WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychotropic prn reliance

  1. The impact of a good practice manual on professional practice associated with psychotropic PRN in acute mental health wards: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J A; Lovell, K; Harris, N

    2008-10-01

    As required or pro re nata (PRN) psychotropic medicines are frequently used in acute mental health wards. PRN is known to contribute to polypharmacy and high doses of antipsychotic medication. Few studies have attempted to improve clinician's use of these potentially harmful drugs. The objectives of the study were to determine the impact and acceptability of a good practice manual on prescribing and administration practices of PRN psychotropic medication in acute mental health wards. The study used a pre-post exploratory design with two acute mental health wards in the NW of England. Over the total trial period of 10 weeks, 28 of 35 patients received 484 doses of PRN. Patients had a mean of 3.6 prescriptions of 14 different PRN medications in 34 different dose combinations prescribed. Medication errors beyond poor quality of prescribing occurred in 23 of the 35 patients (65.7%). Prescription quality improved following the introduction of the intervention but quality of nursing notes reduced. Acceptability of the manual to both nursing and medical staff was high. The introduction of the manual appeared to influence some of the practices associated with the prescribing and administration of PRN psychotropic medications. Further, larger, more robust studies are required in this area. In particular research is required to identify the reasons why professionals continue to rely so heavily on using PRN medication.

  2. Nurses' attitudes towards the use of PRN psychotropic medications in acute and forensic mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Lesley; Wynaden, Dianne; Heslop, Karen

    2018-02-01

    Many countries now have national mental health policies and guidelines to decrease or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint yet the use of Pro Re Nata (PRN) medications has received less practice evaluation. This research aimed to identify mental health nurses' attitudes towards the use of PRN medications with mental health consumers. Participants were working in forensic mental health and non-forensic acute mental health settings. The "Attitudes towards PRN medication use survey" was used and data were collected online. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package Social Sciences, Version 22.0. Practice differences between forensic and other acute mental health settings were identified related to the use of PRN medications to manage symptoms from nicotine, alcohol and other drug withdrawal. Differences related to the useage of comfort rooms and conducting comprehensive assessments of consumers' psychiatric symptoms were also detected. Qualitative findings highlighted the need for increased accountability for the prescribing and administration of PRN medications along with more nursing education/training to use alternative first line interventions. Nurses administering PRN medications should be vigilant regarding the indications for this practice to ensure they are facilitating the consumer's recovery by reducing the use of all forms of potentially restrictive practices in the hospital setting. The reasons for using PRN medications and PRN administration rates must be continually monitored to avoid practices such as high dose antipsychotics use and antipsychotic polypharmacy to ensure the efficacy of the consumers' management plans on their health care outcomes. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. Documentation of psychotropic PRN medication administration: An evaluation of electronic health records compared with paper charts and verbal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Krystle; Ham, Elke; Hilton, Zoe

    2018-05-12

    To describe the documentation of pro re nata (PRN) medication for anxiety, and to compare documentation at two hospitals providing similar psychiatric services, one that used paper charts and another that used an electronic health record (EHR). We also assessed congruence between nursing documentation and verbal reports from staff about the PRN administration process. The ability to accurately document patients' symptoms and the care given is considered a core competency of the nursing profession (Wilkinson, 2007); however, researchers have found poor concordance between nursing notes and verbal reports or observations of events (e.g., De Marinis, Piredda, Pascarella et al., 2009) and considerable information missing (e.g., Marinis et al., 2010). Additionally, the administration of PRN medication has consistently been noted to be poorly documented (e.g., Baker, Lovell, & Harris, 2008). The project was a mixed method, two-phase study that collected data from two sites. In phase 1, nursing documentation of PRN medication administrations was reviewed in patient charts; phase 2 included verbal reports from staff about this practice. Nurses using EHR documented more information than those using paper charts, including the reason for PRN administration, who initiated the administration, and effectiveness. There were some differences between written and verbal reports, including whether potential side effects were explained to patients prior to PRN administration. We continue the calls for attention to be paid to improving the quality of nursing documentation. Our results support the shift to using EHR, yet not relying on this method completely to ensure comprehensiveness of documentation. Efforts to address the quality of documentation, particularly for PRN administration, are needed. This could be done through training, using structured report templates, and switching to electronic databases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is

  4. Staff and patient accounts of PRN medication administration and non-pharmacological interventions for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Krystle; Ham, Elke; Hilton, N Zoe

    2018-05-31

    Most psychiatric inpatients will receive psychotropic PRN medication during their hospital stay for agitation, anxiety, and/or insomnia. While helpful in some cases, caution is warranted with regard to PRN use due to inherent risks of additional medication; therefore, experts advise that non-pharmacological interventions should be attempted first where indicated. However, research to date highlights that, in practice, non-pharmaceutical approaches are attempted in a minority of cases. While some information is known about the practice of PRN administration and the use of and barriers to implementing non-pharmacological interventions for treating acute psychiatric symptoms, full understanding of this practice is hampered by poor or altogether missing documentation of the process. This study used interviews with patients and staff from two psychiatric hospitals to collect first-person accounts of administering PRN medication for anxiety, thereby addressing the limitations of relying on documented notation found in previous research. Our results indicate that nurses are engaging in non-pharmacological interventions more often than had previously been captured in research. However, the types of strategies suggested are not typically evidence based and further, only happening approximately half the time. The barriers to providing such care are centred on two main beliefs about client choice and efficacy of these non-medical strategies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Reliance (contd)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Reliance (contd). First they set up a small network and over-subscribed. Then they put a ban on new connections! This ban is still in place even after security clearance given. Today you cannot get a mobile connection in Guwahati. Only city in India?

  6. Cherokee self-reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John

    2002-10-01

    This qualitative study was conducted using ethnography to identify how (a) self-reliance is conceptualized by the Cherokee; (b) the adult male Cherokee perceives, achieves, and demonstrates self-reliance; and (c) nurses can incorporate the Cherokee concept of self-reliance into health care of the Cherokee. The goal of self-reliance was included in the following mission statement of the 1976 Cherokee Nation constitution: "The mission of the government of the Cherokee Nation is to promote and sustain the self-reliance of its members" (Resolution No. 28-85, 1976). The conceptualization and perspective of self-reliance by the Cherokee must be understood to assist effectively in the development and promotion of self-reliance in the Cherokee, especially the male Cherokee. The cultural domain of self-reliance that emerged from the data is a composite of three categories that include being responsible, being disciplined, and being confident. Cutting across all three categories are the two themes of being true to onself and being connected.

  7. Reliance Cell Operator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Reliance Cell Operator. Reliance was the only bidder for cellular licences for Assam and NE. Services allowed only in Guwahati and Shillong due to “security reasons”. Only major cities in the country with only one operator.

  8. Pharmacogenetics of psychotropic drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lerer, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    ... of pharmacogenetics with substance dependence and brain imaging, and consider the impact of pharmacogenetics on the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. This book defines the young field of pharmacogenetics as it applies to psychotropic drugs and is, therefore, an essential reference for all clinicians and researchers working in this findings field. Bernard ...

  9. Hyponatremia and psychotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnajeet Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic-induced hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities seen in routine psychiatric practice and is especially common in elderly subjects. Recent evidence suggests that even mild hyponatremia is associated with several detrimental effects in elderly. However, practicing clinicians often overlook hyponatremia due to lack of awareness about the incidence, presentation, and risk factors of psychotropic-induced hyponatremia. Available evidence suggests that all classes of psychotropics, i.e., antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and sedative/hypnotics can lead to hyponatremia. Maximum evidence is available for antidepressant-associated hyponatremia. Various risk factors for hyponatremia include increasing age, female gender, low body weight, history of hyponatremia, low baseline sodium levels, summer season, initial phase of antidepressant use, early-onset psychiatric illnesses, longer duration of psychiatric disorder, prolonged admission, presence of comorbid medical conditions, concomitant use of diuretics, antihypertensives, and cytochrome P450 inhibitors. Awareness about this potentially life-threatening side effect and taking appropriate, timely steps can help in prevention of psychotropic-associated hyponatremia.

  10. [Psychotropic drugs in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovet, Thomas; Amad, Ali; Adins, Catherine; Thomas, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Respect for guidelines and recommendations is the rule for prescribing psychotropic drugs in prison. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders and suicide in prison is higher than in general population. In France, 50 % of prisoners are treated with a psychotropic medication. Insomnia is a common complaint. It should not be trivialized and clinical psychiatric examination should be complete particularly in search of an underlying depressive syndrome. The lifestyle and dietary rules should not be neglected despite the difficulties associated with living conditions in prison and expectations of immediate results from both patients and sometimes the prison administration or justice. Given the prevalence of addictions in the prison population, vigilance is required in preventing withdrawal, especially at the beginning of incarceration. Indications for initiation and the prescription of opioid substitution treatment are the same as free environment. Individualization of delivery and confidentiality must be applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychotropic drugs and bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falisi, Giovanni; Rastelli, Claudio; Panti, Fabrizio; Maglione, Horacio; Quezada Arcega, Raul

    2014-10-01

    Sleep and awake bruxism is defined as 'a parafunctional activity including clenching, bracing, gnashing, and grinding of the teeth'. Some evidence suggests that bruxism may be caused by, or associated with, alterations in the CNS neurotransmission. Several classes of psychotropic drugs interfering with CNS activity may potentially contribute to bruxism. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine relevant peer-reviewed papers to identify and describe the various classes of psychotropic substances that may cause, exacerbate or reduce bruxism as the result of their pharmacological action in CNS neurons. A literature search from 1980 to the present was performed using PubMed database. The term 'bruxism' was used in association with 'psychotropic', 'dopamine (DA)', 'serotonin', 'histamine', 'antipsychotics', 'antidepressants', 'antihistaminergics' and 'stimulants'. Studies on the effects of DA agonists (Levo-DOPA, psychostimulants) and antagonists (antipsychotics) identified a central role of DA in the pathogenesis of pharmacologically induced bruxism. Important information from studies on drugs acting on serotonin neurotransmission (antidepressants) was recognized. Other mechanisms involving different neurotransmitters are emerging. This is the case of antihistaminergic drugs which may induce bruxism as a consequence of their disinhibitory effect on the serotonergic system.

  12. Cardiotoxicité des psychotropes

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIRI, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Même à dose thérapeutique, les médicaments psychotropes sont susceptibles d'engendrer des troubles du rythme cardiaque graves avec risque létal concourant à expliquer la pré valence de la mort subite dans la population psychiatrique. Les situations cliniques à risque telles que poly médication (des psychotropes entre eux ou d'un psychotrope avec un non psychotrope allongeur de QTc), interactions médicamenteuses aussi bien pharmacodynamiques que pharmacocinétiques, traitement pa...

  13. Discontinuing the Use of PRN Intramuscular Medication for Agitation in an Acute Psychiatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ariel; Russ, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the impact of eliminating intramuscular PRN medication for agitation on patient and staff safety in an acute psychiatric inpatient setting. The current retrospective chart review investigated the use of PRN medications (oral and intramuscular) to treat acute agitation, including aggression, and related outcomes before and after a mandated change in PRN practice that required real time physician input before administration of intramuscular medications. The use of both oral and intramuscular PRN medications dramatically decreased following implementation of the mandated change in practice. In particular, the use of intramuscular PRNs for agitation decreased by about half. Despite this decrease, the assault rate in the hospital was unchanged, and the utilization of restraint and seclusion continued to decrease. It is possible to reduce the utilization of PRN medications for agitation without broadly compromising safety on acute care psychiatric inpatient units.

  14. The Effects of Psychotropic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnardeaux, Jef-Louis

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on psychotropic drugs for individuals who are not specialists in pharmacology. Discusses: alcohol and barbituates; dependence and withdrawal; central nervous system depressors (anaesthetics, narcotic analgesics, sedatives and hypnotic drugs, tranquilizers), central nervous stimulants (amphetamines, cocaine, tobacco, caffeine),…

  15. An effective method of handling PRN orders to reduce labor and improve efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, G K; Poe, W D

    1990-11-01

    Rex Hospital, Raleigh, NC, found its method of PRN (unit dose) medication delivery to be time consuming, labor intensive, and repetitive. Thus, it was decided to evaluate this system and to find a more efficient method of PRN delivery. A 24 hour supply of unit dose medication is delivered daily using a cart exchange system at this hospital. Three approaches were used to reduce the handling of PRN medications: (1) Removing all PRN orders of Milk of Magnesia, cascara, and mineral oil from the patient drawer. These three medications are now floor stock items at each nursing station; (2) Removing all PRN orders of 325 mg aspirin and acetaminophen tablets, 600 mg aspirin, and 650 mg acetaminophen suppositories. These items are now kept at the nurses station as a "no charge" floor stock item; and (3) Using zip-lock bags for all other non-controlled PRN medication orders. A 48 hour supply of medication is sent upon receipt of the original order, and not filled again until the empty bag is returned to the pharmacy. The plastic bag is identified by a computer generated label containing the patient's name, room number, and medication identification. The patient medication drawer is divided into two areas, one for storing standing medication orders and one for PRN orders. A time study showed a 40% improvement in cart filling time. The 48 hour supply of PRN medications rarely need refilling. Milk of Magnesia, cascara, and mineral oil PRN orders are often ordered, but seldom used. Thus, floor stocking these items has not been a problem. Floor stocking aspirin and acetaminophen as no charge items has been very successful. All medication orders, including aspirin, acetaminophen, Milk of Magnesia, and so forth are entered onto the patient's medication profile even though they are not sent from the pharmacy. Drug allergies or drug-drug interactions can be detected by reviewing the patient profile when the original order is entered onto the profile. Nursing is very pleased with the

  16. Psychotropic substances in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia; Patriarca, Claudia; Balducci, Catia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of drugs in outdoor air has been established, but few investigations have been conducted indoors. This study focused on psychotropic substances (PSs) at three schools, four homes and one office in Rome, Italy. The indoor drug concentrations and the relationships with the outdoor atmosphere were investigated. The optimised monitoring procedure allowed for the determination of cocaine, cannabinoids and particulate fractions of nicotine and caffeine. In-field experiments were performed during the winter, spring and summer seasons. Psychotropic substances were observed in all indoor locations. The indoor concentrations often exceeded those recorded both outdoors at the same sites and at the atmospheric pollution control network stations, indicating that the drugs were released into the air at the inside sites or were more persistent. During winter, the relative concentrations of cannabinol, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol depended on site and indoor/outdoor location at the site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  18. IRB reliance: An informatics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Jihad S; Alexander, Randall W; Gentilin, Stephanie M; White, Brigette; Turley, Christine B; Brady, Kathleen T; Lenert, Leslie A

    2016-04-01

    Multi-site Institutional Review Board (IRB) review of clinical research projects is an important but complex and time-consuming activity that is hampered by disparate non-interoperable computer systems for management of IRB applications. This paper describes our work toward harmonizing the workflow and data model of IRB applications through the development of a software-as-a-service shared-IRB platform for five institutions in South Carolina. Several commonalities and differences were recognized across institutions and a core data model that included the data elements necessary for IRB applications across all institutions was identified. We extended and modified the system to support collaborative reviews of IRB proposals within routine workflows of participating IRBs. Overall about 80% of IRB application content was harmonized across all institutions, establishing the foundation for a streamlined cooperative review and reliance. Since going live in 2011, 49 applications that underwent cooperative reviews over a three year period were approved, with the majority involving 2 out of 5 institutions. We believe this effort will inform future work on a common IRB data model that will allow interoperability through a federated approach for sharing IRB reviews and decisions with the goal of promoting reliance across institutions in the translational research community at large. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein binding of psychotropic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Based upon fluorescence measurements, protein binding of some psychotropic agents (chlorpromazine, promethazine, and trifluoperazine) to human IgG and HSA was studied in aqueous cacodylate buffer, PH7. The interaction parameters determined from emission quenching of the proteins. The interaction parameters determined include the equilibrium constant (K), calculated from equations derived by Borazan and coworkers, the number of binding sites (n) available to the monomer molecules on a single protein molecule. The results revealed a high level of affinity, as reflected by high values of K, and the existence of specific binding sites, since a limited number of n values are obtained. 39 tabs.; 37 figs.; 83 refs

  20. Psychotropic medications and the developing brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solleveld, M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children and adolescents are treated with psychotropic medications for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although these psychotropic medications have been well studied in the adult population, much less is known on their

  1. Psychotropic drug use among Icelandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Baldursson, Gísli; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. METHODS: A nationwide population-based drug use study covering the total pediatric population (ages 0-17) in Iceland. Information was obtained from the National Medicines Reg...... extensive psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. Further scrutiny is needed to assess the rationale behind this widespread use....

