stansly, Philip A

    2017-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the key pest of citrus wherever it occurs due to its role as vector of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. Insecticidal vector control is considered to be the primary strategy for HLB management and is typically intense owing to the severity of this disease. While this approach slows spread and also decreases severity of HLB once the disease is established, economic viability of increasingly frequent sprays is uncertain. Lacking until now were studies evaluating the optimum frequency of insecticide applications to mature trees during the growing season under conditions of high HLB incidence. We related different degrees of insecticide control with ACP abundance and ultimately, with HLB-associated yield losses in two four-year replicated experiments conducted in commercial groves of mature orange trees under high HLB incidence. Decisions on insecticide applications directed at ACP were made by project managers and confined to designated plots according to experimental design. All operational costs as well as production benefits were taken into account for economic analysis. The relationship between management costs, ACP abundance and HLB-associated economic losses based on current prices for process oranges was used to determine the optimum frequency and timing for insecticide applications during the growing season. Trees under the most intensive insecticidal control harbored fewest ACP resulting in greatest yields. The relationship between vector densities and yield loss was significant but differed between the two test orchards, possibly due to varying initial HLB infection levels, ACP populations or cultivar response. Based on these relationships, treatment thresholds during the growing season were obtained as a function of application costs, juice market prices and ACP densities. A conservative threshold for mature trees with high incidence of HLB would help maintain economic

  11. RNA Interference towards the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, Is Induced in Plants Infected with Recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuriyanghan, Hada; Falk, Bryce W

    2013-01-01

    The potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (B. cockerelli), is an important plant pest and the vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (solanacearum), which is associated with the zebra chip disease of potatoes. Previously, we reported induction of RNA interference effects in B. cockerelli via in vitro-prepared dsRNA/siRNAs after intrathoracic injection, and after feeding of artificial diets containing these effector RNAs. In order to deliver RNAi effectors via plant hosts and to rapidly identify effective target sequences in plant-feeding B. cockerelli, here we developed a plant virus vector-based in planta system for evaluating candidate sequences. We show that recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) containing B. cockerelli sequences can efficiently infect and generate small interfering RNAs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, and more importantly delivery of interfering sequences via TMV induces RNAi effects, as measured by actin and V-ATPase mRNA reductions, in B. cockerelli feeding on these plants. RNAi effects were primarily detected in the B. cockerelli guts. In contrast to our results with TMV, recombinant Potato virus X (PVX) and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) did not give robust infections in all plants and did not induce detectable RNAi effects in B. cockerelli. The greatest RNA interference effects were observed when B. cockerelli nymphs were allowed to feed on leaf discs collected from inoculated or lower expanded leaves from corresponding TMV-infected plants. Tomatillo plants infected with recombinant TMV containing B. cockerelli actin or V-ATPase sequences also showed phenotypic effects resulting in decreased B. cockerelli progeny production as compared to plants infected by recombinant TMV containing GFP. These results showed that RNAi effects can be achieved in plants against the phloem feeder, B. cockerelli, and the TMV-plant system will

  12. Screening of LED light source of the adapter solar trap lamp for trapping the citrus psyllid%适配太阳能诱虫器诱杀柑橘木虱LED光源的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雄杰; 范国成; 胡菡青; 阮传清; 蔡子坚; Xia Yulu; 杜云贵; 刘波

    2013-01-01

    The citrus psyllid is the vector of Huanglongbing.In order to control citrus psyllid and prevent disease,screening of LED light source adapter solar trap lamp for citrus psyllid by using reaction vessel of insect behavior was carried out in the laboratory.The results showed that the phototaxis of 1 800 1x and 4 310 lx blue and green light sources (wavelength 460 nm and 531 nm) were best on the illumination duration of 17 h.It was also found that the phototaxis of citrus psyllid adults was positively correlated with light intensity and light duration under the same wavelength condition.It might provide an effective theoretical basis for the LED light source for forecasting and trapping citrus psyllid in the field in the future.%柑橘木虱(Dia phorina citri)是柑橘黄龙病的传播媒介.为达到治虫防病的目的,在室内利用昆虫行为反应器开展适配太阳能诱虫器的LED光源筛选,结果表明:柑橘木虱成虫对光照强度分别为1 800 lx和4 310 lx的蓝光和绿光(波长分别为460 nm和531 nm)在光照时长为17 h时的趋光性最佳,相同波长条件下,其趋光性与光照强度和光照时长成正相关.该研究结果为进一步探索适宜田间柑橘木虱测报和高效诱杀的LED光源提供理论依据.

  13. El género Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, con redescripción de dos especies The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, with redescription of two species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia González

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, with redescription of two species. Apiococcus Hempel is a genus from Brazil composed of four gall-inducing species. The adult females of two species, Apiococcus globosus Hempel and A. singularis Hempel, from Brazil, are redescribed and illustrated. Keys to the species of the genus and their galls are given.

  14. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Thomson M; Allan, Sandra A; Hall, David G; Hentz, Matthew G; Hetesy, Gabriella; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus macrophylla, Citrus maxima, Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica. Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla. This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences.

  15. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson M. Paris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus macrophylla, Citrus maxima, Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica. Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla. This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences.

  16. Effects of irradiation on Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuiwasa, Kaliova Tavou; Lu, Kuang-Hui; Shen, Tse-Chi; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2009-10-01

    Irradiation has been recognized and endorsed as a potential phytosanitary measure that could be an alternative to current quarantine treatments. Dosages of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy were used to irradiate three different life stages (eggs, immatures, and adults) of Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), focusing on females due to its parthenogenesis ability, with an aim to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose to control P. minor. Cobalt 60 was the source of irradiation used. Irradiation of 150-250 Gy has a significant effect on all life stages of P. minor, decreasing its survival rate, percentage of adult reproduction, oviposition, and fertility rate. The adult was the most tolerant life stage in both mortality and fertility rate. All the different irradiated target life stage groups oviposited eggs, but none of the F2 eggs hatched at the most optimal dosage of 150-250 Gy.

  17. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  18. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfei; Dai, Renhuai; Zhan, Hongping; Qu, Ling

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was sequenced. It is 15 309 bp in length with 75.62% (A + T) content and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding region (GenBank accession no. KR349344). Gene order is identical to that of the inferred ancestral insect genome. All PCGs start with an ATN codon and terminate with TAA except ND4, which has an incomplete stop codon (T). The anticodons are identical to those of Drosophila yakuba. The phylogenetic tree confirms D. nuchalis and two Cicadellidae species are clustered into a clade, and Cicadellidae is a monophyletic group and provides support for the sister relationship of leafhopper and treehopper.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bemisia afer (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Ling; Xiao, Na; Yang, Jiao; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Colvin, John; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The length of the Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is 14,968 bp and consists of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA), 2 ribosomal RNAs and 1 control region. Apart from one serine transfer RNA gene (tRNA-Ser) which is absent, the synteny is consistent with the mitogenomes of other whitefly species. The overall base composition of the heavy strand for A, G, T and C is 28.96, 18.97, 36.7 and 15.37%, respectively, with a slight AT bias. Two rare codons (GTG and TTG) are employed as start codons by some PCGs. B. afer is a group of cryptic species. This first mitogenome cloned from African cassava B. afer, therefore, both enrich the whitefly molecular resource and will aid the sequencing of the other species' mitogenomes. It will contribute significantly to resolving the systematics of the B. afer complex.

  1. Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azhar A; Afzal, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Khan, Arif M; Raza, Abubakar M

    2014-12-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Responses of the Asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, J M; Sétamou, M

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) carries Candidatus liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of Huanglongbing. D. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. Here we examined whether D. citri is attracted to host plant odors and a mixture of synthetic terpenes. Tests conducted in a vertically oriented Y-tube olfactometer showed that both males and females preferentially entered the Y-tube arm containing the odor from the young shoots of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cultivar Eureka. Only males exhibited a preference for the odor of C. sinensis L., whereas the odor of C. x paradisi MacFadyen cultivar Rio Red was not attractive to both sexes. The volatiles emitted by young shoots of grapefruit cultivar Rio Red, Meyer lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm.f.), and M. paniculata were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The samples were comprised of monoterpenes, monoterpene esters, and sesquiterpenes. The number of compounds present varied from 2 to 17, whereas the total amount of sample collected over 6 h ranged from 5.6 to 119.8 ng. The quantitatively dominant constituents were (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-caryophyllene. The attractiveness of a mixture of synthetic terpenes, modeled on the volatiles collected from M. paniculata, was evaluated in screened cages in a no-choice test. At three observation intervals, significantly more individuals were trapped on white targets scented with the mixture than on unscented targets. These results indicate the feasibility of developing D. citri attractants patterned on actual host plant volatiles.

  3. Repellency of a kaolin particle film to potato payllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on tomato under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is a vector of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum,” the bacterium causing several diseases in solanaceous crops. Laboratory and field no-choice and choice experiments were conducted to evaluate repellency of kaolin particle film on adults of B. cockerel...

  4. Low-level detection of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum in extracted Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) DNA by 454 pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate detection and quantification of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), in the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, has become necessary to better understand the biology of the disease cycle. Studies on the tran...

  5. Characterization and correlation of EPG waveforms of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae): variability in waveform appearance in relation to applied signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, was recently shown to be a vector of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso), a phloem-limited bacterium that is the putative causal agent of “Zebra Chip” in potato and unnamed diseases in other solanaceous species. Despite its importance, very little...

  6. Molecular Phylogenetic Placement of the Recently Described Armored Scale Insect Abgrallaspis aguacatae and Several Congeners (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Jeremy C. Andersen; Joseph G. Morse; Benjamin B. Normark; Richard Stouthamer

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘Hass’ avocado, Persea americana Miller, fruit being imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of a previously unknown species of armored scale insect (Hemiptera: Diaspididae...

  7. Effect of insect density and host plant quality on wing-form in Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a South American species that feeds on waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. (Solms). This species exhibits significant wing dimorphism whereby fully winged adults (macropters) are capable of flight while those with reduced wings (brachtypt...

  8. Combining 'omics and microscopy to visualize interactions between the Asian citrus psyllid vector and the Huanglongbing pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the insect gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Angela; Fattah-Hosseini, Somayeh; Saha, Surya; Johnson, Richard; Warwick, EricaRose; Sturgeon, Kasie; Mueller, Lukas; MacCoss, Michael J; Shatters, Robert G; Cilia Heck, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is an economically devastating bacterial disease of citrus. It is associated with infection by the gram-negative bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). CLas is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). For insect transmission to occur, CLas must be ingested during feeding on infected phloem sap and cross the gut barrier to gain entry into the insect vector. To investigate the effects of CLas exposure at the gut-pathogen interface, we performed RNAseq and mass spectrometry-based proteomics to analyze the transcriptome and proteome, respectively, of ACP gut tissue. CLas exposure resulted in changes in pathways involving the TCA cycle, iron metabolism, insecticide resistance and the insect's immune system. We identified 83 long non-coding RNAs that are responsive to CLas, two of which appear to be specific to the ACP. Proteomics analysis also enabled us to determine that Wolbachia, a symbiont of the ACP, undergoes proteome regulation when CLas is present. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed that Wolbachia and CLas inhabit the same ACP gut cells, but do not co-localize within those cells. Wolbachia cells are prevalent throughout the gut epithelial cell cytoplasm, and Wolbachia titer is more variable in the guts of CLas exposed insects. CLas is detected on the luminal membrane, in puncta within the gut epithelial cell cytoplasm, along actin filaments in the gut visceral muscles, and rarely, in association with gut cell nuclei. Our study provides a snapshot of how the psyllid gut copes with CLas exposure and provides information on pathways and proteins for targeted disruption of CLas-vector interactions at the gut interface.

  9. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae on avocado (Persea americana Mill. from Colombia, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  10. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  11. Descriptions of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Paladini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region. Two new species of Sphenorhina Amyot & Serville, S. pseudoboliviana SP. NOV: from Bolivia and S. plata SP. NOV: from Argentina are described and illustrated.

  12. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  13. Phylogenetics and evolutionary morphology of the Neotropical true bug genus Epipolops (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Geocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Epipolops Herrich-Schaeffer (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), comprising the largest genus of Pamphantinae, are among the most bizarre true bugs because of their striking morphology. To elucidate evolutionary morphology in Epipolops, a phylogenetic analysis was performed using 17 species and 36 ad...

  14. Use of pheromones for monitoring phytophagous stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous native stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including Euschistus spp., Nezara viridula (L.), Chinavia hilaris (Say), Plautia stali Scott, Chlorochroa spp., and Thyanta spp., are primary pests responsible for millions of dollars in losses and cost of control in most fruit, vegetable, gr...

  15. Field evaluation of potential pheromone lures for Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Mid-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous pests of cultivated plants around the world. In the mid-South region of the United States, Lygus lineolaris is a primary pest of cotton, and causes economic damage. Previously published research about the volatiles produced by members of the genus Lyg...

  16. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  17. Biology of Leptoypha hospita (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanzhuo Zhang; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Kristine Braman; Jianghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The biology of Leptoypha hospita Drake et Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a potential biological control agent from China for Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied in quarantine in the United States. Both nymphs and adults feed on Chinese privet mesophyll cells that lead to a bleached appearance of leaves and dieback of branch tips. L. hospita has five...

  18. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on ...

  19. A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Baena, Manuel

    2015-11-17

    The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Triplatygini), containing a single species-Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is designated.

  20. DNA markers to disentangle complexes of cryptic taxa in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. We aimed to identify a set of markers for the genetic characterization...

  1. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  2. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Aubrey; Watson, Gillian W; Bamba, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  3. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  4. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  5. Effects of founder population size on the performance of Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castañe, C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Carvalho, L.M.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is a key predator of thrips and is mass reared in large numbers for use in biological control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of founder population size on the biological and behavioral performance of O. laevigatus over time. Laboratory li

  6. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  7. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  8. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  9. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, on Guam: Potentially a major pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey Moore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  10. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Virla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina; in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  11. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virla, Eduardo G; Melo, Cecilia M; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-06-03

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  12. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: estados inmaduros y biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Mariani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae are described, keyed and illustrated. The description of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are: body size, color, number of tarsomeres, espinulation of the metatibia and number of teeth on the spur; presence of sensoria on antennal pedicel. This insect was reared on pieces of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Biological data based on lab and field observations show that M. bellicus carries out its biological cycle successfully on Pontederiaceae. One to nine eggs per scar are laid deeply into the aerenquima of the petiole, being most frequent 3-4, less frequent 5, 2 and 6 and rarely 1, 7 and 9. Eulophid wasps Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp, known as eggs parasitoid, was registered and quantified. As M. bellicus occupies the same ecological habitat that M. scutellaris Berg, we highlighted some morphological and biological aspects that allow their differentiation.Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son m

  13. Systematics of Mepraia (Hemiptera-Reduviidae): cytogenetic and molecular variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleros, L; Panzera, F; Bargues, M D; Monteiro, F A; Klisiowicz, D R; Zuriaga, M A; Mas-Coma, S; Pérez, R

    2010-03-01

    The haematophagous insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera-Reduviidae) have great epidemiological importance as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Mepraia was originally described as a monotypic genus comprised of Mepraia spinolai, distributed along coastal areas of northern Chile (from Region I to the Metropolitan Region). Recently, some M. spinolai populations have been ranked as a new species named Mepraia gajardoi. Several populations along the distribution range of the genus were sampled, and genetic differentiation was studied based upon the analysis of three molecular markers: cytogenetics (karyotype and chromosome behaviour during meiosis using the C-banding technique), mitochondrial DNA (a cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment), and nuclear ribosomal DNA (intergenic region including the two internal transcribed spacers ITS-1 and ITS-2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene). The data here presented indicate that populations within the Mepraia genus (excluding Region II specimens) can be divided into two separate lineages. One lineage is comprised of specimens from the northernmost Region I and represents M. gajardoi. The other includes samples from the southern III, IV and the Metropolitan Regions, and represents M. spinolai. Region II individuals deserve particular attention as their relationship to the two identified lineages is not clear-cut. While they appear to belong to M. spinolai based on cytogenetics and rDNA markers, COI results indicate a closer relationship to M. gajardoi. This disagreement can be due to mitochondrial DNA introgression or the retention of ancestral polymorphisms.

  14. Cytogenetics and genome evolution in the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, F; Pérez, R; Panzera, Y; Ferrandis, I; Ferreiro, M J; Calleros, L

    2010-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), vectors of Chagas disease, includes over 140 species. Karyotypic information is currently available for 80 of these species. This paper summarizes the chromosomal variability of the subfamily and how it may reveal aspects of genome evolution in this group. The Triatominae present a highly conserved chromosome number. All species, except 3, present 20 autosomes. The differences in chromosome number are mainly caused by variation in the number of sex chromosomes, due to the existence of 3 sex systems in males (XY, X(1)X(2)Y and X(1)X(2)X(3)Y). However, inter- and intraspecific differences in the position, quantity and meiotic behavior of constitutive heterochromatin, in the total genome size, and in the location of ribosomal 45S rRNA clusters, have revealed considerable cytogenetic variability within the subfamily. This cytogenetic diversity offers the opportunity to perform cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies, as well as structural, evolutionary, and functional analyses of the genome. The imminent availability of the complete genome of Rhodnius prolixus also opens new perspectives for understanding the evolution and genome expression of triatomines. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization for the mapping of genes and sequences, as well as comparative analyses of genome homology by comparative genomic hybridization will be useful tools for understanding the genomic changes in relation to evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation to different environments.

  15. Application of RNA interference in triatomine(Hemiptera:Reduviidae)studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafaela M.M.Paim; Ricardo N.Araujo; Michael J.Lehane; Nelder F.Gontijo; Marcos H.Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Triatomines(Hemiptera: Reduviidae)are obligate hematophagous insects.They are of medical importance because they are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi,the causative agent of Chagas disease in the Americas.In recent years,the RNA interference (RNAi)technology has emerged as a practical and useful alternative means of studying gene function in insects,including triatomine bugs.RNAi research in triatomines is still in its early stages,several issues still need to be elucidated,including the description of the molecules involved in the RNAi machinery and aspects related to phenotype evaluation and persistence of the knockdown in different tissues and organs.This review considers recent applications of RNAi to triatomine research,describing the major methods that have been applied during the knockdown process such as the double-stranded RNA delivery mechanism(injection,microinjection,or ingestion)and the phenotype characterization (mRNA and target protein levels)in studies conducted with the intent to provide greater insights into the biology of these insects.In addition to the characterization of insect biomolecules,some with biopharmacological potential,RNAi may provide a new view of the interaction between triatomine and trypanosomatids,enabling the development of new measures for vector control and transmission of the parasite.

  16. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-10-06

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates--filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates.

  17. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  18. Local and Landscape Constraints on Coffee Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Chatura; Cruz, Magdalena; Kuesel, Ryan; Gonthier, David J; Iverson, Aaron; Ennis, Katherine K; Perfecto, Ivette

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of agriculture drives many ecological and environmental consequences including impacts on crop pest populations and communities. These changes are manifested at multiple scales including small-scale management practices and changes to the composition of land-use types in the surrounding landscape. In this study, we sought to examine the influence of local and landscape-scale agricultural factors on a leafhopper herbivore community in Mexican coffee plantations. We sampled leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) diversity in 38 sites from 9 coffee plantations of the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. While local management factors such as coffee density, branches per coffee bush, tree species, and density were not important in explaining leafhopper abundance and richness, shade management at the landscape level and elevation significantly affected leafhoppers. Specifically, the percentage of low-shade coffee in the landscape (1,000-m radius surrounding sites) increased total leafhopper abundance. In addition, Shannon's diversity of leafhoppers was increased with coffee density. Our results show that abundance and diversity of leafhoppers are greater in simplified landscapes, thereby suggesting that these landscapes will have higher pest pressure and may be more at-risk for diseases vectored by these species in an economically important crop. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M G; Auad, A M; Resende, T T; Hott, M C; Borges, C A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis(Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum(Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4 °C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24 °C but equal at 28 °C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28 °C than at 20 °C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28 °C than at 20 °C, whereas adult longevity at 24 °C did not differ from that at 20 and 28 °C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios.

  20. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana MARIANI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son más frecuentes de 3-4, menos frecuentes 5, 2 y 6, y raramente 1, 7 y 9. Se registra el porcentaje de parasitoidismo de un Hymenoptera oófilo de la familia Eulophidae, Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp. Debido a que M. bellicus ocupa el mismo hábitat ecológico que M. scutellaris Berg, se resaltan las principales diferencias morfológicas y de comportamiento entre las mismas.

  1. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-09-25

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed.

  2. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  3. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, y Platygastridae de Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae de la Argentina, y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Se describen cuatro especies nuevas: Anagrus (Anagrus empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris Berg que se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach; Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus riverplaticus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae, parasitoide de M. bellicus Marino de Remes Lenicov & Sosa; A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (parasitoide de M. bellicus, M. scutellaris y Megamelus sp., todos de la provincia de Buenos Aires (A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei también se encuentra en Formosa; y Parascelio sabcli Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa. Se incluyen otros parasitoides oófagos conocidos de Megamelus spp. en la Argentina, tales como Kalopolynema (Kalopolynema poema Triapitsyn & Berezovskiy (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Buenos Aires y también Cremastobaeus atratus Loiácono & Mulvani (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa.

  4. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  5. Spatial distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in citrus orchards Distribuição espacial de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae em pomares de citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Gregolin Costa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is one of the most important pests of citrus, mainly because it is the vector of the bacterium that causes huanglongbing (HLB or 'Greening' disease. To study the spatial distribution of nymphs and adults of this pest, an experiment was carried out in two 'Valencia' sweet orange orchards, four and 12 years of age, established in Matão, central area of São Paulo state, Brazil. The following dispersion indices were used to study pest aggregation in the citrus plants: variance/mean relationship (I, index of Morisita (Iδ, coefficient of Green (Cx, the exponent of negative binomial distribution, common k (c and Taylor's Power Law for each sampling. The negative binomial distribution was more representative of the spatial distribution of this psyllid, for both nymphs and adults. For most samplings, psyllid nymphs found in branches and adults caught in traps had an aggregated distribution.O psilídeo Diaphorina citri Kuwayama tornou-se nos últimos anos uma das mais importantes pragas na cultura de citros, principalmente pelos prejuízos causados às plantas por ser o transmissor da bactéria causadora da doença Huanglongbing (HLB ou 'Greening'. Com a finalidade de estudar a distribuição espacial de ninfas e adultos desta praga, instalaram-se experimentos em duas áreas de citros com histórico de ocorrência de HLB, no município de Matão (região central do Estado de São Paulo, em plantas de laranja 'Valência', com quatro e 12 anos de idade. Para estudo da agregação da população nas plantas, foram utilizados os seguintes índices de dispersão: razão variância/média (I, índice de Morisita (Iδ, coeficiente de Green (Cx e expoente da distribuição binomial negativa, k comum (c e lei da potência de Taylor para cada amostragem. A distribuição binomial negativa foi o modelo mais adequado para representar a distribuição espacial do psilídeo, tanto para ninfas como para adultos. Na maioria das

  6. Sequencing and annotation of the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Diaphorina citri by the CG-HLB genome resources group reveals candidate sources of interaction with the insect host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is the vector of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of huanglongbing. The D. citri metagenome has been completed to gain a better understanding of the biology of this organism and the potential roles of other psyllid bacter...

