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Sample records for psychrotolerant streptomyces sp

  1. Streptomyces rhizosphaerihabitans sp. nov. and Streptomyces adustus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo forest soil.

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    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2016-09-01

    Three novel isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces, designated JR-35T, JR-46 and WH-9T, were isolated from bamboo forest soil in Damyang, Korea. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains JR-35T and JR-46 showed highest similarities with Streptomyces olivochromogenes NBRC 3178T (99.1 %), Streptomyces siamensis KC-038T (98.9 %), Streptomyces chartreusis NBRC 12753T (98.9 %), Streptomyces resistomycificus NRRL ISP-5133T (98.9 %) and Streptomyces bobili JCM 4627T (98.8 %), and strain WH-9Tshowed highest sequence similarities with Streptomyces. bobili JCM 4627T (99.2 %), Streptomyces phaeoluteigriseus NRRL ISP-5182T (99.2 %), Streptomyces alboniger NBRC 12738T (99.2 %), Streptomyces galilaeus JCM 4757T (99.1 %) and Streptomyces pseudovenezuelae NBRC 12904T (99.1 %). The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 for strains JR-35T and JR-46 and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 for strain WH-9T. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strains JR-35T, JR-46 and WH-9T were 69.4, 74.4 and 74.1 mol%, respectively. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the three strains are assigned to two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces rhizosphaerihabitans sp. nov. (type stain JR-35T=KACC 17181T=NBRC 109807T) and Streptomyces adustus sp. nov. (type strain WH-9T=KACC 17197T=NBRC 109810T) are proposed.

  2. Streptomyces xylanilyticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

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    Moonmangmee, Duangtip; Kanchanasin, Pawina; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Moonmangmee, Somporn

    2017-10-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain SR2-123 T , belonging to the genus Streptomyces, was isolated from a soil sample collected from the Sakaerat Environmental Research Station, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of the strain was characterized using a polyphasic study. Strain SR2-123 T contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose and ribose in whole-cell hydrolysates. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. Menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, an unknown phospholipid, unknown glycolipids, an unknown aminophospholipid, unknown lipids and an unknown aminolipid. The DNA G+C content was 74.8 mol%. The strain was closely related to Streptomyces coeruleorubidus JCM 4359 T (98.5 %), Streptomyces flavofungini JCM 4753 T (98.5 %), Streptomyces coerulescens NBRC 12758 T (98. 5 %) and Streptomyces alboflavus JCM 4615 T (98.4 %), based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The novel strain exhibited low DNA-DNA relatedness values with the type strains (11.4-25.0 %) of closely related species. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain SR2-123 T could be distinguished from closely related species of the genus Streptomyces and represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces xylanilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR2-123 T (=TISTR 2493 T =KCTC 39909 T ).

  3. Taxonomic analyses of members of the Streptomyces cinnabarinus cluster, description of Streptomyces cinnabarigriseus sp. nov. and Streptomyces davaonensis sp. nov.

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    Landwehr, Wiebke; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Mack, Matthias; Schumann, Peter; Atasayar, Ewelina; Hahnke, Richard L; Rohde, Manfred; Martin, Karin; Stadler, Marc; Wink, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Roseoflavin is the only known riboflavin (vitamin B2) analog with antibiotic properties. It is actively taken up by many micro-organisms and targets flavinmononucleotide riboswitches and flavoproteins. It is described as the product of the tentatively named 'Streptomyces davawensis' JCM 4913. Taxonomic analysis of this strain with a polyphasic approach showed that it is very closely related to Streptomyces cinnabarinus (DSM 40467). The two Streptomyces isolates were obtained from different geographical locations (the Philippines and the Kamchatka Peninsula, respectively), their genomes have been sequenced and the question was whether or not the two isolates were representatives of the same species. As we also worked with another isolate of Streptomyces cinnabarinus JS 360, the producer of the cinnabaramides, we wanted to clarify the taxonomic position of the three isolates by using a polyphasic approach. After analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, we found in total 23 species of the genus Streptomyces that showed a similarity higher than 98.5 % to the three strains. We showed that 'S. davawensis' JCM 4913 and S. cinnabarinus DSM 40467 were very closely related but belong to two different species. Hence, we validate 'S. davawensis' as Streptomyces davaonensis sp. nov. with the type strain JCM 4913 T (=DSM 101723 T ). In addition, the cinnabaramide producer can be clearly differentiated from S. davaonensis and this isolate is described as Streptomyces cinnabarigriseus sp. nov. with strain JS360 T (=NCCB 100590 T =DSM 101724 T ) as the type strain.

  4. Streptomyces krungchingensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

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    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Tamura, Tomohiko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2017-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain KC-035T, was isolated from soil collected from Krung Ching Waterfall National Park, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. Its taxonomic position was determined using a polyphasic approach. The strain had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Streptomyces: flexuous spore chain; ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan; MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4) as menaquinones; diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside as phospholipids; anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids; and DNA G+C content of 72 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KC-035T showed high similarity to Streptomyces albiflavescens n20T (99.16 %) and Streptomyces siamensis KC-038T (98.43 %) as well as formed a monophyletic clade with them in the phylogenetic tree. On the basis of comparison of phenotypic properties and the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness, strain KC-035T could be distinguished from its closely related Streptomyces species and is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces krungchingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC-035T (=NBRC 110087T=KCTC 29503T=TISTR 2402T).

  5. Integrative Gene Cloning and Expression System for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 Bioactive Molecule Producing Strains

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    Samiha Sioud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002, as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch.

  6. Enhancement of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces sp MU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance clavulanic acid production using UV-mutagenesis on Streptomyces sp. NRC77. Methods: UV-mutagenesis was used to study the effect of Streptomyces sp. NRC77 on CA production. Phenotypic and genotypic identification methods of the promising mutant strain were characterized. Optimization of the ...

  7. Development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as an emerging chassis

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    Qian Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-derived natural products are important in both the pharmaceutical industry and academic research. As the metabolic potential of original producer especially Streptomyces is often limited by slow growth rate, complicated cultivation profile, and unfeasible genetic manipulation, so exploring a Streptomyces as a super industrial chassis is valuable and urgent. Streptomyces sp. FR-008 is a fast-growing microorganism and can also produce a considerable amount of macrolide candicidin via modular polyketide synthase. In this study, we evaluated Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as a potential industrial-production chassis. First, PacBio sequencing and transcriptome analyses indicated that the Streptomyces sp. FR-008 genome size is 7.26 Mb, which represents one of the smallest of currently sequenced Streptomyces genomes. In addition, we simplified the conjugation procedure without heat-shock and pre-germination treatments but with high conjugation efficiency, suggesting it is inherently capable of accepting heterologous DNA. In addition, a series of promoters selected from literatures was assessed based on GusA activity in Streptomyces sp. FR-008. Compared with the common used promoter ermE*-p, the strength of these promoters comprise a library with a constitutive range of 60–860%, thus providing the useful regulatory elements for future genetic engineering purpose. In order to minimum the genome, we also target deleted three endogenous polyketide synthase (PKS gene clusters to generate a mutant LQ3. LQ3 is thus an “updated” version of Streptomyces sp. FR-008, producing fewer secondary metabolites profiles than Streptomyces sp. FR-008. We believe this work could facilitate further development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 for use in biotechnological applications.

  8. Complete genome of Pseudomonas sp. strain L10.10, a psychrotolerant biofertilizer that could promote plant growth.

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    See-Too, Wah Seng; Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Convey, Peter; Pearce, David A; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok Gan

    2016-03-20

    Pseudomonas sp. strain L10.10 (=DSM 101070) is a psychrotolerant bacterium which was isolated from Lagoon Island, Antarctica. Analysis of its complete genome sequence indicates its possible role as a plant-growth promoting bacterium, including nitrogen-fixing ability and indole acetic acid (IAA)-producing trait, with additional suggestion of plant disease prevention attributes via hydrogen cyanide production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Ethanolic Extract of Streptomyces sp. as a Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitors Produced by Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12

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    Lenni Fitri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 isolated from Zingiber cassumunar (Bangle is known to produce pancreatic lipase inhibitory compound. However, the characteristics of this active compound has not been reported yet. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of pancreatics inhibitory compound produced by Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 and to assess the role of endophytic actinobacteria in producing pancreatic lipase inhibitor using endophytic-free bangle tissue culture, wild bangle and compared with the activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 endophytes. Supernatant of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was extracted using ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane solvents. Toxicity test was performed using larvae of shrimp Artemia salina. The results showed that the best solvent to obtain pancreatic lipase inhibitor compounds was ethanol. Phytochemical analysis showed that ethanolic extract of endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 contained flavonoids. IC50 value of ethanol extract was 180.83 µg/ml. The result of TLC showed that ethanolic extract of Streptomyces AEBg12 had a blue luminescence band indicated that there were either flavone, flavanones, flavonols or isoflavones. Inhibitory activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was higher than wild bangle and bangle tissue culture. The information from this study can be be used as a basic data for further characterization of the active compound, which might be developed as an antiobesity agent through its pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity.

  10. Methanolobus psychrotolerans sp. nov., a psychrotolerant methanoarchaeon isolated from a saline meromictic lake in Siberia.

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    Chen, Sheng-Chung; Huang, Hsing-Hua; Lai, Mei-Chin; Weng, Chieh-Yin; Chiu, Hsiu-Hui; Tang, Sen-Lin; Rogozin, Denis Yu; Degermendzhy, Andrey G

    2018-04-01

    A psychrotolerant, methylotrophic methanogen, strain YSF-03 T , was isolated from the saline meromictic Lake Shira in Siberia. Cells of strain YSF-03 T were non-motile, irregular cocci and 0.8-1.2 µm in diameter. The methanogenic substrates utilized by strain YSF-03 T were methanol and trimethylamine. The temperature range of growth for strain YSF-03 T was from 0 to 37 °C. The optimum growth conditions were 30-37 °C, pH 7.0-7.4 and 0.17 M NaCl. The G+C content of the genome of strain YSF-03 T was 41.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain YSF-03 T was most closely related to Methanolobus profundi MobM T (98.15 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). Genome relatedness between strain YSF-03 T and MobM T was computed using the Genome-to-Genome Distance Calculator and average nucleotide identity, which gave values of 23.5 and 79.3 %, respectively. Based on the morphological, phenotypic, phylogenetic and genomic relatedness data presented here, it is evident that strain YSF-03 T represents a novel species of the genus Methanolobus, for which the name Methanolobus psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YSF-03 T (=BCRC AR10049 T =DSM 104044 T =NBRC 112514 T ).

  11. Colwellia polaris sp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from Arctic sea ice.

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    Zhang, De-Chao; Yu, Yong; Xin, Yu-Hua; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Pei-Jin; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2008-08-01

    A novel psychrotolerant, Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain 537T, was isolated from sea-ice samples from the Arctic. Strain 537T was able to grow at 4-26 degrees C, with optimum growth occurring at 20-21 degrees C. Strain 537T had Q-8 as the major respiratory quinone and contained iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1 omega7c (22.95 %), C15:1 (17.64 %) and C17:1 omega8c (13.74 %) as the predominant cellular fatty acids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.9 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 537T formed a coherent cluster within the genus Colwellia. The highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (97.5 %) exhibited by strain 537T was obtained with respect to the type strain of Colwellia aestuarii. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties and DNA-DNA relatedness data, strain 537T represents a novel species of the genus Colwellia, for which the name Colwellia polaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 537T (=CGMCC 1.6132T =JCM 13952T).

  12. Streptomyces solisilvae sp. nov., isolated from tropical forest soil.

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    Zhou, Shuangqing; Yang, Xiaobo; Huang, Dongyi; Huang, Xiaolong

    2017-09-01

    A novel streptomycete (strain HNM0141T) was isolated from tropical forest soil collected from Bawangling mountain of Hainan island, PR China and its taxonomic position was established in a polyphasic study. The organism had chemical and morphological properties consistent with its classification as a member of the Streptomyces violaceusnigerclade. On the basis of the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, HNM0141T showed highest similarity to Streptomyces malaysiensisCGMCC4.1900T (99.4 %), Streptomyces samsunensis DSM 42010T (98.9 %), Streptomyces yatensis NBRC 101000T (98.3 %), Streptomyces rhizosphaericus NBRC 100778T (98.0 %) and Streptomyces sporoclivatus NBRC 100767T (97.9 %). The strain formed a well-delineated subclade with S. malaysiensis CGMCC4.1900T and S. samsunensis DSM 42010T. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between HNM0141T and S. malaysiensis CGMCC4.1900T and S. samsunensis DSM 42010T were 62 and 44 %, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, HNM0141T represents a novel species in the S. violaceusnigerclade for which the name Streptomyces solisilvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HNM0141 T (=CCTCC AA 2016045T=KCTC 39905T).

  13. Penggunaan Streptomyces sp. Sebagai Biokontrol Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Cabai Merah (Capsicum annuum L. yang Disebabkan Oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici

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    ANINDA OKTAVIA RAHARINI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted to find out Streptomyces bacteria at Bukit Jimbaran, to inhibitionpotency of Streptomyces sp. to pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici, and to find outantifungal activity of Streptomyces filtrate to F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici in chili (Capsicum annuumL. plants. Streptomyces sp. isolation was done by platting method with selective media YMA (ISP4.Identification of Streptomyces sp. used Bergey’s book entitled Manual Determinative Bacteriology.Test inhibition against F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici and in vivo test used by dying the roots of the chili(C.annuum L. plant with F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici and after 30 seconds the roots were dying withStreptomyces sp. culture, furthermore sterile soil on polybag watered by F.oxysporum f.sp. capsicispore and Streptomyces sp. culture at the same time. The result found five isolates Streptomyces sp.with different morphological. The antagonis test showed Streptomyces sp. 4 had ability (82% againstFusarium, Streptomyces sp.1 (72%, Streptomyces sp.2 (64%, Streptomyces sp.3 (76%, andStreptomyces sp. 5 (32%. All Streptomyces suppressed the growth of Fusarium on chili plants inglass house (p<0,05. Streptomyces sp.4 suppressed Fusarium wilt disease in chili from 80% in controlto 8%.

  14. Streptomyces ovatisporus sp. nov., isolated from deep marine sediment.

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    Veyisoglu, Aysel; Cetin, Demet; Inan Bektas, Kadriye; Guven, Kiymet; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-staining-positive strain, designated strain S4702T was isolated from a marine sediment collected from the southern Black Sea coast, Turkey, determined using a polyphasic approach. The isolate was found to have chemotaxonomic, morphological and phylogenetic properties consistent with its classification as representing a member of the genus Streptomyces and formed a distinct phyletic line in the 16S rRNA gene tree. S4702T was found to be most closely related to the type strains of Streptomyces marinus(DSM 41968T; 97.8 % sequence similarity) and Streptomyces abyssalis (YIM M 10400T; 97.6 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with other members of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 97.5 %. DNA-DNA relatedness of S4702T and the most closely related strain S. marinus DSM 41968T was 21.0 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.5 mol%. The cell wall of the strain contained l,l-diaminopimelic acid and the cell-wall sugars were glucose and ribose. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H8). The polar lipid profile of S4702T consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. S4702T could be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic neighbours using a combination of chemotaxonomic, morphological and physiological properties. Consequently, it is proposed that S4702T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces ovatisporus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S4702T (DSM 42103T=KCTC 29206T=CGMCC 4.7357T).

  15. Streptomyces sp. Sebagai Biofungisida Patogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht. f.sp. lycopersici (Sacc. Snyd. et Hans. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum L.

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    NURI MANDAN SARI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to isolate Streptomyces sp. of soil Udayana University campus in theBukit-Jimbaran, to obtain the most effective Streptomyces sp. which is effective in inhibit the growth ofFusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and to test response of tomato plants with Streptomyces sp.culture against Fusarium wilt desease. Implementation phases of the research consisted of isolation andidentification of Streptomyces sp, test the inhibition against F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and in vivotest used by dyeing the roots of the tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum with Fusarium spores andafter 30 seconds the roots were dyeing Streptomyces culture. Furthermore, sterile soil in polybagwatered by Fusarium spores and Streptomyces culture at the same time. Based on morphologicalcharacteristic it found five isolates of Streptomyces sp.. The antagonist test showed Streptomyces sp.1 had ability (75% against Fusarium, Streptomyces sp 2 (68,3%, Streptomyces sp. 3 (71,6%,Streptomyces sp. 4 (63,3%, and Streptomyces sp. 5 (21,6%. All Streptomyces suppressed thegrowth of Fusarium on tomato plants in glass house (p<0,05. Streptomyces sp.3 suppressed Fusariumwilt disease in tomato from 88% in control to 20%.

  16. EFEKTIFITAS DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptomyces sp TERHADAP Erwinia sp PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK REBAH PADA TANAMAN LIDAH BUAYA (Aloe barbadensis Mill

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    SARMILA TASNIM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp was conducted from December 2010 - June 2011 at the Laboratoryof Microbiology, Biology Department, Math and Science Faculty, UdayanaUniversity Bukit Jimbaran-Bali. Implementation stages of the research consisted ofisolation and testing of the antibiotic activity Streptomyces sp to inhibit growthbacterial pathogens Erwinia sp as a cause of disease in plants fallen foul (Soft rot ofAloe barbadensis Mill.The results of this study have eight isolates of Streptomyces spwith macroscopic and microscopic characters are varied. Furthermore, all isolateswere obtained and then tested against antibiotic activity to inhibit growth the bacteriaErwinia sp. Test results obtained by Streptomyces sp that has the most effective ininhibiting the ability of the bacteria Erwinia sp isolates are Streptomyces sp2for (45%.

  17. Two new species of the genus Streptomyces: Streptomyces camponoti sp. nov. and Streptomyces cuticulae sp. nov. isolated from the cuticle of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

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    Piao, Chenyu; Zheng, Weiwei; Li, Yao; Liu, Chongxi; Jin, Liying; Song, Wei; Yan, Kai; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2017-09-01

    Two novel actinomycetes, designated strains 2C-SSA16(2) T and 1C-GS8 T , were isolated from the cuticle of Camponotus japonicus Mayr, collected from Northeast Agricultural University, Heilongjiang Province, north China. Both of them contained genes (involved in antibiotics biosynthesis) of the ketosynthase (KS) and methyl malonyl transferase domains (PKS-I) and the adenylation domain (NRPS). A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic positions of these strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two novel isolates 2C-SSA16(2) T and 1C-GS8 T exhibited 98.8% similarity with each other and that they are most closely related to Streptomyces umbrinus JCM 4521 T (99.0, 98.6%), Streptomyces ederensis JCM 4958 T (98.9, 98.7%), Streptomyces aurantiacus JCM 4453 T (98.6, 98.2%), Streptomyces glomeroaurantiacus JCM 4677 T (98.6, 98.1%), Streptomyces tauricus JCM4837 T (98.2, 98.0%) and Streptomyces phaeochromogenes JCM 4070 T (98.2, 99.2%). The corresponding phylogenetic analysis based on partial gyrB gene sequences showed that strains 2C-SSA16(2) T and 1C-GS8 T formed a cluster with the above-mentioned strains. The DNA-DNA hybridization data and phenotypic characteristics indicated that strains 2C-SSA16(2) T and 1C-GS8 T could be readily distinguished from each other and their closest phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, these two strains are suggested to represent two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces camponoti sp. nov. and Streptomyces cuticulae sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are 2C-SSA16(2) T (=CGMCC 4.7276 T  = DSM 100522 T ) and 1C-GS8 T (=CGMCC 4.7348 = DSM 103127 T ), respectively.

  18. Streptomyces cerasinus sp. nov., isolated from soil in Thailand.

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    Kanchanasin, Pawina; Moonmangmee, Duangtip; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Moonmangmee, Somporn

    2017-10-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain SR3-134 T , belonging to the genus Streptomyces, was isolated from soil collected from the Sakaerat Environmental Research Station, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of the strain was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. ll-Diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose and ribose were detected in its whole-cell hydrolysates. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. The menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6), MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H2). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. blast analysis of the almost-complete 16S rRNA gene showed 98.7 % sequence similarities to Streptomyces lanatus JCM 4588 T and Streptomyces psammoticus JCM 4434 T . The DNA G+C content was 71.4 mol%. Strain SR3-134 T showed low DNA-DNA relatedness (12.9±4.0-44.1±1.0 %) to S. lanatus JCM 4588 T and S. psammoticus JCM 4434 T . The new strain could also be distinguished from its closely related strains by differences in their phenotypic characteristics. The results of taxonomic analysis suggested that strain SR3-134 T represented a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces cerasinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR3-134 T (=TISTR 2494 T =KCTC 39910 T ).

  19. 40 CFR 180.1120 - Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1120 Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biological pesticide Streptomyces sp. strain K61 is exempted from the requirement...

  20. Three new amides from streptomyces sp. H7372

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    Cheenpracha, Sarot; Borris, Robert P.; Tran, Tammy T.; Chang, Leng Chee, E-mail: lengchee@hawaii.ed [University of Hawaii Hilo, HI (United States). College of Pharmacy. Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Jee, Jap Meng; Seow, Heng Fong; Cheah, Hwen-Yee [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia). Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Pathology. bImmunology Unit; Hoc, Coy Choke [University Malaysia Sabah (Malaysia). School of Science and Technology. Biotechnology Program

    2011-07-01

    Three new amides, methyl phenatate A (1), actiphenamide (2) and actiphenol 1-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with thirteen known compounds, were isolated from the organic extract of a fermentation culture of Streptomyces sp. H7372. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques, and MS analyses. Cycloheximide (6) and cyclo({Delta}Ala-L-Val) (8) gave a clear zone of inhibition of Ras-Raf-1 interaction in the yeast two hybrid assay which showed high potency with 10 and 25 mm clear ZOIs on SD His{sup -} and inactive on SD His{sup +} at 2.5 mug per disk, respectively. (author)

  1. Identification, purification, and expression patterns of chitinase from psychrotolerant Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 and antifungal activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-Su; Seo, Dong-Jun; Jung, Woo-Jin

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a novel psychrotolerant chitinolytic bacterium Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 that displayed strong chitinolytic activity on 0.5% colloidal chitin was isolated from the soil of a decayed mushroom. Chitinase activity of PR-M6 at 25 °C (C25) after 6 days of incubation with colloidal chitin increased rapidly to a maximum level (31.3 U/mg proteins). Three chitinase isozymes (chiII, chiIII, and chiIV) from the crude enzyme at 25 °C (C25) incubation were expressed on SDS-PAGE gels at 25 °C. After purification by chitin-affinity chromatography, six chitinase isozymes (chiI, chiII, chiIII, chiIV, chiV, and chiVI) from C25-fractions were expressed on SDS-PAGE gels at 25 °C. Major bands of chitinase isozymes (chiI, chiII, and chiIII) from C4-fractions were strongly expressed on SDS-PAGE gels at 25 °C. Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 showed high inhibition rate of 60.9% and 57.5% against Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. These results indicated that psychrotolerant Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 could be applied widely as a microorganism agent for the biocontrol of agricultural phytopathogens at low temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tundrisphaera lichenicola gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrotolerant representative of the family Isosphaeraceae from lichen-dominated tundra soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Ivanova, Anastasia A; Detkova, Ekaterina N; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2017-09-01

    Two strains of aerobic, budding, pink-pigmented bacteria, P12T and P515, were isolated from a lichen-dominated peatland and a forested tundra soil of north-western Siberia, respectively. Cells of these isolates were represented by non-motile spheres that occurred singly or were arranged in short chains and aggregates. While growing on solid media, cells of strains P12T and P515 attached to the surface by means of holdfast-like appendages. These isolates were mildly acidophilic (optimum growth at pH 5.5-6.0), psychrotolerant bacteria, which displayed tolerance of low temperatures (4-15 °C), grew optimally at 15-22 °C and did not grow at temperatures above 28 °C. The preferred growth substrates were sugars and some heteropolysaccharides. The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C14 : 0. Trimethylornithine lipid was the major polar lipid. The only quinone was MK-6, and the G+C content of the DNA was 61.2-62.2 mol%. Strains P12T and P515 possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, which affiliated them with the family Isosphaeraceae, order Planctomycetales, and these displayed the highest similarity (93-94 %) to 16S rRNA gene sequences from members of the genus Singulisphaera. However, the signature fatty acid of species of the genus Singulisphaera, i.e. C18 : 2ω6c,12c, was absent in cells of strains P12T and P515. They also differed from members of the genus Singulisphaera by substrate utilization pattern and a number of physiological characteristics. Based on these data, the novel isolates should be considered as representing a novel genus and species of planctomycetes, for which the name Tundrisphaera lichenicola gen. nov., sp. nov, is proposed. The type strain is P12T (=LMG 29571T=VKM B-3044T).

  3. Leifsonia psychrotolerans sp. nov., a psychrotolerant species of the family Microbacteriaceae from Livingston Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzert, Lars; Bajerski, Felizitas; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Lipski, André; Wagner, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    A cold-tolerant, yellow-pigmented, Gram-positive, motile, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, LI1(T), was isolated from a moss-covered soil from Livingston Island, Antarctica, near the Bulgarian station St. Kliment Ohridski. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis placed the strain in a clade with the species Leifsonia kafniensis KFC-22(T), Leifsonia pindariensis PON10(T) and Leifsonia antarctica SPC-20(T), with which it showed sequence similarities of 99.0, 97.9 and 97.9 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a reassociation value of 2.7 % with L. kafniensis LMG 24362(T). The DNA G+C content of strain LI1(T) was 64.5 mol%. The growth temperature range was -6 to 28 °C, with optimum growth at 16 °C. Growth occurred in 0-5 % NaCl and at pH 4.5-9.5, with optimum growth in 1-2 % NaCl and at pH 5.5-6.5. The predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(18 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0). The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. Physiological and biochemical tests clearly differentiated strain LI1(T) from L. kafniensis. Therefore, a novel cold-tolerant species within the genus Leifsonia is proposed: Leifsonia psychrotolerans sp. nov. (type strain LI1(T) = DSM 22824(T) = NCCB 100313(T)).

  4. Streptopyridines, volatile pyridine alkaloids produced by Streptomyces sp. FORM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Groenhagen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. FORM5 is a bacterium that is known to produce the antibiotic streptazolin and related compounds. We investigated the strain for the production of volatiles using the CLSA (closed-loop stripping analysis method. Liquid and agar plate cultures revealed the formation of new 2-alkylpyridines (streptopyridines, structurally closely related to the already known 2-pentadienylpiperidines. The structures of the streptopyridines A to E were confirmed by total synthesis. The analysis of the liquid phase by solvent extraction or extraction with an Oasis adsorbent showed that streptazolin and 2-pentadienylpiperidine are the major compounds, while the streptopyridines are only minor components. In the gas phase, only the streptopyridines could be detected. Therefore, an orthogonal set of analysis is needed to assess the metabolic profile of bacteria, because volatile compounds are obviously overlooked by traditional analytical methods. The streptopyridines are strain specific volatiles that are accompanied by a broad range of headspace constituents that occur in many actinomycetes. Volatiles might be of ecological importance for the producing organism, and, as biosynthetic intermediates or shunt products, they can be useful as indicators of antibiotic production in a bacterium.

  5. Streptomyces palmae sp. nov., isolated from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarit, Kanaporn; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2016-10-01

    Actinomycete strain CMU-AB204T was isolated from oil palm rhizosphere soil collected in Chiang Mai University (Chiang Mai, Thailand). Based on morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the organism was considered to belong to the genus Streptomyces. Whole cell-wall hydrolysates consisted of ll-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, ribose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-9(H2) and MK-8(H4). The fatty acid profile contained iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as major components. The principal phospholipids detected were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain CMU-AB204T was 70.9 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain CMU-AB204T was closely related to Streptomyces orinoci JCM 4546T (98.7 %), Streptomyces lilacinus NBRC 12884T (98.5 %), Streptomyces abikoensis CGMCC 4.1662T (98.5 %), Streptomyces griseocarneus JCM 4905T (98.4 %) and Streptomyces xinghaiensis JCM 16958T (98.3 %). Phylogenetic trees revealed that the new strain had a distinct taxonomic position from closely related type strains of the genus Streptomyces. Spiny to hairy spores clearly differentiated strain CMU-AB204T from the five most closely related Streptomyces species, which produced smooth spores. On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, it is proposed that strain CMU-AB204T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces palmae sp. nov. The type strain is CMU-AB204T (=JCM 31289T=TBRC 1999T).

  6. Flocculation mechanism of the actinomycete Streptomyces sp. hsn06 on Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2017-09-01

    In this study, an actinomycete Streptomyces sp. hsn06 with the ability to harvest Chlorella vulgaris biomass was used to investigate the flocculation mechanism. Streptomyces sp. hsn06 exhibited flocculation activity on algal cells through mycelial pellets with adding calcium. Calcium was determined to promote flocculation activity of mycelial pellets as a bridge binding with mycelial pellets and algal cells, which implied that calcium bridging is the main flocculation mechanism for mycelial pellets. Characteristics of flocculation activity confirmed proteins in mycelial pellets involved in flocculation procedure. The morphology and structure of mycelial pellets also caused dramatic effects on flocculation activity of mycelial pellets. According to the results, Streptomyces sp. hsn06 can be used as a novel flocculating microbial resource for high-efficiency harvesting of microalgae biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Streptomyces fuscichromogenes sp. nov., an actinomycete from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Jimei; Zhuang, Junli; Xin, Yuhua; Zheng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jianli

    2017-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain m16T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna, a prefecture in Yunnan Province, south-west China, and characterized by using polyphasic taxomomy. Cells were aerobic and Gram-reaction-positive, and spore chains were observed to be of the helical type, with elliptical spores and smooth spore surfaces. The novel strain grew over a temperature range of 15-35 °C, at pH 5.0-11.0 and in the presence of 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content of strain m16T was 70.0 mol%. The main fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 (29.3 %), iso-C15: 0 (15.4 %) and anteiso-C15:0 (14.6 %), and the predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain m16T was most closely related to Streptomyces jiujiangensis KCTC 29262T (98.7 %), Streptomyces panaciradicis KACC 17632T (98.7 %), Streptomyces rhizophilus NBRC 108885T (98.5 %), Streptomyces shenzhenensis DSM 42034T (98.4 %), Streptomyces graminisoli JR-19T (98.4 %) and Streptomyces gramineus JR-43T (98.3 %). Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses indicated that strain m16T represents a novel species within the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces fuscichromogenes is proposed. The type strain is m16T (=CGMCC 4.7110T=KCTC 29195T).

  8. Microtermolides A and B from termite-associated Streptomyces sp. and structural revision of vinylamycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Gavin; Poulsen, Michael; Klassen, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Microtermolides A (1) and B (2) were isolated from a Streptomyces sp. strain associated with fungus-growing termites. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Structural elucidation of 1 led to the re-examination of the struct......Microtermolides A (1) and B (2) were isolated from a Streptomyces sp. strain associated with fungus-growing termites. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Structural elucidation of 1 led to the re...

  9. Streptomyces aridus sp. nov., isolated from a high altitude Atacama Desert soil and emended description of Streptomyces noboritoensis Isono et al. 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Hamidah; Labeda, David P; Nouioui, Imen; Castro, Jean Franco; Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Bull, Alan T; Asenjo, Juan A; Goodfellow, Michael

    2017-05-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic status of a Streptomyces strain which had been isolated from a high altitude Atacama Desert soil and shown to have bioactive properties. The strain, isolate H9 T , was found to have chemotaxonomic, cultural and morphological properties that place it in the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that the isolate forms a distinct branch at the periphery of a well-delineated subclade in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree together with the type strains of Streptomyces crystallinus, Streptomyces melanogenes and Streptomyces noboritoensis. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on five house-keeping gene alleles showed that isolate H9 T is closely related to the latter two type strains and to Streptomyces polyantibioticus NRRL B-24448 T . The isolate was distinguished readily from the type strains of S. melanogenes, S. noboritoensis and S. polyantibioticus using a combination of phenotypic properties. Consequently, the isolate is considered to represent a new species of Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces aridus sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is H9 T (=NCIMB 14965 T =NRRL B65268 T ). In addition, the MLSA and phenotypic data show that the S. melanogenes and S. noboritoensis type strains belong to a single species, it is proposed that S. melanogenes be recognised as a heterotypic synonym of S. noboritoensis for which an emended description is given.

  10. Streptomyces formicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Liu, Chongxi; Guo, Lifeng; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Zhilei; Li, Jiansong; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-02-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 1H-GS9(T), was isolated from the head of a Camponotus japonicus Mayr ant, which were collected from Northeast Agricultural University (Harbin, Heilongjiang, China). Strain 1H-GS9(T) was characterised using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-GS9(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarities to Streptomyces scopuliridis DSM 41917(T) (98.8 %) and Streptomyces mauvecolor JCM 5002(T) (98.6 %). However, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it forms a monophyletic clade with Streptomyces kurssanovii JCM 4388(T) (98.6 %), Streptomyces xantholiticus JCM 4282(T) (98.6 %) and Streptomyces peucetius JCM 9920(T) (98.5 %). Thus, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-GS9(T) and the above-mentioned five strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-GS9(T) could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces formicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-GS9(T) (=CGMCC 4.7277(T) = DSM 100524(T)).

  11. Streptomyces tremellae sp. nov., isolated from a culture of the mushroom Tremella fuciformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Bingzhi; Li, Xiao; Li, Bing-Bing; Li, Cheng-Huan; Huang, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Dai, Wei-Hao; Jiang, Yu-Ji

    2016-12-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated Js-1T, was isolated from Tremella fuciformis collected from Gutian, Fujian Province, in southeastern China. The taxonomic status of this strain was determined by a polyphasic approach, which demonstrated that the novel strain was a member of the genus Streptomyces. The cell walls of this strain were found to contain ll-diaminopimelic acid, muramic acid and glycine. An analysis of whole-cell hydrolysates revealed that no characteristic sugar was present. The key identified menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8), while the diagnostic polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The main cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. An analysis of an almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the strain shared the highest levels of sequence similarity with Streptomyces sannanensisKC-7038T (97.87 %), Streptomyces hebeiensis YIM 001T (97.84 %), Streptomyces pathocidini NBRC 13812T (97.80 %), Streptomyces cocklensis BK168T (97.25 %), Streptomyces coerulescens NBRC 12758T (97.12 %), Streptomyces aurantiogriseus NBRC 12842T (97.06 %) and Streptomyces rimosussubsp. rimosus ATCC 10970T (97.04 %). The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Js-1T was 70.1 mol%. Furthermore, DNA-DNA hybridization tests revealed that the relatedness values between strain Js-1T and the most closely related species ranged from 15.10 to 47.20 %. Based on its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain Js-1T (=CCTCC M 2011365T=JCM 30846T) is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Streptomyces, which we classified as Streptomycestremellae sp. nov.

  12. Streptomyces xinjiangensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Lop Nur region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cong; Li, Yu-Qian; Asem, Mipeshwaree Devi; Lu, Chun-Yan; Shi, Xiao-Han; Chu, Xiao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Di An, Deng-; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated LPA192(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Lop Nur, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China. A polyphasic approach was used to investigate the taxonomic position of strain LPA192(T). The isolate showed morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. Peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H4). Polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. Major cellular fatty acids consist of C16:0, anteiso-C15:0 and C18:1 ω9c. The sugar in whole-cell hydrolysates was mannose. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain LPA192(T) is closely related to Streptomyces tanashiensis LMG 20274(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces gulbargensis DAS131(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces nashvillensis NBRC 13064(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces roseolus NBRC 12816(T) (99.2 %) and Streptomyces filamentosus NBRC 12767(T) (99.1 %) while showing below 98.5 % sequencing similarities with other validly published Streptomyces species. However, DNA-DNA relatedness values between LPA192(T) and the closely related type strains were below 40 %, which are much lower than 70 % threshold value for species delineation. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain LPA192(T) was 69.3 mol %. Based on the differences in genotypic and phenotypic characteristics from the closely related strains, strain LPA192(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPA192(T) (=KCTC 39601(T) = CGMCC 4.7288(T)).

  13. Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression Ability of a Streptomyces sp. CB-75 from Banana Rhizosphere Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufeng; Zhou, Dengbo; Qi, Dengfeng; Gao, Zhufen; Xie, Jianghui; Luo, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    An actinomycete strain, CB-75, was isolated from the soil of a diseased banana plantation in Hainan, China. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, and 99.93% sequence similarity with Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424 (AB184393), the strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. This strain exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity against 11 plant pathogenic fungi. Type I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) were detected, which were indicative of the antifungal compounds that Streptomyces sp. CB-75 could produce. An ethyl acetate extract from the strain exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Colletotrichum musae (ATCC 96167) (0.78 μg/ml) and yielded the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (ATCC 16330) (50.0 μg/ml). Also, spore germination was significantly inhibited by the crude extract. After treatment with the crude extract of Streptomyces sp. CB-75 at the concentration 2 × MIC, the pathogenic fungi showed deformation, shrinkage, collapse, and tortuosity when observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the crude extract, 18 chemical constituents were identified; (Z)-13-docosenamide was the major constituent. Pot experiments showed that the incidence of banana seedlings was reduced after using Streptomyces sp. CB-75 treatment. The disease index was 10.23, and the prevention and control effect was 83.12%. Furthermore, Streptomyces sp. CB-75 had a growth-promoting effect on banana plants. The chlorophyll content showed 88.24% improvement, the leaf area, root length, root diameter, plant height, and stem showed 88.24, 90.49, 136.17, 61.78, and 50.98% improvement, respectively, and the shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight showed 82.38, 72.01, 195.33, and 113.33% improvement, respectively, compared with treatment of fermentation broth without Streptomyces sp. CB-75

  14. Streptomyces verrucosisporus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-09-01

    Five actinomycete isolates, CPB1-1T, CPB2-10, BM1-4, CPB3-1 and CPB1-18, belonging to the genus Streptomyces were isolated from marine sediments collected from Chumphon Province, Thailand. They produced open loops of warty spore chains on aerial mycelia. ll-Diaminopimelic acid, glucose and ribose were found in their whole-cell hydrolysates. Polar lipids found were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. Menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8), MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H8). Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The taxonomic position of the strains was described using a polyphasic approach. blastn analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that these five strains exhibited the highest similarities with 'Streptomyces mangrovicola' GY1 (99.0 %), Streptomyces fenghuangensisGIMN4.003T (98.6 %), Streptomyces barkulensisRC 1831T (98.5 %) and Streptomyces radiopugnans R97T (98.3 %). However, their phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as DNA-DNA relatedness differentiated these five strains from the other species of the genus Streptomyces. Here, we propose the novel actinomycetes all being representatives of the same novel species, Streptomyces verrucosisporus, with type strain CPB1-1T (=JCM 18519T=PCU 343T=TISTR 2344T).

  15. Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from marine sponge Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Pansa, Camila Cristiane; de Figueiredo Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a novel marine actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge, Aplysina fulva, which had been collected in the Archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Equatorial Atlantic Ocean), was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch within the Streptomyces somaliensis 16S rRNA gene tree subclade. It is closely related to Streptomyces violascens ISP 5183 T (97.27 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces hydrogenans NBRC 13475 T (97.15 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The 16S rRNA gene similarities between the isolate and the remaining members of the subclade are lower than 96.77 %. The organism can be distinguished readily from other members of the S. violacens subclade using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate 103 T (=NRRL B-65309 T  = CMAA 1378 T ) merits recognition as the type strain of a new Streptomyces species, namely Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov.

  16. Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Ye, Lan; Liu, Chongxi; Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Zheng, Weiwei; Sun, Pengyu; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2017-04-01

    During an investigation exploring potential sources of novel species and natural products, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain NEAU-Gz11 T , was isolated from a soil sample, which was collected from Gama, Chad. The isolate was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-Gz11 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarity to Streptomyces hiroshimensis JCM 4098 T (98.0 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 98.0 %. However, the physiological and biochemical characteristics and low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness could differentiate the isolate genotypically and phenotypically from S. hiroshimensis JCM 4098 T . Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz11 T (=CGMCC 4.7304 T =DSM 101531 T ).

  17. Streptomyces castaneus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the rhizosphere of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuyu; Li, Zhilei; Bai, Lu; Yan, Kai; Zhao, Junwei; Lu, Chang; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    During an investigation of microbial diversity in medicinal herbs, a novel actinomycete, strain NEAU-QHHV11 T was isolated from the rhizosphere of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn collected from Xianglu Mountain in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have typical characteristics of the genus Streptomyces. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence also indicated that strain NEAU-QHHV11 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces and was most closely related to Streptomyces graminilatus NBRC 108882 T (98.7 % sequence similarity) and Streptomyces turgidiscabies NBRC 16080 T (98.7 % sequence similarity). The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that strain NEAU-QHHV11 T could be distinguished from its close phylogenetic relatives. Thus, strain NEAU-QHHV11 T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces castaneus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-QHHV11 T (=CGMCC 4.7235 T  = DSM 100520 T ).

  18. Sceliphrolactam, a polyene macrocyclic lactam from a wasp-associated Streptomyces sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-01-01

    A previously unreported 26-membered polyene macrocyclic lactam, sceliphrolactam, was isolated from an actinomycete, Streptomyces sp., associated with the mud dauber, Sceliphron caementarium. Sceliphrolactam's structure was determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectral analysis. Sceliphrol...

  19. Fibrinolytic protease production by new Streptomyces sp. DPUA 1576 from Amazon lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana M.M. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results show that the optimization of the culture medium can enhance protease production, thus becoming a good process for further research. In addition, Streptomyces sp. DPUA 1576, isolated from Amazon lichens, might be a potential strain for fibrinolytic protease production.

  20. Antagonistic activity of antibiotic producing Streptomyces sp. against fish and human pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Hossain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempts were made to isolate Streptomyces sp. from soil samples of two different regions of Bangladesh and evaluate their antagonistic activity against fish and human pathogenic bacteria. A total of 10 isolates were identified as Streptomyces sp. based on several morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. Cross streak method was used to observe the antagonistic activity of the Streptomyces sp. isolates against different fish pathogens belonging to the genus Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Edwardsiella and human clinical isolates belonging to the genus Klebsiella, Salmonella and Streptococcus. Seven Streptomyces sp. isolates showed antagonism against both fish and human pathogenic bacteria. Four isolates viz., N24, N26, N28 and N47 showed broad spectrum of antagonistic activity (80-100% against all genera of fish and human pathogenic bacteria. The isolate N49 exhibited highest spectrum of antagonism against all fish pathogens (90-100% but comparatively lower degree of antagonism against human pathogens (50-60%. Rest of the two isolates (N21 and N23 showed variability in their antagonism. Results showed that broad spectrum antibiotic(s could be developed from the isolates N24, N26, N28 and N47against several human and fish pathogens. The isolate N49 could be a potential source of antibiotic, especially for fish pathogenic bacteria.

  1. Streptomyces jeddahensis sp. nov., an oleaginous bacterium isolated from desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttig, Annika; Atasayar, Ewelina; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan Philipp; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Schauer, Jennifer; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    A novel strain, G25T, was isolated from desert soil collected near Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. The strain could accumulate nearly 65 % of its cell dry weight as fatty acids, grow on a broad range of carbon sources and tolerate temperatures of up to 50 °C. With respect to to its 16S rRNA gene sequence, G25T is most closely related to Streptomyces massasporeus DSM 40035T, Streptomyces hawaiiensis DSM 40042T, Streptomyces indiaensis DSM 43803T, Streptomyces luteogriseus DSM 40483T and Streptomyces purpurascens DSM 40310T. Conventional DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values ranged from 18.7 to 46.9 % when G25T was compared with these reference strains. Furthermore, digital DDH values between the draft genome sequence of G25T and the genome sequences of other species of the genus Streptomyces were also significantly below the threshold of 70 %. The DNA G+C content of the draft genome sequence, consisting of 8.46 Mbp, was 70.3 %. The prevalent cellular fatty acids of G25T comprised anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The polar lipids profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides as well as unidentified phospholipids and phosphoaminolipids. The cell wall contained ll-diaminopimelic acid. Whole-cell sugars were predominantly glucose with small traces of ribose and mannose. The results of the polyphasic approach confirmed that this isolate represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces jeddahensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this species is G25T (=DSM 101878T =LMG 29545T =NCCB 100603T).

  2. Streptomyces lacrimifluminis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium that produces antibacterial compounds, isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binglin; Tang, Shukun; Chen, Ximing; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Gaoseng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Guangxiu; Chen, Tuo; Li, Shiweng; Dyson, Paul

    2016-12-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated Z1027T, was isolated from a soil sample collected near the Tuotuo River, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (China). The strain exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The taxonomic position of strain Z1027T was determined using a polyphasic approach. The organism had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and formed a distinct phyletic line in the 16S rRNA gene tree, together with Streptomyces turgidiscabies ATCC 700248T (99.19 % similarity), Streptomyces graminilatus JL-6T (98.84 %) and Streptomyces reticuliscabiei CFBP 4531T (98.36 %). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Z1027T was 74±1 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain Z1027T and Streptomyces turgidiscabies ATCC 700248T and Streptomyces reticuliscabiei CFBP 4531T were 38.5±0.4 and 26.2±1.2 %, respectively, both of them significantly lower than 70 %. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain Z1027T possessed MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8) as the major menaquinones, ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose as a whole-cell sugar. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatydilinositol and seven other unknown polar lipids were detected; iso-C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. On the basis of these genotypic and phenotypic data, it is proposed that isolate Z1027T (=CGMCC 4.7272T=JCM 31054T) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces,Streptomyces lacrimifluminis sp. nov.

  3. Streptomyces bryophytorum sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from moss (Bryophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang; Jin, Pinjiao; Liu, Chongxi; Ma, Zhaoxu; Zhao, Junwei; Li, Jiansong; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-HZ10(T) was isolated from moss and characterised using a polyphasic approach. The strain was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Streptomyces. Strain NEAU-HZ10(T) formed grayish aerial mycelia, which differentiated into straight to flexuous chains of cylindrical spores. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid. Predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The polar lipid profile was found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and two unidentified phospholipids. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16:0, anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces and exhibits high sequence similarity to Streptomyces cocklensis DSM 42063(T) (98.9 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) clustered with S. cocklensis DSM 42063(T), Streptomyces yeochonensis CGMCC 4.1882(T) (98.7 %), Streptomyces paucisporeus CGMCC 4.2025(T) (98.4 %) and Streptomyces yanglinensis CGMCC 4.2023(T) (98.1 %). However, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridisation results and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) can be distinguished from its phylogenetically closely related strains. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces bryophytorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-HZ10(T) (= CGMCC 4.7151(T) = DSM 42138(T)).

  4. Enhancement of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces sp MU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Dept., Pharmaceutical Industries Div., National Research Centre, 33 EL ... enzymes produced by many pathogenic bacteria, ... produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces ... enzymes, hence avoiding loss of the beta-lactam ...... strain will explore the economic outcome of.

  5. Production of high fructose corn syrup Streptomyces sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, M; Prabhu, K A

    1978-01-01

    A Streptomyces strain exhibiting considerable glucose isomerase activity was isolated from soil. The cell free extract of the culture was able to convert glucose to fructose in a period of 48 ha and gave 40% conversion. With acid hydrolyzates of corn and bagasse as substrates, the cell-free extract gave glucose to fructose conversions of 39.8 and 29%, respectively.

  6. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegelmann, Christina; Margassery, Lekha Menon; Kennedy, Jonathan; Zhang, Tong; O’Brien, Ciarán; O’Gara, Fergal; Morrissey, John P.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8) isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1), 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2), and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3) that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont. PMID:24893324

  7. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Viegelmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8 isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1, 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2, and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3 that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont.

  8. Cadmium biosorption by Streptomyces sp. F4 isolated from former uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siñeriz, Manuel Louis; Kothe, Erika; Abate, Carlos Mauricio

    2009-09-01

    46 actinomycetes were isolated from two polluted sites and one unpolluted site. One strain, F4, was selected through primary qualitative screening assays because of its cadmium resistance, and physiologically and taxonomically characterized. F4 was able to grow at 7.5% NaCl and 100 microg/ml lysozyme and at a pH between 6 and 10. 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that F4 was closely related to Streptomyces tendae. Growth of Streptomyces sp. F4 on culture medium with 8 mg/l Cd(2+) for 8 days showed 80% inhibition. Maximum specific biosorption was 41.7 mg Cd(2+)/g dry weight after 7 days of growth and highest Cd(2+ )concentration was found in the cell wall (41.2%). The exopolysaccharide layer only contained 7.4%, whereas 39.4% of Cd(2+) was found in the cytosolic fraction. Twelve % was found in the ribosomes and membrane fraction. This was verified with TEM, showing Streptomyces sp. F4 cytoplasm with dark granulate appearance. This study could present the potential capacity of Streptomyces sp. F4 for Cd(2+) bioremediation. Copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Biological control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in yam by Streptomyces sp.MJM5763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, S A; Yang, S H; Cheng, J H; Meng, L; Suh, J-W

    2011-08-01

    To find a suitable biocontrol agent for yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. An actinobacterial strain, MJM5763, showing strong antifungal activity, multiple biocontrol and plant growth-promoting traits was isolated from a yam cultivation field in Yeoju, South Korea. Based on morphological and physiological characteristics and analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence, strain MJM5763 was identified as a novel strain of Streptomyces and was designated as Streptomyces sp. MJM5763. Treatment with MJM5763 and the crude culture filtrate extract (CCFE) was effective in suppressing anthracnose in detached yam leaves in vitro and reduced incidence and severity of anthracnose in yam plants under greenhouse conditions. The CCFE treatment was the most effective of all the treatments and reduced the anthracnose severity by 85-88% and the incidence by 79-81%, 90 days after inoculation with the pathogen. CCFE treatment was also effective under field conditions and showed a reduction of 86 and 75% of anthracnose severity and incidence, respectively. Streptomyces sp. strain MJM5763 was effective in biocontrolling anthracnose in yam caused by C. gloeosporioides. Streptomyces sp. MJM5763 is a potential alternative to chemical fungicides for reducing yield losses to anthracnose in yam. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Streptomyces euryhalinus sp. nov., a new actinomycete isolated from a mangrove forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Choudhury, Jayanta D; Mahansaria, Riddhi; Saha, Malay; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2017-06-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile actinomycete (strain MS 3/20 T ) was isolated from the sediment of the Sundarbans mangrove forest in India. On International Streptomyces Project (ISP) medium 2, the isolate produced yellowish brown to red aerial hyphae that carried spiny-surfaced spores in a retinaculum-apertum arrangement. Whole-cell hydrolysate of the strain contained LL-diaminopimelic acid and galactose. Predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H 8 ) and MK-9(H 6 ). Diagnostic polar lipids were glycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, unidentified phospholipid and unidentified amino lipid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C 15:0 (17.53%), iso-C 16:0 (23.89%) and anteiso-C 17:0 (10.29%). The strain showed 100% 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence similarity with Streptomyces variabilis NBRC 12825 T , Streptomyces erythrogriseus LMG 19406 T , Streptomyces griseoincarnatus LMG 19316 T and Streptomyces labedae NBRC 15864 T . However, strain MS 3/20 T could be distinguished from these and seven other closely related species based on low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness (27.2-53.8%), supported by the unique banding pattern obtained from random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR amplification and the distinctive matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) profile of whole-cell proteins acquired for strain MS 3/20 T in comparison with its phylogenetic relatives. Disparate morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic features, principally growth in NaCl, further corroborated the distinction of strain MS 3/20 T from other phylogenetic relatives. Strain MS 3/20 T is therefore suggested to be a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces euryhalinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MS 3/20 T (=CICC 11032 T =DSM 103378 T ).

  11. Streptomyces kronopolitis sp. nov., an actinomycete that produces phoslactomycins isolated from a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chongxi; Ye, Lan; Li, Yao; Jiang, Shanwen; Liu, Hui; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-12-01

    A phoslactomycin-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-ML8T, was isolated from a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NEAU-ML8T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces lydicus NBRC 13058T (99.39 %) and Streptomyces chattanoogensis DSM 40002T (99.25 %). The maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with NBRC 13058T and S. chattanoogensis DSM 40002T. This branching pattern was also supported by the tree rconstructed with the neighbour-joining method. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain NEAU-ML8T and its phylogenetically closely related strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that NEAU-ML8T could be distinguished from NBRC 13058T and S. chattanoogensis DSM 40002T. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-ML8T can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces kronopolitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-ML8T (=DSM 101986T=CGMCC 4.7323T).

  12. Streptomyces songpinggouensis sp. nov., a Novel Actinomycete Isolated from Soil in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuejiao; Li, Wenchao; Liu, Chongxi; Jin, Pinjiao; Guo, Siyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-12-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria, a novel actinobacteria with weak antifungal activity, designated strain NEAU-Spg19 T , was isolated from a soil sample collected from pine forest in Songpinggou, Sichuan, southwest China. The strain was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach which confirmed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 10-30 °C, pH 5.0-11.0 and NaCl concentrations of 0-5 %. The cell wall peptidoglycan consisted of LL-diaminopimelic acid and glycine. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H 6 ), MK-9(H 8 ) and MK-9(H 4 ). The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major fatty acids were iso-C 15:0 , iso-C 16:0 , and C 16:0 . 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-Spg19 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces tauricus JCM 4837 T (98.6 %) and Streptomyces rectiviolaceus JCM 9092 T (98.3 %). Some physiological and biochemical properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from S. tauricus JCM 4837 T and S. rectiviolaceus JCM 9092 T . Hence, on the basis of phenotypic and genetic analyses, it is proposed that strain NEAU-Spg19 T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces songpinggouensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Spg19 T (=CGMCC 4.7140 T =DSM 42141 T ).

  13. Streptomyces camponoticapitis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Ye, Lan; Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Ma, Zhaoxu; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2016-10-01

    A novel single-spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain 2H-TWYE14T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 2H-TWYE14T belongs to the genus Streptomyces, with highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces niveus NRRL 2466T (98.84 %). Analysis based on the gyrB gene also indicated that strain 2H-TWYE14T should be assigned to the genus Streptomyces. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain 2H-TWYE14T were consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall contained ll-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 2H-TWYE14T and its phylogenetically closely related strain S. niveus JCM 4251T, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that 2H-TWYE14T could be distinguished from S. niveus. Therefore, it is concluded that strain 2H-TWYE14T can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces camponoticapitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2H-TWYE14T (=DSM 100523T=CGMCC 4.7275T).

  14. Novel Pathway of Salicylate Degradation by Streptomyces sp. Strain WA46

    OpenAIRE

    Ishiyama, Daisuke; Vujaklija, Dusica; Davies, Julian

    2004-01-01

    A novel salicylate-degrading Streptomyces sp., strain WA46, was identified by UV fluorescence on solid minimal medium containing salicylate; trace amounts of gentisate were detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography when strain WA46 was grown with salicylate. PCR amplification of WA46 DNA with degenerate primers for gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GDO) genes produced an amplicon of the expected size. Sequential PCR with nested GDO primers was then used to identify a salicylate degradation gen...

  15. Four new anthraquinones from a soil actinomycete Streptomyces sp. WS-13394 and their bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoyuan; Zhang, Yani; Fang, Wei; Shi, Liqiao; Wan, Zhongyi

    2018-02-01

    Further chemical study of secondary metabolites from the soil actinomycete Streptomyces sp. WS-13394 resulted in the isolation of four new alkylated anthraquinone analogues (5-8). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. The new compounds, together with analogues obtained before (1-4), were tested for their in vitro cytotoxicity against Huh-7 and SGC-7901.

  16. Scopranones with Two Atypical Scooplike Moieties Produced by Streptomyces sp. BYK-11038.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Ryuji; Lee, Daiki; Suwa, Ibuki; Ohtawa, Masaki; Watanabe, Nozomu; Demachi, Ayumu; Ohte, Satoshi; Katagiri, Takenobu; Nagamitsu, Tohru; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2017-11-03

    Three new compounds, designated scopranones A-C, were isolated from the culture broth of a soil isolate, Streptomyces sp. BYK-11038, and shown to be inhibitors of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induced alkaline phosphatase activity in a BMP receptor mutant cell line. The structures were elucidated using NMR and other spectral data. The scopranones have an unusual structure with two atypical scooplike moieties linked at the tails to form part of a unique 3-furanone ring.

  17. Frenolicins C–G, Pyranonaphthoquinones from Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiachang; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Elshahawi, Sherif I.; Ponomareva, Larissa V.; Sunkara, Manjula; Zhang, Yinan; Copley, Gregory C.; Hower, James C.; Morris, Andrew J.; Kharel, Madan K.; Thorson, Jon S.

    2013-01-01

    Appalachian active coal fire sites were selected for the isolation of bacterial strains belonging to the class actinobacteria. A comparison of high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) and ultraviolet (UV) absorption profiles from isolate extracts to natural product databases suggested Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15 to produce unique metabolites. Four new pyranonaphthoquinones, frenolicins C–F (1–4), along with three known analogues, frenolicin (6), ...

  18. Isolation, Characterization and Bioactivities of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced from Streptomyces sp. MOE6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa O. Elnahas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A Streptomyces strain was isolated from soil and the sequence of 1471 nucleotides of its 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Streptomyces sp. HV10. This newly isolated Streptomyces strain produced an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS composed mainly of glucose and mannose in a ratio of 1:4.1, as was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, HPLC and 1H-NMR. The antioxidant activities of the partially purified MOE6-EPS were determined by measuring the hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity and the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radicals. In addition, the partially purified MOE6-EPS showed high ferrous ion (Fe2+ chelation activity which is another antioxidant activity. Interestingly, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assays that were colorimetric assays for NAD(PH-dependent cellular oxidoreductases and a proxy of the number of viable cells, showed that the partially purified MOE6-EPS inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231. The scratch wound assay showed that MOE6-EPS reduced the migration of mouse breast cancer cells (4T1. This study reports the production of EPS from Streptomyces species with promising antioxidant, metal chelating and mammalian cell inhibitory activities.

  19. Isolation, Characterization and Bioactivities of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced from Streptomyces sp. MOE6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnahas, Marwa O; Amin, Magdy A; Hussein, Mohamed M D; Shanbhag, Vinit C; Ali, Amal E; Wall, Judy D

    2017-08-24

    A Streptomyces strain was isolated from soil and the sequence of 1471 nucleotides of its 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Streptomyces sp. HV10. This newly isolated Streptomyces strain produced an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) composed mainly of glucose and mannose in a ratio of 1:4.1, as was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), HPLC and ¹H-NMR. The antioxidant activities of the partially purified MOE6-EPS were determined by measuring the hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity and the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. In addition, the partially purified MOE6-EPS showed high ferrous ion (Fe 2+ ) chelation activity which is another antioxidant activity. Interestingly, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays that were colorimetric assays for NAD(P)H-dependent cellular oxidoreductases and a proxy of the number of viable cells, showed that the partially purified MOE6-EPS inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The scratch wound assay showed that MOE6-EPS reduced the migration of mouse breast cancer cells (4T1). This study reports the production of EPS from Streptomyces species with promising antioxidant, metal chelating and mammalian cell inhibitory activities.

  20. Streptomyces capitiformicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete producing angucyclinone antibiotics isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanwen; Piao, Chenyu; Yu, Yang; Cao, Peng; Li, Chenxu; Yang, Fan; Li, Mutong; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2018-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 1H-SSA4 T , was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and was found to produce angucyclinone antibiotics. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomic status of strain 1H-SSA4 T . The DNA G+C content of the draft genome sequence, consisting of 11.4 Mbp, was 70.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-SSA4 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. ossamyceticus NBRC 13983 T (98.9 %), and phylogenetically clustered with this species, Streptomyces torulosus LMG 20305 T (98.8 %), Streptomyces ipomoeae NBRC 13050 T (98.5 %) and Streptomyces decoyicus NRRL 2666 T (98.4 %). The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain were also consistent with those members of the genus Streptomyces. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-SSA4 T and the above-mentioned strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-SSA4 T could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces capitiformicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-SSA4 T (=CGMCC 4.7403 T =DSM 104537 T ).