  2. Prescribing of psychotropic medication for nursing home residents with dementia: a general practitioner survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousins JM

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Justin M Cousins, Luke RE Bereznicki, Nick B Cooling, Gregory M Peterson School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing the prescribing of psychotropic medication by general practitioners (GPs to nursing home residents with dementia.Subjects and methods: GPs with experience in nursing homes were recruited through professional body newsletter advertising, while 1,000 randomly selected GPs from south-eastern Australia were invited to participate, along with a targeted group of GPs in Tasmania. An anonymous survey was used to collect GPs’ opinions.Results: A lack of nursing staff and resources was cited as the major barrier to GPs recommending non-pharmacological techniques for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD; cited by 55%; 78/141, and increasing staff levels at the nursing home ranked as the most important factor to reduce the usage of psychotropic agents (cited by 60%; 76/126.Conclusion: According to GPs, strategies to reduce the reliance on psychotropic medication by nursing home residents should be directed toward improved staffing and resources at the facilities. Keywords: dementia, nursing homes, general practitioners, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines

  3. Psychotropic Polypharmacy in Patients with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Ane; Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Gasse, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    classes (psychotropic polypharmacy) may also pose a risk for patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with use of psychotropic polypharmacy in patients with dementia. METHODS: A population-based study using nationwide registers. Patients with dementia were identified...... to evaluate factors independently associated with the prescription of other psychotropic drug classes among patients already using antipsychotics. RESULTS: Among all patients registered with dementia (34,553), 25.3% (8,728) used ≥2 psychotropic drugs. Among patients treated with antipsychotics 75.8% (5...... of psychotropic drugs was antipsychotics and antidepressants. CONCLUSION: Concomitant use of psychotropic drugs was frequent in dementia patients. Patients living in nursing homes had the highest risk of receiving a combination of antipsychotics and other psychotropic drugs. Concomitant use of psychotropics may...

  4. an appraisal of psychotropic drugs and their consequences among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... workers are familiar with the legal and addiction aspect of psychotropic drugs, many ... Psychotropic drugs revolutionized the treatment of psychological disorders. .... Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of.

  5. Dynamics of rural livelihoods and environmental reliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Jiao, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Using environmentally augmented panel dataset of 2009 and 2012 from four districts in Nepal, we assess environmental reliance of households in different livelihood strategies and dynamic transition groups. We employ a latent class cluster analysis to determine the optimal number of livelihood clu...... the pressure and dependency on environment. Furthermore, conservation policies and natural resource management are critical in the study areas to sustain the increased demands on environmental products and services.......Using environmentally augmented panel dataset of 2009 and 2012 from four districts in Nepal, we assess environmental reliance of households in different livelihood strategies and dynamic transition groups. We employ a latent class cluster analysis to determine the optimal number of livelihood...... clusters and assign individual households to particular cluster; and regression models were used to examine the covariates of change in environmental income and reliance. The analysis identifies six distinct livelihood clusters in terms of asset investment in different livelihood activities. Results show...

  6. A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-16

    EID Managing Editor, Byron Breedlove, reads his cover art story, A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance.  Created: 2/16/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/16/2017.

  7. Experiences of achieving self-reliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlister, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving self-reliance can be greatly facilitated by the organizational structures an owner nation utilizes to develop its initial nuclear units and to operate its plants. An important component in the success of Mexico and Japan was to utilize evolving organizational structures that resulted in extensive participation of the owner over the course of the initial project (Mexico) or in successive projects (Japan)

  8. Functional characterization of the origin of replication of pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke J Joshua

    Full Text Available Plasmid pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1 is believed to replicate by a rolling circle mechanism but its origin and mechanism of replication are not well understood. We sought to create minimal expression vectors based on pRN1 that would be useful for heterologous gene expression in S. acidocaldarius, and in the process improve our understanding of the mechanism of replication. We constructed and transformed shuttle vectors that harbored different contiguous stretches of DNA from pRN1 into S. acidocaldarius E4-39, a uracil auxotroph. A 232-bp region 3' of orf904 was found to be critical for pRN1 replication and is therefore proposed to be the putative origin of replication. This 232-bp region contains a 100-bp stem-loop structure believed to be the double-strand origin of replication. The loop of the 100-bp structure contains a GTG tri-nucleotide motif, a feature that was previously reported to be important for the primase activity of Orf904. This putative origin and the associated orf56 and orf904 were identified as the minimal replicon of pRN1 because transformants of plasmids lacking any of these three features were not recovered. Plasmids lacking orf904 and orf56 but harboring the putative origin were transformable when orf904 and orf56 were provided in-trans; a 75-bp region 5' of the orf904 start codon was found to be essential for this complementation. Detailed knowledge of the pRN1 origin of replication will broaden the application of the plasmid as a genetic tool for Sulfolobus species.

  9. Self-reliance, mental health need, and the use of mental healthcare among island Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Alegría, Margarita

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between self-reliance (preference to solve emotional problems on one's own) and 5 mental healthcare utilization outcomes for Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas. A random probability community sample of noninstitutionalized Puerto Ricans, ages 18-69, living in low-income areas of the island were selected and interviewed in 1992-93 and 1993-94. A series of logistic regression models tested the association between self-reliance and 5 mental health utilization measures, after adjusting for covariates measuring predisposing, enabling, need and barrier factors: any use of mental health services, any use of general health services for mental healthcare, any use of specialty care, use of psychotropic medications, and retention in mental healthcare. Self-reliance was found to be negatively associated with all 5 dependent service utilization measures. Those with a positive self-reliant attitude were 40% less likely to use care on any of the 5 outcome measures. An interaction was also observed between definite need for mental healthcare and having a self-reliant attitude when predicting mental health service use. Definite needers with a self-reliant attitude were 54%-58% less likely to use mental health services compared with definite needers who did not have a self-reliant attitude. Further, decreases in self-reliant attitude over the two data collection periods were associated with increases in mental health service use. Our findings suggest that self-reliance is a significant and robust predictor of mental healthcare utilization among Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas of the island.

  10. Risk of arrhythmia induced by psychotropic medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanoe, Søren; Kristensen, Diana; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    with psychotropic medications. The algorithm integrates the risk categories of the individual drugs and pre-disposing risk factors and suggests a prudent follow-up for patients with an increased risk. We believe this clinically manageable guideline might improve safety in the many and rapidly increasing number...... of the major mental disorders are associated with a large risk of suicide if untreated. The observed risk of malignant arrhythmia associated with treatment with psychotropic drugs calls for clinical guidelines integrating the risk of the individual drug and other potentially interacting risk factors......Several drugs used in the treatment of mental diseases are associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). A general cause-relationship between the intake of these drugs and SCD is unattainable, but numerous case reports of drug-induced malignant arrhythmia and epidemiological...

  11. Experiences of achieving self-reliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlister, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Achieving self-reliance can be greatly facilitated by the organizational structures an Owner Nation utilizes to develop its initial nuclear units and to operate its plants. An important component in the success of Mexico and Japan was to utilize evolving organizational structures that resulted in extensive participation of the Owner over the course of the initial project (Mexico) or in successive projects (Japan). (author)

  12. Determinants for the use of psychotropics among nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Uhrskov; Foldspang, A; Gulmann, N C

    2001-01-01

    's Activities of Daily Living (ADL), behavioural problems (Nursing Home Behavior Problem Scale), orientation, communication skills and if the resident had any psychiatric disorder. Multiple logistic regression was used to select the items that determined the use of psychotropics. Results Fifty-six percent......Purpose To characterise the prescription pattern of psychotropics in Danish nursing homes and to identify diagnostic, behavioural, cognitive and performance characteristics associated with prevalent psychotropic drug use. Methods Prescribed daily medication was recorded from nurses' files. Based...

  13. Psychotropic medication in children : A study from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, E; Tobi, H; Zito, JM; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    Objective. Although there is a global concern about the increased use of psychotropic agents in children, most research literature originates in the United States and is based on figures from the first half of the 1990s. Also, few studies document the use of various types of psychotropic agents. The

  14. Allergy to tartrazine in psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S

    2000-07-01

    High psychiatric morbidity has been reported among those who complain of food intolerance or allergy. Many cases of food allergy or intolerance to drugs are not due to allergy to the food or drugs themselves, but to the additives used for coloring, flavoring, preserving, thickening, emulsifying, or stabilizing the product. Of various coloring dyes used, tartrazine (FD & C yellow no. 5) is the color most frequently incriminated in producing allergic reactions. The exact epidemiology and pattern of allergic reactions to tartrazine in psychotropic drugs have not been frequently studied and reported. The present study included consecutive outpatients (May 1996 to April 1998) who developed allergic reactions or intolerance to tartrazine in psychotropic drugs. Total patients exposed to tartrazine-containing drugs were also recorded. The subjects showing allergic reactions to tartrazine were then exposed to non-tartrazine-containing brands. Of 2210 patients exposed to tartrazine-containing drugs, 83 (3.8%) developed allergic reactions. The symptoms subsided within 24 to 48 hours of stopping the drug. None of the patients showed allergy to non-tartrazine-containing brands. History of allergy to tartrazine was present in 13.2%, and 15.7% of patients had a history of aspirin sensitivity. Tartrazine allergy should be considered in patients developing drug allergy, because it would require changing the brand rather than stopping treatment with that drug.

  15. Psychotropic medication patterns among youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Julie M; Safer, Daniel J; Sai, Devadatta; Gardner, James F; Thomas, Diane; Coombes, Phyllis; Dubowski, Melissa; Mendez-Lewis, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Studies have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate > 3 times that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income. Systematic data on patterns of medication treatment, particularly concomitant drugs, for youth in foster care are limited. The purpose of this work was to describe and quantify patterns of psychotropic monotherapy and concomitant therapy prescribed to a randomly selected, 1-month sample of youth in foster care who had been receiving psychotropic medication. METHODS. Medicaid data were accessed for a July 2004 random sample of 472 medicated youth in foster care aged 0 through 19 years from a southwestern US state. Psychotropic medication treatment data were identified by concomitant pattern, frequency, medication class, subclass, and drug entity and were analyzed in relation to age group; gender; race or ethnicity; International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, psychiatric diagnosis; and physician specialty. Of the foster children who had been dispensed psychotropic medication, 41.3% received > or = 3 different classes of these drugs during July 2004, and 15.9% received > or = 4 different classes. The most frequently used medications were antidepressants (56.8%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs (55.9%), and antipsychotic agents (53.2%). The use of specific psychotropic medication classes varied little by diagnostic grouping. Psychiatrists prescribed 93% of the psychotropic medication dispensed to youth in foster care. The use of > or = 2 drugs within the same psychotropic medication class was noted in 22.2% of those who were given prescribed drugs concomitantly. Concomitant psychotropic medication treatment is frequent for youth in foster care and lacks substantive evidence as to its effectiveness and safety.

  16. Psychotropic medicine prescriptions in Italian youths: a multiregional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovani, Daniele; Clavenna, Antonio; Cartabia, Massimo; Bonati, Maurizio

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trend of paediatric psychotropic drug prescriptions in Italy. Data sources were regional, outpatient prescription databases. Seven Italian regions, covering 50 % of the Italian population, provided data from 2006 to 2011. Prevalence and incidence of prescriptions by age and gender were evaluated for psychotropic, antidepressant, antipsychotic, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) medications. The hospital admission rate for psychiatric conditions was calculated, also at the local health unit (LHU) level. The presence of trends in prescription prevalence and incidence during the 6 year period was assessed. Finally, the correlation between prevalence, prescription, hospital admission rates, latitude, longitude, and average annual income at the LHU level was also investigated. In 2011, 8834 youths received at least one psychotropic drug prescription, with a prevalence of 1.76 ‰ (95 % CI 1.72-1.80). The incidence of new psychotropic drug users was 1.03 ‰ (1.00-1.06). The prevalence of antidepressants was 1.02 ‰ (0.99-1.04), while that of antipsychotics was 0.70 ‰ (0.68-0.72), and that of ADHD medications 0.19 ‰ (0.18-0.21). The psychotropic drug prevalence increased with increasing age. Males were more exposed to psychotropic drugs than females (AUC0-17 male/female = 1.23). Antipsychotics were the most prescribed psychotropic drugs in males, while antidepressants were in females. Between-region prevalence ranged from 1.56 to 2.17 ‰. The overall prevalence of psychotropic drug from 2006 to 2011 was stable (χ(t)2 ≤ 0.001, p = 0.97). No correlation was found between prevalence and the variables investigated. Psychotropic drug prescription was very limited and stable. No geographical patterns were found.

  17. Filiation et consommation de medicaments psychotropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Ducousso-Lacaze

    Full Text Available A partir de deux entretiens semi-directifs l’auteur présente certains aspects des résultats d’une recherche clinique réalisée avec des patients de l’hôpital général consommant des médicaments psychotropes. Il s’agit de mette en évidence comment, pour certains patients, la consommation et la prescription prennent un sens par rapport aux enjeux de la filiation narcissique. Les analyses cliniques portent essentiellement sur la fonction de support imaginaire de la transmission que peuvent revêtir les médicaments ainsi que leur rôle dans les conflits entre appartenance et différenciation à l’égard du groupe familial.

  18. Variation in psychotropic drug use in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, N G

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies of health service use reveal considerable variation in the degree of services provided. In this article the variation in psychotropic drug use in nursing homes is examined. First, a descriptive analysis of nursing homes with and without high levels of psychotropic drug use is provided. Second, an analysis of the determinants of high levels of psychotropic drug use in nursing homes is provided. Factors such as ownership, staffing levels, having special care units, case-mix intensity, competitiveness of the nursing home market, and the state Medicaid reimbursement rate structure are examined. The results of these analyses are discussed in terms of their policy issues.

  19. Technical self reliance of digital safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kook Hun [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung Gap [POSCON, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    This paper summarizes the development results of the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) project sponsored by the Korean government. In this project, Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) architecture, two digital platforms, and several control systems are developed. One platform is a programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for a safety system and another platform is a Distributed Control System (DCS) for a non safety system. With the POSAFE Q PLC, a Reactor Protection System (RPS) and an Engineered Safety Feature Component Control System (ESF CCS) are developed. A Power Control System (PCS) is developed based on the DCS. The safety grade platform and the digital safety systems obtained approval for the Topical Report from the Korean regulatory body in February of 2009. Also a Korean utility and a vendor company determined KNICS results to apply them to the planned Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in March 2009. This paper introduces the technical self reliance experiences of the safety grade platform and the digital safety systems developed in the KNICS R and D project.