  7. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  8. Effect of silicon application to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the population of Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of silicon in forestry has increased recently as it is directly related to improved resistance to insect pests. The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, occurs in all eucalypt producing regions in Brazil. Two field experiments were conducted to study the effect of silicon applied to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the psyllid population. In the first experiment, the applications were made via soil (calcium silicate and leaves (potassium silicate in a nine months old E. camaldulensis plantation. In the second experiment, we evaluated silicon on seedlings, incorporating it into the substrate (soil or applying it on leaves (foliar. Monthly, for 24 months, the number of psyllid eggs and immatures were counted on leaf samples. The plant height was measured at 9, 12, 16 and 24 months (experiment 1 and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months (experiment 2 after application. The numbers of eggs and immatures were lower in periods of higher precipitation, indicating less psyllid attack during the rainy season. The psyllid population was lower in treatments with application of silicon both foliar and via soil compared to control. No significant differences were found in the height of E. camaldulensis plants. O uso do silício na área florestal tem aumentado recentemente, pois o elemento está relacionado a uma melhoria na resistência a insetos pragas. O psilídeo de concha, Glycaspis brimblecombei é encontrado em todas as regiões produtoras de eucalipto no Brasil. O efeito do silício aplicado em Eucalyptus camaldulensis, na população do psilídeo, foi estudado em dois ensaios. No primeiro experimento, as aplicações foram via solo (silicato de cálcio e foliar (silicato de potássio em uma plantação de nove meses. No segundo experimento, este mineral foi aplicado em mudas de eucalipto, no substrato ou sobre as folhas. Mensalmente, durante 24 meses, ovos e imaturos de G. brimblecombei foram amostrados nas folhas. A altura das plantas foi medida

  9. Integrated Pest Management of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in clementines: enhancing its biological control

    OpenAIRE

    GOMEZ MARCO, FRANCESC

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Aphis spiraecola Patch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a key pest of clementines. Biological control of A. spiraecola is still poorly known and efforts were based on the use and conservation of parasitoids but it did not success. With all this said, the aims of this thesis were: i) to disentangle the reasons behind the low parasitism of A. spiraecola; ii) to determine when and how predators can control A. spiraecola populations; and, finally, iii) to evaluate whether a ground cover of Poaceae...

  10. Novas Plantas Hospedeiras para o Percevejo Fitófago Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Pires

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae is a phytophagous bug that can be found in several crops due to availability of food and favorable conditions for the development. The aim of this research was to record the occurrence of L. zonatus colonizing plants of Malpighia emarginata Sessé & Moc (Malpighiaceae, Morus nigra Linnaeus (Moraceae, Mangifera indica Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae in Municipality of Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil. L. zonatus should be included in monitoring for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM in these plants.

  11. Scale insect genus-group names and their families (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Douglas J; Denno, Barbara D

    2014-06-05

    Genus names of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are listed with their current families. The list includes all generic names that are currently valid with synonyms, unjustified emendations, homonyms, nomia nuda and misspellings. The list has been compiled from many sources as discussed in the introduction. This is the first list to be prepared in recent years of all generic names and it is in alphabetical order.

  12. Primer Registro para el Perú de Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para el Perú la especie Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae, “pulgón pardo del duraznero”. La especie ha sido colectada en el departamento de Tacna. Material de referencia se encuentra depositado en la Colección Referencial de Insectos de la Unidad del Centro de Diagnóstico de Sanidad Vegetal del SENASA, Lima, Perú.

  13. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-01-01

    Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise), Coccidae (sagtedopluise) en Kerriidae (lakdopluise) is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhoudi...

  14. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren A. Cirino; Christine W Miller

    2017-01-01

    Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, inclu...

  15. Identification and impact of natural enemies of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2012-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest of potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and peppers (Capsicum spp.). The purpose of our research was to identify and determine the impact of natural enemies on B. cockerelli population dynamics. Through 2 yr of field studies (2009-2010) at four different sites and laboratory feeding tests, we identified minute pirate bug, Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); western bigeyed bug, Geocoris pallens Stål (Hemiptera:Geocoridae), and convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as key natural enemies of B. cockerelli in southern California potatoes, tomatoes, and bell peppers. In natural enemy exclusion cage experiments in the potato crop and in American nightshade, Solanum americanum Miller, the number of B. cockerelli surviving was significantly greater in the closed cage treatments, thus confirming the affect natural enemies can have on B. cockerelli. We discuss how this information can be used in an integrated pest management program for B. cockerelli.

  16. Influence of insecticide treatments on ant-hemiptera associations in tropical plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne, M; Djiéto-Lordon, C; Orivel, J; Mony, R; Fabre, A; Dejean, A

    2003-04-01

    In this survey conducted in southern Cameroon, we compared ant-Hemiptera associations on plantations treated with insecticides, on plantations 2 years after insecticide treatments ceased, and on control lots that never received insecticide treatments. By eliminating arboreal-nesting ants, insecticides favored the presence of "ecologically dominant" ground-nesting, arboreal-foraging species that occupied the tree crowns. The reinstallation of arboreal ants was slow as 2 yr after insecticide treatment ceased differences with the control lots were significant. This intermediary period also illustrated that arboreal ants can found and develop colonies on trees occupied by ground-nesting species. Certain arboreal species were more frequent during this intermediary period than on the control lots, showing that the period of installation in the trees was followed by competition between arboreal ants. We confirm that ground-nesting ants tend a wide range of hemipteran families, including well known agricultural pests, whereas arboreal ants, particularly dominant species, were mostly associated with Coccidae and Stictococcidae that do not pose problems to the supporting trees. A tree effect was also noted for both ant and hemipteran distribution. We concluded that because of insecticide use, ground-nesting ants pose problems through their associated Hemiptera. On the contrary, dominant arboreal ants, strong predators, benefit their supporting trees by excluding ground-nesting species and tending mostly nonpest Hemiptera. Nevertheless, certain of them, carpenter species or species likely to tend Pseudococcidae, have to be eliminated through integrated management.

  17. Entomophagous insects associated to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus orchards with different weed management systems in Papantla, Veracruz, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Arenas, L. D.; López-López, R.; Lomelí-Flores, J. R.; Cedillo-Portugal, E.; Gómez-Tovar, L.; Salazar-Cruz, J.; Villegas-Monter, A.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide, is threatening the survival of the citrus industry in Mexico. Diaphorina citri is the primary vector of HLB; thus, control of the vector it’s vital for disease management. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of different management systems on the population psyllid density and entomophagous insects associated in orange orchards (Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia) in Papantla, Veracruz, Mexico. Five orch...

  18. Advances in Biological Control of Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri, a Vector Insect of Citrus Huanglongbing Disease%黄龙病媒介昆虫柑橘木虱生物防治新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代晓彦; 任素丽; 周雅婷; 任顺祥; 邱宝利

    2014-01-01

    The citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the primary vector of citrus Huanglongbing disease, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which has the huge potential threats to the development of citrus industry in China. Based on the comprehensive understanding of D. citri control technologies, we reviewed the latest advances in biological control of D. citri and forecasted its future prospects. The main biological control resources of citrus psyllid currently are natural enemy insects and entomopathogenic fungi, among which predatory ladybeetles, lacewings, spiders and hover flies are the dominant species of predator, while Tamarixia radiata and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis are the two dominant parasitoids in China. Several representative entomopathogenic fungi include Lecanicillium lecanii, Isaria fumosorosea, Beauveria bassiana and Hirsutella citriformis have been reported with high virulence to citrus psyllid. This current review is expected to provide technical support and theoretical reference for efficient and sustainable control of citrus psyllid in the future.%柑橘木虱Diaphorina citri Kuwayama是柑橘黄龙病的重要媒介昆虫,对我国柑橘产业的健康发展潜在着巨大的威胁。本文在综合国内柑橘木虱防控技术的基础上,对近年来柑橘木虱生物防治的最新研究进展进行了综述,并且对其生物防治的发展前景给予了展望。目前应用于柑橘木虱生物防治的天敌资源主要是天敌昆虫及昆虫病原真菌,其中捕食性天敌主要包括瓢虫、食蚜蝇、草蛉和蜘蛛,寄生性天敌昆虫主要包括啮小蜂和跳小峰;昆虫病原真菌主要包括蜡蚧轮枝菌、拟青霉、白僵菌、桔形被毛孢等。期望通过对柑橘木虱生物防治工作的综述,为我国今后柑橘木虱的科学、高效防控及其可持续治理提供参考,不断推动我国柑橘产业的健康发展。

  19. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov

  20. Search for potential vectors of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’: population dynamics in host crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresani, G.; Hernández, E.; Bertolini, E.; Siverio, F.; Marroquín, C.; Molina, J.; Hermoso de Mendoza, A.; Cambra, M.

    2015-07-01

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ has recently been reported to be associated with vegetative disorders and economic losses in carrot and celery crops in Spain. The bacterium is a carrot seedborne pathogen and it is transmitted by psyllid vector species. From 2011 to 2014 seasonal and occasional surveys in carrot, celery and potato plots were performed. The sticky plant method was used to monitor the arthropods that visited the plants. The collected arthropods were classified into Aphididae and Cicadellidae, and the superfamily Psylloidea was identified to the species level. The superfamily Psylloidea represented 35.45% of the total arthropods captured on celery in Villena and 99.1% on carrot in Tenerife (Canary Islands). The maximum flight of psyllid species was in summer, both in mainland Spain and the Canary Islands, reaching a peak of 570 specimens in August in Villena and 6,063 in July in Tenerife. The main identified psyllid species were as follows: Bactericera trigonica Hodkinson, B. tremblayi Wagner and B. nigricornis Förster. B. trigonica represented more than 99% of the psyllids captured in the Canary Islands and 75% and 38% in 2011 and 2012 in Villena, respectively. In addition, Trioza urticae Linnaeus, Bactericera sp., Ctenarytaina sp., Cacopsylla sp., Trioza sp. and Psylla sp. were captured. ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ targets were detected by squash real-time PCR in 19.5% of the psyllids belonging to the different Bactericera species. This paper reports at least three new psyllid species that carry the bacterium and can be considered as potential vectors. (Author)

  1. Search for potential vectors of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’: population dynamics in host crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Teresani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ has recently been reported to be associated with vegetative disorders and economic losses in carrot and celery crops in Spain. The bacterium is a carrot seedborne pathogen and it is transmitted by psyllid vector species. From 2011 to 2014 seasonal and occasional surveys in carrot, celery and potato plots were performed. The sticky plant method was used to monitor the arthropods that visited the plants. The collected arthropods were classified into Aphididae and Cicadellidae, and the superfamily Psylloidea was identified to the species level. The superfamily Psylloidea represented 35.45% of the total arthropods captured on celery in Villena and 99.1% on carrot in Tenerife (Canary Islands. The maximum flight of psyllid species was in summer, both in mainland Spain and the Canary Islands, reaching a peak of 570 specimens in August in Villena and 6,063 in July in Tenerife. The main identified psyllid species were as follows: Bactericera trigonica Hodkinson, B. tremblayi Wagnerand B. nigricornis Förster. B. trigonica represented more than 99% of the psyllids captured in the Canary Islands and 75% and 38% in 2011 and 2012 in Villena, respectively. In addition, Trioza urticae Linnaeus, Bactericera sp.,Ctenarytaina sp., Cacopsylla sp., Trioza sp. and Psylla sp. were captured. ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ targets were detected by squash real-time PCR in 19.5% of the psyllids belonging to the different Bactericera species. This paper reports at least three new psyllid species that carry the bacterium and can be considered as potential vectors.

  2. Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales), fungal pathogen of Bagrada hilaris and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae & Triozidae)in Mexico: Prevalence, bioassays, & environmental influences on conidial morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bagrada bug, Bagrada hilaris, and the potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, are key pests of horticulture in western North America. In 2014 and 2015, adult and juvenile B. hilaris and B. cockerelli killed by fungi in the genus Zoophthora were detected at separate localities near Saltill...

  3. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  4. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkie Spodek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The first-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae are described and illustrated. This species is compared with K. vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region.

  5. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  6. Eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and roots of conifer and willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apterous adult morphs of eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and/or roots of conifer or willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest including Alaska are described, illustrated, and keyed. In total, seven species (Clydesmithia canadensis Danielsson, Melaphis ...

  7. Rapid Communication. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hym.: Eulophidae parasitoid of Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae is reported on Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae in northwestern Iran. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae was reared for the first time on B. tremblayi, and compared with Tamarixia tremblayi, another parasitoid of B. tremblayi. This is a new record of T. monesus from the Middle East.

  8. Brochosome influence on parasitisation efficiency of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg masses by Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velema, H.P.; Hemerik, L.; Hoddle, M.S.; Luck, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    1. Many cicadellid females in the tribe Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) cover their egg masses with specialised, usually rod-shaped, brochosomes as the eggs are being laid. The brochosomes are produced in Golgi complexes in the Malpighian tubules of Cicadellidae. In contrast to the gravid

  9. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-06-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China.

  10. A laboratory study of sex- and stage-related mortality and morbidity in bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) exposed to deltamethrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to varying concentrations of deltamethrin for 24h indicated there was no significant difference in mortality between males, females, and nymphs at 24h or 168h post-exposure. Most bed bugs classified ...

  11. Biological parameters and thermal requirements of the parasitoid Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, De B.F.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the biology of Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) hosts was studied and the thermal requirements of the parasitoid were determined. Experiments were carried out at 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28

  12. Efficacy of orchard-applied insecticides against the brown stink bug Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) attacking pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The polyphagous brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (Juglandaceae), and other agronomic crops across the southcentral and southeastern U.S.A. Management of this pest in both orchards and row crops i...

  13. Brochosome influence on parasitisation efficiency of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg masses by Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velema, H.P.; Hemerik, L.; Hoddle, M.S.; Luck, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    1. Many cicadellid females in the tribe Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) cover their egg masses with specialised, usually rod-shaped, brochosomes as the eggs are being laid. The brochosomes are produced in Golgi complexes in the Malpighian tubules of Cicadellidae. In contrast to the gravid femal

  14. Review of the grassland leafhopper genus Nephotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Chiasmini) from the Chinese mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yani; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mainland species of the leafhopper genus Nephotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Chiasmini) (Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler), Nephotettix malayanus Ishihara & Kawase, Nephotettix nigropictus (Stål), Nephotettix parvus Ishihara & Kawase rec. n., and Nephotettix virescens (Distant)) are reviewed. This genus is redescribed. Variation is described and illustrated. Keys for their separation are provided together with a worldwide checklist.

  15. Evaluation of a method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg maturation during a feeding assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to improve an assay relating adult feeding to egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were evaluated. The assay consisted of confining adult females to cowpea stems in parafilm enclosures and quantifying adult feeding and egg maturation. Adult feeding was...

  16. Potential transmission of Pantoea spp. and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) to plants by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States. In a recent study, proteins from Pantoea ananatis and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) were identified in diet that was stylet-probed and fed upon by L. hesperus adults. P...

  17. Cicadidae types (Hemiptera-Cicadomorpha) housed at the Museo de La Plata entomological collection (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Remes Lenicov, Ana M Marino; Maciá, Arnaldo; Pianzola, Bruno

    2015-06-23

    A catalog of the 161 type specimens of species of Hemiptera Cicadidae housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo de La Plata is presented. This collection represents 52 species grouped in 19 genera. For each species the original and current names, bibliographic references, type category, number of specimens, gender, Museo de La Plata code numbers, and transcription of data from labels (country, province, locality, date of collection, collector's name, and hosts) are given. Information about the state of preservation of the specimens in each series and photographs of each type species are also provided.

  18. Agalmatium flavescens (Hemiptera, Issidae and Camponotus aethiops (Hymenoptera, Formicidae – an unknown trophobiotic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIA GJONOV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of trophobiosis between ants and planthoppers of the family Issidae is limited to studies of individual cases from Argentina, Mexico, India, the island of Naxos (Cyclades and an anecdotal report from Italy. This paper reports a previously undescribed ant-attendance of Agalmatium flavescens (Olivier, 1791 (Hemiptera, Issidae by Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798. It includes a brief literature review and presents some ecological aspects of this new finding. In additions, live color photographs of A. flavescens and interactions with ants are provided.

  19. Records of Natural Enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, L C; Lourenção, A L; Costa, V A; Souza, B; Costa, M B; Tanque, R L

    2014-04-01

    Collections of natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) were made in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In the greenhouse, 6,495 predators and 16,628 parasitoids belonging to three families were collected. In the field, 267 predators and 344 parasitoids belonging to five families were found. For the first time in Brazil, five species of predators associated with this whitefly were reported. Because of the diversity of natural enemies of B. tabaci biotype B recorded, this study points out the importance of these data for studies on integrated pest management.

  20. The genus Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera, Ortheziidae with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Szita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new species of Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Ortheziidae from the Palaearctic region. The specimens were extracted from forest litter in the collections of Muséum d’histoire Naturelle de Genève, Switzerland, using Berlese funnels. Three further species, A. cataphracta (Olafsen, A. occidentalis (Douglas and A. pseudoccidentalis Morrison, are redescribed and re-illustrated. The genus Arctorthezia now contains five species. An identification key, diagnostic illustrations, photographs of unmounted females and new locality records of the Arctorthezia species currently known are provided.

  1. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

  2. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise, Coccidae (sagtedopluise en Kerriidae (lakdopluise is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhouding tussen die miere en dopluise, bekend as mirmekofilie, is fakultatief van aard. Die wipstertmier blyk ook nie spesifiek te wees wat betref die plant waarop hulle nes maak nie.

  3. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-07-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté.

  4. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  5. Does cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) play a direct role in causing soil phytotoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gillian; Marler, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was accidentally introduced to Guam in 2003, and has caused acute mortality of the dominant, endemic forest tree Cycas micronesica. A phytotoxic legacy in the soils beneath cycad trees killed by CAS over a period of about three years has been demonstrated. The origin of the toxicity may be large quantities of CAS-encrusted cycad leaf litter. We explore the possibility that a major contribution to this toxic legacy may come from the scale insects, not just from the plant material.

  6. Occurrence of the Tamarix Leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virla, Eduardo G; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Paradell, Susana L

    2010-01-01

    The paleartic tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), can reduce the growth of tamarisk due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in Metcalf's catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadellidae published by many authors after Metcalf omitted this distributional data. Populations of O. stactogalus on Tamarix sp. were found in 12 sites between 28 degrees 48' to 39 degrees 17' S and 64 degrees 06' to 70 degrees 04' W, located in both the Neotropical and Andean biogeographic regions.

  7. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)%The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera:Coccoidea:Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfeng ZHANG; Yingping XIE; Jiaoliang XUE; Xiaohong FU; Weimin LIU

    2012-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy,we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug,Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera:Coccoidea:Pseudococcidae).We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular,quinquelocular,and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts,recording characteristics of their structure,size and distribution.We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers—the procuticle,epidermis and basement membrane—and four sub-layers of the procuticle—the epicuticle,exocuticle,endocuticle and formation zone.The waxsecreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis.All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells.These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage.Synthesized by the glandular cells,the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  8. Primeiro registro da cochonilha Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de Willink, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae no Brasil First record of Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de Willink, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz Kussler

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de WillinK, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae foi registrada atacando plantas de erva-mate, pela primeira vez no Brasil, no município de Chapecó (27°05’47"S, 52°37’06"W,SC de setembro de 2002 a janeiro de 2003, mas outros 32 ervais não apresentaram a ocorrência desse inseto. Esta cochonilha pode causar danos como a degeneração dos ramos primários devido a constante sucção de seiva. O contorno do corpo é oval arredondado (2,68mm x 2,60mm com antenas curtas e robustas com sete segmentos. Esta espécie é caracterizada pela presença e distribuição de poros preoperculares e setas hipopigiais.The presence of Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de WillinK, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae was reported for the first time in Brazil in the town of Chapecó, Santa Catarina State (27°05’47"S, 52°37’06"W, attacking Paraguay tea plants (Ilex paraguariensis, from September 2002 to January 2003. Other 32 Paraguay tea plantations were inspected and there was not occurrence of this insect. This cochineal can cause degeneration of the branches where they are due to the constant suction of the sap. The contour of the body is rounded oval (2.68mm x 2.60mm and it has short and robust antennas with seven segments. This species is characterized by the presence and distribution of preoperculary pores and hypopygial arrows.

  9. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from Argentina Flora fúngica de tractos digestivos en Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en Argentina

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    G. A. Marti

    Full Text Available A survey of the fungal microbiota of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae adults was carried out. Insects captured in the field from different provinces in Argentina, as well as individuals reared in artificial colonies, were used for dissection. Axenic cultures of the fungal species were identified and were deposited with mycological collections at La Plata , Argentina. A total of 33 fungal species, with the exception of three that were mycelia sterilia, belonging to 11 genera were identified. Thirty two species belonged to Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes and one to Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, and Cladosporium (2. Among the isolated fungi, some of the species were entomopathogenic or pathogens of humans and other animals.En el presente estudio se realizó un relevamiento de la flora fúngica microbiana en tractos digestivos de adultos de Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Se disecaron insectos capturados del campo en diferentes provincias Argentinas, así como también se utilizaron individuos de una colonia artificial. Fueron realizados cultivos axénicos de las especies fúngicas aisladas, los que fueron identificados y luego depositados en las colecciones de hongos entomopatógenos del CEPAVE La Plata , Argentina. Fueron identificadas 33 especies fúngicas perteneciente a 11 géneros. Treinta y dos especies pertenecen a Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes y Sordariomycetes y una a Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, y Cladosporium (2. Entre los aislamientos fúngicos, algunas de las especies encontradas son entomopatogénicas o patógenas de humanos y otros animales.

  10. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures.

  11. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  12. Occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae at Rio de Janeiro State = Ocorrência de Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.

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    Márcio Coutinho de Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Blackfly’s, Aleurocanthus woglumi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, is considered by the National Plant Protection Organization/Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (NPPO/MAPA as a present quarantine pest (List A2, which occurs in 20 Brazilian States. The aim of this study is to report its occurrence in the Rio de Janeiro State, since its first notification in 2010. = A Mosca-Negra-dos-Citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, é considerada pela Organização Nacional de Proteção Fitossanitária/Ministério da Agricultura (ONPF/MAPA, como praga quarentenária presente (Lista A2, com registros oficiais de ocorrência em 20 Estados brasileiros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar sua ocorrência no Rio de Janeiro desde a sua primeira notificação, no ano de 2010.

  13. First record of occurrence of mosca-negra-dos-citrus, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) in Roraima, Brazil = Primeiro registro da ocorrência de mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel; Marcos Wanderley da Silva; Anderson Gonçalves da Silva; Ruy Guilherme Correia; Paulo Roberto Silva Farias; Antonio Cesar Silva Lima

    2011-01-01

    The Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of citrus. Originated in Asia, this pest was detected in Brazil for the first time in the State of Para, Brazil in 2001. In the culture of citrus fruits the black fly carries direct and indirect damage, impeding the development and production of plants. In addition to restricting trade in local areas from its occurrence to the presence of the plague, since the A. woglumi quarantine pest is considered present (A2) of...

  14. Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    Marcio B. P. Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the methanolic fraction of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae (PALAM on individuals of the species Rhodnius nasutus Stål (Hemiptera, Triatominae. Many of the insects treated with the substance presented deformities and these may interfere in the feeding and possibly hinder the reproductive capacity. They also presented significant mortality during the molt when compared to the control group, noting a gradual increase in mortality. The treated insects also presented delayed nymphal development (5th instar and higher adult longevity.