  1. Streptomyces humi sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from soil of a mangrove forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Nurullhudda; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tee, Kok-Keng; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-03-01

    A novel Streptomyces strain, MUSC 119(T), was isolated from a soil collected from a mangrove forest. Cells of MUSC 119(T) stained Gram-positive and formed light brownish grey aerial mycelium and grayish yellowish brown substrate mycelium on ISP 2 medium. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomic status of strain MUSC 119(T), which shows a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall peptidoglycan consisted of LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, glycolipids, diphosphatidylglycerol and four phospholipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, and anteiso-C17:0. The cell wall sugars were glucose, mannose, ribose and rhamnose. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain MUSC119(T) to be closely related to Streptomyces rhizophilus JR-41(T) (99.0 % sequence similarity), S. panaciradicis 1MR-8(T) (98.9 %), S. gramineus JR-43(T) (98.8 %) and S. graminisoli JR-19(T) (98.7 %). These results suggest that MUSC 119(T) should be placed within the genus Streptomyces. DNA-DNA relatedness values between MUSC 119(T) to closely related strains ranged from 14.5 ± 1.3 to 27.5 ± 0.7 %. The G+C content was determined to be 72.6 mol %. The polyphasic study of MUSC 119(T) showed that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of S. humi is MUSC 119(T) (=DSM 42174(T) = MCCC 1K00505(T)).

  2. Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov., isolated from a hot water spring of Tatta Pani, Kotli, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Arshia; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Osman, Ghenijan; Khan, Inam Ullah; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-staining positive, non-motile, rod-shaped, catalase positive and oxidase negative bacterium, designated NCCP-1331 T , was isolated from a hot water spring soil collected from Tatta Pani, Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The isolate grew at a temperature range of 18-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum 7.0) and with 0-6 % NaCl (optimum 2 % NaCl (w/v)). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain NCCP-1331 T belonged to the genus Streptomyces and is closely related to Streptomyces brevispora BK160 T with 97.9 % nucleotide similarity, followed by Streptomyces drosdowiczii NRRL B-24297 T with 97.8 % nucleotide similarity. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain NCCP-1331 T with S. brevispora KACC 21093 T and S. drosdowiczii CBMAI 0498 T were 42.7 and 34.7 %, respectively. LL-DAP was detected as diagnostic amino acid along with alanine, glycine, leucine and glutamic acid. The isolate contained MK-9(H 8 ) as the predominant menaquinone. Major polar lipids detected in NCCP-1331 T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified phospholipids. Major fatty acids were iso-C 16: 0 , summed feature 8 (18:1 ω7c/18:1 ω6c), anteiso-C 15:0 and C 16:0 . The genomic DNA G + C content was 69.8 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analysis, it is concluded that strain NCCP-1331 T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NCCP-1331 T (=KCTC 39537 T  = CPCC 204147 T ).

  3. Streptomyces capparidis sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinobacterium isolated from fruits of Capparis spinosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Fei; Li, Qiu-Li; Xiao, Min; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Duan, Yan-Qing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    A novel endophytic actinobacterial strain, designated EGI 6500195T, was isolated from fruits of Capparis spinosa. Growth occurred at 10-45 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6-8 (optimum pH 7) and in the presence of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain EGI 6500195T shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (97.74 %) with Streptomyces vitaminophilus DSM 41686T and less than 97 % sequence similarity with other members of the genus Streptomyces. The diagnostic amino acid in the peptidoglycan was ll-diaminopimelic acid. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained glucose, ribose, fructose and mannose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The polar lipid profile of strain EGI 6500195T included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine, three unknown phospholipids, an unknown aminophospholipid and an unknown aminolipid. The cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 1ω9c, summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B) and iso-C17 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of strain EGI 6500195T was 74.1 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain EGI 6500195T and Streptomyces. vitaminophilus DSM 41686T was 14.1±3.5 %. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain EGI 6500195T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces capparidis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EGI 6500195T (=DSM 42145T=JCM 30089T).

  4. Streptomyces phyllanthi sp. nov., isolated from the stem of Phyllanthus amarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klykleung, Nattaporn; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-10-01

    The novel endophytic actinomycete strain PA1-07T was isolated from the stem of Phyllanthus amarus. The strain displayed the consistent characteristics of members of the genus Streptomyces. The strain produced short spiral spore chains on aerial mycelia. It grew at pH 5-9, at 40 °C and with a maximum of 5 % (w/v) NaCl. It contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glucose and ribose in the whole-cell hydrolysate. The major cellular menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), while the major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The polar lipids were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and four unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 71 mol%. The strain showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Streptomyces curacoi JCM 4219T (98.77 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain PA1-07T and S. curacoi JCM 4219T were lower than 70 %, the cut-off level for assigning strains to the same species. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, the strain could be distinguished from closely related species of the genus Streptomyces and thus represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces phyllanthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PA1-07T (=JCM 30865T=KCTC 39785T=TISTR 2346T).

  5. Targeted Gene Disruption of the Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro Biosynthetic Pathway in Streptomyces sp. US24 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Sioud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously isolated a new actinomycete strain from Tunisian soil called Streptomyces sp. US24, and have shown that it produces two bioactive molecules including a Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro diketopiperazine (DKP. To identify the structural genes responsible for the synthesis of this DKP derivative, a PCR amplification (696 bp was carried out using the Streptomyces sp. US24 genomic DNA as template and two degenerate oligonucleotides designed by analogy with genes encoding peptide synthetases (NRPS. The detection of DKP derivative biosynthetic pathway of the Streptomyces sp. US24 strain was then achieved by gene disruption via homologous recombination using a suicide vector derived from the conjugative plasmid pSET152 and containing the PCR product. Chromatography analysis, biological tests and spectroscopic studies of supernatant cultures of the wild-type Streptomyces sp. US24 strain and three mutants obtained by this gene targeting disruption approach showed that the amplified DNA fragment is required for Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. US24 strain. This DKP derivative seems to be produced either directly via a nonribosomal pathway or as a side product in the course of nonribosomal synthesis of a longer peptide.

  6. Streptomyces lasiicapitis sp. nov., an actinomycete that produces kanchanamycin, isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lan; Zhao, Shanshan; Li, Yao; Jiang, Shanwen; Zhao, Yue; Li, Jinmeng; Yan, Kai; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2017-05-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a kanchanamycin-producing actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 3H-HV17(2)T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 3H-HV17(2)T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424T (98.90 %, with which it phylogenetically clustered, Streptomyces alboflavus NRRL B-2373T (98.65 %) and Streptomyces flavofungini NBRC 13371T (98.36 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene also supported the close relationship of these strains. The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain are also consistent with those members of the genus Streptomyces. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 3H-HV17(2)T and its phylogenetically closely related strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 3H-HV17(2)T could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, strain 3H-HV17(2)T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lasiicapitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3H-HV17(2)T (=CGMCC 4.7349T=DSM 103124T).

  7. Partial characterization of cold active amylases and proteases of Streptomyces sp. from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cotârleţ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate novel enzyme-producing bacteria from vegetation samples from East Antarctica and also to characterize them genetically and biochemically in order to establish their phylogeny. The ability to grow at low temperature and to produce amylases and proteases cold-active was also tested. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the 4 Alga rRNA was 100% identical to the sequences of Streptomyces sp. rRNA from Norway and from the Solomon Islands. The Streptomyces grew well in submerged system at 20ºC, cells multiplication up to stationary phase being drastically increased after 120 h of submerged cultivation. The beta-amylase production reached a maximum peak after seven days, while alpha-amylase and proteases were performing biosynthesis after nine days of submerged cultivation at 20ºC. Newly Streptomyces were able to produce amylase and proteases in a cold environment. The ability to adapt to low temperature of these enzymes could make them valuable ingredients for detergents, the food industry and bioremediation processes which require low temperatures.

  8. Streptomyces tritici sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junwei; Shi, Linlin; Li, Wenchao; Wang, Jiabin; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2018-02-01

    Two novel actinomycete isolates, designated strains NEAU-A4 T and NEAU-A3, were isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the two strains coincided with those of the genus Streptomyces. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two isolates exhibited 99.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and that they were most closely related to Streptomyces violaceorectus DSM 40279 T (98.8, 99.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains clustered together and formed a separate subclade. Furthermore, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some physiological and biochemical properties demonstrated that the two strains could be distinguished from its closest relative. Therefore, it is proposed that strains NEAU-A4 T and NEAU-A3 should be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomycestritici sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-A4 T (=CGMCC 4.7393 T =DSM 104540 T ).

  9. Cloning and characterization of the first actinomycete β-propeller phytase from Streptomyces sp. US42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Ines; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Bouchaala, Kameleddine; Virolle, Marie-Joëlle; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2016-10-01

    A gene encoding an extracellular phytase was cloned for the first time from an Actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. US42 and sequenced. The sequence of this gene revealed an encoded polypeptide (PHY US42) exhibiting one and six residues difference with the putative phytases of Streptomyces lividans TK24 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), respectively. The molecular modeling of PHY US42 indicated that this phytase belongs to the group of β-propeller phytases that are usually calcium-dependent. PHY US42 was purified and characterized. Its activity was calcium-dependent and maximal at pH 7 and 65 °C. The enzyme was perfectly stable at pH ranging from 5 to 10 and its thermostability was greatly enhanced in the presence of calcium. Indeed, PHY US42 maintained 80% of activity after 10 min of incubation at 75 °C in the presence of 5 mM CaCl 2 . PHY US42 was also found to exhibit high stability after incubation at 37 °C for 1 h in the presence of bovine bile and digestive proteases like of pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Considering its biochemical properties, PHY US42 could be used as feed additive in combination with an acid phytase for monogastric animals. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Streptomyces luozhongensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renwen; Han, Xiaoxue; Xia, Zhanfeng; Luo, Xiaoxia; Wan, Chuanxing; Zhang, Lili

    2017-02-01

    Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces luozhongensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  11. Isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of a new isobenzofuran derivative from marine Streptomyces sp. W007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Xie, Zeping; Lou, Tingting; Jiang, Peng

    2016-03-01

    A new isobenzofuran derivative ( 1) was isolated from the marine Streptomyces sp. W007 and its structure was determined through extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by a combination of experimental analyses and comparison with reported data, including biogenetic reasoning, J-coupling analysis, NOESY, and 1H-1HCOSY. Compound 1 exhibited no cytotoxicity against human cells of gastric cancer BGC-823, lung cancer A549, and breast cancer MCF7.

  12. Structure of a putative fluorinated natural product from Streptomyces sp. TC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Hülya; Kohlhepp, Stefanie V; Gulder, Tanja; Gulder, Tobias A M

    2014-11-26

    Fluorine-containing natural products are extremely rare. The recent report on the isolation and biological activity of the bacterial secondary metabolite 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-fluorophenyl)propionic acid was thus highly remarkable. The compound contained the first aromatic fluorine substituent known to date in any natural product. The promise to discover an enzyme capable of aromatic fluorination in the producing strain Streptomyces sp. TC1 prompted our immediate interest. A close inspection of the originally reported analytical data of the fluoro metabolite revealed inconsistencies that triggered us to validate the reported structure. The results of these efforts are presented in this communication.

  13. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain F1, a potential source for glycoside hydrolases isolated from Brazilian soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296 bp and G + C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria.

  14. Streptomyces cameroonensis sp. nov., a Geldanamycin Producer That Promotes Theobroma cacao Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjeko, Thaddée; Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Zitouni, Mina; Nana, Joëlle Aimée Vera Tchatchou; Lerat, Sylvain; Beaulieu, Carole

    2017-03-31

    The taxonomy of an actinobacterial strain, designated JJY4 T , was established using a polyphasic approach. JJY4 T was isolated from the rhizosphere of Chromolaena odorata in Yaoundé (Cameroon) during a project for the selection of biological control agents. Strain JJY4 T exhibited antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Strain JJY4 T also exhibited the traits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria such as the solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. In planta assays performed on cocoa plantlets confirmed that strain JJY4 T exhibited strong abilities to promote plant growth and protect against Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of cocoa pod rot. The formation of rugose-ornamented spores in spiral spore chains by strain JJY4 T is a typical feature of members found in the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade and, similar to some members of the clade, strain JJY4 T produces geldanamycin. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed this classification and suggests that strain JJY4 T be added to the subclade constituted of the type strains Streptomyces malaysiensis DSM 41697 T and Streptomyces samsunensis DSM 42010 T . However, DNA-DNA relatedness and physiological characteristics allowed for the differentiation of strain JJY4 T from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Based on these results, strain JJY4 T (=NRRL B-65369, =NBRC 112705) appears to represent a novel species in the S. violaceusniger clade for which the proposed name is Streptomyces cameroonensis sp. nov.

  15. Streptomyces zhihengii sp. nov., isolated from rhizospheric soil of Psammosilene tunicoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Juan; Fei, Jing-Jing; Salam, Nimaichand; Kim, Chang-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Xiao, Min; Huang, Hai-Quan; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated YIM T102(T), was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Psammosilene tunicoides W. C. Wu et C. Y. Wu collected from Lijiang, Yunnan Province, China. The taxonomic position of the new isolate was investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM T102(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Strain YIM T102(T) was most closely related to Streptomyces eurocidicus NRRL B-1676(T) with a pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.9 %. However, DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain YIM T102(T) and S. eurocidicus NBRC 13491(T) was found to be 37.8 ± 1.8 %. The menaquinone composition detected for strain YIM T102(T) was MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8), while the major fatty acids were summed feature 4 (38.0 %), anteiso-C15:0 (13.1 %), iso-C16:0 (10.1 %), summed feature 3 (9.8 %) and C16:0 (9.0 %) and iso-C15:0 (5.2 %). The whole-cell hydrolysates contained galactose, glucose, ribose and mannose, along with LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 70.7 mol%. Strain YIM T102(T) also exhibited antagonistic activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae and Colletotrichum nicotianae Averna, based on the findings from the comparative analyses of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics; it is proposed that strain YIM T102 represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces zhihengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM T102(T) (=KCTC 39115(T) = DSM 42176(T) = CGMCC 4.7248(T)).

  16. Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., isolated from Lonar Lake, a meteorite salt water lake in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Trupti K; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Shinde, Vidhya K; Zhan, Jing; Li, Wen-Jun; Rele, Meenakshi V; Dastager, Syed G; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2016-02-01

    A novel alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain NCL716(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the vicinity of Lonar Lake, an alkaline salt water meteorite lake in Buldhana district of Maharashtra State in India. The strain was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach which confirmed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Growth was observed over a pH range of 7-11 at 28 °C. The cell wall was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid and traces of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acid components were identified as iso-C16:0 (46.8 %), C17:1 (12.4 %), anteiso-C15:0 (5.1 %) and anteiso-C17:1 (4.8 %). The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinones were determined to be MK-9 (H6) (70.3 %), MK-9 (H4) (15.5 %) and MK-9 (H8) (7.2 %). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was determined to be 71.4 mol %. The 16S rRNA gene sequence has been deposited in GenBank with accession number FJ919811. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NCL716(T) shares >99 % similarity with that of Streptomyces bohaiensis strain 11A07(T), DNA-DNA hybridization revealed only 33.2 ± 3.0 % relatedness between them. Moreover, these two strains can be readily distinguished by some distinct phenotypic characteristics. Hence, on the basis of phenotypic and genetic analyses, it is proposed that strain NCL716(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NCL 716(T) (=DSM 42084(T) = MTCC 11708(T) = KCTC 39684(T)).

  17. Streptomyces xiangtanensis sp. nov., isolated from a manganese-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ping; Yu, Yi-Zun; Zhao, Jia-Rong; Gao, Jian

    2017-03-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated strain LUSFXJ T , was isolated from a soil sample obtained near the Xiangtan Manganese Mine, Central-South China and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The DNA-DNA relatedness between this strain and two closely related type strains, Streptomyces echinatus CGMCC 4.1642 T and Streptomyces lanatus CGMCC 4.137 T , were 28.7 ± 0.4 and 19.9 ± 2.0%, respectively, values which are far lower than the 70% threshold for the delineation of a novel prokaryotic species. The DNA G+C content of strain LUSFXJ T is 75.0 mol%. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that the menaquinones of strain LUSFXJ T are MK-9(H 6 ), MK-9(H 8 ), MK-9(H 2 ) and MK-8(H 8 ). The polar lipid profile of strain LUSFXJ T was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified polar lipid. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C 15:0 , anteiso-C 15:0 , iso-C 16:0 , C 16:0 and Summed feature 3. Strain LUSFXJ T was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic cell wall diamino acid and the whole cell hydrolysates were found to be rich in ribose, mannose and glucose. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it is concluded that strain LUSFXJ T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name S. xiangtanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LUSFXJ T (=GDMCC 4.133 T  = KCTC 39829 T ).

  18. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov

    Science.gov (United States)

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these oth...

  19. Characteristics of cesium accumulation in the filamentous soil bacterium Streptomyces sp. K202

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Chikako; Fukumoto, Atsushi; Nishina, Masami; Sugiyama, Hideo; Anzai, Yojiro; Kato, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    A filamentous soil bacterium, strain K202, was isolated from soil where an edible mushroom (Boletopsis leucomelas) was growing and identified as belonging to the genus Streptomyces on the basis of its morphological characteristics and the presence of LL-2, 6-diaminopimelic acid. We studied the existence states of Cs and its migration from extracellular to intracellular fluid in the mycelia of Streptomyces sp. K202. The results indicated that Cs accumulated in the cells through at least 2 steps: in the first step, Cs + was immediately and non-specifically adsorbed on the negatively charged cell surface, and in the second step, this adsorbed Cs + was taken up into the cytoplasm, and a part of the Cs entering the cytoplasm was taken up by an energy-dependent transport system(s). Further, we confirmed that a part of the Cs + was taken up into the mycelia competitively with K + , because K + uptake into the intact mycelia of the strain was significantly inhibited by the presence of Cs + in the culture media. This suggested that part of the Cs is transported by the potassium transport system. Moreover, 133 Cs-NMR spectra and SEM-EDX spectra of the mycelia that accumulated Cs showed the presence of at least 2 intracellular Cs states: Cs + trapped by intercellular materials such as polyphosphate and Cs + present in a cytoplasmic pool. - Research highlights: → Cs was taken up into the cells of Streptomyces sp. K202 via 2 steps. → The existence states of Cs accumulated in strain K202 were at least 2 types. → The localized Cs in the cells would be trapped by granules such as polyphosphate. → The localized Cs in the cells might involve in Cs detoxification of strain K202.

  20. Characterization of naphthalene degradation by Streptomyces sp. QWE-5 isolated from active sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain, QWE-5, which utilized naphthalene as its sole carbon and energy source, was isolated and identified as Streptomyces sp. It was a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium with a flagellum, with whole, smooth, convex and wet colonies. The optimal temperature and pH for QWE-5 were 35 °C and 7.0, respectively. The QWE-5 strain was capable of completely degrading naphthalene at a concentration as high as 100 mg/L. At initial naphthalene concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 mg/L, complete degradation was achieved within 32, 56, 96, 120 and 144 h, respectively. Kinetics of naphthalene degradation was described using the Andrews equation. The kinetic parameters were as follows: qmax (maximum specific degradation rate) = 1.56 h⁻¹, Ks (half-rate constant) = 60.34 mg/L, and KI (substrate-inhibition constant) = 81.76 mg/L. Metabolic intermediates were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, allowing a new degradation pathway for naphthalene to be proposed. In this pathway, monooxygenation of naphthalene yielded naphthalen-1-ol. Further degradation by Streptomyces sp. QWE-5 produced acetophenone, followed by adipic acid, which was produced as a combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation processes.

  1. Ultrastructural studies on variants of Streptomyces SP-765 obtained after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasova, D.I.; Krystev, Kh.I.; Todorov, I.O.; Dzhedzheva, G.M.; Popov, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The study has been carried out with two variants of Streptomyces SP-765, gray and olygosporous, obtained after 1000 Gy gamma irradiation of spore suspension from the initial strain. The gray variant has chains of spores which are oval or oblong with rounded-off edges. Sporulation is highly inhibited in the olygosporous variant. Eleven electron-microscopic pictures of ultrathin sections from colonies of the two variants are presented. The gray variant reveals the presence of a large number of lyzed cells, spores, and scarce vegetative cells; typical of the lyzed cells are the spherical and highly osmiophilic formations on the outer and inner surface of their cytoplasmic membrane. The oligosporous variant shows lyzed cells of various sizes, cells void of content with thick walls, relativelly small number of vegetative cells and individual wall-less cells, shperoplast and protoplast formation, lamellar membrane structure of nearly all cells. Both lyzed and vegetable cells have individual anomalous form containing daughter cells. The conclusion is made that gray and oligosporous variants of Streptomyces SP-765, obtained after irradiation of its spores, possess different ultrastructural organization

  2. Desulfobacter psychrotolerans sp. nov., a new psychrotolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium and descriptions of its physiological response to temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpgaard, Irene H; Boetius, Antje; Finster, Kai

    2006-01-01

    A psychrotrolerant acetate-oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (strain akvb(T)) was isolated from sediment from the northern part of The North Sea with annual temperature fluctuations between 8 and 14 degrees C. Of the various substrates tested, strain akvb(T) grew exclusively by the oxidation of acetate coupled to the reduction of sulfate. The cells were motile, thick rods with round ends and grew in dense aggregates. Strain akvb(T) grew at temperatures ranging from -3.6 to 26.3 degrees C. Optimal growth was observed at 20 degrees C. The highest cell specific sulfate reduction rate of 6.2 fmol cell(-1) d(-1) determined by the (35)SO(2-)(40) method was measured at 26 degrees C. The temperature range of short-term sulfate reduction rates exceeded the temperature range of growth by 5 degrees C. The Arrhenius relationship for the temperature dependence of growth and sulfate reduction was linear, with two distinct slopes below the optimum temperatures of both processes. The critical temperature was 6.4 degrees C. The highest growth yield (4.3-4.5 g dry weight mol(-1) acetate) was determined at temperatures between 5 and 15 degrees C. The cellular fatty acid composition was determined with cultures grown at 4 and 20 degrees C, respectively. The relative proportion of cellular unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. 16:1omega7c) was higher in cells grown at 4 degrees C than in cells grown at 20 degrees C. The physiological responses to temperature changes showed that strain akvb(T) was well adapted to the temperature regime of the environment from which it was isolated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain akvb(T) is closest related to Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.6%. DNA-DNA-hybridization showed a similarity of 32% between D. hydrogenophilus and strain akvb(T). Based on phenotypic and DNA-based characteristics we propose that strain akvb(T) is a member of a new species, Desulfobacter psychrotolerans sp. nov.

  3. Isolation of a new broad spectrum antifungal polyene from Streptomyces sp. MTCC 5680.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, A; Mutalik, V; Parab, R R; Shanbhag, P; Bhave, S; Mishra, P D; Mahajan, G B

    2014-06-01

    A new polyene macrolide antibiotic PN00053 was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces sp. wild-type strain MTCC-5680. The producer strain was isolated from fertile mountain soil of Naldehra region, Himachal Pradesh, India. The compound PN00053 was purified through various steps of chromatographic techniques and bio-activity guided fractionation followed by its characterization using physiochemical properties, spectral data ((1) H-NMR, (13) C-NMR, HMBC, HSQC, and COSY) and MS analysis. PN00053 exhibited broad spectrum in vitro antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (HMR), A. fumigatus ATCC 16424, Candida albicans (I.V.), C. albicans ATCC 14503, C. krusei GO6, C. glabrata HO4, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton sp. as well as fluconazole resistant strains C. krusei GO3 and C. glabrata HO5. It did not inhibit growth of gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, displaying its specificity against fungi. PN00053 is a novel polyene macrolide isolated from a wild strain of Streptomyces sp. PM0727240 (MTCC5680), an isolate from the mountainous rocky regions of Himachal Pradesh, India. The compound is a new derivative of the antibiotic Roflamycoin [32, 33-didehydroroflamycoin (DDHR)]. It displayed broad spectrum antifungal activity against yeast and filamentous fungi. However, it did not show any antibacterial activity. The in vitro study revealed that PN00053 has better potency as compared to clinical gold standard fluconazole. The development of pathogenic resistance against the polyenes has been seldom reported. Hence, we envisage PN00053 could be a potential antifungal lead. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Streptomyces sp. MUM212 as a Source of Antioxidants with Radical Scavenging and Metal Chelating Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh Teng-Hern Tan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species and other radicals potentially cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA which may ultimately lead to various complications including mutations, carcinogenesis, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, aging, and inflammatory disease. Recent reports demonstrate that Streptomyces bacteria produce metabolites with potent antioxidant activity that may be developed into therapeutic drugs to combat oxidative stress. This study shows that Streptomyces sp. MUM212 which was isolated from mangrove soil in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia, could be a potential source of antioxidants. Strain MUM212 was characterized and determined as belonging to the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The MUM212 extract demonstrated significant antioxidant activity through DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging assays and also metal-chelating activity of 22.03 ± 3.01%, 61.52 ± 3.13%, 37.47 ± 1.79%, and 41.98 ± 0.73% at 4 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, MUM212 extract was demonstrated to inhibit lipid peroxidation up to 16.72 ± 2.64% at 4 mg/mL and restore survival of Vero cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damages. The antioxidant activities from the MUM212 extract correlated well with its total phenolic contents; and this in turn was in keeping with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis which revealed the presence of phenolic compounds that could be responsible for the antioxidant properties of the extract. Other chemical constituents detected included hydrocarbons, alcohols and cyclic dipeptides which may have contributed to the overall antioxidant capacity of MUM212 extract. As a whole, strain MUM212 seems to have potential as a promising source of novel molecules for future development of antioxidative therapeutic agents against oxidative stress-related diseases.

  5. Streptomyces odonnellii sp. nov., a proteolytic streptomycete isolated from soil under cerrado (savanna) vegetation cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Pedro Henrique Freitas; Macrae, Andrew; Reinert, Fernanda; de Souza, Rodrigo Fonseca; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues; Pötter, Gabrielle; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Labeda, David P

    2017-12-01

    A novel streptomycete, strain 594 T , isolated from Brazilian soil collected under cerrado (savanna) vegetation cover is described. Strain 594 T produced thermophilic chitinolytic proteases in assays containing feather meal and corn steep liquor as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. The strain produced white to grey aerial mycelium and spiral chains of spiny-surfaced spores on the aerial mycelium and did not produce diffusible pigments. The ll-isomer of diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell wall and menaquinones were predominantly MK-9(H6) (52 %) and MK-9(H8) (30 %) with 6 % MK-9(H4) and slightly less than 1 % MK-9(H2). Polar lipids present were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unknown phospholipid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C14 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it differed from described Streptomyces species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, rpoB, recA and trpB) comparing Streptomyces type strains showed that the MLSA distance of strain 594 T to the most closely related species was greater than the 0.007 threshold. The in silico DNA-DNA relatedness between the genome sequence of strain 594 T and that of the phylogenetically nearest species was well below the species level recommendation. There was thus multiple evidence justifying the description of this strain as representing a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces odonnellii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 594 T (=IMPPG 594 T =DSM 41949 T =NRRL B-24891 T ).

  6. Streptomyces kalpinensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a salt water beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guo-Quan; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhang, Yao; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

    2017-12-01

    A novel actinobacterium designated TRM 46509 T was isolated from a salt water beach at Kalpin, Xinjiang, north-west China. The strain was aerobic and Gram-stain-positive, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 1 % (w/v). The isolate formed sparse aerial mycelium and produced spiral spores at the end of the aerial mycelium on Gauze's No. 1 medium. The isolate contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and ribose as the major whole-cell sugar. The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids were C16:0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. The G+C content of the DNA was 69.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain TRM 46509 T shared 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.6 % with the closest described species Streptomyces tacrolimicus ATCC 55098 T . On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, strain TRM 46509 T should be designated as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces kalpinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 46509 T (=CCTCC AA 2015028 T =KCTC 39667 T ).

  7. Isolation and partial characterization of antimicrobial compounds from a new strain Streptomyces sp. CN207

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slama, Nedra; Lazim, Hadeer; Barkallah, Insaf; Limam, Ferid

    2008-01-01

    A distinct streptomyces strains were isolated from Tunisian soil. the isolate designed CN207, was assigned to the genus streptomyces on the basis of morphological and chemotaxonomic criteria. A 16S rDNA sequence of the isolate was determined. Streptomyces sp CN207 secreted large amount antibiotic against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungi on his barley (HB) medium. (HB) medium was found to be suitable substrate of the medium for CN207 production. Maximum yield of CN207 product (700 mg/ml) after optimize fermentation process. Bioactive molecules from strain CN207 were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by PTLC using silica gel plates.The separated compounds were visualiszed under UV at 254 nm and the active spots were detected by bioautography on silica gel plates using salmonella thyphimurium NRRL B4420 and Staphylococcus aureus CDC 103 as indicator microorganisms. The crude extract (8.36 g) was fractionated on Sep-pack column (C18 cartridge) and elution was performed using a discontinue gradient of methanol-water. Two active fractions eluted by 20% and 40% of methanol were obtained. The bioactive compounds were separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C18 reversed phase column and eluted with a linear gradient of acetonitrile -water in presence of 0.1% formic acid. The peaks were collected separately, concentrated and bioassayed against the routine indicator microorganisms. The absorption spectrum of the active molecules was determined with a shimadzu UV-160 a spectrophotometer. Determination of the chemical structure of these compounds on the basis on their IR, COSY and H 1: C13 is in progress

  8. Streptomyces sp. MC10 SUŞUNUN ALFA AMİLAZ ÜRETİM KABİLİYETİNİN BELİRLENMESİ - DETERMINATION OF ABILITY OF ALPHA AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY Streptomyces sp. MC10 STRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Ali; SIDAL, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. MC10 SUŞUNUN ALFA AMİLAZ ÜRETİM KABİLİYETİNİN BELİRLENMESİAmilazlar en önemli endüstriyel enzimlerden biridir. Amilaz üreticisi olan Streptomyces MC10 suşu Manisa Celal Bayar Üniversitesinden alınan toprak örneklerinden izole edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada Streptomyces MC10 suşundan α-amilaz üretimi ve karakterizasyonu gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu amaçla suşun besiyerinde üremesi ve α-amilaz üretme yeteneği ve aktivite gösterdiği optimum sıcaklık, pH, inkübasyon süresi ve substrat kons...

  9. Characterization of the Antibiotic Compound No. 70 Produced by Streptomyces sp. IMV-70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenozhnikova, Lyudmila P.; Khasenova, Almagul K.; Balgimbaeva, Assya S.; Fedorova, Galina B.; Katrukha, Genrikh S.; Tokareva, Nina L.; Kwa, Boo H.; Azizan, Azliyati

    2012-01-01

    We describe the actinomycete strain IMV-70 isolated from the soils of Kazakhstan, which produces potent antibiotics with high levels of antibacterial activity. After the research of its morphological, chemotaxonomic, and cultural characteristics, the strain with potential to be developed further as a novel class of antibiotics with chemotherapeutics potential was identified as Streptomyces sp. IMV-70. In the process of fermentation, the strain Streptomyces spp. IMV-70 produces the antibiotic no. 70, which was isolated from the culture broth by extraction with organic solvents. Antibiotic compound no. 70 was purified and separated into individual components by HPLC, TLC, and column chromatography methods. The main component of the compound is the antibiotic 70-A, which was found to be identical to the peptolide etamycin A. Two other antibiotics 70-B and 70-C have never been described and therefore are new antibiotics. The physical-chemical and biological characteristics of these preparations were described and further researched. Determination of the optimal growth conditions to cultivate actinomycete-producer strain IMV-70 and development of methods to isolate, purify, and accumulate preparations of the new antibiotic no. 70 enable us to research further the potential of this new class of antibiotics. PMID:22536145

  10. Characterization of the Antibiotic Compound No. 70 Produced by Streptomyces sp. IMV-70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila P. Trenozhnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the actinomycete strain IMV-70 isolated from the soils of Kazakhstan, which produces potent antibiotics with high levels of antibacterial activity. After the research of its morphological, chemotaxonomic, and cultural characteristics, the strain with potential to be developed further as a novel class of antibiotics with chemotherapeutics potential was identified as Streptomyces sp. IMV-70. In the process of fermentation, the strain Streptomyces spp. IMV-70 produces the antibiotic no. 70, which was isolated from the culture broth by extraction with organic solvents. Antibiotic compound no. 70 was purified and separated into individual components by HPLC, TLC, and column chromatography methods. The main component of the compound is the antibiotic 70-A, which was found to be identical to the peptolide etamycin A. Two other antibiotics 70-B and 70-C have never been described and therefore are new antibiotics. The physical-chemical and biological characteristics of these preparations were described and further researched. Determination of the optimal growth conditions to cultivate actinomycete-producer strain IMV-70 and development of methods to isolate, purify, and accumulate preparations of the new antibiotic no. 70 enable us to research further the potential of this new class of antibiotics.

  11. Genome Mining of the Marine Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. DUT11 and Discovery of Tunicamycins as Anti-complement Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Na Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine actinobacteria are potential producers of various secondary metabolites with diverse bioactivities. Among various bioactive compounds, anti-complement agents have received great interest for drug discovery to treat numerous diseases caused by inappropriate activation of the human complement system. However, marine streptomycetes producing anti-complement agents are still poorly explored. In this study, a marine-derived strain Streptomyces sp. DUT11 showing superior anti-complement activity was focused, and its genome sequence was analyzed. Gene clusters showing high similarities to that of tunicamycin and nonactin were identified, and their corresponding metabolites were also detected. Subsequently, tunicamycin I, V, and VII were isolated from Streptomyces sp. DUT11. Anti-complement assay showed that tunicamycin I, V, VII inhibited complement activation through the classic pathway, whereas no anti-complement activity of nonactin was detected. This is the first time that tunicamycins are reported to have such activity. In addition, genome analysis indicates that Streptomyces sp. DUT11 has the potential to produce novel lassopeptides and lantibiotics. These results suggest that marine Streptomyces are rich sources of anti-complement agents for drug discovery.

  12. New Azalomycin F Analogs from Mangrove Streptomyces sp. 211726 with Activity against Microbes and Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Lin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven new azalomycin F analogs (1–7 were isolated from the broth of mangrove Streptomyces sp. 211726, and respectively identified as 25-malonyl demalonylazalomycin F5a monoester (1, 23-valine demalonylazalomycin F5a ester (2, 23-(6-methylheptanoic acid demalonylazalomycins F3a ester (3, F4a ester (4 and F5a ester (5, 23-(9-methyldecanoic acid demalonylazalomycin F4a ester (6 and 23-(10-methylundecanoic acid demalony lazalomycin F4a ester (7. Their structures were established by their spectroscopic data and by comparing with those of azalomycins F3a, F4a and F5a. Biological assays exhibited that 1–7 showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial and anti HCT-116 activities.

  13. Purification and Characterization of Streptomyces sp. SKK1-8 xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunuk Widhyastuti

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. SKK1-8 is a xylanase produced bacteria. Purified xylanase has an optimum condition at pH 4.5 and 50oC. The molecular mass of purified xylanase were determined to be 14.4 kDa and 13.4 kDa. The xylanase was capable of hydrolysing p-NP-α-L-arabinofuranoside, p-NP-β-D-xylanopiranoside, p-NP-β-D-glucopiranoside, p-NP-α-D-galactopiranoside. The Km and Vmax values at 50oC measured on Birchwood xylan were 0.101 mg/ml and 0.1796 μmoles/minute/ml.

  14. Streptomyces pini sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from phylloplane of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needle-like leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Saravanan, Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Pragatheswari, Dhandapani; Santhanakrishnan, Palani; Kim, Soo-Jin; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2016-10-01

    A novel siderophore-producing actinomycete, designated PL19T, was isolated from the Scots-pine needle-like leaves collected from TNAU campus, Coimbatore, India. The isolate was chemoorganotrophic in nutrition and able to grow at 30 °C, and the optimum pH and NaCl facilitated the growth pH 6-11 and 0-8 % (w/v), respectively. The cells are filamentous and the mycelia formed are basically of wide and intricately branched substrate mycelium from which aerial mycelia arises, later gets differentiated into spores that are warty and arranged spirally. The 16S rRNA gene of strain PL19T was sequenced and was highly similar to the type strains of species of the genus Streptomyces, including Streptomyces barkulensis RC1831T (98.8 % pairwise similarity), Streptomyces fenghuangensis GIMN4.003T (98.2 %), Streptomyces nanhaiensis SCSIO 01248T (98.0 %), Streptomyces radiopugnans R97T (97.9 %), Streptomyces atacamensis C60T (97.8 %) and Streptomyces macrosporus NBRC 14749T (97.2 %), all of which were subjected to taxonomical characterization using a polyphasic approach. The strains showed unique carbon utilization patterns, and it possesses iso-C16 : 0 anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as a major cellular fatty acids. The cell-wall was dominated with ll-type diaminopimelic acid, and the menaquinone type was MK-9(H6, H8). These chemotaxonomic evidences placed strain PL19T within the genus Streptomyces. The determination of G+C ratio (69.5 mol%) and DNA-DNA hybridization values (13.4-31.8 % with the phylogenetically related species) helped in further hierarchical classification of strain PL19T. Based on morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data as well as DNA-DNA hybridization values, strain PL19T could be distinguished from the evolutionarily closest species currently available. All these collective data show that strain PL19T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces pini sp. nov. is proposed

  15. Artificial Intelligence versus Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Cholesterol Oxidase Production by using Streptomyces Sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Lakshmi; Singh, Vineeta; Niwas, Ram; Osama, Khwaja; Khan, Saif; Haque, Shafiul; Tripathi, C K M; Mishra, B N

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase (COD) is a bi-functional FAD-containing oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol into 4-cholesten-3-one. The wider biological functions and clinical applications of COD have urged the screening, isolation and characterization of newer microbes from diverse habitats as a source of COD and optimization and over-production of COD for various uses. The practicability of statistical/ artificial intelligence techniques, such as response surface methodology (RSM), artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) have been tested to optimize the medium composition for the production of COD from novel strain Streptomyces sp. NCIM 5500. All experiments were performed according to the five factor central composite design (CCD) and the generated data was analysed using RSM and ANN. GA was employed to optimize the models generated by RSM and ANN. Based upon the predicted COD concentration, the model developed with ANN was found to be superior to the model developed with RSM. The RSM-GA approach predicted maximum of 6.283 U/mL COD production, whereas the ANN-GA approach predicted a maximum of 9.93 U/mL COD concentration. The optimum concentrations of the medium variables predicted through ANN-GA approach were: 1.431 g/50 mL soybean, 1.389 g/50 mL maltose, 0.029 g/50 mL MgSO4, 0.45 g/50 mL NaCl and 2.235 ml/50 mL glycerol. The experimental COD concentration was concurrent with the GA predicted yield and led to 9.75 U/mL COD production, which was nearly two times higher than the yield (4.2 U/mL) obtained with the un-optimized medium. This is the very first time we are reporting the statistical versus artificial intelligence based modeling and optimization of COD production by Streptomyces sp. NCIM 5500.

  16. Glucose(xylose isomerase production by Streptomyces sp. CH7 grown on agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankiya Chanitnun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. CH7 was found to efficiently produce glucose(xylose isomerase when grown on either xylan or agricultural residues. This strain produced a glucose(xylose isomerase activity of roughly 1.8 U/mg of protein when it was grown in medium containing 1% xylose as a carbon source. Maximal enzymatic activities of about 5 and 3 U/mg were obtained when 1% xylan and 2.5% corn husks were used, respectively. The enzyme was purified from a mycelial extract to 16-fold purity with only two consecutive column chromatography steps using Macro-prep DEAE and Sephacryl-300, respectively. The approximate molecular weight of the purified enzyme is 170 kDa, and it has four identical subunits of 43.6 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. Its Km values for glucose and xylose were found to be 258.96 and 82.77 mM, respectively, and its Vmax values are 32.42 and 63.64 μM/min/mg, respectively. The purified enzyme is optimally active at 85ºC and pH 7.0. It is stable at pH 5.5-8.5 and at temperatures up to 60ºC after 30 min. These findings indicate that glucose(xylose isomerase from Streptomyces sp. CH7 has the potential for industrial applications, especially for high-fructose syrup production and bioethanol fermentation from hemicellulosic hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  17. Desultovibrio frigidus sp nov and Desulfovibrio ferfireducens sp nov., psychrotolerant bacteria isolated from Arctic fiord sediments (Svalbard) with the ability to reduce Fe(III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, V.; Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    2006-01-01

    (.)0-95(.)7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Strains 18(T) and 77, exhibiting 99(.)9% sequence similarity, represent a novel species for which the name Desulfovibrio frigidus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 18(T) (=DSM 17176(T)=jCM 12924(T)). Strain 61(T) was closely related to strains 18(T...

  18. Isolation and identification of biocontrol agent Streptomyces rimosus M527 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dandan; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Xianhao; Yu, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Actinomycetes have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents against fungal plant pathogens and as plant growth promoters. In this study, a total of 320 actinomycetes were isolated from various habitats in China. Among which, 77 strains have been identified as antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum which usually caused fusarium wilt of cucumber. Of these, isolate actinomycete M527 not only displayed broad-spectrum antifungal activity but also showed the strongest antagonistic activity against the spore germination of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. In pot experiments, the results indicated that isolate M527 could promote the shoot growth and prevent the development of the disease on cucumber caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. The control efficacy against seedling fusarium wilt of cucumber after M527 fermentation broth root-irrigation was up to 72.1% as compared to control. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolate M527 was identified as Streptomyces rimosus. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Streptomyces asenjonii sp. nov., isolated from arid Atacama Desert soils and emended description of Streptomyces viridosporus Pridham et al. 1958

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic status of Streptomyces strains isolated from arid Atacama Desert soils. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates showed that they formed a well-defined lineage that was loosely associated with the type strains of several Str...

  20. Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii sp. nov., the producer of chaxalactins and chaxamycins, forms a distinct branch in Streptomyces gene trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic status of an Atacama Desert isolate, Streptomyces strain C34T, which synthesises novel antibiotics, the chaxalactins and chaxamycins. The organism was shown to have chemotaxonomic, cultural, and morphological properties consistent with it...

  1. Formulation of economical microbial feed using degraded chicken feathers by a novel Streptomyces sp: mitigation of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayapradha Ramakrishnan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new Streptomyces sp. IF 5 was isolated from the feather dumped soil and found to have a tremendous keratinase activity. The strain enabled the degradation of the chicken feathers very effectively in 60 h. The 16S rRNA sequence of 1474 bp long was submitted to the National centre for Biotechnological information. The keratinolytic activity in the culture medium was 1181 U/ml. The release and analyses of sulphydryl groups in the culture medium evident the degradation activity by the Streptomyces sp. IF 5. The idea of the present study was to use the degraded chicken feathers as the substrate for the growth and cultivation of microorganisms. We have designed a very economical culture medium that includes the usage of some basal salts alone and degraded chicken feathers (10 g/l. The results of the specific growth rate of the tested microbes confirm the usage of the new designed medium for microbial culturing.

  2. Optimization of biosynthesis conditions and catalitic behavior evaluation of cellulase-free xylanase produced by a new Streptomyces sp. strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA BAHRIM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellulase-free xylanase by Streptomyces sp.P12-137 was obtained bycultivation on the wheat bran as the sole carbon source. The effect of carbon and nitrogen sources and a ratio of them on the cellulase-free xylanase production was investigated. The new isolate Streptomyces sp. strain was able to grow in submerged system and to produce an increased level of xylanase. Wheat bran induced xylanase biosynthesis yield at a high level (9.27 UA/ml. For economical reasons cultivation was achieved on a cheap fermentative medium represented by agro-industrial wastes. The optima of the pH and temperature of the crude xylanase activity were 5.5 and 70°C,respectively.

  3. Isolation and characterization of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)-producing Streptomyces sp. S161 from sheep (Ovis aries) faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Wang, J; Deng, Z; Wu, H; Deng, Q; Tan, H; Cao, L

    2013-09-01

    An actinomycete producing oil-like mixtures was isolated and characterized. The strain was isolated from sheep faeces and identified as Streptomyces sp. S161 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain showed cellulase and xylanase activities. The (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the mixtures showed that the mixtures were composed of fatty acid methyl esters (52·5), triglycerides (13·7) and monoglycerides (9·1) (mol.%). Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the fatty acid methyl esters were mainly composed of C14-C16 long-chain fatty acids. The results indicated that Streptomyces sp. S161 could produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) directly from starch. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated strain that can produce biodiesel (FAME) directly from starch. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain F1, a potential source for glycoside hydrolases isolated from Brazilian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ricardo Rodrigues de; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Squina, Fábio Márcio; Ruller, Roberto; Sato, Helia Harumi

    Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296bp and G+C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Streptomyces amphotericinicus sp. nov., an amphotericin-producing actinomycete isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tingting; Mu, Shan; Lu, Chang; Zhao, Shanshan; Li, Dongmei; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2017-12-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 1H-SSA8 T , was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and was found to produce amphotericin. A polyphasic approach was employed to determine the status of strain 1H-SSA8 T . Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics were consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The menaquinones detected were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0, C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain 1H-SSA8 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarity to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL B-2714 T (99.2 %). Two tree-making algorithms based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a phyletic line with Streptomyces himastatinicus ATCC 53653 T (98.7 %). The MLSA utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB) also supported the position. However, evolutionary distances were higher than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. Moreover, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic differences allowed the novel isolate to be differentiated from its most closely related strain S. ramulosus NRRL B-2714 T and strain S. himastatinicus ATCC 53653 T . It is concluded that the organism can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces amphotericinicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-SSA8 T (=CGMCC 4.7350 T =DSM 103128 T ).

  6. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticle using Streptomyces sp. 09 PBT 005 and its antibacterial and cytotoxic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana Kumar, P.; Balachandran, C.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Ramasamy, D.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    The application of microorganisms for the synthesis of nanoparticles as an eco-friendly and promising approach is welcome due to its non-toxicity and simplicity. The aim of this study was to synthesize silver nanoparticle using Streptomyces sp. (09 PBT 005). 09 PBT 005 was isolated from the soil sample of the agriculture field in Vengodu, Thiruvannamalai district, Tamil Nadu, India. 09 PBT 005 was subjected to molecular characterization by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. It was found that 09 PBT 005 belonged to Streptomyces sp. The isolate Streptomyces sp. 09 PBT 005 was inoculated in fermentation medium and incubated at 30 ºC for 12 days in different pH conditions. The 0.02 molar concentration showed good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at pH-7. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. The synthesized AgNPs sizes were found to be in the dimensions ranging between 198 and 595 nm. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized nanoparticles was studied against A549 adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell line. It showed 83.23 % activity at 100 μl with IC 50 value of 50 μl. This method will be useful in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles.

  7. Improvement of FK506 Production in the High-Yielding Strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011 by Engineering the Supply of Allylmalonyl-CoA Through a Combination of Genetic and Chemical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, SangJoon; Lee, Sung-Kwon; Jin, Ying-Yu; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-02-01

    FK506, a widely used immunosuppressant, is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide that is produced by several Streptomyces species. FK506 high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011 was developed from the discovered Streptomyces sp. KCCM 11116P by random mutagenesis in our previous study. The results of transcript expression analysis showed that the transcription levels of tcsA, B, C, and D were increased in Streptomyces sp. RM7011 by 2.1-, 3.1-, 3.3-, and 4.1- fold, respectively, compared with Streptomyces sp. KCCM 11116P. The overexpression of tcsABCD genes in Streptomyces sp. RM7011 gave rise to approximately 2.5-fold (238.1 μg/ml) increase in the level of FK506 production compared with that of Streptomyces sp. RM7011. When vinyl pentanoate was added into the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. RM7011, the level of FK506 production was approximately 2.2-fold (207.7 μg/ml) higher than that of the unsupplemented fermentation. Furthermore, supplementing the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. RM7011 expressing tcsABCD genes with vinyl pentanoate resulted in an additional 1.7-fold improvement in the FK506 titer (498.1 μg/ml) compared with that observed under nonsupplemented condition. Overall, the level of FK506 production was increased approximately 5.2-fold by engineering the supply of allylmalonyl-CoA in the high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011, using a combination of overexpressing tcsABCD genes and adding vinyl pentanoate, as compared with Streptomyces sp. RM7011 (95.3 μg/ml). Moreover, among the three precursors analyzed, pentanoate was the most effective precursor, supporting the highest titer of FK506 in the FK506 high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011.

  8. Artificial Intelligence versus Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Cholesterol Oxidase Production by using Streptomyces Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Pathak

    Full Text Available Cholesterol oxidase (COD is a bi-functional FAD-containing oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol into 4-cholesten-3-one. The wider biological functions and clinical applications of COD have urged the screening, isolation and characterization of newer microbes from diverse habitats as a source of COD and optimization and over-production of COD for various uses. The practicability of statistical/ artificial intelligence techniques, such as response surface methodology (RSM, artificial neural network (ANN and genetic algorithm (GA have been tested to optimize the medium composition for the production of COD from novel strain Streptomyces sp. NCIM 5500. All experiments were performed according to the five factor central composite design (CCD and the generated data was analysed using RSM and ANN. GA was employed to optimize the models generated by RSM and ANN. Based upon the predicted COD concentration, the model developed with ANN was found to be superior to the model developed with RSM. The RSM-GA approach predicted maximum of 6.283 U/mL COD production, whereas the ANN-GA approach predicted a maximum of 9.93 U/mL COD concentration. The optimum concentrations of the medium variables predicted through ANN-GA approach were: 1.431 g/50 mL soybean, 1.389 g/50 mL maltose, 0.029 g/50 mL MgSO4, 0.45 g/50 mL NaCl and 2.235 ml/50 mL glycerol. The experimental COD concentration was concurrent with the GA predicted yield and led to 9.75 U/mL COD production, which was nearly two times higher than the yield (4.2 U/mL obtained with the un-optimized medium. This is the very first time we are reporting the statistical versus artificial intelligence based modeling and optimization of COD production by Streptomyces sp. NCIM 5500.

  9. Isolation, screening and partial purification of antimicrobial antibiotics from soil Streptomyces sp. SCA 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saravana Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven actinomycetes strains were isolated from soil samples collected from an agriculture field in Vengodu, Thiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu, India (latitude: 12° 54′ 0033″, North; longitude: 79° 78′ 5216″, East; elevation: 228.6/70.0 ft/m. The isolates were assessed for antagonistic activity against five Gram-positive bacteria, seven Gram-negative bacteria, and two pathogenic fungi. During the initial screening, 43% of the strains showed weak activity, 16% showed moderate activity, 5% showed good activity, and 35% showed no antagonistic activity. Among the strains tested, SCA 7 showed strong antimicrobial activity. Maximum biological activity was obtained on modified nutrient glucose agar (MNGA medium. The mycelia of SCA 7 were extracted with methanol and tested against microbial pathogens using the disc diffusion method. The crude extract was purified partially using column chromatography and assessed for antimicrobial activity. Fraction 10 showed good activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (31.25 μg/mL and Malassezia pachydermatis (500 μg/mL and the active principle (fraction 10 was identified as 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl phenol. Based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, cultural, and molecular characteristics (16S rDNA sequencing, this strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. SCA 7. It could be used in the development of new substances for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  10. Frenolicins C-G, pyranonaphthoquinones from Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiachang; Shaaban, Khaled A; Elshahawi, Sherif I; Ponomareva, Larissa V; Sunkara, Manjula; Zhang, Yinan; Copley, Gregory C; Hower, James C; Morris, Andrew J; Kharel, Madan K; Thorson, Jon S

    2013-08-23

    Appalachian active coal fire sites were selected for the isolation of bacterial strains belonging to the class actinobacteria. A comparison of high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and ultraviolet (UV) absorption profiles from isolate extracts to natural product databases suggested Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15 to produce unique metabolites. Four new pyranonaphthoquinones, frenolicins C-F (1-4), along with three known analogues, frenolicin (6), frenolicin B (7), and UCF76-A (8), were isolated from the fermentation of this strain. An additional new analogue, frenolicin G (5), along with two known compounds, deoxyfrenolicin (9) and UCF 13 (10), were isolated from the fermentation supplied with 18 mg/L of scandium chloride, the first example, to the best of our knowledge, wherein scandium chloride supplementation led to the confirmed production of new bacterial secondary metabolites. Structures 1-5 were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical modification. While frenolicins are best known for their anticoccidial activity, the current study revealed compounds 6-9 to exhibit moderate cytotoxicity against the human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) and thereby extends the anticancer SAR for this privileged scaffold.

  11. Cloning and recombinant expression of a cellulase from the cellulolytic strain Streptomyces sp. G12 isolated from compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of lignocellulosic materials for second generation ethanol production would give several advantages such as minimizing the conflict between land use for food and fuel production, providing less expensive raw materials than conventional agricultural feedstock, allowing lower greenhouse gas emissions than those of first generation ethanol. However, cellulosic biofuels are not produced at a competitive level yet, mainly because of the high production costs of the cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, this study was aimed at discovering new cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes. Results Different bacteria isolated from raw composting materials obtained from vegetable processing industry wastes were screened for their cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. Four strains belonging to the actinomycetes group were selected on the basis of their phenotypic traits and cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. The strain showing the highest cellulolytic activity was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Streptomyces genus and it was designated as Streptomyces sp. strain G12. Investigating the enzymes responsible for cellulase activity produced by Streptomyces G12 by proteomic analyses, two endoglucanases were identified. Gene coding for one of these enzymes, named CelStrep, was cloned and sequenced. Molecular analysis showed that the celstrep gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 379 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 37 amino acid residues. Comparison of deduced aminoacidic sequence to the other cellulases indicated that the enzyme CelStrep can be classified as a family 12 glycoside hydrolase. Heterologous recombinant expression of CelStrep was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the active recombinant enzyme was purified from culture supernatant and characterized. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose following a Michaelis

  12. Cloning and recombinant expression of a cellulase from the cellulolytic strain Streptomyces sp. G12 isolated from compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amore Antonella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of lignocellulosic materials for second generation ethanol production would give several advantages such as minimizing the conflict between land use for food and fuel production, providing less expensive raw materials than conventional agricultural feedstock, allowing lower greenhouse gas emissions than those of first generation ethanol. However, cellulosic biofuels are not produced at a competitive level yet, mainly because of the high production costs of the cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, this study was aimed at discovering new cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes. Results Different bacteria isolated from raw composting materials obtained from vegetable processing industry wastes were screened for their cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. Four strains belonging to the actinomycetes group were selected on the basis of their phenotypic traits and cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. The strain showing the highest cellulolytic activity was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Streptomyces genus and it was designated as Streptomyces sp. strain G12. Investigating the enzymes responsible for cellulase activity produced by Streptomyces G12 by proteomic analyses, two endoglucanases were identified. Gene coding for one of these enzymes, named CelStrep, was cloned and sequenced. Molecular analysis showed that the celstrep gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 379 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 37 amino acid residues. Comparison of deduced aminoacidic sequence to the other cellulases indicated that the enzyme CelStrep can be classified as a family 12 glycoside hydrolase. Heterologous recombinant expression of CelStrep was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the active recombinant enzyme was purified from culture supernatant and characterized. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose

  13. Production of diketopiperazine derivative cyclo (l-leu-l-arg) by streptomyces sp. tn262 after exposure to heat-killed fungus fusarium sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleuch, L.; Smaoui, S.; Najah, S.; Sellem, I

    2013-01-01

    In a screening program for new active secondary metabolites producers, a strain of Streptomyces called TN262 was isolated from Tunisian soil and selected for its ability to produce eleven active compounds in pure culture conditions. In this work, the effect of different concentrations of heat-killed fungus Fusarium sp. on the production of active compounds by TN262 strain was studied. The ethyl acetate extract from the culture of Streptomyces sp. TN262 combined with heat-killed Fusarium sp. at 50 micro g/ml inhibited the growth of the three used indicator microorganisms. In fact, an increase of 36%, 21% and 20% in inhibitory activity was obtained against Micrococcus luteus LB 14110, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Fusarium sp. respectively. The HPLC chromatographic profiles of the ethyl acetate extracts from both culture conditions were different and an additional active compound was produced only under induced conditions. This active component was isolated and identified as Cyclo (L-Leu-L-Arg) (1), a diketopiperazine derivative, possessing antibacterial and antifungal activity. Consequently, this study showed that the addition of heat-killed fungus is a useful method for inducing the production of bioactive compounds. (author)

  14. Identification of three homologous latex-clearing protein (lcp) genes from the genome of Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthini, Jayaram; Ong, Su Yean; Sudesh, Kumar

    2017-09-10

    Rubber materials have greatly contributed to human civilization. However, being a polymeric material does not decompose easily, it has caused huge environmental problems. On the other hand, only few bacteria are known to degrade rubber, with studies pertaining them being intensively focusing on the mechanism involved in microbial rubber degradation. The Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7, which was previously confirmed to possess rubber-degrading ability, was subjected to whole genome sequencing using the single molecule sequencing technology of the PacBio® RS II system. The genome was further analyzed and compared with previously reported rubber-degrading bacteria in order to identify the potential genes involved in rubber degradation. This led to the interesting discovery of three homologues of latex-clearing protein (Lcp) on the chromosome of this strain, which are probably responsible for rubber degrading activities. Genes encoding oxidoreductase α-subunit (oxiA) and oxidoreductase β-subunit (oxiB) were also found downstream of two lcp genes which are located adjacent to each other. In silico analysis reveals genes that have been identified to be involved in the microbial degradation of rubber in the Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7. This is the first whole genome sequence of a clear-zone-forming natural rubber- degrading Streptomyces sp., which harbours three Lcp homologous genes with the presence of oxiA and oxiB genes compared to the previously reported Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 (with two Lcp homologous genes) and Nocardia nova SH22a (with only one Lcp gene). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diketopiperazine Derivatives from the Marine-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328

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    Weiming Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five new diketopiperazine derivatives, (3Z,6E-1-N-methyl-3-benzy lidene-6-(2S-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (1, (3Z,6E-1-N-methyl-3-benzylidene-6-(2R-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (2, (3Z,6Z-3- (4-hydroxybenzylidene-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (3, (3Z,6Z-3-((1H-imidazol-5-yl-methylene-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (4, and (3Z,6S-3-benzylidene-6-(2S-but-2-ylpiperazine-2,5-dione (5, were isolated from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328. The structures of 1–5 were determined by spectroscopic analysis, CD exciton chirality, the modified Mosher’s, Marfey’s and the C3 Marfey’s methods. Compound 3 showed modest antivirus activity against influenza A (H1N1 virus with an IC50 value of 41.5 ± 4.5 μM. In addition, compound 6 and 7 displayed potent anti-H1N1 activity with IC50 value of 28.9 ± 2.2 and 6.8 ± 1.5 μM, respectively. Due to the lack of corresponding data in the literature, the 13C NMR data of (3Z,6S-3-benzylidene-6-isobutylpiperazine-2,5-dione (6 were also reported here for the first time.

  16. Production, Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Protease from Streptomyces sp. MAB18 Using Poultry Wastes

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    Panchanathan Manivasagan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry waste is an abundant renewable source for the recovery of several value-added metabolites with potential industrial applications. This study describes the production of protease on poultry waste, with the subsequent use of the same poultry waste for the extraction of antioxidants. An extracellular protease-producing strain was isolated from Cuddalore coast, India, and identified as Streptomyces sp. MAB18. Its protease was purified 17.13-fold with 21.62% yield with a specific activity of 2398.36 U/mg and the molecular weight was estimated as 43 kDa. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 8–10 and temperature 50–60°C and it was most stable up to pH 12 and 6–12% of NaCl concentration. The enzyme activity was reduced when treated with Hg2+, Pb2+, and SDS and stimulated by Fe2+, Mg2+, Triton X-100, DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide, sodium sulphite, and β-mercaptoethanol. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of protease were evaluated using in vitro antioxidant assays, such as DPPH radical-scavenging activity, O2 scavenging activity, NO scavenging activity, Fe2+ chelating activity, and reducing power. The enzyme showed important antioxidant potential with an IC50 value of 78±0.28 mg/mL. Results of the present study indicate that the poultry waste-derived protease may be useful as supplementary protein and antioxidant in the animal feed formulations.