  20. ECG Changes In Patients On Chronic Psychotropic medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... The use of psychotropic drugs is associated with. ECG changes in ... impact, while the secondary tricyclic antidepressants (nortriptyline, desipramine) ... Human Research Ethics Committee approved the study. Procedures.

  1. Development and validation of the Psychotropic Education and Knowledge (PEAK) test on psychotropic drugs for nurses in an acute geriatric care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauters, Maartin; Azermai, Majda; Perehudoff, Sammi-Jo; Versluys, Karen; Steeman, Els; Petrovic, Mirko

    Introduction: In Belgium, psychotropic drug use is high among older people. With low proven long-term effectiveness and possible severe side effects, psychotropic drugs in geriatric patients should be prescribed with utmost caution. Nursing staff’s knowledge on psychotropic drugs can be crucial in

  2. Attachment, Autonomy, and Emotional Reliance: A Multilevel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a test of a multilevel model investigating how attachment security and autonomy contribute to emotional reliance, or the willingness to seek interpersonal support. Participants ("N" = 247) completed online measures of attachment, autonomy, emotional reliance, and vitality with respect to several everyday…

  3. China and the world: self-reliance or interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, R

    1977-01-01

    China's principle of self-reliance appears to have 4 sources: 1) having known the pain of dependence in the period of the Manchu Dynasty's encounter with the West, the Chinese are determined to be totally independent; 2) self-reliance appears to be related to China's long tradition of cultural self-containment; 3) a key tenet of Marxism to which history and culture pushed Mao is that internal factors are always decisive in a country's affairs; and 4) objective facts of China's great size and agricultural economy have made self-reliance in part the rationalization of necessity. The first 3 of these 4 sources of the principle of self-reliance are not immutable. In fact, self-reliance is being severely modified economically and politically, although not as yet militarily. China's trade with the world increased markedly in value during the 1970s, from U.S. $3.86 billion in 1969 to about U.S. $15 billion in 1975. A certain institutionalization of the country's international economic involvement also seems to be taking place. Behind all these developments is an apparent rejection of strict self-reliance in the sense of buying only what cannot be made and selling only waht is left over in favor of tentative acceptance of the law of comparative advantage in international economic relationships. On the political level a certain acceptance of an interdependent world is evident. The Chinese leadership, however has not been compltely united on these departures from self-reliance. Certain specific natural and socio-political factors that bear on the fate of self-reliance are identified. The 4th source of self-reliance--objective facts of China's size and agricultural character--appears the most persistent and will continue to be the major constraint against any clear-cut abandonment of self-reliance.

  4. PROPER I: frequency and appropriateness of psychotropic drugs use in nursing home patients and its associations: a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, K.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Smalbrugge, M.; Nelissen-Vrancken, M.H.; Wetzels, R.B.; Smeets, C.H.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nursing home patients with dementia use psychotropic drugs longer and more frequently than recommended by guidelines implying psychotropic drugs are not always prescribed appropriately. These drugs can have many side effects and effectiveness is limited. Psychotropic drug use between

  5. PROPER I : Frequency and appropriateness of psychotropic drugs use in nursing home patients and its associations: a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Klaas; Gerritsen, Debby L.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Nelissen-Vrancken, Marjorie H. J. M. G.; Wetzels, Roland B.; Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nursing home patients with dementia use psychotropic drugs longer and more frequently than recommended by guidelines implying psychotropic drugs are not always prescribed appropriately. These drugs can have many side effects and effectiveness is limited. Psychotropic drug use between

  6. Psychotropic medication use among patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylberberg, Haley M; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Green, Peter H R; Lebwohl, Benjamin

    2018-03-27

    Celiac disease is a multi-system disorder with manifestations that may result in psychiatric disorders. We assessed the prevalence of medication use to treat psychiatric disorders in celiac disease patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy over 9-years at a celiac disease referral center. We compared the prevalence of psychotropic medication use among celiac disease patients (n = 1293) to a control group (n = 1401) with abdominal pain or reflux. Among all patients the mean age was 48.4 years, most were female (69.5%), and 22.7% used any psychotropic medication. There was no difference between overall psychotropic medication use among celiac disease patients and controls (23.9% vs 21.8%, OR 1.16; 95% CI 0.96-1.39, p = 0.12). However, those with celiac disease were more likely to use antidepressants on univariate (16.4% vs 13.4%, p = 0.03) and multivariate analysis (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.03-1.59; p = 0.03). Use of psychotropic medications was not associated with disease duration or mode of presentation of celiac disease. Celiac disease patients use psychotropic medications at similar rates as those with other gastrointestinal diseases, though subgroup analysis suggests they may use more antidepressants. Future studies should investigate whether celiac disease is associated with mood disorders that are not treated with medications.

  7. U.S. and Japanese Source Reliance for Environmental Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines environmental information source reliance among American and Japanese citizens. Finds that the Japanese are inclined to rely on non-mass media sources, whereas Americans exhibit greater differentiation among sources. (RS)

  8. Investing in self-reliance: IDRC's fourth annual public meeting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... Investing in self-reliance: IDRC's fourth annual public meeting ... to advance the Government of Canada's priorities in international development, in areas ... Flexible intellectual property rights lead to greater innovation in Africa.

  9. Prescription patterns for psychotropic drugs in cancer patients; a large population study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, N.C.; Boks, M.P.; Smeets, H.M.; Zainal, N.Z.; Wit, N.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychotropic drugs are commonly prescribed for various psychological complaints in cancer patients. We aim to examine the prescription pattern in cancer patients of three common psychotropic drugs: benzodiazepine, antidepressant and antipsychotic. Methods: This is a retrospective

  10. Adverse drug reactions from psychotropic medicines in the paediatric population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba H

    2010-01-01

    of these products in childhood. Little evidence has been reported about the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of these medicines in practice. As spontaneous reports are the main source for information about previously unknown ADRs, we analysed data submitted to a national ADR database. The objective was to characterise...... ADRs reported for psychotropic medicines in the Danish paediatric population over a decade. FINDINGS: All spontaneous ADR reports from 1998 to 2007 for children from birth to 17 years of age were included. The unit of analysis was one ADR. We analysed the distribution of ADRs per year, seriousness, age...... and gender of the child, suspected medicine and type of reported ADR. A total of 429 ADRs were reported for psychotropic medicines and 56% of these were classified as serious. Almost 20% of psychotropic ADRs were reported for children from birth up to 2 years of age and one half of ADRs were reported...

  11. Prescribing psychotropic drugs to adults with an intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollor, Julian N; Salomon, Carmela; Franklin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Mental illness is common in people with intellectual disability. They may also have physical health problems which can affect their mental state. Difficulties in communication can contribute to mental health problems being overlooked. These may present with changes in behaviour. Psychological management is usually preferable to prescribing psychotropic drugs. Behavioural approaches are the most appropriate way to manage challenging behaviour. If a drug is considered, prescribers should complete a thorough diagnostic assessment, exclude physical and environmental contributions to symptoms, and consider medical comorbidities before prescribing. Where possible avoid psychotropics with the highest cardiometabolic burden. Prescribe the minimum effective dose and treatment length, and regularly monitor drug efficacy and adverse effects. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychotropics for challenging behaviour. They should be avoided unless the behaviour is severe and non-responsive to other treatments. PMID:27756975

  12. Epigenetic developmental programs and adipogenesis: implications for psychotropic induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Kayla; Sharma, Rajiv P

    2013-11-01

    Psychotropic agents are notorious for their ability to increase fat mass in psychiatric patients. The two determinants of fat mass are the production of newly differentiated adipocytes (adipogenesis), and the volume of lipid accumulation. Epigenetic programs have a prominent role in cell fate commitments and differentiation required for adipogenesis. In parallel, epigenetic effects on energy metabolism are well supported by several genetic models. Consequently, a variety of psychotropics, often prescribed in combinations and for long periods, may utilize a common epigenetic effector path causing an increase in adipogenesis or reduction in energy metabolism. In particular, the recent discovery that G protein coupled signaling cascades can directly modify epigenetic regulatory enzymes implicates surface receptor activity by psychotropic medications. The potential therapeutic implications are also suggested by the effects of the clinically approved antidepressant tranylcypromine, also a histone demethylase inhibitor, which has impressive therapeutic effects on metabolism in the obese phenotype.

  13. Psychotropic drugs in opioid addicts on methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, G N

    1976-07-01

    Psychotropic drug treatment of persons on methadone maintenance is discussed. Patients with clear target symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, or psychosis responded just as non-opioid addicts would to the major psychotropic agents. The minor tranquilizers are felt to be of doubtful value, and subject to abuse. Sleep disturbances cannot be treated by the usual means, as the drugs needed again are abused. However, chlorpromazine shows some promise here. Methods of drug delivery and goals of treatment must be adapted to the realities of this patient-group's characteristics, particularly anti-social traits, poor motivation and unreliability. Psychotropic drugs are unlikely to be of aid in multiple drug abusers, personality and character disorders, and opioid withdrawal. Four case histories are presented.

  14. Mortality and use of psychotropic medication in patients with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Iversen, Helle K

    2016-01-01

    with a diagnosis of stroke and either no drug use or preindex use of psychotropic medication (n=49,968) and compared with control subjects (n=86,100) matched on age, gender, marital status and community location. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: All-cause mortality. RESULTS: All-cause mortality was higher in patients...... about psychotropic medication use was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate all-cause mortality in relation to the use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants and antipsychotics in patients with stroke and matched controls. PARTICIPANTS: Patients...

  15. [Rational use of psychotropic drugs and social communication role].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, F

    1994-06-01

    Extra-clinical factors about the influences affecting the prescription and use of drugs are reviewed. Special attention is given to regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and mass media. The problems and public health consequences of the irrational use of drugs are rarely documented in Latin America. Analysis of these factors, information sources, and rational use of psychotropic drugs will require multiple strategies such as social communication and policy formulation to define goals and objectives related to population information, doctors' and individual citizens' decision making processes, and participation of consumers in improving the use of psychotropic drugs.

  16. Risk of impaired cognition after prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, M A; Mathiasen, R; Pagsberg, A K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs may affect the trajectories of brain development. In a register study, we investigated whether such exposure is associated with long-term impaired cognitive abilities. METHOD: Individuals born in Denmark in 1995-2008 were included. As proxies...... of a neurological/mental disorder after prenatal exposure to psychoanaleptics (primarily antidepressants) (OR: 1.86[1.24-2.78). CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs affects proxy outcomes of cognitive disabilities at school age. Exposure to psycholeptics carries the largest risk. The role...

  17. Prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing-home patients with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijk, Renate M; Zuidema, Sytse U; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients are common and are often treated with psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing home patients with dementia. METHODS: Psychotropic drug use of 1322

  18. Psychotropic Medication Adherence among Community-Based Individuals with Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xi; Marshall, Vincent D.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Patel, Isha; Chang, Jongwha; Erickson, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are a common treatment for mental illness in people with developmental disabilities. Medication adherence is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, but psychotropic medication adherence research specific to this population remains limited. This retrospective study analyzed Marketscan®…

  19. Polymorphisms within the prnD and pltC genes from pyrrolnitrin and pyoluteorin-producing Pseudomonas and Burkholderia spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, J.T.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin (PRN) and pyoluteorin (PLT) are broad-spectrum antibiotics produced by several strains of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia species. Both antibiotics play an important role in the suppression of multiple plant pathogenic fungi. Primers were developed from conserved sequences and amplified

  20. Evaluating U.S. oil security and import reliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen P.A.; Huntington, Hillard G.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the literature that considers the consequences of U.S. reliance on imported oil. We take an approach that covers many ideas about the costs arising from U.S. reliance on imported oil, and we identify which of those ideas have broad support in the economics literature and which ideas have only limited support. We also quantify the costs of U.S. reliance on imported oil using two approaches. One is fairly narrow, conforms to the economics view of externalities, and yields small cost estimates. The other is relatively expansive, is favored by some policy analysts, and yields much larger cost estimates. We estimate these costs as expected U.S. economic losses over a time horizon from 2010 through 2035, while taking into account world oil market conditions, market power, probable oil supply disruptions, and the oil-market response to those supply disruptions. - Highlights: • A variety of perspectives on the consequences of U.S. reliance on imported oil. • Quantify and evaluate the costs of U.S. reliance on oil imports. • Narrower approaches are more consistent with the economic definition of externalities. • Narrower approaches yield recommendations for relatively modest policy. • Expansive approaches favored by some policy analysts support more aggressive policy

  1. Adverse Cutaneous Reactions to Psychotropic Drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Novais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychotropic drugs are often implicated in cutaneous adverse drug reactions. While most of these reactions have a benign character, it is still important, however, to consider its role in the increasing stigma and treatment adherence. A small number of the cutaneous adverse drug reactions can develop into serious and potentially fatal conditions. Objectives: This article aims to review the most common cutaneous adverse drug reactions in patients taking psychotropic drugs. Methods: In this study, a search was carried out in the MEDLINE database for English language articles published , from 1999 to 2014, using as keywords: psychiatric, psychotropic, cutaneous, adverse reaction, antidepressive agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsant, dementia. Information available from the Portuguese regulatory and supervising agency (Infarmed was also included.Results: 121 articles were found with reference to cutaneous adverse drug reactions associated with psychotropic drugs. The drugs most frequently reported as associated with such adverse effects were anticonvulsants used as mood stabilizers, followed by the antipsychotics . The antidementia drugs were rarely associated with serious cutaneous adverse reactions. Discussion and Conclusion: Cutaneous drug adverse reactions are common in psychiatric clinical practice and typically are minor in severity. The most severe reactions are most often associated with the use of mood stabilizing medications. Some of these side effects can be solved with reduction or drug discontinuation. More severe cases should be referred to a specialist in dermatology.

  2. Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E R; Damkier, P; Pedersen, L H

    2015-01-01

    and carbamazepin are contraindicated. Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and clozapine can be used for bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: It is important that health professionals treating fertile women with a psychiatric disease discuss whether psychotropic drugs are needed during pregnancy and how...

  3. Consommation des psychotropes en milieu scolaire, au Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consommation des psychotropes en milieu scolaire, au Burkina Faso : Prévalences et facteurs de risque. L Nikiéma, S Kouanda, I Seck, S Tiendrebéogo, HG Ouédraogo, M Yaméogo, B Méda, B Doulogou, I Guissou, B Sondo ...

  4. Forum: Psychotropic prescribing in HIV | Reid | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We provide a brief guide to the diagnosis and treatment of common mental disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS, including: prescribing psychotropics in HIV; neuropsychiatric side-effects of ARVs and other medications commonly prescribed in HIV; and the diagnosis and treatment of depression, anxiety, psychosis, ...