  15. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  16. 柑橘木虱两地理种群的内共生菌群落组成及传菌能力%The endosymbiotic microbiota of two geographical populations of the Asian citrus psyllid,Diaphorina citri,in China and its ability of pathogen transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓芳; 张学潮; 徐海君

    2012-01-01

    柑橘黄龙病(Huanglongbing,HLB)是经柑橘木虱Diaphorina citri传播的最主要柑橘病害之一,危害严重时能对柑橘产业造成毁灭性的破坏.为了鉴定福建和海南2个地理种群柑橘木虱的内共生菌群落组成,本研究对16SrRNA部分保守序列进行PCR扩增,并利用特异性引物对不同内共生菌进行了感染率检测;另外,还通过人工接虫的方法,探索柑橘木虱成虫在带黄龙病菌蕉柑Citrus reticulata cv.Tankan 上的获菌能力,以及带菌柑橘木虱成虫对黄岩蜜橘C.reticulata cv.Subcompress的传菌能力.研究发现,这2个地理种群的柑橘木虱含有相同的内共生菌组成,包括α-Proteobacteria,Wolbachia spp.,γ-Proteobacteria,mycetocyte symbionts,β-Proteobacteria,Oxalobacter 和β-Proteobacteria,Herbaspirillum,而且这2个地理种群柑橘木虱的4种内共生菌的携带率均在95%以上.柑橘木虱成虫在带菌蕉柑上饲菌28 d后,带菌率可达到82%,而带菌柑橘木虱成虫在黄岩蜜橘上传菌75 d后,可导致橘树整体带菌.本研究为柑橘木虱的进一步研究和防虫治病途径提供了一些理论依据.%Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most severe citrus diseases, which is usually transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid ( Diaphorina citri), and causes great economic loss. To understand the endosyrnbiotic microbiota of the citrus psyllid from Hainan and Fujian provinces in China, the partial conserved region of 16S rRNA was amplified by PCR, and subsequently the infection rate of each endosymbiont from two geographical populations of the citrus psyllid was detected by PCR using specific primer pairs in this stduy. Moreover, we detected the acquisition efficiency of the pathogen by adult citrus psyllid reared on Citrus reticulata cv. Tank an infected with Candidatus Liberibacter as iatic us (CLas) , and the transmission efficiency to Citrus reticulata cv, Subcompress via CLas-positive psyllids. The results demonstrated that the two

  17. Coccophagus scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): A Highly Effective Biological Control Agent of Soft Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Shaaban Abd-Rabou

    2011-01-01

    About 953000 individuals of the cosmopolitan parasitoid, Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), were released and evaluated during 2009-2010 for the control of the following soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) infesting the following economic crops in Egypt: Ceroplastes rusci on citrus in Beni Seuf, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock on citrus in Gharbiya, Coccus hesperidum L. on guava in Giza, Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood) on mango in Sharqiya, Pulvinaria psidii...

  18. The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new insect pest on tomato plants in Egypt

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    Ibrahim Samah Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was recorded as a new pest on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill growing in Egypt. The mealybugs specimens were collected from tomato plants in the Qalyoubia governorate during summer season of 2014. The mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis based on the morphological characters and taxonomic key of this species. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect pest attacking tomato plants in Egypt

  19. Portanus Ball: descrição de uma espécie nova (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae

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    Adenomar Neves de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Portanus dubius sp. nov. é descrita e ilustrada a partir de espécimens que foram coletados com armadilha Malaise durante um levantamento entomológico no Estado do Paraná, Brasil (PROFAUPAR.Portanus Ball: description of a new species (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae. Portanus dubius sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected with Malaise trap during an entomological inventory in Paraná State, Brazil (PROFAUPAR.

  20. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data

    OpenAIRE

    Masumeh Moghaddam

    2013-01-01

    A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species ...

  1. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  2. Studies on idiocerine leafhoppers with descriptions of Chinaocerus gen. nov. and three new species from China (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    A new leafhopper genus of the tribe Idiocerini (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae), Chinaocerus, is described from the southwest China together with three new species, C. kangdingensis Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province), C. bispinatus Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Yunnan Province) and C. shii Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province). Descriptions and illustrations of these three new species are provided, and a key for their separation is also given.

  3. A revision of the tribe Coelidiini of the Oriental, Palearctic and Australian biogeographical regions (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Mervin W.

    2016-01-01

    Within the tribe Coelidiini, subfamily Coelidiinae (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera), fragmentation of the genera Calodia Nielson, Olidiana McKamey and Taharana Nielson established the following 13 new genera: Cladolidia, type-species, Lodiana cladopenis Zhang; Creberulidia, type-species, Calodia paucita Nielson; Glaberana, type-species, Glaberana spadix, sp. nov.; Hamusolidia, type-species, Hamusolidia introrsa, sp. nov.; Hiatusorus, typespecies, Taharana schonhorsti Nielson; Laosolidia, type-specie...

  4. Comparative biology of the two sister species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Biologia comparativa de duas espécies irmãs de Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Ana Laura Carbajal de la Fuente

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triatoma pseudomaculata and T. wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae are two Brazilian vectors of Chagas disease. The first is an arboricolous species in sylvatic environment and considered a vector of T. cruzi in peridomestic structures; the second, a rupicolous species in the wild environment of no epidemiological importance. In order to test the assumption that sister species share biological traits, comparative studies of their development cycle and blood ingestion were conducted. METHODS: Eggs laid by five field females of each species were randomly selected. The nymphs were observed daily and fed on mice weekly. The time required to pass through the different stages to adulthood was recorded in days. The triatomines were weighed individually before and after feeding. The mortality rate according to each nymphal stage was calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results shows that they display only minor biological differences even though they exhibit a distinct ecology. This suggests that the biological traits are important criteria to determine the relationship between species.INTRODUÇÃO: Triatoma pseudomaculata e T. wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae são dois vetores Brasileiros da doença de Chagas. A primeira é uma espécie arborícola em ambiente silvestre e considerada vetor do T. cruzi em estruturas peridomesticas. A segunda é rupícola em ambientes silvestres e sem importância epidemiológica. Com o objetivo de testar a hipótese que espécies irmãs compartilham características semelhantes, realizamos um estudo comparativo do ciclo biológico e ingesta alimentar. MÉTODOS: Ovos pertencentes a cinco fêmeas de cada espécie provenientes do campo foram selecionados aleatoriamente. As ninfas foram observadas diariamente e alimentadas com camundongos semanalmente. O tempo requerido para passar até o estágio adulto foi registrado em dias. Os triatomíneos foram pesados

  5. Desenvolvimento de Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae em duas cultivares de abacaxi Development of the pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae on two pineapple cultivars

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A cochonilha Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae é uma das principais pragas em cultivos de abacaxi e os estudos biológicos desse inseto em diferentes cultivares são uma necessidade. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento dessa cochonilha em duas cultivares de abacaxi, Pérola e Cayenne. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. As plantas de abacaxi foram reproduzidas in vitro, transplantadas para vasos (250 mL e aclimatadas em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas com até um dia de vida foram confinadas em gaiolas de PVC (1 cm de diâmetro, e fixadas em folhas de ambas as cultivares. Não foram detectadas diferenças no desenvolvimento de D. brevipes nos dois substratos alimentares utilizados. O desenvolvimento ninfal de fêmeas e machos de D. brevipes foi 39,9 e 32,0 dias na cv. Pérola e 38,5 e 32,4 dias na cv. Cayenne, respectivamente. A sobrevivência da fase ninfal foi 32,3 e 40,5%; a razão sexual, 0,39 e 0,33; e a longevidade de fêmeas, 20,3 e 26,1 dias nas cvs. Pérola e Cayenne, respectivamente.The pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is the main pest on pineapple crops and biological studies of this insect are necessary on different cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development time of this mealybug on the pineapple cultivars Pérola and Cayenne. The experiment was performed in climated chambers at 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 12 h photophase. Pinneapple plants were reproduced in vitro, transplanted to pots (250 mL and kept in greenhouse. One-day-old nymphs were kept inside a clipcage (1 cm diameter fixed on the plants. No differences in development of D. brevipes among the cultivars were found. Development times of females and males, respectively, were 39.9 and 32 days on cv. Pérola and 38.5 and 32.4 days on cv. Cayenne. Nymphs survivals were 32.3 and 40.5%, sexual rates

  6. Ecological and genetic differences between Cacopsylla melanoneura (Hemiptera, Psyllidae populations reveal species host plant preference.

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    Valeria Malagnini

    Full Text Available The psyllid Cacopsylla melanoneura is considered one of the vectors of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali', the causal agent of apple proliferation disease. In Northern Italy, overwintered C. melanoneura adults reach apple and hawthorn around the end of January. Nymph development takes place between March and the end of April. The new generation adults migrate onto conifers around mid-June and come back to the host plant species after overwintering. In this study we investigated behavioural differences, genetic differentiation and gene flow between samples of C. melanoneura collected from the two different host plants. Further analyses were performed on some samples collected from conifers. To assess the ecological differences, host-switching experiments were conducted on C. melanoneura samples collected from apple and hawthorn. Furthermore, the genetic structure of the samples was studied by genotyping microsatellite markers. The examined C. melanoneura samples performed better on their native host plant species. This was verified in terms of oviposition and development of the offspring. Data resulting from microsatellite analysis indicated a low, but statistically significant difference between collected-from-apple and hawthorn samples. In conclusion, both ecological and genetic results indicate a differentiation between C. melanoneura samples associated with the two host plants.

  7. Genome sequence of "Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum" the flavobacterial endosymbiont of Llaveia axin axin (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Pérez, Tania; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Mora, Jaime; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-03-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidae) constitute a very diverse group of sap-feeding insects with a large diversity of symbiotic associations with bacteria. Here, we present the complete genome sequence, metabolic reconstruction, and comparative genomics of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of the giant scale insect Llaveia axin axin. The gene repertoire of its 309,299 bp genome was similar to that of other flavobacterial insect endosymbionts though not syntenic. According to its genetic content, essential amino acid biosynthesis is likely to be the flavobacterial endosymbiont's principal contribution to the symbiotic association with its insect host. We also report the presence of a γ-proteobacterial symbiont that may be involved in waste nitrogen recycling and also has amino acid biosynthetic capabilities that may provide metabolic precursors to the flavobacterial endosymbiont. We propose "Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum" as the name of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of insects from the Monophlebidae family.

  8. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea

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    Ferenc Kozár

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %, to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera; Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera; Margarodidae sensu lato (5 species in 5 genera; Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera; Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus; and Cerococcidae (1 species. Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna.

  9. Are Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) distinct species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidimitriou, Evangelia; Simonato, Mauro; Watson, Gillian W; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Zhao, Jing; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-03-24

    Among the Nearctic species of Phenacoccus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris are morphologically similar and it can be difficult to separate them on the basis of microscopic morphological characters of the adult female alone. In order to resolve their identity, a canonical variates morphological analysis of 199 specimens from different geographical origins and host plants and a molecular analysis of the COI and 28S genes were performed. The morphological analysis supported synonymy of the two species, as although the type specimens of the "species" are widely separated from each other in the canonical variates plot, they are all part of a continuous range of variation. The molecular analysis showed that P. solani and P. defectus are grouped in the same clade. On the basis of the morphological and molecular analyses, P. defectus is synonymized under the senior name P. solani, syn. n.

  10. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Fu, Xiaohong; Liu, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug, Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular, quinquelocular, and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts, recording characteristics of their structure, size and distribution. We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers-the procuticle, epidermis and basement membrane-and four sub-layers of the procuticle-the epicuticle, exocuticle, endocuticle and formation zone. The wax-secreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis. All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells. These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage. Synthesized by the glandular cells, the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  11. Chirality and bioactivity of the sex pheromone of Madeira mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsiao-Yung; Ko, Chi-Hung; Cheng, Chao-Chih; Su, Yu-Ting; Pola, Someshwar

    2011-06-01

    Two compounds (trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate and R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate) identified from aeration extracts of virgin female Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were synthesized and tested in field bioassays in northern Taiwan over a 1-mo period. In total, 1,492 male P. madeirensis were captured in sticky traps. Our results showed that 1 microg of synthetic trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate released from a plastic tube dispenser was attractive to the mealybugs. Different stereoisomers of chrysanthemyl 2-methylbutanoate also were tested. The insect-produced stereoisomer was the most attractive of all the isomers tested, and the stereochemistry of the acid moiety proved to be more critical than that of the alcohol moiety. The minor component found in extracts, R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate, alone was not attractive to male Madeira mealybugs nor did it act synergistically or additively with the main component.

  12. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented.

  13. An annotated checklist of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumphy, Chris

    2014-07-31

    An annotated list of 83 scale insect species (Hemiptera: Sterorrhyncha: Coccoidea) recorded from Saint Lucia is presented, based on data gathered from UK quarantine interceptions, samples collected in an urban coastal habitat in the North West of the Island in 2013, and published records. Thirty-three species (40%) are recorded for the first time for the country, including Dysmicoccus joannesiae (Costa Lima), a South American mealybug, and Poliaspoides formosana (Takahashi), an Asian armoured scale insect pest of bamboo, which are new for the Caribbean region. The economic, environmental and social impacts caused by introduced exotic species of scale insect are discussed. Two predatory midges Diadiplosis ?coccidivora (Felt) and Diadiplosis multifila (Felt) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are recorded for the first time from Saint Lucia. The latter species was observed causing 90% mortality of a large infestation of passion vine mealybug Planococcus minor (Maskell) on soursop fruit. 

  14. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozár, Ferenc; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Fetykó, Kinga; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %), to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera); Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera); Margarodidaesensu lato (5 species in 5 genera); Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera); Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus); and Cerococcidae (1 species). Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna.

  15. Survival and fecundity of two strains of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Gebhardtsbauer, Ron; Rajotte, Edwin G

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of development of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) under specific environmental conditions could lead to improved management techniques. Developmental rates, age-, and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain and a field strain of bed bugs reared on human blood. Both strains were then crossed reciprocally to produce four F1 generations and subsequent age- and stage-specific life tables were constructed. No significant differences were found in the overall survival of the parental strains, but significant differences were found in development rate within various instars based on strain. Parallel results were derived from the F1 generation hybrids. Stable age distribution calculations predict that 80% of bedbugs within exponentially growing populations will be immature.

  16. Identifikasi kutukebul (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae dari beberapa tanaman inang dan perkembangan populasinya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama Hidayat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae can cause direct and indirect damages on plants, especially vegetables. There is only limited information regarding taxonomy and population dynamic of whiteflies attacking vegetables in Indonesia. This research is conducted to identify species of whitefly collected from chili pepper, tomato, and soybean, and to study their population dynamic. The information gathered from these studies will be useful to support whitefly management in the field. Based on morphology identification of the puparium collected directly from the host plants, there were four species of whitefly identified from chili pepper, tomato, and soybean in Bogor, Cianjur, and Sukabumi, i.e. Bemisia tabaci, Aleurodicus dispersus, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and Dialeurodes sp. The presence of B. tabaci on chili pepper and tomato was associated with virus infection that causes yellowing and leaf curl disease. This population of B. tabaci tended to increase along with plant growth and generally reached the highest population when the plant was 60-70 days after planting.

  17. Advances in the use of the RNA interference technique in Hemiptera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Li; Xiao-Ping Wang; Man-Qun Wang; Wei-Hua Ma; Hong-Xia Hua

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference(RNAi)suppresses the expression of target genes by posttranscriptional regulation.Because double-stranded RNA(dsRNA)mediated gene silencing is a conserved mechanism in many eukaryotes,RNAi has become a valuable tool for unveiling gene function in many model insects.Recent research has also shown that RNAi can also be effective in the downregulation of target genes in Hemiptera.In this review,we discuss the use of the RNAi technique in gene functional analysis in hemipterans,highlighting the methods of dsRNA uptake by these insects and discuss the knock-down efficiency of these techniques.Although the RNAi technique has disadvantages,our primary goal here is to determine whether it can be exploited further in the discovery of new gene functions,and as a pest control strategy,in some important Hemipteran pests.

  18. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)).

  19. Phylogenetic Signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera Mouthparts: Stylets Bundle, Sense Organs, and Labial Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Brożek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha. The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera, together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae. The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae, (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae, (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae, Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae.

  20. Egg parasitoids of Taosa spp. (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae in Formosa, Argentina, with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y Platygastridae de Taosa (Cuernavaca longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Este dictiofárido se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach, y fue colectado en Formosa, Argentina, donde algunos de sus huevos estaban parasitados. Se describen dos especies nuevas: Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus taosae Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae y Telenomus formosanus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Telenominae. La última especie, que pertenece al grupo crassiclava de especies de Telenomus Haliday, también ataca los huevos de Taosa sp. sobre Pontederia subovata (Seubert Lowden. Estos son los primeros parasitoides oófagos registrados para el género Taosa Distant.

  1. Leaf Damaged by Nymph of Cardiaspina albitextura and Cardiaspina retator (Hemiptera: Psyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISMAH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardispina (Hemiptera: Pshyllidae is one of the most important genera of the Australian Psyllidae, owing to the spectacular damage to Eucalyptus spp. The increase of C. albitextura and C. retator populations in high numbers caused severe damage on leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Both species have similarities, i.e. they occur on the same host plant and prefer mature leaves of E. camaldulensis for oviposition and feeding sites. They might thus be more likely to show competition than the less closely related taxa. The purpose of the study was to examine degree of the resource use by measuring the area of leaves damaged by the nymphs of C. albitextura and C. retator. The results indicated that the nymph of C. retator caused damage twice more damages than that of C. albitextura. The leaves area damaged by the females of both species was greater than that by the males.

  2. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  3. On dorsal prothoracic appendages in treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae and the nature of morphological evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Mikó

    Full Text Available A spectacular hypothesis was published recently, which suggested that the "helmet" (a dorsal thoracic sclerite that obscures most of the body of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae is connected to the 1st thoracic segment (T1; prothorax via a jointed articulation and therefore was a true appendage. Furthermore, the "helmet" was interpreted to share multiple characteristics with wings, which in extant pterygote insects are present only on the 2nd (T2 and 3rd (T3 thoracic segments. In this context, the "helmet" could be considered an evolutionary novelty. Although multiple lines of morphological evidence putatively supported the "helmet"-wing homology, the relationship of the "helmet" to other thoracic sclerites and muscles remained unclear. Our observations of exemplar thoraces of 10 hemipteran families reveal multiple misinterpretations relevant to the "helmet"-wing homology hypothesis as originally conceived: 1 the "helmet" actually represents T1 (excluding the fore legs; 2 the "T1 tergum" is actually the anterior dorsal area of T2; 3 the putative articulation between the "helmet" and T1 is actually the articulation between T1 and T2. We conclude that there is no dorsal, articulated appendage on the membracid T1. Although the posterior, flattened, cuticular evagination (PFE of the membracid T1 does share structural and genetic attributes with wings, the PFE is actually widely distributed across Hemiptera. Hence, the presence of this structure in Membracidae is not an evolutionary novelty for this clade. We discuss this new interpretation of the membracid T1 and the challenges of interpreting and representing morphological data more broadly. We acknowledge that the lack of data standards for morphology is a contributing factor to misinterpreted results and offer an example for how one can reduce ambiguity in morphology by referencing anatomical concepts in published ontologies.

  4. On dorsal prothoracic appendages in treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) and the nature of morphological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, István; Friedrich, Frank; Yoder, Matthew J; Hines, Heather M; Deitz, Lewis L; Bertone, Matthew A; Seltmann, Katja C; Wallace, Matthew S; Deans, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    A spectacular hypothesis was published recently, which suggested that the "helmet" (a dorsal thoracic sclerite that obscures most of the body) of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae) is connected to the 1st thoracic segment (T1; prothorax) via a jointed articulation and therefore was a true appendage. Furthermore, the "helmet" was interpreted to share multiple characteristics with wings, which in extant pterygote insects are present only on the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) thoracic segments. In this context, the "helmet" could be considered an evolutionary novelty. Although multiple lines of morphological evidence putatively supported the "helmet"-wing homology, the relationship of the "helmet" to other thoracic sclerites and muscles remained unclear. Our observations of exemplar thoraces of 10 hemipteran families reveal multiple misinterpretations relevant to the "helmet"-wing homology hypothesis as originally conceived: 1) the "helmet" actually represents T1 (excluding the fore legs); 2) the "T1 tergum" is actually the anterior dorsal area of T2; 3) the putative articulation between the "helmet" and T1 is actually the articulation between T1 and T2. We conclude that there is no dorsal, articulated appendage on the membracid T1. Although the posterior, flattened, cuticular evagination (PFE) of the membracid T1 does share structural and genetic attributes with wings, the PFE is actually widely distributed across Hemiptera. Hence, the presence of this structure in Membracidae is not an evolutionary novelty for this clade. We discuss this new interpretation of the membracid T1 and the challenges of interpreting and representing morphological data more broadly. We acknowledge that the lack of data standards for morphology is a contributing factor to misinterpreted results and offer an example for how one can reduce ambiguity in morphology by referencing anatomical concepts in published ontologies.

  5. Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae); Efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Fabio Souto [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], e-mail: fbio_almeida@yahoo.com.br; Goncalves, Lenicio [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal. Area de Biologia], e-mail: lencygon@globo.com

    2007-10-15

    Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree), Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae). This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 {+-} 1 deg C, 80 {+-} 3% RH and 12h photo phase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 {+-} 2.6 deg C, 73.3 {+-} 9.9 % RH), and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety IAC-22 and kept at 25 or 30 deg C. In all treatments five immature stages were observed. The increase of temperature caused reduction in the developmental time. The temperature of 15 deg C disabled nymphal eclosion and was also lethal to those nymphs ecloded at other temperatures. The lower mortality of nymphs occurred in the temperature of 25 deg C with cotton as food (24.07%). The lower threshold temperature (Tb) occurred for the first instar (11.54 deg C) and the higher for the second instar (15.33 deg C). The females of D. maurus required more degree-days (329.93 degree-days) than males (300.49 degree-days) until adult emergence. (author)

  6. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  7. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  8. Characterization of twelve novel microsatellite markers of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) identified from next generation sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major pest of rice and has long-range migratory behavior in Asia. Microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) have been widely used to determine the origins and genetic diversity of insect pests. ...

  9. Can we predict brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) abundance in corn using previous pheromone trap capture and early season weather data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the southern US. Scouting stink bugs in corn is time consuming and could be improved if scouts were aware of conditions that favored imminent stink bug infestations. Changes in seas...

  10. A study of the scale insect genera Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Putoidae) and Ceroputo Šulc (Pseudococcidae) with a comparison to Phenacoccus Cockerell (Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For almost a century, the scale insect genus Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) was considered to belong to the family Pseudococcidae (the mealybugs), but recent consensus accords Puto its own family, the Putoidae. This paper reviews the taxonomic history of Puto and family Putoida...

  11. Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), a natural enemy of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Life table and intrinsic rate of population increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lins, J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Silva, D.B.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Life table data of natural enemies are often used to understand their population dynamics and estimate their potential role in the biological control of pests. Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important pest of several crops and its intrinsic rate of population increase (

  12. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyreth...

  13. Preliminary evaluation of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)as a predator of the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The predatory lady beetle Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent against the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants. Adult D. catalinae females were starved for ...

  14. Complete Genome Sequences of the Obligate Symbionts "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola" from the Pestiferous Leafhopper Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gordon M; Abbà, Simona; Kube, Michael; Marzachì, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Two bacterial symbionts of the European pest leafhopper, Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were fully sequenced. "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola" represent two of the smallest known bacterial genomes at 190 kb and 112 kb, respectively. Genome sequences are nearly identical to strains reported from the closely related host species, M. quadrilineatus.

  15. First record of the leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Erythroneurini) from China, with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    The erythroneurine leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) is reported for the first time from China, with descriptions and illustrations of two new species, Zyginopsis paraverticalis and Zyginopsis gracilis spp. nov., and one newly recorded species from China, Zyginopsis verticalis Ahmed n. rec. A key for identification of Chinese species (adult males) is provided.

  16. Characterization of EPG waveforms for the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), on tea plants and their correlation with stylet activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylet probing activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were studied using the DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Seven different EPG waveforms (i.e., Np, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6) were identified and characterized on susceptible tea leav...

  17. Repellency of mustard (Brassica juncea) and arugula (Eruca sativa) plants, and plant oils against the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an economic complex of at least 36 cryptic species, comprising a highly polyphagous and serious pest of vegetable, fiber and ornamental crops. Sustainable alternative measures such as cultural controls can be effective ...

  18. Mitochondrial DNA from Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Suggests Cryptic Speciation and Pinpoints the Source of the Introduction to Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan P. Havill; Michael E. Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Shigehiko Shiyake; Adalgisa Caccone; Adalgisa Caccone

    2006-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced pest of unknown origin that is causing severe mortality to hemlocks (Tsuga spp.) in eastern North America. Adelgids also occur on other Tsuga species in western North America and East Asia, but these trees are not significantly damaged. The purpose of this study is to use...