  17. Monooxygenase, a novel beta-cypermethrin degrading enzyme from Streptomyces sp.

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    Shaohua Chen

    Full Text Available The widely used insecticide beta-cypermethrin has become a public concern because of its environmental contamination and toxic effects on mammals. In this study, a novel beta-cypermethrin degrading enzyme designated as CMO was purified to apparent homogeneity from a Streptomyces sp. isolate capable of utilizing beta-cypermethrin as a growth substrate. The native enzyme showed a monomeric structure with a molecular mass of 41 kDa and pI of 5.4. The enzyme exhibited the maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 30°C. It was fairly stable in the pH range from 6.5-8.5 and at temperatures below 10°C. The enzyme activity was significantly stimulated by Fe(2+, but strongly inhibited by Ag(+, Al(3+, and Cu(2+. The enzyme catalyzed the degradation of beta-cypermethrin to form five products via hydroxylation and diaryl cleavage. A novel beta-cypermethrin detoxification pathway was proposed based on analysis of these products. The purified enzyme was identified as a monooxygenase by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis (MALDI-TOF-MS and N-terminal protein sequencing. Given that all the characterized pyrethroid-degrading enzymes are the members of hydrolase family, CMO represents the first pyrethroid-degrading monooxygenase identified from environmental microorganisms. Taken together, our findings depict a novel pyrethroid degradation mechanism and indicate that the purified enzyme may be a promising candidate for detoxification of beta-cypermethrin and environmental protection.

  18. Biochemical studies on antibiotic production from Streptomyces sp.: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Houssam M. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Tunicamycin is a nucleotide antibiotic which was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. T-4. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain T-4 was identified as Streptomyces torulosus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogenic viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Micrococcus lutea, ATCC 9341; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 10400; B. pumilus, NCTC; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9...

  19. Natalamycin A, an ansamycin from a termite-associated Streptomyces sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Beemelmanns, Christine

    2014-01-01

    We report a preliminary functional and complete structural characterization of a highly unusual geldanamycin analog, natalamycin A, that was isolated from Streptomyces strain M56 recovered from a South African nest of Macrotermes natalensis termites. Bioassay-guided fractionation based on antifun......We report a preliminary functional and complete structural characterization of a highly unusual geldanamycin analog, natalamycin A, that was isolated from Streptomyces strain M56 recovered from a South African nest of Macrotermes natalensis termites. Bioassay-guided fractionation based...

  20. Elimination of indigenous linear plasmids in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. jinggangensis and Streptomyces sp. FR008 to increase validamycin A and candicidin productivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenyang; Wu, Hang; Su, Xiurong; Bai, Linquan

    2017-05-01

    Giant linear plasmids, which replicate independently of the chromosomes, widely exist in actinobacteria. Previous studies mostly focused on the replication and evolution of the linear plasmids or the secondary metabolite gene clusters and the resistance gene clusters therein. However, the relationships of the linear plasmids to the productivities of secondary metabolites have not been studied. In this work, we developed a method to eliminate the indigenous linear plasmid pSHJG1 in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. jinggangensis, and validamycin A titer increased by 12.5% (from 19.16 ± 1.93 to 21.56 ± 2.25 g/L) in the high-yielding strain TL01 and 43.7% (from 4.67 ± 0.05 to 6.71 ± 0.21 g/L) in the wild-type strain 5008, whereas the cellular growth of the plasmid-cured mutant was reduced. Subsequently, the plasmid-cured mutant was complemented with three structure genes involved in cellular growth in pSHJG1 under the control of a strong PvalA promoter. Among them, the complementation of genes pSHJG1.069 and pSHJG1.072, encoding a putative hydrolase and putative P-loop ATPase, respectively, resulted in the restoration of cellular growth and validamycin A titer. Furthermore, the elimination of indigenous linear plasmid pHZ228 in the candicidin producer Streptomyces sp. FR008 also led to enhanced candicidin production and reduced cellular growth. Because of the wide distribution of indigenous linear plasmids in actinobacteria, the engineering strategy described here could be implemented in a variety of strains for the overproduction of various natural products.

  1. Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 possesses high lipolytic activity in solid-state fermentation in comparison with submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadirci, Bilge Hilal; Yasa, Ihsan; Kocyigit, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a bioprocess that doesn't need an excess of free water, and it offers potential benefits for microbial cultivation for bioprocesses and product development. In comparing the antibiotic production, few detailed reports could be found with lipolytic enzyme production by Streptomycetes in SSF. Taking this knowledge into consideration, we prefer to purify Actinomycetes species as a new source for lipase production. The lipase-producing strain Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 was isolated from soil and lipase production was managed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in comparison with submerged fermentation (SmF). Bioprocess-affecting factors like initial moisture content, incubation time, and various carbon and nitrogen additives and the other enzymes secreted into the media were optimized. Lipase activity was measured as 1.74 ± 0.0005 U/g dry substrate (gds) by the p-nitrophenylpalmitate (pNPP) method on day 6 of fermentation with 71.43% final substrate moisture content. In order to understand the metabolic priority in SSF, cellulase and xylanase activity of Streptomyces sp. TEM33 was also measured. The microorganism degrades the wheat bran to its usable form by excreting cellulases and xylanases; then it secretes the lipase that is necessary for degrading the oil in the medium.

  2. Diversity of ABBA Prenyltransferases in Marine Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509: Promiscuous Enzymes for the Biosynthesis of Mixed Terpenoid Compounds.

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    Franziska Leipoldt

    Full Text Available Terpenoids are arguably the largest and most diverse family of natural products, featuring prominently in e.g. signalling, self-defence, UV-protection and electron transfer. Prenyltransferases are essential players in terpenoid and hybrid isoprenoid biosynthesis that install isoprene units on target molecules and thereby often modulate their bioactivity. In our search for new prenyltransferase biocatalysts we focused on the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, a particularly rich source of meroterpenoid chemistry. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509 revealed seven putative phenol/phenazine-specific ABBA prenyltransferases, and one putative indole-specific ABBA prenyltransferase. To elucidate the substrate specificity of the ABBA prenyltransferases and to learn about their role in secondary metabolism, CnqP1 -CnqP8 were produced in Escherichia coli and incubated with various aromatic and isoprenoid substrates. Five of the eight prenyltransferases displayed enzymatic activity. The efficient conversion of dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives by CnqP3 (encoded by AA958_24325 and the co-location of AA958_24325 with genes characteristic for the biosynthesis of THN (tetrahydroxynaphthalene-derived natural products indicates that the enzyme is involved in the formation of debromomarinone or other naphthoquinone-derived meroterpenoids. Moreover, CnqP3 showed high flexibility towards a range of aromatic and isoprenoid substrates and thus represents an interesting new tool for biocatalytic applications.

  3. Role of Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase in Oleaginous Streptomyces sp. Strain G25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttig, Annika; Strittmatter, Carl Simon; Schauer, Jennifer; Hiessl, Sebastian; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recently, we isolated a novel Streptomyces strain which can accumulate extraordinarily large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG) and consists of 64% fatty acids (dry weight) when cultivated with glucose and 50% fatty acids (dry weight) when cultivated with cellobiose. To identify putative gene products responsible for lipid storage and cellobiose utilization, we analyzed its draft genome sequence. A single gene encoding a wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) was identified and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme AtfG25 showed acyltransferase activity with C12- or C16-acyl-CoA, C12 to C18 alcohols, or dipalmitoyl glycerol. This acyltransferase exhibits 24% amino acid identity to the model enzyme AtfA from Acinetobacter baylyi but has high sequence similarities to WS/DGATs from other Streptomyces species. To investigate the impact of AtfG25 on lipid accumulation, the respective gene, atfG25, was inactivated in Streptomyces sp. strain G25. However, cells of the insertion mutant still exhibited DGAT activity and were able to store TAG, albeit in lower quantities and at lower rates than the wild-type strain. These findings clearly indicate that AtfG25 has an important, but not exclusive, role in TAG biosynthesis in the novel Streptomyces isolate and suggest the presence of alternative metabolic pathways for lipid accumulation which are discussed in the present study. IMPORTANCE A novel Streptomyces strain was isolated from desert soil, which represents an extreme environment with high temperatures, frequent drought, and nutrient scarcity. We believe that these harsh conditions promoted the development of the capacity for this strain to accumulate extraordinarily large amounts of lipids. In this study, we present the analysis of its draft genome sequence with a special focus on enzymes potentially involved in its lipid storage. Furthermore, the activity and importance of the detected

  4. Streptomyces halophytocola sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sheng; Bian, Guang-Kai; Tamura, Tomohiko; Zhang, Yue-Ji; Zhang, Wen-Di; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2013-08-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated KLBMP 1284(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour. collected from the city of Nantong, Jiangsu Province, east China. The strain was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KLBMP 1284(T) revealed that the strain formed a distinct clade within the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the highest sequence similarity (99.43 %) was to Streptomyces sulphureus NRRL B-1627(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other species of the genus Streptomyces was lower than 97 %. Based on DNA-DNA hybridization values and comparison of morphological and phenotypic data, KLBMP 1284(T) could be distinguished from the closest phylogenetically related species, Streptomyces sulphureus NRRL B-1627(T). Thus, based on these data, it is evident that strain KLBMP 1284(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces halophytocola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP 1284(T) (= KCTC 19890(T) = NBRC 108770(T)).

  5. Presence of antioxidative agent, Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- in newly isolated Streptomyces mangrovisoli sp. nov.

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    Hooi-Leng eSer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Streptomyces, strain MUSC 149T was isolated from mangrove soil. A polyphasic approach was used to study the taxonomy of MUSC 149T, which shows a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. The diamino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan was LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK9(H8 and MK9(H6. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that closely related strains include Streptomyces rhizophilus NBRC 108885T (99.2 % sequence similarity, Streptomyces gramineus NBRC 107863T (98.7 % and Streptomyces graminisoli NBRC 108883T (98.5 %. The DNA–DNA relatedness values between MUSC 149T and closely related type strains ranged from 12.4 ± 3.3 % to 27.3 ± 1.9 %. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 72.7 mol%. The extract of MUSC 149T exhibited strong antioxidant activity and chemical analysis reported identification of an antioxidant agent, Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-. These data showed that metabolites of MUSC 149T shall be useful as preventive agent against free-radical associated diseases. Based on the polyphasic study of MUSC 149T, the strain merits assignment to a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces mangrovisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 149T (= MCCC 1K00699T = DSM 100438T.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain Wb2n-11, a Desert Isolate with Broad-Spectrum Antagonism against Soilborne Phytopathogens

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    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, isolated from native desert soil, exhibited broad-spectrum antagonism against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes. The 8.2 Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol activity and genes which enable the soil bacterium to directly interact beneficially with plants.

  7. Reveromycins A and B from Streptomyces sp. 3–10: Antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi in vitro and in a strawberry food model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the antifungal activity of the metabolites from Streptomyces sp. 3–10, and to purify and identify the metabolites. Meanwhile, the taxonomic status of strain 3–10 was re-evaluated. The cultural filtrates of strain 3–10 in potato dextrose broth were extract...

  8. Cloning of the staurosporine biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0274 and its heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, Hiroyasu; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Furumai, Tamotsu

    2002-12-01

    Staurosporine is a representative member of indolocarbazole antibiotics. The entire staurosporine biosynthetic and regulatory gene cluster spanning 20-kb was cloned from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0274 and sequenced. The gene cluster consists of 14 ORFs and the amino acid sequence homology search revealed that it contains three genes, staO, staD, and staP, coding for the enzymes involved in the indolocarbazole aglycone biosynthesis, two genes, staG and staN, for the bond formation between the aglycone and deoxysugar, eight genes, staA, staB, staE, staJ, staI, staK, staMA, and staMB, for the deoxysugar biosynthesis and one gene, staR is a transcriptional regulator. Heterologous gene expression of a 38-kb fragment containing a complete set of the biosynthetic genes for staurosporine cloned into pTOYAMAcos confirmed its role in staurosporine biosynthesis. Moreover, the distribution of the gene for chromopyrrolic acid synthase, the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of indolocarbazole aglycone, in actinomycetes was investigated, and rebD homologs were shown to exist only in the strains producing indolocarbazole antibiotics.

  9. Antioxidative Potential of a Streptomyces sp. MUM292 Isolated from Mangrove Soil

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    Loh Teng-Hern Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove derived microorganisms constitute a rich bioresource for bioprospecting of bioactive natural products. This study explored the antioxidant potentials of Streptomyces bacteria derived from mangrove soil. Based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, strain MUM292 was identified as the genus Streptomyces. Strain MUM292 showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.54% with S. griseoruber NBRC12873T. Furthermore, strain MUM292 was also characterized and showed phenotypic characteristics consistent with Streptomyces bacteria. Fermentation and extraction were performed to obtain the MUM292 extract containing the secondary metabolites of strain MUM292. The extract displayed promising antioxidant activities, including DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide radical scavenging and also metal-chelating activities. The process of lipid peroxidation in lipid-rich product was also retarded by MUM292 extract and resulted in reduced MDA production. The potential bioactive constituents of MUM292 extract were investigated using GC-MS and preliminary detection showed the presence of pyrazine, pyrrole, cyclic dipeptides, and phenolic compound in MUM292 extract. This work demonstrates that Streptomyces MUM292 can be a potential antioxidant resource for food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Genomic and secondary metabolite analyses of Streptomyces sp. 2AW provide insight into the evolution of the cycloheximide pathway

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    Elizabeth eStulberg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The dearth of new antibiotics in the face of widespread antimicrobial resistance makes developing innovative strategies for discovering new antibiotics critical for the future management of infectious disease. Understanding the genetics and evolution of antibiotic producers will help guide the discovery and bioengineering of novel antibiotics. We discovered an isolate in Alaskan boreal forest soil that had broad antimicrobial activity. We elucidated the corresponding antimicrobial natural products and sequenced the genome of this isolate, designated Streptomyces sp. 2AW. This strain illustrates the chemical virtuosity typical of the Streptomyces genus, producing cycloheximide as well as two other biosynthetically unrelated antibiotics, neutramycin and hygromycin A. Combining bioinformatic and chemical analyses, we identified the gene clusters responsible for antibiotic production. Interestingly, 2AW appears dissimilar from other cycloheximide producers in that the gene encoding the polyketide synthase resides on a separate part of the chromosome from the genes responsible for tailoring cycloheximide-specific modifications. This gene arrangement and our phylogenetic analyses of the gene products suggest that 2AW holds an evolutionarily ancestral lineage of the cycloheximide pathway. Our analyses support the hypothesis that the 2AW glutaramide gene cluster is basal to the lineage wherein cycloheximide production diverged from other glutarimide antibiotics. This study illustrates the power of combining modern biochemical and genomic analyses to gain insight into the evolution of antibiotic-producing microorganisms.

  11. HSQC-TOCSY Fingerprinting-Directed Discovery of Antiplasmodial Polyketides from the Marine Ascidian-Derived Streptomyces sp. (USC-16018).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buedenbender, Larissa; Robertson, Luke P; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Avery, Vicky M; Kurtböke, D İpek; Carroll, Anthony R

    2018-05-30

    Chemical investigations on the fermentation extract obtained from an ascidian-derived Streptomyces sp. (USC-16018) yielded a new ansamycin polyketide, herbimycin G ( 1 ), as well as a known macrocyclic polyketide, elaiophylin ( 2 ), and four known diketopiperazines ( 3 ⁻ 6 ). The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on 1D/2D NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration of 1 was established by comparison of experimental and predicted electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Antiplasmodial activities were tested for the natural products against chloroquine sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum strains; the two polyketides ( 1 ⁻ 2 ) demonstrated an inhibition of >75% against both parasite strains and while 2 was highly cytotoxic, herbimycin G ( 1 ) showed no cytotoxicity and good predicted water solubility.

  12. Cuevaenes C–E: Three new triene carboxylic derivatives from Streptomyces sp. LZ35ΔgdmAI

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    Jing-Jing Deng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two pairs of geometrical isomers – cuevaenes A (1 and C (3 as well as cuevaenes D (4 and E (5 – and cuevaene B (2 were isolated from gdmAI-disrupted Streptomyces sp. LZ35. The constitution of cuevaene C (3 was found to be identical to cuevaene A (1 by means of NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. However, the relative configurations of the triene side chain moieties were determined to be different. It was established on the basis of spectroscopic data that cuevaenes D (4 and E (5 are amides and geometrical isomers. Cuevaenes A–C (1–3 displayed moderate activity against Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC 11060 and modest activity against fungi (e.g., Fusarium verticillioides strain S68 and Rhizoctonia solani strain GXE4. However, cuevaenes D (4 and E (5 showed no inhibitory activity against any of the tested microbes.

  13. Cycloheximide congeners produced by Streptomyces sp. SC0581 and photoinduced interconversion between (E- and (Z-2,3-dehydroanhydrocycloheximides

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    Li Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new cycloheximide congeners, 2,3-dehydro-α-epi-isocycloheximide (1, (E- and (Z-2,3-dehydroanhydrocycloheximides (2 and 3, together with three known compounds, anhydroisoheximide (4, cycloheximide (5, and isocycloheximide (6, were obtained from the cultures of Streptomyces sp. SC0581. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis in combination with theoretical conformational analysis and ECD computations. The photoinduced interconversion between 2 and 3 was observed and verified and the possible reaction path and mechanism were proposed by theoretical computations. The antifungal and cytotoxic activities of 1–6 were evaluated and suggested that 2,3-dehydrogenation results in the loss of the activities and supported that the OH-α is important to the activities of cycloheximide congeners.

  14. Strain and culture medium optimization for production enhancement of prodiginines from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. GQQ-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueping; Zhang, Guojian; Zhu, Tianjiao; Li, Dehai; Gu, Qianqun

    2012-09-01

    A mutant (GQQ-M6) of a Sponge-Derived streptomyces sp. GQQ-10 obtained by UV-induced mutation was used for producing prodiginines (PGs). Single factor experiments and orthogonal array design (OAD) methods were employed for medium optimization. In the single factor method, the effects of soluble starch, glucose, soybean flour, yeast extract and sodium acetate on PGs production were investigated individually. In the subsequent OAD experiments, the concentrations of these 5 key nutritional components combined with salinity were further adjusted. The mutant strain GQQ-M6 gave a 2.2-fold higher PGs production than that of the parent strain; OAD experiments offered a PGs yield of 61mg L-1, which was 10 times higher than that of the initial GQQ-10 strain under the original cultivation mode.

  15. Biochemical studies on antibiotic production from Streptomyces sp.: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties

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    Houssam M. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunicamycin is a nucleotide antibiotic which was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. T-4. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain T-4 was identified as Streptomyces torulosus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogenic viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Micrococcus lutea, ATCC 9341; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 10400; B. pumilus, NCTC; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9111; Escherichia coli, NCTC 10416; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ATCC 10145; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763; Candida albicans, IMRU 3669; Aspergillus flavus, IMI 111023; Aspergillus niger IMI 31276; Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 16424; Fusarium oxysporum; Rhizoctonia solani; Alternaria alternata; Botrytis fabae and Penicillium chrysogenium. The production media were optimized for maximum yield of secondary metabolites. The metabolites were extracted using n-butanol (1:1, v/v at pH 7.0. The chemical structural analysis with UV, IR, and MS spectral analyses confirmed that the compound produced by Streptomyces torulosus, T-4 is tunicamycin antibiotic.

  16. Investigation of antioxidative and anticancer potentials of Streptomyces sp. MUM256 isolated from Malaysia mangrove soil

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    Tan Loh eTeng Hern

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Streptomyces strain, MUM256 was isolated from Tanjung Lumpur mangrove soil in Malaysia. Characterization of the strain showed that it has properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. In order to explore the potential bioactivities, extract of the fermented broth culture of MUM256 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method. DPPH and SOD activity were utilized to examine the antioxidant capacity and the results have revealed the potency of MUM256 in superoxide anion scavenging activity in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of MUM256 extract was determined using cell viability assay against 8 different panels of human cancer cell lines. Among all the tested cancer cells, HCT116 was the most sensitive toward the extract treatment. At the highest concentration of tested extract, the result showed 2.3, 2.0 and 1.8 folds higher inhibitory effect against HCT116, HT29 and Caco-2 respectively when compared to normal cell line. This result has demonstrated that MUM256 extract was selectively cytotoxic towards colon cancer cell lines. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its bioactivities, the extract was then subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS. The analysis resulted in the identification of chemical constituents including phenolic and pyrrolopyrazine compounds which may responsible for antioxidant and anticancer activities observed. Based on the findings of this study, the presence of bioactive constituents in MUM256 extract could be a potential source for the development of antioxidative and chemopreventive agents.

  17. Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum

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    Boknam Jung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed.

  18. Streptomyces colonosanans sp. nov., A Novel Actinobacterium Isolated from Malaysia Mangrove Soil Exhibiting Antioxidative Activity and Cytotoxic Potential against Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Saokaew, Surasak; Bukhari, Sarah I.; Khan, Tahir M.; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces colonosanans MUSC 93JT, a novel strain isolated from mangrove forest soil located at Sarawak, Malaysia. The bacterium was noted to be Gram-positive and to form light yellow aerial and vivid yellow substrate mycelium on ISP 2 agar. The polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomy of strain MUSC 93JT and the strain showed a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. Phylogenetic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that closely related strains include Streptomyces malachitofuscus NBRC 13059T (99.2% sequence similarity), Streptomyces misionensis NBRC 13063T (99.1%), and Streptomyces phaeoluteichromatogenes NRRL 5799T (99.1%). The DNA–DNA relatedness values between MUSC 93JT and closely related type strains ranged from 14.4 ± 0.1 to 46.2 ± 0.4%. The comparison of BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated MUSC 93JT exhibits a unique DNA profile. The genome of MUSC 93JT consists of 7,015,076 bp. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 69.90 mol%. The extract of strain MUSC 93JT was demonstrated to exhibit potent antioxidant activity via ABTS, metal chelating, and SOD assays. This extract also exhibited anticancer activity against human colon cancer cell lines without significant cytotoxic effect against human normal colon cells. Furthermore, the chemical analysis of the extract further emphasizes the strain is producing chemo-preventive related metabolites. Based on this polyphasic study of MUSC 93JT, it is concluded that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces colonosanans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 93JT (= DSM 102042T = MCCC 1K02298T). PMID:28559892

  19. Streptomyces colonosanans sp. nov., A Novel Actinobacterium Isolated from Malaysia Mangrove Soil Exhibiting Antioxidative Activity and Cytotoxic Potential against Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Woan-Fei Law

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces colonosanans MUSC 93JT, a novel strain isolated from mangrove forest soil located at Sarawak, Malaysia. The bacterium was noted to be Gram-positive and to form light yellow aerial and vivid yellow substrate mycelium on ISP 2 agar. The polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomy of strain MUSC 93JT and the strain showed a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. Phylogenetic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that closely related strains include Streptomyces malachitofuscus NBRC 13059T (99.2% sequence similarity, Streptomyces misionensis NBRC 13063T (99.1%, and Streptomyces phaeoluteichromatogenes NRRL 5799T (99.1%. The DNA–DNA relatedness values between MUSC 93JT and closely related type strains ranged from 14.4 ± 0.1 to 46.2 ± 0.4%. The comparison of BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated MUSC 93JT exhibits a unique DNA profile. The genome of MUSC 93JT consists of 7,015,076 bp. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 69.90 mol%. The extract of strain MUSC 93JT was demonstrated to exhibit potent antioxidant activity via ABTS, metal chelating, and SOD assays. This extract also exhibited anticancer activity against human colon cancer cell lines without significant cytotoxic effect against human normal colon cells. Furthermore, the chemical analysis of the extract further emphasizes the strain is producing chemo-preventive related metabolites. Based on this polyphasic study of MUSC 93JT, it is concluded that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces colonosanans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 93JT (= DSM 102042T = MCCC 1K02298T.

  20. ­Genomic data mining of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveils insights into multi-stress related genes and metabolic pathways involved in antimicrobial synthesis

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    Agustina Undabarrena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is an actinobacterial strain isolated from marine sediments of a Chilean Patagonian fjord. Morphological characterization together with antibacterial activity was assessed in various culture media, revealing a carbon-source dependent activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. Genome mining of this antibacterial-producing bacterium revealed the presence of 26 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs for secondary metabolites, where among them, 81% have low similarities with known BGCs. In addition, a genomic search in Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveiled the presence of a wide variety of genetic determinants related to heavy metal resistance (49 genes, oxidative stress (69 genes and antibiotic resistance (97 genes. This study revealed that the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 bacterium has the capability to tolerate a diverse set of heavy metals such as copper, cobalt, mercury, chromate and nickel; as well as the highly toxic tellurite, a feature first time described for Streptomyces. In addition, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 possesses a major resistance towards oxidative stress, in comparison to the soil reference strain Streptomyces violaceoruber A3(2. Moreover, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 showed resistance to 88% of the antibiotics tested, indicating overall, a strong response to several abiotic stressors. The combination of these biological traits confirms the metabolic versatility of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a genetically well-prepared microorganism with the ability to confront the dynamics of the fjord-unique marine environment.

  1. Streptomyces roietensis sp. nov., an endophytic actinobacterium isolated from the surface-sterilized stem of jasmine rice, Oryza sativa KDML 105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkla, Onuma; Franco, Christopher Milton Mathew

    2017-11-01

    An endophytic actinobacterium, strain WES2 T , was isolated from the stem of a jasmine rice plant collected from a paddy field in Thung Gura Rong Hai, Roi Et province, Thailand. As a result of a polyphasic study, this strain was identified as representing a novel member of the genus Streptomyces. This strain was a Gram-stain-positive, aerobic actinobacterium with well-developed substrate mycelia and forming chains of looped spores. The closest phylogenetic relations, which shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, were Streptomyces nogalater JCM 4799 T and Streptomyces lavenduligriseus NRRL-ISP 5487 T at 99.1 and 99.0 %, respectively. Chemotaxonomic data, including major fatty acids, cell wall components and major menaquinones, confirmed the affiliation of WES2 T to the genus Streptomyces. The data from the phylogenetic analysis, including physiological and biochemical studies and DNA-DNA hybridization, revealed the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of WES2 T from the most closely related species with validly published names. The name proposed for the novel species is Streptomycesroietensis sp. nov. The type strain is WES2 T (=DSM 101729=NRRL B-65344).

  2. Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Angucycline- and Prodigiosin- Analogues from the Deep-Sea Derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 11594

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    Yongxiang Song

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new C-glycoside angucyclines, marangucycline A (1 and marangucycline B (2, along with three known compounds, dehydroxyaquayamycin (3, undecylprodigiosin (4 and metacycloprodigiosin (5, have been identified as products of the deep-sea sediment strain Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 11594. New structures were elucidated on the basis of HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses and comparisons to previously reported datasets. Compounds 2 and 4 displayed in vitro cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines A594, CNE2, HepG2, MCF-7 superior to those obtained with cisplatin, the positive control. Notably, compound 2 bearing a keto-sugar displayed significant cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.24 to 0.56 μM; An IC50 value of 3.67 μM was found when using non-cancerous hepatic cell line HL7702, demonstrating the cancer cell selectivity of 2. Compounds 1–3 were proved to have weak antibacterial activities against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC29212 with an MIC value of 64.0 μg/mL. Moreover, 3 displayed selective antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis shhs-E1 with an MIC value of 16.0 μg/mL.

  3. Transesterification of waste cooking oil by an organic solvent-tolerant alkaline lipase from Streptomyces sp. CS273.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Poonam; Yoo, Hah-Young; Kim, Seung Wook; Choi, Yun Hee; Cho, Seung Sik; Yoo, Jin Cheol

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this present study was to produce a microbial enzyme that can potentially be utilized for the enzymatic transesterification of waste cooking oil. To that end, an extracellular lipase was isolated and purified from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. CS273. The molecular mass of purified lipase was estimated to be 36.55 kDa by SDS PAGE. The optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at alkaline pH 8.0 to 8.5 and temperature 40 °C, while the enzyme was stable in the pH range 7.0 ∼ 9.0 and at temperature ≤40 °C. The lipase showed highest hydrolytic activity towards p-nitrophenyl myristate (C14). The lipase activity was enhanced by several salts and detergents including NaCl, MnSo₄, and deoxy cholic acid, while phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride at concentration 10 mM inhibited the activity. The lipase showed tolerance towards different organic solvents including ethanol and methanol which are commonly used in transesterification reactions to displace alcohol from triglycerides (ester) contained in renewable resources to yield fatty acid alkyl esters known as biodiesel. Applicability of the lipase in transesterification of waste cooking oil was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.

  4. Production of α-amylase from Streptomyces sp. SLBA-08 strain using agro-industrial by-products

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    Édilla Ribeiro dos Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1.5 trillion tons are the estimated yearly biomass production, making it an essentially unlimited source of raw material for environmentally friendly and biocompatible products transformed by microorganism, specially fungi and actinomycetes. Several lignocellulosic residues, such as sisal waste and sugarcane bagasse contain starch in their structures which could become important sources for the production of amylases. This study evaluated the production of amylolytic enzymes using Streptomyces sp. SLBA-08 strain, isolated from a semi-arid soil, according to their ability to grow on soluble starch as the sole carbon source. The effect of the carbon source (sisal waste and sugarcane bagasse on α-amylase production was studied using submerged cultivations at 30 ºC. The highest level of α-amylase activity corresponded to 10.1 U. mL-1 and was obtained using sisal waste (2.7% and urea (0.8% in submerged fermentation after 3 days of cultivation. The partial characterization showed the best α-amylase activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0. These results are of great importance for the use of sisal waste as a substrate for biotechnological proposes.

  5. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Mannan from Konjac (Amorphophallus sp. Using Mannanase from Streptomyces lipmanii to Produce Manno-oligosaccharides

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    Ashadi Sasongko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mannan is an abundant polysaccharide that can be found in konjac (Amorphophallus sp.. Mannan can be enzymatically hydrolyzed using mannanase to produce manno-oligosaccharides which can be used as a prebiotic. The aims of this research are to determine the production time of mannanase from Streptomyces lipmanii, perform enzyme characterization, optimize the hydrolysis time, and characterize the hydrolysis product. A qualitative assay using the indicator Congo red showed that S. lipmanii generated a clear zone, indicating that S. lipmanii produced mannanase in konjac medium and possessed mannanolytic activity. Enzyme activity was determined through reducing sugar measurement using the dinitrosalycylic acid method, and optimum enzyme production was achieved at the second day of culture. Characterization of the enzyme showed that hydrolysis was optimum at pH 7 and at a temperature of 50 oC. The reducing sugar content was increased by an increasing the hydrolysis time, and reached an optimum time at 2 h. The degree of polymerization value of three was achieved after 2 h hydrolysis of mannan from konjac, indicating the formation of oligosaccharides. Analysis by thin layer chromatography using butanol, acetic acid, and water in a ratio of 2:1:1 as eluent showed the presence of compounds with a retention time between those of mannose and mannotetrose. Confirmation was also performed by HPLC, based on the retention time

  6. Extracellular Biofabrication, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticles Loaded on Cotton Fabrics Using Newly Isolated Streptomyces sp. SSHH-1E

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    Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological method for silver nanoparticles synthesis has been developed to obtain cost effective, clean, nontoxic, and ecofriendly size-controlled nanoparticles. The objective of this study is extracellular biosynthesis of antimicrobial AgNPs using cell-free supernatant of a local Streptomyces sp. strain SSHH-1E. Different medium composition and fermentation conditions were screened for maximal AgNPs biosynthesis using Plackett-Burman experimental design and the variables with statistically significant effects were selected to study their combined effects and to find out the optimum values using a Box-Behnken design. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Rapid biosynthesis of AgNPs was achieved by addition of 1 mM AgNO3 solution to the cell-free supernatant. The produced particles showed a single surface plasmon resonance peak at 400 nm by UV-Vis spectroscopy which confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Streptomyces sp. SSHH-1E was identified as Streptomyces narbonensis SSHH-1E. Transmission electron microscopy study indicated that the shape of AgNPs is spherical and the size is ranging from 20 to 40 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis provides evidence for proteins as possible reducing and capping agents. Furthermore, the biosynthesized AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of medically important pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The maximum biosynthesis of AgNPs was achieved at initial pH of 8, peptone of 0.5 g, and inoculum age of 48 h. The statistical optimization resulted in a 4.5-fold increase in the production of AgNPs by Streptomyces narbonensis SSHH-1E.

  7. Partial Purification and Characterization of a Heat Stable α-Amylase from a Thermophilic Actinobacteria, Streptomyces sp. MSC702

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    Renu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partial purification and biochemical characterization of the α-amylase from Streptomyces sp. MSC702 were carried out in this study. The optimum operational conditions for enzyme substrate reaction for amylolytic enzyme activity from the strain were evaluated. The optimum pH, temperature, and incubation period for assaying the enzyme were observed to be 5.0, 55°C, and 30 min, respectively. The extracellular extract was concentrated using ammonium sulfate precipitation. It was stable in the presence of metal ions (5 mM such as K+, Co2+, and Mo2+, whereas Pb2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Hg2+, Sn2+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ag+, and Fe2+ were found to have inhibitory effects. The enzyme activity was also unstable in the presence of 1% Triton X-100, 1% Tween 80, 5 mM sodium lauryl sulphate, 1% glycerol, 5 mM EDTA, and 5 mM denaturant urea. At temperature 60°C and pH 5.0, the enzyme stability was maximum. α-amylase retained 100% and 34.18% stability for 1 h and 4 h, respectively, at 60°C (pH 7.0. The enzyme exhibited a half-life of 195 min at 60°C temperature. The analysis of kinetic showed that the enzyme has Km of 2.4 mg/mL and Vmax of 21853.0 μmol/min/mg for soluble potato starch. The results indicate that the enzyme reflects their potentiality towards industrial utilization.

  8. Bioactive 2(1H-Pyrazinones and Diketopiperazine Alkaloids from a Tunicate-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp.

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    Lamiaa A. Shaala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a part of our ongoing effort to allocate marine microbial bioactive leads, a tunicate-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. Did-27, was investigated. Three new 2(1H-pyrazinones derivatives, (S-6-(sec-butyl-3-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H-one (1, (S-3-(sec-butyl-6-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H-one (2 and (S-6-(sec-butyl-3-isobutylpyrazin-2(1H-one (3, together with the known (1H-pyrazinones analogues deoxymutaaspergillic acid (4, 3,6-diisobutyl-2(1H-pyrazinone (5 and 3,6-di-sec-butyl-2(1H-pyrazinone (6, and the diketopiperazine alkaloids cyclo(6-OH-d-Pro-l-Phe (7, bacillusamide B (8, cyclo(l-Pro-l-Leu and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Ile (10 were isolated from this strain. The structures of the compounds were determined by study of their one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra as well as high-resolution mass spectral determinations. Compound 4 was reported previously as a synthetic product, while compound 6 was reported as 2-hydroxy-3,6-di-sec-butylpyrazine. Herein, we report the complete NMR data for compounds 4 and 6. The compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three cell lines. Compound 5 showed potent and selective activity against HCT-116 cell line with IC50 of 1.5 μg/mL, while 1–10 showed variable cytotoxic activities against these cancer cell lines. These results provide further understanding about the chemistry and bioactivities of the alkylated 2(1H-pyrazinone derivatives.

  9. Partial Purification and Characterization of a Heat Stable α-Amylase from a Thermophilic Actinobacteria, Streptomyces sp. MSC702.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Renu; Kumar, Vijay; Kapoor, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    A partial purification and biochemical characterization of the α-amylase from Streptomyces sp. MSC702 were carried out in this study. The optimum operational conditions for enzyme substrate reaction for amylolytic enzyme activity from the strain were evaluated. The optimum pH, temperature, and incubation period for assaying the enzyme were observed to be 5.0, 55°C, and 30 min, respectively. The extracellular extract was concentrated using ammonium sulfate precipitation. It was stable in the presence of metal ions (5 mM) such as K(+), Co(2+), and Mo(2+), whereas Pb(2+), Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Hg(2+), Sn(2+), Cr(3+), Al(3+), Ag(+), and Fe(2+) were found to have inhibitory effects. The enzyme activity was also unstable in the presence of 1% Triton X-100, 1% Tween 80, 5 mM sodium lauryl sulphate, 1% glycerol, 5 mM EDTA, and 5 mM denaturant urea. At temperature 60°C and pH 5.0, the enzyme stability was maximum. α-amylase retained 100% and 34.18% stability for 1 h and 4 h, respectively, at 60°C (pH 7.0). The enzyme exhibited a half-life of 195 min at 60°C temperature. The analysis of kinetic showed that the enzyme has K m of 2.4 mg/mL and V max of 21853.0 μmol/min/mg for soluble potato starch. The results indicate that the enzyme reflects their potentiality towards industrial utilization.

  10. Production and characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Streptomyces sp. DPUA 1559 isolated from lichens of the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A P P; Silva, M D S; Costa, E V L; Rufino, R D; Santos, V A; Ramos, C S; Sarubbo, L A; Porto, A L F

    2017-12-11

    Surfactants are amphipathic compounds containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, capable to lower the surface or interfacial tension. Considering the advantages of the use of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms, the aim of this paper was to develop and characterize a biosurfactant produced by Streptomyces sp. DPUA1559 isolated from lichens of the Amazon region. The microorganism was cultured in a mineral medium containing 1% residual frying soybean oil as the carbon source. The kinetics of biosurfactant production was accompanied by reducing the surface tension of the culture medium from 60 to values around 27.14 mN/m, and by the emulsification index, which showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant as an emulsifier of hydrophobic compounds. The yield of the isolated biosurfactant was 1.74 g/L, in addition to the excellent capability of reducing the surface tension (25.34 mN/m), as observed from the central composite rotational design when the biosurfactant was produced at pH 8.5 at 28°C. The critical micelle concentration of the biosurfactant was determined as 0.01 g/mL. The biosurfactant showed thermal and pH stability regarding the surface tension reduction, and tolerance under high salt concentrations. The isolated biosurfactant showed no toxicity to the micro-crustacean Artemia salina, and to the seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.). The biochemistry characterization of the biosurfactant showed a single protein band, an acid character and a molecular weight around 14.3 kDa, suggesting its glycoproteic nature. The results are promising for the industrial application of this new biosurfactant.

  11. New α-Pyridones with Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activity from Diversity-Enhanced Extracts of a Streptomyces sp. Derived from Marine Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuqi; Sun, Jian; Gong, Qianhong; Wang, Yi; Fu, Peng; Zhu, Weiming

    2018-02-28

    Four new α-pyrones (1-4) and eight known analogues (5-12) were identified from the secondary metabolites of Streptomyces sp. OUCMDZ-3436 derived from the marine green algae Enteromorpha prolifera. Seven new α-pyridones (14-20) were constructed by diversity-oriented synthesis, which has been an effective approach to expanding the chemical space of natural-product-like compounds. Compounds 16, 17, 19, and 20 were found to have inhibitory effect on the gene expression controlled by quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa QSIS-lasI.

  12. Efficient Preparation of Streptochlorin from Marine Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4 by Combination of Response Surface Methodology and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; He, Shan; Ding, Lijian; Yuan, Ye; Zhu, Peng; Epstein, Slava; Fan, Jianzhong; Wu, Xiaokai; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-05-27

    Since first isolated from the lipophilic extract of Streptomyces sp. SF2583, streptochlorin, has attracted a lot of attention because of its various pharmacological properties, such as antibiotic, antiallergic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. For the efficient preparation of streptochlorin from a producing strain Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4, we developed a combinative method by using response surface methodology (RSM) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). In the fermentation process, we used RSM to optimize the condition for the efficient accumulation of streptochlorin, and the optimal parameters were: yeast extract 1.889 g/L, soluble starch 8.636 g/L, K₂HPO₄ 0.359 g/L, CaCl₂ 2.5 g/L, MgSO₄ 0.625 g/L, marine salt 25 g/L, medium volume 50%, initial pH value 7.0, temperature 27.5 °C, which enhanced streptochlorin yield by 17.7-fold. During the purification process, the preparative HSCCC separation was performed using a petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (9:0.8:5:5, v/v/v/v) biphasic solvent system, where 300 mg of crude sample yielded 16.5 mg streptochlorin with over 95% purity as determined by UPLC. Consequently, the combination method provided a feasible strategy for highly effective preparation of streptochlorin, which ensured the supply of large amounts of streptochlorin for in vivo pharmacological assessments or other requirements.

  13. Phenolic polyketides from the co-cultivation of marine-derived Penicillium sp. WC-29-5 and Streptomyces fradiae 007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Liping; Zhuang, Yibin; Kong, Fandong; Zhang, Cuixian; Zhu, Weiming

    2014-04-04

    Penicillium sp. WC-29-5 was co-cultured with Streptomyces fradiae 007 to produce five natural products (1-3, 4a and 4b) that were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic analysis. Interestingly, these compounds were found to be different from those produced in discrete fungal and bacterial controls. Among these compounds, the absolute configurations of compounds 4a and 4b were determined for the first time by X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. An evaluation of the cytotoxic activities of these compounds revealed that 4b was moderately cytotoxic towards HL-60 and H1975 tumor cells with IC₅₀ values of 3.73 and 5.73 µM, respectively, whereas compound 4a was only moderately cytotoxic towards H1975 cells with an IC₅₀ value of 3.97 µM.

  14. Phenolic Polyketides from the Co-Cultivation of Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. WC-29-5 and Streptomyces fradiae 007

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    Yi Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium sp. WC-29-5 was co-cultured with Streptomyces fradiae 007 to produce five natural products (1–3, 4a and 4b that were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic analysis. Interestingly, these compounds were found to be different from those produced in discrete fungal and bacterial controls. Among these compounds, the absolute configurations of compounds 4a and 4b were determined for the first time by X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments and electronic circular dichroism (ECD calculations. An evaluation of the cytotoxic activities of these compounds revealed that 4b was moderately cytotoxic towards HL-60 and H1975 tumor cells with IC50 values of 3.73 and 5.73 µM, respectively, whereas compound 4a was only moderately cytotoxic towards H1975 cells with an IC50 value of 3.97 µM.

  15. Biosynthesis of Akaeolide and Lorneic Acids and Annotation of Type I Polyketide Synthase Gene Clusters in the Genome of Streptomyces sp. NPS554

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    Tao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation pattern of biosynthetic precursors into two structurally unique polyketides, akaeolide and lorneic acid A, was elucidated by feeding experiments with 13C-labeled precursors. In addition, the draft genome sequence of the producer, Streptomyces sp. NPS554, was performed and the biosynthetic gene clusters for these polyketides were identified. The putative gene clusters contain all the polyketide synthase (PKS domains necessary for assembly of the carbon skeletons. Combined with the 13C-labeling results, gene function prediction enabled us to propose biosynthetic pathways involving unusual carbon-carbon bond formation reactions. Genome analysis also indicated the presence of at least ten orphan type I PKS gene clusters that might be responsible for the production of new polyketides.

  16. Characterization of the Deep-Sea Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999 Derived VapC/VapB Toxin-Antitoxin System in Escherichia coli

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    Yunxue Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are small genetic elements that are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Most studies on TA systems have focused on commensal and pathogenic bacteria; yet very few studies have focused on TAs in marine bacteria, especially those isolated from a deep sea environment. Here, we characterized a type II VapC/VapB TA system from the deep-sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999. The VapC (virulence-associated protein protein belongs to the PIN (PilT N-terminal superfamily. Overproduction of VapC strongly inhibited cell growth and resulted in a bleb-containing morphology in E. coli. The toxicity of VapC was neutralized through direct protein–protein interaction by a small protein antitoxin VapB encoded by a neighboring gene. Antitoxin VapB alone or the VapB/VapC complex negatively regulated the vapBC promoter activity. We further revealed that three conserved Asp residues in the PIN domain were essential for the toxic effect of VapC. Additionally, the VapC/VapB TA system stabilized plasmid in E. coli. Furthermore, VapC cross-activated transcription of several TA operons via a partially Lon-dependent mechanism in E. coli, and the activated toxins accumulated more preferentially than their antitoxin partners. Collectively, we identified and characterized a new deep sea TA system in the deep sea Streptomyces sp. and demonstrated that the VapC toxin in this system can cross-activate TA operons in E. coli.

  17. Characterization of the Deep-Sea Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999 Derived VapC/VapB Toxin-Antitoxin System in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yunxue; Yao, Jianyun; Sun, Chenglong; Wen, Zhongling; Wang, Xiaoxue

    2016-07-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements that are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Most studies on TA systems have focused on commensal and pathogenic bacteria; yet very few studies have focused on TAs in marine bacteria, especially those isolated from a deep sea environment. Here, we characterized a type II VapC/VapB TA system from the deep-sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999. The VapC (virulence-associated protein) protein belongs to the PIN (PilT N-terminal) superfamily. Overproduction of VapC strongly inhibited cell growth and resulted in a bleb-containing morphology in E. coli. The toxicity of VapC was neutralized through direct protein-protein interaction by a small protein antitoxin VapB encoded by a neighboring gene. Antitoxin VapB alone or the VapB/VapC complex negatively regulated the vapBC promoter activity. We further revealed that three conserved Asp residues in the PIN domain were essential for the toxic effect of VapC. Additionally, the VapC/VapB TA system stabilized plasmid in E. coli. Furthermore, VapC cross-activated transcription of several TA operons via a partially Lon-dependent mechanism in E. coli, and the activated toxins accumulated more preferentially than their antitoxin partners. Collectively, we identified and characterized a new deep sea TA system in the deep sea Streptomyces sp. and demonstrated that the VapC toxin in this system can cross-activate TA operons in E. coli.

  18. Efficient Preparation of Streptochlorin from Marine Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4 by Combination of Response Surface Methodology and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since first isolated from the lipophilic extract of Streptomyces sp. SF2583, streptochlorin, has attracted a lot of attention because of its various pharmacological properties, such as antibiotic, antiallergic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. For the efficient preparation of streptochlorin from a producing strain Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4, we developed a combinative method by using response surface methodology (RSM and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. In the fermentation process, we used RSM to optimize the condition for the efficient accumulation of streptochlorin, and the optimal parameters were: yeast extract 1.889 g/L, soluble starch 8.636 g/L, K2HPO4 0.359 g/L, CaCl2 2.5 g/L, MgSO4 0.625 g/L, marine salt 25 g/L, medium volume 50%, initial pH value 7.0, temperature 27.5 °C, which enhanced streptochlorin yield by 17.7-fold. During the purification process, the preparative HSCCC separation was performed using a petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (9:0.8:5:5, v/v/v/v biphasic solvent system, where 300 mg of crude sample yielded 16.5 mg streptochlorin with over 95% purity as determined by UPLC. Consequently, the combination method provided a feasible strategy for highly effective preparation of streptochlorin, which ensured the supply of large amounts of streptochlorin for in vivo pharmacological assessments or other requirements.

  19. Cephamycins, a New Family of β-Lactam Antibiotics I. Production by Actinomycetes, Including Streptomyces lactamdurans sp. n1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapley, E. O.; Jackson, M.; Hernandez, S.; Zimmerman, S. B.; Currie, S. A.; Mochales, S.; Mata, J. M.; Woodruff, H. B.; Hendlin, D.

    1972-01-01

    A number of actinomycetes isolated from soil were found to produce one or more members of a new family of antibiotics, the cephamycins, which are structurally related to cephalosporin C. The cephamycins were produced in submerged fermentation in a wide variety of media by one or more of eight different species of Streptomyces, including a newly described species, S. lactamdurans. These antibiotics exhibit antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria which includes many that are resistant to the cephalosporins and penicillins. PMID:4790552

  20. Theoretical calculation of pKa reveals an important role of Arg205 in the activity and stability of Streptomyces sp. N174 chitosanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukamizo, T; Juffer, A H; Vogel, H J; Honda, Y; Tremblay, H; Boucher, I; Neugebauer, W A; Brzezinski, R

    2000-08-18

    Based on the crystal structure of chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. N174, we have calculated theoretical pK(a) values of the ionizable groups of this protein using a combination of the boundary element method and continuum electrostatics. The pK(a) value obtained for Arg(205), which is located in the catalytic cleft, was abnormally high (>20.0), indicating that the guanidyl group may interact strongly with nearby charges. Chitosanases possessing mutations in this position (R205A, R205H, and R205Y), produced by Streptomyces lividans expression system, were found to have less than 0.3% of the activity of the wild type enzyme and to possess thermal stabilities 4-5 kcal/mol lower than that of the wild type protein. In the crystal structure, the Arg(205) side chain is in close proximity to the Asp(145) side chain (theoretical pK(a), -1.6), which is in turn close to the Arg(190) side chain (theoretical pK(a), 17.7). These theoretical pK(a) values are abnormal, suggesting that both of these residues may participate in the Arg(205) interaction network. Activity and stability experiments using Asp(145)- and Arg(190)-mutated chitosanases (D145A and R190A) provide experimental data supporting the hypothesis derived from the theoretical pK(a) data and prompt the conclusion that Arg(205) forms a strong interaction network with Asp(145) and Arg(190) that stabilizes the catalytic cleft.

  1. Production of Two Novel Methoxy-Isoflavones from Biotransformation of 8-Hydroxydaidzein by Recombinant Escherichia coli Expressing O-Methyltransferase SpOMT2884 from Streptomyces peucetius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Min; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Ting; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Biotransformation of 8-hydroxydaidzein by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing O-methyltransferase (OMT) SpOMT2884 from Streptomyces peucetius was investigated. Two metabolites were isolated and identified as 7,4′-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-isoflavone (1) and 8,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-isoflavone (2), based on mass, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C-NMR spectrophotometric analysis. The maximum production yields of compound (1) and (2) in a 5-L fermenter were 9.3 mg/L and 6.0 mg/L, respectively. The two methoxy-isoflavones showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis in cultured B16 melanoma cells under non-toxic conditions. Among the effects, compound (1) decreased melanogenesis to 63.5% of the control at 25 μM. This is the first report on the 8-O-methylation activity of OMT toward isoflavones. In addition, the present study also first identified compound (1) with potent melanogenesis inhibitory activity. PMID:26610478

  2. Hygrocin C from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSGAA 0027 inhibits biofilm formation in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SCSGAB0082 isolated from South China Sea gorgonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Nong, Xu-Hua; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Several ansamycins have been reported to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation and accelerate the eradication of developed biofilms, but little is known about the effect of hygrocin C, an ansamycin, on bacterial biofilm formation. Here, hygrocin C was isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSGAA 0027 and reported for the first time to be capable of inhibiting the biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SCSGAB0082 with the production of anti-microbial lipopeptides from South China Sea gorgonian Subergorgia suberosa at concentrations of less than minimum inhibitory concentrations. Moreover, hygrocin C also promoted the eradication of developed biofilms, affected the biofilm architecture, and lowered the extracellular polymeric matrix formation, cell motility, and surface hydrophobicity in B. amyloliquefaciens, which was in accordance with the inhibition of biofilm formation. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that hygrocin C altered the transcripts of several genes associated with bacterial chemotaxis and flagellar, two-component system and the synthesis of arginine and histidine, which are important for bacterial biofilm formation. In conclusion, hygrocin C could be used as a potential biofilm inhibitor against S. aureus and B. amyloliquefaciens. But further genetic investigations are needed to provide more details for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the effects of hygrocin C on B. amyloliquefaciens biofilm formation.

  3. Novel 1,5,7-trihydroxy-3-hydroxy methyl anthraquinone isolated from terrestrial Streptomyces sp. (eri-26) with antimicrobial and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandiyan, V; Al-Dhabi, N A; Balachandran, C; Raj, M Karunai; Arasu, M Valan; Ignacimuthu, S

    2014-11-01

    Streptomyces sp. isolate ERI-26 was obtained from the Nilgiris forest soil of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. Novel anthraquinone compound was isolated from the active fraction 5; it was identified by spectroscopical data using UV, IR, NMR and MASS. The isolated compound 1,5,7-trihydroxy-3-hydroxy methyl anthraquinone was tested against bacteria and fungi at minimum inhibitory concentration level. The compound showed significant antimicrobial activity against bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus at 125 μg/ml, Staphylococcus epidermidis at 62.5 μg/m, Bacillus subtilis at 31.25 μg/ml, fungi; Epidermophyton floccosum at 62.5 μg/ml, Aspergillus niger at 31.25 μg/ml, Aspergiller flavus at 31.25 μg/ml, Trichophyton rubrum at 62.5 μg/ml and Botrytis cinerea at 62.5 μg/ml. The isolated compound was subjected to molecular docking studies for the inhibition of TtgR, topoisomerase IV and AmpC β-lactamase enzymes which are targets for antimicrobials. Docking studies of the compound showed low docking energy indicating its usefulness as antimicrobial agent. 1,5,7-Trihydroxy-3-hydroxy methyl anthraquinone is new, and its antimicrobial and molecular docking properties are reported for the first time.

  4. Production of a Novel Fucoidanase for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Streptomyces sp. and Its Cytotoxic Effect on HeLa Cells

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    Panchanathan Manivasagan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine actinobacteria-produced fucoidanases have received considerable attention as one of the major research topics in recent years, particularly for the medical exploitation of fucoidans and their degradation products. The present study describes the optimization and production of a novel fucoidanase for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its biological applications. The production of fucoidanase was optimized using Streptomyces sp. The medium components were selected in accordance with the Plackett-Burman design and were further optimized via response surface methodology. The fucoidanase was statistically optimized with the most significant factors, namely wheat bran 3.3441 g/L, kelp powder 0.7041 g/L, and NaCl 0.8807 g/L, respectively. The biosynthesized gold nanoparticles were determined by UV-vis spectroscopy and were further characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HeLa cells and the inhibitory concentration (IC50 was found to be 350 µg/mL at 24 h and 250 µg/mL at 48 h. Therefore, the production of novel fucoidanase for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles has comparatively rapid, less expensive and wide application to anticancer therapy in modern medicine.

  5. Production of a Novel Fucoidanase for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Streptomyces sp. and Its Cytotoxic Effect on HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Oh, Junghwan

    2015-11-12

    Marine actinobacteria-produced fucoidanases have received considerable attention as one of the major research topics in recent years, particularly for the medical exploitation of fucoidans and their degradation products. The present study describes the optimization and production of a novel fucoidanase for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its biological applications. The production of fucoidanase was optimized using Streptomyces sp. The medium components were selected in accordance with the Plackett-Burman design and were further optimized via response surface methodology. The fucoidanase was statistically optimized with the most significant factors, namely wheat bran 3.3441 g/L, kelp powder 0.7041 g/L, and NaCl 0.8807 g/L, respectively. The biosynthesized gold nanoparticles were determined by UV-vis spectroscopy and were further characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HeLa cells and the inhibitory concentration (IC50) was found to be 350 µg/mL at 24 h and 250 µg/mL at 48 h. Therefore, the production of novel fucoidanase for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles has comparatively rapid, less expensive and wide application to anticancer therapy in modern medicine.

  6. A biotransformation process for the production of cucurbitacin B from its glycoside using a selected Streptomyces sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jianfeng; Li, Sha; Jin, Hang; Tang, Lan; Yi, Yu; Wang, Hong; Ying, Guoqing

    2016-09-01

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB) and its glycoside, cucurbitacin B 2-o-β-D-glucoside (CuBg), abundantly occur in the pedicels of Cucumis melo. Compared with CuB, CuBg is not efficiently extracted from the pedicels. Furthermore, the anticancer activity of CuBg is lower than that of the aglycone. A process for CuBg biotransformation to CuB was developed for the first time. A strain of Streptomyces species that converts CuBg into CuB was isolated from an enrichment culture of C. melo pedicels. After optimization of conditions for enzyme production and biotransformation, a maximum conversion rate of 92.6 % was obtained at a CuBg concentration of 0.25 g/L. When biotransformation was performed on C. melo pedicel extracts, the CuB concentration in the extracts increased from 1.50 to 3.27 g/L. The conversion rate was almost 100 %. The developed process may be an effective biotransformation method for industrial production CuB from C. melo pedicels for pharmaceuticals.

  7. Phenotypic Diversity of Causal agent Strains of Potato Common Scab (Streptomyces sp. in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province

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    A. A. Fadaei Tehrani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Common scab is one of the most important diseases in the potato fields caused by several species of bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. Symptoms and severity of common scab of potato caused by different factors, is different. The control also will be different. Materials and Methods: About 500 samples of potato tubers with common scab symptoms were collected from different regions in Charmahal VA Bakhtiari province during 2009 and 2010. Isolation of causal agent was performed by standard methods, then the isolates were studied, using biochemical, physiological and nutritional standard test. Thus, the color of the colony and spore mass color YMEA medium after 10 to 14 days were examined. The Gram staining reaction was conducted by Suslow et al. (34. Aerobic and anaerobic growth test (O / F in the presence of glucose was done by Hugh and Leifson (14. The isolates ability to use sugars (L-arabinose, D-fructose, D-glucose, D-mannitol, raffinose, sucrose, cellulose, D-xylose, rhamnose and mesoinositol and amino acids were investigated by Faucher et al method (6. Toxic substances inhibiting bacterial growth were evaluated in culture medium malt and yeast extract containing potassium tellurite (10 and 100 micrograms per ml, thallium acetate (10 and 100 micrograms per ml, crystal violet (0.5 g ml and phenol (0.1% by Lambert and Loria method (23. Using lysosomes, total protein of 14 isolates representing of different phenotypes groups and two reference strains of S. acidiscabies and S. scabies, were extracted by Paradis et al. (29, and their diversity was investigated by acrylamide gel electrophoresis contain dodecyl sulfate (SDS according to Laemmeli (22 The pathogenicity of isolates was evaluated by inoculation of radish and potato tubers Schaad et al. (30 method. Isolates were amplified by spore inoculation in the flask containing 100 grams of vermiculite saturated with nutrient solutions (20 g of sucrose, 2.1 grams of L-asparagine, 0

  8. Longitudinal assessment of dairy farm management practices associated with the presence of psychrotolerant Bacillales spores in bulk tank milk on 10 New York State dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, S N; Kent, D; Martin, N H; Schukken, Y H; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2017-11-01

    The ability of certain spore-forming bacteria in the order Bacillales (e.g., Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp.) to survive pasteurization in spore form and grow at refrigeration temperatures results in product spoilage and limits the shelf life of high temperature, short time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk. To facilitate development of strategies to minimize contamination of raw milk with psychrotolerant Bacillales spores, we conducted a longitudinal study of 10 New York State dairy farms, which included yearlong monthly assessments of the frequency and levels of bulk tank raw milk psychrotolerant spore contamination, along with administration of questionnaires to identify farm management practices associated with psychrotolerant spore presence over time. Milk samples were first spore pasteurized (80°C for 12 min) and then analyzed for sporeformer counts on the initial day of spore pasteurization (SP), and after refrigerated storage (6°C) for 7, 14, and 21 d after SP. Overall, 41% of samples showed sporeformer counts of >20,000 cfu/mL at d 21, with Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. being predominant causes of high sporeformer counts. Statistical analyses identified 3 management factors (more frequent cleaning of the bulk tank area, the use of a skid steer to scrape the housing area, and segregating problem cows during milking) that were all associated with lower probabilities of d-21 Bacillales spore detection in SP-treated bulk tank raw milk. Our data emphasize that appropriate on-farm measures to improve overall cleanliness and cow hygiene will reduce the probability of psychrotolerant Bacillales spore contamination of bulk tank raw milk, allowing for consistent production of raw milk with reduced psychrotolerant spore counts, which will facilitate production of HTST-pasteurized milk with extended refrigerated shelf life. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Candida albicans isoladas da cavidade bucal de crianças com síndrome de Down: ocorrência e inibição do crescimento por Streptomyces sp Candida albicans isolated from buccal cavity of children with Down's syndrome: occurrence and growth inhibition by Streptomyces sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Gonçalves Vieira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparação entre a presença de leveduras de Candida na cavidade bucal de crianças sem e com síndrome de Down mostrou-se estatisticamente significante no caso de crianças afetadas por esta cromossomopatia, tornando-as mais predispostas à candidíase bucal, provavelmente favorecida pelas alterações anátomo-fisiológicas da boca em decorrência da trissomia do cromossomo 21. Recidivas constantes de candidíase bucal em crianças portadoras desta alteração cromossômica levou a busca de prováveis alternativas terapêuticas. Visando determinar a atividade antifúngica de Streptomyces sp isolados de diferentes solos brasileiros, 5 cepas foram testadas frente a Candida albicans, oriundas da cavidade bucal de crianças com síndrome de Down. Observou-se que os isolados apresentaram uma diversidade de tamanho dos halos (9-31mm de diâmetro de inibição de crescimento das leveduras, sugerindo uma possível utilização em terapêutica antifúngica.Comparison of the presence of Candida yeasts in the buccal cavity of children without and with Down's syndrome showed a statistically significant difference in the case of children that were affected by this chromosomopathy, rendering them more predisposed to buccal candidiasis, probably due to anatomicophysiologic alterations of the mouth resulting from trisomy of chromosome 21. Constant recurrence of buccal candidiasis in children with this chromosomal alteration lead to the search for a possible therapeutic alternative. Seeking to determine the antifungal activity of Streptomyces sp isolated from various Brazilian soils, 5 strains have been tested for Candida albicans isolated from the buccal cavity of children with Down's syndrome. It was observed that the isolate presented a diversity in the size of the halos (9-31mm in diameter of growth inhibition of the yeasts, suggesting a possible use as a therapeutic antifungal.