  5. Psychotropic Medication Use during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Flora M.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Shea, Timothy; Seel, Ronald T.; McAlister, Thomas W.; Kaelin, Darryl; Ryser, David; Corrigan, John D.; Cullen, Nora; Horn, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe psychotropic medication administration patterns during inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their relationship to patient pre-injury and injury characteristics. Design Prospective observational cohort. Setting multiple acute inpatient rehabilitation units or hospitals. Participants 2,130 individuals with TBI (complicated mild, moderate, or severe) admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. Interventions NA Main Outcome Measure(s) NA Results Most frequently administered was narcotic analgesics (72% of sample) followed by antidepressants (67%), anticonvulsants (47%), antianxiolytics (33%), hypnotics (30%), stimulants (28%), antipsychotics (25%), antiparkinson agents (25%), and miscellaneous psychotropics (18%). The psychotropic agents studied were administered to 95% of the sample with 8.5% receiving only 1 and 31.8% receiving 6 or more. Degree of psychotropic medication administration varied widely between sites. Univariate analyses indicated younger patients were more likely to receive anxiolytics, antidepressants, antiparkinson agents, stimulants, antipsychotics, and narcotic analgesics, while those older were more likely to receive anticonvulsants and miscellaneous psychotropics. Men were more likely to receive antipsychotics. All medication classes were less likely administered to Asians, and more likely to those with more severe functional impairment. Use of anticonvulsants was associated with having seizures at some point during acute care or rehabilitation stays. Narcotic analgesics were more likely for those with history of drug abuse, history of anxiety and depression (premorbid or during acute care), and severe pain during rehabilitation. Psychotropic medication administration increased rather than decreased during the course of inpatient rehabilitation in each of the medication categories except for narcotics. This observation was also true for medication administration within admission functional levels (defined

  6. Consistency of psychotropic drug-drug interactions listed in drug monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Hatton, Randy C; Zhu, Yanmin; Hincapie-Castillo, Juan M; Bussing, Regina; Barnicoat, Marie; Winterstein, Almut G

    With an increasing prevalence of psychotropic polypharmacy, clinicians depend on drug-drug interaction (DDI) references to ensure safe regimens, but the consistency of such information is frequently questioned. To evaluate the consistency of psychotropic DDIs documented in Clinical Pharmacology (CP), Micromedex (MM), and Lexicomp (LC) and summarize consistent psychotropic DDIs. In May 2016, we extracted severe or major psychotropic DDIs for 102 psychotropic drugs, including central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, antidepressants, an antimanic agent (lithium), antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and anxiolytics-sedatives-hypnotics from CP, MM, and LC. We then summarized the psychotropic DDIs that were included in all 3 references and with evidence quality of "excellent" or "good" based on MM. We identified 1496, 938, and 1006 unique severe or major psychotropic DDIs from CP, MM, and LC, respectively. Common adverse effects related to psychotropic DDIs include increased or decreased effectiveness, CNS depression, neurotoxicity, QT prolongation, serotonin syndrome, and multiple adverse effects. Among these interactions, only 371 psychotropic DDIs were documented in all 3 references, 59 of which had "excellent" or "good" quality of evidence based on MM. The consistency of psychotropic DDI documentation across CP, MM, and LC is poor. DDI documentations need standards that would encourage consistency among drug information references. The list of the 59 DDIs may be useful in the assessment of psychotropic polypharmacy and highlighting DDI alerts in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Staff and patient perspectives on the purpose of psychotropic prescribing in prisons: care or control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lamiece; Edge, Dawn; Senior, Jane; Shaw, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to explore perspectives on reasons for psychotropic medication use in prisons. We recruited a purposive sample of healthcare staff and patients prescribed psychotropic medicines from four East of England prisons. Participants took part in qualitative, semistructured interviews, which were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically. While patients and healthcare staff viewed psychotropic medicines primarily as a treatment for reducing symptoms of mental illness, they were also used as a coping strategy and to reduce insomnia. Appropriate psychotropic prescribing was also thought to contribute towards the rehabilitation agenda and helped to maintain order in prisons. Staff voiced concerns regarding possible overreliance on psychotropic medicines. However, patients perceived insufficient access to alternative, nonpharmacological forms of treatment and support in prison. Psychotropic medicines are used for multiple purposes in prisons and are generally considered a useful resource. Nonetheless, further work may be needed to find the right balance between psychotropic medicines and alternative, nonpharmacological therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Testing Kohn's self-reliance hypothesis among high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R A

    1986-01-01

    Melvin Kohn and his associates have established that self-reliance promotes a sense of well-being (lower levels of fatalism) among adults. The present study attempts to test this proposition among adolescents. Instead of the usual job-related activities, however, it incorporates an alternative measure of self-reliance--high school curriculum assignment. Consistent with previous findings among adults, the results of this study show that self-reliance among adolescents also promotes a sense of well-being: students enrolled in tracks where close supervision is kept to a minimum and the exercise of initiative is emphasized tended to exhibit lower levels of fatalism. The implications of this finding for adolescents are discussed.

  9. Rural income and forest reliance in highland Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Córdova, José Pablo Prado; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages (n = 149 randomly selected...

  10. How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local community in Malawi. ... model that resists dependence on external aid, empowers community development, and provides opportunities to sustain development activity through local initiative, can be employed to increase social capital leading to sustainable growth.

  11. Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Although the mental health consequences of domestic violence are well documented, empirical evidence is scarce regarding the mental health effects of violence in the workplace. Most studies have used data from small occupation-specific samples, limiting their generalizability. This article examines...... whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self......-reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996-2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender...

  12. Psychotropic medication use in French children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess, Viviane; Choppin, Sabine; Gao, Fei; Pivette, Mathilde; Husky, Mathilde; Leray, Emmanuelle

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of psychotropic drug use in a large representative population of children and adolescents drawn from the French National Health Insurance databank. Data were drawn from a sample of 1% of the beneficiaries of the French national health insurance, selecting those 0-17 years old in 2010 (n=128,298). In addition to age and gender, data included the identification number of each drug allowing a European Pharmaceutical Marketing Research Association (EphMRA) classification, as well as the type of the prescriber. Overall, 2.5% of children and adolescents had been prescribed psychotropic medication. A majority were prescribed anxiolytics (1.9%), followed by antidepressants (0.3%), antipsychotics (0.3%), and stimulants (0.2%). Between the ages of 15 and 17, 6.1% of girls were prescribed anxiolytics and 1.1% were prescribed antidepressants. For boys, the anxiolytics remained the most prescribed psychotropic medication; however, between the ages of 11 and 14, and between the ages of 15 and 17 they received more antipsychotics (0.7% and 0.8%) and between the ages of 6 and 10, and between the ages of 11 and 14 (0.7% and 0.6%), they were prescribed more stimulants than were girls. Among those who received a prescription, a majority of youth (84.6%) received only one class of drugs, and general practitioners were found to be prescribing most of these prescriptions (81.7%). The prevalence of psychotropic drug use in France is similar to that of the Netherlands and much lower than what is observed in the United States. Stimulants are less frequently prescribed in France than in other European countries, but anxiolytics are prescribed considerably more in France than in any other country.

  13. Neuroprotective Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Huntington’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Lauterbach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropics (antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, anxiolytics, etc. are commonly prescribed to treat Huntington’s disease (HD. In HD preclinical models, while no psychotropic has convincingly affected huntingtin gene, HD modifying gene, or huntingtin protein expression, psychotropic neuroprotective effects include upregulated huntingtin autophagy (lithium, histone acetylation (lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, miR-222 (lithium-plus-valproate, mitochondrial protection (haloperidol, trifluoperazine, imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine, melatonin, neurogenesis (lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, sertraline, and BDNF (lithium, valproate, sertraline and downregulated AP-1 DNA binding (lithium, p53 (lithium, huntingtin aggregation (antipsychotics, lithium, and apoptosis (trifluoperazine, loxapine, lithium, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, cyproheptadine, melatonin. In HD live mouse models, delayed disease onset (nortriptyline, melatonin, striatal preservation (haloperidol, tetrabenazine, lithium, sertraline, memory preservation (imipramine, trazodone, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, motor improvement (tetrabenazine, lithium, valproate, imipramine, nortriptyline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine, and extended survival (lithium, valproate, sertraline, melatonin have been documented. Upregulated CREB binding protein (CBP; valproate, dextromethorphan and downregulated histone deacetylase (HDAC; valproate await demonstration in HD models. Most preclinical findings await replication and their limitations are reviewed. The most promising findings involve replicated striatal neuroprotection and phenotypic disease modification in transgenic mice for tetrabenazine and for sertraline. Clinical data consist of an uncontrolled lithium case series (n = 3 suggesting non-progression and a primarily negative double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of lamotrigine.

  14. Oncogenic activation of JAK3-STAT signaling confers clinical sensitivity to PRN371, a novel selective and potent JAK3 inhibitor, in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairismägi, M -L; Gerritsen, M E; Li, Z M; Wijaya, G C; Chia, B K H; Laurensia, Y; Lim, J Q; Yeoh, K W; Yao, X S; Pang, W L; Bisconte, A; Hill, R J; Bradshaw, J M; Huang, D; Song, T L L; Ng, C C Y; Rajasegaran, V; Tang, T; Tang, Q Q; Xia, X J; Kang, T B; Teh, B T; Lim, S T; Ong, C K; Tan, J

    2018-05-01

    Aberrant activation of the JAK3-STAT signaling pathway is a characteristic feature of many hematological malignancies. In particular, hyperactivity of this cascade has been observed in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL) cases. Although the first-in-class JAK3 inhibitor tofacitinib blocks JAK3 activity in NKTL both in vitro and in vivo, its clinical utilization in cancer therapy has been limited by the pan-JAK inhibition activity. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of JAK3 inhibition in NKTL, we have developed a highly selective and durable JAK3 inhibitor PRN371 that potently inhibits JAK3 activity over the other JAK family members JAK1, JAK2, and TYK2. PRN371 effectively suppresses NKTL cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through abrogation of the JAK3-STAT signaling. Moreover, the activity of PRN371 has a more durable inhibition on JAK3 compared to tofacitinib in vitro, leading to significant tumor growth inhibition in a NKTL xenograft model harboring JAK3 activating mutation. These findings provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of NKTL.

  15. Psychotropic drugs in Nepal: perceptions on use and supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Gurung, Dristy; Pokhrel, Ruja; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Komproe, Ivan H

    2018-01-24

    Psychotropic drugs play an important role in the treatment of mental, neurological and substance use disorders. Despite the advancement of the use of psycho-pharmaceuticals in the developed countries, the psychotropic drug production and supply chain management in low- and middle- income countries are still poorly developed. This study aims to explore the perceptions of stakeholders involved in all stages of the psychotropic drug supply chain about the need, quality, availability and effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, as well as barriers to their supply chain management. The study was conducted among 65 respondents from the Kathmandu, Chitwan and Pyuthan districts, grouped into four categories: producers, promoters and distributors (N = 22), policy makers and government actors (N = 8), service providers (N = 21) and service users/family members (N = 14). The respondents reported that psychotropic drugs, despite having side effects, are 1) needed, 2) available in major regional centers and 3) are effective for treating mental health problems. The stigma associated with mental illness, however, forces patients and family members to hide their use of psychotropic drugs. The study found that the process of psychotropic drug supply chain management is similar to other general drugs, with the exceptions of strict pre-approval process, quantity restriction (for production and import), and mandatory record keeping. Despite these regulatory provisions, respondents believed that the misuse of psychotropic drugs is widespread and companies are providing incentives to prescribers and retailers to retain their brand in the market. The production and supply chain management of psychotropic drugs is influenced by the vested interests of pharmaceutical companies, prescribers and pharmacists. In the context of the government of Nepal's policy of integrating mental health into primary health care and increased consumption of psychotropic drugs in Nepal, there is a

  16. Effects of maternal psychotropic drug dosage on birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michielsen LA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Michielsen,1 Frank MMA van der Heijden,1 Paddy KC Janssen,2 Harold JH Kuijpers11Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venlo, the Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacy, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo, the NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes.Methods: A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes.Results: Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar score ≤7 at 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01. There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low–intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic.Conclusion: This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes.Keywords: pregnancy, psychotropic medication, dosage, birth outcomes

  17. Improving psychotropic drug prescription in nursing home patients with dementia : design of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Gerritsen, Debby L.; Nelissen-Vrancken, Marjorie H. J. M. G.; Wetzels, Roland B.; van der Spek, Klaas; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are highly prevalent in nursing home patients with dementia. Despite modest effectiveness and considerable side effects, psychotropic drugs are frequently prescribed for these neuropsychiatric symptoms. This raises questions whether psychotropic drugs are

  18. [Psychotropic medication use by French active self-employed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha-Vinh, Philippe; Régnard, Pierre; Sauze, Laurent

    2011-04-01

    INTERESTS OF THE STUDY: In the self-employed workers population (shop keepers, craft men, industrialists and liberal professions), psychotropic medications use and discrepancies between occupational situations have never been evaluated before. It is nevertheless a prerequisite in preventive actions against addictions, stress and injuries caused by disorders of attentiveness at work. The French Self Employed Workers Health Care Insurance Fund affiliate members data base was analysed for active workers from 18 to 60 years of age living in the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur Region. From this population the cases were defined as having refunded ambulatory prescription of behind the counter psychotropic treatment during the year 2009 (anxiolytic, antidepressant, hypnotic, neuroleptic, lithium, alcoholic or opioid dependance therapy) and the randomised control sample was constituted by drawing the key of the social security number. A case-control multivariate logistic regression adjusted for gender, age and place of abode was used for searching discrepancy between occupational situations. Anxiolytic, antidepressant or hypnotic consumers are the most numerous (906; 557 and 446 consumers per 10 000 persons-year respectively). Antidepressant, neuroleptic and opioid dependance therapy are the three main posts of expense for the health insurance (584 505; 169 947 and 151 201 € per year respectively). When compared to workers of the construction sector, workers of retail trade of clothes had an Odd Ratio of 2,04 [95%CI 1,46-2,85] for anxiolytics consumption and 2,29 [95%CI 1,67-3,14] for antidepressants consumption, workers in the sector of the hotel and catering had an Odd Ratio of 1,62 [95%CI 1,19-2,22] for alcoholic dependance therapy medicines consumption, workers in the accountant, legal and financial sector had an Odd Ratio of 0,05 [95%CI 0,01-0,32] for opioid dependence therapy medicines consumption. Occupations associated with increased psychotropic medicines

  19. Psychotropic drugs and the perioperative period : A proposal for a guideline in elective surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyse, FJ; Touw, DJ; Van Schijndel, RS; De Lange, JJ; Slaets, JPJ

    Evidence-based guidelines for the perioperative management of psychotropic drugs are lacking. The level of evidence is low and is based on case reports, open trials, and non-systematic reviews. However, the interactions and effects mentioned indicate that patients who use psychotropics and require

  20. An Outline on Psychotropic Drug Use in the Developmentally Disabled Patient. Monograph #102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Jeanne A.