  19. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  20. 枸杞木虱啮小蜂寄生行为及生物学特性的研究%Behavior and bionomics of the ectoparasitoid Tetrastichus sp. Of the wolf berry psyllid(Paratrioza sinica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段立清; 冯淑军; 李海平; 邹晓林

    2002-01-01

    枸杞木虱啮小蜂Tetrastichus sp.是枸杞木虱Paratrioza sinica Yang & Li若虫的外寄生蜂,自然寄生率可达86.5%.在温度为20~25℃的室内条件下,完成1个世代需14~20 d.成虫寿命与取食有关,取食15%的蜂蜜水,雌性成虫寿命为12~17 d,雄性成虫为4~6 d.成蜂最喜欢在3龄和4龄若虫上产卵.自然种群消长与寄主虫口密度相关.每年7月到8月下旬该蜂寄生率高, 9月份下降,10月份几乎不见.Behavior and bionomics of the ectoparasitoid Tetrastichus sp. of the wolf berry psyllid(Paratrioza sinica).

  1. Hallazgo de Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae) en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul"

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatella,Roberto; Basmadjián,Yester; Rosa,Raquel; Martínez, María; Mendaro,Gabriela; Civila,Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    Triatoma platensis Neiva 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae), especie ornitófila, con área de dispersión conocida en Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay y Uruguay es notificada en un primer registro para Brasil. Hallada en el municipio de Uruguaiana (Río Grande do Sul) en nidos de Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Passeriformes, Furnariidae) donde cohabitaba con cricétidos de la especie Orizomys flavescens. Ningún ejemplar de los siete colectados se presentó infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi.

  2. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  3. First Report of Citrus Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia de Oliveira Molina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The citrus blackfly Aleroucanthus woglumi Ashby, (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae is an important pest that occurs in citrus groves, native to south-east Asia. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, this is a quarantine pest (A2 under official control IN 52, 2007 (MAPA and is not widespread in the country. The insect can infest more than 300 host plants, including cultivated plants, ornamentals and weeds, but mostly occurs in the plants of the genus citrus. This paper is the first report of citrus blackfly in the State of Paraná.

  4. [Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Tratominae) in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatella Agrelo, R; Basmadjian, Y; Rosa, R; Puime, A

    1993-01-01

    Triatoma delpontei (Romaña & Abalos, 1947) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) is an ornithophilic sylvatic with a particular association to the psittacid Myiopsitta monachus (Boaddert, 1783). It is found in the continental biogeographical province of the Chaco, where it inhabits the nests or M. monachus, in subtropical xerophytic forests. The authors report the first finding of T. delpontei in Brasil, in the "campanha" region of the State or Rio Grande do Sul (Barra do Quarai, Uruguaiana), on the right bank of the River Cuareim, not far from de Uruguayan border.

  5. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    A survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking the national flower of Malaysia, Hibiscus rosa-sisnensis L. and Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) was conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from January to March 2016. Adult females were mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam. The five species identified were Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller. Two of these, the invasive species Ferrisia dasylirii and P. solenopsis were introduced and first recorded in Malaysia.

  6. Resurrection of Auritibicen shikokuanus (Kato, 1959 stat. rev. & comb. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cryptotympanini from Ehime and Hiroshima of Japan

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    Young June Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Auritibicen shikokuanus (Kato, 1959 stat. rev. & comb. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cryptotympanini from Ehime Prefecture (Shikoku of Japan is resurrected from junior synonymy with Auritibicen kyushyuensis (Kato, 1926. Auritibicen ishiharai (Kato, 1959 syn. nov. & comb. nov. from Hiroshima Prefecture (Honshu of Japan is resurrected from junior synonymy with A. kyushyuensis and then is synonymized with A. shikokuanus. Morphological comparisons are made among closely related species, A. shikokuanus, A. kyushyuensis, and Auritibicen intermedius (Mori, 1931.

  7. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea with new records and distribution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Moghaddam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger, D. wuenni (Lindinger, Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, E. pamiricus (Bazarov, E. reynei Schmutterer, E. sanguinairensis Goux and E. saxidesertus (Borchsenius and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko.

  8. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger), Diaspidiotus wuenni (Lindinger), Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, Eriococcus pamiricus (Bazarov), Eriococcus reynei Schmutterer, Eriococcus sanguinairensis Goux and Eriococcus saxidesertus (Borchsenius) and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko.

  9. Description of a new soft scale insect of the genus Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kondo, Takumasa

    2015-01-01

    A new soft scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) species, Pulvinariacaballeroramosae Tanaka & Kondo, sp. n., is described from specimens collected on twigs of Ficussoatensis Dugand (Moraceae) in Bogota, Colombia. The new species resembles Pulvinariadrymiswinteri Kondo & Gullan, described from Chile on Drimyswinteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Winteraceae), but differs in the distribution of preopercular pores on the dorsum, the presence of dorsal tubular ducts, dorsal microducts, and reticulation on the anal plates; and in its feeding habits, i.e., Pulvinariacaballeroramosae feeds on the twigs whereas Pulvinariadrymiswinteri feeds on the leaves of its host. A key to the Colombian species of Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti is provided.

  10. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellieu, Louis, E-mail: louis.dellieu@unamur.be; Sarrazin, Michaël, E-mail: michael.sarrazin@unamur.be; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Department of Physics, University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-07-14

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  11. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  12. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  13. Fitness of Encarsia sophia(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)parasitizing Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Luo; Tong-Xian Liu

    2011-01-01

    Fitness and efficacy of Encarsia sophia(Girault & Dodd)(Hymenoptera:Aphelinidae)as a biological control agent was compared on two species of whitefly(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)hosts,the relatively smaller sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius)biotype 'B',and the larger greenhouse whitefly,Trialeurodes vaporariorum(Westwood).Significant differences were observed on green bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)in the laboratory at 27± 2℃,55% ± 5% RH,and a photoperiod of 14 : 10 h(L : D).Adult parasitoids emerging from T.vaporariorum were larger than those emerging from B.tabaci,and almost all biological parameters of E.sophia parasitizing the larger host species were superior except for the developmental times of the parasitoids that were similar when parasitizing the two host species.Furthermore,parasitoids emerging from T.vaporariorum parasitized more of these hosts than did parasitoids emerging from B.tabaci.We conclude that E.sophia reared from larger hosts had better fitness than from smaller hosts.Those from either host also preferred the larger host for oviposition but were just as effective on smaller hosts.Therefore,larger hosts tended to produce better parasitoids than smaller hosts.

  14. Susceptibility of twolined spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) life stages to entomophagous arthropods in turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachappa, Punya; Guillebeau, L P; Braman, S K; All, J N

    2006-10-01

    Prosapia bicincta (Say) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), the twolined spittlebug, is an economic pest of turfgrass in the southeastern United States. No data concerning natural enemies of P. bicincta in turfgrass have been reported previously. We compared predation of spittlebug eggs, nymphs, and adults in the laboratory by potential generalist predators commonly found in turfgrass: bigeyed bugs Geocoris uliginosus Say and Geocoris punctipes Say; red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren; wolf spiders (Lycosa sp. Walckenaer); carabid beetles Harpalaus pensylvanicus DeGeer and Calosoma sayi Dejean; and tiger beetles Megacephala carolina carolina L. Eggs were readily consumed by generalist predators. S. invicta consumed 100% of the eggs offered. H. pensylvanicus and C. sayi were also significant predators of P. bicincta eggs. Nymphs live in spittlemasses that protect them from attack by predators, but exposed nymphs were susceptible to attack when mechanically removed from their spittlemasses. S. invicta and M. carolina carolina caused significant mortality of exposed nymphs. P. bicincta adults are aposematic and have the ability to reflex bleed; however, reflex bleeding did not prevent attack by predators. S. invicta and M. carolina carolina killed 100% of the adult spittlebugs offered in laboratory bioassays. Lycosa sp. are less voracious predators of adults. Sound background knowledge about P. bicincta and its potential natural enemy complex is important for the development and implementation of a detailed, site-specific, biologically based pest management program in turfgrass.

  15. Feeding preference ofNezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and attractiveness of soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrain de Santana Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nezara viridula (L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae is a cosmopolitan insect that causes economic damages to several cultures, in particular soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr. Among the techniques that involve Integrated Pest Management, the resistance of plants is pointed as a tool of great value and can contribute to the reduction of populations of insects. The feeding preferences of adults of southern green stink bug (N. viridula, and the attractiveness of soybean genotypes were evaluated under laboratory conditions to detect the most resistant material against attack from this insect. A choice test, using mature grains and green pods of the genotypes was carried out, in which the number of individuals attracted in different periods was counted. Feeding preference was evaluated in the choice tests using green pods and the number of pricks and the average time spent feeding by pricks were evaluated. In addition, texture and trichome density in the green pods were evaluated. The mature grains of 'TMG 117RR' and 'TMG 121RR' were less attractive to the adults of N. viridula. Regarding the green pods, 'IAC 17' and PI 227687 were less attractive; 'IAC 17' and 'IAC PL1' were less consumed, indicating the feeding non-preference as a resistance mechanism. 'IAC 17', 'TMG-117RR' and PI 227687 presented high levels of trichome density, and in 'IAC 17' this morphological characteristic was considered to be the main resistance factor against N. viridula. These results may be useful for breeding programs that focus on the resistance of soybeans to insects.

  16. Within-plant distribution and binomial sampling of Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Jacqueline D; Wright, Mark G; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2006-12-01

    The banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), infests banana (Musa spp.) worldwide. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Banana bunchy top virus (family Nanoviridae, genus Babuvirus) the etiological agent of Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD). BBTD is currently the most serious problem affecting banana in Hawaii. Despite the importance of this vector species, little is known about its biology or ecology. There are also no sampling plans available for P. nigronervosa. We conducted field surveys to develop a sampling plan for this pest. Ten plots were surveyed on seven commercial banana farms on the island of Oahu, HI, for the presence of P. nigronervosa on banana plantlets. We found aphids more frequently near the base of plants, followed by the newest unfurled leaf at the top of the plant. Aphids were least likely to be located on leaves in between the top and bottom of the plant. Aphid infestation on surveyed plots ranged from 8 to 95%. We developed a sequential binomial sampling plan based on our surveys. We also discovered that the within-plant distribution of P. nigronervosa is an important factor to consider when sampling for this pest. Our sampling plan will assist in the development of sustainable management practices for banana production.

  17. Rapid molecular identification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Mexican 'Hass' avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Morse, Joseph G; Stouthamer, Richard

    2009-10-01

    'Hass' avocado, Persea americana Mill., fruit imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), constituting several species. The paucity and delicate nature of morphological characters traditionally used to diagnose armored scales often require careful preparation of slide-mounted specimens and expert knowledge of the group, for their accurate identification. Here, we present a simple, quick, and accurate means to identify armored scales on Mexican avocados, based on amplification of the internal transcribed spacer two of ribosomal DNA, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This region seems to show a high level of intraspecific conformity among scale specimens originating from different localities. A suite of species-specific reverse PCR primers are combined in a single reaction, with a universal forward primer, and produce a PCR product of a unique size, that after standard gel electrophoresis, allows the direct diagnosis of six diaspidid species: Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller; Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret); Hemiberlesia sp. near latania; Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell); and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley). Two additional species, Diaspis miranda (Cockerell) and Diaspis sp. near miranda, also are separated from the others by using this method and are subsequently diagnosed by secondary digestion of the PCR product with the restriction endonuclease smaI.

  18. Effect of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth attributes of the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjou, J; Mohammadi, M; Hassanpour, M

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide, the developing industry of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in greenhouses is threatened by damage from sucking pests, especially aphids. Among these, the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most serious. We tested the effect of two cucumber cultivars ('Royal' and'Storm') and three vermicompost concentrations (0 [control], 20, and 30%) in field soil on the development and fecundity rates of A. gossypii, by using a randomized complete block design with four replicates as a factorial experiment. The developmental times of nymphs reared on plants grown into the three vermicompost concentrations ranged from 5.5 (0%) to 8.7 (30%) d (on Storm) and from 4.3 (0%) to 7 (30%) d (on Royal). The developmental time of melon aphid's nymphs was greatest on plants grown in the culture medium with 30% vermicompost rate and least on plants reared in the soil without vermicompost. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r,,) of A. gossypii ranged from 0.204 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil amended with 30% vermicompost rate (on Storm seedlings) to 0.458 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil without vermicompost (on Royal seedlings). Accordingly, our findings confirm that a combination of a low level of vermicompost and a partially resistant cucumber cultivar might play an important role in managing this aphid on cucumbers in greenhouses.

  19. [Characterization of the behavioral and vibrational signals in Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) during courtship and copulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a neotropical species belonging to the family Pentatomidae with over 4 000 species described, and is distributed from Florida to Brazil. This study describes the sexual behavior and reported for the first time the production of substrate vibrations by males and females during copulatory behavior and mating. Courtship and copulatory behavior, as well as the diverse signals, were recorded with a phonographic cartridge connected to a video camera. Female vibrations were reproduced in the absence of females and the responses by males were recorded. At least three types of substrate vibrations were distinguished in males and one in females, and these signals were characterized by their low frequency, varying from 127 to 180Hz. The sounds of E. floridianus males were significantly different in frequency, duration and number of pulses, both in courtship and in copulation, for the purring and drumming sounds. The production of sounds in this species is associated principally with mechanical, stimulatory behavior during courtship and copulation. Patterns of behavior and their relation to substrate vibrations suggest that these signals are important for the males in the context of mate location and sexual selection.

  20. Genetics, realized heritability and possible mechanism of chlorfenapyr resistance in Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saif; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2016-10-01

    Dusky cotton bug (DCB), Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera) is a serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous plants. Chlorfenapyr, a broad spectrum, N-substituted, halogenated pyrrole insecticide is used extensively to control many insect pests in cotton, including DCB. In this study, we investigated a field strain of DCB to assess its potential to develop resistance to chlorfenapyr. After six generations of continuous selection pressure with chlorfenapyr, DCB had a 7.24-fold and 149.06-fold resistance ratio (RR) at G1 and G6, respectively. The genetic basis of inheritance of chlorfenapyr resistance was also studied by crossing the chlorfenapyr selected (Chlorfenapyr-SEL) and laboratory population (Lab-PK). Results revealed an autosomal and incompletely dominant mode of inheritance for chlorfenapyr resistance in the Chlorfenapyr-SEL population of DCB. The results of the monogenic model test showed chlorfenapyr resistance was controlled by multiple genes. Estimated realized heritability for chlorfenapyr resistance in the tested DCB strain was 0.123. Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and S, S, S-butyl phosphorotrithioate revealed chlorfenapyr resistance might be due to esterase activity. These results would be useful for devising an effective resistance management strategy against DCB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Damage Capacity of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae Adults on Brachiaria ruziziensis Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Teixeira Resende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the damage caused by adult Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae on Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain & Evard under field conditions. A total of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 M. spectabilis adults per plot were maintained for 6 days. Thereafter, the insects were removed from the plant, and the following parameters were evaluated: chlorophyll content, damage score, dry as well as fresh weights, percentage of shoots’ dry matter, and the forage’s ability to regrow. The chlorophyll content was significantly reduced; the damage score and percentage of dry matter in plants increased depending on the increased insect infestation density after 6 days of exposure. In contrast, no change was observed on the B. ruziziensis fresh and dry weights as well as the regrowth capacity depending on the M. spectabilis infestation densities. Attacks by 8 adult M. spectabilis per clump of B. ruziziensis with an average of 80 tillers for 6 days were sufficient to reduce the chlorophyll content and the functional plant loss index. This density can be a reference for spittlebug integrated management in Brachiaria.

  2. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Faraone

    Full Text Available Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender and Thymus vulgaris (thyme and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  3. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Polygalacturonase Genes in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae.

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    Lili Zhang

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase (PG is an enzyme in the salivary glands of piercing-sucking mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae that plays a key role in plant feeding and injury. By constructing a full-length cDNA library, we cloned and characterized 14 PG genes from the salivary glands of Apolygus lucorum, a pestiferous mirid bug in cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China. BLAST search analysis showed that the amino acid sequences deduced from transcripts of the PG genes were closely related to PGs from other mirid bugs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PGs of mirid bugs had six main branches, PG1-PG6 (Genbank accession numbers: KF881899~KF881912. We investigated the mRNA expression patterns of the A. lucorum PG genes using real-time PCR. All 14 PGs were expressed significantly higher in the salivary glands than in other tissues (head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing. For eggs and nymphs, the expression levels of these PGs were much higher in the 5th instar stage than in the egg, and 1st and 3rd instar stages. The PG expression levels in 1-day-old adults were very low, and increased in 5, 20 and 30-day-old adults. Additionally, PG expression levels were generally similar between males and females. The possible physiological functions of PGs in A. lucorum were discussed.

  4. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris species (Hemiptera: Miridae under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH. Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80% were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm, the net reproductive rate (R0 and the finite rate of increase (λ for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  5. Characterization of resistance to adult spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Brachiaria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Lina M; Cardona, César; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Nymphs and adults of several spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species are key pests of forage brachiariagrasses (Brachiaria spp.) in tropical America. To support current breeding programs, a series of experiments aimed at characterizing the mechanisms of resistance to adult feeding damage were carried out. Five genotypes were used: two susceptible checks (CIAT 0606 and CIAT 0654) and three nymph-resistant genotypes (CIAT 36087, CIAT 6294, and SX01NO/0102). Test insects were Aeneolamia varia (F.), A. reducta (Lallemand), and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand). The nymph-resistant genotypes showed tolerance to all spittlebug species tested. Tolerance in these genotypes can be classified as only moderate given the extent of losses (60-80%) caused by both female and male adults. None of the nymph-resistant genotypes had antibiotic effects on adults feeding on foliage. The results also indicated that antixenosis for feeding is not a plausible explanation for lower damage scores and less biomass losses in resistant genotypes. The fact that adult longevity (usually 8 d) was not affected when the adults were forced to feed on roots of a genotype with strong antibiotic resistance to nymphs is regarded as additional evidence that resistances to nymphs and to adults in Brachiaria are largely independent.

  6. Seasonal phenology, spatial distribution, and sampling plan for the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrá, A; Garcia-Marí, F; Soto, A

    2013-06-01

    Phlenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug of Neotropical origin. In recent years it has invaded the Mediterranean Basin causing significant damages in bougainvillea and other ornamental plants. This article examines its phenology, location on the plant and spatial distribution, and presents a sampling plan to determine P. peruvianus population density for the management of this mealybug in southern Europe. Six urban green spaces with bougainvillea plants were periodically surveyed between March 2008 and September 2010 in eastern Spain, sampling bracts, leaves, and twigs. Our results show that P. peruvianus abundance was high in spring and summer, declining to almost undetectable levels in autumn and winter. The mealybugs showed a preference for settling on bracts and there were no significant migrations between plant organs. P. peruvianus showed a highly aggregated distribution on bracts, leaves, and twigs. We recommend abinomial sampling of 200 leaves and an action threshold of 55% infested leaves for integrated pest management purposes on urban landscapes and enumerative sampling for ornamental nursery management and additional biological studies.

  7. Biotypic diversity in greenbug (Hemiptera: Aphididae): microsatellite-based regional divergence and host-adapted differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yiqun; Perumal, Azhaguvel; Burd, John D; Rudd, Jackie C

    2010-08-01

    Nineteen isolates of the cereal aphid pest greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were collected from wheat, Triticum aestivum L.; barley, Hordeum vulgare L.; or noncultivated grass hosts in five locations from Colorado and Wyoming. Parthenogenetic colonies were established. Biotypic profiles of the 19 isolates were determined based on their abilities to damage a set of host plant differentials, and 13 new biotypes were identified. Genetic diversity among the 19 isolates and five previously designated greenbug biotypes (E, G, H, I, and K) was examined with 31 cross-species transferable microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) markers. Neighbor-joining clustering analysis of marker data revealed host-adapted genetic divergence as well as regional differentiation of greenbug populations. Host associated biotypic variation seems to be more obvious in "agricultural biotypes," whereas isolates collected from noncultivated grasses tend to show more geographic divergence. It seems that the biotype sharing the most similar biotypic profiles and the same geographic region with current prevailing one may have the greatest potential to become the new prevailing biotype. Close monitoring of greenbug population dynamics especially biotypic variation on both crop plants and noncultivated grasses in small grain production areas may be a useful strategy for detecting potentially new prevailing virulent biotypes of the greenbug.

  8. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  9. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Vanessa Bellini; Pita, Sebastián; Vanzela, André Luis Laforga; Galvão, Cleber; Panzera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. This technique allows a clear discrimination of the heterochromatic regions classified as similar by C-banding, constituting a new chromosome marker with taxonomic and evolutionary significance. The diverse fluorescent patterns are likely due to the amplification of different repeated sequences, reflecting an unusual dynamic rearrangement in the genomes of this subfamily. Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae. PMID:27759763

  10. A laboratory and field condition comparison of life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Hosseini-Tabesh Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Life table studies are essential tools for understanding population dynamics. The life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae feeding on the host plant, Hibiscus syriacus L. were studied under laboratory (25±1°C and relative humidity of 65±5% and a photoperiod of 16L : 8D h and field conditions (23-43°C, and relative humidity of 27-95%. The data were analysed using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The life table studies were started with 50 and 40 nymphs in laboratory and field conditions, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, A. gossypii reared on H. syriacus had a higher survival rate, fecundity, and longevity than those reared under field conditions. When reared under field conditions, A. gossypii had a longer nymphal developmental time, shorter adult longevity, and lower fecundity than those reared under laboratory conditions. The intrinsic rate of increase (r, net reproductive rate (R0, and the finite rate of increase (λ under laboratory conditions, were higher than those obtained under field conditions. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the mean generation time T (days between field and laboratory conditions. In the present study, the results clearly showed that life table parameters of A. gossypii were significantly different under field and laboratory conditions. These results could help us to understand the A. gossypii population dynamics under field conditions. The results could also help us make better management decisions for economically important crops

  11. Species clarification of Isaria isolates used as biocontrol agents against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallou, Adrien; Serna-Domínguez, María G; Berlanga-Padilla, Angélica M; Ayala-Zermeño, Miguel A; Mellín-Rosas, Marco A; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C

    2016-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi belonging to the genus Isaria (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) are promising candidates for microbial control of insect pests. Currently, the Mexican government is developing a biological control program based on extensive application of Isaria isolates against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), a vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Previous research identified three promising Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307; tentatively identified as Isaria fumosorosea) from Mexico. The goal of this work was to obtain a complete morphological and molecular characterization of these isolates. Comparative analysis of morphology established that the isolates showed similar characteristics to Isaria javanica. Multi-gene analysis confirmed the morphological identification by including the three isolates within the I. javanica clade. Additionally, this work demonstrated the misidentifications of three other Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 310 and 324: I. javanica, formerly I. fumosorosea; CHE-CNRCB 393: I. fumosorosea, formerly Isaria farinosa), underlying the need for a full and correct characterization of an isolate before developing a biological control program. Finally, the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genotyping method revealed that the CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307 isolates belong to three different genotypes. This result indicates that ISSR markers could be used as a tool to monitor their presence in field conditions.

  12. Seasonal variation of Hemiptera community of a temple pond of Cachar District, Assam, northeastern India

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    K. Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study records seven families, 11 genera and 14 species of hemipteran insect community in different seasons in a temple pond near Silchar, Cachar District, Assam, northeastern India. The pond is very rich in macrophytes like Nelumbo nucifera (Water Lotus, Hygrorhiza aristata (Indian Lotus, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda Grass, Philotria sp. etc. The hemipteran families recorded in the system were Corixidae, Gerridae, Aphididae, Mesoveliidae, Notonectidae, Nepidae and Belostomatidae. The species were Micronecta haliploides, Micronecta (Basileonecta scutellaris scutellaris (Stål (Corixidae; Neogerris parvula (Stål, Limnogonus nitidus (Mayr, Tenagogerris sp., Rhagadotarsus sp. (Gerridae; Enithares ciliata (Fabricius, Anisops lundbladiana Landsbury, (Notonectidae; Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius and Diplonychus annulatus (Fabricius (Belostomatidae, Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae (Linnaeus (Aphididae, Ranatra elongata (Fabricius, Ranatra varipes varipes (Stål (Nepidae and Mesovelia vittigera Horváth (Mesoveliidae. The highest population of Hemiptera was recorded during the post-monsoon followed by the pre-monsoon and the monsoon periods. The lowest was recorded in the winter. Shannon Weiner diversity index (H/ and evenness index (J/ showed the highest diversity and evenness during the post monsoon period. Berger Parker index of dominance (d was found highest in winter. In winter both diversity and density were the lowest. The study revealed the presence of four dominant species and three sub-dominant species in the pond. Insect diversity did not show any significant relationship with the environmental variables.