  10. A flavonoid isolated from Streptomyces sp. (ERINLG-4) induces apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells through p53 and cytochrome c release caspase dependant pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, C; Sangeetha, B; Duraipandiyan, V; Raj, M Karunai; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A; Balakrishna, K; Parthasarathy, K; Arulmozhi, N M; Arasu, M Valan

    2014-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of a flavonoid type of compound isolated from soil derived filamentous bacterium Streptomyces sp. (ERINLG-4) and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Cytotoxic properties of ethyl acetate extract was carried out against A549 lung cancer cell line using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cytotoxic properties of isolated compound were investigated in A549 lung cancer cell line, COLO320DM cancer cell line and Vero cells. The compound showed potent cytotoxic properties against A549 lung cancer cell line and moderate cytotoxic properties against COLO320DM cancer cell line. Isolated compound showed no toxicity up to 2000 μg/mL in Vero cells. So we have chosen the A549 lung cancer cell line for further anticancer studies. Intracellular visualization was done by using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Apoptosis was measured using DNA fragmentation technique. Treatment of the A549 cancer cells with isolated compound significantly reduced cell proliferation, increased formation of fragmented DNA and apoptotic body. Activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 indicated that compound may be inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Bcl-2, p53, pro-caspases, caspase-3, caspase-9 and cytochrome c release were detected by western blotting analysis after compound treatment (123 and 164 μM). The activities of pro-caspases-3, caspase-9 cleaved to caspase-3 and caspase-9 gradually increased after the addition of isolated compound. But Bcl-2 protein was down regulated after treatment with isolated compound. Molecular docking studies showed that the compound bound stably to the active sites of caspase-3 and caspase-9. These results strongly suggest that the isolated compound induces apoptosis in A549 cancer cells via caspase activation through cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The present results might provide helpful suggestions for the design of

  11. Characterization of Silver Nanomaterials Derived from Marine Streptomyces sp. Al-Dhabi-87 and Its In Vitro Application against Multidrug Resistant and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Clinical Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel antagonistic marine Streptomyces sp. Al-Dhabi-87 that was recovered from the Gulf region of Saudi Arabia was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (NP from the culture free extract. The produced NP were confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, high-resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDAX, and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD, and broth micro dilution techniques were employed for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC values. The synthesized NP was authenticated by alterations in color and wavelength scanning. HRSEM and TEM analysis confirmed that the size of the NP ranged from 10 to 17 nm and that it was spherical in shape. In addition, the FTIR spectrum revealed a variation in the band values from 500 to 3300 cm−1 respectively. Rietveld refinement analysis of the XRD data confirmed the size of the NP, which coincided with the results of the TEM analysis. In addition, the Riveted refinement analysis supported the TEM data. The NP documented significant activity against the wound infection microbial strains, such as Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Gram negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Escherichia coli revealed MIC values of 0.039, 0.078, and 0.152 mg/mL, respectively. The promising activity of NP towards extended-spectrum beta-lactamases E.coli, drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and multidrug resistant S. aureus (at 0.018, 0.039, and 0.039 mg/mL, respectively was advantageous. Overall, NP that were obtained from the novel Streptomyces sp. Al-Dhabi-87, with its promising antimicrobial activity towards the drug resistant pathogens, would be useful for healing infectious diseases.

  12. Assessinent of streptomycesgriseo viridis (mycostop as a biocontrol agent for fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthiin two cultivars of standard carnation under commercial conditions Evaluación de Streptomyces griseoviridis (MYCOSTOP en el control de Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, en dos variedades de clavel estándar bajo condiciones comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega Luis Miguel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in a commercial farm, located in Madrid, Cundinamarca. The purpose of the study was to established the rate and irequency of application of Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop in the control of vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Two experiments were conducted to compare three rates of application (0,025;0,05 and 0,01 g/m2 and
    three intervals of application (1,2 and 4 weeks of
    Mycostop, in two standard carnation varieties. Disease
    progress data were analized by comparing their godness of fit to Gompertz and Monomolecular epidemiological models. By using the simpler linear regression model, the rate of inlection (k and the coefficient of determination (Al were calculated.
    Inlection rates were subjected to analysis of variance.
    The results showed no satislactory control of the disease. Rates and frecuencies of applícation of Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop did not show appreciable differences. Epidemiologically, "k" values were highly homogeneous among the different Mycostop treatments. Streptomyces
    griseoviridisis highly dependent upon culture media
    pH, and it grows only at a pH 016,4 or higher, with an optimal growth at a pH 7,0. No relation was detected between growth of the biocontrol organism and levels of electrical conductivity.La investigación se realizó en un cultivo comercial de clavel localizado en el municipio de Madrid (Cundinamarca, con el objetivo de determinar la dosis y la frecuencia de aplicación de Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop en el control del
    marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporom lsp. dianthi. En el campo, se realizaron dos experimentos simultáneos, para probar diferentes dosis (0,025; 0,05 y 0,1 g/m2 y frecuencias (1, 2 y 4 semanas de aplicación de
    Streptomyces griseoviridis Mycostop en dos variedades de clavel estándar. El análisis estadístico consistió en utilizar algunos

  13. [Isolation, identification and characterization of acid-producing strains from psychrotolerant biogas fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongqing; Zhang, Wei; Mandlaa; Tian, Ruihua; Wang, Ruigang; Duan, Kaihong

    2015-11-04

    The aim of this study was to screen acid-producing strains from the broth of psychrotolerant biogas fermentation and evaluate the acid-producing character of them. Acid-producing strains were isolated by a medium with methyl red at 4 degrees C in Petri dishes and identified by morphology observation and 16S rRNA sequencing. Moreover, the ability of hydrolysis of starch, fermentation of carbohydrates, liquefaction of gelatin and production of catalase were studied. Two acid-producing strains (FJ-8 and FJ-15) were isolated. The result of the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree shows that FJ-8 and FJ-15 belong to Pseudomonas sp. and Shewanella sp., respectively. Both FJ-8 and FJ-15 could hydrolyze starch, liquidize gelatin and produce catalase. The optimum temperature for acid-producing of FJ-8 and FJ-15 is 15 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively. After 10 days cultivation at 4 degrees C, the concentration of acetic acid was 792 mg/L and 966 mg/L of FJ-8 and FJ-15, respectively. The selected strains, FJ-8 and FJ-15, have the potential to produce acids at low temperature.

  14. Comparative genomics of Streptomyces avermitilis, Streptomyces cattleya, Streptomyces maritimus and Kitasatospora aureofaciens using a Streptomyces coelicolor microarray system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Nai-hua; Kirby, Ralph

    DNA/DNA microarray hybridization was used to compare the genome content of Streptomyces avermitilis, Streptomyces cattleya, Streptomyces maritimus and Kitasatospora aureofaciens with that of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The array data showed an about 93% agreement with the genome sequence data

  15. Isolation and characterization of cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl and chloramphenicol from Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 with antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshaibani MM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhanna M Alshaibani,1 Juriyati Jalil,2 Nik M Sidik,3 Ruangelie Edrada-Ebel,4 Noraziah M Zin1 1Programme of Biomedical Science, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2Drug and Herbal Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 3School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia; 4Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25 has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity. Aim: This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476. Materials and methods: The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton’s media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic

  16. [Culturable psychrotolerant methanotrophic bacteria in landfill cover soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallistova, A Iu; Montonen, L; Jurgens, G; Munster, U; Kevbrina, M V; Nozhevnikova, A N

    2014-01-01

    Methanotrophs closely related to psychrotolerant members of the genera Methylobacter and Methylocella were identified in cultures enriched at 10@C from landfill cover soil samples collected in the period from April to November. Mesophilic methanotrophs of the genera Methylobacter and Methylosinus were found in cultures enriched at 20 degrees C from the same cover soil samples. A thermotolerant methanotroph related to Methylocaldum gracile was identified in the culture enriched at 40 degrees C from a sample collected in May (the temperature of the cover soil was 11.5-12.5 degrees C). In addition to methanotrophs, methylobacteria of the genera Methylotenera and Methylovorus and members of the genera Verrucomicrobium, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Candidatus Protochlamydia, and Thiorhodospira were also identified in the enrichment cultures. A methanotroph closely related to the psychrotolerant species Methylobacter tundripaludum (98% sequence identity of 16S r-RNA genes with the type strain SV96(T)) was isolated in pure culture. The introduction of a mixture of the methanotrophic enrichments, grown at 15 degrees C, into the landfill cover soil resulted in a decrease in methane emission from the landfill surface in autumn (October, November). The inoculum used was demonstrated to contain methanotrophs closely related to Methylobacter tundripaludum SV96.

  17. Antagonistic Activities of Streptomyces against Root Knot Nematode of Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bashiri

    2016-02-01

    into counting Petri plate and examined under a stereomicroscope. Nematode larvae were identified to generic level and were counted. Evaluation of Actinomycetes isolates against root-knot nematodes in vitro performed according to Sun et al. Seedlings (Six-month-old of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa were sown in 30 cm3 pots containing autoclaved sandy loam soil (1:1. Pots were divided into three groups by three replicates. Bioagents were individually incorporated into the soil at a dose rate of 10 cm3 (Heavy cell suspension of all isolates was prepared at rate 105 spores ml-1 were added to the soil. After seven days, (when bacterial cells reach its maximum growth peak plants were inoculated with 2000 freshly hatched second stage juveniles(J2 of Meloidogyne spp. Pots were fertilized with recommended dose and kept at 25ºC ± 3ºC in complete randomized design. After two months plants were uprooted then galls and egg masses were counted and their indices were recorded according to Sharma et al. Fresh weight of roots was also registered. Treatments means were compared by the Duncan Multiple Range Test at 0.05 level of probability. The growth responses of kiwifruit (roots weight and number of galls and egg mass were also recorded. Statistical analyses were achieved using SAS. Results and Discussion: Among 25 isolates identified as Streptomyces genus, 9 Actinomycetes isolates showed the antagonistic potential in vitro and reduced the rate of egg hatching in seven days and larval mortality in four days. Streptomyces sp3. Streptomyces sp4., Streptomyces sp5., Streptomyces sp9. And Streptomyces sp12. were able to reduce egg hatching 16.29%, 19.99%, 27.11%, 20.22% and 18.41% and increased the percentage of larval mortality 45%, 33.3%, 37.53%,35.01% and 37.50%, respectively. They showed the greatest effect and selected for evaluating in greenhouse condition. In addition, Streptomyces sp9.and Streptomyces sp4. reduced galls by 65.35% and 64.56% compared with the phenamiphus 57

  18. Streptomyces plicatus as a model biocontrol agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Allah, E F

    2001-01-01

    Three hundred and seventy two isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces were isolated and screened for chitinase production. Streptomyces plicatus was found to be the best producer. The highest chitinase production were incubated for 3 d at 30 degrees C on buffered culture medium (pH 8.0) containing chitin plus sucrose and calcium nitrate as carbon and nitrogen sources. S. plicatus chitinase had a highly significant inhibitory effect on spore germination, germ tube elongation and radial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Altrernaria alternata and Verticillium albo-atrum, the causal organisms of Fusarium wilt, stem canker and Verticillium wilt diseases of tomato. Application of S. plicatus to the root system of tomato plants before transplantation markedly protected tomato plants against the tested phytopathogenic fungi in vivo.

  19. Pathogenic psychrotolerant sporeformers: an emerging challenge for low-temperature storage of minimally processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, Sarah M; Farkas, Daniel F; Kniel, Kalmia E; Hoover, Dallas G

    2013-05-01

    Sporeforming bacteria are a significant problem in the food industry as they are ubiquitous in nature and capable of resisting inactivation by heat and chemical treatments designed to inactivate them. Beyond spoilage issues, psychrotolerant sporeformers are becoming increasingly recognized as a potential hazard given the ever-expanding demand for refrigerated processed foods with extended shelf-life. In these products, the sporeforming pathogens of concern are Bacillus cereus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Clostridium botulinum type E. This review article examines the foods, conditions, and organisms responsible for the food safety issue caused by the germination and outgrowth of psychrotolerant sporeforming pathogens in minimally processed refrigerated foods.

  20. Evaluation of preservative efficacy in pharmaceutical products: the use of psychrotolerant, low-nutrient preferring microbes in challenge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, C; Otterholt, E

    2012-10-01

    Preservative efficacy in medicines is typically investigated using challenge tests. In such tests, the product is artificially contaminated with a high concentration of standard bacterial and fungal test strains such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The rate and extent of reductions in inoculum viability over a specified period forms the basis for acceptance/rejection of preservative efficacy. None of the strains named for inclusion in the challenge test outlined in the European Pharmacopoeia are associated with the contamination of high-quality water used in pharmaceutical production. Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria are easily the most common microbes in waters intended for pharmaceutical production. In addition, none of the standard test strain panel prefer low-nutrient, dilute conditions or grow at or around refrigeration temperatures. This is important because the water activity and nutrient content of medicines can vary greatly and medicines are often stored cold. We investigate the relevance of these factors when testing preservative efficacy by including other strains in challenge tests. Psychrotolerant, low-nutrient preferring strains (Beta- and Alphaproteobacteria and a yeast) were isolated from pristine waters. These were compared in challenge tests with C. albicans and P. aeruginosa using different storage temperatures. Pharmaceutical products differing widely in water-content, pH and preservative systems were included in the study. Regardless of the type of medicine tested C. albicans always showed superior survival characteristics to the yeast isolate (Cryptococcus terricola). One of the three screened bacterial strains (a Sphingomonas sp.) survived significantly better than P. aeruginosa in all but one product tested. However, the results for all products taken together cannot easily be explained by reference to this strain's psychrotolerancy or its preference for dilute, low-nutrient environments. This study supports previous work

  1. (melanin) production in Streptomyces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    Nine strains among 180 Streptomyces isolates produce a diffusible dark brown pigment on both peptone-yeast extract agar and synthetic tyrosine-agar. They also show the positive reaction to L- tyrosine or L-dopa substrates. The pigment has been referred to be as merely as dark brown water- soluble pigment, as melanoid ...

  2. Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Rudi Emerson de Lima; Silva, Ingrid Reis da; Martins, Mayra Kassawara; Azevedo, João Lúcio de; Araújo, Janete Magali de

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that grows in various environments, and its shape resembles filamentous fungi. The morphological differentiation of Streptomyces involves the formation of a layer of hyphae that can differentiate into a chain of spores. The most interesting property of Streptomyces is the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as antifungals, antivirals, antitumorals, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants, and especially antibiotics. The production of most antibiotics is species specific, and these secondary metabolites are important for Streptomyces species in order to compete with other microorganisms that come in contact, even within the same genre. Despite the success of the discovery of antibiotics, and advances in the techniques of their production, infectious diseases still remain the second leading cause of death worldwide, and bacterial infections cause approximately 17 million deaths annually, affecting mainly children and the elderly. Self-medication and overuse of antibiotics is another important factor that contributes to resistance, reducing the lifetime of the antibiotic, thus causing the constant need for research and development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolutionary Relationships among Actinophages and a Putative Adaptation for Growth in Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Roger W.; Dedrick, Rebekah; Mitchell, Kaitlin; Ko, Ching-Chung; Russell, Daniel; Bell, Emma; Gregory, Matthew; Bibb, Maureen J.; Pethick, Florence; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Herron, Paul; Buttner, Mark J.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2013-01-01

    The genome sequences of eight Streptomyces phages are presented, four of which were isolated for this study. Phages R4, TG1, ϕHau3, and SV1 were isolated previously and have been exploited as tools for understanding and genetically manipulating Streptomyces spp. We also extracted five apparently intact prophages from recent Streptomyces spp. genome projects and, together with six phage genomes in the database, we analyzed all 19 Streptomyces phage genomes with a view to understanding their relationships to each other and to other actinophages, particularly the mycobacteriophages. Fifteen of the Streptomyces phages group into four clusters of related genomes. Although the R4-like phages do not share nucleotide sequence similarity with other phages, they clearly have common ancestry with cluster A mycobacteriophages, sharing many protein homologues, common gene syntenies, and similar repressor-stoperator regulatory systems. The R4-like phage ϕHau3 and the prophage StrepC.1 (from Streptomyces sp. strain C) appear to have hijacked a unique adaptation of the streptomycetes, i.e., use of the rare UUA codon, to control translation of the essential phage protein, the terminase. The Streptomyces venezuelae generalized transducing phage SV1 was used to predict the presence of other generalized transducing phages for different Streptomyces species. PMID:23995638

  4. Amide-transforming activity of Streptomyces: possible application to the formation of hydroxy amides and aminoalcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinya; Miyagawa, Taka-Aki; Yamada, Ren; Shiratori-Takano, Hatsumi; Sayo, Noboru; Saito, Takao; Takano, Hideaki; Beppu, Teruhiko; Ueda, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    To develop an efficient bioconversion process for amides, we screened our collection of Streptomyces strains, mostly obtained from soil, for effective transformers. Five strains, including the SY007 (NBRC 109343) and SY435 (NBRC 109344) of Streptomyces sp., exhibited marked conversion activities from the approximately 700 strains analyzed. These strains transformed diverse amide compounds such as N-acetyltetrahydroquinoline, N-benzoylpyrrolidine, and N-benzoylpiperidine into alcohols or N,O-acetals with high activity and regioselectivity. N,O-acetal was transformed into alcohol by serial tautomerization and reduction reactions. As such, Streptomyces spp. can potentially be used for the efficient preparation of hydroxy amides and aminoalcohols.

  5. Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salla, Tamiris Daros; da Silva, Ramos; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

    2014-12-01

    The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds(total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry.

  6. Morganella psychrotolerans sp. nov., a histamine-producing bacterium isolated from various seafoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Dalgaard, Paw; Ahrens, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Morganella morganii subsp. morganii (strain LMG 7874T) and Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii (strain DSM 14850T), respectively. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed a similarity of 98.6 % between mesophilic and psychrotolerant isolates. However, fragments of seven protein-encoding housekeeping...... genes (atpD, dnaN, gyrB, hdc, infB, rpoB and tuf) all showed less than 90.9 % sequence similarity between the two groups. The psychrotolerant isolates grew at 0-2 {degrees}C and also differed from the mesophilic M. morganii isolates with respect to growth at 37 {degrees}C and in 8.5 % (w/v) Na......Cl and fermentation of D-galactose. The psychrotolerant strains appear to represent a novel species, for which the name Morganella psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is U2/3T (=LMG 23374T=DSM 17886T)....

  7. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Gkogka, Elissavet

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models were developed and evaluated for growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic acid and sorbic acid. A simplified cardinal parameter growth ...

  8. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Rosshaug, Per Sand

    Mathematical models were developed and evaluated for growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic acid and sorbic acid. A simplified cardinal parameter growth mod...

  9. Apparent Contradiction: Psychrotolerant Bacteria from Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Arctic Tundra Soils That Degrade Diterpenoids Synthesized by Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongtang; Stewart, Gordon R.; Mohn, William W.

    2000-01-01

    Resin acids are tricyclic terpenoids occurring naturally in trees. We investigated the occurrence of resin acid-degrading bacteria on the Arctic tundra near the northern coast of Ellesmere Island (82°N, 62°W). According to most-probable-number assays, resin acid degraders were abundant (103 to 104 propagules/g of soil) in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, but they were undetectable (soil) in pristine soils from the nearby tundra. Plate counts indicated that the contaminated and the pristine soils had similar populations of heterotrophs (106 to 107 propagules/g of soil). Eleven resin acid-degrading bacteria belonging to four phylogenetically distinct groups were enriched and isolated from the contaminated soils, and representative isolates of each group were further characterized. Strains DhA-91, IpA-92, and IpA-93 are members of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain DhA-95 is a member of the genus Sphingomonas. All four strains are psychrotolerant, with growth temperature ranges of 4°C to 30°C (DhA-91 and DhA-95) or 4°C to 22°C (IpA-92 and IpA-93) and with optimum temperatures of 15 to 22°C. Strains DhA-91 and DhA-95 grew on the abietanes, dehydroabietic and abietic acids, but not on the pimaranes, isopimaric and pimaric acids. Strains IpA-92 and IpA-93 grew on the pimaranes but not the abietanes. All four strains grew on either aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons, which is unusual for described resin acid degraders. Eleven mesophilic resin acid degraders did not use hydrocarbons, with the exception of two Mycobacterium sp. strains that used aliphatic hydrocarbons. We conclude that hydrocarbon contamination in Arctic tundra soil indirectly selected for resin acid degraders, selecting for hydrocarbon degraders that coincidentally use resin acids. Psychrotolerant resin acid degraders are likely important in the global carbon cycle and may have applications in biotreatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. PMID:11097882

  10. Psychrophilic and Psychrotolerant Microbial Extremophiles in Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.

    2010-01-01

    The microbial extremophiles that inhabit the polar regions of our planet are of tremendous significance. The psychrophilic and psychrotolerant microorganisms, which inhabit all of the cold environments on Earth have important applications to Bioremediation, Medicine, Pharmaceuticals, and many other areas of Biotechnology. Until recently, most of the research on polar microorganisms was confined to studies of polar diatoms, yeast, fungi and cyanobacteria. However, within the past three decades, extensive studies have been conducted to understand the bacteria and archaea that inhabit the Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice, glaciers, ice sheets, permafrost and the cryptoendolithic, cryoconite and ice-bubble environments. These investigations have resulted in the discovery of many new genera and species of anaerobic and aerobic microbial extremophiles. Exotic enzymes, cold-shock proteins and pigments produced by some of the extremophiles from polar environments have the potential to be of great benefit to Mankind. Knowledge about microbial life in the polar regions is crucial to understanding the limitations and biodiversity of life on Earth and may provide valuable clues to the Origin of Life on Earth. The discovery of viable microorganisms in ancient ice from the Fox Tunnel, Alaska and the deep Vostok Ice has shown that microorganisms can remain alive while cryopreserved in ancient ice. The psychrophilic lithoautotrophic homoacetogen isolated from the deep anoxic trough of Lake Untersee is an ideal candidate for life that might inhabit comets or the polar caps of Mars. The spontaneous release of gas from within the Anuchin Glacier above Lake Untersee may provide clues to the ice geysers that erupt from the tiger stripe regions of Saturn s moon Enceladus. The methane productivity in the lower regimes of Lake Untersee may also provide insights into possible mechanisms for the recently discovered methane releases on Mars. Since most of the other water bearing bodies of our

  11. Native and engineered clifednamide biosynthesis in multiple Streptomyces spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Blodgett, Joshua; Ding, Edward; Qi, Yunci

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic tetramate macrolactam (PTM) natural products are produced by actinomycetes and other bacteria. PTMs are often bioactive, and the simplicity of their biosynthetic clusters make them attractive for bioengineering. Clifednamide-type PTMs from Streptomyces sp. JV178 contain a distinctive ketone group, suggesting the existence of a novel PTM oxidizing enzyme. Here, we report the new cytochrome P450 enzyme (CftA) is required for clifednamide production. Genome mining was used to identify...

  12. Plant growth-promoting activities of Streptomyces spp. in sorghum and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Sree Vidya, Meesala; Rathore, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    Five strains of Streptomyces (CAI-24, CAI-121, CAI-127, KAI-32 and KAI-90) were earlier reported by us as biological control agents against Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FOC). In the present study, the Streptomyces were characterized for enzymatic activities, physiological traits and further evaluated in greenhouse and field for their plant growth promotion (PGP) of sorghum and rice. All the Streptomyces produced lipase, β-1-3-glucanase and chitinase (except CAI-121 and CAI-127), grew in NaCl concentrations of up to 6%, at pH values between 5 and 13 and temperatures between 20 and 40°C and were highly sensitive to Thiram, Benlate, Captan, Benomyl and Radonil at field application level. When the Streptomyces were evaluated in the greenhouse on sorghum all the isolates significantly enhanced all the agronomic traits over the control. In the field, on rice, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced stover yield (up to 25%; except CAI-24), grain yield (up to 10%), total dry matter (up to 18%; except CAI-24) and root length, volume and dry weight (up to 15%, 36% and 55%, respectively, except CAI-24) over the control. In the rhizosphere soil, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon (except CAI-24), nitrogen, dehydrogenase (except CAI-24), total N, available P and organic carbon (up to 41%, 52%, 75%, 122%, 53% and 13%, respectively) over the control. This study demonstrates that the selected Streptomyces which were antagonistic to FOC also have PGP properties.

  13. In vitro immunobiological activity of an Antarctic streptomyces polysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshkova, R.; Yossifova, L.; Gardeva, E.; Zvetkova, E.; Ivanova, V.

    2010-01-01

    Antarctic Streptomyces sp. 1010, were obtained from sea water samples (Livingston Island, Antarctica), during the Third Bulgarian Antarctic Scientific Expedition (1994-1995). The ecophysiological methods for isolation and characterization of these active, cold-adapted, Gram-positive microorganisms (psychrophiles) in morphological, phenotypic, genetic and taxonomic aspects, have been earlier reported. In this study, a new extracellular polysaccharide (heteropolysaccharide) has been isolated and purified from cultured broth of the Antarctic Streptomyces sp. 1010. The monosaccharide content of the Antarctic streptomyces heteropolysaccharide has been examined by TLC and GC/MS. The mitogenic and immuno potential properties of the purified Antarctic Streptomyces polysaccharide (ASMP) have been studied in vitro - in the short-term cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs - lymphocytes and monocytes) and mouse spleen lymphocytes (mouse splenocytes - mSps). The results obtained show that ASMP has a double lectin-like effect on the proliferative activity of hPBMCs: similar to this of Con A on the lymphoid cells (preliminary T-lymphocytes) and to the effect of LPS on the mononuclear from monocyte-macrophage lineage. Expressed as proliferative index (PI), the mitogenic response of mSps to the in vitro influence of ASMP was also higher than PI in the negative, as well as in the positive controls (mSps, cultured in the presence of PHA, Con A and LPS). The new Antarctic Streptomyces' heteropolysaccharide examined could be useful in the future as an immunomodulative biologically active substance and its extracellular production may contribute to the development of thermobiochemistry, immunomodulative drug therapy and immunopharmaceutical industry. (authors)

  14. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Rosshaug, Per Sand

    .43. The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new model for cottage cheese to successfully predict growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads at both constant and dynamic temperature storage conditions. The new models can be used together with the Food Spoilage and Safety Predictor (FSSP) software to predict......Mathematical models were developed and evaluated for growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic acid and sorbic acid. A simplified cardinal parameter growth model...... was developed based on growth in broth. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameter (μref at 25 °C) was fitted to a total of 35 growth rates from cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. Growth rate models for milk and cottage cheese were evaluated by comparison with data from literature and new...

  15. SELEKSI DAN PEMANFAATAN ACTINOMYCETES SEBAGAI MIKROBA ANTAGONIS YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN TERHADAP Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 different actinomycete isolate were recovered from banana crop habitats with and without Fusarium wilt disease symptom. These were than assessed for their antagonist ability against Fusarium oxysporum £sp. cubense (Foe in vitro. Results indicated that four of all actinomycete isolate active against Foe. The four of actinomycete isolates were Streptomyces sp. l (AAo4, Streptomyces sp.2 (AAo32 , Streptomyces sp.3 (AAo33 and Streptomyces sp. 4 (AAo35. It was can inhibit the Foe mycelium growth, 79,63%, 72,22%, 78,89% and 72,22% respectively. After tested with the 3 times replication, the four Streptomyces spp. isolate effective to control the Foe that attack Bali banana cultivars, such as Susu, Saba, Raja and Ketip.

  16. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying; He, Hongping; Schulz, Stefan; Liu, Xin; Fusetani, Nobushino; Xiong, Hairong; Xiao, Xiang; Qian, Peiyuan

    2010-01-01

    of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared

  17. Development and validation of an extensive growth and growth boundary model for psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. in seafood and meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2013-01-01

    A new and extensive growth and growth boundary model for psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. was developed and validated for processed and unprocessed products of seafood and meat. The new model was developed by refitting and expanding an existing cardinal parameter model for growth and the growth...... of psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. was clearly demonstrated. The new model can be used to predict growth of psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. in seafood and meat products e.g. prediction of the time to a critical cell concentration of bacteria is considered useful for establishing the shelf life. In addition...... boundary of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in processed seafood (O. Mejlholm and P. Dalgaard, J. Food Prot. 70. 2485–2497, 2007). Initially, to estimate values for the maximum specific growth rate at the reference temperature of 25°C (μref) and the theoretical minimum temperature that prevents growth...

  18. Overproduction of lactimidomycin by cross-overexpression of genes encoding Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, Dong; Yan, Yijun; Pan, Guohui; Xiang, Wensheng; Shen, Ben

    2016-03-01

    The glutarimide-containing polyketides represent a fascinating class of natural products that exhibit a multitude of biological activities. We have recently cloned and sequenced the biosynthetic gene clusters for three members of the glutarimide-containing polyketides-iso-migrastatin (iso-MGS) from Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993, lactimidomycin (LTM) from Streptomyces amphibiosporus ATCC 53964, and cycloheximide (CHX) from Streptomyces sp. YIM56141. Comparative analysis of the three clusters identified mgsA and chxA, from the mgs and chx gene clusters, respectively, that were predicted to encode the PimR-like Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory proteins (SARPs) but failed to reveal any regulatory gene from the ltm gene cluster. Overexpression of mgsA or chxA in S. platensis NRRL 18993, Streptomyces sp. YIM56141 or SB11024, and a recombinant strain of Streptomyces coelicolor M145 carrying the intact mgs gene cluster has no significant effect on iso-MGS or CHX production, suggesting that MgsA or ChxA regulation may not be rate-limiting for iso-MGS and CHX production in these producers. In contrast, overexpression of mgsA or chxA in S. amphibiosporus ATCC 53964 resulted in a significant increase in LTM production, with LTM titer reaching 106 mg/L, which is five-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. These results support MgsA and ChxA as members of the SARP family of positive regulators for the iso-MGS and CHX biosynthetic machinery and demonstrate the feasibility to improve glutarimide-containing polyketide production in Streptomyces strains by exploiting common regulators.

  19. Shewanella hafniensis sp. nov. and Shewanella morhuae sp. nov., isolated from marine fish of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satomi, M.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone

    2006-01-01

    Two novel species belonging to the genus Shewanella are described on the basis of their phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences and levels of DNA-DNA hybridization. A total of 47 strains belonging to two novel Gram-negative, psychrotolerant, H2S-produ...... species, Shewanella hafniensis sp. nov. (type strain P010T=ATCC BAA-1207T=NBRC 100975T) and Shewanella morhuae sp. nov. (type strain U1417T=ATCC BAA-1205T=NBRC 100978T), are described....

  20. Bioremediation of acid fast red dye by Streptomyces globosus under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two different azo dyes known as acid fast red (AFR) and Congo red (CR) were examined for their decolorization by five strains of actinomycetes (Streptomyces globosus, Streptomyces alanosinicus, Streptomyces ruber, Streptomyces gancidicus, and Nocardiopsis aegyptia) under shake and static conditions. Streptomyces ...

  1. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kimoto, Hideyuki; Yoshimune, Kazuaki; Matsuyma, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2012-01-01

    A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii), that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1) that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA) was purif...

  2. Anti-phytopathogen potential of endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Brazil, and characterization of Streptomyces sp. R18(6), a potential biocontrol agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Margaroni Fialho; da Silva, Mariana Germano; Van Der Sand, Sueli T

    2010-09-01

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) are highly susceptible to phytopathogen attack. The resulting intensive application of pesticides on tomato crops can affect the environment and health of humans and animals. The objective of this study was to select potential biocontrol agents among actinobacteria from tomato plants, in a search for alternative phytopathogen control. We evaluated 70 endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants in southern Brazil, testing their antimicrobial activity, siderophore production, indoleacetic acid production, and phosphate solubility. The actinomycete isolate with the highest antimicrobial potential was selected using the agar-well diffusion method, in order to optimize conditions for the production of compounds with antimicrobial activity. For this study, six growth media (starch casein-SC, ISP2, Bennett's, Sahin, Czapek-Dox, and TSB), three temperatures (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C) and different pH were tested. Of the actinobacteria tested, 88.6% showed antimicrobial activity against at least one phytopathogen, 72.1% showed a positive reaction for indoleacetic acid production, 86.8% produced siderophores and 16.2% showed a positive reaction for phosphate solubility. Isolate R18(6) was selected due to its antagonistic activity against all phytopathogenic microorganisms tested in this study. The best conditions for production were observed in the SC medium, at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0. The isolate R18(6) showed close biochemical and genetic similarity to Streptomyces pluricolorescens. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and analysis of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster and titer improvement of the paulomycins in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jine Li

    Full Text Available The paulomycins are a group of glycosylated compounds featuring a unique paulic acid moiety. To locate their biosynthetic gene clusters, the genomes of two paulomycin producers, Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115 and Streptomyces sp. YN86, were sequenced. The paulomycin biosynthetic gene clusters were defined by comparative analyses of the two genomes together with the genome of the third paulomycin producer Streptomyces albus J1074. Subsequently, the identity of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was confirmed by inactivation of two genes involved in biosynthesis of the paulomycose branched chain (pau11 and the ring A moiety (pau18 in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115. After determining the gene cluster boundaries, a convergent biosynthetic model was proposed for paulomycin based on the deduced functions of the pau genes. Finally, a paulomycin high-producing strain was constructed by expressing an activator-encoding gene (pau13 in S. paulus, setting the stage for future investigations.

  4. Laboratory Course on "Streptomyces" Genetics and Secondary Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siitonen, Vilja; Räty, Kaj; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    The "'Streptomyces' genetics and secondary metabolism" laboratory course gives an introduction to the versatile soil dwelling Gram-positive bacteria "Streptomyces" and their secondary metabolism. The course combines genetic modification of "Streptomyces"; growing of the strain and protoplast preparation, plasmid…

  5. Defense responses in plants of Eucalyptus elicited by Streptomyces and challenged with Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salla, Tamiris D; Astarita, Leandro V; Santarém, Eliane R

    2016-04-01

    Elicitation of E. grandis plants with Streptomyces PM9 reduced the gray-mold disease, through increasing the levels of enzymes directly related to the induction of plant defense responses, and accumulation of specific phenolic compounds. Members of Eucalyptus are economically important woody species, especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of this genus are susceptible to pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea (gray mold). Biological control of plant diseases using rhizobacteria is one alternative to reduce the use of pesticides and pathogen attack. This study evaluated the metabolic and phenotypic responses of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus plants treated with Streptomyces sp. PM9 and challenged with the pathogenic fungus B. cinerea. Metabolic responses were evaluated by assessing the activities of the enzymes polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase as well as the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The incidence and progression of the fungal disease in PM9-treated plants and challenged with B. cinerea were evaluated. Treatment with Streptomyces sp. PM9 and challenge with B. cinerea led to changes in the activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds in the plants at different time points. Alterations in enzymes of PM9-treated plants were related to early defense responses in E. grandis. Gallic and chlorogenic acids were on average more abundant, although caffeic acid, benzoic acid and catechin were induced at specific time points during the culture period. Treatment with Streptomyces sp. PM9 significantly delayed the establishment of gray mold in E. grandis plants. These results demonstrate the action of Streptomyces sp. PM9 in inducing plant responses against B. cinerea, making this organism a potential candidate for biological control in Eucalyptus.

  6. Synthetic Biology in Streptomyces Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    Actinomycete bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are major producers of bioactive compounds for the biotechnology industry. They are the source of most clinically used antibiotics, as well as of several widely used drugs against common diseases, including cancer . Genome sequencing has revealed that

  7. New carbasugars from Streptomyces lincolnensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmera, Petr; Halada, Petr; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2009), s. 519-522 ISSN 0749-1581 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : H-1 NMR * C-13 NMR * Streptomyces lincolnensis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2009

  8. Use of Psychrotolerant Lactic Acid Bacteria (Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp.) Isolated from Chinese Traditional Paocai for the Quality Improvement of Paocai Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiping; Li, Xiaoyan; Pu, Biao; Ao, Xiaolin; Zhou, Kang; He, Li; Chen, Shujuan; Liu, Shuliang

    2017-03-29

    To improve the quality of Chinese traditional Paocai, two psychrotolerant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from Paocai, and the quality of Chinese Paocai product using these two strains as starter cultures was compared to a control sample fermented with aged brine at 10 °C. The results suggested that the physicochemical and sensory features of Paocai fermented with psychrotolerant LAB were more suitable for industrial applications. The nitrite content of Paocai fermented with psychrotolerant LAB was 1 mg/kg, which was significantly lower than that of the control Paocai (P products. Additionally, Paocai fermented with psychrotolerant LAB harbored relatively simple microbial flora as revealed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. This study provides a basis for improving the quality of Chinese traditional Paocai and the large-scale production of low-temperature Chinese traditional Paocai products.

  9. Caryolan-1-ol, an antifungal volatile produced by Streptomyces spp., inhibits the endomembrane system of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gyeongjun; Kim, Junheon; Park, Chung Gyoo; Nislow, Corey; Weller, David M; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2017-07-01

    Streptomyces spp. have the ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that interact with the environment. This study aimed to discover antifungal volatiles from the genus Streptomyces and to determine the mechanisms of inhibition. Volatiles identified from Streptomyces spp. included three major terpenes, geosmin, caryolan-1-ol and an unknown sesquiterpene. antiSMASH and KEGG predicted that the volatile terpene synthase gene clusters occur in the Streptomyces genome. Growth inhibition was observed when fungi were exposed to the volatiles. Biological activity of caryolan-1-ol has previously not been investigated. Fungal growth was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by a mixture of the main volatiles, caryolan-1-ol and the unknown sesquiterpene, from Streptomyces sp. S4-7. Furthermore, synthesized caryolan-1-ol showed similar antifungal activity. Results of chemical-genomics profiling assays showed that caryolan-1-ol affected the endomembrane system by disrupting sphingolipid synthesis and normal vesicle trafficking in the fungi. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Recent advances in understanding Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Keith F.

    2016-01-01

    About 2,500 papers dated 2014–2016 were recovered by searching the PubMed database for Streptomyces, which are the richest known source of antibiotics. This review integrates around 100 of these papers in sections dealing with evolution, ecology, pathogenicity, growth and development, stress responses and secondary metabolism, gene expression, and technical advances. Genomic approaches have greatly accelerated progress. For example, it has been definitively shown that interspecies recombination of conserved genes has occurred during evolution, in addition to exchanges of some of the tens of thousands of non-conserved accessory genes. The closeness of the association of Streptomyces with plants, fungi, and insects has become clear and is reflected in the importance of regulators of cellulose and chitin utilisation in overall Streptomyces biology. Interestingly, endogenous cellulose-like glycans are also proving important in hyphal growth and in the clumping that affects industrial fermentations. Nucleotide secondary messengers, including cyclic di-GMP, have been shown to provide key input into developmental processes such as germination and reproductive growth, while late morphological changes during sporulation involve control by phosphorylation. The discovery that nitric oxide is produced endogenously puts a new face on speculative models in which regulatory Wbl proteins (peculiar to actinobacteria) respond to nitric oxide produced in stressful physiological transitions. Some dramatic insights have come from a new model system for Streptomyces developmental biology, Streptomyces venezuelae, including molecular evidence of very close interplay in each of two pairs of regulatory proteins. An extra dimension has been added to the many complexities of the regulation of secondary metabolism by findings of regulatory crosstalk within and between pathways, and even between species, mediated by end products. Among many outcomes from the application of chromosome

  11. Psychrotolerant Anaerobes from Lake Podprudnoe, Antarctica and Penguin Spheniscus demersus Colony, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisler, Melissa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Townsend, Alisa; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The study of a sample collected from a wind-made ice sculpture near Lake Podprudnoe, Antarctica led to the isolation of the psychrotolerant strain ISLP-3. Cells of the new isolate are vibrio-shaped that measure 0.5 x 1.0-3.0 micron in size. Growth occurs within the temperature range 5-35 C with the optimum at 22 C. Salinity range for growth is 0-2 % NaCl with the optimum at 0.25 %. The new isolate grows within a pH range from 6.0 to 9.5 with the optimum at 7.5. Strain ISLP-3 is saccharolytic, growing on the following substrates: D-glucose, D-ribose, D-fructose, D-arabinose, maltose, sucrose, D-trehalose, D-mannose, D-cellobiose, lactose, starch, chitin, triethylamine, N-acetylglucosamine, and urea. The best growth occurred on D-cellobiose. An environmental sample of pond water near a colony of the endemic species of African penguins, Spheniscus demersus, was collected in February 2008 and delivered directly to the Astrobiology laboratory at NSSTC. The microbiological study of this sample led to the isolation of two psychrotolerant strains ARHSd-7G and ARHSd-9G. Both strains are strictly anaerobic bacteria and are able to grow at high pH and low temperatures. The cells of strain ARHSd-7G are motile, vibrio-shaped, spore-forming cells. Optimal growth of this strain occurs at 30 C, 3 % NaCl, and pH 8.9. The isolate ARHSd-7G combines sugarlytic and proteolytic metabolisms, growing on some proteolysis products including peptone and yeast extract and a number of sugars. The second isolate, ARHSd-9G, exhibits thin, elongated rods that measure 0.4 x 3-5 micron. The cells are motile and spore-forming. Optimal growth of strain ARHSd-9G occurs at 30 C, 1.75 % NaCl, and pH 8.5. The strain ARHSd-9G is sugarlytic, growing well on substrates such as D-glucose, sucrose, D-cellobiose, maltose, fructose, D-mannose, and trehalose (the only exception is positive growth on yeast extract). In this report, the physiological and morphological characteristics of the novel psychrotolerant

  12. Psychrotolerant anaerobes from Lake Podprudnoye, Antarctica and penguin Spheniscus demersus colony, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisler, Melissa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Townsend, Alisa; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-08-01

    The study of a sample collected from a wind-made ice sculpture near Lake Podprudnoe, Antarctica led to the isolation of the psychrotolerant strain ISLP-3. Cells of the new isolate are vibrio-shaped that measure 0.5 x 1.0-3.0 μm in size. Growth occurs within the temperature range 5-35ºC with the optimum at 22 °C. Salinity range for growth is 0-2 % NaCl with the optimum at 0.25 %. The new isolate grows within a pH range from 6.0 to 9.5 with the optimum at 7.5. Strain ISLP-3 is saccharolytic, growing on the following substrates: D-glucose, D-ribose, D-fructose, D-arabinose, maltose, sucrose, D-trehalose, D-mannose, D-cellobiose, lactose, starch, chitin, triethylamine, N-acetylglucosamine, and urea. The best growth occurred on D-cellobiose. An environmental sample of pond water near a colony of the endemic species of African penguins, Spheniscus demersus, was collected in February 2008 and delivered directly to the Astrobiology laboratory at NSSTC. The microbiological study of this sample led to the isolation of two psychrotolerant strains ARHSd-7G and ARHSd-9G. Both strains are strictly anaerobic bacteria and are able to grow at high pH and low temperatures. The cells of strain ARHSd-7G are motile, vibrio-shaped, spore-forming cells. Optimal growth of this strain occurs at 30 ºC, 3 % NaCl, and pH 8.9. The isolate ARHSd-7G combines sugarlytic and proteolytic metabolisms, growing on some proteolysis products including peptone and yeast extract and a number of sugars. The second isolate, ARHSd-9G, exhibits thin, elongated rods that measure 0.4 x 3-5 μm. The cells are motile and spore-forming. Optimal growth of strain ARHSd-9G occurs at 30 ºC, 1.75 % NaCl, and pH 8.5. The strain ARHSd-9G is sugarlytic, growing well on substrates such as D-glucose, sucrose, D-cellobiose, maltose, fructose, D-mannose, and trehalose (the only exception is positive growth on yeast extract). In this report, the physiological and morphological characteristics of the novel

  13. Analysis and optimization of triacylglycerol synthesis in novel oleaginous Rhodococcus and Streptomyces strains isolated from desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttig, Annika; Hauschild, Philippa; Madkour, Mohamed H; Al-Ansari, Ahmed M; Almakishah, Naief H; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2016-05-10

    As oleaginous microorganisms represent an upcoming novel feedstock for the biotechnological production of lipids or lipid-derived biofuels, we searched for novel, lipid-producing strains in desert soil. This was encouraged by the hypothesis that neutral lipids represent an ideal storage compound, especially under arid conditions, as several animals are known to outlast long periods in absence of drinking water by metabolizing their body fat. Ten lipid-accumulating bacterial strains, affiliated to the genera Bacillus, Cupriavidus, Nocardia, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces, were isolated from arid desert soil due to their ability to synthesize poly(β-hydroxybutyrate), triacylglycerols or wax esters. Particularly two Streptomyces sp. strains and one Rhodococcus sp. strain accumulate significant amounts of TAG under storage conditions under optimized cultivation conditions. Rhodococcus sp. A27 and Streptomyces sp. G49 synthesized approx. 30% (w/w) fatty acids from fructose or cellobiose, respectively, while Streptomyces isolate G25 reached a cellular fatty acid content of nearly 50% (w/w) when cultivated with cellobiose. The stored triacylglycerols were composed of 30-40% branched fatty acids, such as anteiso-pentadecanoic or iso-hexadecanoic acid. To date, this represents by far the highest lipid content described for streptomycetes. A biotechnological production of such lipids using (hemi)cellulose-derived raw material could be used to obtain sustainable biodiesel with a high proportion of branched-chain fatty acids to improve its cold-flow properties and oxidative stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and validation of extensive growth and growth boundary models for psychrotolerant pseudomonads in seafood, meat and vegetable products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    Extensive growth and growth boundary models were developed and validated for psychrotolerant pseudomonads growing in seafood, meat and vegetable products. The new models were developed by expanding anexisting cardinal parameter-type model for growth of pseudomonads in milk (Martinez-Rios et al......, when observed and predicted μmax -values were compared. Thus, on average μmax -values for seafood and meat products were overestimated by 14%. Additionally, the reference growth rate parameter μref25˚C was calibrated by fitting the model to 21 μmax -values in vegetable products. This resulted in a μref......25˚C -value of 0.54 1/h. The calibrated vegetable model wassuccessfully validated using 51 μmax -values for psychrotolerant pseudomonads in vegetables. Average bias and accuracy factor values of 1.24 and 1.38 were obtained, respectively. Lag time models were developed by using relative lag times from...

  15. Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces toxytricini Fz94 against Candida albicans ATCC 10231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheir DH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients worldwide. Biofilm formation by Candida species is a significant virulence factor for disease pathogenesis. Keeping in view the importance of Streptomyces' metabolites, the present study was initiated during the bioprospecting programme of Egyptian Streptomyces carried by the authors since 2013. Native Streptomyces isolates were recovered from soil samples collected from different governorates. Antifungal activity of forty isolates of Streptomyces were performed against planktonic (free cells of C. albicans ATCC 10231 and resistant clinical Candida isolates. Streptomyces isolates showed high inhibition activity against free cells of Candida were further assayed against biofilm of C. albicans reference strain. The most active Streptomyces sp. (no.6 was identified phenotypically, biochemically and by using 16S rRNA. The 16S rRNA sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database and registered with accession number KM052378 as S. toxytricini Fz94. Screening of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract capability in prevention and destruction of C. albicans reference strain biolfilm was assessed by resazurin dye adopted technique. In the pre-exposure scheme, the lowest concentration of 5 gL-1 showed biofilm viability inhibition of 92% after 120 min, while Ketoconazole® gave 90 % inhibition at concentration of 2 gL-1. In post exposure, the concentration of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract 7gL-1 caused 82 % inhibition of biofilms viability after 120 min, while Ketoconazole did not show any destruction capability. The cytotoxicity of S. toxytricini Fz94 crude extract results showed that it was nontoxic at 10 gL-1. S. toxytricini Fz94 is maintained in the Fungarium of Arab Society for Fungal Conservation (ASFC with accession number FSCU-2017-1110.

  16. Munumbicins, wide-spectrum antibiotics produced by Streptomyces NRRL 30562, endophytic on Kennedia nigriscans

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, UF; Strobel, GA; Ford, EJ; Hess, WM; Porter, H; Jensen, JB; Albert, H; Robison, R; Condron, MAM; Teplow, DB; Stevens, D; Yaver, D

    2002-01-01

    Munumbicins A, B, C and D are newly described antibiotics with a wide spectrum of activity against many human as well as plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria, and a Plasmodium sp. These compounds were obtained from Streptomyces NRRL 3052, which is endophytic in the medicinal plant snakevine (Kennedia nigriscans), native to the Northern Territory of Australia. This endophyte was cultured, the broth was extracted with an organic solvent and the contents of the residue were purified by bioassay-g...

  17. A rare case of silicone mammary implant infection by Streptomyces spp. in a patient with breast reconstruction after mastectomy: taxonomic characterization using molecular techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Pelaez, Ana Isabel; del Mar Garcia-Suarez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    A Streptomyces sp. isolated from a patient who had had breast reconstruction after a mastectomy was identified at the species level by comparative sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the hypervariable alpha-region of the 16S rDNA.......A Streptomyces sp. isolated from a patient who had had breast reconstruction after a mastectomy was identified at the species level by comparative sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the hypervariable alpha-region of the 16S rDNA....

  18. Plant growth and resistance promoted by Streptomyces spp. in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maila P; Bastos, Matheus S; Xavier, Vanessa B; Cassel, Eduardo; Astarita, Leandro V; Santarém, Eliane R

    2017-09-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) represent an alternative to improve plant growth and yield as well as to act as agents of biocontrol. This study characterized isolates of Streptomyces spp. (Stm) as PGPR, determined the antagonism of these isolates against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis (Pcb), evaluated the ability of Stm on promoting growth and modulating the defense-related metabolism of tomato plants, and the potential of Stm isolates on reducing soft rot disease in this species. The VOC profile of Stm was also verified. Promotion of plant growth was assessed indirectly through VOC emission and by direct interaction with Stm isolates in the roots. Evaluation of soft rot disease was performed in vitro on plants treated with Stm and challenged with Pcb. Enzymes related to plant defense were then analyzed in plants treated with three selected isolates of Stm, and PM1 was chosen for further Pcb-challenging experiment. Streptomyces spp. isolates displayed characteristics of PGPR. PM3 was the isolate with efficient antagonism against Pcb by dual-culture. Most of the isolates promoted growth of root and shoot of tomato plants by VOC, and PM5 was the isolate that most promoted growth by direct interaction with Stm. Soft rot disease and mortality of plants were significantly reduced when plants were treated with StmPM1. Modulation of secondary metabolism was observed with Stm treatment, and fast response of polyphenoloxidases was detected in plants pretreated with StmPM1 and challenged with Pcb. Peroxidase was significantly activated three days after infection with Pcb in plants pretreated with StmPM1. Results suggest that Streptomyces sp. PM1 and PM5 have the potential to act as PGPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... Key words: Characterization, streptomyces, antimicrobial activity, hot ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... chain reaction (PCR) which is currently used as a sen-.

  20. Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Five Active Diketopiperazine Derivatives from Endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 with Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaibani, Muhanna; Zin, Noraziah; Jalil, Juriyati; Sidik, Nik; Ahmad, Siti Junaidah; Kamal, Nurkhalida; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie

    2017-07-28

    In our search for new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites from Streptomyces sp., the ethyl acetate extracts from endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 afforded five active diketopiperazine (DKP) compounds. The aim of this study was to characterize the bioactive compounds isolated from endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 and evaluate their bioactivity against multiple drug resistance (MDR) bacteria such as Enterococcus raffinosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp., and their cytotoxic activities against the human hepatoma (HepaRG) cell line. The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thornton's medium. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and cryopreserved HepaRG cells were selected to test the cytotoxicity. The results showed that endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 produces four active DKP compounds and an acetamide derivative, which were elucidated as cyclo -( L -Val- L -Pro), cyclo -( L -Leu- L -Pro), cyclo -( L -Phe- L -Pro), cyclo -( L -Val- L -Phe), and N -(7-hydroxy-6-methyl-octyl)-acetamide. These active compounds exhibited activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 and Enterococcus raffinosus , with low toxicity against human hepatoma HepaRG cells. Endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 has the ability to produce DKP derivatives biologically active against some MDR bacteria with relatively low toxicity against HepaRG cells line.

  1. Streptomyces development in colonies and soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Sanchez, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Streptomyces development was analyzed under conditions resembling those in soil. The mycelial growth rate was much lower than that in standard laboratory cultures, and the life span of the previously named first compartmentalized mycelium was remarkably increased.......Streptomyces development was analyzed under conditions resembling those in soil. The mycelial growth rate was much lower than that in standard laboratory cultures, and the life span of the previously named first compartmentalized mycelium was remarkably increased....

  2. Genetic variability of psychrotolerant Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans revealed by (meta)genomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carolina; Yanquepe, María; Cardenas, Juan Pablo; Valdes, Jorge; Quatrini, Raquel; Holmes, David S; Dopson, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Acidophilic microorganisms inhabit low pH environments such as acid mine drainage that is generated when sulfide minerals are exposed to air. The genome sequence of the psychrotolerant Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans SS3 was compared to a metagenome from a low temperature acidic stream dominated by an A. ferrivorans-like strain. Stretches of genomic DNA characterized by few matches to the metagenome, termed 'metagenomic islands', encoded genes associated with metal efflux and pH homeostasis. The metagenomic islands were enriched in mobile elements such as phage proteins, transposases, integrases and in one case, predicted to be flanked by truncated tRNAs. Cus gene clusters predicted to be involved in copper efflux and further Cus-like RND systems were predicted to be located in metagenomic islands and therefore, constitute part of the flexible gene complement of the species. Phylogenetic analysis of Cus clusters showed both lineage specificity within the Acidithiobacillus genus as well as niche specificity associated with an acidic environment. The metagenomic islands also contained a predicted copper efflux P-type ATPase system and a polyphosphate kinase potentially involved in polyphosphate mediated copper resistance. This study identifies genetic variability of low temperature acidophiles that likely reflects metal resistance selective pressures in the copper rich environment. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Hideyuki; Yoshimune, Kazuaki; Matsuyma, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2012-01-01

    A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii), that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1) that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA) was purified homogeneously by only two purification steps, anion exchange and hydrophobic chromatographies. The purified catalase exhibited higher catalytic efficiency and higher sensitivity of activity at high temperatures than M. luteus catalase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest homology with catalase of Psycrobacter cryohalolentis, a psychrotolelant bacterium obtained from Siberian permafrost. These findings suggest that the characteristics of the PktA molecule reflected the taxonomic relationship of the isolate as well as the environmental conditions (low temperatures and high concentrations of H2O2) under which the bacterium survives. Strain T-3 efficiently produces a catalase (PktA) at a higher rate than Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, which produces a very strong activity of catalase (EktA) at a moderate rate, in order to adapt to high concentration of H2O2. PMID:22408420

  4. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the glycosyltransferase from a marine Streptomyces species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Liping; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Qiang; Li, Sumei; Zhang, Changsheng; Liu, Jinsong

    2010-01-01

    The recombinant glycosyltransferase ElaGT from the elaiophylin-producing marine Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 01934 has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. ElaGT is a glycosyltransferase from a marine Streptomyces species that is involved in the biosynthesis of elaiophylin. Here, the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of ElaGT are reported. The rod-shaped crystals belonged to space group P2 1 22, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.7, b = 131.7, c = 224.6 Å, α = 90, β = 90, γ = 90°. Data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. A preliminary molecular-replacement solution implied the presence of two ElaGT molecules in the asymmetric unit

  5. Transposition of Tn5096 from a temperature-sensitive transducible plasmid in Streptomyces spp.

    OpenAIRE

    McHenney, M A; Baltz, R H

    1991-01-01

    Transposon Tn5096 was inserted into a derivative of the temperature-sensitive plasmid pMT660 containing the bacteriophage FP43 pac site. The resulting plasmid, pRHB126, was transduced by FP43 into several Streptomyces species. Tn5096 transposed from pRHB126 into different sites in the genomes of Streptomyces ambofaciens, Streptomyces cinnamonensis, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), Streptomyces fradiae, Streptomyces griseofuscus, and Streptomyces thermotolerans.

  6. Optimization of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hacene

    2016-06-29

    Jun 29, 2016 ... The enzyme production media are optimized according to statistical methods while using two plans of ..... Coagulation. -. Nitrate reduction. + .... (i)Fructose: is a simple sugar found naturally in fruits and honey but can be ...

  7. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Streptomyces sp. from Lonar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... bioactive secondary metabolites notably antibiotics (Blunt and Prinsep, 2006) ... mg l-1) to prevent other non-actinomycete bacteria and fungal growth (Baltz, 2006). .... A novel marine Bacillus with multiple amino acid analog ...

  8. Significant histamine formation in tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) at 2 degrees C - effect of vacuum- and modified atmosphere-packaging on psychrotolerant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Laursen, B. G.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2005-01-01

    Occurrence and importance of psychrotolerant histamine producing bacteria in chilled fresh tuna were demonstrated in the present study. The objective was to evaluate microbial formation of histamine and biogenic amines in chilled fresh tuna from the Indian Ocean and stored either vacuum-packed (VP...

  9. Heavy metal tolerance in the psychrotolerant Cryptococcus sp. isolated from deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, P.; Raghukumar, C.; Parvatkar, R.R.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.

    of the heavy metal salts i.e., ZnSO sub(4) , CuSO sub(4), Pb(CH sub(3) COO) sub(2) and CdCl sub(2). It demonstrated considerable growth in the presence of 100 mg/l concentrations of the above-mentioned four heavy metal salts both at 30 degrees C and 15 degrees...

  10. Differentially expressed genes under simulated deep-sea conditions in the psychrotolerant yeast Cryptococcus sp. NIOCCPY13

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, P.; Raghukumar, C.; Verma, A.K.; Meena, R.M.

    Epoxide hydrolase [Rhodotorula mucilaginosa], AAV64029.1 Arachidonic acid metabolism 58 2e-22 PH_13 Hypothetical Protein RTG_00533 [Rhodotorula glutinis ATCC 204091], EGU13356.1 Amp binding enzyme 85 2e-29 PH_15 C-4 methylsterol oxidase [Puccinia..., PTH_30 Hypothetical protein SNOG_09178 [Phaeosphaeria nodorum SN15], XP_001799479.1 AMP-activated protein kinase 52 2.7 PTH_25 Family 2 glycosyltransferase [Melampsora larici-populina 98AG31], EGF99634.1 Catalyzes the incorporation of GlcNAc from...

  11. Streptomyces bacteria as potential probiotics in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loh eTeng Hern

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  12. Streptomyces exploration is triggered by fungal interactions and volatile signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie E; Ho, Louis; Rees, Christiaan A; Hill, Jane E; Nodwell, Justin R; Elliot, Marie A

    2017-01-03

    It has long been thought that the life cycle of Streptomyces bacteria encompasses three developmental stages: vegetative hyphae, aerial hyphae and spores. Here, we show interactions between Streptomyces and fungi trigger a previously unobserved mode of Streptomyces development. We term these Streptomyces cells 'explorers', for their ability to adopt a non-branching vegetative hyphal conformation and rapidly transverse solid surfaces. Fungi trigger Streptomyces exploratory growth in part by altering the composition of the growth medium, and Streptomyces explorer cells can communicate this exploratory behaviour to other physically separated streptomycetes using an airborne volatile organic compound (VOC). These results reveal that interkingdom interactions can trigger novel developmental behaviours in bacteria, here, causing Streptomyces to deviate from its classically-defined life cycle. Furthermore, this work provides evidence that VOCs can act as long-range communication signals capable of propagating microbial morphological switches.

  13. Comparative genomic hybridizations reveal absence of large Streptomyces coelicolor genomic islands in Streptomyces lividans

    OpenAIRE

    Jayapal, Karthik P; Lian, Wei; Glod, Frank; Sherman, David H; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The genomes of Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans bear a considerable degree of synteny. While S. coelicolor is the model streptomycete for studying antibiotic synthesis and differentiation, S. lividans is almost exclusively considered as the preferred host, among actinomycetes, for cloning and expression of exogenous DNA. We used whole genome microarrays as a comparative genomics tool for identifying the subtle differences between these two chromosomes. Res...