    This introduction to basic principles of psychotropic drug use in developmentally disabled patients is intended to provide personnel working in the field with information on appropriate clinical use as well as potential risks. Presented in outline form, information is provided on five classes of psychotropic drugs: antipsychotics; antidepressants;…

  1. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Leufkens, H G M; van Dijk, L

    2017-01-01

    In the last 20-30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older) psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the

  2. Change in psychotropic drug use in Norwegian nursing homes between 2004 and 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selbæk, G; Janus, S I M; Bergh, S; Engedal, K; Ruths, S; Helvik, A S; Šaltyte Benth, J; Zuidema, S U

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess whether there were any changes in the use of psychotropic drugs in Norwegian nursing homes between 2004 and 2011. Also, we investigated whether the predictors of use of specific psychotropic drug groups have changed. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of two

  3. Parental attitudes toward the prescription of psychotropic medications for their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A Al-Haidar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore parental attitudes towards the prescription of psychotropic medication for their children. Method: A questionnaire built to collect socio-demographic data of parents and their attitudes was distributed among parents. Results: One thousand and ten questionnaires were filled by parents. Fathers who completed the questionnaire were double the number of mothers. Eight hundred and eighteen parents (84.3% agreed to the dispensing psychotropic medication to their children if necessary. About 83.5% preferred to start with psychotherapy before trying medication. Fathers are more than twice likely than mothers to agree to the use of psychotropic drugs. Older parents more easily agreed to give their children psychotropic drugs. Parents who used psychotropic drug themselves were more likely to agree to the use of psychotropic drug by their children. Having a child with a psychiatric illness is the most significant factor in making parents accede to giving children psychotropic medication. Other factors such as pressure from schools and the side effects of drugs could also modify decision of parents. Conclusion: Although most parents agreed to give their children psychotropic drugs if necessary, they preferred to start with psychotherapy sessions before giving them the drugs. Fear and worries about such issues as side effects of drugs or addiction should be considered. Pressure from school should also be considered when deciding on drug therapy.

  4. Psychotropic Drug Use among College Students: Patterns of Use, Misuse, and Medical Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberleitner, Lindsay M. S.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Zumberg, Kathryn M.; Grekin, Emily R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether college students who use psychotropic drugs are (1) aware of potential side effects, (2) appropriately monitored by prescribing physicians, and (3) taking medications as prescribed. Participants: Fifty-five college students, currently taking psychotropic medications, were recruited between Summer 2008 and Fall 2009.…

  5. The psychotropic education and knowledge test for nurses in nursing homes : Striving for PEAK performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perehudoff, Katrina; Azermai, Majda; Wauters, Maarten; Van Acker, Sandra; Versluys, Karen; Steeman, Els; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The psychotropic education and knowledge test for nurses in acute geriatric care (PEAK-AC) measures knowledge of psychotropic indications, doses and adverse drug reactions in older inpatients. Given the low internal consistency and poor discrimination of certain items, this study aims to

  6. Associations Between Magnitude of Child Maltreatment and Medicaid Expenditures for Psychotropic Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Brown, Derek S; Allaire, Benjamin T; Ross, Raven E; Landsverk, John

    2016-08-01

    This study examined relationships between various measures of the severity of child maltreatment and expenditures on psychotropic drugs among children in the welfare system. Child participants (N=4,453) in the first National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) were linked to their Medicaid claims from 36 states. Three specifications for severity of maltreatment were developed. A two-part regression of logistic and generalized linear models of expenditures on psychotropic medications was estimated for each specification. Physically abused children had higher odds (odds ratio [OR]=1.34) and neglected children had lower odds (OR=.76) of incurring psychotropic drug expenditures. Children who experienced the most severe level of harm had higher odds (OR=1.33) of medication use, compared with children without appreciable harm. No maltreatment specifications were associated with increased expenditures on psychotropic drugs. The magnitude of maltreatment affected odds of use of psychotropic drugs but had no effect on Medicaid expenditures for these drugs.

  7. Psychotropic Medication Use Among Adults With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, T Scott; Gerhard, Tobias; Crystal, Stephen; Huang, Cecilia; Tan, Zhiqiang; Wall, Melanie M; Mathai, Chacku M; Olfson, Mark

    2018-05-01

    The authors examined the use of different classes of psychotropic medication in outpatient treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Data from the United States Medicaid program were used to examine psychotropic medication use in a cohort of patients who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in the calendar year 2010. The cohort of Medicaid recipients who filled one or more prescriptions for a psychotropic medication in 2010 included 116,249 patients classified as having schizophrenia and 84,537 classified as having schizoaffective disorder. During 2010, 86.1% of patients with schizoaffective disorder and 70.1% with schizophrenia were treated with two or more different classes of psychotropic. Psychotropic medications other than antipsychotics were commonly prescribed for individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Their widespread use and uncertainty about their net benefits signal a need for research on their efficacy, safety, and appropriate use in these conditions.

  8. Rhabdomyolysis Syndrome in Alcohol, Psychotropic Drugs, and Illicit Substance Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the major complications of poisoning causedby alcohol, narcotics, and psychotropic substances acute toxicity, which might lead toacute renal failure and even death. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratoryfindings of rhabdomyolysis syndrome in poisoning patients who were admitted topoisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute toxicity by alcohol, narcotics,or psychotropic drugs who were admitted in poisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital ofHamadan were investigated during a 6-month period in 2012. Clinical and laboratorydata were collected by a standard questionnaire and analyzed by the SPSS softwareversion 16.Results: Eighty-two patients aged between 14 to 81 years were investigated. Twentytwocases developed rhabdomyolysis and narcotics related toxicity was the mostcommon cause. The most common clinical symptom in all patients was muscle pain(51cases, Laboratory studies showed some significant differences between serumcreatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum creatinine, andaminotransferases (AST,ALT levels in rhabdomyolysis cases as compared to theothers (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the incidence of rhabdomyolysissyndrome in acute intoxication with alcohol and narcotics is significant and withoutproper treatment might cause serious complications such as acute renal failure andeven death. Classic clinical signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are usually notpresent simultaneously, thus strong clinical suspicion and proper laboratory tests haveimportant role in early diagnosis and suitable treatment. Laboratory studies have animportant role in the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  9. Electroconvulsive therapy in the elderly: Anesthetic considerations and Psychotropic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Garekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT has been found to be a rapid and effective treatment strategy for psychiatric and neurological conditions in the elderly, but the administration of ECT in the elderly can be challenging due to a high risk of adverse events. The increased risk can be attributed to a declined physiological reserve, the presence of physical comorbidities, and the use of multiple drugs, which interact with the electrical stimulus and the anesthetic medications used during the ECT procedure. The selection of appropriate induction agents and muscle relaxants should be guided by patient's clinical status and the psychotropic drugs being used. Modifications in the doses of psychotropic drugs also need to be carried out before ECT to reduce cardiovascular and neurological side effects. Modification in the conduct of anesthesia can also aid in augmenting seizures and in preventing common side effects of ECT. A vital step in preventing adverse events in the elderly is carrying out a thorough pre.ECT evaluation. Despite these challenges, ECT can be carried out safely in elderly patients with severe comorbidities, provided clinical ECT, and anesthetic parameters are adequately optimized.

  10. Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, E R; Damkier, P; Pedersen, L H; Fenger-Gron, J; Mikkelsen, R L; Nielsen, R E; Linde, V J; Knudsen, H E D; Skaarup, L; Videbech, P

    2015-01-01

    To write clinical guidelines for the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding for daily practice in psychiatry, obstetrics and paediatrics. As we wanted a guideline with a high degree of consensus among health professionals treating pregnant women with a psychiatric disease, we asked the Danish Psychiatric Society, the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Danish Paediatric Society and the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology to appoint members for the working group. A comprehensive review of the literature was hereafter conducted. Sertraline and citalopram are first-line treatment among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for depression. It is recommended to use lithium for bipolar disorders if an overall assessment finds an indication for mood-stabilizing treatment during pregnancy. Lamotrigine can be used. Valproate and carbamazepin are contraindicated. Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and clozapine can be used for bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. It is important that health professionals treating fertile women with a psychiatric disease discuss whether psychotropic drugs are needed during pregnancy and how it has to be administered. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of psychotropic drugs prescription on body weight increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4

  12. Cognitive load during route selection increases reliance on spatial heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T; Martis, Shaina B; Taylor, Holly A

    2018-05-01

    Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. This study tested a prediction from decision-making theory that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load. In Experiment 1, we examined how memory load impacts the southern route heuristic. In Experiment 2, we examined how memory load impacts the initial segment heuristic. Results replicated earlier results demonstrating a southern route preference (Experiment 1) and initial segment strategy (Experiment 2) and further demonstrated that evidence for heuristic reliance is more likely under conditions of concurrent working memory load. Furthermore, the extent to which participants maintained efficient route selection latencies in the 2-back condition predicted the magnitude of this effect. Together, results demonstrate that working memory load increases the application of heuristics during spatial decision making, particularly when participants attempt to maintain quick decisions while managing concurrent task demands.

  13. Rural Income and Forest Reliance in Highland Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  14. Transferring nuclear power technology to foster Chinese self-reliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, J-D.

    1998-01-01

    Being convinced that nuclear energy will play an important role in meeting its huge future energy demands, China considers that the development of a very strong national nuclear industry capable of covering all aspects of a major national power program is of paramount importance.In this context, China has invited its foreign partners to propose contributions to the studies for this development, in view of establishing a suitable cooperation program with the entire Chinese nuclear power industry, including design institutes, equipment manufacturers, construction companies and plant operators.One of the main objectives defined by the Chinese authorities for the further development of their nuclear industry with some international cooperation is the achievement of a very high level of self-reliance by Chinese industry in all of the following areas: project management, design and engineering, construction, equipment design and manufacturing,operation and maintenance. The major key to reaching this target of overall and long term self reliance lies in the implementation of thorough design know how transfer towards all partners of the Chinese nuclear industry, who shall acquire the necessary capabilities so as to completely master nuclear engineering. While this policy might entail fairly high front end investments by the technology receivers, in terms of industrial infrastructure nad engineering capabilities it is expected to pay off over the long term with the development of a substantial nuclear power plant construction program.(DM)

  15. Environmental Factors Associated with Psychotropic Drug Use in Brazilian Nightclubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Claudia; Andreoni, Solange; Sanchez, Zila M

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify environmental factors associated with patterns of psychotropic drug use in nightclubs. Mixed methods were used to investigate psychotropic drugs consumption among patrons of 31 nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1822 patrons at the entrance and exit of the venues and 30 staff members of the nightclubs were interviewed. The observational data were collected through 307 h of observational research using a structured guide to register environmental measures. Psychotropic drug use in nightclubs was classified into three categories (1: no drugs; 2: legal drugs [e.g., alcohol and tobacco]; or 3: illicit drugs regardless of alcohol and tobacco use). Illicit drugs used were self-reported by patrons, and alcohol use was measured using a breathalyzer. The data were analyzed in clusters using correlated multinomial logistic regression models. The following environmental variables were associated with illicit drug use in nightclubs: all-you-can-drink service (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 11.84, 95%CI [4.06;34.57]) and light effects, such as laser and "disco lights" (aOR = 24.49, 95%CI [8.48;70.77]). The number of bouncers per capita × 100 and the presence of two or more dance floors were inversely associated with the use of illicit drugs (aOR = 0.26, 95%CI [0.11;0.65], and aOR = 0.13, 95%CI [0.06;0.29], respectively). Legal drug use was associated with all-you-can-drink service (aOR = 2.17, 95%CI [1.43;5.04]), the presence of two or more dance floors (aOR = 2.06, 95%CI [1.40;3.05]), and the number of bouncers per capita × 100 (aOR = 1.39, 95%CI [1.22;1.59]). These findings suggest that this is a multivariate phenomenon that would require an integrated approach involving the venue owners, staff members, patrons, local governments, and law enforcement agencies.

  16. Shaping the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: A qualitative study on organisational culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Chen, Timothy F

    2018-04-01

    Psychotropic medicines have limited efficacy in the management of behavioural and psychological disturbances, yet they are commonly used in nursing homes. Organisational culture is an important consideration influencing use of psychotropic medicines. Schein's theory elucidates that organisational culture is underpinned by basic assumptions, which are the taken for granted beliefs driving organisational members' behaviour and practices. By exploring the basic assumptions of culture we are able to find explanations for why psychotropic medicines are prescribed contrary to standards. A qualitative study guided by Schein's theory was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 40 staff representing a broad range of roles from eight nursing homes. Findings from the study suggest two basic assumptions influenced the use of psychotropic medicines: locus of control and necessity for efficiency or comprehensiveness. Locus of control pertained to whether staff believed they could control decisions when facing negative work experiences. Necessity for efficiency or comprehensiveness concerned how much time and effort was spent on a given task. Participants' arrived at decisions to use psychotropic medicines that were inconsistent with ideal standards when they believed they were helpless to do the right thing by the resident and it was necessary to restrict time on a given task. Basic assumptions tended to provide the rationale for staff to use psychotropic medicines when it was not compatible with standards. Organisational culture is an important factor that should be addressed to optimise psychotropic medicine use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use: the mediating role of physical and mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stéphanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre; Acquarone, D; Aicardi, F; André-Mazeaud, P; Arsento, M; Astier, R; Baille, H; Bajon-Thery, F; Barre, E; Basire, C; Battu, J L; Baudry, S; Beatini, C; Beaud'huin, N; Becker, C; Bellezza, D; Beque, C; Bernstein, O; Beyssier, C; Blanc-Cascio, F; Blanchet, N; Blondel, C; Boisselot, R; Bordes-Dupuy, G; Borrelly, N; Bouhnik, D; Boulanger, M F; Boulard, J; Bourreau, P; Bourret, D; Boustière, A M; Breton, C; Bugeon, G; Buono-Michel, M; Canonne, J F; Capella, D; Cavin-Rey, M; Cervoni, C; Charreton, D; Charrier, D; Chauvin, M A; Chazal, B; Cougnot, C; Cuvelier, G; Dalivoust, G; Daumas, R; Debaille, A; De Bretteville, L; Delaforge, G; Delchambre, A; Domeny, L; Donati, Y; Ducord-Chapelet, J; Duran, C; Durand-Bruguerolle, D; Fabre, D; Faivre, A; Falleri, R; Ferrando, G; Ferrari-Galano, J; Flutet, M; Fouché, J P; Fournier, F; Freyder, E; Galy, M; Garcia, A; Gazazian, G; Gérard, C; Girard, F; Giuge, M; Goyer, C; Gravier, C; Guyomard, A; Hacquin, M C; Halimi, E; Ibagnes, T; Icart, P; Jacquin, M C; Jaubert, B; Joret, J P; Julien, J P; Kacel, M; Kesmedjian, E; Lacroix, P; Lafon-Borelli, M; Lallai, S; Laudicina, J; Leclercq, X; Ledieu, S; Leroy, J; Leroyer, L; Loesche, F; Londi, D; Longueville, J M; Lotte, M C; Louvain, S; Lozé, M; Maculet-Simon, M; Magallon, G; Marcelot, V; Mareel, M C; Martin, P; Masse, A M; Méric, M; Milliet, C; Mokhtari, R; Monville, A M; Muller, B; Obadia, G; Pelser, M; Peres, L; Perez, E; Peyron, M; Peyronnin, F; Postel, S; Presseq, P; Pyronnet, E; Quinsat, C; Raulot-Lapointe, H; Rigaud, P; Robert, F; Robert, O; Roger, K; Roussel, A; Roux, J P; Rubini-Remigy, D; Sabaté, N; Saccomano-Pertus, C; Salengro, B; Salengro-Trouillez, P; Samsom, E; Sendra-Gille, L; Seyrig, C; Stoll, G; Tarpinian, N; Tavernier, M; Tempesta, S; Terracol, H; Torresani, F; Triglia, M F; Vandomme, V; Vieillard, F; Vilmot, K; Vital, N

    2011-03-01

    The association between workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use is not well established. This study was aimed at exploring the association between workplace bullying, and its characteristics, and psychotropic drug use and studying the mediating role of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the south-east of France. Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument elaborated by Leymann, and psychotropic drug use, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physico-chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women. Workplace bullying was strongly associated with psychotropic drug use. Past exposure to bullying increased the risk for this use. The more frequent and the longer the exposure to bullying, the stronger the association with psychotropic drug use. Observing bullying on someone else at the workplace was associated with psychotropic drug use. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms reduced the magnitude of the associations, especially for men. The association between bullying and psychotropic drug use was found to be significant and strong and was partially mediated by physical and mental health.