  13. Dose-response relationships of clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam to Blissus occiduus (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, M D; Baxendale, F P; Heng-Moss, T M; Siegfried, B D; Blankenship, E E; Gaussoin, R E

    2011-02-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber (Hemiptera: Blissidae), has emerged as a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchlod dactyloides (Nuttall) Engelmann. In general, neonicotinoid insecticides effectively control a variety of turfgrass insects, particularly phloem-feeding pests. However, because of well documented inconsistencies in control, these compounds are generally not recommended for chinch bugs. This study was designed to document the contact and systemic toxicity of three neonicotinoid insecticides (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to B. occiduus. In contact bioassays, thiamethoxam was approximately 20-fold less toxic than clothianidin or imidacloprid to B. occiduus nymphs and three-fold more toxic to adults. In adult systemic bioassays, thiamethoxam was up to five-fold more toxic than clothianidin or imidacloprid. Interestingly, thiamethoxam was significantly more toxic to adults than to nymphs in both contact and systemic bioassays. This was not observed with clothianidin or imidacloprid. Bifenthrin, used for comparative purposes, exhibited 1844-fold and 122-fold increase in toxicity to nymphs and adults, respectively. These results provide the first documentation of the relative toxicity of these neonicotinoid insecticides to B. occiduus.

  14. Harmonic radar tagging for tracking movement of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-10-01

    Harmonic radar tagging was investigated as a method for monitoring the movement of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Because adhesive toxicity and tag weight limit the use of this technology, initial efforts focused on selection of the optimal adhesive and design of harmonic radar tags to reduce impact on the movement of stink bugs. A design consisting of a 6-cm-long 0.10-mm-thick silver-plated copper monopole on the anode terminal of a three-contact Schottky barrier diode attached with Gorilla super glue provided a compromise between unimpaired movement and tracking range, adding an additional 8% to the weight of the stink bug while not significantly (P > 0.05) reducing walking or flying mobility in the laboratory. Recovery of tagged stink bugs in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and fallow fields ranged from 10 to 75% after 24 h, whereas marked stink bugs were recovered at rates of 0-35% by using sweep net or drop cloth sampling. The distance dispersed in the field was not impacted (P > 0.05) by crop, tagged status, or gender of the insect. Future research should examine possible improvements to the harmonic radar transceiver and the wire antenna to decrease encumbrance.

  15. The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov., its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae

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    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov. , its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae.The subgenus Lycoderes (Lycoderides Sakakibara, 1972 is raised to the genus category - Lycoderides stat. nov.. - : and it now includes: Lycoderides amazonicus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides brevilobus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides burmeisteri (Fairmaire, 1846, comb. nov. , Lycoderides cultratus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fernandezi (Strümpel, 1988, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fuscus (Amyot & Serville, 1843, comb. nov. , Lycoderides gradatus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides hippocampus (Fabricius, 1803, comb. nov. , Lycoderides luteus (Funkhouser, 1940, comb. nov. , Lycoderides marginalis (Walker, 1851, comb. nov. , Lycoderides nathanieli (Cryan, 1999, comb. nov. , Lycoderides obtusus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides pennyi (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides phasianus (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. (= Enchenopa minamen Buckton, 1901,SYN. NOV: , Lycoderides protensus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides serraticornis (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. , and Lycoderides strumpeli (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. The following new species are described: Lycoderides abditus, sp. nov. , Lycoderides brulei,SP. NOV. (: both from French Guiana, Lycoderides capixaba, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Espírito Santo, Lycoderides cavichiolii, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Lycoderides meloi, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Bahia, and Lycoderides oliviae, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Minas Gerais. Other nomenclatural change: Stegaspis bracteata (Fabricius, 1787 = Lycoderes capitata Buckton, 1903, syn. nov. New records of geographical distribution and a key to the species are provided.

  16. Impact of Feeding on Contaminated Prey on the Life Parameters of Nesidiocoris Tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar; Adán, Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N. tenuis adults for 3 days. Mortality (24, 48, and 72 h after treatment), offspring production (third until eighth day) and longevity were documented. Metaflumizone and sulfoxaflor were classified as moderately harmful products because although the percentage of mortality was only 28 and 36%, respectively, both products caused a severe decrease in offspring production and longevity. Flonicamid and flubendiamide were classified as slightly harmful products; although they did not have a lethal effect, sublethal impact was important on the parameters studied. Spirotetramat and deltamethrin were insecticides categorized as harmless. This information could be useful for selecting the most appropriate insecticides to control pests in tomato crops in which N. tenuis is a relevant biological control agent. PMID:27694345

  17. Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), defend Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) against its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-04-01

    Mutualism is a common and important ecological phenomenon characterized by beneficial interaction between two species. Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, tend honeydew-producing hemipteran insects and reduce the activity of these insects' enemies. Ant-hemipteran interactions frequently exert positive effects on the densities of hemipterans. We tested the hypothesis that ant tending can increase the densities of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and reduce the densities of the mealybug's predatory and parasitic enemies, the lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the parasitoid wasp, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). We found that more ants foraged on mealybug-infested hibiscus plants than on mealybug-free plants. The number of foraging ants on plants infested with high densities of mealybugs (62.5 ants per plant) was nearly six times that on mealybug-free plants (10.2 ants per plant). Experiment results showed that ant tending significantly increased the survival of mealybugs: if predatory and parasitic enemies were present, the survival of mealybugs tended by fire ants was higher than that in the absence of tending ants. Furthermore, this tending by fire ants significantly decreased the survival of lady beetle larvae. However, no apparent effect was observed on the survival of parasitoid.

  18. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

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    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  19. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis.

  20. Citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) movement and population dynamics in an arbor-trained vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, M; Pereiro, S; Cabaleiro, C; Segura, A

    2010-06-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the main grapevine pest in vineyards in some countries, such as Spain and Brazil. In Galician vineyards (northwestern Spain), mealybug population levels are low because the accumulated degree-days are lower than in other grapevine-growing areas. The main problem caused by mealybugs is the transmission of viruses, even at low infestation levels. The active period of citrus mealybug in the study vineyard lasted from July until December, with an important movement peak at the end of July and August and a lower peak in November. The mealybug mainly moved upward along arbor-trained plants, and there were no important downward movements at the end of the season as has been described for other grapevine mealybugs. The mealybugs were normally restricted to the woody organs and were only present on leaves, branches, and green canes (always close to woody parts) in plants with high infestations. The movement of mealybugs between plants does not seem to take place by contact between green organs. Passive aerial transport and movement of pruning remains may play an important role in mealybug movement and thus in spread of the virus. The number of mealybugs carrying Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) was found to represent approximately 75% of mealybugs caught in a GLRaV-3 infected vineyard.

  1. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  2. A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

    2008-02-01

    Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed.

  3. Phenotypic variation and identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Watson, Gillian W; Sun, Yang; Tan, Yongan; Xiao, Liubin; Bai, Lixin

    2014-05-23

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that seriously damages cotton and other important crops. In previous studies in China, the presence of two submedian longitudinal lines of pigmented spots on the dorsum of adult females frequently has been used to identify this species. However, the present study records the occasional absence of pigmented spots in a sample from Guangxi province, China. Specimens without pigmented spots showed all the molecular and morphological characters that separate P. solenopsis from the similar species P. solani Ferris, especially the distribution of multilocular disc pores. In different geographic populations of P. solenopsis in China, mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28SrDNA genes are very similar (99.8-100%), indicating that they are conspecific. For COI, the genetic distance between P. solenopsis and P. solani is more than 3%. A map of the distribution of P. solenopsis in China is given. To help identify both pigmented and non-pigmented P. solenopsis accurately, an identification key to the 16 species of Phenacoccus found in China is provided. The key also identifies five potentially invasive Phenacoccus species not yet established in China, in case they get introduced there.

  4. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Bettiga, Larry J; Daane, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    Controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) were developed successfully for control of vine mealybug, Planococcusflcus Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on dormant grape (Vitis spp.) benchgrafts. At 30 ppm oxygen, 3-d ULO treatment at 25 degrees C and 4-d ULO treatment at 150C achieved complete control of all life stages of P. ficus. At a much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), the two ULO treatments with the same exposure periods of 3 d at 25 degrees C and 4 d at 15 degrees C were tested on six table and wine grape cultivars grafted on rootstocks along with P. ficus. The benchgrafts were then potted in a greenhouse, together with untreated controls, to determine treatment effects on rootstock viability. Both ULO treatments achieved complete control of P. ficus and did not have any negative effects on vine growth, compared with the control. Results indicate that ULO treatments can be used to control P. ficus on dormant grape benchgrafts. The advantages of the ULO treatments are also discussed with respect to hot water treatments.

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; Ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  6. Molecular characterization and gene functional analysis of Dicer-2 gene from Nilaparvata lugens(Hemiptera:Geometroidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Zhang; Kai Lu; Jia-Liang Zhou; Qiang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Nilaparvata lugens(St((A)l)(Hemiptera: Geometroidea),a serious rice pest in many countries of Asia,causes a great loss in rice production every year.RNA interference (RNAi)is a powerful technology for gene function study in insects and a potential tool for pest control.As a core component of RNAi pathway,Dicer-2(Dcr-2)protein determines the production of small interfering RNA(siRNA)and is crucial for the efficiency of RNAi.In this study,the full-length complementary DNA(cDNA)ofN.lugens Dcr-2(NlDcr-2)was first cloned and analyzed,and then the RNAi experiment was conducted to explore the function of NIDcr-2 gene.The complete Dcr-2 cDNA ofN.lugens was 4971 bp in length with an open reading frame(ORF)of 1,656 amino acids.Phylogenetic and protein domain analysis showed that the predicted NlDcr-2 protein was similar to Tribolium castaneum.In the RNAi experiment,the messenger RNA level of NIDcr-2 was significantly reduced by NlDcr-2double-stranded RNA(dsRNA)(dsDcr-2).Fifty-five per cent decrease of NlDcr-2 was found after 4 days of unremitting feeding.No significant effect was observed on the development ofN.lugens after dsRNA ingestion.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The, Doan Thi, E-mail: doanthithe@yahoo.com [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh [Agriculture and Forestry University, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2012-01-15

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars Gamma Co-60 irradiation as a potential phytosanitary for quarantine treatments. > Reproduction ability of D. neobrevipes has been efficiently inhibited at low dose. > Pattern of tolerance to irradiation was 1st<2nd<3rd instars Doses from 200 to 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of mealybug.

  8. Effects of fertilizer and low rates of imidacloprid on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S V; Hanula, J L; Braman, S K; Byrne, F J

    2011-06-01

    Healthy hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, and hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), populations should favor retention and population growth of adelgid predators such as Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji & McClure) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eastern hemlock trees between 15 and 38 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were treated with 0, 10, or 25% of 1.5 g imidacloprid (Merit 75 WP) per 2.5 cm dbh and were either fertilized or not, in a 3 by 2 factorial design. After 2 yr, imidacloprid reduced the numbers of ovisacs and eggs found on trees in a dosage-dependent manner, while enhancing tree growth parameters such as new shoots or needles and the length of new shoots. Fertilized trees had greater adelgid fecundity, which was positively correlated with total foliar N in both winter generations. In February 2009 (27 mo after imidacloprid treatment), higher imidacloprid dosages to unfertilized trees resulted in reduced adelgid fecundity. Concentrations of N, P, and K were higher in the foliage of trees treated with insecticide, whereas foliar aluminum concentrations were consistently lower in trees with higher insecticide dosages. Trees treated with low rates of imidacloprid were healthier than untreated trees, but only trees treated with the 0.1 x dosage had sufficient adelgids to possibly sustain predators over extended periods.

  9. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sriyanka; Reisig, Dominic D

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward.

  10. Evaluation of digital photography for quantifying Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) density on American beech trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieferich, D J; Hayes, D B; McCullough, D G

    2013-06-01

    Beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) is an invasive forest insect established in the eastern United States and Canada. It predisposes American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart) trees to infection by Neonectria spp. Fungi causing beech bark disease. White wax secreted by the diminutive scales obscures individual insects, making it difficult to accurately quantify beech scale density. Our goals were to 1) evaluate the relationship between the area of wax and number of beech scales on bark samples, 2) determine whether digital photos of bark could accurately quantify beech scale density, and 3) compare efficiency and utility of a qualitative visual estimate and using the quantitative digital photo technique to assess beech scale populations. We visually estimated beech scale abundance and photographed designated areas on the trunk of 427 trees in 40 sites across Michigan. Photos were analyzed using a binary threshold technique to quantify the area of beech scale wax on each photo. We also photographed and then collected 104 bark samples from 45 additional beech trees in ten sites. We removed the wax, counted individual scales on each sample using a microscope, and assessed the linear relationship between wax area and scale counts. Area of wax explained approximately 80% of the variability in scale density. We could typically quantify beech scale density on 15 photographs per hour. Qualitative visual assessments of beech scale in the field corresponded with estimates derived from photos of bark samples for 79% of trees.

  11. Effect of population structure and size on aggregation behavior of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiester, Margie; Koehler, Philip G; Pereira, Roberto M

    2009-09-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), occurs in aggregations until the conditions are no longer beneficial, leading to dispersal. Active and passive bed bug dispersal causes migrations from main aggregations either within a room, from room to room within a building, or from building to building. Because bed bug movement is an important factor in the spread of infestations, we wanted to determine how population structure and size affect bed bug aggregations. Engorged bed bugs were placed in glass petri dish arenas at varying densities, sex ratios, and population compositions. Nymphs had a high tendency to aggregate, varying between 94 and 98%, and therefore were not the likely dispersal stage of the bed bug. At densities of 10 and 40 adults at a 1:1 sex ratio, there were significantly more lone females than lone males. When the population composition was varied, the percentage of lone females was significantly higher than that of males and nymphs at population compositions of 40 and 80% adults. When the sex ratio of adults was varied, there were significantly more lone females than males in arenas with 20, 50, and 80% males. Females, being found away from aggregations significantly more often than any other life stage, are potentially the dispersal stage of the bed bug. Active female dispersal away from main aggregations can potentially lead to treatment failures and should be taken into account when using control methods.

  12. Assessment of the insecticidal potential of Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil against Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, S P; Favero, S

    2013-08-01

    The resistance of triatomines to pyrethroids has been reported in several Latin American countries, including Brazil, indicating the need for the development of new approaches for the control of vectors of the Chagas disease. In here, we evaluated the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Eucalyptus urograndis (Myrtaceae) against unsexed third and fourth instars of Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in topical application, fumigation, surface contact, and repellency . The insecticidal activity of the essential oil tested was detected by topical application (LD50 = 0.1731 μL/insect and LD99 = 0.2948 μL/insect for 24 h), fumigation (LC50 = 0.021 mL/mL air and LC99 = 0.1525 mL/mL air for 24 h) and surface contact (LC50 = 0.7073 μL/cm(2) and LC99 = 4.59 μL/cm(2) for 24 h). Mortality observed after 48-72-h exposure was very high and did not allow for any adjustment of the mortality curve. In the repellency assay, an effect was observed on 80% of tested nymphs. However, no repellency was observed after 24 h of exposure. Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil has a high insecticidal and repellent potential for R. neglectus nymphs, whether serving as a molecular model for new substances or as an alternative for the control of these insects.

  13. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sriyanka

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward.

  14. Remote sensing and spatial statistical techniques for modelling Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) habitat and population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Khalifa M; Kwan, Paul; R Andrew, Nigel; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the distribution and prevalence of Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) as well as analyse their current biographical patterns and predict their future spread, comprehensive and detailed information on the environmental, climatic, and agricultural practices are essential. The spatial analytical techniques such as Remote Sensing and Spatial Statistics Tools, can help detect and model spatial links and correlations between the presence, absence and density of O. lybicus in response to climatic, environmental, and human factors. The main objective of this paper is to review remote sensing and relevant analytical techniques that can be applied in mapping and modelling the habitat and population density of O. lybicus. An exhaustive search of related literature revealed that there are very limited studies linking location-based infestation levels of pests like the O. lybicus with climatic, environmental, and human practice related variables. This review also highlights the accumulated knowledge and addresses the gaps in this area of research. Furthermore, it makes recommendations for future studies, and gives suggestions on monitoring and surveillance methods in designing both local and regional level integrated pest management strategies of palm tree and other affected cultivated crops.

  15. First record of Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini in Riohacha, La Guajira – Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Natalia Gómez-Melendro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Knowledge of vector insect species, their habitat and geographical distribution is crucial for determining the risk of transmission of the etiologic agents that cause disease in humans, which allows defining strategies for prevention, surveillance and control in line with the characteristics of each area. Objective. To determine the presence and public health importance of vectors of Chagas disease in the indigenous settlements of Marbacella and El Horno of the Wayúu ethnic group in the municipality of Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia. Materials and methods. From active search, installation and inspection of biosensors and occasional catches, Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini were collected intra and in the peridomicile housing of the indigenous settlements of El Horno and Marbacella of the the Wayúu ethnic group. Indices of intra and peridomestic infestation, colonization, density, dispersion and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 were calculated. Results. 79.6% (n = 90 of the specimens were collected around the homes and 20.3% (n = 23 inside the homes, all corresponding to Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848. The natural infection indices with T. cruzi accounted for 43.5% for Marbacella and 36% for El Horno. Conclusion. This is the first reported capture of individuals of T. maculata, considered a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia, naturally infected with T. cruzi in the municipality of Riohacha expanding the geographical distribution of the species in the department of La Guajira.

  16. The foraging behavior of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazerouni Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Host stage preference, functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae were investigated under defined laboratory conditions (20±1°C; 60±5% relative humidity; 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Nicholson’s model and linear regression were used to determine per capita search-efficiency and the interference coefficient, respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of parasitism on different stages of D. noxia. The highest parasitism percentage was observed on the third instar nymphs of D. noxia in both choice and no-choice preference tests. Results of logistic regression revealed a type II functional response. The estimated values of search-efficiency (a and handling time (Th were 0.072 h-1 and 0.723 h, respectively. The maximum attack rate was calculated to be 33.22. The per capita search-efficiency decreased from 0.011 to 0.004 (h-1 as parasitoid densities increased from 1 to 8. Therefore, different host-parasitoid ratios can affect the efficacy of D. rapae.

  17. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bellini Bardella

    Full Text Available The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. This technique allows a clear discrimination of the heterochromatic regions classified as similar by C-banding, constituting a new chromosome marker with taxonomic and evolutionary significance. The diverse fluorescent patterns are likely due to the amplification of different repeated sequences, reflecting an unusual dynamic rearrangement in the genomes of this subfamily. Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae.

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14% of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83% was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  19. Inter- and intraspecific variation in defensive compounds produced by five neotropical stink bug species (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Martín; Borges, Miguel; Laumann, Raúl A; Moraes, Maria C B

    2007-07-01

    The differences in composition of defensive secretions between nymphs, adult males and adult females of Chinavia impicticornis (=Acrosternum impicticorne), Chinavia ubica (=Acrosternum ubicum), Euschistus heros, Dichelops melacanthus and Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) were analysed within and between species using compositional log-ratio statistics and canonical variates analysis. Differences in composition between nymphs, males and females were found for all species, as well as when all species were pooled. In particular, tetradecanal appears to be a predominantly nymphal compound in D. melacanthus, E. heros and P. guildinii. In the two Chinavia species 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and an unknown compound were more dominant in nymphs. The interspecific analysis revealed a good separation of defensive compounds according to their taxonomic relationship. Thus, the two Chinavia species grouped together, with (E)-2-decenal and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, contributing to this separation. The other three species also differed from each other, with (E)-2-octenal associated to D. melacanthus, (E)-2-hexenal to P. guildinii and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and tetradecanal to E. heros. The pooled analysis of stage ignoring species revealed tetradecanal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-decenal (tentative identification) strongly associated to nymphs. Thus, there are predictable differences between stages, and many of the differences are conserved between species. Consideration of these differences could prove to be important in understanding stink bug-natural enemy interactions, and in optimising biocontrol efforts.

  20. Efficacy of commercially available ultrasonic pest repellent devices to affect behavior of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yturralde, K M; Hofstetter, R W

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the potential for acoustic communication in bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), or the use of sound as cues in host location, although many hemipterans are known to communicate with sound. Most behavioral research has focused on bed bug pheromones that are used in aggregation and as alarm signals. We investigated the influence of sound as a deterrent and as an attractant, either of which could ultimately be used to monitor and control bed bugs. Female bed bugs were tested in two-choice tests with four different commercially available ultrasonic repellent devices. We found that female bed bugs were equally likely to occur in arenas with or without sound produced by ultrasonic devices. These devices did not repel or attract bed bugs during choice trials. However, more bed bugs preferred the middle corridor between the test (sound) and control (no sound) arenas when the sound devices were played. Bed bugs were also more likely to exit the middle corridor during control trials compared with treatment trials with ultrasonic devices. Our results confirm that commercial devices producing ultrasound are not a promising tool for repelling bed bugs.

  1. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2010-11-01

    Black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), feeding elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K Koch] and apparent acceleration of leaf senescence and defoliation. The ability of certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) (forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and aviglycine) to prevent M. caryaefoliae from triggering pecan leaf chlorosis and senescence-like processes was evaluated on two dates in both 2006 and 2007. Treatments were applied to orchard foliage and used in laboratory leaf-disc bioassays to assess possible reduction in aphid-elicited chlorosis and concomitant effects on aphid mortality and development. Foliage pretreated with forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid prior to being challenged with aphids resulted in significantly less aphid-elicited chlorosis than did control or aviglycine-treated leaf discs. No PGR affected aphid mortality; however, development time was increased by forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid in 2006 and by aviglycine + gibberellic acid on one date in 2007. Certain PGRs possess the potential for usage on pecan to protect foliar canopies from M. caryaefoliae via changes in the susceptibility of the host leaf to senescence-like factors being introduced by feeding aphids. This protective effect on host foliage and the associated suppressive effect on development of feeding aphids might also be relevant to pest management programs on other aphid-crop systems in which aphid-elicited chlorosis and senescence-like processes can limit profitability. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Genetic variability of Triatoma flavida and Triatoma bruneri (Hemiptera: Reduviidae by RAPD-PCR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fraga

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae contains the principal and potential Chagas disease vectors present in Mexico, Central America and South America. Triatoma flavida and T. bruneri are Cuban species. These species are closely related according to morphology and were considered synonyms until 1981, when they were separated on the grounds of external characters of the body and the morphology of male genitalia. The present study seeks to analyze genetic polymorphism of T. flavida and T. bruneri populations using RAPD techniques, and to assess the genetic relationship between these species. Ten random primers were used to evaluate the genetic variability among species using RAPD-PCR. The genetic flow among them was calculated. The dendrogram based on calculated Jaccard distances showed two clearly distinguishable clusters which coincided with the studied species. Within each species, moderate genetic differentiation (Fst 0.05-0.15 and migration rates (N > 1 were found among populations, that reveal gene flow and genetic homogeneity. Between species, the Fst value showed a high genetic differentiation and the migration rate was insufficient to maintain genetic homogeneity, and confirmed the absence of gene flow between them. Our results confirm the genetic variability among T. flavida and T. bruneri species.