  14. Production and characterization of biosurfactant from marine Streptomyces species B3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khopade, Abhijit; Ren, Biao; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Mahadik, Kakasaheb; Zhang, Lixin; Kokare, Chandrakant

    2012-02-01

    The present study demonstrates the production and properties of a biosurfactant isolated from marine Streptomyces species B3. The production of the biosurfactant was found to be higher in medium containing sucrose and lower in the medium containing glycerol. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source for the production of the biosurfactant. The isolated biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water to 29 mN/m. The purified biosurfactant was shown critical micelle concentrations of 110 mg/l. The emulsifying activity and stability of the biosurfactant was investigated at different salinities, pH, and temperature. The biosurfactant was effective at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperature, pH, and salt concentration. The purified biosurfactant was shown strong antimicrobial activity. The biosurfactant was produced from the marine Streptomyces sp. using non-hydrocarbon substrates such as sucrose that was readily available and not required extensive purification procedure. Streptomyces species B3 can be used for microbially enhanced oil recovery process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antifungal performance of extracellular chitinases and culture supernatants of Streptomyces galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Benjamín Moreno; Dunn, Michael F; Navarro, Karina Guillén; Meléndez, Francisco Holguín; Ortiz, Magdalena Hernández; Guevara, Sergio Encarnación; Palacios, Graciela Huerta

    2016-03-01

    The tropical and mycoparasite strain Streptomyces galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 was evaluated as an antagonist of Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, causal agent of the Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) of banana. On zymograms of CFFSUR-B12 culture supernatants, we detected four chitinases of approximately 32 kDa (Chi32), 20 kDa (Chi20), and two with masses well over 170 kDa (ChiU) that showed little migration during denaturing electrophoresis at different concentrations of polyacrylamide. The thymol-sulphuric acid assay showed that the ChiU were glycosylated chitinases. Moreover, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS analysis revealed that the ChiU are the same protein and identical to a family 18 chitinase from Streptomyces sp. S4 (gi|498328075). Chi32 was similar to an extracellular protein from Streptomyces albus J1074 (gi|478687481) and Chi20 was non-significantly similar to chitinases from five different strains of Streptomyces (P > 0.05). Subsequently, Chi32 and Chi20 were partially purified by anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography and tested against M. fijiensis. Chitinases failed to inhibit ascospore germination, but inhibited up to 35 and 62% of germ tube elongation and mycelial growth, respectively. We found that crude culture supernatant and living cells of S. galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 were the most effective in inhibiting M. fijiensis and are potential biocontrol agents of BSD.

  16. Central Carbon Metabolic Pathways in Streptomyces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keulen, Geertje; Siebring, Jeroen; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Dyson, Paul

    Streptomyces and other actinomycetes are fascinating soil bacteria of major economic importance. They produce 70% of antibiotics known to man and numerous other pharmaceuticals for treatment of, e.g. cancer, a range of infections, high cholesterol, or have immunosuppressive activity. It is not

  17. Streptopyrrole: An antimicrobial metabolite from Streptomyces armeniacus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, J.; Gürtler, Hanne; Kjær, Anders

    1998-01-01

    A colourless, crystalline metabolite, C14H12ClNO4, named streptopyrrole, has been isolated from submerged fermentation cultures of Streptomyces armeniacus by extraction, followed by chromatographic purification. Its tricyclic molecular framework, seemingly without natural product precedents. as w...

  18. The small laccase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Ostergaard, L. H.; Ostergaard, P. R.; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, 1a (2009), b4-b5 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /7./. 12.03.2009-14.03.2009, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : laccase * Streptomyces coelicolor * enzymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  19. Streptomyces Somalinesiscausing Mycetomas in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Taralakshmi

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy specimens from 102 patients with mycetoma were examined histologically; Streptomyces somaliensis was found in 5 cases. The clinical features, radiology and histology of actinomycotic mycetoma due to S. somaliensis ar ′ e described. The geographic distribution of the organism, its incidence and prevalence in India and the importance of histological examination in the diagnosis of the infection are discussed.

  20. Butenolides from Streptomyces albus J1074 Act as External Signals To Stimulate Avermectin Production in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao Bich; Kitani, Shigeru; Shimma, Shuichi; Nihira, Takuya

    2018-05-01

    In streptomycetes, autoregulators are important signaling compounds that trigger secondary metabolism, and they are regarded as Streptomyces hormones based on their extremely low effective concentrations (nM) and the involvement of specific receptor proteins. Our previous distribution study revealed that butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones, including avenolide, are a general class of signaling molecules in streptomycetes and that Streptomyces albus strain J1074 may produce butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones. Here, we describe metabolite profiling of a disruptant of the S. albus aco gene, which encodes a key biosynthetic enzyme for butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones, and identify four butenolide compounds from S. albus J1074 that show avenolide activity. The compounds structurally resemble avenolide and show different levels of avenolide activity. A dual-culture assay with imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) analysis for in vivo metabolic profiling demonstrated that the butenolide compounds of S. albus J1074 stimulate avermectin production in another Streptomyces species, Streptomyces avermitilis , illustrating the complex chemical interactions through interspecies signals in streptomycetes. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms produce external and internal signaling molecules to control their complex physiological traits. In actinomycetes, Streptomyces hormones are low-molecular-weight signals that are key to our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of Streptomyces secondary metabolism. This study reveals that acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase is a common and essential biosynthetic enzyme for butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones. Moreover, the diffusible butenolide compounds from a donor Streptomyces strain were recognized by the recipient Streptomyces strain of a different species, resulting in the initiation of secondary metabolism in the recipient. This is an interesting report on the chemical interaction between two different streptomycetes via Streptomyces

  1. Expression by Streptomyces lividans of the Rat α Integrin CD11b A-Domain as a Secreted and Soluble Recombinant Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Zouari Ayadi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We already reported the use of a long synthetic signal peptide (LSSP to secrete the Streptomyces sp. TO1 amylase by Streptomyces lividans strain. We herein report the expression and secretion of the rat CD11b A-domain using the same LSSP and S. lividans as host strain. We have used the Escherichia coli/Streptomyces shuttle vector pIJ699 for the cloning of the A-domain DNA sequence downstream of LSSP and under the control of the constitutive ermE-up promoter of Streptomyces erythraeus. Using this construct and S. lividans as a host strain, we achieved the expression of 8 mg/L of soluble secreted recombinant form of the A-domain of the rat leukocyte β2 integrin CD11/CD18 alpha M subunit (CD11b. This secreted recombinant CD11b A-domain reacted with a function blocking antibody showing that this protein is properly folded and probably functional. These data support the capability of Streptomyces to produce heterologous recombinant proteins as soluble secreted form using the “LSSP” synthetic signal peptide.

  2. Gene Identification and Substrate Regulation Provide Insights into Sulfur Accumulation during Bioleaching with the Psychrotolerant Acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeqvist, Maria; Rzhepishevska, Olena I.

    2013-01-01

    The psychrotolerant acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans has been identified from cold environments and has been shown to use ferrous iron and inorganic sulfur compounds as its energy sources. A bioinformatic evaluation presented in this study suggested that Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans utilized a ferrous iron oxidation pathway similar to that of the related species Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. However, the inorganic sulfur oxidation pathway was less clear, since the Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans genome contained genes from both Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus caldus encoding enzymes whose assigned functions are redundant. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the petA1 and petB1 genes (implicated in ferrous iron oxidation) were downregulated upon growth on the inorganic sulfur compound tetrathionate but were on average 10.5-fold upregulated in the presence of ferrous iron. In contrast, expression of cyoB1 (involved in inorganic sulfur compound oxidation) was decreased 6.6-fold upon growth on ferrous iron alone. Competition assays between ferrous iron and tetrathionate with Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans SS3 precultured on chalcopyrite mineral showed a preference for ferrous iron oxidation over tetrathionate oxidation. Also, pure and mixed cultures of psychrotolerant acidophiles were utilized for the bioleaching of metal sulfide minerals in stirred tank reactors at 5 and 25°C in order to investigate the fate of ferrous iron and inorganic sulfur compounds. Solid sulfur accumulated in bioleaching cultures growing on a chalcopyrite concentrate. Sulfur accumulation halted mineral solubilization, but sulfur was oxidized after metal release had ceased. The data indicated that ferrous iron was preferentially oxidized during growth on chalcopyrite, a finding with important implications for biomining in cold environments. PMID:23183980

  3. Identification and functional analysis of cytochrome P450 complement in Streptomyces virginiae IBL14

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background As well known, both natural and synthetic steroidal compounds are powerful endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) which can cause reproductive toxicity and affect cellular development in mammals and thus are generally regarded as serious contributors to water pollution. Streptomyces virginiae IBL14 is an effective degradative strain for many steroidal compounds and can also catalyze the C25 hydroxylation of diosgenin, the first-ever biotransformation found on the F-ring of diosgenin. Results To completely elucidate the hydroxylation function of cytochrome P450 genes (CYPs) found during biotransformation of steroids by S. virginiae IBL14, the whole genome sequencing of this strain was carried out via 454 Sequencing Systems. The analytical results of BLASTP showed that the strain IBL14 contains 33 CYPs, 7 ferredoxins and 3 ferredoxin reductases in its 8.0 Mb linear chromosome. CYPs from S. virginiae IBL14 are phylogenetically closed to those of Streptomyces sp. Mg1 and Streptomyces sp. C. One new subfamily was found as per the fact that the CYP Svu001 in S. virginiae IBL14 shares 66% identity only to that (ZP_05001937, protein identifer) from Streptomyces sp. Mg1. Further analysis showed that among all of the 33 CYPs in S. virginiae IBL14, three CYPs are clustered with ferredoxins, one with ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase and three CYPs with ATP/GTP binding proteins, four CYPs arranged with transcriptional regulatory genes and one CYP located on the upstream of an ATP-binding protein and transcriptional regulators as well as four CYPs associated with other functional genes involved in secondary metabolism and degradation. Conclusions These characteristics found in CYPs from S. virginiae IBL14 show that the EXXR motif in the K-helix is not absolutely conserved in CYP157 family and I-helix not absolutely essential for the CYP structure, too. Experimental results showed that both CYP Svh01 and CYP Svu022 are two hydroxylases, capable of bioconverting

  4. Ammonia Released by Streptomyces aburaviensis Induces Droplet Formation in Streptomyces violaceoruber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kathrin; Spiteller, Dieter

    2017-08-01

    Streptomyces violaceoruber grown in co-culture with Streptomyces aburaviensis produces an about 17-fold higher volume of droplets on its aerial mycelium than in single-culture. Physical separation of the Streptomyces strains by either a plastic barrier or by a dialysis membrane, which allowed communication only by the exchange of volatile compounds or diffusible compounds in the medium, respectively, still resulted in enhanced droplet formation. The application of molecular sieves to bioassays resulted in the attenuation of the droplet-inducing effect of S. aburaviensis indicating the absorption of the compound. 1 H-NMR analysis of molecular-sieve extracts and the selective indophenol-blue reaction revealed that the volatile droplet-inducing compound is ammonia. The external supply of ammonia in biologically relevant concentrations of ≥8 mM enhanced droplet formation in S. violaceoruber in a similar way to S. aburaviensis. Ammonia appears to trigger droplet production in many Streptomyces strains because four out of six Streptomyces strains exposed to ammonia exhibited induced droplet production.

  5. Tolerance to Ultraviolet Radiation of Psychrotolerant Yeasts and Analysis of Their Carotenoid, Mycosporine, and Ergosterol Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Pablo; Carrasco, Mario; Barahona, Salvador; Alcaíno, Jennifer; Cifuentes, Víctor; Baeza, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yeasts colonizing the Antarctic region are exposed to a high ultraviolet radiation evolving mechanisms to minimize the UV radiation damages, such as the production of UV-absorbing or antioxidant compounds like carotenoid pigments and mycosporines. Ergosterol has also been suggested to play a role in this response. These compounds are also economically attractive for several industries such as pharmaceutical and food, leading to a continuous search for biological sources of them. In this work, the UV-C radiation tolerance of yeast species isolated from the sub-Antarctic region and their production of carotenoids, mycosporines, and ergosterol were evaluated. Dioszegia sp., Leuconeurospora sp. (T27Cd2), Rhodotorula laryngis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Cryptococcus gastricus showed the highest UV-C radiation tolerance. The yeasts with the highest content of carotenoids were Dioszegia sp. (OHK torulene), Rh. laryngis (torulene and lycopene), Rh. mucilaginosa, (torulene, gamma carotene, and lycopene), and Cr. gastricus (2-gamma carotene). Probable mycosporine molecules and biosynthesis intermediates were found in Rh. laryngis, Dioszegia sp., Mrakia sp., Le. creatinivora, and Leuconeurospora sp. (T27Cd2). Ergosterol was the only sterol detected in all yeasts, and M. robertii and Le. creatinivora showed amounts higher than 4 mg g−1. Although there was not a well-defined relation between UV-C tolerance and the production of these three kinds of compounds, the majority of the yeasts with lower amounts of carotenoids showed lower UV-C tolerance. Dioszegia sp., M. robertii, and Le. creatinivora were the greatest producers of carotenoids, ergosterol, and mycosporines, respectively, representing good candidates for future studies intended to increase their production for large-scale applications.

  6. Desulfovibrio frigidus sp. nov. and Desulfovibrio ferrireducens sp. nov., psychrotolerant bacteria isolated from Arctic fjord sediments (Svalbard) with the ability to reduce Fe(III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, Verona; Knoblauch, Christian; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2006-01-01

    fermentation products such as hydrogen, formate and lactate with sulfate as the electron acceptor. Sulfate could be replaced by sulfite, thiosulfate or elemental sulfur. Poorly crystalline and soluble Fe(III) compounds were reduced in sulfate-free medium, but no growth occurred under these conditions...

  7. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces hirsutus and related species using multi-locus sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phylogenetic analyses of species of Streptomyces based on 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in a statistically well-supported clade (100% bootstrap value) containing 8 species having very similar gross morphology. These species, including Streptomyces bambergiensis, Streptomyces chlorus, Streptomyces...

  8. Molecular studies on some soil-Streptomyces strains of western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Random amplified polymorphic of DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis of the DNA extracted from seven Streptomyces strains of western region, KSA was the aim of this study. Partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces polychromogenes was also attempted. Results show that.

  9. Multilocus sequence analysis of phytopathogenic species of the genus Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification and classification of species within the genus Streptomyces is difficult because there are presently 576 validly described species and this number increases every year. The value of the application of multilocus sequence analysis scheme to the systematics of Streptomyces species h...

  10. Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of various plant species grown in Taif region, KSA, having antagonistic activities against some microbial tissue ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Keywords: Taxonomy, Streptomyces, microbial tissue culture contaminants, antagonistic activities, 16S rRNA

  11. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces and its relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, Mohammad Tauqeer; Merlo, Maria Elena; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    Motivation: Streptomyces is one of the best-studied genera of the order Actinomycetales due to its great importance in medical science, ecology and the biotechnology industry. A comprehensive, detailed and robust phylogeny of Streptomyces and its relatives is needed for understanding how this group

  12. Molecular studies on some soil- Streptomyces strains of western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic of DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis of the DNA extracted from seven Streptomyces strains of western region, KSA was the aim of this study. Partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces polychromogenes was also attempted. Results show that a total number of ...

  13. Silver nanoparticle biosynthesis from newly isolated streptomyces genus from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman Adiguzel, Ali; Könen Adiguzel, Serpil; Mazmanci, Birgül; Tunçer, Münir; Mazmanci, Mehmet Ali

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by cell lysates of actinobacterial strains isolated from Mersin soils. Also, free-radical scavenging potential, the inhibitory effect, and genotoxicity of synthesized AgNPs were investigated. As a result of the screening study, it was detected that cell lysate from isolate AOA21, which were classified in Streptomyces genus according to 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison, showed higher potential for AgNPs synthesis. The optimum pH, AgNO3 and cell lysate concentration for AgNPs synthesis were found to be pH 9.0, 1 mM AgNO3 and 2-fold diluted cell lysate, respectively. The FESEM analysis revealed that the size and shape of AgNPs were 35–60 nm and spherical. The x-ray diffraction patterns displayed typical peaks of crystalline AgNPs at 34.07°, 44.04°, 64.45°, 77.40° and 81.36°. The size of cubic crystalline AgNPs was found to be 9.35 nm. The FTIR analysis showed that the especially protein, peptide and amino acid component in the cell lysates of Streptomyces sp. AOA21 may be responsible in reduction of AgNO3 and stabilization of synthesized AgNPs. The MIC values of synthesized AgNPs for Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were found to be 8 μg ml‑1, 16 μg ml‑1, 16 μg ml‑1 and 32 μg ml‑1, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity of synthesized AgNPs was 8.54%–55.58% at a concentration range of 800–2000 μg ml‑1. Furthermore, comet assay showed that synthesized AgNPs did not cause significant DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a concentration of 12.5 μg ml‑1 and 25 μg ml‑1.

  14. Genome plasticity and systems evolution in Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptomycetes are filamentous soil-dwelling bacteria. They are best known as the producers of a great variety of natural products such as antibiotics, antifungals, antiparasitics, and anticancer agents and the decomposers of organic substances for carbon recycling. They are also model organisms for the studies of gene regulatory networks, morphological differentiation, and stress response. The availability of sets of genomes from closely related Streptomyces strains makes it possible to assess the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity and systems adaptation. Results We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the genomes of five Streptomyces species with distinct phenotypes. These streptomycetes have a pan-genome comprised of 17,362 orthologous families which includes 3,096 components in the core genome, 5,066 components in the dispensable genome, and 9,200 components that are uniquely present in only one species. The core genome makes up about 33%-45% of each genome repertoire. It contains important genes for Streptomyces biology including those involved in gene regulation, secretion, secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified, with 4%-11% of the whole genomes composed of lineage-specific expansions (LSEs), suggesting that frequent gene duplication or lateral gene transfer events play a role in shaping the genome diversification within this genus. Two patterns of expansion, single gene expansion and chromosome block expansion are observed, representing different scales of duplication. Conclusions Our results provide a catalog of genome components and their potential functional roles in gene regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The core genome components reveal the minimum requirement for streptomycetes to sustain a successful lifecycle in the soil environment, reflecting the effects of both genome evolution and environmental stress acting upon the expressed phenotypes. A

  15. Craniocervical mycetoma caused bu Streptomyces somaliensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramboer, J.H.; De Graaf, A.S.; Hewlett, R.H.; Kirby, P.A.; Robson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, computerized tomography (CT) and clinical-pathological findings are described in a case of craniocervical mycetoma caused by the actinomycete Streptomyces somaliensis. Clinical features includes epilepsy, visual and hearing disturbance, quadriplegia and incontinence. CT revealed a hyperdense, diffusely enhancing intra-extracranial mass, further defined by MR to involve the oropharyngeal region, skull base, cranial-cervical peridural spaces and brain. On treatment with Dapsone, the lesion decreased in size, with recovery of spinal cord function. The combined plain film, CT and MR images are considered to be diagnostic of this form of mycetoma. (author). 10 refs.; 4 figs

  16. Craniocervical mycetoma caused bu Streptomyces somaliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramboer, J.H.; De Graaf, A.S. (Tygerberg Hospital, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Internal Medicine); Hewlett, R.H. (Tygerberg Hospital, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Radiology); Kirby, P.A. (Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa). Department of Anatomical Pathology); Robson, R.A. (Tygerberg Hospital, Capetown (South Africa). Department of Microbiology)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, computerized tomography (CT) and clinical-pathological findings are described in a case of craniocervical mycetoma caused by the actinomycete Streptomyces somaliensis. Clinical features includes epilepsy, visual and hearing disturbance, quadriplegia and incontinence. CT revealed a hyperdense, diffusely enhancing intra-extracranial mass, further defined by MR to involve the oropharyngeal region, skull base, cranial-cervical peridural spaces and brain. On treatment with Dapsone, the lesion decreased in size, with recovery of spinal cord function. The combined plain film, CT and MR images are considered to be diagnostic of this form of mycetoma. (author). 10 refs.; 4 figs.

  17. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  18. Streptomyces communities in soils polluted with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishko, V. N.; Syshchikova, O. V.

    2009-02-01

    The contents of differently mobile heavy metal compounds and their influence on the formation of microbial cenoses (particularly, streptomyces communities) in technogenically disturbed soils are considered. Elevated concentrations of mobile Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Fe compounds are shown to determine structural-functional changes in microbial cenoses that are displayed in a decreasing number of microorganisms and a narrower spectrum of the streptomyces species. Some specific features of the formation of streptomyces communities in technogenic soils were revealed on the basis of the analysis of their species structure with the use of the Margalef, Berger-Parker, and Sorensen indices of biodiversity.

  19. Occurrence of Streptomyces aurantiacus in Mangroves of Bhitarkanika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta, N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen strains of Streptomyces were isolated from phyllosphere of nine mangrove tree species found in Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem of Orissa. According to physiological, biochemical data, all 13 of the isolates were taxonomically identified to the genus Streptomyces as aurantiacus species. All strains are grayish, spirals and forming amorphous colony. Almost all utilized araginose, produced H2S, resistant towards rifampicin and penicillin, urea except few strains. However, they exhibited different extracellular activity like phosphate solubilization, lipase and L asparaginase production. This is a unique report from this mangrove ecosystem as far as Streptomyces occurrence is concerned.

  20. Enzymology of lignocellulose bioconversion by Streptomyces viridosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandra, M.

    1989-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in lignin biodegradation research since 1983, when lignin peroxidases were discovered in fungi. A similar breakthrough in bacterial lignin biodegradation research is anticipated. Several laboratories have successfully demonstrated the ability of bacteria to mineralize [ 14 C]-lignin lignocelluloses as well as 14 C-labelled synthetic lignins. Attempts are being made to identify the key enzymes involved. In this dissertation, two studies are presented which address the enzymology of lignin biodegradation by Streptomyces viridosporus. The first study compares selected extracellular enzyme of wild-type and genetically manipulated strains with enhanced abilities to produced a water soluble lignin degradation intermediate, designated acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL). UV irradiation mutant T7A-81 and protoplast fusion recombinant SR-10 had higher and longer persisting peroxidase, esterase, and endoglucanase activity than did the wild type strain T7A. An extracellular lignocellulose-induced peroxidase with some similarities to fungal ligninases was described for the first time in Streptomyces. The second study describes purification and characterization of an extracellular lignin peroxidase produced by S. viridosporus T7A. This is the first report of a lignin peroxidase in any bacterium

  1. Molecular Regulation of Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Chandra, Govind; Niu, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptomycetes are the most abundant source of antibiotics. Typically, each species produces several antibiotics, with the profile being species specific. Streptomyces coelicolor, the model species, produces at least five different antibiotics. We review the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in S. coelicolor and other, nonmodel streptomycetes in the light of recent studies. The biosynthesis of each antibiotic is specified by a large gene cluster, usually including regulatory genes (cluster-situated regulators [CSRs]). These are the main point of connection with a plethora of generally conserved regulatory systems that monitor the organism's physiology, developmental state, population density, and environment to determine the onset and level of production of each antibiotic. Some CSRs may also be sensitive to the levels of different kinds of ligands, including products of the pathway itself, products of other antibiotic pathways in the same organism, and specialized regulatory small molecules such as gamma-butyrolactones. These interactions can result in self-reinforcing feed-forward circuitry and complex cross talk between pathways. The physiological signals and regulatory mechanisms may be of practical importance for the activation of the many cryptic secondary metabolic gene cluster pathways revealed by recent sequencing of numerous Streptomyces genomes. PMID:23471619

  2. SIGNALS AND REGULATORS THAT GOVERN STREPTOMYCES DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joseph R.; Flärdh, Klas

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is the genetically best characterized species of a populous genus belonging to the Gram-positive Actinobacteria. Streptomycetes are filamentous soil organisms, well known for the production of a plethora of biologically active secondary metabolic compounds. The Streptomyces developmental life cycle is uniquely complex, and involves coordinated multicellular development with both physiological and morphological differentiation of several cell types, culminating in production of secondary metabolites and dispersal of mature spores. This review presents a current appreciation of the signaling mechanisms used to orchestrate the decision to undergo morphological differentiation, and the regulators and regulatory networks that direct the intriguing development of multigenomic hyphae, first to form specialized aerial hyphae, and then to convert them into chains of dormant spores. This current view of S. coelicolor development is destined for rapid evolution as data from “-omics” studies shed light on gene regulatory networks, new genetic screens identify hitherto unknown players, and the resolution of our insights into the underlying cell biological processes steadily improve. PMID:22092088

  3. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying

    2010-02-01

    Biofouling causes huge economic loss and a recent global ban on organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. Five structurally similar compounds were isolated from the crude extract of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared to probe structure-activity relationships of compounds. The functional moiety responsible for antifouling activity lies in the 2-furanone ring and that the lipophilicity of compounds substantially affects their antifouling activities. Based on these findings, a compound with a straight alkyl side-chain was synthesized and proved itself as a very effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement agent against three major fouling organisms. The strong antifouling activity, relatively low toxicity, and simple structures of these compounds make them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioactive benzopyrone derivatives from new recombinant fusant of marine Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; Shaaban, M; El-Bondkly, A M; Shaaban, K A

    2008-07-01

    In our searching program for bioactive secondary metabolites from marine Streptomycetes, three microbial benzopyrone derivatives (1-3), 7-methylcoumarin (1) and two flavonoides, rhamnazin (2) and cirsimaritin (3), were obtained during the working up of the ethyl acetate fraction of a marine Streptomyces fusant obtained from protoplast fusion between Streptomyces strains Merv 1996 and Merv 7409. The structures of the three compounds (1-3) were established by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass, UV spectra, and by comparison with literature data. Marine Streptomyces strains were identified based on their phenotypic and chemotypic characteristics as two different bioactive strains of the genus Streptomyces. We described here the fermentation, isolation, as well as the biological activity of these bioactive compounds. The isolated compounds (1-3) are reported here as microbial products for the first time.

  5. Streptomyces Exploration: Competition, Volatile Communication and New Bacterial Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie E; Elliot, Marie A

    2017-07-01

    Streptomyces bacteria are prolific producers of specialized metabolites, and have a well studied, complex life cycle. Recent work has revealed a new type of Streptomyces growth termed 'exploration' - so named for the ability of explorer cells to rapidly traverse solid surfaces. Streptomyces exploration is stimulated by fungal interactions, and is associated with the production of an alkaline volatile organic compound (VOC) capable of inducing exploration by other streptomycetes. Here, we examine Streptomyces exploration from the perspectives of interkingdom interactions, pH-induced morphological switches, and VOC-mediated communication. The phenotypic diversity that can be revealed through microbial interactions and VOC exposure is providing us with insight into novel modes of microbial development, and an opportunity to exploit VOCs to stimulate desired microbial behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces

    OpenAIRE

    Maria eBonaldi; Xiaoyulong eChen; Andrea eKunova; Cristina ePizzatti; Marco eSaracchi; Paolo eCortesi

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plas...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces spp. Isolates from vegetable plantation soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Streptomyces isolates were isolated from soil in some different location on vegetable plantation at agriculture standard condition. The isolates were assessed for their antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB ATCC H37RV and mycobacterial which isolated from Dr. Soetomo Hospital patients in Surabaya. The International Streptomyces Project 4 (ISP4 and Middlebrook 7H9 (MB7H9 wwere used as growth or fermentation medium. The screening of inhibition activity was performed using turbidimetry and spot-test on agar medium. Results shown that 33.3% of the isolates (5 isolates have anti-mycobacterial activities. The first line anti tuberculosis drug rifampicin, (RIF, ethambutol (EMB, isoniazid (INH, and pyrazinamide (PZA were used as standards or positive controls with concentration 20 ppm. Optical density of crude fermentation broth concentrated from five isolates relatively lower than five anti-tuberculosis drug activity standard, although their activities against some microbial were similar to the standard at spot-test. The most efficient isolate shown anti-mycobacterial activity was Streptomyces B10 which identified as Streptomyces violaceousniger. In addition, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profile of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatogram of each isolates were studied and compared to Streptomyces spp. Keywords: Anti-mycobacterial, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptomyces spp.

  8. 'Streptomyces caelicus', an antibiotic-producing species of the genus Streptomyces, and Streptomyces canchipurensis Li et al. 2015 are later heterotypic synonyms of Streptomyces muensis Ningthoujam et al. 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Joachim; Schumann, Peter; Atasayar, Ewelina; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zaburannyi, Nestor; Westermann, Martin; Martin, Karin; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kämpfer, Peter

    2017-04-01

    'Streptomyces caelicus' DSM 40835 was first reported as the producer of the antibiotic griselimycin by some coworkers of Rhone Poulenc in 1971. The project on isolation of the antibiotic compound was stopped because of the bad solubility and selectivity of the compound towards Mycobacteria. At Sanofi-Aventis, Germany, the project was re-evaluated in 2007 and the gene cluster of griselimycin could be identified, characterized and was patented in 2013. At this time, 'S. caelicus' was an invalid name. During the strain characterization work, it was found that 'S. caelicus' belongs to the group of species of the genus Streptomyces which show an unusual heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Streptomyces muensis JCM 17576T and Streptomyces canchipurensis JCM 17575T were obvious. Here, we present a comparative description of 'Streptomyces caelicus' DS 9461 (=DSM 40835=NCCB 100592) with S. muensis and S. canchipurensis by use of a polyphasic taxonomy approach and additional comparison of some housekeeping genes by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). An emended description of Streptomyces muensis is provided as a result of this work.

  9. Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipke, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

  10. Streptomyces ciscaucasicus Sveshnikova et al. 1983 is a later subjective synonym of Streptomyces canus Heinemann et al. 1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Rückert, Christian; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Wink, Joachim; Kalinowski, Jörn; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2018-01-01

    Streptomyces canuswas described in 1953 and the name was listed in the Approved List of Bacterial Names in 1980. Three years later, Streptomyces ciscaucasicus was published and the name was subsequently validated in Validation List no. 22 in 1986. On the basis of genome comparison and multilocus sequence analysis of the type strains of Streptomyces canus and Streptomyces ciscaucasicus it can now be shown that these two species despite some phenotypic differences are subjective synonyms. In such a case Rule 24 of the Bacteriological Code applies, in which priority of names is determined by the date of the original publication. Hence, we propose that S. ciscaucasicus is a later subjective synonym of S. canus.

  11. Sources of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant clostridia causing spoilage of vacuum-packed chilled meats, as determined by PCR amplification procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, D M; Boerema, J A; Brightwell, G

    2009-07-01

    To determine possible preslaughter and processing sources of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant clostridia causing spoilage of vacuum-packed chilled meats. Molecular methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of specific 16S rDNA fragments were used to detect the presence of Clostridium gasigenes, Clostridium estertheticum, Clostridium algidicarnis and Clostridium putrefaciens in a total of 357 samples collected from ten slaughter stock supply farms, slaughter stock, two lamb-processing plants, their environments, dressed carcasses and final vacuum-packed meat stored at -0.5 degrees C for 5(1/2) weeks. Clostridium gasigenes, C. estertheticum and C. algidicarnis/C. putrefaciens were commonly detected in farm, faeces, fleece and processing environmental samples collected at the slaughter floor operations prior to fleece removal, but all these micro-organisms were detected in only 4 out of 26 cooling floor and chiller environmental samples. One out of 42 boning room environmental samples tested positive for the presence of C. gasigenes and C. estertheticum, but 25 out of 42 of these samples were positive for C. algidicarnis/C. putrefaciens. Nearly all of the 31 faecal samples tested positive for the presence of C. gasigenes and C. estertheticum; however, only two of these samples were positive for C. algidicarnis and/or C. putrefaciens. Clostridial species that were subject to this investigation were frequently detected on chilled dressed carcasses. The major qualitative and quantitative differences between the results of PCR detection obtained with the primers specific for 'blown pack' -causing clostridia (C. gasigenes and C. estertheticum) and those obtained with primers specific for C. algidicarnis and C. putrefaciens suggest that the control of meat spoilage caused by different groups of meat clostridia is best approached individually for each group. This paper provides information significant for controlling meat spoilage-causing clostridia

  12. Triacylglyceride composition and fatty acyl saturation profile of a psychrophilic and psychrotolerant fungal species grown at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Blair, Hannah B; Fischer, Amy E; Gerdes, Cheyenne L; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic fungus that infects cutaneous tissues in cave dwelling bats, and it is the causal agent for white nose syndrome (WNS) in North American (NA) bat populations. Geomyces pannorum is a related psychrotolerant keratinolytic species that is rarely a pathogen of mammals. In this study, we grew P. destructans and G. pannorum in static liquid cultures at favourable and suboptimal temperatures to: 1) determine if triacylglyceride profiles are species-specific, and 2) determine if there are differences in fatty acyl (FA) saturation levels with respect to temperature. Total lipids isolated from both fungal spp. were separated by thin-layer chromatography and determined to be primarily sterols (∼15 %), free fatty acids (FFAs) (∼45 %), and triacylglycerides (TAGs) (∼50 %), with minor amounts of mono-/diacylglycerides and sterol esters. TAG compositions were profiled by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Total fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and acyl lipid unsaturation levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Pseudogymnoascus destructans produced higher proportions of unsaturated 18C fatty acids and TAGs than G. pannorum. Pseudogymnoascus destructans and G. pannorum produced up to a two-fold increase in 18:3 fatty acids at 5 °C than at higher temperatures. TAG proportion for P. destructans at upper and lower temperature growth limits was greater than 50 % of total dried mycelia mass. These results indicate fungal spp. alter acyl lipid unsaturation as a strategy to adapt to cold temperatures. Differences between their glycerolipid profiles also provide evidence for a different metabolic strategy to support psychrophilic growth, which may influence P. destructans' pathogenicity to bats. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of the psychrotolerant acetogen strain SyrA5 and the emended description of the species Acetobacterium carbinolicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarup, Maiken; Friedrich, Michael W; Tindall, Brian J; Finster, Kai

    2006-01-01

    A psychrotolerant, obligate anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium designated strain SyrA5 was isolated from black anoxic sediment of a brackish fjord. Cells were Gram-positive, non-sporeforming rods. The isolate utilized H(2)/CO(2), CO, fructose, glucose, ethanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, pyruvate, lactate, betaine and the methyl-groups of several methoxylated benzoic derivatives such as syringate, trimethoxybenzoate and vallinate. The optimum temperature for growth was 29 degrees C, whilst slow growth occurred at 2 degrees C. The strain grew optimally with NaCl concentrations below 2.7% (w/v), but growth occurred up to 4.3% (w/v) NaCl. Growth was observed in the range from pH 5.9 to 8.5, optimum at pH 8. The G+C content was 44.1 mol%. Based upon 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA reassociation studies, the organism was classified in the genus Acetobacterium. Strain SyrA5 shared a 16S rRNA sequence similarity with A. carbinolicum of 100%, a fthfs gene (which codes for the N5,N10 tetrahydrofolate synthetase) sequence identity of 98.5-98.7% (amino acid sequence similarities were 99.4-100%) and a RNA-DNA hybridization homology of 64-68%. Despite a number of phenotypic differences between strain SyrA5 and A. carbinolicum we propose including strain SyrA5 as a subspecies of A. carbinolicum for which we propose the name Acetobacterium carbinolicum subspecies kysingense. The type strain is SyrA5 (=DSM 16427(T), ATCC BAA-990).

  14. Production of Antimicrobial Agent by Streptomyces violachromogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Arwa A.

    2007-01-01

    The isolation of antibiotics from microorganisms improved the discovery of novel antibiotics, which is relatively easy as compared to chemical synthesis of antimicrobial agents. This study starts from isolation and purification of the antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes obtained from soil habitat of Yemen. The good antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes isolate was selected from a batch of Sterptomycetes isolates then identified. This isolate has bioactivity against some G+ve and G-ve bacteria. The antimicrobial agent isolated from Streptomyces violachromogenes (isolate no.YA118) was extracted with ethyl acetate at pH 3. The residue was applied to a silica gel column chromatography and eluted stepwise with many solvent systems. The active fractions were tested with B. subtilis NCTC10400. The purification of the antibiotic has been carried out by thin layer chromatography then the physical and chemical properties were studied to identify the antimicrobial agent. The isolated antimicrobial agent is an antibiotic belonging to the neomycin group. (author)

  15. Highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Yoshiko; Usuki, Hirokazu; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Hatanaka, Tadashi

    2011-01-05

    We introduce a highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces omiyaensis (SOT), which belongs to the trypsin family. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT was examined using in vitro assays and was compared with those of known fibrinolytic enzymes such as plasmin, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase, and nattokinase. Compared to other enzymes, SOT showed remarkably higher hydrolytic activity toward mimic peptides of fibrin and plasminogen. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT is about 18-fold higher than that of plasmin, and is comparable to that of t-PA by fibrin plate assays. Furthermore, SOT had some plasminogen activator-like activity. Results show that SOT and nattokinase have very different fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic modes, engendering significant synergetic effects of SOT and nattokinase on fibrinolysis. These results suggest that SOT presents important possibilities for application in the therapy of thrombosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychrophilic and psychrotolerant fungi on bats and the presence of Geomyces spp. on bat wings prior to the arrival of white nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynnaun J A N; Miller, Andrew N; McCleery, Robert A; McClanahan, Rod; Kath, Joseph A; Lueschow, Shiloh; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Since 2006, Geomyces destructans, the causative agent of white nose syndrome (WNS), has killed over 5.7 million bats in North America. The current hypothesis suggests that this novel fungus is an invasive species from Europe, but little is known about the diversity within the genus Geomyces and its distribution on bats in the United States. We documented the psychrophilic and psychrotolerant fungal flora of hibernating bats prior to the arrival of WNS using culture-based techniques. A total of 149 cultures, which were obtained from 30 bats in five bat hibernacula located in four caves and one mine, were sequenced for the entire internal transcribed spacer (ITS) nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) region. Approximately 53 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity were recovered from bat wings, with the community dominated by fungi within the genera Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geomyces, Mortierella, Penicillium, and Trichosporon. Eleven Geomyces isolates were obtained and placed in at least seven distinct Geomyces clades based on maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses. Temperature experiments revealed that all Geomyces strains isolated are psychrotolerant, unlike G. destructans, which is a true psychrophile. Our results confirm that a large diversity of fungi, including several Geomyces isolates, occurs on bats prior to the arrival of WNS. Most of these isolates were obtained from damaged wings. Additional studies need to be conducted to determine potential ecological roles of these abundant Geomyces strains isolated from bats.

  17. Spoilage of Microfiltered and Pasteurized Extended Shelf Life Milk Is Mainly Induced by Psychrotolerant Spore-Forming Bacteria that often Originate from Recontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Etienne V; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Premature spoilage and varying product quality due to microbial contamination still constitute major problems in the production of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk. Spoilage-associated bacteria may enter the product either as part of the raw milk microbiota or as recontaminants in the dairy plant. To identify spoilage-inducing bacteria and their routes of entry, we analyzed end products for their predominant microbiota as well as the prevalence and biodiversity of psychrotolerant spores in bulk tank milk. Process analyses were performed to determine the removal of psychrotolerant spores at each production step. To detect transmission and recontamination events, strain typing was conducted with isolates obtained from all process stages. Microbial counts in 287 ESL milk packages at the end of shelf life were highly diverse ranging from shelf life is influenced only to a minor extent by raw-milk-associated factors. In contrast, recontamination with spores, particularly from the B. cereus complex, seems to occur. To enhance milk quality throughout the entire shelf life, improved plant sanitation and disinfection that target the elimination of spores are necessary.

  18. 40 CFR 180.1253 - Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1253 Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108 when used in or on all agricultural commodities...

  19. [Progress in developing and applying Streptomyces chassis - A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liping; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2016-03-04

    Natural products and their derivatives play an important role in modern healthcare. Their diversity in bioactivity and chemical structure inspires scientists to discover new drug entities for clinical use. However, chemical synthesis of natural compounds has insurmountable difficulties in technology and cost. Also, many original-producing bacteria have disadvantages of needing harsh cultivation conditions, having low productivity and other shortcomings. In addition, some gene clusters responsible for secondary metabolite biosynthesis are silence in the original strains. Therefore, it is of great significance to exploit strategy for the heterologous expression of natural products guided by synthetic biology. Recently, researchers pay more attention on using actinomycetes that are the main source of many secondary metabolites, such as antibiotics, anticancer agents, and immunosuppressive drugs. Especially, with huge development of genome sequencing, abundant resources of natural product biosynthesis in Streptomyces have been discovered, which highlight the special advantages on developing Streptomyces as the heterologous expression chassis cells. This review begins with the significance of the development of Streptomyces chassis, focusing on the strategies and the status in developing Streptomyces chassis cells, followed by examples to illustrate the practical applications of a variety of Streptomyces chassis.

  20. Discovering potential Streptomyces hormone producers by using disruptants of essential biosynthetic genes as indicator strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen B; Kitani, Shigeru; Nitta, Hiroko; Tomioka, Toshiya; Nihira, Takuya

    2017-10-01

    Autoregulators are low-molecular-weight signaling compounds that control the production of many secondary metabolites in actinomycetes and have been referred to as 'Streptomyces hormones'. Here, potential producers of Streptomyces hormones were investigated in 40 Streptomyces and 11 endophytic actinomycetes. Production of γ-butyrolactone-type (IM-2, VB) and butenolide-type (avenolide) Streptomyces hormones was screened using Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5 (ΔfarX), Streptomyces virginiae (ΔbarX) and Streptomyces avermitilis (Δaco), respectively. In these strains, essential biosynthetic genes for Streptomyces hormones were disrupted, enabling them to respond solely to the externally added hormones. The results showed that 20% of each of the investigated strains produced IM-2 and VB, confirming that γ-butyrolactone-type Streptomyces hormones are the most common in actinomycetes. Unlike the γ-butyrolactone type, butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones have been discovered in recent years, but their distribution has been unclear. Our finding that 24% of actinomycetes (12 of 51 strains) showed avenolide activity revealed for the first time that the butenolide-type Streptomyces hormone is also common in actinomycetes.

  1. Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., isolated from the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong M; Dahl, John L

    2016-11-01

    Several fast- to intermediate-growing, acid-fast, scotochromogenic bacteria were isolated from Sarracenia purpurea pitcher waters in Minnesota sphagnum peat bogs. Two strains (DL734T and DL739T) were among these isolates. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the phylogenetic positions of both strains is in the genus Mycobacterium with no obvious relation to any characterized type strains of mycobacteria. Phenotypic characterization revealed that neither strain was similar to the type strains of known species of the genus Mycobacterium in the collective properties of growth, pigmentation or fatty acid composition. Strain DL734T grew at temperatures between 28 and 32 °C, was positive for 3-day arylsulfatase production, and was negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease and nitrate reduction. Strain DL739T grew at temperatures between 28 and 37 °C, and was positive for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urea, nitrate reduction and 3-day arylsulfatase production. Both strains were catalase-negative while only DL739T grew with 5 % NaCl. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles were unique for each strain. DL739T showed an ability to survive at 8 °C with little to no cellular replication and is thus considered to be psychrotolerant. Therefore, strains DL734T and DL739T represent two novel species of the genus Mycobacterium with the proposed names Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are DL734T (=JCM 30395T=NCCB 100519T) and DL739T (=JCM 30396T=NCCB 100520T), respectively.

  2. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF STREPTOMYCES SPP. PRODUCING VANCOMYCIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-KABBANY, H.M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples obtained from different governments in Egypt were analyzed to determine the presence of types of antibiotic producing actinomycetes using starch-nitrite agar, starch-casein nitrate agar and Czapek's Dox agar as culture media. Different Streptomyces spp. were isolated. The Streptomyces (S.) isolates encountered were S. violochromogens, S. violaceus-nigar and S. orientalis and known as standard Vancomycin producers. The optimum conditions of S. orientalis; incubation period, initial pH and incubation temperature, were determined. In addition, physical properties; appearance, melting point, solubility, mass spectrophotometer of ultra violet (UV) and the effect of gamma rays, were also determined

  3. Genome-guided exploration of metabolic features of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952: past, current, and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Nguyen Huy; Dhakal, Dipesh; Pokhrel, Anaya Raj; Chu, Luan Luong; Van Pham, Thi Thuy; Shrestha, Anil; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2018-05-01

    Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 produces two major anthracyclines, doxorubicin (DXR) and daunorubicin (DNR), which are potent chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of several cancers. In order to gain detailed insight on genetics and biochemistry of the strain, the complete genome was determined and analyzed. The result showed that its complete sequence contains 7187 protein coding genes in a total of 8,023,114 bp, whereas 87% of the genome contributed to the protein coding region. The genomic sequence included 18 rRNA, 66 tRNAs, and 3 non-coding RNAs. In silico studies predicted ~ 68 biosynthetic gene clusters (BCGs) encoding diverse classes of secondary metabolites, including non-ribosomal polyketide synthase (NRPS), polyketide synthase (PKS I, II, and III), terpenes, and others. Detailed analysis of the genome sequence revealed versatile biocatalytic enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP), electron transfer systems (ETS) genes, methyltransferase (MT), glycosyltransferase (GT). In addition, numerous functional genes (transporter gene, SOD, etc.) and regulatory genes (afsR-sp, metK-sp, etc.) involved in the regulation of secondary metabolites were found. This minireview summarizes the genome-based genome mining (GM) of diverse BCGs and genome exploration (GE) of versatile biocatalytic enzymes, and other enzymes involved in maintenance and regulation of metabolism of S. peucetius. The detailed analysis of genome sequence provides critically important knowledge useful in the bioengineering of the strain or harboring catalytically efficient enzymes for biotechnological applications.

  4. Substrate Scope of O-Methyltransferase from Streptomyces peucetius for Biosynthesis of Diverse Natural Products Methoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Prakash; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Nguyen, Thi Huyen Trang; Dhakal, Dipesh; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2018-04-01

    Methylation is a common post-modification reaction that is observed during the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites produced by plants and microorganisms. Based on the sequence information from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC27952, a putative O-methyltransferase (OMT) gene SpOMT7740 was polymerase chain reaction amplified and cloned into E. coli BL21 (DE3) host to test the substrate promiscuity and conduct functional characterization. In vitro and in vivo reaction assays were carried out over various classes of substrates: flavonoids (flavonol, flavones, and isoflavonoid), chalcones, anthraquinones, anthracyclines, and sterol molecules, and the applications in synthesizing diverse classes of O-methoxy natural products were also illustrated. SpOMT7740 catalyzed the O-methylation reaction to form various natural and non-natural O-methoxides, includes 7-hydroxy-8-O-methoxy flavone, 3-O-methoxy flavone, three mono-, di-, and tri-O-methoxy genistein, mono-O-methoxy phloretin, mono-O-methoxy luteolin, 3-O-methoxy β-sitosterol, and O-methoxy anthraquinones (emodin and aloe emodin) and O-methoxy anthracycline (daunorubicin) exhibiting diverse substrate flexibility. Daunorubicin is a native secondary metabolite of S. peucetius. Among the compounds tested, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone was the best substrate for bioconversion to 7-hydroxy-8-O-methoxy flavone, and it was structurally elucidated. This enzyme showed a flexible catalysis over the given ranges of temperature, pH, and divalent cationic conditions for O-methylation.

  5. Development of a gene cloning system in a fast-growing and moderately thermophilic Streptomyces species and heterologous expression of Streptomyces antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptomyces species are a major source of antibiotics. They usually grow slowly at their optimal temperature and fermentation of industrial strains in a large scale often takes a long time, consuming more energy and materials than some other bacterial industrial strains (e.g., E. coli and Bacillus). Most thermophilic Streptomyces species grow fast, but no gene cloning systems have been developed in such strains. Results We report here the isolation of 41 fast-growing (about twice the rate of S. coelicolor), moderately thermophilic (growing at both 30°C and 50°C) Streptomyces strains, detection of one linear and three circular plasmids in them, and sequencing of a 6996-bp plasmid, pTSC1, from one of them. pTSC1-derived pCWH1 could replicate in both thermophilic and mesophilic Streptomyces strains. On the other hand, several Streptomyces replicons function in thermophilic Streptomyces species. By examining ten well-sporulating strains, we found two promising cloning hosts, 2C and 4F. A gene cloning system was established by using the two strains. The actinorhodin and anthramycin biosynthetic gene clusters from mesophilic S. coelicolor A3(2) and thermophilic S. refuineus were heterologously expressed in one of the hosts. Conclusions We have developed a gene cloning and expression system in a fast-growing and moderately thermophilic Streptomyces species. Although just a few plasmids and one antibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster from mesophilic Streptomyces were successfully expressed in thermophilic Streptomyces species, we expect that by utilizing thermophilic Streptomyces-specific promoters, more genes and especially antibiotic genes clusters of mesophilic Streptomyces should be heterologously expressed. PMID:22032628

  6. Optimization of culture conditions of Streptomyces rochei (MTCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation and culture conditions were studied in shaken-flask culture to induce the production of greater amounts of antimicrobial metabolites by Streptomyces rochei (10109). Antimicrobial metabolite production started after 48 h incubation and reached its optimum level at 20% inoculum size at 120 h, at which point the ...

  7. A non-polyene antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces albidoflavus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Out of these, 22% of the isolates exhibited activity against fungi. One promising strain, Streptomyces albidoflavus PU 23 with strong antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi was selected for further studies. Antibiotic was extracted and purified from the isolate. Aspergillus spp. was most sensitive to the antibiotic followed by ...

  8. Isolation and characterization of stable mutants of Streptomyces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Daunorubicin and its derivative doxorubicin are antitumour anthracycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces peucetius. In this study we report isolation of stable mutants of S. peucetius blocked in different steps of the daunorubicin biosynthesis pathway. Mutants were screened on the basis of colony colour since producer ...

  9. Characterization of Streptomyces strain SLO-105 isolated from Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... produce a vivid yellow pigment on most media except on the ISP5. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the isolate were compared with known Actinomycetes species described in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology and they suggested that SLO-105 strain belong to Streptomyces ...

  10. Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains from Korean Hospitals. Yun Hee Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jaya Ram Simkhada, Chi Nam Seong, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Seop Moon, Jin Cheol Yoo ...

  11. Utilization of carbon and nitrogen sources by Streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We tested a number of carbon and nitrogen compounds for their effect on the production of an antibacterial antibiotic by Streptomyces kananmyceticus M27. Dextrose was found to be the most suitable carbon source, though maltose, sucrose, and soluble starch gave moderate yields. (NH4)H2PO4 and yeast extract were ...

  12. Field efficacy of nonpathogenic Streptomyces species against potato common scab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of potato fields suppressive to common scab (CS) and of association of non-pathogenic streptomycetes with CS resistance suggest that non-pathogenic strains have potential to control or modulate CS disease. Biocontrol potential of non-pathogenic Streptomyces was examined in field experiments ...

  13. Extracellular carbohydrate metabolites from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Stanislav; Sedmera, Petr; Halada, Petr; Petříček, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 70, - (2007), s. 768-771 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/03/0285 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptomyces coelicolor * cultivation * spectroscopic Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2007

  14. Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...

  15. Carbon catabolite regulation in Streptomyces: new insights and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Rodríguez, Alba; Rocha, Diana; Ruiz-Villafán, Beatriz; Guzmán-Trampe, Silvia; Maldonado-Carmona, Nidia; Vázquez-Hernández, Melissa; Zelarayán, Augusto; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Sánchez, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    One of the most significant control mechanisms of the physiological processes in the genus Streptomyces is carbon catabolite repression (CCR). This mechanism controls the expression of genes involved in the uptake and utilization of alternative carbon sources in Streptomyces and is mostly independent of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS). CCR also affects morphological differentiation and the synthesis of secondary metabolites, although not all secondary metabolite genes are equally sensitive to the control by the carbon source. Even when the outcome effect of CCR in bacteria is the same, their essential mechanisms can be rather different. Although usually, glucose elicits this phenomenon, other rapidly metabolized carbon sources can also cause CCR. Multiple efforts have been put through to the understanding of the mechanism of CCR in this genus. However, a reasonable mechanism to explain the nature of this process in Streptomyces does not yet exist. Several examples of primary and secondary metabolites subject to CCR will be examined in this review. Additionally, recent advances in the metabolites and protein factors involved in the Streptomyces CCR, as well as their mechanisms will be described and discussed in this review.

  16. Secondary Metabolites Produced during the Germination of Streptomyces coelicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čihák, M.; Kameník, Zdeněk; Šmídová, Klára; Bergman, N.; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Petříčková, Kateřina; Bobek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, DEC 13 (2017), č. článku 2495. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : spore germination * Streptomyces * cell signaling Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  17. A non-polyene antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces albidoflavus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    One promising strain, Streptomyces albidoflavus PU 23 with strong anti- fungal activity against pathogenic fungi was selected for further studies. Antibiotic was extracted and purified from the isolate. Aspergillus spp. was most sensitive to the antibiotic followed by other molds and yeasts. The antibiotic was stable at different ...

  18. Waste to wealth: Production of oxytetracycline using streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces speibonae OXS1 in solid-state fermentation from cocoyam peels (household kitchen wastes of agricultural produce) was investigated. The proximate analyses of peels of the two cocoyam species showed that Colocasia esculenta had higher protein (1.39%) and fibre ...

  19. Two novel homologous proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans are involved in the formation of the rodlet layer and mediate attachment to a hydrophobic surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, Dennis; Wösten, Han A.B.; Keulen, Geertje van; Faber, Onno G.; Alves, Alexandra M.C.R.; Meijer, Wim G.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    The filamentous bacteria Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans exhibit a complex life cycle. After a branched submerged mycelium has been established, aerial hyphae are formed that may septate to form chains of spores. The aerial structures possess several surface layers of unknown

  20. Lateral Gene Transfer Dynamics in the Ancient Bacterial Genus Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bradon R; Currie, Cameron R

    2017-06-06

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) profoundly shapes the evolution of bacterial lineages. LGT across disparate phylogenetic groups and genome content diversity between related organisms suggest a model of bacterial evolution that views LGT as rampant and promiscuous. It has even driven the argument that species concepts and tree-based phylogenetics cannot be applied to bacteria. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are surprisingly rare in the ubiquitous and biomedically important bacterial genus Streptomyces Using a molecular clock, we estimate that the Streptomyces bacteria are ~380 million years old, indicating that this bacterial genus is as ancient as land vertebrates. Calibrating LGT rate to this geologic time span, we find that on average only 10 genes per million years were acquired and subsequently maintained. Over that same time span, Streptomyces accumulated thousands of point mutations. By explicitly incorporating evolutionary timescale into our analyses, we provide a dramatically different view on the dynamics of LGT and its impact on bacterial evolution. IMPORTANCE Tree-based phylogenetics and the use of species as units of diversity lie at the foundation of modern biology. In bacteria, these pillars of evolutionary theory have been called into question due to the observation of thousands of lateral gene transfer (LGT) events within and between lineages. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are exceedingly rare in the bacterial genus Streptomyces , with merely one gene acquired in Streptomyces lineages every 100,000 years. These findings stand in contrast to the current assumption of rampant genetic exchange, which has become the dominant hypothesis used to explain bacterial diversity. Our results support a more nuanced understanding of genetic exchange, with LGT impacting evolution over short timescales but playing a significant role over long timescales. Deeper understanding of LGT provides new

  1. Pre-sporulation stages of Streptomyces differentiation: state-of-the-art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, Paula; López-García, Maria T.; Rioseras, Beatriz; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycetes comprise very important industrial bacteria, producing two-thirds of all clinically relevant secondary metabolites. They are mycelial microorganisms with complex developmental cycles that include programmed cell death (PCD) and sporulation. Industrial fermentations are usually performed in liquid cultures (large bioreactors), conditions in which Streptomyces strains generally do not sporulate, and it was traditionally assumed that there was no differentiation. In this work, we review the current knowledge on Streptomyces pre-sporulation stages of Streptomyces differentiation. PMID:23496097

  2. Atividade antifúngica e cinética de morte microbiana de extratos obtidos de Streptomyces spp. isolados de solos paraibanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Lopes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas sessenta e oito amostras em diferentes solos paraibanos, com o isolamento de quarenta e nove cepas de Streptomyces spp. Após triagem antimicrobiana, por meio da técnica de difusão em meio sólido com blocos de agar, foram preparados os extratos dos microrganismos produtores de metabólitos bioativos, respectivamente cepas SP1 e SP3, e em seguida avaliados quanto a atividade antifúngica frente a espécies de fungos filamentosos de origem clínica e ATCC. O antagonismo foi determinado através dos ensaios de difusão com discos em meio sólido, microdiluição e cinética de morte microbiana. Os halos de inibição obtidos a partir dos extratos Sp-1 e Sp-3 apresentaram efeito antagônico com valores superiores aos halos de inibição promovidos pela droga controle, frequentemente utilizada na terapêutica antifúngica. Os resultados das concentrações inibitórias mínimas na microdiluição foram expressivos com valores fungicidas variando entre 10 mg e 0,078125 mg. Na cinética de morte microbiana, as atividades dos extratos Sp-1 e Sp-3 resultaram em dados estatisticamente significativos frente às cepas testes.

  3. New and bioactive compounds from Streptomyces strains residing in the wood of Celastraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Christian; Schmitz, Petra; Meurer, Kristina; Bamberg, Daniel D v; Lohmann, Stephanie; De Castro França, Suzelei; Groth, Ingrid; Schlegel, Brigitte; Möllmann, Ute; Gollmick, Friedrich; Gräfe, Udo; Leistner, Eckhard

    2002-11-01

    Wood from three different plants of the Celastraceae growing in their natural habitats in Brazil (Maytenus aquifolia Mart.) and South Africa [Putterlickia retrospinosa van Wyk and Mostert, P. verrucosa (E. Meyer ex Sonder) Szyszyl.] was established as a source of endophytic bacteria using a medium selective for actinomycetes. Two isolates were identified as Streptomyces setonii and S. sampsonii whereas two others were not assignable to any of the known Streptomyces species. They were preliminarily named Streptomyces Q21 and Streptomyces MaB-QuH-8. The latter strain produces a new chloropyrrol and chlorinated anthracyclinone. The chloropyrrol showed high activity against a series of multiresistent bacteria and mycobacteria.

  4. Recent advances in understanding Streptomyces [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith F. Chater

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available About 2,500 papers dated 2014–2016 were recovered by searching the PubMed database for Streptomyces, which are the richest known source of antibiotics. This review integrates around 100 of these papers in sections dealing with evolution, ecology, pathogenicity, growth and development, stress responses and secondary metabolism, gene expression, and technical advances. Genomic approaches have greatly accelerated progress. For example, it has been definitively shown that interspecies recombination of conserved genes has occurred during evolution, in addition to exchanges of some of the tens of thousands of non-conserved accessory genes. The closeness of the association of Streptomyces with plants, fungi, and insects has become clear and is reflected in the importance of regulators of cellulose and chitin utilisation in overall Streptomyces biology. Interestingly, endogenous cellulose-like glycans are also proving important in hyphal growth and in the clumping that affects industrial fermentations. Nucleotide secondary messengers, including cyclic di-GMP, have been shown to provide key input into developmental processes such as germination and reproductive growth, while late morphological changes during sporulation involve control by phosphorylation. The discovery that nitric oxide is produced endogenously puts a new face on speculative models in which regulatory Wbl proteins (peculiar to actinobacteria respond to nitric oxide produced in stressful physiological transitions. Some dramatic insights have come from a new model system for Streptomyces developmental biology, Streptomyces venezuelae, including molecular evidence of very close interplay in each of two pairs of regulatory proteins. An extra dimension has been added to the many complexities of the regulation of secondary metabolism by findings of regulatory crosstalk within and between pathways, and even between species, mediated by end products. Among many outcomes from the application of

  5. Enhanced production and application of acidothermophilic Streptomyces cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budihal, Saikumar R; Agsar, Dayanand; Patil, Sarvamangala R

    2016-01-01

    An efficient cellulolytic and acidothermophilic actinobacterium was isolated from soil, adhered to decomposing tree bark and was identified as Streptomyces DSK59. Screening of synthetic media and the media components identified that, a medium based on starch casein minerals containing carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and beef extract (BE) could support enhanced cellulase production by the organism. CMC, BE, NaCl, temperature and pH were accounted as significant for cellulase production and these were optimized using a response surface central composite design (CCD). Optimization of cellulase production resulted in an enhancement of endoglucanase activity to 27IUml(-1). Acidothermophillic Streptomyces cellulase was found to be efficient for hydrolysis of pretreated sorghum stover and liberated 0.413gg(-1) of total reducing sugars which was higher than previously reported sugar yields obtained using fungal enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Antibacterial activity of rare Streptomyces species against clinical resistant bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughachiche, Faiza; Reghioua, Sihem; Zerizer, Habiba; Boulahrouf, Abderrahmane

    2012-01-01

    In the search for new antibiotics from Steptomyces, investigating extremes habitats enhances the probability of isolating novel producers. In this context, the antibacterial activity of four Streptomyces strains isolated from Ezzmoul saltpans was studied. Two of them showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic's resistant bacteria (Bacillus cereus: β-lactamines and sulfamides resistant, Streptococcus faecalis: penicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole resistant, and Staphylococcus aureus Mu 50: vancomycine resistant). The most active Streptomyces strain produces one type of polar bioactive molecules that resists to temperature variation and light exposition. Its activity appears in the first culture day and reaches its maximal value in the fourth day. The second strain presents themoresistant activity that reaches its maximal value in the first culture day. It produces two types of bioactive molecules, one is polar and the second is non polar (according to thin layer chromatography technique results).