  18. Health and self-reliance: the experience of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarimo, E

    1978-01-01

    Since its independence, Tanzania has consistently followed a socialist policy with a strong emphasis on the development of the rural areas and on an equal distribution of goods and services. In the health field, this policy has taken the form of establishing a network of rural health centers, training auxiliaries, and involving the communities through mass mobilization campaigns. Community participation in health care services is hindered by 3 sets of problems related to lack of cohesion, lack of structure, and the autonomous and sometimes paternalist attitude of the health profession. In Tanzania much emphasis is placed on self-reliance. It is in the field of education that policies of self-reliance have been most successfully implemented. Traditional practitioners represent 1 of the health resources that can be tapped. The medical profession cannot claim credit for the major improvements in health, for at times it has even blocked health development. Health standards and quality are important in the 3rd world. Staff must be properly trained to function at a particular level, supplies must be provided regularly, and there must be constant supervision. A health care system that is appropriate to the 3rd world must also emphasize disease prevention. To increase health coverage there must be a program of health service that is within reach of the people, including the rural population. Health cannot be furthered by the health services as tradtionally conceived; an intersectoral approach is essential. It is important that a commitment to an integrated development of the rural areas, with health as a component, be made.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of psychotropic drug use in institutionalized children and adolescents with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifes, Arlette; de Jong, Daniël; Stolker, Joost Jan; Nijman, Henk L I; Egberts, Toine C G; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2013-10-01

    Psychotropic drugs are a cornerstone in the treatment of psychopathology and/or behavioral problems in children with intellectual disability (ID), despite concerns about efficacy and safety. Studies on the prevalence of psychotropic drug use have mainly been focused on adults with ID or children without ID. Therefore the aim of this cross sectional study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of psychotropic drug use in children with mild ID who were institutionalized in specialized inpatient treatment facilities in The Netherlands. Demographic data, psychiatric diagnoses, the nature of the behavioral problems, level of intellectual functioning, and medication data were extracted from medical records using a standardized data collection form. Adjusted relative risks (ARR) for the association between patient characteristics and psychotropic drug use were estimated with Cox regression analysis. Of the 472 included children, 29.4% (n=139) used any psychotropic drug, of which 15.3% (n=72) used antipsychotics (mainly risperidone), and 14.8% (n=70) used psychostimulants (mainly methylphenidate). Age, sex, and behavioral problems were associated with psychotropic drug use. Boys had a 1.7 (95%CI 1.1-2.4) higher probability of using psychotropic drugs, compared to girls adjusted for age and behavioral problems. Having any behavioral problem was associated with psychotropic drug use with an ARR of 2.1 (95%CI 1.3-3.3), adjusted for sex and age. The high prevalence of psychotropic drug use in children with ID is worrisome because of the lack of evidence of effectiveness (especially for behavioral problems) at this young age, and the potential of adverse drug reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychotropic drug effects contributing to psychiatric hospitalization of children: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, M J; Hasley, S

    1984-12-01

    Over an 11-month period on a Children's Psychiatric Unit 5% of 60 first admissions for hospitalization were apparently associated with adverse effects of psychotropic medication. Forty (66%) of the first admissions had used, prior to hospitalization, a wide variety of drugs including stimulants, major and minor tranquilizers, anticonvulsants, antidepressants and over-the-counter drugs containing antihistamines and analgesics. It is suggested that inappropriate and injudicious use of psychotropic medications may be associated with unanticipated adverse behavioral effects, which can result in deterioration of a child's functioning to the point of necessitating psychiatric hospitalization. Early identification of these unwanted psychotropic effects has diagnostic, prognostic, economic, and legal implications.

  1. Accounting for psychotropic medication changes in prisons: patient and doctor perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lamiece; Edge, Dawn; Senior, Jane; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-07-01

    Psychotropic medicines are widely used to treat mental illness; however, people entering prison commonly report that prescribed psychotropic medicines are changed or withdrawn, adding to their distress in difficult times. Drawing on three extracts from a larger qualitative dataset in which patients and doctors were interviewed about psychotropic medication use in English prisons, we combined discursive psychological and Foucauldian discourse analysis techniques to examine how individuals accounted for medication changes. Patients used four discursive strategies to organize descriptions of medication changes: they established entitlement to psychotropic medication, questioned the clinical judgment of prison doctors; highlighted communication problems; and attributed negative health outcomes to medication regime changes. In contrast, we examined an effective defense by a general practitioner, which showed how clinical needs were prioritized over previously held prescriptions when making prescribing decisions. Wider implications for continuity and equivalence of care between prisons and the wider community are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, de A.; Mulder, E.J.; Scheers, T.; Minderaa, R.B.; Tobi, H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmacotherapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 to

  3. Survival of the fittest: implications of self-reliance and coping for leaders and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daus, C S; Joplin, J R

    1999-01-01

    Using a laboratory methodology, the authors sought to establish an association between self-reliance (based on attachment theory) and team performance and satisfaction. Three hypotheses (direct effect, mediator, and moderator) were tested. With a sample of 187 students, the authors compared leader self-reliance characteristics with group member self-reliance characteristics (group n = 50) as predictors of group performance and satisfaction. Only group member counterdependence was predictive of decreased performance. Further, the authors examined the possible mediating and moderating effects of coping on the self-reliance-group effectiveness relationships. Coping did not mediate the relationship but did operate as a significant moderator in some instances.

  4. Pediatric psychotropic medication initiation and adherence: a literature review based on social exchange theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Vanya; McCarthy, Erin M; Tyson, Veda

    2010-08-01

    Psychotropic medication initiation and adherence is an identified problem. This literature review explores factors that determine families' decisions to initiate, sustain, or discontinue use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents. Social exchange theory is used as a framework to explore decisions to initiate and adhere to psychotropic medications. Contributing factors related to psychotropic medication initiation, adherence, and discontinuation are explored. Themes in the literature encompassing costs and benefits of psychotropic medication adherence include family experiences with adverse effects, previous psychotropic medication experience, medication psychoeducation, stigma, societal views about psychotropic medication, particular diagnosis, the effect of comorbid diagnosis on adherence, attitudes and beliefs about medication by both children and parents, and relationships with the provider. The impact of family demographics including parent gender, age of the child, ethnicity, and parent educational level on psychotropic medication adherence is evaluated. International and U.S. studies from Medline, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PsychInfo evaluating medication initiation and adherence in the pediatric psychiatric population and social exchange theory was incorporated from relevant textbook resources. Rewards experienced from medication treatment include improvement in symptoms, school performance and family relationships, and reduced level of parenting stress. Identified costs include impact of adverse side effects, social stigma, lack of response, fears of addiction, and changing the child's personality. Acceptance of the diagnosis influences adherence while medication education has varying effects. Families' attitudes, beliefs and perceptions about psychiatric illness and treatment play a large role in medication treatment decisions. A trusting provider relationship has a positive effect on adherence

  5. The integrity of the social hierarchy in mice following administration of psychotropic drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Poshivalov, V. P.

    1980-01-01

    1 Mice in small groups develop a despotic type of social hierarchy, a feature of which is to resist alteration through the medium of psychotropic drugs. This makes a rapid pharmacologically induced change in the social hierarchy impossible. 2 Patrolling the territory and a certain level of social interaction are both critical factors in maintaining the phenomenon of inertia in the social hierarchy. Psychotropic drugs (diazepam, droperidol and mescaline) altered both these factors to a varying...

  6. Psychotropics without borders: ethics and legal implications of internet-based access to psychiatric medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carolina A

    2011-01-01

    Medical practitioners are revisiting many of the ethics and the legal implications surrounding the clinical frameworks within which we operate. In today's world, distinguishing between virtual and physical reality continues to be increasingly difficult. The physician may be found grappling with the decision of whether to continue to treat a patient who may be obtaining psychotropic medications through the Internet. This article approaches some of the clinical and legal implications and the ethics regarding the availability of prescription psychotropics over the Internet.

  7. Workplace bullying and subsequent psychotropic medication: a cohort study with register linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Haukka, Jari; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine longitudinally whether workplace bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication among women and men. Design A cohort study. Setting Helsinki, Finland. Participants Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=6606, 80% women), 40–60 years at baseline in 2000–2002, and a register-based follow-up on medication. Primary and secondary outcome measures Workplace bullying comprised questions about current and earlier bullying as well as observing bullying. The Finnish Social Insurance Institution's register data on purchases of prescribed reimbursed psychotropic medication were linked with the survey data. All psychotropic medication 3 years prior to and 5 years after the baseline survey was included. Covariates included age, prior psychotropic medication, childhood bullying, occupational class, and body mass index. Cox proportional hazard models (HR, 95% CI) were fitted and days until the first purchase of prescribed psychotropic medication after baseline were used as the time axis. Results Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication after adjusting for age and prior medication among both women (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.93) and men (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.41). Also observing bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication among women (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.88) and men (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.99). The associations only modestly attenuated after full adjustment. Conclusions Our findings highlight the significance of workplace bullying to subsequent psychotropic medication reflecting medically confirmed mental problems. Tackling workplace bullying likely helps prevent mental problems among employees. PMID:23242240

  8. PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARD THE PRESCRIPTION OF PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICATIONS FOR THEIR CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Haidar, Fatima A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore parental attitudes towards the prescription of psychotropic medication for their children. Method: A questionnaire built to collect socio-demographic data of parents and their attitudes was distributed among parents. Results: One thousand and ten questionnaires were filled by parents. Fathers who completed the questionnaire were double the number of mothers. Eight hundred and eighteen parents (84.3%) agreed to the dispensing psychotropic medication to their child...

  9. Platelets from Asthmatic Individuals Show Less Reliance on Glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Xu

    Full Text Available Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is typified by high levels of TH2-cytokines and excessive generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, which contribute to bronchial epithelial injury and airway remodeling. While immune function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is a key determinant in the predisposition and disease progression of asthma. Further, several studies demonstrate altered mitochondrial function in asthmatic airways and suggest that these changes may be systemic. However, it is unknown whether systemic metabolic changes can be detected in circulating cells in asthmatic patients. Platelets are easily accessible blood cells that are known to propagate airway inflammation in asthma. Here we perform a bioenergetic screen of platelets from asthmatic and healthy individuals and demonstrate that asthmatic platelets show a decreased reliance on glycolytic processes and have increased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data demonstrate a systemic alteration in asthma and are consistent with prior reports suggesting that oxidative phosphorylation is more efficient asthmatic individuals. The implications for this potential metabolic shift will be discussed in the context of increased oxidative stress and hypoxic adaptation of asthmatic patients. Further, these data suggest that platelets are potentially a good model for the monitoring of bioenergetic changes in asthma.

  10. [Counselling customers with psychotropic vs. cardiovascular prescriptions: a survey among Austrian community pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmair, Gisela; Amering, Michaela; Kaiser, Gerda; Katschnig, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs in general and their share of all prescriptions have substantially risen over the last decades. Thus, also counselling by pharmacists becomes more important in this area. This study focuses on how community pharmacists see their own role when counselling persons with prescriptions for psychotropic medication and how this differs from counselling persons with other types of prescriptions. Based on the Toronto Community Pharmacists' Questionnaire an online questionnaire was developed with the assistance of the Austrian Pharmacists Association. This instrument elicits pharmacists' attitudes toward and professional interactions with users of psychotropic drugs on the one hand and of cardiovascular medication on the other. After a pilot study the questionnaire - which was to be filled in anonymously - was put on a web portal for six months and Austrian community pharmacists were invited to answer it. 125 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Overall it was reported, that new customers with psychotropic prescriptions were less often counselled than those with prescriptions for cardiovascular medication. The main reasons for this difference seem to be the lack of privacy in public pharmacies, the fear of stigmatising customers with psychotropic medication and a perceived lack of training concerning the treatment of mental disorders. In addition to improving such training, it was suggested that seminars and workshops for communication skills should be organised. The reduced frequency in counselling new customers with psychotropic medication is related to a lack of privacy in public pharmacies, fear of stigmatising customers and a perceived need for improving the training on the treatment of mental disorders.

  11. Psychomotor developmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs: a study in EFEMERIS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Damase-Michel, Christine; Finotto, Laurent; Guitard, Claudine; Vayssière, Christophe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Montastruc, François; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about neurodevelopment of children exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs on psychomotor development in children. This observational study used the EFEMERIS database. The database records the drugs prescribed and delivered during pregnancy and the resulting outcomes. Neurodevelopment at nine and 24 months of children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics) during the second and/or third trimesters of pregnancy was compared to children who were not exposed to these drugs. Psychomotor development of 493 children (1.5%) exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was compared to 32 303 unexposed children. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of abnormal motor development at 9 months (OR = 1.3 [1.1-2.2]) and abnormal motor and mental development at 24 months (OR = 4.8 [2.1-11.0] and OR = 2.3 [1.05-4.9]). Increased risk was observed in children born to women exposed to anti-epileptic drugs, neuroleptics or antidepressants during pregnancy. This study found a higher rate of deviation from the normal developmental milestones in children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and more particularly antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  12. [Pharmacists' interventions conducted by hospital pharmacists on psychotropic drugs pharmacotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, G; Rose, F-X; Bedouch, P; Conort, O; Charpiat, B; Juste, M; Roubille, R; Allenet, B

    2015-09-01

    The French Society of Clinical Pharmacy (SFPC) through the special interest group "standardization and optimization of clinical pharmacy activities" stated that the study of pharmacists' interventions (PIs) conducted during prescription analysis was a priority. The SFPC developed an internet website named Act-IP(®) (http://www.sfpc.eu/fr/) where French speaking pharmacists were able to document PIs using a normalized codification. The objective of this study was to analyze medication-related problems linked to psychotropic drugs in hospital and to investigate PIs performed during prescription analysis. This is a multicenter, retrospective, observational study using PIs involving psychotropic medications recorded between September 2006 and February 2009 on the Act-IP(®) website. Four thousand six hundred and twenty PIs recorded by 165 pharmacists in 57 hospitals were related to psychotropic drugs. Patients concerned by these drug-related problems were 64 years old on average. Seven categories of medication-related problems represented more than 69% of PIs (1.1-Non Conformity of the drug choice compared to the formulary; 4.1 Supratherapeutic dose; 5.3 Therapeutic redundancy; 6.2 Drug interaction (all levels of severity); 7.0 Adverse drug reaction; 8.3 Inappropriate drug form; 8.5 Inappropriate timing of administration). The PIs related to 9.2 Patient's non compliance, 2.0 Untreated indication and 3.2 Length of the treatment too short were infrequent (less than 1%). The most common type of intervention was the dose adjustment. Almost 45% of these PIs involved Zopiclone or Zolpidem prescription in elderly patients. Seven hundred and nine drug interactions were identified by pharmacists. The most common type of drug interaction considered the risk of cardiac arrhythmias due to antipsychotic medications. One hundred and thirty-three PIs concerned adverse drug reaction. The most frequent adverse drug reactions were a fall (36 PIs), hemorrhage/bleeding (32 PIs

  13. Self-reliance in health among village women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M L; Chen, P C

    1991-01-01

    A project in a remote region in Sarawak, Malaysia, in which village women were mobilized to plan and implement a kindergarten and child feeding program, illustrates the potential of carefully conceptualized community participation. Permission was obtained from village elders to train 18 mothers (all of whom has at least 4 years of education) to conduct a community needs survey. III health among children emerged as the problem of greatest concern to villagers and a health committee was formed to plan an intervention. Although a team of outside professionals was available for technical support, the emphasis from he onset was on developing self-reliance and community involvement in all decisions. To build confidence and develop leadership, a month-long participatory training course in promotive health care was organized by village health volunteers. Preparation for the project included conversion of an unused hut into a kindergarten and construction of furniture by village men, registration of preschool children, preparation of educational materials, and organization of a kitchen and duty roster for the feeding program. Project funding came from local bake sales and kindergarten subscriptions. Monitoring during the initial phase identified several problems, such as food shortages brought about by drought, some parents' inability to pay for kindergarten services, and a lack of trust in the teacher's abilities. These problems were corrected by the field team, but subsequent supervisory visits focused on teaching problem-solving skills to the local women. An evaluation conducted 1 year after program implementation revealed dramatic increases in the proportion of households producing fruits and vegetables, a higher percentage of breastfeeding mothers, and improvements in weight-for-age among kindergartners.