  3. Genetic variability of Triatoma flavida and Triatoma bruneri (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) by RAPD-PCR technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Jorge; Rodriguez, Jinnay; Fuentes, Omar; Hernández, Yenin; Castex, Mayda; Gonzalez, Raul; Fernández-Calienes, Aymé

    2011-01-01

    The Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae) contains the principal and potential Chagas disease vectors present in Mexico, Central America and South America. Triatoma flavida and T. bruneri are Cuban species. These species are closely related according to morphology and were considered synonyms until 1981, when they were separated on the grounds of external characters of the body and the morphology of male genitalia. The present study seeks to analyze genetic polymorphism of T. flavida and T. bruneri populations using RAPD techniques, and to assess the genetic relationship between these species. Ten random primers were used to evaluate the genetic variability among species using RAPD-PCR. The genetic flow among them was calculated. The dendrogram based on calculated Jaccard distances showed two clearly distinguishable clusters which coincided with the studied species. Within each species, moderate genetic differentiation (Fst 0.05-0.15) and migration rates (N > 1) were found among populations, that reveal gene flow and genetic homogeneity. Between species, the Fst value showed a high genetic differentiation and the migration rate was insufficient to maintain genetic homogeneity, and confirmed the absence of gene flow between them. Our results confirm the genetic variability among T. flavida and T. bruneri species.

  4. Anagrus turpanicus sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from China, an egg parasitoid of Arboridia kakogowana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2016-01-01

    A new Palaearctic species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. turpanicus Triapitsyn & Hu sp. n., is described and illustrated from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. It was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Arboridia kakogowana (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Fig. 10) on cultivated table grapes from Turpan, which had been previously misidentified there as Erythroneura apicalis (Nawa) (e.g., Wang et al. 2004, 2011; Luan et al. 2006). This leafhopper has been an important economic pest in Turpan area since 1998, causing serious damage to the cultivated grapevines (Wang et al. 2004; Luan et al. 2006). Wang et al. (2011) reported that the mite Leptus sp. (Erythraeidae) and several unidentified spider species were the main natural enemies of Erythroneura apicalis in and around Turpan. This is the first record of A. kakogowana from China; it was not included in the key to the Chinese species of the genus Arboridia Zachvatkin by Song & Li (2015). Arboridia kakogowana is native to the eastern Palaearctic region (Japan, Korea, and Far East of Russia), and has been recently recorded as an invasive pest of cultivated grapes in southern Russia (Gnezdilov et al. 2008).

  5. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level.

  6. Bacteria Associated With Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), With Special Reference to Those Transmitted by Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Park, Jong-Seok; Howells, Andrea; Tikhe, Chinmay V; Davis, Jeffrey A

    2017-02-01

    The redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), is a rapidly growing pest damaging southern US agriculture. Pentatomid stink bugs are known to vector bacterial, fungal, and viral plant diseases. However, bacteria associated with redbanded stink bugs and their vector potential have not yet been assessed. In this study, we 1) cultured and identified bacteria transmitted by feeding of redbanded stink bug and 2) described bacteria from guts of redbanded stink bug individuals using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Nineteen bacteria transmitted by feeding of redbanded stink bug on soybean agar were isolated and identified via Sanger sequencing of near full length 16S RNA genes. The transmitted bacteria belonged to at least a dozen species in eight genera and included potential plant pathogens (Phaseolibacter flectens), plant beneficials (Bacillus atropheus), and possible insect beneficials (Acinetobacter sp. and Citrobacter farmeri). A total of 284,448 reads were captured from Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the uncultured gut bacteria community. Fifty-one putative bacteria species (74% of the estimated total species richness) were identified via matches to NCBI databases. The bacteria metagenome contained potential plant and insect pathogens (Erwinia persicina, E. rhaponici, Brenneria nigrifluens, Ralstonia picketti, and Serratia marcescens) and beneficials (Pantoea dispersa, Klebsiella oxytoca, Clostridium butyricum, and Citrobacter farmeri). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant.

  8. Taxonomic corrections to species of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondorosy, Előd; Rédei, Dávid; Mejlon, Hans

    2014-07-22

    Types of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) species described by Carl Peter Thunberg, deposited in the Museum of Evolution (formerly Zoologiska Institut), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, were reexamined and the taxonomic and nomenclatural problems that existed among those species discussed and resolved as required. Lectotypes are designated for Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1784, Lygaeus ater Thunberg, 1822, Lygaeus biguttatus Thunberg, 1822, and Pendulinus guttatus Thunberg, 1825. The lectotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) guttatus is designated as neotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) uniguttatus Thunberg, 1822; as a result the former name becomes junior objective synonym of the latter. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Lethaeus ater (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus); Migdilybs biguttatus (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus) = Migdilybs furcifer Hesse, 1925, new subjective synonym; Metochus uniguttatus (Thunberg, 1822) = Metochus bengalensis (Dallas, 1852), confirmed subjective synonym = Metochus yeh (Dohrn, 1860), confirmed subjective synonym; Raglius alboacuminatus (Goeze, 1778) = Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1874, confirmed subjective synonym. Lethaeus barberi Slater, 1964 does not belong to Lethaeus Dallas, 1852 but currently it cannot be placed with confidence in any existing genus. 

  9. Characterization of a newly discovered symbiont of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jiao; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex containing >28 cryptic species, some of which are important crop pests worldwide. Like many other sap-sucking insects, whiteflies harbor an obligatory symbiont, "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum," and a number of secondary symbionts. So far, six genera of secondary symbionts have been identified in B. tabaci. In this study, we report and describe the finding of an additional bacterium in the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species China 1 (formerly known as B. tabaci biotype ZHJ3). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and gltA genes showed that the bacterium belongs to the Alphaproteobacteria subdivision of the Proteobacteria and has a close relationship with human pathogens of the genus Orientia. Consequently, we temporarily named it Orientia-like organism (OLO). OLO was found in six of eight wild populations of B. tabaci China 1, with the infection rate ranging from 46.2% to 76.8%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of B. tabaci China 1 in nymphs and adults revealed that OLOs are confined to the bacteriome and co-occur with "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum." The vertical transmission of OLO was demonstrated by detection of OLO at the anterior pole end of the oocytes through FISH. Quantitative PCR analysis of population dynamics suggested a complex interaction between "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum" and OLO. Based on these results, we propose "Candidatus Hemipteriphilus asiaticus" for the classification of this symbiont from B. tabaci.

  10. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  11. Probing behaviors of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on enhanced UV-B irradiated plants

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    Hu Zu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B induced changes in plants can influence sap-feeding insects through mechanisms that have not been studied. Herein the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae, was monitored on barley plants under the treatments of control [0 kJ/ (m2.d], ambient UV-B [60 kJ/ (m2.d], and enhanced UV-B [120 kJ/ (m2.d] irradiation. Electrical penetration graph (EPG techniques were used to record aphid probing behaviors. Enhanced UV-B irradiated plants negatively affected probing behaviors of S. avenae compared with control plants. In particular, phloem factors that could diminish sieve element acceptance appeared to be involved, as reflected by smaller number of phloem phase, shorter phloem ingestion, and fewer aphids reaching the sustained phloem ingestion phase (E2>10min. On the other hand, factors from leaf surface, epidermis, and mesophyll cannot be excluded, as reflected by higher number of non-probing, longer non-probing and pathway phase, and later the time to first probe.

  12. The hemiptera (insecta of Canada: constructing a reference library of DNA barcodes.

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    Rodger A Gwiazdowski

    Full Text Available DNA barcode reference libraries linked to voucher specimens create new opportunities for high-throughput identification and taxonomic re-evaluations. This study provides a DNA barcode library for about 45% of the recognized species of Canadian Hemiptera, and the publically available R workflow used for its generation. The current library is based on the analysis of 20,851 specimens including 1849 species belonging to 628 genera and 64 families. These individuals were assigned to 1867 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs, sequence clusters that often coincide with species recognized through prior taxonomy. Museum collections were a key source for identified specimens, but we also employed high-throughput collection methods that generated large numbers of unidentified specimens. Many of these specimens represented novel BINs that were subsequently identified by taxonomists, adding barcode coverage for additional species. Our analyses based on both approaches includes 94 species not listed in the most recent Canadian checklist, representing a potential 3% increase in the fauna. We discuss the development of our workflow in the context of prior DNA barcode library construction projects, emphasizing the importance of delineating a set of reference specimens to aid investigations in cases of nomenclatural and DNA barcode discordance. The identification for each specimen in the reference set can be annotated on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD, allowing experts to highlight questionable identifications; annotations can be added by any registered user of BOLD, and instructions for this are provided.

  13. A preliminary molecular phylogeny of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

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    Nan Song

    Full Text Available The planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea (Insecta: Hemiptera is one of the most dominant groups of phytophagous insects. It comprises about 20 families, containing a total of 9000 species worldwide. Despite several recent studies, the phylogeny of Fulgoroidea is not yet satisfactorily resolved and the phylogenetic positions of several key families, especially Cixiidae, Delphacidae, Tettigometridae, Nogodinidae, Acanaloniidae and Issidae, are contentious. Here, we expand upon recent phylogenetic work using additional nuclear (18S and 28S and novel mitochondrial (16S and cytb markers. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses yielded robust phylogenetic trees. In these topologies, a group containing Cixiidae and Delphacidae is recovered as the sister group to the remaining taxa. Tettigometridae is placed in a more nested position and is grouped with Caliscelidae. Sister relationships are found between Flatidae and Ricaniidae, and between Dictyopharidae and Fulgoridae. Nogodinidae and Issidae are confirmed to be non-monophyletic families. For major nodes of interest, divergence date estimates are generally older than those from the fossil record.

  14. The Spread of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae Species from its First Occurrence in Romania

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    Ioana Grozea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lately in horticultural agroecosystems from Romania joined several insect species autochthonous. Among these is a species of bugs known as southern green stink bugs or Nezara viridula L. (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pentatomidae. Unlike other new entrants this bug species has a diversified polifagism being present in many plants but obvious damage produce only tomato fruit. The causes are unknown. Can be found in gardens, green spaces and parks. Often is observed in vegetable gardens where populations comprise all stages (egg, larva/nymph, adult. Although it has African origins of a warm area is interesting installation and survival in temperate zones like those in Europe. Presence in Europe appears to be more random which excludes primarily spread through the neighborhood. By observations made in west of Romania, during 2010-2015 we wanted to watch the evolution of the insect from the first point of occurrence (Timișoara, 2010. Also, were monitored tomato crops and ornamentals in gardens and green spaces from 5 counties. Only in four monitored counties it was observed this species. Most adults and larvae were registered in Timis county (5-6 adults or 7-8 larvae/tomato plant and 10 -11 adults or 15-20 larvae/ornamental shrub. In our country the insect has proven to be capable of a rapid spread in a relatively short time interval including surrounding counties.

  15. Estados de desarrollo y biología de tres especies de Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae Life stages and biology of three species of Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae

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    Luis Cervantes-Peredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los estados de desarrollo (huevo, ninfas y adulto de 3 especies de Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae, Anochrostomus formosus (Blanchard principalmente asociada con especies de Asteraceae y Convolvulaceae, y Lygaeus reclivatus reclivatus(Say y Oncopeltus (Oncopeltus sexmaculatus (Stål asociadas con Asclepiadaceae. Las descripciones están basadas en ejemplares colectados en los estados de Oaxaca y Guerrero (México y criados en el laboratorio. Se ilustra cada uno de los estadios y se incluyen notas acerca de su biología y plantas huéspedes.The life stages (egg, nymphs, and adult of 3 species of Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae are described. Anochrostomus formosus (Blanchard is mainly associated with species of Asteraceae and Convolvulaceae, whereas Lygaeus reclivatus reclivatus (Say and Oncopeltus (Oncopeltus sexmaculatus (Stål are associated with Asclepiadaceae. Descriptions are based on individuals collected in the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero (Mexico, and reared in laboratory. Illustrations of each instar are also included, as well as notes about their biology and host plants.

  16. Nuevos registros de Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae en el oriente del Estado de México New records of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae in the east of Mexico State

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    Marina Ruiz-Machuca

    Full Text Available El nopal tunero (Opuntia spp. se cultiva en todo el país, pero sólo en el Estado de México se concentra cerca de 35% de la producción nacional de tuna. Opuntia ficus-indica L. (Miller, es la especie predominante en la obtención de tunas, pero se carece de información que identifiquen taxonómicamente algunas plagas del cultivo; tal es el caso de la chinche roja (Hemiptera: Miridae. se realizaron colectas sistemáticas de este insecto sobre nopales (Opuntia spp., en diferentes municipios del Estado de México en 2008 y se encontraron 20 nuevos registros de Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter.The prickly pear nopal (Opuntia spp. is cultivated throughout entire country, but 35% of the national production is found only within State of Mexico. Opuntia ficus-indica L. (Miller is the predominant species for obtaining prickly pears, but there is not any information available that would taxonomically identify some plagues particular to this crop; such is the case of red bug (Hemiptera: Miridae. Some of these insects were gathered from prickly pear nopal (Opuntia spp. in different municipalities of State of Mexico in 2008 and 20 new cases of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter were found.

  17. Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton

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    Martin D. Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton. The striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, is a widely distributed and polyphagous pest species, which naturally occurs on cotton plants in Brazil. This study evaluated the establishment and population growth as well as the within-plant distribution of F. virgata on four cotton cultivars: CNPA 7H (white fibers, BRS Verde, BRS Safira, and BRS Rubi (colored fibers. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design with four treatments (cultivars and 18 replications of each. Thus, cotton plants of each cultivar were infested with 100 newly hatched nymphs of F. virgata. The number of adult female mealybugs and the total number of mealybugs per plant were quantified, respectively, at 25 and 50 days after infestation. The developmental and pre-reproductive periods were also determined. Furthermore, we verified the distribution of F. virgata on the plant parts at 25 and 50 days after infestation. Ferrisia virgata showed similar growth of 412-fold in the four cotton cultivars studied. Also, the nymphs were spread on infested leaves; the secondgeneration nymphs were spread and established in all plant parts. Our results characterize F. virgata as having much potential as an important cotton pest in Brazil.

  18. Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi against nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: AleyrodidaeVirulência de fungos entomopatogênicos a ninfas de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Alfredo Gouvea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity and virulence of isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Unioeste 47 and Unioeste 57, Metarhizium anisopliae (Unioeste 43 and Esalq 09 and Isaria sp. (IBCB 367 a d IBCB 394 against Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. Suspensions of the isolates (1.0 × 109 conidia/mL were sprayed on third instar nymphs on cabbage leaves. It was performed four replications, each one with 20 insects, for each treatment. The control consisted of sterile distilled water + Tween® 80 (0.01%. The number of killed nymphs was evaluated during seven days, and then they were kept in a moist chamber. To estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50, isolates suspensions of 1.0 × 105, 1.0 × 106, 1.0 × 107, 1.0 × 108 and 1.0 × 109 conidia/mL were sprayed on third instar nymphs. The number of nymphs with confirmed mortality was evaluated. The isolates B. bassiana Unioeste 47 (84.1% and Isaria sp. IBCB 367 (98.6% did not differ significantly, causing the highest mortalities. However, the isolate M. anisopliae Esalq 09 caused the lower confirmed mortality (23.2%. The LC50 of the B. bassiana isolates varied from 1.8 × 105 and 4.1 × 105 conidia/mL (Unioeste 57 and Unioeste 47, respectively. Among the isolates of M. anisopliae, Esalq 09 presented the highest LC50 value (7.8 × 108 conidia/mL, whereas Unioeste 43 presents the lowest (4,3 × 105 conidia/mL. The Isaria sp. isolates presented LC50 of 2.5 × 105 and 3.1 × 105 conidia/mL (IBCB 367 and IBCB 394, respectively. Therefore, B. bassiana Unioeste 47 e Isaria sp. IBCB 367 isolates had potential to B. tabaci control and for future field studies.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade e a virulência dos isolados de Beauveria bassiana (Unioeste 47 e Unioeste 57, Metarhizium anisopliae (Unioeste 43 e Esalq 09 e Isaria sp. (IBCB 367 e IBCB 394 a Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. Suspensões dos isolados (1,0 × 109 conídios/ m

  19. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae Regarding to host conditioning in citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  20. OCORRÊNCIA DE Gryon gallardoi (BRETHES (HYMENOPTERA: SCELIONIDAE PARASITANDO OVOS DE Leptoglossus zonatus (DALLAS (HEMIPTERA: COREIDAE EM ITUMBIARA, GOIÁS, BRASIL OCCURRENCE OF Gryon gallardi (BRETHES (HYMENOPTERA: SCELIONIDAE PARASITING EGGS OF Leptoglossus zonatus (DALLAS (HEMIPTERA: COREIDAE IN ITUMBIARA, GOIÁS, BRAZIL

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência, em Goiás, de Gryon gallardoi (Bréthes (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae parasitando ovos de Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae, em milho cultivar Dekalb 601, no município de Itumbiara, Goiás, Brasil.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hymenoptera; Hemiptera; parasitóides; controle natural.

    This work reports the first occurrence in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil, of Gryon gallardoi (Bréthes (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae parasitizing eggs of Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae in maize.

    KEY-WORDS: Hymenoptera; Hemiptera; parasitoids; natural controle.

  1. Jumping performance of flea hoppers and other mirid bugs (Hemiptera, Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, M; Dorosenko, M

    2017-02-13

    The order Hemiptera includes jumping insects with the fastest take-off velocities, all generated by catapult mechanisms. It also contains the large family Miridae or plant bugs. Here we analysed the jumping strategies and mechanisms of six mirid species from high speed videos and from the anatomy of their propulsive legs and conclude that they use a different mechanism in which jumps are powered by the direct contractions of muscles. Three strategies were identified. First, jumping was propelled only by movements of the middle and hind legs which were respectively 140% and 190% longer than the front legs. In three species with masses ranging from 3.4 to 12.2 mg, depression of the coxo-trochanteral and extension of femoro-tibial joints accelerated the body in 8-17 ms to take-off velocities of 0.5 to 0.8 m s(- 1) The middle legs lost ground contact 5-6 ms before take-off so that the hind legs generated the final propulsion. The power requirements could be met by the direct muscle contractions so that catapult mechanisms are not implicated. Second, other species combined the same leg movements with wing beating to generate take-off during a wing downstroke. In the third strategy, up to four wing beat cycles preceded take-off and were not assisted by leg movements. Take-off velocities were reduced and acceleration times lengthened. Other species from the same habitat did not jump. The lower take-off velocities achieved by powering jumping by direct muscle contractions may be offset by eliminating the time taken to load catapult mechanisms.

  2. Corixidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera en el lago urbano del parque Tezozomoc, Azcapotzalco, México, D. F.

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    G. Contreras-Rivero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios ecológicos sobre la familia Corixidae (Hemiptera en México son escasos y fragmentados, por lo que se analiza su variación espacial y temporal en un lago urbano con algunas variables ambientales. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente, de julio de 2000 a junio de 2001, ubicando tres estaciones litorales de muestreo; en cada una se determinó: profundidad, transparencia, temperatura, oxígeno, pH, conductividad, dureza y alcalinidad. Los coríxidos se capturaron con red de cuchara de forma rectangular. Se efectuó un análisis de correlación simple entre la abundancia total de los coríxidos y las variables físicas y químicas registradas. Se registraron tres especies: Graptocorixa abdominalis (Say, 1832, con 53% de abundancia; Corisella edulis (Champion, 1901 con 43% y Krizousacorixa femorata (Guérin, 1857 con 1%. De un total de 2423 organismos capturados, la mayor abundancia se registró en marzo, junto con los valores más altos de profundidad y oxígeno. La menor abundancia se presentó en junio, con los valores más bajos de alcalinidad. La correlación de variables y abundancia total fue positiva y significativa con profundidad, oxígeno y conductividad. La Estación I presentó la mayor abundancia de coríxidos y la estación III la menor abundancia. Las variaciones registradas en la abundancia se deben al aporte de agua y a la ubicación de las estaciones de muestreo.

  3. Lack of fitness costs associated with acetamiprid resistance in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Muhammad; Sayyed, Ali H; Saeed, Shafqat; Saleem, Mushtaq A

    2012-08-01

    Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a devastating pest that can cause severe damage to a range of crops by direct feeding and by plant virus transmission. Because of indiscriminate use of insecticides, this whitefly has developed resistance to several insecticides, including neonicotinoids. Our objectives were to determine fitness components affected by acetamiprid resistance in B. tabaci. Assay results showed that selection with acetamiprid had removed heterozygotes from the field population because the survival rate of the resistant population was significantly greater than that of the field population at a very high dose. Comparison of various life traits between the acetamiprid-selected (Aceta-SEL) population and three other populations showed that the numbers of eggs laid by acetamiprid Aceta-SEL population were significantly lower compared with that of other populations but that the proportions of eggs hatched were significantly higher. However, the time taken by nymphal stages of the Aceta-SEL population to develop was significantly higher than that of the susceptible populations. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and doubling time of Aceta-SEL was significantly higher than Lab-PK and UNSEL populations, but the growth index was similar for all populations. The growth index and high intrinsic value of Aceta-SEL population suggest that the resistance allele may not have detrimental impact. The lack of fitness costs in B. tabaci could promote the rapid development of resistance to acetamiprid and other neonicotinoids. This resistance could threaten the sustainability of whitefly management program on genetically engineered cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) where neonicotinoids are being sprayed to manage sucking pests in the field.

  4. Resistance of Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), to Conventional and Novel Chemistry Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saif; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2016-02-01

    The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), is polyphagous in nature and has become one of the severe sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. O. hyalinipennis has the potential to develop resistance to a number of insecticides, and as a result, O. hyalinipennis outbreaks occur. There is no previous study from Pakistan regarding O. hyalinipennis resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the resistance of different field populations of O. hyalinipennis to conventional (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos, triazophos) and novel chemistry (emamectin benzoate, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, and nitenpyram) insecticides. Five populations of O. hyalinipennis, collected from Multan, Khanewal, Muzaffargarh, Lodhran, and Bahawalpur, were tested for resistance to selected insecticides by the leaf dip method. For three pyrethroids, the resistance ratios were in the range of 14- to 30-fold for bifenthrin, 2.14- to 8.41-fold for deltamethrin, and 9.12- to 16-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin, compared with the laboratory susceptible strain (Lab-PK). For two organophosphates, the range of resistance ratios was 12- to 14-fold for profenofos and 9.04- to 15-fold for triazophos. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 4.68- to 9.83-fold for emamectin benzoate, 6.38- to 17-fold for spinosad, 16- to 46-fold for chlorfenapyr, 11- to 22-fold for imidacloprid, and 1.32- to 11-fold for nitenpyram. Regular assessment of resistance to insecticides and integrated management plans like judicious use of insecticides and rotation of insecticides along with different modes of action are required to delay resistance development in O. hyalinipennis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Crop Loss Relationships and Economic Injury Levels for Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting Pistachio in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2015-12-01

    Ferrisia gilli Gullan (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a new pest in California pistachios, Pistacea vera L. We conducted a 3-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by F. gilli. Using pesticides, we established gradients of F. gilli densities in a commercial pistachio orchard near Tipton, CA, from 2005 to 2007. Each year, mealybug densities on pistachio clusters were recorded from May through September and cumulative mealybug-days were determined. At harvest time, nut yield per tree (5% dried weight) was determined, and subsamples of nuts were evaluated for market quality. Linear regression analysis of cumulative mealybug-days against fruit yield and nut quality measurements showed no relationships in 2005 and 2006, when mealybug densities were moderate. However, in 2007, when mealybug densities were very high, there was a negative correlation with yield (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in total dry weight per tree of 0.105 kg) and percentage of split unstained nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in the percentage of split unstained of 0.560%), and a positive correlation between the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there is an increase in the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank of 0.176 and 0.283%, respectively). The data were used to determine economic injury levels, showing that for each mealybug per cluster in May there was a 4.73% reduction in crop value associated with quality and a 0.866 kg reduction in yield per tree (4.75%).

  6. Identification of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae Biotypes from Different Host Plants in North China.