  7. Determination of optimal conditions of oxytetracyclin production from streptomyces rimosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouaghi, Atef

    2007-01-01

    Streptomyces rimosus is an oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotic producing bacteria that exhibited activities against gram positive and negative bacteria. OTC is used widely not only in medicine but also in production industry. The antibiotic production of streptomyces covers a very wide range of condition. However, antibiotic producers are particularly fastidious cultivated by proper selection of media such as carbon source. In present study we have optimised conditions of OTC production (Composition of production media, p H, shaking and temperature). The results have been shown that bran barley is the optimal media for OTC production at 28C pH5.8 at 150rpm for 5 days. For antibiotic determination, OTC was extracted with different organic solvent. Thin-layer chromatography system was used for separation and identification of OTC antibiotic. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection for the analysis of OTC is applied to the determination of OTC purification. (Author). 24 refs

  8. Uptake of nourseothricin by the producing microorganism, Streptomyces noursei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, B.; Graefe, U.

    1985-01-01

    The uptake of 14 C-(U)-nourseothricin by stationary phase mycelium of Streptomyces noursei JA 3890b-NG 13/14 was demonstrated. An energy-dependent transport system appears to be involved in the transport of the antibiotic. Relatively large quantities of the antibiotic were adsorbed to the surface of mycelium. Degradation of nourseothricin by the producing microorganism was not detectable. (author)

  9. CobB1 deacetylase activity in Streptomyces coelicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulík, Karel; Felsberg, Jürgen; Kudrnáčová, E.; Bezoušková, Silvia; Šetinová, Dita; Stodůlková, Eva; Zídková, J.; Zídek, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2012), s. 179-187 ISSN 0829-8211 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110805; GA ČR GA303/09/0475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : sirtuin * NAD(+)dependent deacetylation activity CobB1 * Streptomyces coeliocolor Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.915, year: 2012

  10. The Cellular Mechanisms that Ensure an Efficient Secretion in Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gullón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive soil bacteria included in the genus Streptomyces produce a large variety of secondary metabolites in addition to extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. From the industrial and commercial viewpoints, the S. lividans strain has generated greater interest as a host bacterium for the overproduction of homologous and heterologous hydrolytic enzymes as an industrial application, which has considerably increased scientific interest in the characterization of secretion routes in this bacterium. This review will focus on the secretion machinery in S. lividans.

  11. Disease control effect of strevertenes produced by Streptomyces psammoticus against tomato fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Do; Han, Jae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Dongho; Hwang, In Cheon; Kim, Beom Seok

    2011-03-09

    During screening of microorganisms producing antifungal metabolites, Streptomyces psammoticus strain KP1404 was isolated. The culture extract of this strain showed potent disease control efficacy against Fusarium wilt on tomato plants. The antifungal metabolites ST-1 and ST-2 were isolated from the culture extract using a variety of chromatographic procedures. On the basis of MS and NMR spectrometric analysis, the structures of the antifungal active compounds ST-1 and ST-2 were determined to be the polyene antibiotics strevertene A and strevertene B, respectively. In vitro, strevertenes A and B showed inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of Alternaria mali , Aspergillus oryzae , Cylindrocarpon destructans , Colletotrichum orbiculare , Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , even at concentrations of 4-16 μg/mL. Fusarium wilt development on tomato plants was strongly retarded by treatment with 1 μg/mL of these strevertenes. The disease control efficacies of strevertenes on Fusarium wilt were as remarkable as that of benomyl.

  12. Lateral Gene Transfer Dynamics in the Ancient Bacterial Genus Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradon R. McDonald

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lateral gene transfer (LGT profoundly shapes the evolution of bacterial lineages. LGT across disparate phylogenetic groups and genome content diversity between related organisms suggest a model of bacterial evolution that views LGT as rampant and promiscuous. It has even driven the argument that species concepts and tree-based phylogenetics cannot be applied to bacteria. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are surprisingly rare in the ubiquitous and biomedically important bacterial genus Streptomyces. Using a molecular clock, we estimate that the Streptomyces bacteria are ~380 million years old, indicating that this bacterial genus is as ancient as land vertebrates. Calibrating LGT rate to this geologic time span, we find that on average only 10 genes per million years were acquired and subsequently maintained. Over that same time span, Streptomyces accumulated thousands of point mutations. By explicitly incorporating evolutionary timescale into our analyses, we provide a dramatically different view on the dynamics of LGT and its impact on bacterial evolution.

  13. Analysis of the Pho regulon in Streptomyces tsukubaensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Robles, María; Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Martín, Juan F

    2017-12-01

    Phosphate regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces has been studied due to the importance of this genus as a source of secondary metabolites with biological activity. Streptomyces tsukubaensis is the main producer of tacrolimus (or FK506), an immunosuppressant macrolide that generates important benefits for the pharmaceutical market. However, the production of tacrolimus is under a negative control by phosphate and, therefore, is important to know the molecular mechanism of this regulation. Despite its important role, there are no reports about the Pho regulon in S. tsukubaensis. In this work we combined transcriptional studies on the response to phosphate starvation with the search for PHO boxes in the whole genome sequence of S. tsukubaensis. As a result, we identified a set of genes responding to phosphate starvation and containing PHO boxes that include common Pho regulon members but also new species-specific candidates. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the functional activity of PhoP from S. tsukubaensis through complementation studies in a Streptomyces coelicolor ΔphoP strain. For this purpose, we developed an anhydrotetracycline inducible system that can be applied to the controlled expression of target genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel extracellular PHB depolymerase from Streptomyces ascomycinicus: PHB copolymers degradation in acidic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García-Hidalgo

    Full Text Available The ascomycin-producer strain Streptomyces ascomycinicus has been proven to be an extracellular poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB degrader. The fkbU gene, encoding a PHB depolymerase (PhaZ Sa , has been cloned in E. coli and Rhodococcus sp. T104 strains for gene expression. Gram-positive host Rhodococcus sp. T104 was able to produce and secrete to the extracellular medium an active protein form. PhaZ Sa was purified by two hydrophobic interaction chromatographic steps, and afterwards was biochemically as well as structurally characterized. The enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 48.4 kDa, and displayed highest activity at 45°C and pH 6, thus being the first PHB depolymerase from a gram-positive bacterium presenting an acidic pH optimum. The PHB depolymerase activity of PhaZ Sa was increased in the presence of divalent cations due to non-essential activation, and also in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and PEG 3350. Protein structure was analyzed, revealing a globular shape with an alpha-beta hydrolase fold. The amino acids comprising the catalytic triad, Ser(131-Asp(209-His(269, were identified by multiple sequence alignment, chemical modification of amino acids and site-directed mutagenesis. These structural results supported the proposal of a three-dimensional model for this depolymerase. PhaZ Sa was able to degrade PHB, but also demonstrated its ability to degrade films made of PHB, PHBV copolymers and a blend of PHB and starch (7∶3 proportion wt/wt. The features shown by PhaZ Sa make it an interesting candidate for industrial applications involving PHB degradation.

  15. Novel extracellular PHB depolymerase from Streptomyces ascomycinicus: PHB copolymers degradation in acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hidalgo, Javier; Hormigo, Daniel; Arroyo, Miguel; de la Mata, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycin-producer strain Streptomyces ascomycinicus has been proven to be an extracellular poly(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) degrader. The fkbU gene, encoding a PHB depolymerase (PhaZ Sa ), has been cloned in E. coli and Rhodococcus sp. T104 strains for gene expression. Gram-positive host Rhodococcus sp. T104 was able to produce and secrete to the extracellular medium an active protein form. PhaZ Sa was purified by two hydrophobic interaction chromatographic steps, and afterwards was biochemically as well as structurally characterized. The enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 48.4 kDa, and displayed highest activity at 45°C and pH 6, thus being the first PHB depolymerase from a gram-positive bacterium presenting an acidic pH optimum. The PHB depolymerase activity of PhaZ Sa was increased in the presence of divalent cations due to non-essential activation, and also in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and PEG 3350. Protein structure was analyzed, revealing a globular shape with an alpha-beta hydrolase fold. The amino acids comprising the catalytic triad, Ser(131)-Asp(209)-His(269), were identified by multiple sequence alignment, chemical modification of amino acids and site-directed mutagenesis. These structural results supported the proposal of a three-dimensional model for this depolymerase. PhaZ Sa was able to degrade PHB, but also demonstrated its ability to degrade films made of PHB, PHBV copolymers and a blend of PHB and starch (7∶3 proportion wt/wt). The features shown by PhaZ Sa make it an interesting candidate for industrial applications involving PHB degradation.

  16. An Endophytic Actinomycete,Sterptomyces sp.AOK-30,Isolated from Mountain Laurel and Its Antifungal Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tomio, NISHIMURA; Akane, MEGURO; Sachiko, HASEGAWA; Yoshiko, NAKAGAWA; Masafumi, SHIMIZU; Hitoshi, KUNOH; Akatsuka Orchid Co.,Ltd.; Akatsuka Orchid Co.,Ltd.; Akatsuka Orchid Co.,Ltd.; Akatsuka Orchid Co.,Ltd.; Laboratory of Ecological Circulation,Faculty of Bioresources,Mie University; Laboratory of Ecological Circulation,Faculty of Bioresources,Mie University

    2002-01-01

    To survey endophytic actinomycetes as potential biocontrol agents against fungal diseases of mountain laurel, young plants of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) were used as an isolation source. From a total of 73 actinomycetes isolates obtained from leaves, stems and roots of test plants, Streptomyces sp. AOK-30 was selected, because i) it had a broad and intense antimicrobial spectrum against various yeasts and fungal pathogens of Ericaceae, ii) it grew on the multiplication and rooting ...

  17. Nutrient use preferences among soil Streptomyces suggest greater resource competition in monoculture than polyculture plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient use overlap among sympatric Streptomyces populations is correlated with pathogen inhibitory capacity, yet there is little information on either the factors that influence nutrient use overlap among coexisting populations or the diversity of nutrient use among soil Streptomyces. We examined ...

  18. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T formed a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these ot...

  19. Self-resistance in Streptomyces, with Special Reference to β-Lactam Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawara, Hiroshi

    2016-05-10

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious public health problems. Among bacterial resistance, β-lactam antibiotic resistance is the most prevailing and threatening area. Antibiotic resistance is thought to originate in antibiotic-producing bacteria such as Streptomyces. In this review, β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in Streptomyces are explored mainly by phylogenetic analyses from the viewpoint of self-resistance. Although PBPs are more important than β-lactamases in self-resistance, phylogenetically diverse β-lactamases exist in Streptomyces. While class A β-lactamases are mostly detected in their enzyme activity, over two to five times more classes B and C β-lactamase genes are identified at the whole genomic level. These genes can subsequently be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. As for PBPs, two pairs of low affinity PBPs protect Streptomyces from the attack of self-producing and other environmental β-lactam antibiotics. PBPs with PASTA domains are detectable only in class A PBPs in Actinobacteria with the exception of Streptomyces. None of the Streptomyces has PBPs with PASTA domains. However, one of class B PBPs without PASTA domain and a serine/threonine protein kinase with four PASTA domains are located in adjacent positions in most Streptomyces. These class B type PBPs are involved in the spore wall synthesizing complex and probably in self-resistance. Lastly, this paper emphasizes that the resistance mechanisms in Streptomyces are very hard to deal with, despite great efforts in finding new antibiotics.

  20. Streptomyces effect on the bacterial microbiota associated to Crassostrea sikamea oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Bernal, M; Trabal Fernández, N; Saucedo Lastra, P E; Medina Marrero, R; Mazón-Suástegui, J M

    2017-03-01

    To determine the composition and diversity of the microbiota associated to Crassostrea sikamea treated during 30 days with Streptomyces strains N7 and RL8. DNA was extracted from oysters followed by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing. The highest and lowest species diversity richness was observed in the initial and final control group, whereas Streptomyces-treated oysters exhibited intermediate values. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum (81·4-95·1%), followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The genera Anderseniella, Oceanicola, Roseovarius, Ruegeria, Sulfitobacter, Granulosicoccus and Marinicella encompassed the core microbiota of all experimental groups. The genus Bacteriovorax was detected in all groups except in the final control and the depurated N7, whereas Vibrio remained undetected in all Streptomyces-treated groups. RL8 was the only group that harboured the genus Streptomyces in its microbiota. Principal component analysis showed that Streptomyces strains significantly changed oyster microbiota with respect to the initial and final control. Crassostrea sikamea treated with Streptomyces showed high species diversity and a microbiota composition shift, characterized by keeping the predator genus Bacteriovorax and decreasing the pathogenic Vibrio. This is the first culture-independent study showing the effect of Streptomyces over the oyster microbiota. It also sheds light about the potential use of Streptomyces to improve mollusc health and safety for consumers after the depuration process. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Plant Community Richness Mediates Inhibitory Interactions and Resource Competition between Streptomyces and Fusarium Populations in the Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essarioui, Adil; LeBlanc, Nicholas; Kistler, Harold C; Kinkel, Linda L

    2017-07-01

    Plant community characteristics impact rhizosphere Streptomyces nutrient competition and antagonistic capacities. However, the effects of Streptomyces on, and their responses to, coexisting microorganisms as a function of plant host or plant species richness have received little attention. In this work, we characterized antagonistic activities and nutrient use among Streptomyces and Fusarium from the rhizosphere of Andropogon gerardii (Ag) and Lespedeza capitata (Lc) plants growing in communities of 1 (monoculture) or 16 (polyculture) plant species. Streptomyces from monoculture were more antagonistic against Fusarium than those from polyculture. In contrast, Fusarium isolates from polyculture had greater inhibitory capacities against Streptomyces than isolates from monoculture. Although Fusarium isolates had on average greater niche widths, the collection of Streptomyces isolates in total used a greater diversity of nutrients for growth. Plant richness, but not plant host, influenced the potential for resource competition between the two taxa. Fusarium isolates had greater niche overlap with Streptomyces in monoculture than polyculture, suggesting greater potential for Fusarium to competitively challenge Streptomyces in monoculture plant communities. In contrast, Streptomyces had greater niche overlap with Fusarium in polyculture than monoculture, suggesting that Fusarium experiences greater resource competition with Streptomyces in polyculture than monoculture. These patterns of competitive and inhibitory phenotypes among Streptomyces and Fusarium populations are consistent with selection for Fusarium-antagonistic Streptomyces populations in the presence of strong Fusarium resource competition in plant monocultures. Similarly, these results suggest selection for Streptomyces-inhibitory Fusarium populations in the presence of strong Streptomyces resource competition in more diverse plant communities. Thus, landscape-scale variation in plant species richness may be

  2. Lignocellulose-Adapted Endo-Cellulase Producing Streptomyces Strains for Bioconversion of Cellulose-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Ionata, Elena; Birolo, Leila; Montella, Salvatore; Marcolongo, Loredana; de Chiaro, Addolorata; Espresso, Francesco; Faraco, Vincenza; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four Actinobacteria strains, isolated from Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus nigra biomass during natural biodegradation and with potential enzymatic activities specific for the degradation of lignocellulosic materials, were identified by a polyphasic approach. All strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces ( S .) and in particular, the most highly represented species was Streptomyces argenteolus representing 50% of strains, while 8 strains were identified as Streptomyces flavogriseus (synonym S. flavovirens ) and Streptomyces fimicarius (synonyms Streptomyces acrimycini, Streptomyces baarnensis, Streptomyces caviscabies , and Streptomyces flavofuscus ), and the other four strains belonged to the species Streptomyces drozdowiczii, Streptomyces rubrogriseus, Streptomyces albolongus , and Streptomyces ambofaciens . Moreover, all Streptomyces strains, tested for endo and exo-cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, ligninase, peroxidase, and laccase activities using qualitative and semi-quantitative methods on solid growth medium, exhibited multiple enzymatic activities (from three to six). The 24 strains were further screened for endo-cellulase activity in liquid growth medium and the four best endo-cellulase producers ( S. argenteolus AE58P, S. argenteolus AE710A, S. argenteolus AE82P, and S. argenteolus AP51A) were subjected to partial characterization and their enzymatic crude extracts adopted to perform saccharification experiments on A. donax pretreated biomass. The degree of cellulose and xylan hydrolysis was evaluated by determining the kinetics of glucose and xylose release during 72 h incubation at 50°C from the pretreated biomass in the presence of cellulose degrading enzymes (cellulase and β-glucosidase) and xylan related activities (xylanase and β-xylosidase). The experiments were carried out utilizing the endo-cellulase activities from the selected S. argenteolus strains supplemented with commercial β-gucosidase and

  3. High-Efficiency Genome Editing of Streptomyces Species by an Engineered CRISPR/Cas System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Cobb, R E; Zhao, H

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have rapidly expanded the genomic information of numerous organisms and revealed a rich reservoir of natural product gene clusters from microbial genomes, especially from Streptomyces, the largest genus of known actinobacteria at present. However, genetic engineering of these bacteria is often time consuming and labor intensive, if even possible. In this chapter, we describe the design and construction of pCRISPomyces, an engineered Type II CRISPR/Cas system, for targeted multiplex gene deletions in Streptomyces lividans, Streptomyces albus, and Streptomyces viridochromogenes with editing efficiency ranging from 70% to 100%. We demonstrate pCRISPomyces as a powerful tool for genome editing in Streptomyces. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endophytic Streptomyces spp. as Biocontrol Agents of Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight Pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATIH DEWI HASTUTI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, a causal agent of bacterial leaf blight (BLB, is one of the most important pathogens of rice. The effectiveness of ten Streptomyces spp. isolates in suppressing Xoo disease was assessed in planta and in vitro. In planta experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and arranged in a randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replications. Twenty treatments were tested which included plants inoculated with both Streptomyces spp. and Xoo, and plants inoculated with only Streptomyces spp. Plants inoculated with Xoo and sprayed with a chemical bactericide, and plants inoculated with only Xoo served as positive controls, whereas plants not inoculated with either Streptomyces spp. or Xoo were used as negative controls. The results showed that the effect of endophytic Streptomyces spp. on BLB disease expressed as area under disease progress curve (AUDPC was not significantly different to that on control plants (P > 0.05. However, plants inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. were significantly taller and produced higher tiller number than control plants (P < 0.05. Streptomyces spp. isolate AB131-1 gave the highest plant height. In vitro studies on biocontrol mechanisms of selected Streptomyces spp. isolates showed that isolate LBR02 gave the highest inhibition activity on Xoo growth, followed by AB131-1 and AB131-2. Two isolates (AB131-1 and LBR02 were able to produce chitinase, phosphatase, and siderophore which included biocontrol characteristics. Morphological and colonization studies under SEM and light microscopy confirmed that the three isolates were endophytic Streptomyces spp. from different species. These studies found that the paddy plant which was inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. AB131-1 and infected by Xoo could increase the height of plant and number of tillers.

  5. SP. Pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Gendre

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'occhiello di un articolo dal titolo Il Peru dei de[Jini rosa e de/la grande pioggia si legge: "da una partenza  in aereo al «pescado»  che ti  sfamera."1 Questa parola spagnola, giustamente chiusa tra caporali, a noi pare molto interes­ sante, perche, nonostante l'apparenza, non ha nulla da spartire sotto i1 profilo se­ mantico con l'it. pescato. lnfatti, tutti i piu importanti dizionari della lingua italiana, di ieri e di oggi, etimologici e non 2, registrano  accanto a pescata,  ii lemma pescato, 3 ma lo spiegano come "quantita di pesce catturato nel corso di una battuta o di una stagione di pesca",4 mentre lo sp. pescado  indica i1 "pesce (solo nel senso di: pesGe pescato da mangiare [...]".s

  6. Streptomyces phaeopurpureus Shinobu 1957 (Approved Lists 1980) and Streptomyces griseorubiginosus (Ryabova and Preobrazhenskaya 1957) Pridham et al. 1958 (Approved Lists 1980) are heterotypic subjective synonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Rückert, Christian; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Wink, Joachim; Kalinowski, Jörn; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2017-08-01

    On the basis of whole genome comparisons of Streptomyces griseorubiginosus and Streptomyces phaeopurpureus it could by shown that these two species are subjective synonyms. The names of both species have been published in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and, in such a case, normally Rule 24b (1) of the Prokaryotic Code applies, which reads: 'If two names compete for priority and if both names date from 1 January 1980 on an Approved List, the priority shall be determined by the date of the original publication of the name before 1 January 1980'. Streptomyces griseorubiginosus and Streptomyces phaeopurpureus were both effectively published in 1957, and for both publications, the exact date cannot be obtained. In this case a further statement of Rule 24 applies, which reads: 'If the names or epithets are of the same date, the author who first unites the taxa has the right to choose one of them, and his choice must be followed.' Hence we propose that Streptomyces phaeopurpureus is a later heterotypic subjective synonym of Streptomyces griseorubiginosus.

  7. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative prospective of kosinostatin – a secondary metabolite isolated from Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayagam Rambabu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a communal health hazard worldwide. The present investigation attempts to evaluate antimicrobial and anticancer potential of kosinostatin on mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7. The anticancer and antiproliferative activities of kosinostatin were analyzed on MCF cell line by MTT assay and cytotoxicity assays like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glutathione (GSH. The secondary metabolite kosinostatin exhibited its apoptotic nature by expressing p53 protein. Collectively, the results acquired from this study promise that kosinostatin shows the potent anticancer activity.

  8. Modulation of LPS induced inflammatory response by Lawsonyl monocyclic terpene from the marine derived Streptomyces sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ali, A.; Khajuria, A.; Sidiq, T.; AshokKumar; Thakur, N.L.; Naik, D.; Vishwakarma, R.A.

    . The effect of Lawsonone (1) was elucidated on the immune cells (splenocytes and macrophages) collected from BALB/c mice. Study was carried out to find the effect of Lawsonone (1) on Con-A and LPS stimulated splenocyte proliferation, LPS-induced NO, IL-1beta...

  9. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by marine invertebrate–derived Streptomyces sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, D.N.; Wahidullah, S.; Meena, R.M.

    -Gly is to some extent responsible for the observed biological activity, cinnamic acid seems to be the main compound responsible for it. Marine-derived actinomycetes are a potential storehouse for QS inhibitors....

  10. Diazaquinomycins E–G, Novel Diaza-Anthracene Analogs from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Mullowney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of our program to identify novel secondary metabolites that target drug-resistant ovarian cancers, a screening of our aquatic-derived actinomycete fraction library against a cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR5 led to the isolation of novel diaza-anthracene antibiotic diazaquinomycin E (DAQE; 1, the isomeric mixture of diazaquinomycin F (DAQF; 2 and diazaquinomycin G (DAQG; 3, and known analog diazaquinomycin A (DAQA; 4. The structures of DAQF and DAQG were solved through deconvolution of X-Ray diffraction data of their corresponding co-crystal. DAQE and DAQA exhibited moderate LC50 values against OVCAR5 of 9.0 and 8.8 μM, respectively. At lethal concentrations of DAQA, evidence of DNA damage was observed via induction of apoptosis through cleaved-PARP. Herein, we will discuss the isolation, structure elucidation, and biological activity of these secondary metabolites.

  11. MDN-0170, a New Napyradiomycin from Streptomyces sp. Strain CA-271078

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Lacret

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new napyradiomycin, MDN-0170 (1, was isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived actinomycete strain CA-271078, together with three known related compounds identified as 4-dehydro-4a-dechloronapyradiomycin A1 (2, napyradiomycin A1 (3 and 3-chloro-6,8-dihydroxy-8-α-lapachone (4. The structure of the new compound was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS. The relative configuration of compound 1, which contains two independent stereoclusters, has been established by molecular modelling in combination with nOe and coupling constant analyses. Biosynthetic arguments also allowed us to propose its absolute stereochemistry. The antimicrobial properties of the compounds isolated were evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida albicans. The potent bioactivity previously reported for compounds 2 and 3 against methicillin-sensitive S. aureus has been extended to methicillin-resistant strains in this report.

  12. MDN-0170, a New Napyradiomycin from Streptomyces sp. Strain CA-271078

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacret, Rodney; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Oves-Costales, Daniel; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Domingo, Elizabeth; Martín, Jesús; Díaz, Caridad; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Reyes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A new napyradiomycin, MDN-0170 (1), was isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived actinomycete strain CA-271078, together with three known related compounds identified as 4-dehydro-4a-dechloronapyradiomycin A1 (2), napyradiomycin A1 (3) and 3-chloro-6,8-dihydroxy-8-α-lapachone (4). The structure of the new compound was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS). The relative configuration of compound 1, which contains two independent stereoclusters, has been established by molecular modelling in combination with nOe and coupling constant analyses. Biosynthetic arguments also allowed us to propose its absolute stereochemistry. The antimicrobial properties of the compounds isolated were evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida albicans. The potent bioactivity previously reported for compounds 2 and 3 against methicillin-sensitive S. aureus has been extended to methicillin-resistant strains in this report. PMID:27763545

  13. Production of gold nanoparticles by Streptomyces djakartensis isolate B-5

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    Sara Biglari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  Objective(s: Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (NGPs is environmentally safer than chemical and physical procedures. This method requires no use of toxic solvents and synthesis of dangerous products and is environmentally safe. In this study, we report the biosynthesis of NGPs using Streptomyces djakartensis isolate B-5. Materials and Methods: NGPs were biosynthesized by reducing aqueous gold chloride solution via a Streptomyces isolate without the need for any additive for protecting nanoparticles from aggregation. We characterized the responsible Streptomycete; its genome DNA was isolated, purified and 16S rRNA was amplified by PCR. The amplified isolate was sequenced; using the BLAST search tool from NCBI, the microorganism was identified to species level. Results: Treating chloroauric acid solutions with this bacterium resulted in reduction of gold ions and formation of stable NGPs. TEM and SEM electro micrographs of NGPs indicated size range from 2- 25 nm with average of 9.09 nm produced intracellular by the bacterium. SEM electro micrographs revealed morphology of spores and mycelia. The amplified PCR fragment of 16S rRNA gene was cloned and sequenced from both sides; it consisted of 741 nucleotides. According to NCBI GenBank, the bacterium had 97.1% homology with Streptomyces djakartensis strain RT-49. The GenBank accession number for partial 16S rRNA gene was recorded as JX162550. Conclusion: Optimized application of such findings may create applications of Streptomycetes for use as bio-factories in eco-friendly production of NGPs to serve in demanding industries and related biomedical areas. Research in this area should also focus on the unlocking the full mechanism of NGPs biosynthesis by Streptomycetes.

  14. Extracellular synthesis gold nanotriangles using biomass of Streptomyces microflavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani Nejad, Meysam; Khatami, Mehrdad; Shahidi Bonjar, Gholam Hosein

    2016-02-01

    Applications of nanotechnology and nano-science have ever-expanding breakthroughs in medicine, agriculture and industries in recent years; therefore, synthesis of metals nanoparticle (NP) has special significance. Synthesis of NPs by chemical methods are long, costly and hazardous for environment so biosynthesis has been developing interest for researchers. In this regard, the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanotriangles (AuNTs) performed by use of the soil Streptomycetes. Streptomycetes isolated from rice fields of Guilan Province, Iran, showed biosynthetic activity for producing AuNTs via in vitro experiments. Among all 15 Streptomyces spp. isolates, isolate No. 5 showed high biosynthesis activity. To determine the bacterium taxonomical identity at genus level, its colonies characterised morphologically by use of scanning electron microscope. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) molecular analysis of active isolate represented its identity partially. In this regard, 16S rRNA gene of the isolate was amplified using universal bacterial primers FD1 and RP2. The PCR products were purified and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA was then conducted using National Center for Biotechnology Information Basic Local Alignment Search Tool method. The AuNTs obtained were characterised by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy analyses. The authors results indicated that Streptomyces microflavus isolate 5 bio-synthesises extracellular AuNTs in the range of 10-100 nm. Synthesised SNPs size ranged from 10 to 100 nm. In comparison with chemical methods for synthesis of metal NPs, the biosynthesis of AuNTs by Streptomyces source is a fast, simple and eco-friendly method. The isolate is a good candidate for further investigations to optimise its production efficacy for further industrial goals in

  15. Morphological differentiation of Streptomyces viridochromogenes E-219 on solid culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xinle; Zhu Jing; Jin Yingyan

    2012-01-01

    The Streptomyces viridochromogenes E-219 was derived from Streptomyces viridochromogenes CGMCC4.1119 treated with 60 Co γ-rays irradiation and protoplast fusion. With the help of fluorescent probes, fluorescence microscope and electron microscopy, the morphology and development of E-219 on solid surface culture were investigated in this study. The effect of agarslant culture time on the production of Avilamycin was also studied to provide theoretical basis for industrial fermentation of selecting the appropriate seed to culture on the agarslant culture medium. The results implied that the development of colonies of Streptomyces viridochromogenes accompanied the intermittent hyhae apoptosis, and the production of spores was from the active mycelium. The colonial morphology of strain E-219 was significantly different from the original strain CGMCC4h1119. There were variegated hyphae formation in the stage of spore germination and initial hyphae development (10 h) with the live and dead segments alternated in a highly regular fashion within the same hypha. After the early single colony formation, the third phase was followed by profuse growth of the live segments derived from the variegated hypha, then the second apoptosis of the mycelia (48 h) was occurred with another quick growth, and sporulation was occurred at 96 h. Strain CGMCC4.1119 had spiral sporotrichial and round conidiophores with spike, whereas strain E-219 had linear sporotrichial, smooth and dylindrical conidiophore. The results of shake flask experiments indicated that the spores of E-219 had that highest activity when cultured on agarslant culture medium and incubated for 106 h with the production of avilamycin up to 1200 mg/L. (authors)

  16. Purification, characterization, cytotoxicity and anticancer activities of L-asparaginase, anti-colon cancer protein, from the newly isolated alkaliphilic Streptomyces fradiae NEAE-82

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Deraz, Sahar F.; Soliman, Hoda M.; El-Deeb, Nehal M.; El-Ewasy, Sara M.

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase is an important enzyme as therapeutic agents used in combination with other drugs in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A newly isolated actinomycetes strain, Streptomyces sp. NEAE-82, was potentially producing extracellular L-asparaginase, it was identified as Streptomyces fradiae NEAE-82, sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number KJ467538. L-asparaginase was purified from the crude enzyme using ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and ion exchange chromatography using DEAE Sepharose CL-6B. Further the kinetic studies of purified enzyme were carried out. The optimum pH, temperature and incubation time for maximum L-asparaginase activity were found to be 8.5, 40 °C and 30 min, respectively. The optimum substrate concentration was found to be 0.06 M. The Km and Vmax of the enzyme were 0.01007 M and 95.08 Uml−1min−1, respectively. The half-life time (T1/2) was 184.91 min at 50 °С, while being 179.53 min at 60 °С. The molecular weight of the subunits of L-asparaginase was found to be approximately 53 kDa by SDS–PAGE analysis. The purified L-asparaginase showed a final specific activity of 30.636 U/mg protein and was purified 3.338-fold. The present work for the first time reported more information in the production, purification and characterization of L-asparaginase produced by newly isolated actinomycetes Streptomyces fradiae NEAE-82. PMID:27605431

  17. Gamma-butyrolactone and furan signaling systems in Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidda, John D; Corre, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces bacteria produce different classes of diffusible signaling molecules that trigger secondary metabolite production and/or morphological development within the cell population. The biosynthesis of gamma-butyrolactones (GBLs) and 2-alkyl-4-hydroxymethylfuran-3-carboxylic acids (AHFCAs) signaling molecules is related and involves an essential AfsA-like butenolide synthase. This chapter first describes the catalytic role of AfsA-like enzyme then provides details about methods for the discovery and characterization of potentially novel signaling molecules. In section 4, one approach for establishing the biological role of these signaling molecules is presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protoplast fusion in Streptomyces: fusions involving ultraviolet-irradiated protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, D.A.; Wright, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    Protoplasts of Streptomyces coelicolor showed the same ultraviolet killing kinetics as spores. Irradiated protoplasts gave rise to recombinants when they were fused with unirradiated protoplasts of a strain carrying complementary genetic markers. The decline with u.v. fluence in the capacity of irradiated protoplasts to yield recombinants inheriting individual markers was some six times less steep than the survival of unfused protoplasts; thus, for example, protoplasts reduced to only 0.01% survival still yielded 10% as many recombinants as unirradiated protoplasts. Each of six widely separated markers of the irradiated parent was inherited independently of the others, with a frequency falling exponentially with u.v. fluence. (author)

  19. Biocomputational prediction of small non-coding RNAs in Streptomyces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Josef; Bobek, Jan; Mikulík, Karel; Basler, Marek; Vohradský, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 217 (2008), s. 1-14 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/07/P361; GA ČR GA203/05/0106; GA ČR GA310/07/1009 Grant - others:XE(XE) EC Integrated Project ActinoGEN, LSHM-CT-2004-005224. Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : non-coding RNA * streptomyces * biocomputational prediction Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2008

  20. Gene cloning and characterization of a cold-adapted β-glucosidase belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 1 from a psychrotolerant bacterium Micrococcus antarcticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-Xia; Miao, Li-Li; Liu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2011-06-10

    The gene bglU encoding a cold-adapted β-glucosidase (BglU) was cloned from Micrococcus antarcticus. Sequence analysis revealed that the bglU contained an open reading frame of 1419 bp and encoded a protein of 472 amino acid residues. Based on its putative catalytic domains, BglU was classified as a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 1 (GH1). BglU possessed lower arginine content and Arg/(Arg+Lys) ratio than mesophilic GH1 β-glucosidases. Recombinant BglU was purified with Ni2+ affinity chromatography and subjected to enzymatic characterization. SDS-PAGE and native staining showed that it was a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 48 kDa. BglU was particularly thermolabile since its half-life time was only 30 min at 30°C and it exhibited maximal activity at 25°C and pH 6.5. Recombinant BglU could hydrolyze a wide range of aryl-β-glucosides and β-linked oligosaccharides with highest activity towards cellobiose and then p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (pNPG). Under the optimal conditions with pNPG as substrate, the K(m) and k(cat) were 7 mmol/L and 7.85 × 103/s, respectively. This is the first report of cloning and characterization of a cold-adapted β-glucosidase belonging to GH1 from a psychrotolerant bacterium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Discoloration of Ancient Egyptian Mural Paintings by Streptomyces Strains and Methods of Its Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Ali SAKR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces isolated from mural paintings at Tell Basta and Tanis tombs were identified using 16S rDNA sequencing method. These Streptomyces strains caused discoloration of mural paintings with irreversible red stains of carotenoid pigment. A mixture of n-hexan and acetone (92:8 v/v was the best solvent for extracting and purification of red pigment from biomass of Streptomyces. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF were the most effective in treatment of these red stains without changing the paintings or stone surfaces.

  2. Lethal and mutagenic effects of fast neutrons of different energy on Streptomyces griseus spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgorskaya, M.E.; Tulina, G.G.; Serdechnaya, A.I.; Matselyukh, B.P.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of lethal and mutagenic effects of fast neutrons of different energy on spores of prototrophic and auxotrophic strains of Streptomyces griseus. Relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons is higher than that of γ-rays and depends on beam energy. Neutrons of 22-50 MeV induce Streptomyces griseus mutations more frequently (by one order of magnitude) than neutrons of 1.4-1.6 MeV do. The obtained mutants can be used in studying Streptomyces griseus genetics

  3. ISOLASI STREPTOMYCES SPP. PADA KAWASAN HUTAN PROVINSI BALI SERTA UJI DAYA HAMBATNYA TERHADAP LIMA STRAIN DIARRHEAGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

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    I WAYAN EKA DHARMAWAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An exploration study of natural resources soil bacteria antibiotic-producer, Streptomyces spp. was done in two steps. The first step was isolation of Streptomyces and the second involved testing their inhibition activities against five strains diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Soil samples were collected from ten forest areas in Bali. As many as 55 isolates were collected with various macroscopic dan microscopic characters. Most isolates (eight Streptomyces isolates were collected from forest area in Penulisan, Kintamani (RTK. 20. The diversities of isolates are influenced by environment condition. All Streptomyces isolated were tested against five strains diarrheagenic Escherichia coli to check antibiotic activity for inhibit growth of E. coli. Streptomycine was used as a control. The result showed that the largest inhibition zones of Streptomyces against E. coli strains EHEC, ETEC, EIEC, EPEC and DAEC were produced by Streptomyces PK5 (48,67 ± 0,58 mm, Streptomyces GAA4 (29,00 ± 2,00 mm, Streptomyces GBK3 (42,67 ± 2,08 mm, Streptomyces SkBB5 (29,00 ± 2,65 mm and Streptomyces GM3 (33,67 ± 3,21 mm respectively.

  4. Aromatic Polyketide GTRI-02 is a Previously Unidentified Product of the act Gene Cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changsheng; Ichinose, Koji; Choi, Young Hae; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2017-07-18

    The biosynthesis of aromatic polyketides derived from type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) is complex, and it is not uncommon that highly similar gene clusters give rise to diverse structural architectures. The act biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) of the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is an archetypal type II PKS. Here we show that the act BGC also specifies the aromatic polyketide GTRI-02 (1) and propose a mechanism for the biogenesis of its 3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one backbone. Polyketide 1 was also produced by Streptomyces sp. MBT76 after activation of the act-like qin gene cluster by overexpression of the pathway-specific activator. Mining of this strain also identified dehydroxy-GTRI-02 (2), which most likely originated from dehydration of 1 during the isolation process. This work shows that even extensively studied model gene clusters such as act of S. coelicolor can still produce new chemistry, offering new perspectives for drug discovery. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Molecular Identification of Streptomyces producing antibiotics and their antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa A. Al_husnan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five strains of Streptomyces, namely S, N, W, E and C (designations should be mentioned in detail here isolated from the rhizosphere soil cultivated with palm Alajua (date, pressed dates, AlMedina city, Saudi Arabia, were induced to produce antibiotics. Antimicrobial activities were determined on solid medium supplemented with starch. The detection was based on the formation of transparent zones around colonies. The results indicated that isolates had antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and also showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. DNA extracted from five isolates was used as template for 16s rDNA gene amplification. The expected PCR size was 1.5 kbp;1.6 kbp; 1.25 kbp; 1.25kbp and 1.0 k bp for S, N, W, E and C isolates respectively using universal 16s rDNA gene primers using direct PCR. The isolates varied morphologically on the basis of spore color, aerial and substrate mycelium formation, and production of diffusible pigment. Isolates were tested under a microscope by using slide culture technique. The results indicate that the soil of this region is source of Streptomyces having antibacterial and antifungal activity and thus better utilization of these microorganisms as biological control agents.

  6. StreptomycesInforSys: A web-enabled information repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Chakresh Kumar; Gupta, Vidhi; Gupta, Ashvarya; Gupta, Sanjay; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Sarethy, Indira P

    2012-01-01

    Members of Streptomyces produce 70% of natural bioactive products. There is considerable amount of information available based on polyphasic approach for classification of Streptomyces. However, this information based on phenotypic, genotypic and bioactive component production profiles is crucial for pharmacological screening programmes. This is scattered across various journals, books and other resources, many of which are not freely accessible. The designed database incorporates polyphasic typing information using combinations of search options to aid in efficient screening of new isolates. This will help in the preliminary categorization of appropriate groups. It is a free relational database compatible with existing operating systems. A cross platform technology with XAMPP Web server has been used to develop, manage, and facilitate the user query effectively with database support. Employment of PHP, a platform-independent scripting language, embedded in HTML and the database management software MySQL will facilitate dynamic information storage and retrieval. The user-friendly, open and flexible freeware (PHP, MySQL and Apache) is foreseen to reduce running and maintenance cost. www.sis.biowaves.org.

  7. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBonaldi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

  8. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldi, Maria; Chen, Xiaoyulong; Kunova, Andrea; Pizzatti, Cristina; Saracchi, Marco; Cortesi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots, and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

  9. Draft genome sequences of six neonatal meningitis-causing escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65) were recovered from infants in the Netherlands from 1989 to 1997. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these six E. coli isolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing te...

  10. Characterization of two Streptomyces enzymes that convert ferulic acid to vanillin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Yang

    Full Text Available Production of flavors from natural substrates by microbial transformation has become a growing and expanding field of study over the past decades. Vanillin, a major component of vanilla flavor, is a principal flavoring compound used worldwide. Streptomyces sp. strain V-1 is known to be one of the most promising microbial producers of natural vanillin from ferulic acid. Although identification of the microbial genes involved in the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin has been previously reported, purification and detailed characterization of the corresponding enzymes with important functions have rarely been studied. In this study, we isolated and identified 2 critical genes, fcs and ech, encoding feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, respectively, which are involved in the vanillin production from ferulic acid. Both genes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resting cell reactions for converting ferulic acid to vanillin were performed. The corresponding crucial enzymes, Fcs and Ech, were purified for the first time and the enzymatic activity of each purified protein was studied. Furthermore, Fcs was comprehensively characterized, at an optimal pH of 7.0 and temperature of 30°C. Kinetic constants for Fcs revealed the apparent Km, kcat, and Vmax values to be 0.35 mM, 67.7 s(-1, and 78.2 U mg(-1, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km value of Fcs was 193.4 mM(-1 s(-1 for ferulic acid. The characterization of Fcs and Ech may be helpful for further research in the field of enzymatic engineering and metabolic regulation.

  11. Characterization of two Streptomyces enzymes that convert ferulic acid to vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenwen; Tang, Hongzhi; Ni, Jun; Wu, Qiulin; Hua, Dongliang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Production of flavors from natural substrates by microbial transformation has become a growing and expanding field of study over the past decades. Vanillin, a major component of vanilla flavor, is a principal flavoring compound used worldwide. Streptomyces sp. strain V-1 is known to be one of the most promising microbial producers of natural vanillin from ferulic acid. Although identification of the microbial genes involved in the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin has been previously reported, purification and detailed characterization of the corresponding enzymes with important functions have rarely been studied. In this study, we isolated and identified 2 critical genes, fcs and ech, encoding feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, respectively, which are involved in the vanillin production from ferulic acid. Both genes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resting cell reactions for converting ferulic acid to vanillin were performed. The corresponding crucial enzymes, Fcs and Ech, were purified for the first time and the enzymatic activity of each purified protein was studied. Furthermore, Fcs was comprehensively characterized, at an optimal pH of 7.0 and temperature of 30°C. Kinetic constants for Fcs revealed the apparent Km, kcat, and Vmax values to be 0.35 mM, 67.7 s(-1), and 78.2 U mg(-1), respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) value of Fcs was 193.4 mM(-1) s(-1) for ferulic acid. The characterization of Fcs and Ech may be helpful for further research in the field of enzymatic engineering and metabolic regulation.

  12. Characterization of Two Streptomyces Enzymes That Convert Ferulic Acid to Vanillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenwen; Tang, Hongzhi; Ni, Jun; Wu, Qiulin; Hua, Dongliang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Production of flavors from natural substrates by microbial transformation has become a growing and expanding field of study over the past decades. Vanillin, a major component of vanilla flavor, is a principal flavoring compound used worldwide. Streptomyces sp. strain V-1 is known to be one of the most promising microbial producers of natural vanillin from ferulic acid. Although identification of the microbial genes involved in the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin has been previously reported, purification and detailed characterization of the corresponding enzymes with important functions have rarely been studied. In this study, we isolated and identified 2 critical genes, fcs and ech, encoding feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, respectively, which are involved in the vanillin production from ferulic acid. Both genes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resting cell reactions for converting ferulic acid to vanillin were performed. The corresponding crucial enzymes, Fcs and Ech, were purified for the first time and the enzymatic activity of each purified protein was studied. Furthermore, Fcs was comprehensively characterized, at an optimal pH of 7.0 and temperature of 30°C. Kinetic constants for Fcs revealed the apparent K m, k cat, and V max values to be 0.35 mM, 67.7 s−1, and 78.2 U mg−1, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) value of Fcs was 193.4 mM−1 s−1 for ferulic acid. The characterization of Fcs and Ech may be helpful for further research in the field of enzymatic engineering and metabolic regulation. PMID:23840666

  13. Munumbicins, wide-spectrum antibiotics produced by Streptomyces NRRL 30562, endophytic on Kennedia nigriscans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Uvidelio F; Strobel, Gary A; Ford, Eugene J; Hess, Wilford M; Porter, Heidi; Jensen, James B; Albert, Heather; Robison, Richard; Condron, Margret A M; Teplow, David B; Stevens, Dennis; Yaver, Debbie

    2002-09-01

    Munumbicins A, B, C and D are newly described antibiotics with a wide spectrum of activity against many human as well as plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria, and a Plasmodium sp. These compounds were obtained from Streptomyces NRRL 3052, which is endophytic in the medicinal plant snakevine (Kennedia nigriscans), native to the Northern Territory of Australia. This endophyte was cultured, the broth was extracted with an organic solvent and the contents of the residue were purified by bioassay-guided HPLC. The major components were four functionalized peptides with masses of 1269.6, 1298.5, 1312.5 and 1326.5 Da. Numerous other related compounds possessing bioactivity, with differing masses, were also present in the culture broth extract in lower quantities. With few exceptions, the peptide portion of each component contained only the common amino acids threonine, aspartic acid (or asparagine), glutamic acid (or glutamine), valine and proline, in varying ratios. The munumbicins possessed widely differing biological activities depending upon the target organism. For instance, munumbicin B had an MIC of 2.5 microg x ml(-1) against a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, whereas munumbicin A was not active against this organism. In general, the munumbicins demonstrated activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the most impressive biological activity of any of the munumbicins was that of munumbicin D against the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum, having an IC(50) of 4.5+/-0.07 ng x ml(-1). This report also describes the potential of the munumbicins in medicine and agriculture.

  14. Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

  15. Photometric Characterization of the Reductive Amination Scope of the Imine Reductases from Streptomyces tsukubaensis and Streptomyces ipomoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, Philipp; Krautschick, Lukas; Höhne, Matthias

    2017-10-18

    Imine reductases (IREDs) have emerged as promising enzymes for the asymmetric synthesis of secondary and tertiary amines starting from carbonyl substrates. Screening the substrate specificity of the reductive amination reaction is usually performed by time-consuming GC analytics. We found two highly active IREDs in our enzyme collection, IR-20 from Streptomyces tsukubaensis and IR-Sip from Streptomyces ipomoeae, that allowed a comprehensive substrate screening with a photometric NADPH assay. We screened 39 carbonyl substrates combined with 17 amines as nucleophiles. Activity data from 663 combinations provided a clear picture about substrate specificity and capabilities in the reductive amination of these enzymes. Besides aliphatic aldehydes, the IREDs accepted various cyclic (C 4 -C 8 ) and acyclic ketones, preferentially with methylamine. IR-Sip also accepted a range of primary and secondary amines as nucleophiles. In biocatalytic reactions, IR-Sip converted (R)-3-methylcyclohexanone with dimethylamine or pyrrolidine with high diastereoselectivity (>94-96 % de). The nucleophile acceptor spectrum depended on the carbonyl substrate employed. The conversion of well-accepted substrates could also be detected if crude lysates were employed as the enzyme source. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Structured morphological modeling as a framework for rational strain design of Streptomyces species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celler, K.; Picioreanu, C.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Wezel, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Successful application of a computational model for rational design of industrial Streptomyces exploitation requires a better understanding of the relationship between morphology—dictated by microbial growth, branching, fragmentation and adhesion—and product formation. Here we review the

  17. Focused Review: Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Potentials of Mangrove-Derived Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi-Leng Ser

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human life expectancy is rapidly increasing with an associated increasing burden of chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, there is limited progress in finding effective treatment for these conditions. For this reason, members of the genus Streptomyces have been explored extensively over the past decades as these filamentous bacteria are highly efficient in producing bioactive compounds with human health benefits. Being ubiquitous in nature, streptomycetes can be found in both terrestrial and marine environments. Previously, two Streptomyces strains (MUSC 137T and MUM 256 isolated from mangrove sediments in Peninsular Malaysia demonstrated potent antioxidant and cytotoxic activities against several human cancer cell lines on bioactivity screening. These results illustrate the importance of streptomycetes from underexplored regions aside from the terrestrial ecosystem. Here we provide the insights and significance of Streptomyces species in the search of anticancer and/or chemopreventive agents and highlight the impact of next generation sequencing on drug discovery from the Streptomyces arsenal.

  18. Biological effects of N+ ion implantation and UV radiation on streptomyces albus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian; Dai Guifu

    2005-01-01

    The results of both 30 keV N + ion implantation and UV irradiation of Streptomyces albus showed complicate biological effects. The 'saddle shape' pattern of the dose-dependent curve formed by N + ion implantation with low energy was studied, and it proved that vacuum was not the reason, and the fact, the 'saddle shape' curve may be regarded as a HRS/IRR (hyper-radiosensitivity/increased radiaoresistance) effect caused by low dose irradiation. But Streptomyces albus UV irradiated after vacuum treatment only showed IRR effect or hormesis (survival rate >100%). The streptomycin resistance mutation of Streptomyces albus caused by low energy N + ion implantation and UV irradiation was also studied. the results showed that UV radiation is one effective means for streptomyces albus breeding. (authors)

  19. Streptocollin, a type IV lanthipeptide produced by Streptomyces collinus Tü 365

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftime, Dumitrita; Jasyk, Martin; Kulik, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Lanthipeptides are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified microbial secondary metabolites. Here, we report the identification and isolation of streptocollin from Streptomyces collinus Tü 365, a new member of the class IV lanthipeptides. Insertion of the constitutive ermE* promoter...

  20. Reducing the variability of antibiotic production in Streptomyces by cultivation in 24-square deepwell plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenberg, S.; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudhan; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Highly reproducible production values of the aminocoumarin antibiotic novobiocin were achieved by cultivation of a heterologous Streptomyces producer strain in commercially available square deepwell plates consisting of 24 wells of 3 ml culture volume each. Between parallel cultivation batches...

  1. Evaluation of the toxicity of Streptomyces aburaviensis (R9) towards various agricultural pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The culture filtrate fraction extracted with dichloromethane from Streptomyces aburaviensis -R9 strain grown on glucose-peptone-molasses (GPM) broth was bioassayed for its effect on phytopathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, C. gloeosoprioids, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum,...

  2. The construction of a library of synthetic promoters revealed some specific features of strong Streptomyces promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghezzi, Nicolas; Amar, Patrick; Købmann, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces are bacteria of industrial interest whose genome contains more than 73% of bases GC. In order to define, in these GC-rich bacteria, specific sequence features of strong promoters, a library of synthetic promoters of various sequence composition was constructed in Streptomyces. To do so...... cloned into the promoter-probe plasmid pIJ487 just upstream of the promoter-less aphII gene that confers resistance to neomycin. This synthetic promoter library was transformed into Streptomyces lividans, and the resulting transformants were screened for their ability to grow in the presence of different...... projects. Thirty-eight promoters were sequenced, and the sequences of the 14 weakest and 14 strongest promoters were compared using the WebLogo software with small sample correction. This comparison revealed that the −10 box, the −10 extended motif as well as the spacer of the strong Streptomyces promoters...

  3. Focused Review: Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Potentials of Mangrove-Derived Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chan, Kok-Gan; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Saokaew, Surasak; Pusparajah, Priyia; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Human life expectancy is rapidly increasing with an associated increasing burden of chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, there is limited progress in finding effective treatment for these conditions. For this reason, members of the genus Streptomyces have been explored extensively over the past decades as these filamentous bacteria are highly efficient in producing bioactive compounds with human health benefits. Being ubiquitous in nature, streptomycetes can be found in both terrestrial and marine environments. Previously, two Streptomyces strains (MUSC 137T and MUM 256) isolated from mangrove sediments in Peninsular Malaysia demonstrated potent antioxidant and cytotoxic activities against several human cancer cell lines on bioactivity screening. These results illustrate the importance of streptomycetes from underexplored regions aside from the terrestrial ecosystem. Here we provide the insights and significance of Streptomyces species in the search of anticancer and/or chemopreventive agents and highlight the impact of next generation sequencing on drug discovery from the Streptomyces arsenal. PMID:29163380

  4. Diversity and functions of volatile organic compounds produced by Streptomyces from a disease-suppressive soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovez, Viviane; Carrion, Victor J; Etalo, Desalegn W; Mumm, Roland; Zhu, Hua; van Wezel, Gilles P; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2015-01-01

    In disease-suppressive soils, plants are protected from infections by specific root pathogens due to the antagonistic activities of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, however, the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are largely unknown. Our recent studies identified Actinobacteria as the most dynamic phylum in a soil suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Here we isolated and characterized 300 isolates of rhizospheric Actinobacteria from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil. Streptomyces species were the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the isolates. Streptomyces are renowned for the production of an exceptionally large number of secondary metabolites, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOC profiling of 12 representative Streptomyces isolates by SPME-GC-MS allowed a more refined phylogenetic delineation of the Streptomyces isolates than the sequencing of 16S rRNA and the house-keeping genes atpD and recA only. VOCs of several Streptomyces isolates inhibited hyphal growth of R. solani and significantly enhanced plant shoot and root biomass. Coupling of Streptomyces VOC profiles with their effects on fungal growth, pointed to VOCs potentially involved in antifungal activity. Subsequent assays with five synthetic analogs of the identified VOCs showed that methyl 2-methylpentanoate, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxy benzene and the VOCs mixture have antifungal activity. In conclusion, our results point to a potential role of VOC-producing Streptomyces in disease suppressive soils and show that VOC profiling of rhizospheric Streptomyces can be used as a complementary identification tool to construct strain-specific metabolic signatures.

  5. Diversity and functions of volatile organic compounds produced by Streptomyces from a disease-suppressive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane eCordovez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In disease-suppressive soils, plants are protected from infections by specific root pathogens due to the antagonistic activities of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, however, the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are largely unknown. Our recent studies identified Actinobacteria as the most dynamic phylum in a soil suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Here we isolated and characterized 300 isolates of rhizospheric Actinobacteria from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil. Streptomyces species were the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the isolates. Streptomyces are renowned for the production of an exceptionally large number of secondary metabolites, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs. VOC profiling of 12 representative Streptomyces isolates by SPME-GC-MS allowed a more refined phylogenetic delineation of the Streptomyces isolates than the sequencing of 16S rRNA and the house-keeping genes atpD and recA only. VOCs of several Streptomyces isolates inhibited hyphal growth of R. solani and significantly enhanced plant shoot and root biomass. Coupling of Streptomyces VOC profiles with their effects on fungal growth, pointed to VOCs potentially involved in antifungal activity. Subsequent assays with five synthetic analogues of the identified VOCs showed that methyl 2-methylpentanoate, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxy benzene and the VOCs mixture have antifungal activity. In conclusion, our results point to a potential role of VOC-producing Streptomyces in disease suppressive soils and show that VOC profiling of rhizospheric Streptomyces can be used as a complementary identification tool to construct strain-specific metabolic signatures.

  6. Systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species for the production of secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces species continue to attract attention as a source of novel medicinal compounds. Despite a long history of studies on these microorganisms, they still have many biochemical mysteries to be elucidated. Investigations of novel secondary metabolites and their biosynthetic gene clusters...... collected in the form of databases and knowledgebases, providing predictive information and enabling one to explore experimentally unrecognized biological spaces of secondary metabolism. Herein, we review recent trends in the systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species....

  7. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl P. Andam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift.