  14. Self reliance in equipment building for PHWR fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, V.S.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Keeping in tune with the policy of self-reliance and indigenisation adopted from the very inception of nuclear power programme in India during the mid 1960, Nuclear Fuel Complex, established in the year 1971, developed its own processes, equipment and technologies based on both in-house experience and the expertise available in the indigenous industry. Starting from the basic raw materials, Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) manufactures and supplies finished fuel assemblies, apart from zircaloy core components, to all the nuclear power stations in India. Out of several products manufactured by NFC, 19 and 37 element fuel bundles for Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) is vital for operation of several PHWRs being operated by Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL). Starting from the manufacturing of half-charge for RAPS-1, more than 3.8 lakh fuel bundles were made till now. Several process improvements were taken up over the years for improving the quality of the fuel. PHWR fuel bundles manufactured by NFC has adopted an unique feature of joining appendages on zirconium alloy tubes by resistance welding before loading natural uranium dioxide pellets. Graphite coating on the inner surface of the zirconium alloy tube and vacuum baking, use of profiled end caps, use of bio-degradable cleaning agents are some of the processes adopted in the manufacturing of PHWR fuel bundles. With the recent opening up of international nuclear trade for India and the enhanced growth of nuclear power, exciting opportunities and challenges confront NFC. This paper presents salient features of some important special purpose equipment developed in-house at NFC for production of PHWR fuel bundles. It looks ahead to develop many more such special purpose equipment towards meeting the diverse demands now showing up to meet the indigenous as well as international requirements

  15. A people's movement for self-reliance in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyaratne, A T

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development and activities of the Sarvodaya Movement, a grass-roots mutual-aid movement based on traditional Buddhist social values. Started by high school students and teachers in 1947 as a community-service organization the Movement is open to all individuals and has attracted thousands of volunteers in 1200 villages. Sarvodaya Shramadana emphasizes improvement in the standard of living through the development of local resources by the community itself, strengthening of the family and the village unit, discouragement of large-scale industrialization and removal of forms of exploitation, such as caste, race discrimination, large-scale land ownership, and so on. Key to all of the Movement's activities is the concept of self-reliance, self-realization, nondependence at both the individual and the village level. The mutual sharing of labor not only accomplishes the work of the community, creating the physical infrastructure for economic improvement, but serves as a revolutionary technique to awaken people to their own potential. The movement organizes villages into functional groups by age and occupation and trains community workers who are chosen by the villages themselves. In each village, work starts on short-term strategies to relieve debt, provide health care and educate the population and long-term strategies to generate sustained, unified community spirit and sufficient income to avoid use of outside credit. The Movement's specific projects include surveys of nutritional deficiencies, the community kitchen program, preschool program, day care centers, children's library service and community health programs. The Movement is now changing from a centrally-coordinated organization toward decentralized organization based in 52 Extension Centers and run, at the national level, by an Executive Council of 35, a 6-man board and 9 coordinators. The Movement was self-financed by members for the 1st 10 years but has used outside financing in the

  16. Developing sustainability and self-reliance: Challenges and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Many nuclear institutions in the world, especially the developing countries, are heavily dependent on the financing provided by the government for their activities. In August 2000, Malaysia in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), organized a Regional Seminar on Strategies and Approaches towards Self-reliance and Sustainability of National Nuclear Institutions (NNIs). As a result of the forum and deliberation of the seminar, there is now a greater awareness among the member states that there should be a paradigm shift in the thinking of policy and decision makers. The main challenges and limitations faced by these policy and decision makers are firstly, in order that nuclear institutions to stay relevant in the context of mainstream socio-economic development, the NNIs must generate revenue to achieve self-reliance and sustainability. Secondly, the need for the NNIs to fulfil social obligations, i.e., provision of reasonably good and low cost technology to support food and agriculture production; health care system; safe industrial development and clean environment. Thirdly, to improve the image and acceptance of nuclear technology by the consumers and public in the face of proliferation of nuclear-arms race. Malaysia has been successful in addressing these conflicting requirements and challenges, i.e. generating revenue for sustainability and at the same time providing services and consultancy at a reasonable rate. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) is now 30% sustainable in terms of operational costs via provision of services and consultancies to both private and government agencies. Technical services are provided in the areas of Industrial Technology (e.g. ND evaluation); Radiation Processing Services (e.g., medical product sterilization and food and herbal irradiation, and cross-linking of wire and cables); Dosimetry Services for personal and radiation equipment (e.g. personal dosimetry

  17. Prevalence of psychotropic drug use in military police units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Yonamine, Maurício; Ramos, Andrea Luciana Martins; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Rodrigues, Caroline Rego; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to verify the prevalence of psychoactive drug use (amphetamines, methamphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opioids and benzodiazepines) among military police officers in the state of Goiás. Data were obtained from urine samples voluntarily provided by the officers participating in the study, who were informed of the study methods and signed a free and informed consent form. The samples were subject to screening analysis by immunochromatography (Multi-DrugOneStep Test®), with positive tests confirmed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data analyzed by descriptive statistics. The results indicated the presence of the following drugs: amphetamines (0.33%), cannabinoids (0.67%) and benzodiazepines (1.34%); 97.66% showed negative results. The positive cases were distributed as follows: benzodiazepines (57.1%); cannabinoids (28.6%) and amphetamines (14.3%). In conclusion, the detection of psychoactive substances in voluntary sampling of military police officers indicates the need to implement drug testing among active military officers and preventive public policies aimed at eliminating the abusive consumption of psychotropic drugs.

  18. Pulmonary fibrosis associated with psychotropic drug therapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Clare

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sertraline and Risperidone are commonly used psychotropic drugs. Sertraline has previously been associated with eosinopilic pneumonia. Neither drug is recognised as a cause of diffuse fibrotic lung disease. Our report represents the first such case. Case Presentation We describe the case of a 33 year old Asian male with chronic schizophrenia who had been treated for three years with sertraline and risperidone. He presented to hospital in respiratory failure following a six month history of progressive breathlessness. High resolution CT scan demonstrated diffuse pulmonary fibrosis admixed with patchy areas of consolidation. Because the aetiology of this man's diffuse parenchymal lung disease remained unclear a surgical lung biopsy was undertaken. Histological assessment disclosed widespread fibrosis with marked eosinophillic infiltration and associated organising pneumonia - features all highly suggestive of drug induced lung disease. Following withdrawal of both sertraline and risperidone and initiation of corticosteroid therapy the patient's respiratory failure resolved and three years later he remains well albeit limited by breathlessness on heavy exertion. Conclusion Drug induced lung disease can be rapidly progressive and if drug exposure continues may result in respiratory failure and death. Prompt recognition is critical as drug withdrawal may result in marked resolution of disease. This case highlights sertraline and risperidone as drugs that may, in susceptible individuals, cause diffuse pulmonary fibrosis.

  19. 29 CFR 790.16 - “In reliance on.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Defense of Good Faith Reliance on Administrative Regulations, Etc. § 790.16 “In reliance on.” (a) In addition to acting (or omitting to act) in good faith and...

  20. Strengthening Teacher's Learning Management for Self-Reliance of Students in Thai Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paso, Chalad; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Tirasiravech, Watanachai

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to 1) study the present conditions, problems, and needs of teachers development in learning management in self-reliance for students in secondary schools, 2) develop a model for teacher development in learning management in self-reliance for students in secondary schools, and 3) evaluate the results of usage from teachers in…

  1. Women Designing a Faculty Career: The Role of Self-Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Self-reliance was an important personal attribute in the completion of a doctoral program and advancement to a faculty position. Self-reliance for the participants included self-motivation, motivated from within to return to school and advance to a faculty role; self-efficacy, believing they could complete their doctoral degree and become faculty;…

  2. The Trust Project - Symbiotic Human Machine Teams: Social Cueing for Trust and Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0096 THE TRUST PROJECT - SYMBIOTIC HUMAN-MACHINE TEAMS: SOCIAL CUEING FOR TRUST & RELIANCE Susan Rivers, Monika Lohani, Marissa...30 JUN 2012 – 30 JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE TRUST PROJECT - SYMBIOTIC HUMAN-MACHINE TEAMS: SOCIAL CUEING FOR TRUST & RELIANCE 5a. CONTRACT

  3. Is psychotropic medication use related to organisational and treatment culture in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Kathryn; Kerse, Ngaire; Moyes, Simon; Scahill, Shane; Chen, Charlotte; Hong, Jae Beom; Hughes, Carmel M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between organisational culture and psychotropic medication use in residential care. Cross-sectional analyses of staff and resident's record survey in residential aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ). The competing values framework categorised organisational culture as clan, hierarchical, market driven or adhocracy and was completed by all staff. The treatment culture tool categorised facilities as having resident centred or traditional culture and was completed by registered nursing staff and general practitioners (GP). Functional and behavioural characteristics of residents were established by staff report and health characteristics and medications used were ascertained from the health record. Multiple regression was used to test for associations between measures of culture with psychotropic medication use (anxiolytics, sedatives, major tranquillisers). In total 199 staff, 27 GP and 527 residents participated from 14 facilities. On average 8.5 medications per resident were prescribed and 42 per cent of residents received psychotropic medication. Having a diagnosis of anxiety or depression (odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 1.71, 5.91), followed by persistent wandering (OR 2.53, 95 per cent CI 1.59, 4.01) and being in a dementia unit (OR 2.45, 95 per cent CI 1.17, 5.12) were most strongly associated with psychotropic use. Controlling for resident- and facility-level factors, health care assistants' assignation of hierarchical organisational culture type was independently associated with psychotropic medication use, (OR 1.29, CI 1.08, 1.53) and a higher treatment culture score from the GP was associated with lower use of psychotropic medication (OR 0.95, CI 0.92, 0.98). Psychotropic medication use remains prevalent in residential care facilities in NZ. Interventions aimed at changing organisational culture towards a less hierarchical and more resident-centred culture

  4. Self-reliance through regional co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glubrecht, H.

    1975-01-01

    Article 52 of the Charter of the United Nations is concerned with the usefulness of Regional Arrangements which 'are appropriate for regional action'. Such arrangements need not be considered only with regard to their political aspects but also as organizational structures which can be helpful in the development of science and technology in less developed countries. The definition of a 'Region' can be difficult, but is easier if scientific rather than political co-operation is intended. The International Atomic Energy Agency has undertaken a first step in this direction through its Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology in South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific and the Far East (RCA) which has been signed by six countries so far. This Agreement leaves it to the Member States to initiate cooperative projects. The IAEA will take steps to establish the project if at least three Member States are willing to participate. The implementation of the project will be defined by negotiations with the Member States and the IAEA will only play the role of a co-ordinator. Annual meetings of representatives of those countries which are parties of the RCA and of others from the region which might be interested in joining the Agreement provide the possibility of a continuing exchange of new ideas. Regional activities are also undertaken by means of 'Co-ordinated Research Programmes', which mostly include some co-operation with LDCs. The RCA has initiated two new ideas, that of carrying out the projects exclusively by the countries of the region and that of taking the step from co-ordination to cooperation by means of continuous and intensive exchange of information as well as of personnel. Its main objective is to aim at a reasonable division of labour between the parties and to use expensive equipment jointly. It is to be hoped that this venture will lead to an increasing degree of self-reliance within the

  5. Epidemiology of psychotropic drug use in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gaps in mental illness treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Quintana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drugs use in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and establish its relationship with the presence of mental disorders. METHODS: A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals, from the general population of Rio de Janeiro (n = 1208;turn out:81%, 15 years or older, who were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections, and asked about their psychotropic use during a 12 and one-month period before the interview. Data were collected between June/2007-February/2008.The prevalence was estimated with a confidence interval of 95%. The associations between psychotropics use and mental disorders were analyzed through a logistic regression model (Odds Ration - OR. RESULTS: The one-month prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 6.55%, 3.19% for men and 9.13% for women. Antidepressants were the most frequently used drug (2.78%, followed by anorectics (1.65%, tranquilizers (1.61% and mood stabilizers (1.23%. General practitioners issued the highest number of prescriptions (46.3%, followed by psychiatrists (29.3%; 86.6% of the psychotropic drugs used were paid for by the patient himself. Individuals with increased likelihood of using psychotropic drugs were those that had received a psychiatric diagnosis during a one-month period before the study (OR:3.93, females (OR:1.82, separated/divorced (OR:2.23, of increased age (OR:1.03, with higher income (OR:2.96, and family history of mental disorder (OR:2.59; only 16% of the individuals with a current DSM IV diagnosis were using a psychotropic drug; 17% among individuals with a depression-related diagnosis and 8% with Phobic Anxiety Disorders-related diagnosis used psychotropics. CONCLUSION: Approximately 84% of individuals displaying some mental disorder did not use psychotropic drugs, which indicates an important gap between demand and access to treatment. A

  6. No Difference in Psychotropic Medication Use in Cosmetic and General Dermatology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heather K; Lilly, Evelyn; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2016-07-01

    Patients presenting for appearance-related concerns are often perceived as being more difficult (ie, more needy, more difficult to satisfy) than patients presenting for medical dermatologic problems. While the reasons for this perception are many, some hypothesize that this may be related to a higher rate of anxiety, depression, or body image issues among these patients. To determine the prevalence of psychotropic medication use in cosmetic dermatology patients compared to the prevalence of such medication use in general dermatology patients. METHODS & The study was a retrospective chart review of female patients, 18 or older, new to a private practice. Exclusion criteria included dermatologic disorders with known psychosocial comorbidity. Psychotropic medication use was recorded. The percentage of subjects in the medical group (n=156) who reported using psychotropic medications was 22.2% compared to 26.8% in the cosmetic group (n=154; P=0.09). The prevalence of psychotropic medication use among all dermatology patients in our practice was relatively high, but there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of psychotropic medication use in cosmetic dermatology patients compared to general dermatology patients. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):858-861.