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    Li Wang

    Full Text Available The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a polyphagous species with a worldwide distribution and a variety of biotypes. North China is a traditional agricultural area with abundant winter and summer hosts of A. gossypii. While the life cycles of A. gossypii on different plants have been well studied, those of the biotypes of North China are still unclear.Host transfer experiments showed that A. gossypii from North China has two host-specialized biotypes: cotton and cucumber. Based on complete mitochondrial sequences, we identified a molecular marker with five single-nucleotide polymorphisms to distinguish the biotypes. Using this marker, a large-scale study of biotypes on primary winter and summer hosts was conducted. All A. gossypii collected from three primary hosts-hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash-were cotton biotypes, with more cotton-melon aphids found on hibiscus than the other two species. In May, alate cotton and cucumber biotypes coexisted on cotton and cucumber seedlings, but each preferred its natal host. Both biotypes existed on zucchini, although the cucumber biotype was more numerous. Aphids on muskmelon were all cucumber biotypes, whereas most aphids on kidney bean were cotton biotypes. Aphids on seedlings of potato and cowpea belong to other species. In August, aphids on cotton and cucumber were the respective biotypes, with zucchini still hosting both biotypes as before. Thus, the biotypes had different fitnesses on different host plants.Two host-specialized biotypes (cotton and cucumber are present in North China. Hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash can serve as winter hosts for the cotton biotype but not the cucumber biotype in North China. The fitnesses of the two host-specialized biotypes differ on various summer hosts. When alate aphids migrate to summer hosts, they cannot accurately land on the corresponding plant.

  7. The isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi from Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae

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    Xiang Meng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Litchi stink-bug, Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae, is one of the most widespread and destructive pest species on Litchi chinensis Sonn and Dimocarpus longan Lour in Southern China. Inappropriate use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollution. Generating an improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM strategy for litchi stink-bug in orchard farming requires development of an effective biological control agent. Entomopathogenic fungi are regarded as a vital ecological factor in the suppression of pest populations under field conditions. With few effective fungi and pathogenic strains available to control litchi stink-bug, exploration of natural resources for promising entomopathogenic fungi is warranted. Methods & Results In this study, two pathogenic fungi were isolated from cadavers of adult T. papillosa. They were identified as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana by morphological identification and rDNA-ITS homogeneous analysis. Infection of T. papillosa with B. bassiana and P. lilacinus occurred initially from the antennae, metameres, and inter-segmental membranes. Biological tests showed that the two entomopathogenic fungi induced high mortality in 2nd and 5th instar nymphs of T. papillosa. B. bassiana was highly virulent on 2nd instar nymphs of T. papillosa, with values for cadaver rate, LC50 and LT50 of 88.89%, 1.92 × 107 conidia/mL and 4.34 days respectively. Discussion This study provides two valuable entomopathogenic fungi from T. papillosa. This finding suggests that the highly virulent P. lilacinus and B. bassiana play an important role in the biocontrol of T. papillosa in China. These pathogenic fungi had no pollution or residue risk, and could provide an alternative option for IPM of litchi stink-bug.

  8. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Brett R; Jones, Vincent P; Nielsen, Anne L

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow's milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were "marked" with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys.

  9. The Effect of Temperature Increases on an Ant-Hemiptera-Plant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagata, Katayo; Gibb, Heloise

    2016-01-01

    Global temperature increases are significantly altering species distributions and the structure of ecological communities. However, the impact of temperature increases on multi- species interactions is poorly understood. We used an ant-Hemiptera-plant interaction to examine the potential outcomes of predicted temperature increases for each partner and for the availability of honeydew, a keystone resource in many forest ecosystems. We re-created this interaction in growth cabinets using predicted mean summer temperatures for Melbourne, Australia, for the years 2011 (23°C), 2050 (25°C) and 2100 (29°C), respectively, under an unmitigated greenhouse gas emission scenario. Plant growth and ant foraging activities increased, while scale insect growth, abundance and size, honeydew standing crop per tree and harvesting by ants decreased at 29°C, relative to lower temperatures (23 and 25°C). This led to decreased scale insect infestations of plants and reduced honeydew standing crop per tree at the highest temperature. At all temperatures, honeydew standing crop was lower when ants harvested the honeydew from scale insects, but the impact of ant harvesting was particularly significant at 29°C, where combined effects of temperature and ants reduced honeydew standing crop to below detectable levels. Although temperature increases in the next 35 years will have limited effects on this system, by the end of this century, warmer temperatures may cause the availability of honeydew to decline. Decline of honeydew may have far-reaching trophic effects on honeydew and ant-mediated interactions. However, field-based studies that consider the full complexity of ecosystems may be required to elucidate these impacts.

  10. The Effect of Temperature Increases on an Ant-Hemiptera-Plant Interaction.

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    Katayo Sagata

    Full Text Available Global temperature increases are significantly altering species distributions and the structure of ecological communities. However, the impact of temperature increases on multi- species interactions is poorly understood. We used an ant-Hemiptera-plant interaction to examine the potential outcomes of predicted temperature increases for each partner and for the availability of honeydew, a keystone resource in many forest ecosystems. We re-created this interaction in growth cabinets using predicted mean summer temperatures for Melbourne, Australia, for the years 2011 (23°C, 2050 (25°C and 2100 (29°C, respectively, under an unmitigated greenhouse gas emission scenario. Plant growth and ant foraging activities increased, while scale insect growth, abundance and size, honeydew standing crop per tree and harvesting by ants decreased at 29°C, relative to lower temperatures (23 and 25°C. This led to decreased scale insect infestations of plants and reduced honeydew standing crop per tree at the highest temperature. At all temperatures, honeydew standing crop was lower when ants harvested the honeydew from scale insects, but the impact of ant harvesting was particularly significant at 29°C, where combined effects of temperature and ants reduced honeydew standing crop to below detectable levels. Although temperature increases in the next 35 years will have limited effects on this system, by the end of this century, warmer temperatures may cause the availability of honeydew to decline. Decline of honeydew may have far-reaching trophic effects on honeydew and ant-mediated interactions. However, field-based studies that consider the full complexity of ecosystems may be required to elucidate these impacts.

  11. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  12. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effects of thiamethoxam seed treatments on soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, M D; Heng-Moss, T M; Baxendale, F P; Reese, J C; Siegfried, B D; Hunt, T E; Gaussoin, R E; Blankenship, E E

    2013-12-01

    Since its discovery in North America in 2000, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has rapidly become an important pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], sometimes resulting in significant yield losses. Previous research has documented the toxicity of neonicotinoid seed treatments to soybean aphids, but control under field conditions has been inconsistent. Imidacloprid, a popular neonicotinoid insecticide, has been shown to exhibit antifeedant effects on aphids. Antifeedant activity has not been demonstrated for other neonicotinoids, including thiamethoxam. This research investigated the effects of a thiamethoxam seed treatment on soybean aphid feeding behavior by using electronic penetration graphs (EPG) to visualize stylet penetration behavior. Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and untreated soybeans (V2 and V4 stages). Because results were inconclusive from initial experiments, a study was conducted to document the effects of thiamethoxam-treated soybeans on soybean aphid survival. The seed treatment was shown to negatively affect aphid survival at 4, 8, and 11 d after aphid introduction. A subsequent EPG study then was designed to document soybean aphid feeding behavior for 15 h, after an initial exposure of 9 h to thiamethoxam-treated soybeans. In this study, the exposed aphids exhibited significant differences in feeding behavior compared with those aphids feeding on untreated soybeans. Soybean aphids on thiamethoxam-treated soybeans spent significantly less time feeding in the sieve element phase, with a greater duration of nonprobing events. These studies suggest soybean aphids are unable to ingest phloem sap, which may be another important element in seed treatment protection.

  14. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Blaauw

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.. Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: evidence from mitochondrial genomes

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    Xie Qiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea.

  16. Biology of the Huanglongbing vector Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) on different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, G R; Diniz, A J F; Parra, J R P

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have been conducted on the development and reproductive potential of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908 (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in different host species, few have evaluated these parameters on different varieties of the same host species. This study evaluated the influence of five commercial varieties of citrus (Citrus spp. L.)--Hamlin, Natal, Pêra, Ponkan, and Valencia-and orange jasmine [Murraya exotica (L.) Jack] on the development of D. citri. Survival rates for the egg stage were highest on orange jasmine (85.7%) and on Valencia (83.3%). The lowest viability of the nymphal stage was also observed on Hamlin, averaging 57.4%. Values for total viability ranged from 65.9 to 32.6%, and were highest on Valencia. The longest egg-adult development time was on Natal, with a mean of 18.4 d; the shortest total development time was on orange jasmine, with a mean of 17.3 d. Based on the fertility life table, the net reproductive rate (Ro) of D. citri was 2.5 times higher when reared on Valencia than on Hamlin. The other parameters (duration of each generation [T], finite rate of increase [lambda], and innate capacity to increase in number [r(m)]) also demonstrated that Valencia is best suited to this insect. The results obtained for the biological parameters and the fertility life table indicate that Valencia and orange jasmine were the most suitable hosts, whereas Hamlin was least suitable for the development of D. citri. These results provide information for the installation of new citrus groves, especially in the choice of varieties to be planted and the location of different varieties within the groves, with a view toward the management of Huanglongbing or HLB.

  17. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale.

  18. Relationship of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to soybean plant nutrients, landscape structure, and natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Takuji; Gratton, Claudio; Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Brewer, Michael J; Mueller, Emily E; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Heimpel, George E; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2010-02-01

    In the north central United States, populations of the exotic soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are highly variable across space, complicating effective aphid management. In this study we examined relationships of plant nutrients, landscape structure, and natural enemies with soybean aphid abundance across Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, representing the range of conditions where soybean aphid outbreaks have occurred since its introduction. We sampled soybean aphid and its natural enemies, quantified vegetation land cover and measured soybean nutrients (potassium [K] and nitrogen [N]) in 26 soybean sites in 2005 and 2006. Multiple regression models found that aphid abundance was negatively associated with leaf K content in 2005, whereas it was negatively associated with habitat diversity (Simpson's index) and positively associated with leaf N content in 2006. These variables accounted for 25 and 27% of aphid variability in 2005 and 2006, respectively, suggesting that other sources of variability are also important. In addition, K content of soybean plants decreased with increasing prevalence of corn-soybean cropland in 2005, suggesting that landscapes that have a high intensification of agriculture (as indexed by increasing corn and soybean) are more likely to have higher aphid numbers. Soybean aphid natural enemies, 26 species of predators and parasitoids, was positively related to aphid abundance; however, enemy-to-aphid abundance ratios were inversely related to aphid density, suggesting that soybean aphids are able to escape control by resident natural enemies. Overall, soybean aphid abundance was most associated with soybean leaf chemistry and landscape heterogeneity. Agronomic options that can ameliorate K deficiency and maintaining heterogeneity in the landscape may reduce aphid risk.

  19. Biology and harmfulness of Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Belgrade area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is an important pest on plants of the family Cupressaceae. Its numerous populations have been present in recent years on Juniperus spp. in Belgrade. Feeding by sap-sucking on all aboveground plant organs, it causes growth stagnation, chlorosis, drying of needles and branches, and even of entire plants under heavy infestation. Additionally, the scale excretes large quantities of honeydew, on which sooty mold develops, reducing photosynthesis and causing faster plant deterioration. Throughout 2007 and 2008, P. vovae was recorded on Juniperus spp. in 12 localities in Belgrade, and on Thuja sp. in a single locality. The pest was found to develop three generations per year and overwinter on branches at the egg or second instar stages. The first generation adults were observed at the end of May, the second generation at the beginning of August, while the third generation was recorded at the beginning of October. Different overwintering modes, and variable oviposition, embryonic and larval development periods led to an overlapping of generations and continuous presence of all developmental stages on plants. In different localities the infestation of plants varied in abundance from a few individual specimens to very large colonies. The highest infestation intensity was recorded in the localities Bežanija, Dorćol and Voždovac. The predatory species Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Nephus bipunctatus (Kugelann (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae were found in the scale colonies. Regarding N. bipunctatus, this was its first record as a new species in the Serbian fauna.

  20. Mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards using reservoir pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Arturo; Lentini, Andrea; Serra, Giuseppe

    2014-10-15

    Mating disruption field experiments to control the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in two commercial vineyards in Sardinia (Italy). The effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by testing reservoir dispensers loaded with 100 mg (62.5 g/ha) and 150 mg (93.8 g/ha) of the sex pheromone in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The number of males captured in pheromone traps, the P. ficus population density and age structure, the parasitism rate, the percentage of ovipositing females, and the crop damage were compared between disrupted and untreated plots. In both field trials, the number of males captured in mating disruption plots was significantly reduced by 86% and 95%, respectively. Mating disruption at the initial dose of 62.5 g/ha of active ingredient gave inconclusive results, whereas the dose of 93.8 g/ha significantly lowered the mealybug density and modified the age structure, which showed a lower percentage of ovipositing females and a higher proportion of preovipositing females. Mating disruption did not affect negatively the parasitism rate, which was higher in the disrupted than in the control plots (>1.5-fold). Crop damage at harvest was very low in both field trials and did not differ between treatments. Mating disruption was effective in wide plots protected with dispensers loaded with 150 mg of the sex pheromone, showing its potential to be included in the overall integrated control programs in Mediterranean wine-growing regions.

  1. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitullo, Justin; Wang, Shifa; Zhang, Aijun; Mannion, Catharine; Bergh, J Christopher

    2007-04-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a highly polyphagous pest that invaded Florida in 2002 and has recently been reported from several locations in Louisiana. Although identification of its sex pheromone in 2004 improved monitoring capabilities tremendously, the effectiveness and efficiency of different pheromone trap designs for capturing males has not been evaluated. We deployed green Delta, Pherocon IlB, Pherocon V, Jackson, and Storgard Thinline traps in Homestead, FL, and compared the number of male M. hirsutus captured per trap, the number captured per unit of trapping surface area, the amount of extraneous material captured, and the time taken to count trapped mealybugs. Pheromone-baited traps with larger trapping surfaces (green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V) captured more males per trap than those with smaller surfaces (Jackson and Storgard Thinline), and fewest males were captured by Storgard Thinline traps. However, Jackson traps captured as many or more males per square centimeter of trapping surface as those with larger surfaces, and the time required to count males in Jackson traps was significantly less than in green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V traps. Although all trap designs accumulated some debris and nontarget insects, it was rated as light to moderate for all designs. Based on our measures of effectiveness and efficiency, the Jackson trap is most suitable for monitoring M. hirsutus populations. Additionally, unlike the other traps evaluated, which must be replaced entirely or inspected in the field and then redeployed, only the sticky liners of Jackson traps require replacement, enhancing the efficiency of trap servicing.

  2. Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Chong, Juang-Horng; Epsky, Nancy D; Mannion, Catharine M

    2008-12-01

    Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was investigated in the laboratory. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18, 20, 25, and 30 +/- 1 degrees C. At 15, 34, and 35 degrees C, the eggs hatched after 27.5, 5.9, and 5.5 d of incubation, respectively, but further development of the first-instar nymphs was arrested. No eggs hatched at 37 degrees C. The developmental time for egg to adult was the longest at 18 degrees C for both males and females. Approximately 80-90% of the eggs survived between 20 and 30 degrees C. The highest fecundity was at 25 degrees C with each female producing an average of 300 eggs. Adult longevity, and preoviposition and oviposition periods increased with decreasing temperature up to 25 degrees C. The proportion of females was approximately 42% at 25 degrees C and was between 70 and 80% at 18, 20, and 30 degrees C. Adult males and females required 303.0 and 294.1 degree-days (DD), respectively, to complete their development. The estimated minimum temperature thresholds for the adult males and females were 14.5 and 13.9 degrees C, respectively. For adult males, the estimated optimum and maximum temperature thresholds were 28.7 and 31.9 degrees C; and for adult females, they were 28.4 and 32.1 degrees C, respectively. The ability of P. marginatus to develop, survive, and reproduce successfully between 18 and 30 degrees C suggests that it has the capability to develop and establish in areas within this temperature range.

  3. Pheromone-based mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Vaughn M; Daane, Kent M; Bentley, Walter J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Larsen, Thomas E; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha

    2006-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a mating disruption program for the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards. The sprayable, microencapsulated formulation of the racemic sex pheromone lavandulyl senecioate was applied with an air-blast sprayer, using three and four applications in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Mating disruption was combined with an application of buprofezin (2004) in June. Compared with a no-pheromone control, there were significantly lower season-long trap catches of adult males, season-long mealybug densities (2003 only), and crop damage in mating disruption plots. The amount of mealybug reduction and mechanisms that resulted in lower crop damage in mating disruption plots is discussed. In samples taken during the growing season (April to September), mealybug density was only 12.0 +/- 15.6 and 31.1 +/- 11.6% lower in the mating disruption plots than in control plots in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In the mating disruption treatment, mealybug egg production was significantly lower (2003 only), as were the proportion of ovisacs and crawlers produced. There was no treatment impact on percentage of parasitism. Mealybug density influenced treatment impact. In 2004, vines were categorized as having low, medium, or high mealybug densities during a preapplication survey. After treatment application, mealybug density was reduced by 86.3 +/- 6.3% on vines in the low mealybug density category, but it was unchanged on vines in the high density category. Another factor that reduced treatment impact was the relatively short effective lifetime of the sprayable formulation.

  4. DNA barcoding of common soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-B; Deng, J; Zhang, J-T; Zhou, Q-S; Zhang, Y-Z; Wu, S-A

    2015-10-01

    The soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) are a group of sap-sucking plant parasites, many of which are notorious agricultural pests. The quarantine and economic importance of soft scales necessitates rapid and reliable identification of these taxa. Nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (barcoding region) and 28S rDNA were generated from 340 individuals of 36 common soft scales in China. Distance-based [(best match, Automated Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD)], tree-based (neighbor-joining, Bayesian inference), Klee diagrams, and general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) models were used to evaluate barcoding success rates in the data set. Best match showed that COI and 28S sequences could provide 100 and 95.52% correct identification, respectively. The average interspecific divergences were 19.81% for COI data and 20.38% for 28S data, and mean intraspecific divergences were 0.56 and 0.07%, respectively. For COI data, multiple methods (ABGD, Klee, and tree-based methods) resulted in general congruence with morphological identifications. However, GMYC analysis tended to provide more molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Twelve MOTUs derived from five morphospecies (Rhodococcus sariuoni, Pulvinaria vitis, Pulvinaria aurantii, Parasaissetia nigra, and Ceroplastes rubens) were observed using the GMYC approach. In addition, tree-based methods showed that 28S sequences could be used for species-level identification (except for Ceroplastes ceriferus - Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus), even with low genetic variation (<1%). This report demonstrates the robustness of DNA barcoding for species discrimination of soft scales with two molecular markers (COI and 28S) and provides a reliable barcode library and rapid diagnostic tool for common soft scales in China.

  5. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Larval Development and Predation of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Keena, Melody A; Long, David; Ostiguy, Nancy; Hoover, Kelli

    2015-02-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for A. tsugae. This beetle has been approved for removal from quarantine but has not yet been field released. We observed that temperature had significant effects on the predator's life history. The larvae tended to develop faster and consume more eggs of A. tsugae per day as rearing temperature increased. Mean egg consumption per day of A. tsugae was less at 15°C than at 20°C. However, as larvae took longer to develop at the lower temperature, the total number of eggs consumed per instar during larval development did not differ significantly between the two temperatures. The lower temperature threshold for predator larval development was estimated to be 5°C, which closely matches the developmental threshold of A. tsugae progrediens. Accumulated degree-days for 50% of the predator neonates to reach adulthood was estimated to be 424. Although temperature had a significant effect on larval development and predation, it did not impact survival, size, or sex ratio of the predator at 15 and 20°C. Furthermore, no remarkable distinctions were observed among different geographical populations of the predator. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Melt With This Kiss: Paralyzing and Liquefying Venom of The Assassin Bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Madio, Bruno; Jin, Jiayi; Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2017-04-01

    Assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are venomous insects, most of which prey on invertebrates. Assassin bug venom has features in common with venoms from other animals, such as paralyzing and lethal activity when injected, and a molecular composition that includes disulfide-rich peptide neurotoxins. Uniquely, this venom also has strong liquefying activity that has been hypothesized to facilitate feeding through the narrow channel of the proboscis-a structure inherited from sap- and phloem-feeding phytophagous hemipterans and adapted during the evolution of Heteroptera into a fang and feeding structure. However, further understanding of the function of assassin bug venom is impeded by the lack of proteomic studies detailing its molecular composition.By using a combined transcriptomic/proteomic approach, we show that the venom proteome of the harpactorine assassin bug Pristhesancus plagipennis includes a complex suite of >100 proteins comprising disulfide-rich peptides, CUB domain proteins, cystatins, putative cytolytic toxins, triabin-like protein, odorant-binding protein, S1 proteases, catabolic enzymes, putative nutrient-binding proteins, plus eight families of proteins without homology to characterized proteins. S1 proteases, CUB domain proteins, putative cytolytic toxins, and other novel proteins in the 10-16-kDa mass range, were the most abundant venom components. Thus, in addition to putative neurotoxins, assassin bug venom includes a high proportion of enzymatic and cytolytic venom components likely to be well suited to tissue liquefaction. Our results also provide insight into the trophic switch to blood-feeding by the kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae). Although some protein families such as triabins occur in the venoms of both predaceous and blood-feeding reduviids, the composition of venoms produced by these two groups is revealed to differ markedly. These results provide insights into the venom evolution in the insect suborder

  7. The biology and thermal requirements of the fennel aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, José B; Ramalho, Francisco S; Lira, Aline C S; Oliveira, Flávia Q; Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Zanuncio, José C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the insect development rate and temperature was established very early and represents an important ecological variable for modeling the population dynamics of insects. The accurate determination of thermal constant values and the lower and upper developmental thresholds of Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiales: Apiaceae)) crops would obviously benefit the effective application of control measures. This paper is a study of the biology and thermal requirements of H. foeniculi. Winged insects were collected from fennel crops at the Embrapa Algodão in Campina Grande, Paraíba. Nymphs (age ≤24 h) produced by winged insects were subjected to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 or 33°C, a photophase of 12 h and a relative humidity of 70±10%. The results of the study showed that at temperatures between 15 and 30°C, H. foeniculi nymphs were able to develop normally. The four instars were found at all temperatures tested. However, temperatures of 3 and 33°C were lethal to the nymphs. The nymph stage development time varied from 5 (30°C) to 19 (15°C) days. The influence of temperature on the development time is dependent on the instar. The base temperature (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) for the nymph stage were estimated at 11.2°C and 107.5 degree-days, respectively. The shortest nymph development stage was observed at 30°C, and the highest nymph viability (85.0%) was observed at 28°C. This information can be used for developing phenological models based on the temperature and development rate relationships so that outbreaks of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop can be predicted, therefore improving the application of control programs targeting this fennel pest.

  8. What is the economic threshold of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in enemy-free space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, M T; Kanobe, C; MacIntosh, G C; O'Neal, M

    2011-06-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a serious pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., in the North Central United States. Current management recommendations rely on the application of insecticides based on an economic threshold (ET) of 250 aphids per plant. Natural enemies are important in slowing the increase of aphid populations and can prevent them from reaching levels that can cause economic losses. However, biological control of A. glycines is inconsistent and can be affected negatively by the intensity of agricultural activity. We measured the impact of a natural-enemy-free environment on the capacity of the current ET to limit yield loss. In 2008 and 2009, caged microplots were assigned to one of three treatments: plants kept aphid-free (referred to as the control), plants that experienced a population of 250 aphids per plant (integrated pest management [IPM]), and plants that experienced unlimited aphid population growth (unlimited). The population growth rate of aphids in the unlimited treatment for the 10 d after the application of insecticides to the IPM treatment was calculated using linear regression. The linear equation was solved to determine the mean number of days between the ET and the EIL for an aphid population in absence of predators. The number of days was determined to be 6.97 +/- 1.11 d. The 2-yr average yield for the IPM treatment was 99.93% of the control treatment. Our study suggests the current soybean aphid ET of 250 aphids per plant can effectively protect yield even if the impact of natural enemies is reduced.