  8. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Doroghazi, James R.; Campbell, Ashley N.; Kelly, Peter J.; Choudoir, Mallory J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift. PMID:27073097

  9. Karakterisasi Parsial Streptomyces spp., Agens Pengendali Hayati Peyakit Lincat Tembakau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwidodo Arwiyanto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Local isolates of Streptomyces spp. were proven could suppress "lincat disease" of tobacco in the field. Six isolates were chosen for partial characterization of their bacteriological properties as based for the next experiments purposes. The results indicated that the isolates produce miselium with spore chains, gram positive, aerob, catalase and oxidase positive. The isolates also hydrolize starch, gelatine and esculine; produce lecithinase enzyme, reduce nitrate to nitrite, do not produce melanine pigment, did not produce hydrogen sulfide. The isolates were sensitive against streptomycine and rifampicin; able to use several carbon and nitrogen sources tested. Capable to grow on several medium pH, from 4,3 to 8,0. The isolates were able to grow from 5° C to 45° C; able to grow on medium containing 4% to 7% NaCl and ion the medium containing 0,1% of phenol. Plant pathogenicity test result showed negative responses which indicated that the used isolates were non plant pathogenic. The ability in suppressing lincat pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro was vary between isolates.   Streptomyces spp, isolat lokal terbukti dapat menekan penyakit lunvat tembakau di lapangan. Sebanyak enam isolat dipilih untuk dicirikan sebagai sifat-sifat bakteriologinya sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai dasar dalam penelitian berikutnya. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap sifat morfologi, fisiologi dan sifat biokimia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolat yang diteliti menghasilkan miselium yang memproduksi rangkaian spora, Gram positif, aerob, katalase dan oksidase positif. Isolat-isolat tersebut menghidrolisis pati, gelatin, eskulin; membentuk ensim lechitinase, mereduksi nitrat menjadi nitrit, tidak menghasilkan pigmen melanin, tidak membentuk hidrogen sulfida. Isolat yang diteliti peka terhadap antibiotik streptomisin dan nifampisin; mampu menggunakan beberapa sumber karbon dan sumber nitrogen yang diujikan, Kisaran pH untuk

  10. Biodegradation of degradable plastic polyethylene by phanerochaete and streptomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B; Pometto, A L; Fratzke, A; Bailey, T B

    1991-03-01

    The ability of lignin-degrading microorganisms to attack degradable plastics was investigated in pure shake flask culture studies. The degradable plastic used in this study was produced commercially by using the Archer-Daniels-Midland POLYCLEAN masterbatch and contained pro-oxidant and 6% starch. The known lignin-degrading bacteria Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, S. badius 252, and S. setonii 75Vi2 and fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were used. Pro-oxidant activity was accelerated by placing a sheet of plastic into a drying oven at 70 degrees C under atmospheric pressure and air for 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, or 20 days. The effect of 2-, 4-, and 8-week longwave UV irradiation at 365 nm on plastic biodegradability was also investigated. For shake flask cultures, plastics were chemically disinfected and incubated-shaken at 125 rpm at 37 degrees C in 0.6% yeast extract medium (pH 7.1) for Streptomyces spp. and at 30 degrees C for the fungus in 3% malt extract medium (pH 4.5) for 4 weeks along with an uninoculated control for each treatment. Weight loss data were inconclusive because of cell mass accumulation. For almost every 70 degrees C heat-treated film, the Streptomyces spp. demonstrated a further reduction in percent elongation and polyethylene molecular weight average when compared with the corresponding uninoculated control. Significant (P < 0.05) reductions were demonstrated for the 4- and 8-day heat-treated films by all three bacteria. Heat-treated films incubated with P. chrysosporium consistently demonstrated higher percent elongation and molecular weight average than the corresponding uninoculated controls, but were lower than the corresponding zero controls (heat-treated films without 4-week incubation). The 2- and 4-week UV-treated films showed the greatest biodegradation by all three bacteria. Virtually no degradation by the fungus was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating bacterial degradation of these oxidized polyethylenes in

  11. A whole genome analysis reveals the presence of a plant PR1 sequence in the potato pathogen Streptomyces scabies and other Streptomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos-Jaramillo, Vinicio; Santander-Gordón, Daniela; Soria, Rosa; Pazmiño-Betancourth, Mauro; Echeverría, María Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Streptomyces scabies is a common soil bacterium that causes scab symptoms in potatoes. Strong evidence indicates horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among bacteria has influenced the evolution of this plant pathogen and other Streptomyces spp. To extend the study of the HGT to the Streptomyces genus, we explored the effects of the inter-domain HGT in the S. scabies genome. We employed a semi-automatic pipeline based on BLASTp searches and phylogenetic reconstruction. The data show low impact of inter-domain HGT in the S. scabies genome; however, we found a putative plant pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) sequence in the genome of S. scabies and other species of the genus. It is possible that this gene could be used by S. scabies to out-compete other soil organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Proposal to rename Carnobacterium inhibens as Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens subsp. nov. and description of Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi subsp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from Siberian permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L; Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Oliveira, Rafael R; Triplett, Eric W

    2015-02-01

    A novel, psychrotolerant facultative anaerobe, strain WN1359(T), was isolated from a permafrost borehole sample collected at the right bank of the Kolyma River in Siberia, Russia. Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, rod-shaped cells were observed with sizes of 1-2 µm long and 0.4-0.5 µm wide. Growth occurred in the range of pH 5.8-9.0 with optimal growth at pH 7.8-8.6 (pH optimum 8.2). The novel isolate grew at temperatures from 0-37 °C and optimal growth occurred at 25 °C. The novel isolate does not require NaCl; growth was observed between 0 and 8.8 % (1.5 M) NaCl with optimal growth at 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The isolate was a catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic chemo-organoheterotroph that used sugars but not several single amino acids or dipeptides as substrates. The major metabolic end-product was lactic acid in the ratio of 86 % l-lactate : 14 % d-lactate. Strain WN1359(T) was sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, fusidic acid, lincomycin, monocycline, rifampicin, rifamycin SV, spectinomycin, streptomycin, troleandomycin and vancomycin, and resistant to nalidixic acid and aztreonam. The fatty acid content was predominantly unsaturated (70.2 %), branched-chain unsaturated (11.7 %) and saturated (12.5 %). The DNA G+C content was 35.3 mol% by whole genome sequence analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 98.7 % sequence identity between strain WN1359(T) and Carnobacterium inhibens. Genome relatedness was computed using both Genome-to-Genome Distance Analysis (GGDA) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), which both strongly supported strain WN1359(T) belonging to the species C. inhibens. On the basis of these results, the permafrost isolate WN1359(T) represents a novel subspecies of C. inhibens, for which the name Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WN1359(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2557(T) = DSM 27470(T)). The subspecies Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens subsp. nov. is created automatically. An

  13. HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay for specific identification of Streptomyces scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei, the potato common scab pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R; Falardeau, J; Avis, T J; Tambong, J T

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay targeting the trpB gene for specific identification of Streptomyces scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei. Four primer pairs and a fluorescent probe were designed and evaluated for specificity in identifying S. scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei, the potato common scab pathogens. The specificity of the HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay was evaluated using 46 bacterial strains, 23 Streptomyces strains and 23 non-Streptomyces bacterial species. Specific and strong fluorescence signals were detected from all nine strains of S. scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei. No fluorescence signal was detected from 14 strains of other Streptomyces species and all non-Streptomyces strains. The identification was corroborated by the melting curve analysis that was performed immediately after the amplification step. Eight of the nine S. scabies and S. europaeiscabiei strains exhibited a unique melting peak, at Tm of 69·1°C while one strain, Warba-6, had a melt peak at Tm of 65·4°C. This difference in Tm peaks could be attributed to a guanine to cytosine mutation in strain Warba-6 at the region spanning the donor HybProbe. The reported HybProbes assay provides a more specific tool for accurate identification of S. scabies and S. europaeiscabiei strains. This study reports a novel assay based on HybProbes chemistry for rapid and accurate identification of the potato common scab pathogens. Since the HybProbes chemistry requires two probes for positive identification, the assay is considered to be more specific than conventional PCR or TaqMan real-time PCR. The developed assay would be a useful tool with great potential in early diagnosis and detection of common scab pathogens of potatoes in infected plants or for surveillance of potatoes grown in soil environment. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Crystallization and diffraction analysis of thioredoxin reductase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koháryová, Michaela; Brynda, Jiří; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Kollárová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Thioredoxin reductase from S. coelicolor was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. Thioredoxin reductases are homodimeric flavoenzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to oxidized thioredoxin substrate. Bacterial thioredoxin reductases represent a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. Recombinant thioredoxin reductase TrxB from Streptomyces coelicolor was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected from cryocooled crystals to 2.4 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 82.9, b = 60.6, c = 135.4 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 96.5°

  15. TOF-SIMS investigation of Streptomyces coelicolor, a mycelial bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman; Fletcher, John S.; Lockyer, Nicholas P.; Vickerman, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a mycelial microorganism that produces several secondary metabolites, including antibiotics. The physiology of the organism has largely been investigated in liquid cultures due to ease of monitoring different physiological parameters and more homogeneous culture conditions. However, solid cultures reflect the natural physiology of the microorganism better, given that in its natural state it grows in the soil. Imaging mass spectrometry with TOF-SIMS and C 60 + primary ion beams offers a potential route to studying chemical changes at the molecular level, both intracellular and extracellular that can help in understanding the natural physiology of the microorganism. Here, we report the application of the technique for studying the lateral distribution of the chemical species detected in a population, grown in both liquid and solid cultures. The capability of the technique for studying biological systems with minimal system intervention is demonstrated.

  16. Purification and characterization of an intracellular peroxidase from Streptomyces cyaneus.

    OpenAIRE

    Mliki, A; Zimmermann, W

    1992-01-01

    An intracellular peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) from Streptomyces cyaneus was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 185,000 and was composed of two subunits of equal size. It had an isoelectric point of 6.1. The enzyme had a peroxidase activity toward o-dianisidine with a Km of 17.8 microM and a pH optimum of 5.0. It also showed catalase activity with a Km of 2.07 mM H2O2 and a pH optimum of 8.0. The purified enzyme did not catalyze C alpha-C beta bond cleavage of 1,3-dihydr...

  17. TOF-SIMS investigation of Streptomyces coelicolor, a mycelial bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman; Fletcher, John S.; Lockyer, Nicholas P.; Vickerman, John C.

    2008-12-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a mycelial microorganism that produces several secondary metabolites, including antibiotics. The physiology of the organism has largely been investigated in liquid cultures due to ease of monitoring different physiological parameters and more homogeneous culture conditions. However, solid cultures reflect the natural physiology of the microorganism better, given that in its natural state it grows in the soil. Imaging mass spectrometry with TOF-SIMS and C 60+ primary ion beams offers a potential route to studying chemical changes at the molecular level, both intracellular and extracellular that can help in understanding the natural physiology of the microorganism. Here, we report the application of the technique for studying the lateral distribution of the chemical species detected in a population, grown in both liquid and solid cultures. The capability of the technique for studying biological systems with minimal system intervention is demonstrated.

  18. Characterization of Xylanase Streptomyces spp. SKK1-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANJA MERYANDINI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces spp. SKK1-8 producing xylanase was isolated from soil sample from Sukabumi West Java. The xylanase have an optimum condition at pH 6 and 50 °C. Addition of 5 mM Cu2+ decreased the xylanase activity up to about 77%, whereas not by other cations. The xylanase was stable at 3 °C for 48 hours, and the enzyme half lifetime was 1 hour 45 minute at 50 °C. This xylanase showed the highest activity on oatspelt xylan, and their molecular masses were estimated approximately 16.80, 15.21, and 13.86 kDa. HPLC analysis showed that xylosa and arabinosa were the main hydrolytic product of birchwood xylan.

  19. α-Glucosidase inhibitors and phytotoxins from Streptomyces xanthophaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Zhang, Xiu-Yun; Deng, Shan; Cao, Lin; Xue, Quan-Hong; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2017-09-01

    Twenty-four metabolites 1-24 were isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces xanthophaeus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their NMR data with literature data reported. Daidzein (1), genistein (2) and gliricidin (3) inhibited α-glucosidase in vitro with IC 50 values of 174.2, 36.1 and 47.4 μM, respectively, more potent than the positive control, acarbose. Docking study revealed that the amino acid residue Thr 215 is the essential binding site for active ligands 2. In addition, the phytotoxic effects of all compounds were assayed on radish seedlings, five of which, 3, 8, 13, 15 and 18, inhibited the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings with inhibitory rates of >60% at a concentration of 100 ppm, which was comparable or superior to the positive control glyphosate. This is the first report of the phytotoxicity of the compounds.

  20. Bioactive metabolite production by Streptomyces albolongus in favourable environment

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    Myn Uddin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Demand for new antibiotic is rising up due to continuous resistance risk against conventional antibiotic.This attempt was taken to find out a novel antimicrobial metabolite.Methods: Chili field antagonistic actinomycetes Streptomyces albolongus was isolated and tested for optimum antimicrobialmetabolite production. Primary screening was done by selective media and antibiotic assay was done by agarcup plate method. Fermented product was recovered by separating funnel using suitable solvent.Results: Maximum antimicrobial metabolite production was found at temperature 35°C and pH 9.0 and on 6th day ofincubation. The medium consisting of corn steep liquor (0.2%, glucose (1.0%, NaCl (0.5%, K2HPO4 (0.1% was screenedout as suitable medium for maximum antimicrobial production. Sucrose was found as the best carbon source amongfour sources. The antimicrobial metabolite was found to be stable at pH and temperature up to 11.0 and 100°C respectively.The active agent was best extracted with chloroform. The antimicrobial spectrum of the metabolite was wideand shows activity against Shigella dysenteriae (AE14612, Shigella sonnei (CRL, ICDDR, B, Salmonella typhi (AE14296,Vibrio cholerae (AE14748, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRL, ICDDR, B, Bacillus cereus (BTCC19, Staphylococcus aureus(ATCC6538, Bacillus subtilis (BTTC17 and Bacillus megaterium (BTTC18.Conclusions: The findings of antibacterial activity of S. albolongus against several species of human pathogens includingboth Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria indicated that our produced material might be an alternative antimicrobialsubstance to control human diseases. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(2: 75-82Key words: Streptomyces albolongus, antimicrobial metabolite, optimum production, antimicrobial spectrum

  1. Optimization of medium for antimycotic production by Streptomyces spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous species of the genus Streptomyces, on the appropriate cultivation medium in the process of submerged biosynthesis, as a product of the secondary metabolism, and under aerobic conditions synthesize pharmacologically active compounds. The aim of presented study was optimization of different nitrogen sources in the cultivation medium for the production of antimycotics using a strain of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors at three levels (peptone: 3.0 g/l, 7.0 g/l and 11.0 g/l; yeast extract: 1.0 g/l, 3.0 g/l and 5.0 g/l; soybean meal: 5.0 g/l, 15.0 g/l and 25.0 g/l and three repetitions in the central point. Cultivation mediums were analyzed for determination of residual sugar, residual nitrogen, pellet diameter and RNA. Also, antimycotic activity of the obtained culti­vation mediums was determined using diffusion disc method on the Aspergillus spp. as the test microorganism. For the optimization of selected parameters, a Response Surface Methodology was used and the obtained data were analyzed using the software package DESIGN EXPERT 8.1. Achieved model with a coefficient of determination (R of 0.952 predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (24.0 mm against microorganism Aspergillus spp. and the minimum amount of residual sugar (0.551528 g/l under applied experimental conditions was produced when the contents of varied nitrogen sources were: peptone 11.0 g/l, yeast extract 4.32 g/l and soybean meal 25.00 g/l.

  2. High quality draft genome sequence of Janthinobacterium psychrotolerans sp. nov., isolated from a frozen freshwater pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xianzhe; Skrivergaard, Stig; Korsgaard, Benjamin Smed; Schreiber, Lars; Marshall, Ian P G; Finster, Kai; Schramm, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Strain S3-2 T , isolated from sediment of a frozen freshwater pond, shares 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with strains of the genus Janthinobacterium . Strain S3-2 T is a facultative anaerobe that lacks the ability to produce violacein but shows antibiotic resistance, psychrotolerance, incomplete denitrification, and fermentation. The draft genome of strain S3-2 T has a size of ~5.8 Mbp and contains 5,297 genes, including 115 RNA genes. Based on the phenotypic properties of the strain, the low in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values with related genomes (<35%), and the low whole genome-based average nucleotide identity (ANI) (<86%) with other strains within the genus Janthinobacterium, we propose that strain S3-2 T is the type strain (= DSM 102223 = LMG 29653) of a new species within this genus. We propose the name Janthinobacterium psychrotolerans sp. nov. to emphasize the capability of the strain to grow at low temperatures.

  3. Labilibaculum manganireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. and Labilibaculum filiforme sp. nov., Novel Bacteroidetes Isolated from Subsurface Sediments of the Baltic Sea

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    Verona Vandieken

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in deep subsurface sediments are challenged by the decrease in amount and quality of organic substrates with depth. In sediments of the Baltic Sea, they might additionally have to cope with an increase in salinity from ions that have diffused downward from the overlying water during the last 9000 years. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of four novel bacteria of the Bacteroidetes from depths of 14–52 m below seafloor (mbsf of Baltic Sea sediments sampled during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP Expedition 347. Based on physiological, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characterization, we propose that the four strains represent two new species within a new genus in the family Marinifilaceae, with the proposed names Labilibaculum manganireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain 59.10-2MT and Labilibaculum filiforme sp. nov. (type strains 59.16BT with additional strains of this species (59.10-1M and 60.6M. The draft genomes of the two type strains had sizes of 5.2 and 5.3 Mb and reflected the major physiological capabilities. The strains showed gliding motility, were psychrotolerant, neutrophilic and halotolerant. Growth by fermentation of mono- and disaccharides as well as pyruvate, lactate and glycerol was observed. During glucose fermentation, small amounts of electron equivalents were transferred to Fe(III by all strains, while one of the strains also reduced Mn(IV. Thereby, the four strains broaden the phylogenetic range of prokaryotes known to reduce metals to the group of Bacteroidetes. Halotolerance and metal reduction might both be beneficial for survival in deep subsurface sediments of the Baltic Sea.

  4. Atmospheric Precipitations, Hailstone and Rainwater, as a Novel Source of Streptomyces Producing Bioactive Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Espadas, Julia; Martín, Jesús; Braña, Alfredo F.; Reyes, Fernando; García, Luis A.; Blanco, Gloria

    2018-01-01

    A cultivation-dependent approach revealed that highly diverse populations of Streptomyces were present in atmospheric precipitations from a hailstorm event sampled in February 2016 in the Cantabrian Sea coast, North of Spain. A total of 29 bioactive Streptomyces strains isolated from small samples of hailstone and rainwater, collected from this hailstorm event, were studied here. Taxonomic identification by 16S rRNA sequencing revealed more than 20 different Streptomyces species, with their closest homologs displaying mainly oceanic but also terrestrial origins. Backward trajectory analysis revealed that the air-mass sources of the hailstorm event, with North Western winds, were originated in the Arctic Ocean (West Greenland and North Iceland) and Canada (Labrador), depending on the altitude. After traveling across the North Atlantic Ocean during 4 days the air mass reached Europe and precipitated as hailstone and rain water at the sampling place in Spain. The finding of Streptomyces species able to survive and disperse through the atmosphere increases our knowledge of the biogeography of genus Streptomyces on Earth, and reinforces our previous dispersion model, suggesting a generalized feature for the genus which could have been essential in his evolution. This unique atmospheric-derived Streptomyces collection was screened for production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Analyses of isolates ethyl acetate extracts by LC-UV-MS and further database comparison revealed an extraordinary diversity of bioactive natural products. One hundred molecules were identified, mostly displaying contrasted antibiotic and antitumor/cytotoxic activities, but also antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotector, and insecticide properties. More interestingly, 38 molecules not identified in natural products databases might represent new natural products. Our results revealed for the first time an extraordinary diversity of Streptomyces species in the atmosphere able to

  5. Antimicrobial activities of Streptomyces pulcher, S. canescens and S. citreofluorescens against fungal and bacterial pathogens of tomato in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Abyad, M S; el-Sayed, M A; el-Shanshoury, A R; el-Sabbagh, S M

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-seven actinomycete species isolated from fertile cultivated soils in Egypt were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds against a variety of test organisms. Most of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and acid-fast bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, with special attention to fungal and bacterial pathogens of tomato. On starch-nitrate agar, 14 strains were active against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (the cause of Fusarium wilt), 18 against Verticillium albo-atrum (the cause of Verticillium wilt), and 18 against Alternaria solani (the cause of early blight). In liquid media, 14 isolates antagonized Pseudomonas solanacearum (the cause of bacterial wilt) and 20 antagonized Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis (the cause of bacterial canker). The most active antagonists of the pathogenic microorganisms studied were found to be Streptomyces pulcher, S. canescens (syn. S. albidoflavus) and S. citreofluorescens (syn. S. anulatus). The antagonistic activities of S. pulcher and S. canescens against pathogenic fungi were assessed on solid media, and those of S. pulcher and S. citreofluorescens against pathogenic bacteria in liquid media under shaking conditions. The optimum culture conditions were determined.

  6. Systematics of Plant-Pathogenic and Related Streptomyces Species Based on Phylogenetic Analyses of Multiple Gene Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 10 species of Streptomyces implicated as the etiological agents in scab disease of potatoes or soft rot disease of sweet potatoes are distributed among 7 different phylogenetic clades in analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, but high sequence similarity of this gene among Streptomyces speci...

  7. Managing scab diseases of potato and radish caused by Streptomyces spp. using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BAC03 and other biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptomyces spp. cause scab disease in plants like potato and radish. To seek effective control methods of this disease, biologically based materials were examined on their efficacies for disease control. In greenhouse or growth chamber tests, potting soil was infested with Streptomyces scabies (10...

  8. Isolation and characterization of mesophilic, oxalate-degrading Streptomyces from plant rhizosphere and forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin

    2004-10-01

    The present work was aimed at the isolation of additional new pure cultures of oxalate-degrading Streptomyces and its preliminary characterization for further work in the field of oxalate metabolism and taxonomic studies. Mesophilic, oxalate-degrading Streptomyces were enriched and isolated from plant rhizosphere and forest soil samples. Strains were examined for cultural, morphological (spore chain morphology, spore mass colour, diffusible and melanin pigment production), physiological (antibiosis, growth in the presence of inhibitory compounds, assimilation of organic acids and enzyme substrates) and chemotaxonomic characters (cellular lipid components and diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid). The taxonomic data obtained were analysed by using the simple matching (SSM) and Jaccard (SJ) coefficients, clustering was achieved using the UPGMA algorithm. All strains were able to utilize sodium-, potassium-, calcium- and ammonium-oxalate salts. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, isolates were grouped into five cluster groups with a ≥70% SSM similarity level. Streptomyces rochei was the most common of the cluster groups, with a Willcox probability of P>0.8. Streptomyces antibioticus, S. anulatus, S. fulvissimus, S. halstedii and S. violaceusniger are newly reported as oxalate-utilizing Streptomyces.

  9. A single Streptomyces symbiont makes multiple antifungals to support the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F Seipke

    Full Text Available Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with another report that attine ants use Streptomyces-produced candicidin in their fungiculture. Here we report the genome analysis of this Streptomyces strain and identify multiple antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. We demonstrate, using gene disruptions and mass spectrometry, that this single strain has the capacity to make candicidin and multiple antimycin compounds. Although antimycins have been known for >60 years we report the sequence of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the first time. Crucially, disrupting the candicidin and antimycin gene clusters in the same strain had no effect on bioactivity against a co-evolved nest pathogen called Escovopsis that has been identified in ∼30% of attine ant nests. Since the Streptomyces strain has strong bioactivity against Escovopsis we conclude that it must make additional antifungal(s to inhibit Escovopsis. However, candicidin and antimycins likely offer protection against other microfungal weeds that infect the attine fungal gardens. Thus, we propose that the selection of this biosynthetically prolific strain from the natural environment provides A. octospinosus with broad spectrum activity against Escovopsis and other microfungal weeds.

  10. The adnAB Locus, Encoding a Putative Helicase-Nuclease Activity, Is Essential in Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingli; Nguyen, Hoang Chuong; Chipot, Ludovic; Piotrowski, Emilie; Bertrand, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a crucial mechanism that repairs a wide range of DNA lesions, including the most deleterious ones, double-strand breaks (DSBs). This multistep process is initiated by the resection of the broken DNA ends by a multisubunit helicase-nuclease complex exemplified by Escherichia coli RecBCD, Bacillus subtilis AddAB, and newly discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis AdnAB. Here we show that in Streptomyces, neither recBCD nor addAB homologues could be detected. The only putative helicase-nuclease-encoding genes identified were homologous to M. tuberculosis adnAB genes. These genes are conserved as a single copy in all sequenced genomes of Streptomyces. The disruption of adnAB in Streptomyces ambofaciens and Streptomyces coelicolor could not be achieved unless an ectopic copy was provided, indicating that adnAB is essential for growth. Both adnA and adnB genes were shown to be inducible in response to DNA damage (mitomycin C) and to be independently transcribed. Introduction of S. ambofaciens adnAB genes in an E. coli recB mutant restored viability and resistance to UV light, suggesting that Streptomyces AdnAB could be a functional homologue of RecBCD and be involved in DNA damage resistance. PMID:24837284

  11. A Single Streptomyces Symbiont Makes Multiple Antifungals to Support the Fungus Farming Ant Acromyrmex octospinosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipke, Ryan F.; Barke, Jörg; Brearley, Charles; Hill, Lionel; Yu, Douglas W.; Goss, Rebecca J. M.; Hutchings, Matthew I.

    2011-01-01

    Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with another report that attine ants use Streptomyces-produced candicidin in their fungiculture. Here we report the genome analysis of this Streptomyces strain and identify multiple antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. We demonstrate, using gene disruptions and mass spectrometry, that this single strain has the capacity to make candicidin and multiple antimycin compounds. Although antimycins have been known for >60 years we report the sequence of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the first time. Crucially, disrupting the candicidin and antimycin gene clusters in the same strain had no effect on bioactivity against a co-evolved nest pathogen called Escovopsis that has been identified in ∼30% of attine ant nests. Since the Streptomyces strain has strong bioactivity against Escovopsis we conclude that it must make additional antifungal(s) to inhibit Escovopsis. However, candicidin and antimycins likely offer protection against other microfungal weeds that infect the attine fungal gardens. Thus, we propose that the selection of this biosynthetically prolific strain from the natural environment provides A. octospinosus with broad spectrum activity against Escovopsis and other microfungal weeds. PMID:21857911

  12. The Prevalence and Distribution of Neurodegenerative Compound-Producing Soil Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Anna L.; Ray, Arpita; R. Roberts, Lindsay; Caldwell, Kim A.; Olson, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work from our labs demonstrated that a metabolite(s) from the soil bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae caused dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans and human neuroblastoma cells. To evaluate the capacity for metabolite production by naturally occurring streptomycetes in Alabama soils, Streptomyces were isolated from soils under different land uses (agriculture, undeveloped, and urban). More isolates were obtained from agricultural than undeveloped soils; there was no significant difference in the number of isolates from urban soils. The genomic diversity of the isolates was extremely high, with only 112 of the 1509 isolates considered clones. A subset was examined for dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the previously established C. elegans model; 28.3% of the tested Streptomyces spp. caused dopaminergic neurons to degenerate. Notably, the Streptomyces spp. isolates from agricultural soils showed more individual neuron damage than isolates from undeveloped or urban soils. These results suggest a common environmental toxicant(s) within the Streptomyces genus that causes dopaminergic neurodegeneration. It could also provide a possible explanation for diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), which is widely accepted to have both genetic and environmental factors. PMID:26936423

  13. Screening of wild type Streptomyces isolates able to overproduce clavulanic acid

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    Daniela A. Viana Marques

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The selection of new microorganisms able to produce antimicrobial compounds is hoped for to reduce their production costs and the side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam antibiotic produced by submerged culture, which is widely used in medicine as a powerful inhibitor of β-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistant to antibiotics such penicillin and cephalosporin. The purpose of this work was to select the best clavulanic acid producer among strains of Streptomyces belonging to the Microorganism Collection of the Department of Antibiotics of the Federal University of Pernambuco (DAUFPE. Initially, the strains were studied for their capacity to inhibit the action of β-lactamases produced by Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 15380. From these results, five strains were selected to investigate the batch kinetics of growth and clavulanic acid production in submerged culture carried out in flasks. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 selected as a control strain. The best clavulanic acid producer was Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, molecularly identified as Streptomyces variabilis, which increased the clavulanic acid production by 28% compared to the control strain. This work contributes to the enlargement of knowledge on new Streptomyces wild strains able to produce clavulanic acid by submerged culture.

  14. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae......, which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young...... vegetative hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor, whereby 1 μm compartments are formed by nucleic acid stain-impermeable barriers. These barriers possess the permeability properties of membranes and at least some of them are cross-membranes without detectable peptidoglycan. Z-ladders form during the early growth...

  15. A novel gene: sawD related to the differentiation of streptomyces ansochromogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, L; Wei, C; Yuqing, T; Huarong, T; Chater, K F; Buttner, M J

    1999-01-01

    A 1.3 kb DNA fragment was cloned from a total DNA library of Streptomyces ansochromogenes using Southern hybridization. Nucleotide sequencing analysis indicated that the 1320 bp DNA fragment contained a complete open reading frame (ORF). In search of databases, the deduced product of ORF containing 213 amino acids is homologous to the serine protease of Caulobacter cresceatus, and a conserved serine-catalytic active site (GPSAG) exists. The gene was designated as sawD. The function of this gene was studied with the strategy of gene disruption, and the result showed that the sawD may be related to sporulation and especially to the spore septation in Streptomyces ansochromogenes. The preliminary result indicated that sawD mutant could produce abundant pigment in contrast with the wild type, it seems that sawD gene may be involved in pigment biosynthesis, and this gene is also dispensable for biosynthesis of nikkomycin in Streptomyces ansochromogenes.

  16. Determination of ionophore antibiotics nactins produced by fecal Streptomyces from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tan, Hongming; Lu, Yu; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the correlation between fecal actinobacteria and host animals, Streptomyces was isolated from fresh faeces of healthy sheep and secondary metabolites were analyzed. The most frequently isolated strain S161 with antibiotic activity against bacteria and fungi were analyzed. The S161 showed the highest 99 % similarity to Streptomyces canus DSB17 based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Metabolite analysis based on MS and NMR spectra showed that S161 produces nactins, cyclotetralactones derived from nonactic acid and homononactic acid as building units of ionophoretic character. Due to ionophores are antimicrobial compounds that are commonly fed to ruminant animals to improve feed efficiency, stable beneficial interactions between Streptomyces bacteria and vertebrates have been demonstrated.

  17. Mutation effect of streptomyces kitasatoensis after exposure to heavy ions radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Chen Jihong; Wang Shuyang; Li Wenjian

    2011-01-01

    To define the optimum dose of heavy ion beams for selecting high productive strains, we should study mortality and mutation effects of Streptomyces kitasatoensis irradiated by heavy ion beams in different doses. In this research, spores of Streptomyces kitasatoensis were irradiated by heavy ion beams with different doses. And survival rate, mortality rate, positive mutation and negative mutation were analyzed statistically. The results showed that high mortality rate appeared from 5 Gy and then the mortality rate curve became gently. Compared the positive and negative mutations in different doses, highest positive mutation was obtained in 40 Gy, while the negative mutation was lower in this dose, and the survival rate was 0.92%. So we defined that optimum dose of heavy ions radiation for Streptomyces kitasatoensis selection was 40 Gy in this experiment. (authors)

  18. Antibiotic Properties of the endophytic Streptomyces Spp. Isolated from the Leaves of Myanmar Medicinal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Pe; Mar Mar Nyein; Win Maung

    2002-02-01

    Three medicinal plants of Myanmar are selected in the study of endophytic microorganisms and are taxonomically classified and identified to be Sa-ba-lin (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.), Shazaungtinga- neah (Euphorbia splendens Bojer. ex Hooker) and Ma-shaw (Sauropus grandifolius Pax. and Hoffm.). The screening of endophytic microorganisms is performed according to the ISP method (International Streptomyces Projects 1993). The morphological and physicochemical properties of isolated strains are studied and identified to be the Genus Streptomyces. The test of apparent antimicrobial activity of isolated Streptomyces is done on 18 strains of pathogenic bacteria. It is found that the isolated endophytic Sireptomyces showed the significant antibacterial activity on most of the test organisms. (author)

  19. Release of Streptomyces albus propagules from contaminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorny, R.L.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Willeke, Klaus; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Reponen, Tiina

    2003-01-01

    The release of Streptomyces albus propagules from contaminated agar an ceiling tile surfaces was studied under controlled environmental condition in a newly developed aerosolization chamber. The experiments revealed tha both spores and cell fragments can be simultaneously released from the colonized surface by relatively gentle air currents of 0.3 m s -1 . A 100x increase of the air velocity can result in a 50-fold increase in the number of released propagules. The aerosolization rate depends strongly on the typ and roughness of the contaminated surface. Up to 90% of available actinomycete propagules can become airborne during the first 10 min of th release process. Application of vibration to the surface did not reveal an influence on the aerosolization process of S. albus propagules under th tested conditions. This study has shown that propagules in the fine particle size range can be released in large amounts from contaminated surfaces Measurement of the number of S. albus fragments in the vicinity of contaminated area, as an alternative to conventional air or surface sampling appears to be a promising approach for quantitative exposure assessment

  20. Studies on biological reduction of chromate by Streptomyces griseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poopal, Ashwini C.; Laxman, R. Seeta

    2009-01-01

    Chromium is a toxic heavy metal used in various industries and leads to environmental pollution due to improper handling. The most toxic form of chromium Cr(VI) can be converted to less toxic Cr(III) by reduction. Among the actinomycetes tested for chromate reduction, thirteen strains reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III), of which one strain of Streptomyces griseus (NCIM 2020) was most efficient showing complete reduction within 24 h. The organism was able to use a number of carbon sources as electron donors. Sulphate, nitrate, chloride and carbonate had no effect on chromate reduction during growth while cations such as Cd, Ni, Co and Cu were inhibitory to varying degrees. Chromate reduction was associated with the bacterial cells and sonication was the best method of cell breakage to release the enzyme. The enzyme was constitutive and did not require presence of chromate during growth for expression of activity. Chromate reduction with cell free extract (CFE) was observed without added NADH. However, addition of NAD(P)H resulted in 2-3-fold increase in activity. Chromate reductase showed optimum activity at 28 deg. C and pH 7.

  1. Secondary Metabolites Produced during the Germination of Streptomyces coelicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matouš Čihák

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spore awakening is a series of actions that starts with purely physical processes and continues via the launching of gene expression and metabolic activities, eventually achieving a vegetative phase of growth. In spore-forming microorganisms, the germination process is controlled by intra- and inter-species communication. However, in the Streptomyces clade, which is capable of developing a plethora of valuable compounds, the chemical signals produced during germination have not been systematically studied before. Our previously published data revealed that several secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes are expressed during germination. Therefore, we focus here on the secondary metabolite production during this developmental stage. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that the sesquiterpenoid antibiotic albaflavenone, the polyketide germicidin A, and chalcone are produced during germination of the model streptomycete, S. coelicolor. Interestingly, the last two compounds revealed an inhibitory effect on the germination process. The secondary metabolites originating from the early stage of microbial growth may coordinate the development of the producer (quorum sensing and/or play a role in competitive microflora repression (quorum quenching in their nature environments.

  2. Regioselective hydroxylation of isoflavones by Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Changhyun; Seo, Su-Hyun; Choi, Kwon-Young; Cha, Minho; Pandey, Bishnu Prasad; Kim, June-Hyung; Park, Jun-Seong; Kim, Duck Hee; Chang, Ih Seop; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2009-07-01

    Screening of bacterial whole cells was performed for regioselective hydroxylation of daidzein and genistein. Among the strains examined, Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 showed high ortho-dihydroxylation activity to produce 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone and 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone from daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), respectively. Using 100 mg cells (wet wt.) and 1% (v/v) Triton X100 in 1 ml of total reaction volume, where 100 microl of the substrate solution (0.5 mM in 10% (v/v) mixed solvent of DMSO:MeOH = 3:7) was added to 900 microl of potassium phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.2), a 16% molar conversion yield of 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone was obtained from 0.5 mM daidzein after 24 h of reaction time at 28 degrees C and 200 rpm. Ketoconazole significantly (ca. 90%) inhibited the ortho-hydroxylation activity of daidzein, suggesting that cytochrome P450 enzymes putatively play roles in regiospecific daidzein hydroxylation. The analysis of the reaction products was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and (1)H NMR.

  3. Biosorption of uranium and lead by Streptomyces longwoodensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friis, N.; Myers-Keith, P.

    1986-01-01

    Biosorption of uranium and lead by lyophilized cells of Streptomyces longwoodensis was examined as a function of metal concentration, pH, cell concentration, and culture age. Cells harvested from the stationary growth phase exhibited an exceptionally high capacity for uranium (0.44 g U/g dry weight) at pH 5. Calculated values of the distribution coefficient and separation factor indicated a strong preference of the cell mass for uranyl ions over lead ions. The specific uranium uptake was similar for the cell wall and the cytoplasmic fraction. Uranium uptake was associated with an increase in hydrogen ion concentration, and phosphorus analysis of whole cells indicated a simple stoichiometric ratio between uranium uptake and phosphorus content. It is proposed that metal ions are bound to phosphodiester residues present both in the cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions. Based on this model, it was shown that uranium accumulation exhibits a maximum at pH 4.6 that is supported by experimental data from previous investigations

  4. Oxalic acid biosynthesis and oxalacetate acetylhydrolase activity in Streptomyces cattleya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, D.R.; Inamine, E.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to producing the antibiotic thienamycin, Streptomyces cattleya accumulates large amounts of oxalic acid during the course of a fermentation. Washed cell suspensions were utilized to determine the specific incorporation of carbon-14 into oxalate from a number of labeled organic and amino acids. L-[U- 14 C]aspartate proved to be the best precursor, whereas only a small percentage of label from [1,5- 14 C]citrate was found in oxalate. Cell-free extracts catalyzed the formation of [ 14 C]oxalate and [ 14 C]acetate from L-[U- 14 C]aspartate. When L-[4- 14 C]aspartate was the substrate only [ 14 C]acetate was formed. The cell-free extracts were found to contain oxalacetate acetylhydrolase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalate and acetate. The enzyme is constitutive and is analogous to enzymes in fungi that produce oxalate from oxalacetate. Properties of the crude enzyme were examined

  5. Establishing a high yielding streptomyces-based cell-free protein synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, He; Kwon, Yong-Chan; Jewett, Michael C

    2017-06-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a powerful platform for applied biotechnology and synthetic biology, with a range of applications in synthesizing proteins, evolving proteins, and prototyping genetic circuits. To expand the current CFPS repertoire, we report here the development and optimization of a Streptomyces-based CFPS system for the expression of GC-rich genes. By developing a streamlined crude extract preparation protocol and optimizing reaction conditions, we were able to achieve active enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) yields of greater than 50 μg/mL with batch reactions lasting up to 3 h. By adopting a semi-continuous reaction format, the EGFP yield could be increased to 282 ± 8 μg/mL and the reaction time was extended to 48 h. Notably, our extract preparation procedures were robust to multiple Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor strains, although expression yields varied. We show that our optimized Streptomyces lividans system provides benefits when compared to an Escherichia coli-based CFPS system for increasing percent soluble protein expression for four Streptomyces-originated high GC-content genes that are involved in biosynthesis of the nonribosomal peptides tambromycin and valinomycin. Looking forward, we believe that our Streptomyces-based CFPS system will contribute significantly towards efforts to express complex natural product gene clusters (e.g., nonribosomal peptides and polyketides), providing a new avenue for obtaining and studying natural product biosynthesis pathways. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1343-1353. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mutants of Streptomyces coeruleorubidus impaired in the biosynthesis of daunomycinone glycosides and related metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumauerova, M.; Stajner, K.; Pokorny, V.; Hostalek, Z.; Vanek, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Mutants of Streptomyces coeruleorubidus, blocked in the biosynthesis of anthracycline antibiotics of the daunomycine complex, were isolated from the production strains after treatment with UV light, γ-radiation, nitrous acid, and after natural selection; according to their different biosynthetic activity the mutants were divided into five phenotypic groups. Mutants of two of these groups produced compounds that had not yet been described in Streptomyces coeruleorubidus (aklavinone, 7-deoxyaklavinone, zeta-rhodomycinone and glycosides of epsilon-rhodomycinone). The mutants differed from the parent strains and also mutually in morphological characteristics but no direct correlation between these changes and the biosynthetic activity could be observed in most cases. (author)

  7. Obtaining mutants of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339, producers of glucose isomerase, following gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhedzheva, G.; Stoeva, N.; Stojchev, M.

    1990-01-01

    A water suspension of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339 spores of a density of 8.7.10 6 spores/cm 3 is gamma irradiated ( 60 Co, RHM-γ-20, 30.3 Gy/min). The survival of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339 spores was determined depending on radiation doses, exposure times and incubation temperature. Five major morphological types of colonies were isolated, characterized by different levels of glucose isomerase activity. Maximum specific glucose isomerase activity (GIU/g) was attained after the third gamma irradiation step using a dose of 3000 Gy. 2 tabs., 3 figs., 7 refs

  8. Formation and dispersion of mycelial pellets of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yul-Min; Kim, Jae-heon

    2004-03-01

    The pellets from a culture of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) that were submerged shaken were disintegrated into numerous hyphal fragments by DNase treatment. The pellets were increasingly dispersed by hyaluronidase treatment, and mycelial fragments were easily detached from the pellets. The submerged mycelium grew by forming complexes with calcium phosphate precipitates or kaolin, a soil particle. Therefore, the pellet formation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) can be considered a biofilm formation, including the participation of adhesive extracellular polymers and the insoluble substrates.

  9. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15...... and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding...... phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest....

  10. [Isolation of actinobacteria with antibiotic associated with soft coral Nephthea sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Zhang, Wenjun; Zhu, Yiguang; Wu, Zhengchao; Saurav, Kumar; Hang, Hui; Zhang, Changsheng

    2013-10-04

    The present study aims to isolate and identify actinobacteria associated with the soft coral Nephthea sp., and to isolate natural products from these actinobacteria under the guidance of PCR screening for polyketides synthase (PKS) genes. Eleven selective media were used to isolate actinobacteria associated with the soft coral Nephthea sp. collected from Yongxin Island. The isolated actinobacteria were classified on the basis of phylogenetic tree analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Degenerated primers targeted on conserved KS (ketoacyl-synthase) domain of type I PKS genes were used to screen for potential isolates. The positive isolates were cultured in three different media to check their producing profiles. One bioactive strain that is rich in metabolites was subjected to larger scale fermentation for isolating bioactive natural products. A total of 20 strains were isolated from Nephthea sp., and were categorized into 3 genera including Streptomyces, Dietzia and Salinospora, among which 18 strains were positive in screening with type I PKS genes. Two bioactive compounds rifamycin S and rifamycin W were isolated and identified from Salinospora arenicola SH04. This is the first report of isolating indigenous marine actinobacteria Salinospora from the soft coral Nephthea sp. It provides an example of isolating bioactive secondary metabolites from cultivable actinobacteria associated with Nephthea sp. by PCR screening.

  11. ExaSP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-08

    ExaSP2 is a reference implementation of typical linear algebra algorithms and workloads for a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) electronic structure code. The algorithm is based on a recursive second-order Fermi-Operator expansion method (SP2) and is tailored for density functional based tight-binding calculations of material systems.

  12. Determination of optimal conditions of oxytetracyclin production from streptomyces rimosus; Optimisation de la production de l'oxytetracycline par Streptomyces rimosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zouaghi, Atef [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie (Tunisia)

    2007-07-01

    Streptomyces rimosus is an oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotic producing bacteria that exhibited activities against gram positive and negative bacteria. OTC is used widely not only in medicine but also in production industry. The antibiotic production of streptomyces covers a very wide range of condition. However, antibiotic producers are particularly fastidious cultivated by proper selection of media such as carbon source. In present study we have optimised conditions of OTC production (Composition of production media, p H, shaking and temperature). The results have been shown that bran barley is the optimal media for OTC production at 28C pH5.8 at 150rpm for 5 days. For antibiotic determination, OTC was extracted with different organic solvent. Thin-layer chromatography system was used for separation and identification of OTC antibiotic. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection for the analysis of OTC is applied to the determination of OTC purification. (Author). 24 refs.

  13. The Level of AdpA Directly Affects Expression of Developmental Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Wolański, Marcin; Donczew, Rafał; Kois-Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Masiewicz, Paweł; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    AdpA is a key regulator of morphological differentiation in Streptomyces. In contrast to Streptomyces griseus, relatively little is known about AdpA protein functions in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, we report for the first time the translation accumulation profile of the S. coelicolor adpA (adpASc) gene; the level of S. coelicolor AdpA (AdpASc) increased, reaching a maximum in the early stage of aerial mycelium formation (after 36 h), and remained relatively stable for the next several hour...

  14. Streptomyces somaliensis mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Soltani Nejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The development of reliable and ecofriendly process for the synthesis of nano-metals is an important aspect in the field of nanotechnology. Nano-metals are a special group of materials with broad area of applications. Materials and Methods: In this study, extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs performed by use of the gram positive soil Streptomycetes. Streptomycetes isolated from rice fields of Guilan Province, Iran (5 isolates. Initial characterization of SNPs was performed by visual change color. To determine the bacterium taxonomical identity, its colonies characterized morphologically by use of scanning electron microscope. The PCR molecular analysis of active isolate represented its identity partially. In this regard, 16S rDNA of isolate G was amplified using universal bacterial primers FD1 and RP2. The PCR products were purified and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA was then conducted using NCBI GenBank database using BLAST. Also SNPs were characterized by, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD. Results: From all 5 collected Streptomyces somaliensis isolates, isolate G showed highest extracellular synthesis of SNPs via in vitro. SNPs were formed immediately by the addition of (AgNO3 solution (1 mM. UV-visible spectrophotometry for measuring surface plasmon resonance showed a single absorption peak at 450 nm, which confirmed the presence of SNPs. TEM revealed the extracellular formation of spherical silver nanoparticles in the size range of 5-35 nm. Conclusions: The biological approach for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles offers an environmentally benign alternative to the traditional chemical and physical synthesis methods. So, a simple, environmentally friendly and cost-effective method has been developed to synthesize AgNPs using Streptomycetes.

  15. Aminopeptidases in Mycelium and Growth Medium of Streptomyces rimosus Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Špoljarić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminopeptidases (APs of the same substrate specificities have been detected in the mycelia and culture filtrate of Streptomyces rimosus. To compare extracellular and intracellular prolyl, leucyl and arginyl AP, dynamics of their biosynthesis, excretion and localization were analyzed during submerged cultivation of two S. rimosus strains, T55 and ZGL3, in several media. AP activity in mycelia reached maximum in the stationary phase, and decreased to different extent at a later stage. The accumulation of APs, except prolyl aminopeptidase (ProAP, in the culture filtrate followed the growth of bacteria and decreased later on, when peptide-richer medium was used. When S. rimosus was grown in glucose-richer medium, the accumulation of APs in the medium started at the late log phase and continued to the end of cultivation, due to cell lysis. The combined addition of calcium and ammonium salts to tryptone soy broth increased the AP activity in S. rimosus ZGL3 culture filtrates up to two times. The AP intracellular activity was significantly higher compared to its intercellular activity (2 to 24 times. Mycelium/medium AP activity ratio decreased with the age of the culture, its change being dependent on the S. rimosus strain, growth medium composition and AP specificity. Leucyl AP (LeuAP was the most prone to be released from the mycelium, suggesting that part of the enzyme could be excreted by active transport. Determination of AP distribution within cell compartments has confirmed that the three APs are intracellular enzymes residing in cytosol, but also suggested their partial association with cytoplasmic membrane.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity and Morphological Changes of Streptomyces Ascendable and Streptomyces Eighty-three's as Affected by Environmental Conditions and Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, L.A.A.; Abou El-Nour, S.A.M.; Mansour, F.A.; Serag, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen actinomycetes out of thirty isolates were recovered from different Egyptian soils and exhibited antimicrobial activities. Streptomyces ascendable and Streptomyces eighty-three's used in the present work showed the most active antimicrobial potentialities against bacteria, moulds and yeasts. The optimum temperature and acidity for their growth and production of microbial activity were 50 degree and ph 7.0, while the maximum biomass yield and the highest antimicrobial activity were attained 10 days of incubation. Among carbon sources starch at 30 gm/L highly supported the growth and antimicrobial activity by the two species, while sodium nitrate (3 gm/L) and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (0.75 gm/L) were the most favorable for both isolates. The presence of microelements such as manganese chloride, zinc sulphate, ferrous sulphate and copper sulphate in the growth medium at a concentration of 1 mg/L for each had a good stimulatory effect on the growth and antimicrobial activity for both Streptomyces species. As different irradiation doses were used (up to 5.0 kGy), the high levels clearly affected the morphological characteristics of both tested isolates either in the first or second generation

  17. Removal of copper ions from dilute solutions by Streptomyces noursei mycelium. Comparison with yeast biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kujan, Petr; Prell, Aleš; Šafář, Hynek; Sobotka, Miroslav; Řezanka, Tomáš; Holler, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2005), s. 309-313 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptomyces noursei * copper * yeast biomass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  18. The mutagenic effect of streptomyces and aspergillus niger with fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengjun; Zhou Shuxin; Fang Xiaoming

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the effect of irradiation on some Streptomyces and Aspergillus niger with fast neutron. The death rate(%), production rate(%, W/V), and heredities were determined and analysed. Particularly, five variant types of Strepto. griseous No.1 will be researched in depth

  19. Martinomycin, a new polyether antibiotic produced by Streptomyces salvialis. I. Taxonomy, fermentation and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernan, V S; Montenegro, D A; Goodman, J J; Alluri, M R; Carter, G T; Abbanat, D R; Pearce, C J; Maiese, W M; Greenstein, M

    1994-12-01

    Actinomycete culture LL-D37187 has been found to produce the new polyether antibiotic martinomycin. Taxonomic studies, including morphological, physiological, and cell wall chemistry analyses, revealed that culture LL-D37187 is a novel streptomycete species, and the proposed name is Streptomyces salvialis. Martinomycin exhibits activity against the Southern Army Worm (Spodoptera eridania) and Gram-positive bacteria.

  20. Variable antibiotic susceptibility patterns among Streptomyces species causing actinomycetoma in man and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamed E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy is recommended in conjunction with surgery in treatment of actinomycetoma. The specific prescription depends on the type of bacteria (actinomycetoma or fungi (eumycetoma causing the disease and their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Objectives To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Streptomyces spp. isolated from cases of actinomycetoma in man and animals in Sudan. Methods Streptomyces strains (n = 18 isolated from cases of actinomycetoma were tested in vitro against 15 commonly prescribed antibacterial agents using MIC agar dilution method as per standard guidelines. Results Streptomyces strains isolated from actinomycetoma fall into various phenotypic groups. All of the strains were inhibited by novobiocin (8 μg/mL, gentamycin (8, 32 μg/mL and doxycycline (32 μg/mL. Fusidic acid (64 μg/mL inhibited 94.4% of the strains; bacitracin, streptomycin, cephaloridine, clindamycin, ampicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline (64 μg/mL inhibited between 61.1 and 77.8% of the strains. All strains were found resistant to amphotericin B (64 μg/mL, penicillin (20 μg/mL and sulphamethoxazole (64 μg/mL. Conclusions Saprophytic Streptomyces spp. cause actinomycetoma in man and animal belong to separate phenotypes and have a wide range of susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents, which pose a lot of difficulties in selecting effective in vivo treatment for actinomycetoma.

  1. RNase III-Binding-mRNAs Revealed Novel Complementary Transcripts in Streptomyces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šetinová, D.; Šmídová, K.; Pohl, P.; Music, I.; Bobek, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, JAN 15 2018 (2018), č. článku 2693. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cis-antisense RNA * RNase III * Streptomyces Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  2. Development of Next Generation Synthetic Biology Tools for Use in Streptomyces venezuelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelan, Ryan M.; Sachs, Daniel; Petkiewicz, Shayne J.

    2017-01-01

    precludes rapid and predictable metabolic engineering that is possible in hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to improve genetic tools for Streptomyces venezuelae, we developed a suite of standardized, orthogonal integration vectors and an improved method to monitor...... expression system. These tools advance S. venezuelae to be a practical host for future metabolic engineering efforts....

  3. Antimicrobial activities of the Streptomyces ceolicolor strain AOB KF977550 isolated from a tropical estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele T. Odumosu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen for important antibiotic producing species of the genus Streptomyces from a tropical estuary. Five bacterial strains were isolated from the Lagos lagoon and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing as Streptomyces albogriseolus, S. aureus, S. coelicolor, S. albus, and S. pseudogriseolus. Ethyl acetate extracts of Streptomyces spp. fermented broths were evaluated against laboratory strains of MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA 144 m, Bacillus coagulans UL001, and Escherichia coli as well as the standard strains Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 8308, Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC 27853 and Salmonella typhi ATCC 13311 using the well diffusion method. The presence of secondary metabolites was determined and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A broad spectrum of activity was only observed for S. coelicolor on all of the tested bacteria except S. typhi, ant GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 16 secondary metabolites with relevant antibiotic properties. The result of this study suggest that Lagos Lagoon is a potential source and reservoir of novel antibiotics. Keywords: Streptomyces, Antibiotics, Resistance, Secondary Metabolites

  4. Stawamycin analog, JBIR-11 from Streptomyces viridochromogenes subsp. sulfomycini NBRC 13830.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumikawa, Miho; Komaki, Hisayuki; Hashimoto, Junko; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2008-05-01

    A stawamycin analog, JBIR-11 (1) was isolated from mycelium of Streptomyces viridochromogenes subsp. sulfomycini NBRC 13830. The structure was determined on the basis of the spectroscopic data. Compound 1 exhibited growth inhibitory effect against human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells with an IC50 value of 25 microM.

  5. Complete genome sequence and analysis of the Streptomyces aureofaciens phage mu1/6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farkasovská, J.; Klucar, L.; Vlček, Čestmír; Kokavec, J.; Godány, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 347-358 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : phage * genome * streptomyces Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  6. Comparison of laser diffraction and image analysis for measurement of Streptomyces coelicolor cell clumps and pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Stocks, Stuart M; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2012-01-01

    and pellets of Streptomyces coelicolor compare to image analysis. Samples, taken five times during fed-batch cultivation, were analyzed by image analysis and laser diffraction. The volume-weighted size distribution was calculated for each sample. Laser diffraction and image analysis yielded similar size...

  7. Evaluation of the possible proteomic application of trypsin from Streptomyces griseus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štosová, T.; Šebela, M.; Řehulka, Pavel; Šedo, O.; Havliš, J.; Zdráhal, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 376, č. 1 (2008), s. 94-102 ISSN 0003-2697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : MALDI-TOF MS * Streptomyces griseus * trypsin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.088, year: 2008

  8. Application of an Acyl-CoA Ligase from Streptomyces aizunensis for Lactam Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Barajas, Jesus F.; Burdu, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    lactams under ambient conditions. In this study, we demonstrated production of these chemicals using ORF26, an acyl-CoA ligase involved in the biosynthesis of ECO-02301 in Streptomyces aizunensis. This enzyme has a broad substrate spectrum and can cyclize 4-aminobutyric acid into γ-butyrolactam, 5...

  9. Relationship between Volatile Odorous Substances and Production of Avermectins by Streptomyces avermitilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Sobotka, Miroslav; Prell, Aleš; Sigler, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2007), s. 26-30 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptomyces avermitilis * antibiotics * inhibition Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  10. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jennifer R. [Brown University; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wei, Chia-Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Sello, Jason K. [Brown University

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass- degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized compo- nent of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism.

  11. Effect of Protein Kinase Inhibitors on Protein Phosphorylation and Germination of Aerial Spores from Streptomyces coelicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palečková, Petra; Kontrová, K.; Kofroňová, Olga; Bobek, Jan; Benada, Oldřich; Mikulík, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2007), s. 215-222 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptomyces coelicolor * protein kinase * phosphoprotein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  12. First report of Streptomyces stelliscabiei causing potato common scab in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptomyces scabies has been reported as the predominant cause of potato scab in Michigan. In a 2007 survey of common scab in Michigan, however, isolates were collected from a field that did not fit the description for S. scabies. Tests using species-specific PCR primers indicated isolates were S. ...

  13. Synergistic interaction in simultaneous exposure to Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttunen, K.; Pelkonen, J.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2004-01-01

    chartarum, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium terrae, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) alone and together with the actinomycete Streptomyces californicus. The production of nitric oxide, levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cytotoxicity were...

  14. Glucosylglycerate Is an Osmotic Solute and an Extracellular Metabolite Produced by Streptomyces caelestis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Stanislav; Halada, Petr; Petříček, Miroslav; Sedmera, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2007), s. 451-456 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600660607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptomyces caelestis * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  15. A Waking Review: Old and Novel Insights into the Spore Germination in Streptomyces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobek, Jan; Šmídová, Klára; Čihák, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, NOV 13 (2017), s. 1-12, č. článku 2205. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : dormancy * germination * Streptomyces Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  16. Noncoding RNA of Glutamine Synthetase I Modulates Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Alia, Davide; Nieselt, Kay; Steigele, Stephan; Mueller, Jonas; Verburg, Ilse; Takano, Eriko; Alia, Davide D’; Müller, Jonas

    Overexpression of antisense chromosomal cis-encoded noncoding RNAss (ncRNAs) in glutamine synthetase I resulted in a decrease in growth, protein synthesis, and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor. In addition, we predicted 3,597 cis-encoded ncRNAs and validated 13 of them

  17. Detection and properties of A-factor-binding protein from Streptomyces griseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, K.; Horinouchi, S.; Yoshida, M.; Chiba, N.; Mori, K.; Nogawa, N.; Morikawa, N.; Beppu, T.

    1989-01-01

    The optically active form of tritium-labeled A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone), a pleiotropic autoregulator responsible for streptomycin production, streptomycin resistance, and sporulation in Streptomyces griseus, was chemically synthesized. By using the radioactive A-factor, a binding protein for A-factor was detected in the cytoplasmic fraction of this organism. The binding protein had an apparent molecular weight of approximately 26,000, as determined by gel filtration. Scatchard analysis suggested that A-factor bound the protein in the molar ratio of 1:1 with a binding constant, Kd, of 0.7 nM. The number of the binding protein was roughly estimated to be 37 per genome. The inducing material virginiae butanolide C (VB-C), which has a structure very similar to that of A-factor and is essential for virginiamycin production in Streptomyces virginiae, did not inhibit binding. In addition, no protein capable of specifically binding 3 H-labeled VB-C was found in S. griseus. Together with the observation that VB-C had almost no biological activity on the restoration of streptomycin production or sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant of S. griseus, these results indicated that the binding protein had a strict ligand specificity. Examination for an A-factor-binding protein in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces lividans showed the absence of any specifically binding protein

  18. Discovery, characterization, and kinetic analysis of an alditol oxidase from streptomyces coelicolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, Dominic P. H. M.; van Hellemond, Erik W.; Janssen, Dick B.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2007-01-01

    A gene encoding an alditol oxidase was found in the genome of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). This newly identified oxidase, AldO, was expressed at extremely high levels in Escherichia coli when fused to maltose-binding protein. AldO is a soluble monomeric flavoprotein with subunits of 45.1 kDa, each

  19. Mining and polishing of the treasure trove in the bacterial genus streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2007-02-01

    The complex morphogenesis of the bacterial genus Streptomyces has made this genus a model prokaryote for study of multicellular differentiation, and its ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites has made it an excellent supplier of biologically active substances, including antibiotics. This review summarizes our study of these two characteristics of Streptomyces, focusing on the A-factor regulatory cascade and work derived from the A-factor study. A microbial hormone, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone), triggers morphological differentiation and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces griseus. The key steps in the A-factor regulatory cascade, including afsA, encoding the key enzyme for A-factor biosynthesis, arpA, encoding the A-factor receptor, and adpA, encoding a transcriptional activator, are elucidated. The target genes of the regulatory cascade include genes of various functions required for morphological development and secondary metabolite formation. The biosynthesis gene clusters for grixazone and hexahydroxyperylenequinone are examples. The former contains the enzymes for novel benzene ring formation and phenoxazinone formation, and the latter contains enzymes belonging to a type III polyketide synthase and a cytochrome P-450. Enzymes of various catalytic functions in Streptomyces are useful as members of an artificial gene cluster constructed in Escherichia coli for fermentative production of plant-specific flavonoids, including isoflavones and unnatural compounds.

  20. Production of actinorhodin-related ''blue pigments'' by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bystrykh, LV; FernandezMoreno, MA; Herrema, JK; Malpartida, F; Hopwood, DA; Dijkhuizen, L

    The genetically well-known strain Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) produces the pH indicator (red/blue) antibiotic actinorhodin, but not all the ''blue pigment'' produced by this strain is actinorhodin. When the organism was subjected to various nutrient limitations (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, or

  1. Epilithonimonas psychrotolerans sp. nov., isolated from alpine permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang; Zhao, Qi; Sheng, Hongmei; Wu, Jianmin; An, Lizhe

    2015-11-01

    A bacterial strain, designated TSBY 57T, was isolated during a study on the phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacteria from alpine permafrost in Tianshan Mountains, China, and was classified by means of a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The novel strain was found to belong to the genus Epilithonimonas and was distinguished from recognized species of this genus. Strain TSBY 57T grew aerobically, at 0-30 °C, with 0-1.5% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6-8.Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming rods. Compared with the reference strains, the novel strain was psychrotolerant. The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (consisting of C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c), anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0.The sole respiratory quinone was MK-6.Phosphatidylethanolamine was predominant in the polar lipid profile of strain TSBY 57T. These chemotaxonomic traits were in good agreement with the characteristics of the genus Epilithonimonas. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain TSBY 57T was a member of the genus Epilithonimonas and was closely related to Epilithonimonas tenax DSM 16811T (99.0%), Epilithonimonas ginsengisoli DCY78T (98.6%) and Epilithonimonas lactis H1T (98.5%). However, DNA-DNA reassociation values between strain TSBY 57T and E. tenax DSM 16811T, E. ginsengisoli DCY78T and E. lactis H1T were 39.5 ± 2.6, 37.7 ± 1.0 and 37.3 ± 1.1%, respectively. The G+C content of the DNA was 34.4 ± 0.2  mol%. Based on data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain TSBY 57T represents a novel species of the genus Epilithonimonas, for which the name Epilithonimonas psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TSBY 57T ( = NRRL B-51307T=CCTCC AB 207182T).

  2. Decoding options and accuracy of translation of developmentally regulated UUA codon in Streptomyces: bioinformatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokytskyy, Ihor; Koshla, Oksana; Fedorenko, Victor; Ostash, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    The gene bldA for leucyl [Formula: see text] is known for almost 30 years as a key regulator of morphogenesis and secondary metabolism in genus Streptomyces. Codon UUA is the rarest one in Streptomyces genomes and is present exclusively in genes with auxiliary functions. Delayed accumulation of translation-competent [Formula: see text] is believed to confine the expression of UUA-containing transcripts to stationary phase. Implicit to the regulatory function of UUA codon is the assumption about high accuracy of its translation, e.g. the latter should not occur in the absence of cognate [Formula: see text]. However, a growing body of facts points to the possibility of mistranslation of UUA-containing transcripts in the bldA-deficient mutants. It is not known what type of near-cognate tRNA(s) may decode UUA in the absence of cognate tRNA in Streptomyces, and whether UUA possesses certain inherent properties (such as increased/decreased accuracy of decoding) that would favor its use for regulatory purposes. Here we took bioinformatic approach to address these questions. We catalogued the entire complement of tRNA genes from several relevant Streptomyces and identified genes for posttranscriptional modifications of tRNA that might be involved in UUA decoding by cognate and near-cognate tRNAs. Based on tRNA gene content in Streptomyces genomes, we propose possible scenarios of UUA codon mistranslation. UUA is not associated with an increased rate of missense errors as compared to other leucyl codons, contrasting general belief that low-abundant codons are more error-prone than the high-abundant ones.

  3. Protoplasting impact on polyketide activity and characterization of the interspecific fusants from Streptomyces spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slama, N.; Lazim, H.; Barkallah, Insaf; Abbassi, M.; Ben Hassen, A.; Limam, F.