  9. Early-season host switching in Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae of differing host breadth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The mirid bugs Adelphocoris suturalis (Jakovlev, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze and Adelphocoris fasciaticollis (Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae are common pests of several agricultural crops. These three species have vastly different geographical distributions, phenologies and abundances, all of which are linked to their reliance on local plants. Previous work has shown notable differences in Adelphocoris spp. host use for overwintering. In this study, we assessed the extent to which each of the Adelphocoris spp. relies on some of its major overwinter hosts for spring development. Over the course of four consecutive years (2009-2012, we conducted population surveys on 77 different plant species from 39 families. During the spring, A. fasciaticollis used the broadest range of hosts, as it was found on 35 plant species, followed by A. suturalis (15 species and A. lineolatus (7 species. Abundances of the species greatly differed between host plants, with A. fasciaticollis reaching the highest abundance on Chinese date (Ziziphus jujuba Mill., whereas both A. suturalis and A. lineolatus preferred alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. The host breadths of the three Adelphocoris spp. differed greatly between subsequent spring and winter seasons. The generalist species exhibited the least host fidelity, with A. suturalis and A. lineolatus using 8 of 22 and 4 of 12 overwinter host species for spring development, respectively. By contrast, the comparative specialist A. fasciaticollis relied on 9 of its 11 overwinter plants as early-season hosts. We highlight important seasonal changes in host breadth and interspecific differences in the extent of host switching behavior between the winter and spring seasons. These findings benefit our understanding of the evolutionary interactions between mirid bugs and their host plants and can be used to guide early-season population management.

  10. The biology and thermal requirements of the fennel aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B Malaquias

    Full Text Available The relationship between the insect development rate and temperature was established very early and represents an important ecological variable for modeling the population dynamics of insects. The accurate determination of thermal constant values and the lower and upper developmental thresholds of Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Hemiptera: Aphididae on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiales: Apiaceae crops would obviously benefit the effective application of control measures. This paper is a study of the biology and thermal requirements of H. foeniculi. Winged insects were collected from fennel crops at the Embrapa Algodão in Campina Grande, Paraíba. Nymphs (age ≤24 h produced by winged insects were subjected to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 or 33°C, a photophase of 12 h and a relative humidity of 70±10%. The results of the study showed that at temperatures between 15 and 30°C, H. foeniculi nymphs were able to develop normally. The four instars were found at all temperatures tested. However, temperatures of 3 and 33°C were lethal to the nymphs. The nymph stage development time varied from 5 (30°C to 19 (15°C days. The influence of temperature on the development time is dependent on the instar. The base temperature (Tb and the thermal constant (K for the nymph stage were estimated at 11.2°C and 107.5 degree-days, respectively. The shortest nymph development stage was observed at 30°C, and the highest nymph viability (85.0% was observed at 28°C. This information can be used for developing phenological models based on the temperature and development rate relationships so that outbreaks of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop can be predicted, therefore improving the application of control programs targeting this fennel pest.

  11. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  12. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Lauren A.; Miller, Christine W.

    2017-01-01

    Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, including the degree of sexual dimorphism and mating behavior. Our goal with this study was to determine if similar phenotypic changes of N. femorata occurred over time in the wild, and the extent to which these changes were concordant with phenological changes in its host plant. Further, we investigate the length of the insect mouthparts (beak) over time. Ongoing work has suggested that beak length may change across cohorts of developing insects in response to feeding deep within cactus fruit where seed and pulp depth decrease as the fruit ripens. Our results revealed a drop in cactus fruit abundance between the months of July through October 2015 as cactus fruits turned red and ripened. Simultaneously, the average body size of both males and females of N. femorata declined at two sampled sites. Male hind femora (a sexually-selected weapon) decreased disproportionately in size over time so that males later in the year had relatively smaller hind femora for their body size. The sex-specific patterns of morphological change led to increased sexual-size dimorphism and decreased sexual dimorphism for hind femora later in the year. Further, we found that beak length decreased across cohorts of insects as cactus fruit ripened, suggesting phenotypic plasticity in mouthpart length. Behavioral studies revealed that female readiness to mate increased as the season progressed. In sum, we found pronounced changes in the phenotypes of these insects in the field. Although this study is far from

  13. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy. PMID:27203082

  14. Sequencing and Characterization of the Invasive Sycamore Lace Bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqi; Wang, Ran; Qu, Cheng; Fu, Ningning; Luo, Chen; Xu, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive forestry pest rapidly expanding in many countries. This pest poses a considerable threat to the urban forestry ecosystem, especially to Platanus spp. However, its molecular biology and biochemistry are poorly understood. This study reports the first C. ciliata transcriptome, encompassing three different life stages (Nymphs, adults female (AF) and adults male (AM)). In total, 26.53 GB of clean data and 60,879 unigenes were obtained from three RNA-seq libraries. These unigenes were annotated and classified by Nr (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences), Nt (NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences), Pfam (Protein family), KOG/COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins), Swiss-Prot (A manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database), and KO (KEGG Ortholog database). After all pairwise comparisons between these three different samples, a large number of differentially expressed genes were revealed. The dramatic differences in global gene expression profiles were found between distinct life stages (nymphs and AF, nymphs and AM) and sex difference (AF and AM), with some of the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) being related to metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex difference. The different express of unigenes were validated through quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for 16 randomly selected unigenes. In addition, 17,462 potential simple sequence repeat molecular markers were identified in these transcriptome resources. These comprehensive C. ciliata transcriptomic information can be utilized to promote the development of environmentally friendly methodologies to disrupt the processes of metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex differences.

  15. Characterization of Paecilomycescinnamomeus from the camellia whitefly, Aleurocanthus camelliae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting tea in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tsutomu; Takatsuka, Jun; Shimazu, Mitsuaki

    2012-05-01

    The whitefly, Aleurocanthus camelliae Kanmiya and Kasai (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an invasive species in Japan that was first discovered in 2004 on tea in Kyoto. Soon after its arrival epizootics of an entomopathogenic fungus were observed in populations of the whitefly in many tea-growing regions. Here we identify this fungus as Paecilomyces cinnamomeus (Petch) Samson and W. Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) based on morphological characteristics and molecular analyses. This is the first record of P. cinnamomeus in Japan and also the first time it has been recorded from the genus Aleurocanthus. A isolate of P. cinnamomeus caused greater than 50% and 90% infection in whitefly nymphs at 1×10(6) and 1×10(7)conidia/ml respectively, while the commercial mycoinsecticides Preferd® (Isaria fumosorosea) and Mycotal® (Lecanicillium muscarium) caused <10% infection at their recommended field rates (5×10(6) and 9×10(6)conidia/ml, respectively), suggesting that P. cinnamomeus may be more useful as a control agent than the currently available mycoinsecticides. Optimum and upper limit temperatures for in vitro growth of P. cinnamomeus isolates were 22.5-25°C and 32.5°C, respectively. At field rates, the fungicide thiophanate-methyl caused some inhibition of in vitro growth of P. cinnamomeus isolates, and the bactericide copper oxychloride and the insecticides tolfenpyrad and methidathion were strongly inhibitory. The findings obtained in this study will be useful in the development of microbial control programs using P. cinnamomeus against A. camelliae.

  16. Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

    2011-08-01

    Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control.

  17. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae

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    Lauren A. Cirino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, including the degree of sexual dimorphism and mating behavior. Our goal with this study was to determine if similar phenotypic changes of N. femorata occurred over time in the wild, and the extent to which these changes were concordant with phenological changes in its host plant. Further, we investigate the length of the insect mouthparts (beak over time. Ongoing work has suggested that beak length may change across cohorts of developing insects in response to feeding deep within cactus fruit where seed and pulp depth decrease as the fruit ripens. Our results revealed a drop in cactus fruit abundance between the months of July through October 2015 as cactus fruits turned red and ripened. Simultaneously, the average body size of both males and females of N. femorata declined at two sampled sites. Male hind femora (a sexually-selected weapon decreased disproportionately in size over time so that males later in the year had relatively smaller hind femora for their body size. The sex-specific patterns of morphological change led to increased sexual-size dimorphism and decreased sexual dimorphism for hind femora later in the year. Further, we found that beak length decreased across cohorts of insects as cactus fruit ripened, suggesting phenotypic plasticity in mouthpart length. Behavioral studies revealed that female readiness to mate increased as the season progressed. In sum, we found pronounced changes in the phenotypes of these insects in the field. Although this

  18. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves

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    M. Arduin

    Full Text Available The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae. The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1 A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2 A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3 A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4 A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors.

  19. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Lauren A; Miller, Christine W

    2017-01-17

    Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, including the degree of sexual dimorphism and mating behavior. Our goal with this study was to determine if similar phenotypic changes of N. femorata occurred over time in the wild, and the extent to which these changes were concordant with phenological changes in its host plant. Further, we investigate the length of the insect mouthparts (beak) over time. Ongoing work has suggested that beak length may change across cohorts of developing insects in response to feeding deep within cactus fruit where seed and pulp depth decrease as the fruit ripens. Our results revealed a drop in cactus fruit abundance between the months of July through October 2015 as cactus fruits turned red and ripened. Simultaneously, the average body size of both males and females of N. femorata declined at two sampled sites. Male hind femora (a sexually-selected weapon) decreased disproportionately in size over time so that males later in the year had relatively smaller hind femora for their body size. The sex-specific patterns of morphological change led to increased sexual-size dimorphism and decreased sexual dimorphism for hind femora later in the year. Further, we found that beak length decreased across cohorts of insects as cactus fruit ripened, suggesting phenotypic plasticity in mouthpart length. Behavioral studies revealed that female readiness to mate increased as the season progressed. In sum, we found pronounced changes in the phenotypes of these insects in the field. Although this study is far from

  20. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

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    Arthur da Silva Neumann

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  1. POPULATION FLUCTUATION OF Empoasca sp. (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE IN A PHYSIC NUT CROP IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL

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    Denisar Paggioli de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPhysic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is an oilseed, semi-evergreen shrub or small tree of the Euphorbiaceae family, whose seeds contain oil that can be processed into a high quality biofuel. However, there have been reports of arthropods feeding from its leaves, including the green leafhopper Empoasca sp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. The large numbers of this insect, observed in certain periods of the year in many regions of Brazil, are causing damage to the oilseed crops. This study aims at evaluating the fluctuation in green leafhopper population in a physic nut crop in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, to assess possible correlations with rainfall, maximum, average and minimum temperatures. This evaluation was conducted between March 2011 and July 2012. The largest Empoasca sp. populations were recorded in May and June, 2011, and between February and May, 2012. No significant correlation was observed between the weather parameters analyzed and the fluctuation in the Hemiptera population, but there was a trend toward higher population density during the warmer and rainier months.RESUMENEl piñón manso (Jatropha curcas L. es una oleaginosa de la familia Euphorbiaceae que se destaca por la producción de semillas cuyo aceite tiene características deseables para la producción de biocombustibles. Sin embargo, hay informes de algunos artrópodos que usan la planta como fuente de alimento, incluyendo la cigarrita verde Empoasca sp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. La alta incidencia de este insecto se comprueba en varias regiones del Brasil, en ciertas épocas del año, causando lesiones a esta oleaginosa. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la fluctuación de la cigarrita verde en una plantación de piñón manso en Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, y la búsqueda de posibles correlaciones con las precipitaciones y las temperaturas máximas, medias y mínimas. Esta evaluación se realizó entre los meses de marzo 2011 hasta julio 2012. Poblaciones mayores

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of the Obligate Symbionts “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” and “Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola” from the Pestiferous Leafhopper Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbà, Simona; Kube, Michael; Marzachì, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Two bacterial symbionts of the European pest leafhopper, Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were fully sequenced. “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” and “Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola” represent two of the smallest known bacterial genomes at 190 kb and 112 kb, respectively. Genome sequences are nearly identical to strains reported from the closely related host species, M. quadrilineatus. PMID:26798106

  3. Primer registro de Acerophagus griseus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae como parasitoide de Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae en el Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina

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    Daniel A. AQUINO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez la presencia de Acerophagus griseus (De Santis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae como parasitoide de ninfas y adultos de Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae y se registra la zona de Alto Valle de Río Negro como nuevo registro de distribución en Argentina. Se brinda una diagnosis y se ilustran los caracteres morfológicos de A. griseus.

  4. First record of the leafhopper genus Sweta Viraktamath & Dietrich (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae,Typhlocybinae from China, with description of one new species feeding on bamboo

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    Lin Yang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweta bambusana sp. n. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Dikraneurini, a new bamboo-feeding species, is described and illustrated from Guizhou and Guangdong of China. This represents the first record of the genus Sweta Viraktamath & Dietrich from China and the second known species of the genus. The new taxon extends the range of the genus Sweta, previously known only from northeast India and Thailand, considerably eastwards. A key for separation of the species of Sweta is given.

  5. A report on occurrence of aphidophagous predators of Aphis odinae (van der Goot) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in cashew ecosystem from Goa, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy Maruthadurai; Narendra Pratap Singh

    2017-01-01

    The aphid, Aphis odinae (Van der Goot) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a polyphagous, occasional insect pest of cashew.  A field survey was conducted from 2014 to 2015 in cashew plantations to record the incidence of aphid and its predators.  Periodical sampling revealed, the occurrence of six species of aphidophagous predators comprising three species of coccinellids, viz., Scymnus castaneus Sicard, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) and Pseudaspidimerus flaviceps (Walker) and three species of sy...

  6. Efektifitas Insektisida Nabati Lengkuas (Languas galangal L.) dan Serai (Andropogon nardus L.) dalam Mengendalikan Kepik Penghisap Polong Kedelai Riptortus linearis Fabr. (Hemiptera : Alydidae) di Rumah Kasa

    OpenAIRE

    Nainggolan, Shierly Parupa

    2016-01-01

    Shierly Parupa Nainggolan. 2015. “Effectivity of Botanical Insecticides Galanga (Alpinia galangal L.) and Lemon Grass (Andropogon nardus L.) against Soybean Pod Sucking Bugs (Riptortus linearis Fabr.) (Hemiptera : Alydidae) in Screen House“ supervised by Syahrial Oemry and Lisnawita. The objective of the research was to study the effectivity of botanical insecticides galangal and lemongrass to infect the adult soybean pod sucking bugs (Riptortus linearis Fabr.) in screen ...

  7. High-resolution melt and morphological analyses of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from cacao: tools for the control of Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus spread

    OpenAIRE

    Wetten, Andrew; Campbell, Colin; Allainguillaume, Joël

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are key vectors of badnaviruses, including Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV) the most damaging virus affecting cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). The effectiveness of mealybugs as virus vectors is species dependent and it is therefore vital that CSSV resistance breeding programmes in cacao incorporate accurate mealybug identification. In this work the efficacy of a CO1-based DNA barcoding approach to species identification was evaluated by ...

  8. Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? A agressividade da presa altera o comportamento de ataque do predador Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae?

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    Rafael Braga da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? The stink bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae is a predator found in several Brazilian regions, which possesses desirable attributes as a natural control agent and in biological control programs. The aim of this study was to test if the attack behavior and predation success of S. cincticeps were affected by prey species. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Geometridae were offered to S. cincticeps in laboratory bioassays where predatory attack and prey defensive behaviors were observed for 2-hour periods. The attack behavior of S. cincticeps changed with the prey species offered. More than 25% of T. molitor and S. frugiperda larvae were immediately attacked, but T. arnobia was not immediately attacked by S. cincticeps. Successful attack (i.e., successful insertion of the predator stylets into the prey depends on the region of the body attacked, with a greater proportion of successful attacks in the anterior than in the median or posterior regions. Larvae of T. arnobia and S. frugiperda displayed a sequence of abrupt head and body movements in response to S. cincticeps attack. Attempts of predation were more successful on T. molitor and S. frugiperda than on T. arnobia. Information about the differential attack behavior of S. cincticeps on different prey species is important for designing successful biological control programs using this hemipteran predator.A agressividade da presa altera o comportamento de ataque do predador Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? O percevejo Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae é um predador encontrado em várias regiões brasileiras, que possui atributos desejáveis como agente de controle natural ou em

  9. Hallazgo de Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul" Finding of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae in the Brazilian State of "Rio Grande do Sul"

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    Roberto Salvatella

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma platensis Neiva 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae, especie ornitófila, con área de dispersión conocida en Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay y Uruguay es notificada en un primer registro para Brasil. Hallada en el municipio de Uruguaiana (Río Grande do Sul en nidos de Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae donde cohabitaba con cricétidos de la especie Orizomys flavescens. Ningún ejemplar de los siete colectados se presentó infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi.Triatoma platensis, an ornitophilic species, found in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay is reported for the first time in Brazil. It was found in the county of Uruguaiana (Rio Grande do Sul in nests of Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae where it cohabited with cricetids belonging to the species Orizomys flavescens. None of the seven individuals collected were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi.

  10. Screening of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. strains against Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae/ Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. a Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae

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    Solange Aparecida Vieira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanized harvest of sugarcane results in accumulation of mulch on the soil and promotes favorable temperature and moist to development of sugarcane root spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae. High populations of this pest causes serious damages to plants and high costs with insecticides. This research work tested strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. pathogenic to sugarcane root spittlebug using a new methodology. The selection was carried out in laboratory conditions. Nymphs were sprayed with 2 mL of a suspension containing 5x107 conidia/mL and maintained in roots of sugarcane. The corrected mortality was evaluated five days after pulverization and ranged from 10.5 to 60% and the more pathogenic strains caused mortality from 46.5 to 59.7%.A colheita mecanizada de cana-de-açúcar, sem a queima da palhada, proporciona acúmulo de matériaorgânica no solo tornando o ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento da cigarrinha-da-raiz, Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae. Em elevadas infestações essa praga tem causado prejuízos devido aos grandes danos nas plantas e aos gastos com agrotóxicos. O objetivo da pesquisa foi selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. patogênicos para cigarrinha-da-raiz, usando uma nova metodologia. A seleção foi feita em condições de laboratório, utilizando-se ninfas coletadas a campo que foram pulverizadas com o fungo e mantidas em raiz de mudas de cana-de-açúcar. A mortalidade corrigida ao quinto dia após a inoculação variou de 10,5 a 60%, sendo que os isolados mais patogênicos causaram mortalidades de 46,5 a 59,7%.

  11. First record of occurrence of mosca-negra-dos-citrus, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae in Roraima, Brazil = Primeiro registro da ocorrência de mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em Roraima

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    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is an important pest of citrus. Originated in Asia, this pest was detected in Brazil for the first time in the State of Para, Brazil in 2001. In the culture of citrus fruits the black fly carries direct and indirect damage, impeding the development and production of plants. In addition to restricting trade in local areas from its occurrence to the presence of the plague, since the A. woglumi quarantine pest is considered present (A2 of high alert in accordance with Instruction No 23, April 29, 2008, established by the Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento of the Brazil. The objective of this paper was to record the first occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi in the State of Roraima, Brazil.= A mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashb, (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae é uma importante praga dos citros. De origem asiática, esta praga foi detectada no Brasil pela primeira vez no estado do Pará no ano de 2001. Na cultura dos citros a mosca-negra acarreta danos diretos e indiretos, prejudicando o desenvolvimento e produção das plantas. Além de restringir o comércio de locais de sua ocorrência para áreas livres da presença da praga, visto que o A. woglumi é considerado praga quarentenária presente (A2 de alerta máximo de acordo com a instrução normativa No 23, de 29 de abril de 2008; estabelecida pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho registrar a primeira ocorrência de mosca-negra-dos-citros no estado de Roraima.

  12. Formic and acetic acids in degradation products of plant volatiles elicit olfactory and behavorial responses from an insect vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) vectors the bacterial pathogen presumed to be the etiological agent of citrus greening disease, Huanglongbing (HLB), a major threat to citrus industry worldwide. We studied antennal and behavioral responses of Diaphorina citri...

  13. Survey of endosymbionts in the Diaphorina citri metegenome and assembly of a Wolbachia wDi draft genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid,(Hemiptera) is the insect vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the presumed cause of citrus greening disease, known as huanglongbing. Sequencing of the Diaphorina citri metagenome has been initiated to gain better understanding of the biology of D. ...

  14. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

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    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  15. Morphology of the European species of the aphid genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae) - A SEM comparative and integrative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanturski, Mariusz; Karcz, Jagna; Wieczorek, Karina

    2015-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods were used for the first time to elucidate the external morphology of the European species of the genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae), a representative genus of the conifer-feeding aphids tribe Eulachnini. We examined and compared the external morphology of apterous and alate viviparous females from the parthenogenetic generation as well as oviparous females and alate males belonging to the sexual generation. FE-SEM images based on HMDS and cryo-SEM preparation techniques revealed better image quality than the CPD technique in regard to surface tension and morphological signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of depressions, drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Three morphologically different species groups "agilis", "brevipilosus" and "cembrae" were proposed due to the differences in head, antennae, legs and dorsal chaetotaxy as well as dorsal sclerotization. The most characteristic features and differences of representatives of these groups are presented and discussed.

  16. Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum” the Flavobacterial Endosymbiont of Llaveia axin axin (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Pérez, Tania; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Mora, Jaime; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidae) constitute a very diverse group of sap-feeding insects with a large diversity of symbiotic associations with bacteria. Here, we present the complete genome sequence, metabolic reconstruction, and comparative genomics of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of the giant scale insect Llaveia axin axin. The gene repertoire of its 309,299 bp genome was similar to that of other flavobacterial insect endosymbionts though not syntenic. According to its genetic content, essential amino acid biosynthesis is likely to be the flavobacterial endosymbiont's principal contribution to the symbiotic association with its insect host. We also report the presence of a γ-proteobacterial symbiont that may be involved in waste nitrogen recycling and also has amino acid biosynthetic capabilities that may provide metabolic precursors to the flavobacterial endosymbiont. We propose “Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum” as the name of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of insects from the Monophlebidae family. PMID:24610838

  17. Predation potential of Chilocorus cacti (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to the prickly pear cacti pest Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A; Olvera, H; Rodríguez, S; Barranco, J

    2013-08-01

    Functional response of the predator Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on five densities of Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) female adults was assessed under laboratory conditions. The searching efficiency of C. cacti significantly decreased as prey density increased. The logistic regression for the predator had a negative and significant linear parameter indicating a type II functional response. Non-linear regression for Holling predator equation estimated a handling time of 1.79 ± 0.129 h and attack rate coefficient of 0.1003 ± 0.030. Most of this handling time was because the predator spent a lot of time removing the waxy coating that protects adult females of D. opuntiae. Chilocorus cacti consumes females of D. opuntiae in their reproductive stage; therefore, it could be an effective natural enemy to suppress or regulate low density populations of D. opuntiae, preventing them to reach high densities.

  18. Description of a new soft scale insect of the genus Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae from Bogota, Colombia

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    Hirotaka Tanaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae species, Pulvinaria caballeroramosae Tanaka & Kondo, sp. n., is described from specimens collected on twigs of Ficus soatensis Dugand (Moraceae in Bogota, Colombia. The new species resembles P. drymiswinteri Kondo & Gullan, described from Chile on Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Winteraceae, but differs in the distribution of preopercular pores on the dorsum, the presence of dorsal tubular ducts, dorsal microducts, and reticulation on the anal plates; and in its feeding habits, i.e., P. caballeroramosae feeds on the twigs whereas P. drymiswinteri feeds on the leaves of its host. A key to the Colombian species of Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti is provided.

  19. Evaluation of efficacy of 18 strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida) against Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth de Carvalho; Negrisoli Júnior, Aldomario Santo; Botton, Marcos; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Bernardi, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an important plant virus vector in grapevine crops in Brazil and other countries. The mealybug grows in roots and leaves of the grapes. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are efficient control agents against insects associated to the soil and could be applied with the same equipment used for chemical insecticides. The aim of this study was to select effective EPNs for controlling P. citri females in laboratory conditions (25±1°C, UR 60±10%). We tested 17 native [Steinernema rarum (6 strains), Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema riobrave, Steinernema sp., Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (7 strains)] and only one exotic strain (Steinernema carpocapsae ALL). The bioassays were done on Petri dishes infested with females of P. citri, which were sprayed with EPNs juveniles. The strain with larger pathogenicity and virulence in laboratory was H. bacteriophora RS33 (from 69.0% to 92.2% of mortality), native of Rio Grande do Sul.

  20. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species.