    2009-01-01

    Streptomycetes are gram-positive, soil-inhabiting bacteria of the order Actinomycetales. These organisms exhibit an unusual, developmentally complex life cycle and produce many economically important secondary metabolites, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressants, insecticides, and antitumor agents. Streptomyces species have been the subject of genetic investigation for over 50 years, with many studies focusing on the production of bioactives compounds. The protoplast formation and regeneration are important processes, and they are a major step following genetic manipulations such as fusion and DNA-mediated transformation, which can improve antibiotic production. The protoplast fusion, transformation and improved fermentation features can be used to regenerate strains with increased antibiotic activity. Local Streptomyces spp. CN207 produce a broad range of secondary metabolites which is active against bacteria and fungi. This strain was used as a donor and S. coelicolor strain M145 was used as a recipient host for protoplast fusion. The protoplast fusion resulted in increased isolation of variants with higher antibiotic activity. Recombinant Streptomyces coelicolor PF04 was increased 10 times more than the wild strain. The antimicrobial activity from PF04 strain was studied using the disc method agar. TLC analysis confirmed that the Rf of cell extract for PF04 strain is identical to antimicrobial compound of Streptomyces CN207. Our results confirm the possibility of transferring antibiotics cluster genes by fusion. In fact, many of the selective markers such as Ticarcillin, Cefalotin, Oxacillin and Cefotaxim were transferred during the protoplast fusion. PFGE analysis and DNA-hybridization confirmed the presence of homologous fragments between a wild-type Streptomyces CN207 and a recombinant S. coelicolor PF04

  4. Genetic interrelations in the actinomycin biosynthetic gene clusters of Streptomyces antibioticus IMRU 3720 and Streptomyces chrysomallus ATCC11523, producers of actinomycin X and actinomycin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnovčić I

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ivana Crnovčić,1 Christian Rückert,2 Siamak Semsary,1 Manuel Lang,1 Jörn Kalinowski,2 Ullrich Keller1 1Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin-Charlottenburg, 2Technology Platform Genomics, Center for Biotechnology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany Abstract: Sequencing the actinomycin (acm biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces antibioticus IMRU 3720, which produces actinomycin X (Acm X, revealed 20 genes organized into a highly similar framework as in the bi-armed acm C biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces chrysomallus but without an attached additional extra arm of orthologues as in the latter. Curiously, the extra arm of the S. chrysomallus gene cluster turned out to perfectly match the single arm of the S. antibioticus gene cluster in the same order of orthologues including the the presence of two pseudogenes, scacmM and scacmN, encoding a cytochrome P450 and its ferredoxin, respectively. Orthologues of the latter genes were both missing in the principal arm of the S. chrysomallus acm C gene cluster. All orthologues of the extra arm showed a G +C-contents different from that of their counterparts in the principal arm. Moreover, the similarities of translation products from the extra arm were all higher to the corresponding translation products of orthologue genes from the S. antibioticus acm X gene cluster than to those encoded by the principal arm of their own gene cluster. This suggests that the duplicated structure of the S. chrysomallus acm C biosynthetic gene cluster evolved from previous fusion between two one-armed acm gene clusters each from a different genetic background. However, while scacmM and scacmN in the extra arm of the S. chrysomallus acm C gene cluster are mutated and therefore are non-functional, their orthologues saacmM and saacmN in the S. antibioticus acm C gene cluster show no defects seemingly encoding active enzymes with functions specific for Acm X biosynthesis. Both acm

  5. The papain inhibitor (SPI) of Streptomyces mobaraensis inhibits bacterial cysteine proteases and is an antagonist of bacterial growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Zindel (Stephan); W.E. Kaman (Wendy); S. Fröls (Sabrina); F. Pfeifer (Felicitas); A. Peters (Annette); J.P. Hays (John); H.-L. Fuchsbauer (Hans-Lothar)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractA novel papain inhibitory protein (SPI) from Streptomyces mobaraensis was studied to measure its inhibitory effect on bacterial cysteine protease activity (Staphylococcus aureus SspB) and culture supernatants (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus anthracis). Further, growth of Bacillus

  6. Stenotrophomonas, Mycobacterium, and Streptomyces in home dust and air: associations with moldiness and other home/family characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Aims: (1) To investigate the dustborne and airborne bacterial concentrations of three emerging moisture-related bacteria: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces, and Mycobacterium. (2) To study the association between these bacteria concentrations and Environmenta...

  7. Development and application of a T7 RNA polymerase-dependent expression system for antibiotic production improvement in Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junhong; Tian, Jinjin; Pan, Guoqing; Xie, Jie; Bao, Jialing; Zhou, Zeyang

    2017-06-01

    To develop a reliable and easy to use expression system for antibiotic production improvement of Streptomyces. A two-compound T7 RNA polymerase-dependent gene expression system was developed to fulfill this demand. In this system, the T7 RNA polymerase coding sequence was optimized based on the codon usage of Streptomyces coelicolor. To evaluate the functionality of this system, we constructed an activator gene overexpression strain for enhancement of actinorhodin production. By overexpression of the positive regulator actII-ORF4 with this system, the maximum actinorhodin yield of engineered strain was 15-fold higher and the fermentation time was decreased by 48 h. The modified two-compound T7 expression system improves both antibiotic production and accelerates the fermentation process in Streptomyces. This provides a general and useful strategy for strain improvement of important antibiotic producing Streptomyces strains.

  8. Interspecies interactions stimulate diversification of the Streptomyces coelicolor secreted metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Matthew F; Watrous, Jeramie D; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-08-20

    Soils host diverse microbial communities that include filamentous actinobacteria (actinomycetes). These bacteria have been a rich source of useful metabolites, including antimicrobials, antifungals, anticancer agents, siderophores, and immunosuppressants. While humans have long exploited these compounds for therapeutic purposes, the role these natural products may play in mediating interactions between actinomycetes has been difficult to ascertain. As an initial step toward understanding these chemical interactions at a systems level, we employed the emerging techniques of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (NanoDESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry to gain a global chemical view of the model bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor interacting with five other actinomycetes. In each interaction, the majority of secreted compounds associated with S. coelicolor colonies were unique, suggesting an idiosyncratic response from S. coelicolor. Spectral networking revealed a family of unknown compounds produced by S. coelicolor during several interactions. These compounds constitute an extended suite of at least 12 different desferrioxamines with acyl side chains of various lengths; their production was triggered by siderophores made by neighboring strains. Taken together, these results illustrate that chemical interactions between actinomycete bacteria exhibit high complexity and specificity and can drive differential secondary metabolite production. Actinomycetes, filamentous actinobacteria from the soil, are the deepest natural source of useful medicinal compounds, including antibiotics, antifungals, and anticancer agents. There is great interest in developing new strategies that increase the diversity of metabolites secreted by actinomycetes in the laboratory. Here we used several metabolomic approaches to examine the chemicals made by these bacteria when grown in pairwise coculture. We found that

  9. Shewanella loihica sp. nov., isolated from iron-rich microbial mats in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haichun; Obraztova, Anna; Stewart, Nathan; Popa, Radu; Fredrickson, James K; Tiedje, James M; Nealson, Kenneth H; Zhou, Jizhong

    2006-08-01

    A novel marine bacterial strain, PV-4(T), isolated from a microbial mat located at a hydrothermal vent of Loihi Seamount in the Pacific Ocean, has been characterized. This micro-organism is orangey in colour, Gram-negative, polarly flagellated, facultatively anaerobic and psychrotolerant (temperature range, 0-42 degrees C). No growth was observed with nitrate, nitrite, DMSO or thiosulfate as the electron acceptor and lactate as the electron donor. The major fatty acid detected in strain PV-4(T) was iso-C(15 : 0). Strain PV-4(T) had ubiquinones consisting mainly of Q-7 and Q-8, and possessed menaquinone MK-7. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 53.8 mol% and the genome size was about 4.5 Mbp. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed PV-4(T) within the genus Shewanella. PV-4(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity levels of 99.6 and 97.5 %, respectively, with respect to the type strains of Shewanella aquimarina and Shewanella marisflavi. DNA from strain PV-4(T) showed low mean levels of relatedness to the DNAs of S. aquimarina (50.5 %) and S. marisflavi (8.5 %). On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, the bacterium was classified in the genus Shewanella within a distinct novel species, for which the name Shewanella loihica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PV-4(T) (=ATCC BAA-1088(T)=DSM 17748(T)).

  10. N-acetyl-3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, a second identified bioactive metabolite produced by Streptomyces sp 8812

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Solecka, J.; Rajnisz, A.; Postek, M.; Zajko, J.; Kawecki, R.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Bednarek, E.; Kozerski, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 4 (2012), s. 219-221 ISSN 0021-8820 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : antimicrobial activity * DD-peptidase inhibitor * JS-2 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.191, year: 2012

  11. TNF-a and IL-6 inhibitory effects of cyclic dipeptides isolated from marine bacteria Streptomyces sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nalli, Y.; Gupta, S.; Khajuria, V.; Singh, V.P.; Sajgotra, M.; Ahmed, Z.; Thakur, N.L.; Ali, A.

    necrosis factor-a which efficiently inhibited tumor necrosis factor-a release in a dose-dependent manner and decreased lipopolysaccharide induced tumor necrosis factor-a production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in both the in vitro and in vivo...

  12. SP-100 Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    The SP-100 Program is expected to go through three phases: technology assessment and advancement, ground testing, and flight qualification. Currently the program is in the two- to three-year technology assessment and advancement stage. Goals are to identify the space nuclear power system concept that best meets anticipated requirements of future space missions, assess the technical feasibility of that concept, and establish a cost and schedule for developing the concept. The SP-100 Project Office has begun the implementation activities needed to meet these goals. With regard to refractory alloys, a better data base will be required before we move ahead in the program from technology assessment to ground demonstration

  13. Phosphoproteome analysis of streptomyces development reveals extensive protein phosphorylation accompanying bacterial differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Ye, Juanying; Sánchez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Streptomycetes are bacterial species that undergo a complex developmental cycle that includes programmed cell death (PCD) events and sporulation. They are widely used in biotechnology because they produce most clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Although Streptomyces coelicolor is one...... events were detected during the presporulation and sporulation stages (80%). Most of these phosphorylations were not reported before in Streptomyces, and included sporulation factors, transcriptional regulators, protein kinases and other regulatory proteins. Several of the identified phosphorylated...... proteins, FtsZ, DivIVA, and FtsH2, were previously demonstrated to be involved in the sporulation process. We thus established for the first time the widespread occurrence and dynamic features of Ser/Thr/Tyr protein phosphorylation in a bacteria species and also revealed a previously unrecognized...

  14. Characterization of Streptomyces isolates causing colour changes of mural paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haliem, M E F; Sakr, A A; Ali, M F; Ghaly, M F; Sohlenkamp, C

    2013-08-25

    Paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs often suffer colour changes due to microbial growth and colonization. Streptomyces strains were isolated from mural paintings of Tell Basta and Tanis tombs (East of Nile Delta, Egypt) and were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. The16S rDNA sequences data indicated that isolated strains were closely related to S. coelicolor, S. albidofuscus, S. ambofaciens, S. canarius, S. parvullus, S. corchorusii, S. albidofuscus and S. nigrifaciens. It could be shown that Streptomyces strains are involved on a large scale in the colour changes of paintings and stone support by producing a wide range of metabolites such as acids (oxalic, citric and sulphuric acids), biopigments of melanin, carotenoids, and hydrogen sulphide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of l-methionine γ-lyase from Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudou, Daizou; Yasuda, Eri; Hirai, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Takashi; Inagaki, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    A pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent methionine γ-lyase (MGL) was cloned from Streptomyces avermitilis catalyzed the degradation of methionine to α-ketobutyrate, methanethiol, and ammonia. The sav7062 gene (1,242 bp) was corresponded to 413 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 42,994 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high degree of similarity to those of other MGL enzymes. The sav7062 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity and exhibited the MGL catalytic activities. We cloned the enzyme that has the MGL activity in Streptomyces for the first time. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies on Optimization of Growth Parameters for L-Asparaginase Production by Streptomyces ginsengisoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A species of Streptomyces, Streptomyces ginsengisoli, a river isolate, was evaluated for production of an enzyme, L-asparaginase, with multiple functions mainly anticancer activity. The actinomycete was subjected to submerged fermentation by “shake flask” method. The quantity of L-asparaginase produced was estimated as 3.23 μmol/mL/min. The effect of various culture conditions on L-asparaginase production was studied by adopting a method of variation in one factor at a time. Of the various conditions tested, glucose (followed by starch and peptone served as good carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for maximal production of enzyme at pH 8. The temperature of 30°C and an incubation period of 5 days with 0.05 g% asparagine concentration were found to be optimum for L-asparaginase production.

  17. Development of Next Generation Synthetic Biology Tools for Use in Streptomyces venezuelae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, Ryan M. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Sachs, Daniel [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Petkiewicz, Shayne J. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Barajas, Jesus F. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Blake-Hedges, Jacquelyn M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Thompson, Mitchell G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant & Microbial Biology; Reider Apel, Amanda [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Rasor, Blake J. [Miami Univ., Oxford, Ohio (United States). Dept. of Biology; Katz, Leonard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Department of Bioengineering; Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kogle Alle (Denmark). Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability

    2016-09-07

    Streptomyces have a rich history as producers of important natural products and this genus of bacteria has recently garnered attention for its potential applications in the broader context of synthetic biology. However, the dearth of genetic tools available to control and monitor protein production precludes rapid and predictable metabolic engineering that is possible in hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to improve genetic tools for Streptomyces venezuelae, we developed a suite of standardized, orthogonal integration vectors and an improved method to monitor protein production in this host. These tools were applied to characterize heterologous promoters and various attB chromosomal integration sites. A final study leveraged the characterized toolset to demonstrate its use in producing the biofuel precursor bisabolene using a chromosomally integrated expression system. In conclusion, these tools advance S. venezuelae to be a practical host for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  18. Prioritizing orphan proteins for further study using phylogenomics and gene expression profiles in Streptomyces coelicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Eriko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptomyces coelicolor, a model organism of antibiotic producing bacteria, has one of the largest genomes of the bacterial kingdom, including 7825 predicted protein coding genes. A large number of these genes, nearly 34%, are functionally orphan (hypothetical proteins with unknown function. However, in gene expression time course data, many of these functionally orphan genes show interesting expression patterns. Results In this paper, we analyzed all functionally orphan genes of Streptomyces coelicolor and identified a list of "high priority" orphans by combining gene expression analysis and additional phylogenetic information (i.e. the level of evolutionary conservation of each protein. Conclusions The prioritized orphan genes are promising candidates to be examined experimentally in the lab for further characterization of their function.

  19. Streptomyces rimosus GDS(L Lipase: Production, Heterologous Overexpression and Structure-Stability Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Abramić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces rimosus lipase gene has been overexpressed in a heterologous host, S. lividans TK23. The maximal lipase activity was determined in the culture filtrates of the late stationary phase. Time course of lipase production was monitored by a modified plate assay. S. rimosus lipase gene has been located on the AseI B fragment approximately 2 Mb far from the left end of the S. rimosus linear chromosome. Out of eight examined streptomycetes, the presence of this rare type of bacterial lipase gene was detected in two belonging to the S. rimosus taxonomic cluster, and in one non-related species. Comparison of protein sequences of the Streptomyces lipolytic enzymes was performed. The result indicated the best structural stability of the putative S. coelicolor lipase-2.

  20. DNA replication is not restricted to specific regions in young vegetative Streptomyces mycelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, C.; Kretschmer, S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine the localization of DNA-synthesis in Streptomyces granaticolor and Streptomyces hygroscopicus, mycelia (growing either on agar or in liquid medium) were pulse-labelled with 3 H-thymidine and prepared for autoradiography. The distribution of silver grains showed no regions of preferential incorporation of 3 H-thymidine in mycelia up 300 μm in length. Since mycelia grow by apical elongation of hyphae, the frequency of silver grains was quantitatively analysed along individual main hyphase. No significant difference of labelling was found within zones of different age up to a distance of 80 μm from the hyphal tip. Also, the very youngest part of the hyphae enclosing only the most apically situated nucleoid did not show any deviation from the average frequency of silver grains. (author)

  1. A Novel Insecticidal Peptide SLP1 Produced by Streptomyces laindensis H008 against Lipaphis erysimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are major insect pests for crops, causing damage by direct feeding and transmission of plant diseases. This paper was completed to discover and characterize a novel insecticidal metabolite against aphids from soil actinobacteria. An insecticidal activity assay was used to screen 180 bacterial strains from soil samples against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi. The bacterial strain H008 showed the strongest activity, and it was identified by the phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and physiological traits as a novel species of genus Streptomyces (named S. laindensis H008. With the bioassay-guided method, the insecticidal extract from S. laindensis H008 was subjected to chromatographic separations. Finally, a novel insecticidal peptide was purified from Streptomyces laindensis H008 against L. erysimi, and it was determined to be S-E-P-A-Q-I-V-I-V-D-G-V-D-Y-W by TOF-MS and amino acid analysis.

  2. Nutritional control of antibiotic production by Streptomyces platensis MA7327: importance of L-aspartic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Falzone, Maria; Crespo, Emmanuel; Jones, Klarissa; Khan, Gulaba; Korn, Victoria L; Patel, Amreen; Patel, Mira; Patel, Krishnaben; Perkins, Carrie; Siddiqui, Sana; Stenger, Drew; Yu, Eileen; Gelber, Michael; Scheffler, Robert; Nayda, Vasyl

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces platensis MA7327 is a bacterium producing interesting antibiotics, which act by the novel mechanism of inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis. The antibiotics produced by this actinomycete are platensimycin and platencin plus some minor related antibiotics. Platensimycin and platencin have activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus; they also lack toxicity in animal models. Platensimycin als...

  3. The Biocontrol Efficacy of Streptomyces pratensis LMM15 on Botrytis cinerea in Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Qinggui Lian; Jing Zhang; Liang Gan; Qing Ma; Zhaofeng Zong; Yang Wang

    2017-01-01

    LMM15, an actinomycete with broad spectrum antifungal activity, was isolated from a diseased tomato leaf using the baiting technique. A phylogenetic tree analysis based on similarity percentage of 16S rDNA sequences showed that the bacterium was 97.0% affiliated with the species Streptomyces pratensis. This strain was therefore coded as S. pratensis LMM15. The ferment filtrate of LMM15 had ability to inhibit mycelia growth of Botrytis cinerea and reduce lesion expansion of gray mold on detach...

  4. Fabrication of biogenic antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102 as eco-friendly nanofactory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A M; Darwesh, Osama M M

    2014-04-01

    The current research was focused on the extracellular biosynthesis of bactericidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using cell-free supernatant of a local isolate previously identified as a novel Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102 was quite fast and required far less time than previously published strains. The produced particles showed a single surface plasmon resonance peak at 400 nm by UV-Vis spectroscopy, which confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Response surface methodology was chosen to evaluate the effects of four process variables (AgNO3 concentration, incubation period, pH levels, and inoculum size) on the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic effects of incubation period, initial pH, and inoculum size had a significant effect (p silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102. The maximum silver nanoparticles biosynthesis (2.5 OD, at 400 nm ) was achieved in runs number 5 and 14 under the conditions of 1 mM AgNO3 (1-1.5% (v/v)), incubation period (72-96 h), initial pH (9-10), and inoculum size (2-4% (v/v)). An overall 4-fold increase in AgNPs biosynthesis was obtained as compared with that of unoptimized conditions. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-VIS spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, in addition to antimicrobial properties. The biosynthesized AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of medically important pathogenic gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and yeast (Candida albicans).

  5. Strain improvement in Streptomyces galilaeus, a producer of anthracycline antibiotics galirubins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralovcova, E.; Blumauerova, M.; Vanek, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The production of epsilon-pyrromycinone glycosides in Streptomyces galilaeus increased 12-fold, with respect to the wild strain, as a result of a sequential procedure including both natural selection and treatment with mutagens (nitrous acid, UV light and γ irradiation). Nitrous acid exhibited the highest mutagenic effect, both in increasing the productivity and in inducing blocked mutants. A mutant strain blocked in the biosynthesis of glycosides and accumulating free epsilon-pyrromycinone as the principal metabolite was obtained. (author)

  6. Western Bats as a Reservoir of Novel Streptomyces Species with Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Paris S; Caimi, Nicole A; Northup, Diana E; Valdez, Ernest W; Buecher, Debbie C; Dunlap, Christopher A; Labeda, David P; Lueschow, Shiloh; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    At least two-thirds of commercial antibiotics today are derived from Actinobacteria , more specifically from the genus Streptomyces Antibiotic resistance and new emerging diseases pose great challenges in the field of microbiology. Cave systems, in which actinobacteria are ubiquitous and abundant, represent new opportunities for the discovery of novel bacterial species and the study of their interactions with emergent pathogens. White-nose syndrome is an invasive bat disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans , which has killed more than six million bats in the last 7 years. In this study, we isolated naturally occurring actinobacteria from white-nose syndrome (WNS)-free bats from five cave systems and surface locations in the vicinity in New Mexico and Arizona, USA. We sequenced the 16S rRNA region and tested 632 isolates from 12 different bat species using a bilayer plate method to evaluate antifungal activity. Thirty-six actinobacteria inhibited or stopped the growth of P. destructans , with 32 (88.9%) actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces Isolates in the genera Rhodococcus , Streptosporangium , Luteipulveratus , and Nocardiopsis also showed inhibition. Twenty-five of the isolates with antifungal activity against P. destructans represent 15 novel Streptomyces spp. based on multilocus sequence analysis. Our results suggest that bats in western North America caves possess novel bacterial microbiota with the potential to inhibit P. destructans IMPORTANCE This study reports the largest collection of actinobacteria from bats with activity against Pseudogymnoascus destructans , the fungal causative agent of white-nose syndrome. Using multigene analysis, we discovered 15 potential novel species. This research demonstrates that bats and caves may serve as a rich reservoir for novel Streptomyces species with antimicrobial bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Problems of RNA synthesis study using radioactive precursors in Streptomyces aureofaciens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danyi, O.; Trnovsky, J.; Simuth, J.; Zelinka, J.

    1978-01-01

    The studies of the RNA synthesis by 14 C labelled uracil and uridine within Streptomyces aureofaciens were carried out. It was determined, that the substantial part (90%) of the acid insoluble radioactivity was transported after the 20 minutes of hydrolysis in 5% TCA at 90 degC into the acid soluble fraction. 14 C (U) uridine was found to incorporate into DNA, where the radioactivity in cytosine and thymine was determined. The usage of 3 H labelled uridine was not effective. (author)

  8. Streptomyces lunalinharesii Strain 235 Shows the Potential to Inhibit Bacteria Involved in Biocorrosion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco da Rosa, Juliana; Korenblum, Elisa; Franco-Cirigliano, Marcella Novaes; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Soares, Rosângela M. A.; Macrae, Andrew; Seldin, Lucy; Coelho, Rosalie R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Four actinomycete strains previously isolated from Brazilian soils were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus LF-4 and Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491, bacteria that are well known to be involved in biofilm formation and biocorrosion. Strain 235, belonging to the species Streptomyces lunalinharesii, inhibited the growth of both bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was seen over a wide range of pH, and after treatment with several chemicals and heat but not with...

  9. Foliar Application of Extract from an Azalomycin-Producing Streptomyces malaysiensis Strain MJM1968 Suppresses Yam Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Sasikumar; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Woh

    2016-06-28

    Yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C.g) is the most devastating disease of yam (Dioscorea sp.). In the present study, we evaluated the culture filtrate extract (CFE) of azalomycin-producing Streptomyces malaysiensis strain MJM1968 for the control of yam anthracnose. MJM1968 showed strong antagonistic activity against C.g in vitro. Furthermore, the MJM1968 CFE was tested for inhibition of spore germination in C.g, where it completely inhibited spore germination at a concentration of 50 μg/ml. To assess the in planta efficacy of the CFE and spores of MJM1968 against C.g, a detached leaf bioassay was conducted, which showed both the treatments suppressed anthracnose development on detached yam leaves. Furthermore, a greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the CFE from MJM1968 as a fungicide for the control of yam anthracnose. The CFE non-treated plants showed a disease severity of >92% after 90 days of artificial inoculation with C.g, whereas the disease severity of CFE-treated and benomyl-treated yam plants was reduced to 26% and 15%, respectively, after 90 days. Analysis of the yam tubers from the CFE-treated and non-treated groups showed that tubers from the CFE-treated plants were larger than that of non-treated plants, which produced abnormal smaller tubers typical of anthracnose. This study demonstrated the utility of the CFE from S. malaysiensis strain MJM1968 as a biofungicide for the control of yam anthracnose.

  10. Localized hydroxylamine mutagenesis, and cotransduction of threonine and lysine genes, in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttard, C

    1983-01-01

    A lysate of the generalized transducing phage SV1, grown on the prototrophic type strain 10712 of Streptomyces venezuelae, was mutagenized with hydroxylamine and used to transduce a lysineless auxotroph to lysine independence on supplemented minimal agar. A complex threonine mutant, strain VS95, was isolated from among the transductants and was shown to be carrying at least two different thr mutations. These were about 50% cotransducible with alleles of four independently isolated lysA mutations, as were two other independently isolated threonine mutations, thr-1 and hom-5. The location of thr genes close to lysA occurs in at least three other streptomycetes, but apparently not in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), in which the lysA and thr loci are at diametrically opposite locations on the linkage map. This first observation of cotransduction between loci governing the biosynthesis of different amino acids in the genus Streptomyces demonstrates the feasibility of fine-structure genetic analysis by transduction in these antibiotic-producing bacteria. PMID:6411685

  11. Phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits explains dispersal limitation and genomic differentiation of Streptomyces sister-taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudoir, Mallory J; Buckley, Daniel H

    2018-06-07

    The latitudinal diversity gradient is a pattern of biogeography observed broadly in plants and animals but largely undocumented in terrestrial microbial systems. Although patterns of microbial biogeography across broad taxonomic scales have been described in a range of contexts, the mechanisms that generate biogeographic patterns between closely related taxa remain incompletely characterized. Adaptive processes are a major driver of microbial biogeography, but there is less understanding of how microbial biogeography and diversification are shaped by dispersal limitation and drift. We recently described a latitudinal diversity gradient of species richness and intraspecific genetic diversity in Streptomyces by using a geographically explicit culture collection. Within this geographically explicit culture collection, we have identified Streptomyces sister-taxa whose geographic distribution is delimited by latitude. These sister-taxa differ in geographic distribution, genomic diversity, and ecological traits despite having nearly identical SSU rRNA gene sequences. Comparative genomic analysis reveals genomic differentiation of these sister-taxa consistent with restricted gene flow across latitude. Furthermore, we show phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits between the sister-taxa suggesting that thermal trait adaptation limits dispersal and gene flow across climate regimes as defined by latitude. Such phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits is commonly associated with latitudinal diversity gradients for plants and animals. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that the Streptomyces latitudinal diversity gradient was formed as a result of historical demographic processes defined by dispersal limitation and driven by paleoclimate dynamics.

  12. Production of Manooligomannan from Palm Kernel Cake by Mannanase Produced from Streptomyces Cyaenus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Purnawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase of public attention to health has prompted researchers to look for new sources of functional food. Palm Cake Kernel (PKC waste was abundant in Indonesia, Oligosaccharide has an important benefit for human health. Recently oligosaccharide is not only important as an artificial sweetener, but also as a functional food component. This study was aimed to produce oligo-mannan enzymatically from PKC waste using mannanase derived from of Streptomyces cyaenus isolates of indigenous Indonesia. The enzyme concentration was determined by enzyme activity assay while oligo-mannan content in the PKC was analyzed using TLC and HPLC. Mannanase enzyme activity of 1706 U/ml on the second day of agitation 200 rpm at a temperature of 30°C Hydrolysis of mannooligomannan by using mannanase produced by streptomyces cyaenus. The optimum mannanase enzyme activity obtained on day 2 with the value of the activity as much of 0.702 U/mL. The protein content of the 2nd day at an agitation speed of 150 rpm, 200 rpm, and 250 rpm, respectively, were 1783, 1950 and 2283 ppm. Streptomyces cyaenus is Indonesian original isolates potentially producing mannanase that can produce mannooligomannan.

  13. Correlative cryo-fluorescence light microscopy and cryo-electron tomography of Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Roman I; Celler, Katherine; Willemse, Joost; Bos, Erik; van Wezel, Gilles P; Koster, Abraham J

    2014-01-01

    Light microscopy and electron microscopy are complementary techniques that in a correlative approach enable identification and targeting of fluorescently labeled structures in situ for three-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolution. Correlative imaging allows electron microscopic images to be positioned in a broader temporal and spatial context. We employed cryo-correlative light and electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM), combining cryo-fluorescence light microscopy and cryo-electron tomography, on vitrified Streptomyces bacteria to study cell division. Streptomycetes are mycelial bacteria that grow as long hyphae and reproduce via sporulation. On solid media, Streptomyces subsequently form distinct aerial mycelia where cell division leads to the formation of unigenomic spores which separate and disperse to form new colonies. In liquid media, only vegetative hyphae are present divided by noncell separating crosswalls. Their multicellular life style makes them exciting model systems for the study of bacterial development and cell division. Complex intracellular structures have been visualized with transmission electron microscopy. Here, we describe the methods for cryo-CLEM that we applied for studying Streptomyces. These methods include cell growth, fluorescent labeling, cryo-fixation by vitrification, cryo-light microscopy using a Linkam cryo-stage, image overlay and relocation, cryo-electron tomography using a Titan Krios, and tomographic reconstruction. Additionally, methods for segmentation, volume rendering, and visualization of the correlative data are described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth of desferrioxamine-deficient Streptomyces mutants through xenosiderophore piracy of airborne fungal contaminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Anthony Argüelles; Lambert, Stéphany; Martinet, Loïc; Adam, Delphine; Tenconi, Elodie; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Ongena, Marc; Rigali, Sébastien

    2015-07-01

    Due to the necessity of iron for housekeeping functions, nutrition, morphogenesis and secondary metabolite production, siderophore piracy could be a key strategy in soil and substrate colonization by microorganisms. Here we report that mutants of bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor unable to produce desferrioxamine siderophores could recover growth when the plates were contaminated by indoor air spores of a Penicillium species and Engyodontium album. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed that the HPLC fractions with the extracellular 'resuscitation' factors of the Penicillium isolate were only those that contained siderophores, i.e. Fe-dimerum acid, ferrichrome, fusarinine C and coprogen. The restored growth of the Streptomyces mutants devoid of desferrioxamine is most likely mediated through xenosiderophore uptake as the cultivability depends on the gene encoding the ABC-transporter-associated DesE siderophore-binding protein. That a filamentous fungus allows the growth of desferrioxamine non-producing Streptomyces in cocultures confirms that xenosiderophore piracy plays a vital role in nutritional interactions between these taxonomically unrelated filamentous microorganisms. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. VIABILITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF STREPTOMYCES STRAINS FROM NCNM AFTER LYOPHILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg CHISELIŢA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the aspects related to lyophilization of streptomycetes strains, preserved in the National Collection of Nonpathogenic Microorganisms (NCNM. Was determined that lyophilization do not significantly modify the antimicrobial activity of streptomycetes. Maximum viability of strains of genus Streptomyces (83,2-90,2% is ensured after lyophilization at initial titer by 9-11 log10UFC ml-1 in protective medium (gelatin 2,5% + glucose 7,5% by rehydra­tion with distillate water.VIABILITATEA ŞI ACTIVITATEA ANTIMICROBIANĂ A TULPINELOR DE STREPTOMYCES DIN CNMN DUPĂ LIOFILIZAREAcest articol prezintă aspecte legate de liofilizarea tulpinilor de streptomicete, depozitate în Colecţia Naţională de Microorganisme Nepatogene (CNMN. A fost stabilit că liofilizarea nu modifică esenţial activitatea antimicrobiană a streptomicetelor. Viabilitatea maximă a tulpinilor genului Streptomyces (83,2-90,2% este asigurată după liofilizarea la titrul iniţial 9-11 log10UFC ml-1 în mediu protectiv (gelatină 2,5% + glucosă 7,5% şi la rehidratarea cu apă distilată. 

  16. Improvement of oxytetracycline production mediated via cooperation of resistance genes in Streptomyces rimosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shouliang; Wang, Xuefeng; Shi, Mingxin; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Huizhuan; Jia, Xiaole; Yuan, Fang; Sun, Jinliang; Liu, Tiejun; Yang, Keqian; Zhang, Yuxiu; Fan, Keqiang; Li, Zilong

    2017-09-01

    Increasing the self-resistance levels of Streptomyces is an effective strategy to improve the production of antibiotics. To increase the oxytetracycline (OTC) production in Streptomyces rimosus, we investigated the cooperative effect of three co-overexpressing OTC resistance genes: one gene encodes a ribosomal protection protein (otrA) and the other two express efflux proteins (otrB and otrC). Results indicated that combinational overexpression of otrA, otrB, and otrC (MKABC) exerted a synergetic effect. OTC production increased by 179% in the recombinant strain compared with that of the wild-type strain M4018. The resistance level to OTC was increased by approximately two-fold relative to the parental strain, thereby indicating that applying the cooperative effect of self-resistance genes is useful to improve OTC production. Furthermore, the previously identified cluster-situated activator OtcR was overexpressed in MKABC in constructing the recombinant strain MKRABC; such strain can produce OTC of approximately 7.49 g L -1 , which represents an increase of 19% in comparison with that of the OtcR-overexpressing strain alone. Our work showed that the cooperative overexpression of self-resistance genes is a promising strategy to enhance the antibiotics production in Streptomyces.

  17. Genome mining of Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 reveals symbiotic features including genes related to plant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Luna, Stefany Daniela; Cruz Vázquez, Angélica Patricia; Jiménez Suárez, Verónica; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Sánchez, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are wide-spread and associated with plant physiological benefits, yet their genomes and secondary metabolites remain largely unidentified. In this study, we explored the genome of the endophyte Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 for discovery of potential novel molecules as well as genes and metabolites involved in host interactions. The complete genomes of seven Streptomyces and three other more distantly related bacteria were used to define the functional landscape of this unique microbe. The S. scabrisporus NF3 genome is larger than the average Streptomyces genome and not structured for an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle; this and the fact that can grow in R2YE media implies that it could include a soil-living stage. The genome displays an enrichment of genes associated with amino acid production, protein secretion, secondary metabolite and antioxidants production and xenobiotic degradation, indicating that S. scabrisporus NF3 could contribute to the metabolic enrichment of soil microbial communities and of its hosts. Importantly, besides its metabolic advantages, the genome showed evidence for differential functional specificity and diversification of plant interaction molecules, including genes for the production of plant hormones, stress resistance molecules, chitinases, antibiotics and siderophores. Given the diversity of S. scabrisporus mechanisms for host upkeep, we propose that these strategies were necessary for its adaptation to plant hosts and to face changes in environmental conditions. PMID:29447216

  18. Genome mining of Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 reveals symbiotic features including genes related to plant interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Diana Ceapă

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria are wide-spread and associated with plant physiological benefits, yet their genomes and secondary metabolites remain largely unidentified. In this study, we explored the genome of the endophyte Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 for discovery of potential novel molecules as well as genes and metabolites involved in host interactions. The complete genomes of seven Streptomyces and three other more distantly related bacteria were used to define the functional landscape of this unique microbe. The S. scabrisporus NF3 genome is larger than the average Streptomyces genome and not structured for an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle; this and the fact that can grow in R2YE media implies that it could include a soil-living stage. The genome displays an enrichment of genes associated with amino acid production, protein secretion, secondary metabolite and antioxidants production and xenobiotic degradation, indicating that S. scabrisporus NF3 could contribute to the metabolic enrichment of soil microbial communities and of its hosts. Importantly, besides its metabolic advantages, the genome showed evidence for differential functional specificity and diversification of plant interaction molecules, including genes for the production of plant hormones, stress resistance molecules, chitinases, antibiotics and siderophores. Given the diversity of S. scabrisporus mechanisms for host upkeep, we propose that these strategies were necessary for its adaptation to plant hosts and to face changes in environmental conditions.

  19. A highly efficient targeted recombination system for engineering linear chromosomes of industrial bacteria Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hung-Yin; Chen, Carton W; Huang, Chih-Hung

    2018-04-17

    Soil bacteria Streptomyces are the most important producers of secondary metabolites, including most known antibiotics. These bacteria and their close relatives are unique in possessing linear chromosomes, which typically harbor 20 to 30 biosynthetic gene clusters of tens to hundreds of kb in length. Many Streptomyces chromosomes are accompanied by linear plasmids with sizes ranging from several to several hundred kb. The large linear plasmids also often contain biosynthetic gene clusters. We have developed a targeted recombination procedure for arm exchanges between a linear plasmid and a linear chromosome. A chromosomal segment inserted in an artificially constructed plasmid allows homologous recombination between the two replicons at the homology. Depending on the design, the recombination may result in two recombinant replicons or a single recombinant chromosome with the loss of the recombinant plasmid that lacks a replication origin. The efficiency of such targeted recombination ranges from 9 to 83% depending on the locations of the homology (and thus the size of the chromosomal arm exchanged), essentially eliminating the necessity of selection. The targeted recombination is useful for the efficient engineering of the Streptomyces genome for large-scale deletion, addition, and shuffling.

  20. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  1. Developmental biology of Streptomyces from the perspective of 100 actinobacterial genome sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Govind; Chater, Keith F

    2014-01-01

    To illuminate the evolution and mechanisms of actinobacterial complexity, we evaluate the distribution and origins of known Streptomyces developmental genes and the developmental significance of actinobacteria-specific genes. As an aid, we developed the Actinoblast database of reciprocal blastp best hits between the Streptomyces coelicolor genome and more than 100 other actinobacterial genomes (http://streptomyces.org.uk/actinoblast/). We suggest that the emergence of morphological complexity was underpinned by special features of early actinobacteria, such as polar growth and the coupled participation of regulatory Wbl proteins and the redox-protecting thiol mycothiol in transducing a transient nitric oxide signal generated during physiologically stressful growth transitions. It seems that some cell growth and division proteins of early actinobacteria have acquired greater importance for sporulation of complex actinobacteria than for mycelial growth, in which septa are infrequent and not associated with complete cell separation. The acquisition of extracellular proteins with structural roles, a highly regulated extracellular protease cascade, and additional regulatory genes allowed early actinobacterial stationary phase processes to be redeployed in the emergence of aerial hyphae from mycelial mats and in the formation of spore chains. These extracellular proteins may have contributed to speciation. Simpler members of morphologically diverse clades have lost some developmental genes. PMID:24164321

  2. Citrinin derivatives from the soil filamentous fungus Penicillium sp. H9318

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guangmin, Yao; Sebisubi, Fred Musoke; Voo, Lok Yung Christopher; Ho, Coy Choke; Tan, Ghee Teng; Chang, Leng Chee

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of a microbial fermentation organic extract of Penicillium sp. H9318 led to the isolation of a new isoquinolinone alkaloid, (5S)-3,4,5,7-tetramethyl-5,8-dihydroxyl-6(5H)- isoquinolinone (1), along with four known citrinin derivatives (2-5). Citrinin (2) exhibited significant inhibitory activity against Streptomyces 85E in the hyphae formation inhibition (HFI) assay, while compounds 1, 3-5 were not active when tested at 20 μg/disk in the HFI assay. Citrinin (2) further demonstrated a weak inhibitory activity against MCF-7 (IC 50 71.93 μmol L -1 ), LNCaP (IC 50 77.92 μmol L -1 ), LU-1 (147.85 μmol L -1 ) and KB (IC 50 65.93 μmol L -1 ) cell lines, respectively, in the cytotoxicity assay. (author)

  3. Cryptosporidium sp. in lizards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, D.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (1998), s. 8 ISSN 1066-5234. [Cryptosporidium sp. in lazards. 01.01.1998-02.01.1998, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA508/95/0273; GA AV ČR IPP2020702 Subject RIV: fp - Other Medical Disciplines

  4. Molecular characterization of the pSinB plasmid of the arsenite oxidizing, metallotolerant Sinorhizobium sp. M14 - insight into the heavy metal resistome of sinorhizobial extrachromosomal replicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Krzysztof; Dziewit, Lukasz; Decewicz, Przemyslaw; Mielnicki, Sebastian; Radlinska, Monika; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Sinorhizobium sp. M14 is an As(III)-oxidizing, psychrotolerant strain, capable of growth in the presence of extremely high concentrations of arsenic and many other heavy metals. Metallotolerant abilities of the M14 strain depend upon the presence of two extrachromosomal replicons: pSinA (∼ 109 kb) and pSinB (∼ 300 kb). The latter was subjected to complex analysis. The performed analysis demonstrated that the plasmid pSinB is a narrow-host-range repABC-type replicon, which is fully stabilized by the phd-vapC-like toxin-antitoxin stabilizing system. In silico analysis showed that among the phenotypic gene clusters of the plasmid pSinB, eight modules are potentially involved in heavy metals resistance (HMR). These modules carry genes encoding efflux pumps, permeases, transporters and copper oxidases, which provide resistance to arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, mercury, nickel, silver and zinc. The functional analysis revealed that the HMR modules are active and have an effect on the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values observed for the heterological host cells. The phenotype was manifested by an increase or decrease of the MICs of heavy metals and it was strain specific. The analysis of distribution of the heavy metal resistance genes, i.e. resistome, in Sinorhizobium spp. plasmids, revealed that the HMR modules are common in these replicons. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Mycelium differentiation and development of Streptomyces coelicolor in lab-scale bioreactors: Programmed cell death, differentiation, and lysis are closely linked to undecylprodigiosin and actinorhodin production

    OpenAIRE

    Rioseras de Bustos, Beatriz; López García, María Teresa (Bio); Yagüe Menéndez, Paula; Sánchez Martín, Jesús; Manteca Fernández, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycetes are mycelium-forming bacteria that produce two thirds of clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolite production is activated at specific developmental stages of Streptomyces life cycle. Despite this, Streptomyces differentiation in industrial bioreactors tends to be underestimated and the most important parameters managed are only indirectly related to differentiation: modifications to the culture media, optimization of productive strains by random or direct...

  6. Development of an antibiotic marker-free platform for heterologous protein production in Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Laura; Díaz, Margarita; Santamaría, Ramón I

    2017-09-26

    The industrial use of enzymes produced by microorganisms is continuously growing due to the need for sustainable solutions. Nevertheless, many of the plasmids used for recombinant production of proteins in bacteria are based on the use of antibiotic resistance genes as selection markers. The safety concerns and legal requirements surrounding the increased use of antibiotic resistance genes have made the development of new antibiotic-free approaches essential. In this work, a system completely free of antibiotic resistance genes and useful for the production of high yields of proteins in Streptomyces is described. This system is based on the separation of the two components of the yefM/yoeBsl (antitoxin/toxin) operon; the toxin (yoeBsl) gene, responsible for host death, is integrated into the genome and the antitoxin gene (yefMsl), which inactivates the toxin, is located in the expression plasmid. To develop this system, the toxin gene was integrated into the genome of a strain lacking the complete operon, and the antibiotic resistance gene integrated along with the toxin was eliminated by Cre recombinase to generate a final host strain free of any antibiotic resistance marker. In the same way, the antibiotic resistance gene from the final expression plasmid was removed by Dre recombinase. The usefulness of this system was analysed by checking the production of two hydrolases from different Streptomyces. Production of both proteins, with potential industrial use, was high and stable over time after strain storage and after serial subcultures. These results support the robustness and stability of the positive selection system developed. The total absence of antibiotic resistance genes makes this system a powerful tool for using Streptomyces as a host to produce proteins at the industrial level. This work is the first Streptomyces antibiotic marker-free system to be described. Graphical abstract Antibiotic marker-free platform for protein expression in Streptomyces

  7. Heterologous expression of pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster using Streptomyces artificial chromosome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyeon, Hye-Rim; Nah, Hee-Ju; Kang, Seung-Hoon; Choi, Si-Sun; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2017-05-31

    Heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters of natural microbial products has become an essential strategy for titer improvement and pathway engineering of various potentially-valuable natural products. A Streptomyces artificial chromosomal conjugation vector, pSBAC, was previously successfully applied for precise cloning and tandem integration of a large polyketide tautomycetin (TMC) biosynthetic gene cluster (Nah et al. in Microb Cell Fact 14(1):1, 2015), implying that this strategy could be employed to develop a custom overexpression scheme of natural product pathway clusters present in actinomycetes. To validate the pSBAC system as a generally-applicable heterologous overexpression system for a large-sized polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces, another model polyketide compound, the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster, was preciously cloned and heterologously expressed using the pSBAC system. A unique HindIII restriction site was precisely inserted at one of the border regions of the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster within the chromosome of Streptomyces venezuelae, followed by site-specific recombination of pSBAC into the flanking region of the pikromycin gene cluster. Unlike the previous cloning process, one HindIII site integration step was skipped through pSBAC modification. pPik001, a pSBAC containing the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster, was directly introduced into two heterologous hosts, Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor, resulting in the production of 10-deoxymethynolide, a major pikromycin derivative. When two entire pikromycin biosynthetic gene clusters were tandemly introduced into the S. lividans chromosome, overproduction of 10-deoxymethynolide and the presence of pikromycin, which was previously not detected, were both confirmed. Moreover, comparative qRT-PCR results confirmed that the transcription of pikromycin biosynthetic genes was significantly upregulated in S. lividans containing tandem

  8. Genome Content and Phylogenomics Reveal both Ancestral and Lateral Evolutionary Pathways in Plant-Pathogenic Streptomyces Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet-Tapia, Jose C.; Lefebure, Tristan; Badger, Jonathan H.; Guan, Dongli; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are highly differentiated actinomycetes with large, linear chromosomes that encode an arsenal of biologically active molecules and catabolic enzymes. Members of this genus are well equipped for life in nutrient-limited environments and are common soil saprophytes. Out of the hundreds of species in the genus Streptomyces, a small group has evolved the ability to infect plants. The recent availability of Streptomyces genome sequences, including four genomes of pathogenic species, provided an opportunity to characterize the gene content specific to these pathogens and to study phylogenetic relationships among them. Genome sequencing, comparative genomics, and phylogenetic analysis enabled us to discriminate pathogenic from saprophytic Streptomyces strains; moreover, we calculated that the pathogen-specific genome contains 4,662 orthologs. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that Streptomyces scabies and S. ipomoeae share an ancestor but that their biosynthetic clusters encoding the required virulence factor thaxtomin have diverged. In contrast, S. turgidiscabies and S. acidiscabies, two relatively unrelated pathogens, possess highly similar thaxtomin biosynthesis clusters, which suggests that the acquisition of these genes was through lateral gene transfer. PMID:26826232

  9. Isolation and molecular identification chitinase-producing Streptomyces strains and examination of their in-vitro antagonistic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Dehnad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chemical fungicides are used widely in the world. To reduce the application of synthetic fungicides in treating plant diseases, biological methods are considered as an alternative way to control plant diseases. Many actinomycetes, particularly Streptomyces species are biological agents against a broad spectrum of fungal plant pathogens. The purpose of this study was using the kitinolitik actinomycetes isolated from soil of Eastern Azerbaijan province In order to produce biological pesticides. Materials and methods: Soil samples were taken from different areas of Eastern Azerbaijan province. According to Streptomyces morphological features, single colonies were isolated. To identify the bacteria by molecular characteristic, the genomic DNA was extracted and then the sequences of 16S rDNA were replicated. By using specific primers the bacterial isolates containing chitinase gene were screened. The isolates consisted Chitinase enzyme and were antagonistically cultured with Alternaria genus which is a fungal plant pathogen. Results: Out of 60 soil collected samples, 31 Streptomyces bacterial isolates were separated. Four isolates showed positive results to selectivity action of the chitinase enzyme. Treatment of 3 bacterial isolates with 2 pathogenic fungi showed that AE09 is the most effective anti-fungal isolates. Discussion and conclusion: Soils in Eastern Azerbaijan province are rich of Streptomyces bacteria which generate antifungal compounds. Obtaining the Streptomyces bacteria which have chitinase gene, can lead to identification of very effective strains as anti-fungal.

  10. Molecular organization in bacterial cell membranes. Specific labelling and topological distribution of glycoproteins and proteins in Streptomyces albus membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraga, V; Munoz, E [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Biologia Celular

    1975-05-01

    The paper reports about an investigation into the question of the specific labelling and topological distribution of glycoproteins and proteins in Streptomyces albus membranes. The method of sample preparation is described: Tritium labelling of glycoproteins in protoplasts and membranes, iodination of proteins, trypsin treatment and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The findings suggest an asymmetrical distribution of the glycoproteins in membranes and a weak accessibility to iodine label. A structural model of the plasma membranes of Streptomyces albus is proposed similar to the general 'fluid mosaic' model of Singer and Nicholson.

  11. Identification and activation of novel biosynthetic gene clusters by genome mining in the kirromycin producer Streptomyces collinus Tü 365

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftime, Dumitrita; Kulik, Andreas; Härtner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Streptomycetes are prolific sources of novel biologically active secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical potential. S. collinus Tü 365 is a Streptomyces strain, isolated 1972 from Kouroussa (Guinea). It is best known as producer of the antibiotic kirromycin, an inhibitor of the protein biosynth......Streptomycetes are prolific sources of novel biologically active secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical potential. S. collinus Tü 365 is a Streptomyces strain, isolated 1972 from Kouroussa (Guinea). It is best known as producer of the antibiotic kirromycin, an inhibitor of the protein...

  12. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

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    Carlos Méndez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U and ammonium bicarbonate (AB, in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concentration 100 (LC100 at 24 h for Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. determined was of 60-80 mg L-1 (U and 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. The average effective inhibition concentration for 50% of the population (IC50 in Arthrospira sp., after 72 h, was 80 mg L-1 (U and 150 mg L-1 (AB. The application of doses of 60 mg L-1 (U or 100 mg L-1 (AB in the outdoor mass culture of this contaminated microalga, completely inhibited grazing and did not affect the growth of Arthrospira sp. but rather promoted rapid recovery of algal density at levels prior to infestation. These compounds provided an economical and effective control of predators in cultures of Arthrospira sp.El cultivo de la cianobacteria Arthrospira sp. ha sido desarrollado en muchos países para la obtención de proteínas, pigmentos y otros compuestos. Cultivo que a nivel industrial se ve afectado frecuentemente por contaminación biológica, reduciendo drásticamente la productividad hasta causar la muerte. Este estudio evalúa el control de Branchionus sp. y de Amoeba sp. con dos compuestos químicos, la urea (U y bicarbonato de amonio (AB en cultivos de Arthrospira sp. La concentración letal 100 (LC100 determinada a las 24 h para Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. fue de 60-80 mg L-1 (U y 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. La concentración media de inhibición efectiva, después de 72 h, para el 50% de la población (IC50 en Arthrospira fue de 80 mg L-1 (U y 150 mg L-1 (AB. La aplicación de dosis de 60 mg L-1 (U ó 100 mg L-1 (AB en

  13. Effect of bioconversion conditions on vanillin production by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 through an analysis of competing by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of transformation conditions such as initial pH, the initial concentration of glucose and yeast extract in the medium, and the separate addition of ferulic acid and vanillic acid, on the production of vanillin through an analysis of competing by-product formation by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116. The extent and nature of by-product formation and vanillin yield were affected by initial pH and different initial concentrations of glucose and yeast extract in the medium, with a high yield of vanillin and high cell density obtained at pH 8.0, 10 g/l glucose, and 8 g/l yeast extract. High concentrations of ferulic acid were found to negatively affect cell density. Additional supplementation of 100 mg/l vanillic acid, a metabolically linked by-product, was found to result in a high concentration of vanillin and guaiacol, an intermediate of vanillin. Via an analysis of the effect of these transformation conditions on competing by-product formation, high concentrations of ferulic acid were transformed with a molar yield to vanillin of 96.1 and 95.2 %, by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 and Streptomyces V1, respectively, together with a minor accumulation of by-products. These are among the highest performance values reported in the literature to date for Streptomyces in batch cultures.

  14. Genetic interrelations in the actinomycin biosynthetic gene clusters of Streptomyces antibioticus IMRU 3720 and Streptomyces chrysomallus ATCC11523, producers of actinomycin X and actinomycin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnovčić, Ivana; Rückert, Christian; Semsary, Siamak; Lang, Manuel; Kalinowski, Jörn; Keller, Ullrich

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing the actinomycin (acm) biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces antibioticus IMRU 3720, which produces actinomycin X (Acm X), revealed 20 genes organized into a highly similar framework as in the bi-armed acm C biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces chrysomallus but without an attached additional extra arm of orthologues as in the latter. Curiously, the extra arm of the S. chrysomallus gene cluster turned out to perfectly match the single arm of the S. antibioticus gene cluster in the same order of orthologues including the the presence of two pseudogenes, scacmM and scacmN, encoding a cytochrome P450 and its ferredoxin, respectively. Orthologues of the latter genes were both missing in the principal arm of the S. chrysomallus acm C gene cluster. All orthologues of the extra arm showed a G +C-contents different from that of their counterparts in the principal arm. Moreover, the similarities of translation products from the extra arm were all higher to the corresponding translation products of orthologue genes from the S. antibioticus acm X gene cluster than to those encoded by the principal arm of their own gene cluster. This suggests that the duplicated structure of the S. chrysomallus acm C biosynthetic gene cluster evolved from previous fusion between two one-armed acm gene clusters each from a different genetic background. However, while scacmM and scacmN in the extra arm of the S. chrysomallus acm C gene cluster are mutated and therefore are non-functional, their orthologues saacmM and saacmN in the S. antibioticus acm C gene cluster show no defects seemingly encoding active enzymes with functions specific for Acm X biosynthesis. Both acm biosynthetic gene clusters lack a kynurenine-3-monooxygenase gene necessary for biosynthesis of 3-hydroxy-4-methylanthranilic acid, the building block of the Acm chromophore, which suggests participation of a genome-encoded relevant monooxygenase during Acm biosynthesis in both S. chrysomallus and S

  15. Bioactive compounds fractionated from endophyte Streptomyces SUK 08 with promising ex-vivo antimalarial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraziah Mohamad Zin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine ex vivo antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of endophytic Streptomyces SUK 08 as well as the main core structure fractionated from its crude extract. Methods: The activities of SUK 08 crude extract were evaluated by using the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase assay and synchronization test against rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, instead of human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The cytotoxicity of the crude extract was determined by MTT assay. The crude extract was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometry. Results: The ethyl acetate crude extract showed very promising antimalarial activity with IC50 of 1.25 mg/mL. The synchronization tests showed that ethyl acetate extraction could inhibit all stages of the Plasmodium life cycle, but it was most effective at the Plasmodium ring stage. On the basis of a MTT assay on Chang Liver cells, ethyl acetate and ethanol demonstrated IC50 values of >1.0 mg/mL. The IC50 of parasitemia at 5% and 30% for this extract was lower than chloroquine. Thin-layer chromatography, with 1: 9 ratio of ethyl acetate: hexane, was used to isolate several distinct compounds. Based on gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometry analysis, three core structures were identified as cyclohexane, butyl propyl ester, and 2,3-heptanedione. Structurally, these compounds were similar to currently available antimalarial drugs. Conclusions: The results suggest that compounds isolated from Streptomyces SUK 08 are viable antimalarial drug candidates that require further investigations. Keywords: Butyl–propyl–ester, Cyclohexane, 2,3-Heptanedione, Endophyte, Streptomyces, Antimalarial

  16. Assessment of the Potential Role of Streptomyces in Cave Moonmilk Formation

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    Marta Maciejewska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Moonmilk is a karstic speleothem mainly composed of fine calcium carbonate crystals (CaCO3 with different textures ranging from pasty to hard, in which the contribution of biotic rock-building processes is presumed to involve indigenous microorganisms. The real microbial input in the genesis of moonmilk is difficult to assess leading to controversial hypotheses explaining the origins and the mechanisms (biotic vs. abiotic involved. In this work, we undertook a comprehensive approach in order to assess the potential role of filamentous bacteria, particularly a collection of moonmilk-originating Streptomyces, in the genesis of this speleothem. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM confirmed that indigenous filamentous bacteria could indeed participate in moonmilk development by serving as nucleation sites for CaCO3 deposition. The metabolic activities involved in CaCO3 transformation were furthermore assessed in vitro among the collection of moonmilk Streptomyces, which revealed that peptides/amino acids ammonification, and to a lesser extend ureolysis, could be privileged metabolic pathways participating in carbonate precipitation by increasing the pH of the bacterial environment. Additionally, in silico search for the genes involved in biomineralization processes including ureolysis, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia, active calcium ion transport, and reversible hydration of CO2 allowed to identify genetic predispositions for carbonate precipitation in Streptomyces. Finally, their biomineralization abilities were confirmed by environmental SEM, which allowed to visualize the formation of abundant mineral deposits under laboratory conditions. Overall, our study provides novel evidences that filamentous Actinobacteria could be key protagonists in the genesis of moonmilk through a wide spectrum of biomineralization processes.

  17. Four new antibacterial xanthones from the marine-derived actinomycetes Streptomyces caelestis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Ling-Li; Xu, Ying; Han, Zhuang; Li, Yong-Xin; Lu, Liang; Lai, Pok-Yui; Zhong, Jia-Liang; Guo, Xian-Rong; Zhang, Xixiang; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Four new polycyclic antibiotics, citreamicin ? A (1), citreamicin ? B (2), citreaglycon A (3), and dehydrocitreaglycon A (4), were isolated from marine-derived Streptomyces caelestis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectra. All four compounds displayed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtillis. Citreamicin ? A (1), citreamicin ? B (2) and citreaglycon A (3) also exhibited low MIC values of 0.25, 0.25, and 8.0 ?g/mL, respectively, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300. 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  18. Influence of Mode of Fermentation on Production of Polygalacturonase by a Novel Strain of Streptomyces lydicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicemol Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of different pectinolytic enzymes was attempted using the actinomycete strain Streptomyces lydicus in submerged fermentation. Polygalacturonase and pectin lyase activities were detected in the culture supernatant, but the strain was not able to produce pectin esterase. Polygalacturonase production was studied in submerged, slurry-state and solid-state fermentation systems. All the experiments were carried out under static and shaking conditions. Solid-state fermentation under static condition was found to be promising. Various agroindustrial residues were tried as substrates for solid-state fermentation. Wheat bran was proved to be the best substrate.

  19. Angucycline Glycosides from Mangrove-Derived Streptomyces diastaticus subsp. SCSIO GJ056

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    Chun Gui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nine new angucycline glycosides designated urdamycins N1–N9 (1–9, together with two known congener urdamycins A (10 and B (11, were obtained from a mangrove-derived Streptomyces diastaticus subsp. SCSIO GJ056. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute configurations of 6–9 were assigned by electronic circular dichroism calculation method. Urdamycins N6 (6 and N9 (9 represent the first naturally occurring (5R, 6R-angucycline glycosides, which are diastereomers of urdamycins N7 (7 and N8 (8, respectively.

  20. Production of endoglucanase by the native strains of Streptomyces isolates in submerged fermentation

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    P. Chellapandi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulase is a complex enzyme system, commercially produced by filamentous fungi under solid-state and submerged cultivation. It has wide applicability in textile, food and beverage industry for effective saccharification process. In this study, cellulolytic enzyme activity, particularly endoglucanase of 26 Streptomyces strains isolated from garden soil was examined, including two isolates selected on the basis of potential cellulolytic activity on Bennett's agar medium. To enhance the endoglucanase formation in broth culture, different conditions including carbon and nitrogen sources, and growth conditions were tested. The maximum endoglucanase activity (11.25-11.90 U/mL was achieved within 72-88 h in fermentation medium containing Tween-80, followed by phosphate sources. Both cellulolytic Streptomyces isolates gave almost equal quantity of enzyme in all trials. However the effect of medium ingredients on endoglucanase induction diverged with strains in some extent.A celulase é um sistema enzimático complexo, produzido comercialmente a partir de fungos filamentosos através de cultivo em estádio sólido e submerso. Tem uma grande aplicação na indústria têxtil e de alimentos e bebidas no processo de sacarificação. Nesse estudo, examinou-se a atividade celulolítica, especialmente de englucanase, de 26 cepas de Streptomyces isoladas de solo, incluindo duas cepas selecionadas por sua atividade celulolítica no ágar Bennett. Para estimular a produção de englucanase em meio de cultura, diferentes condições de cultivo, incluindo fonte de carbono e nitrogênio e condições de crescimento, foram avaliadas. A atividade máxima de glucanase (11,25 a 11,90 U/mL foi obtida em 72-88h em meio de cultura contendo Tween-80, seguido por fontes de fosfato. Ambas as cepas celulolíticas de Streptomyces produziram quase a mesma quantidade de enzima em todos os experimentos. Entretanto, o efeito dos ingredientes do meio na indução da glucanase