  7. A comparison of psychotropic medication prescribing patterns in East of England prisons and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lamiece; Senior, Jane; Frisher, Martin; Edge, Dawn; Shaw, Jenny

    2014-04-01

    While the prevalence of mental illness is higher in prisons than in the community, less is known about comparative rates of psychotropic medicine prescribing. This is the first study in a decade to determine the prevalence and patterns of psychotropic medication prescribing in prisons. It is also the first study to comprehensively adjust for age when making comparisons with the general population. Four East of England prisons, housing a total of 2222 men and 341 women were recruited to the study. On census days, clinical records were used to identify and collect data on all prisoners with current, valid prescriptions for hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antimanic, antidepressant and/or stimulant medication, as listed in chapters 4.1 to 4.4 of the British National Formulary. Data on 280,168 patients were obtained for comparison purposes from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. After adjusting for age, rates of psychotropic prescribing in prison were 5.5 and 5.9 times higher than in community-based men and women, respectively. We also found marked differences in the individual psychotropic drugs prescribed in prison and community settings. Further work is necessary to determine whether psychotropic prescribing patterns in prison reflect an appropriate balance between managing mental illness, physical health risks and medication misuse.

  8. [An analysis of advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch Journal of Psychiatry ('Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereycken, W; Kuyken, K

    2009-01-01

    Through the marketing of psychotropics the pharmaceutical industry is able to influence the way in which psychiatrists practise their profession. To look at the image of psychiatry as reflected in advertisements for psychotropics. method Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the advertisements for psychotropics in the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie between 1999 and 2006. On average 6 per cent of the total number of pages was given over annually to advertisements of psychotropics. The number of pages used for these advertisements changed over the years, with a sharp decline between 2002 and 2004. Before 2002 the majority of advertisements was for antidepressants, but later most of them were for antipsychotics. Three-quarters of the illustrations for antidepressants featured women whereas three-quarters of the illustrations for antipsychotics featured men. In general, the advertisements were of an 'emotional' nature and surprisingly few of them contained any scientific information. The advertisements for psychotropics portrayed a stereotyped image implying that it is mainly women who are depressed and mainly men who are psychotic. In its advertisements the pharmaceutical industry seeks primarily emotional reactions and uses hardly any scientific arguments. We wonder if the editorial boards of scientific journals should perhaps adopt a more critical attitude to these kinds of advertisements.

  9. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  10. Benefits of adherence to psychotropic medications on depressive symptoms and antiretroviral medication adherence among men and women living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Dean G; Kalichman, Seth C; Amaral, Christine; Swetzes, Connie; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O

    2012-04-01

    Psychotropic medications are commonly used for depressive symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS. We examined the relationships between adherence to psychotropic medications, depressive symptoms, and antiretroviral adherence. We assessed depressive symptoms among 324 people living with HIV/AIDS across a 3-month period (70% men; mean age 45 years; 90% African-American). Psychotropic and antiretroviral adherence was assessed using monthly, unannounced telephone pill counts. Multiple-regression and mediation analyses were utilized to examine associations under investigation. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with lower antiretroviral and psychotropic medication adherence. Greater adherence to psychotropic medications regardless of medication class was positively related to higher antiretroviral adherence. Greater adherence to psychotropic medications also significantly mediated the association between depressive symptoms and antiretroviral adherence. This study demonstrates the benefits of adherence to psychotropic medications on both depressive symptoms and antiretroviral adherence. Future work examining psychotropic medication adherence on disease outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS is warranted.

  11. Utilization of psychotropic drugs prescribed to persons with and without HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L. D.; Obel, D; Kronborg, G

    2014-01-01

    on redeemed prescription of psychotropic drugs during 1995-2009. We primarily focused our analyses on HIV-infected individuals with no history of injecting drug use (IDU) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Drug utilization was expressed as defined daily doses per 1000 person-days (DDD/1000PD...... with exposure to HAART or efavirenz was found. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected individuals had a higher utilization of psychotropic drugs than the background population, which was not confined to individuals with a history of IDU or HCV infection. This emphasizes the need to focus on diagnosis of, and appropriate......OBJECTIVES: The objective was to estimate the utilization of psychotropic drugs in HIV-infected individuals compared with that in the background population. METHODS: Using data obtained from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish National Prescription Registry, we analysed aggregated data...

  12. Increased all-cause mortality with psychotropic medication in Parkinson's disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Baandrup, Lone; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Use of medication and polypharmacy is common as the population ages and its disease burden increases. We evaluated the association of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and combinations of psychotropic drugs with all-cause mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD...... of psychotropic medication in PD patients and controls. Hazard ratios were as follows for the medication types: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, PD HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04-1.36; Control HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.64-1.91; benzodiazepines, PD HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.......20-1.76; Control HR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.66-2.43; and combinations of these drugs compared with non-medicated PD patients and controls. Discontinuation of medication was associated with decreased mortality in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of psychotropic medication in the elderly is associated with increased...

  13. Bidirectional longitudinal relationship between leisure-time physical activity and psychotropic medication usage: A register linked follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; Mänty, Minna; Svärd, Anna; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahti, Jouni

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the bidirectional relationship between psychotropic medication use and changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among a population cohort study. Phase 1 data were collected by mail surveys in 2000-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, and phase 2 follow up survey was conducted in 2007. Based on self-report, the respondents were classified as inactive and active (≥14.75 MET-hours/week) at the phases 1 and 2. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for subsequent (2007-10) psychotropic medication purchasing according to changes in physical activity (phases 1-2). Odds ratios (OR) for physical inactivity at phase 2 were calculated according to the amount of psychotropic medication between phases 1-2. Overall, 5361 respondents were included (mean age 50 years, 80% women). Compared with the persistently active, the persistently inactive, those decreasing and adopting LTPA had an increased risk for psychotropic medication. Only the persistently inactive remained at increased risk for psychotropic medication use, following the adjustment for prior psychotropic medication use. Compared with those having no medication, the risk for physical inactivity increased as the psychotropic medication increased. Our data suggest that physical activity has an important role in maintaining wellbeing and reducing psychotropic medication usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patterns of psychotropic prescribing and polypharmacy in older hospitalized patients in Ireland: the influence of dementia on prescribing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Kieran Anthony

    2016-08-16

    Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (NPS) are ubiquitous in dementia and are often treated pharmacologically. The objectives of this study were to describe the use of psychotropic, anti-cholinergic, and deliriogenic medications and to identify the prevalence of polypharmacy and psychotropic polypharmacy, among older hospitalized patients in Ireland, with and without dementia.

  15. Factors influencing psychotropic prescription by non-psychiatrist physicians in a nursing home for the elderly in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo Stella

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Although psychotropics are one of the classes of medications most prescribed in nursing homes for the elderly, studies examining prescribing patterns are limited in both number and scope. The present study was undertaken to investigate factors associated with general psychotropic use in a nursing home in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective observational study at the Nursing Home for the Elderly, Institute of Biosciences, Universidade Estadual Paulista. METHODS: Information on prescriptions was retrieved from the medical records of 108 elderly residents in a nursing home. Sixty-five of these patients, with mean age 74.5 years (± standard deviation 9.4 years, who were taking medications on a regular basis, comprised the sample. The effects of demographic and clinical variables on the psychotropic prescription pattern were examined. RESULTS: Females were more likely to receive psychotropics (p = 0.038. Individuals on medicines for cardiovascular diseases received psychotropics less frequently (p = 0.001. The number of prescribed psychotropics correlated negatively with both age (p = 0.009 and number of non-psychotropic drugs (p = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: Although preliminary, the present results indicated that cardiovascular disease was the clinical variable that most influenced psychotropic prescription. Physicians' overconcern regarding drug interactions might at least partially explain this result. Further investigations involving larger sample sizes from different regions are warranted to confirm these findings.

  16. Psychotropic drug use in people with intellectual disability: patterns of use and critical evaluation : patterns of use and critical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheifes, A.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with psychotropic drugs is highly prevalent in people with intellectual disability, especially in those with behavioural problems. The high rates of psychotropic drug use in this population is contrasted by the limited evidence on their effectiveness and the high risk of adverse events.

  17. An analysis of psychotropic drug sales. Increasing sales of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors anre closely related to number of products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    used data from various sources to establish the sales curves of psychotropic drugs in the period 1970 to 2007, based on the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification system and Defined Daily Doses. RESULTS: Fluctuations in sales of psychotropic drugs that cannot be explained by disease prevalence were caused...

  18. A qualitative study exploring visible components of organizational culture: what influences the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna J; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Fois, Romano J; Chen, Timothy F

    2016-10-01

    The influence of organizational culture on how psychotropic medicines are used in nursing homes has not been extensively studied. Schein's theory provides a framework for examining organizational culture which begins with the exploration of visible components of an organization such as behaviors, structures, and processes. This study aimed to identify key visible components related to the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes. A qualitative study was conducted in eight nursing homes in Sydney, Australia. Purposive sampling was used to conduct semi-structured interviews with 40 participants representing a broad range of health disciplines. Thematic analysis was used to derive concepts. Three visible components were related to psychotropic medicine use. These were drugs and therapeutics committee meetings, pharmacist led medication management reviews and formal and informal meetings with residents and their families. We found that only a few nursing homes utilized drugs and therapeutics committee meetings to address the overuse of psychotropic medicines. Pharmacist led medication management reviews provided a lever to minimize inappropriate psychotropic prescribing for a number of nursing homes; however, in others it was used as a box-ticking exercise. We also found that some nursing homes used meetings with residents and their families to review the use of psychotropic medicines. This study was the first to illustrate that visible components of organizational culture do influence the use of psychotropic medicines and explains in detail what of the culture needs to be addressed to reduce inappropriate psychotropic prescribing.

  19. Differences in psychotropic drug prescriptions among ethnic groups in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkampf, Laura Christina; Smeets, Hugo M; Knol, Mirjam J; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Braam, Arjan W; De Wit, Niek J

    2010-08-01

    Psychotropic drug use in Europe and the USA has increased in the past 20 years. The rise in mental health-care use instigated a debate about possible differences in prevalence rates between different ethnic groups in the Netherlands, although the exact differences were unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether these minority groups were more or less likely than the native population to receive psychotropic drugs. A descriptive population study was conducted using the Agis Health Database, containing demographic and health-care consumption data of approximately 1.5 million inhabitants of the Netherlands. Rates of prescriptions of psychotropic drugs from 2001 to 2006 and adjusted odds ratios for psychotropic drug prescriptions among native Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan ethnic groups were calculated. These data were analysed using logistic regression, after being adjusted for age, gender and socioeconomic status. The mean year prevalence of psychotropic drug prescriptions from 2001 to 2006 was 14.0%. Except for a decrease in anxiolytic drugs, the prescriptions of psychotropic drugs increased from 2001 to 2006. These trends were the same for all of the ethnic groups considered. Among both the Moroccan and Turkish populations, there was a higher risk of antidepressant and antipsychotic drug prescriptions, and a pronounced lower risk of ADHD medication and lithium prescriptions compared to the native population. Among the Turkish population, the risk of anxiolytic drug prescriptions was greater than in the native population. Compared to the native population in the Netherlands, first- and second-generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants had an increased risk of antidepressant and antipsychotic drug prescriptions and a decreased risk of ADHD medication and Lithium prescriptions. Further research is needed to clarify whether patients of different ethnic backgrounds with the same symptoms receive similar diagnosis and adequate treatment.

  20. Erectile dysfunction in patients taking psychotropic drugs and treated with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Mazzilli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of patients with Erectile Dysfunction (ED receiving psychotropic drugs, the impact of these drugs on hormonal profile, and the efficacy of PDE5-i in these patients. Materials and methods: We recruited 1872 patients referring for ED to our Andrology Unit. Assessment included serum testosterone, gonadotropins, TSH, prolactin, and PSA, and the IIEF-5 questionnaire for ED diagnosis. Inclusion criteria were age 21-75 years and IIEF-5 total score ≤ 21; exclusion criteria included hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, previous prostatectomy, other medication intake, and ED diagnosis prior to psychotropic drug treatment. Efficacy was rated with the IIEF-5 (remission: total score ≥ 22. Results: The prevalence of ED patients treated with psychotropic drugs since ≥ 3 months was 9.5% (178/1872, subdivided according to the drugs used into: Group A, 16 patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (9.0%; Group B, 55 patients with benzodiazepines (30.9%; Group C, 33 patients with antidepressant drugs (18.5%; and Group D, 74 patients with multiple psychotropic drugs (41.6%. Patients in Group A were significantly younger than other groups (p < 0.05. The hormonal profile presented only higher prolactin level in patients treated with antipsychotics, alone or in combination (p < 0.05. Overall, 146 patients received PDE5-i. Remission rate, after three months of treatment, was significantly higher in Group B compared to C and D groups (p < 0.05. Conclusions: A substantial portion of patients receiving psychotropic drugs show ED. Sexual performance in these patients benefits from PDE5-i. Age, effects of psychiatric disorders, psychotropic drugs, and PDE5-i treatment modality accounted for variability of response in this sample.

  1. Causes of Urban Sprawl in the United States: Auto Reliance as Compared to Natural Evolution, Flight from Blight, and Local Revenue Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmer, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a statistical study of the contribution of theories previously offered by economists to explain differences in the degree of urban decentralization in the U.S. The focus is on a relative comparison of the influence of auto reliance. A regression analysis reveals that a 10 percent reduction in the percentage of households…

  2. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J.; Scheers, Tom; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmaco-therapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4

  3. A reliable and valid index was developed to measure appropriate psychotropic drug use in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, K.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Smalbrugge, M.; Nelissen-Vrancken, M.H.J.M.; Wetzels, R.B.; Smeets, C.H.W.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop an index derived from the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) items that is suited for clinical studies evaluating appropriateness of psychotropic drug use (PDU) for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in patients with dementia in nursing homes and to

  4. Dealing with sadness, madness and hostility. New psychotropic drug remedies for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present an overview of new forms of psychotropic drug therapy that may be expected to play a role in psychiatric practice in the 1990s. In predicting these future developments, three lines of approach have been followed. Firstly, progress in elucidating basic

  5. Sexual Dysfunction among Females Receiving Psychotropic Medication: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetageri, Veda N.; Bhogale, Govind S.; Patil, N. M.; Nayak, R. B.; Chate, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a known adverse effect of psychotropic medications. Even though sexual difficulties are common among women; very few studies have been carried out in India. Objective: To study the prevalence and nature of SD among females receiving psychotropic medications and to compare the SD among female patients receiving antipsychotics and antidepressants. Materials and Methods: Female investigator conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study on female patients visiting the psychiatry outpatient department. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for SD disorder as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition Text Revision. SD severity was measured using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scale. Results: The prevalence of SD in this study was 68.32%. There was more than one SD in 48 (47.52%). FSFI score was significantly low in patients with SD as compared to patients not having SD (P = 0.001). SD was more common in patients who were on combination of antidepressants and benzodiazepines than antidepressant alone or antipsychotic alone. Conclusion: SD was prevalent in more than 50% of female patients on psychotropic drugs. Number of patients on individual psychotropic drugs was so small that a definite conclusion could not be drawn. Study emphasizes the need to carry out similar study on larger number of patients to get better insight into this problem. PMID:27833229

  6. Psychotropic Medication Trends among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Medicaid Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubart, Jane R.; Camacho, Fabian; Leslie, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized psychotropic medication use among Medicaid-enrolled children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders by examining trends over time, including length of treatment and polypharmacy using 4 years of administrative claims data from 41 state Medicaid programs (2000-2003). The data set included nearly 3 million children…

  7. JUVENILE CRIMES CONNECTED WITH NARCOTICS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES TRAFFICKING: CRIMINOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Irina V. Tseveleva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with criminological aspects of juvenile crime in the narcotics and psychotropic substances trafficking. The authors analyzed the main reasons of committing these crimes by teenagers. The proposals for the prevention of minors’ criminal behavior in drug trafficking are drafted.

  8. Off-label use of psychotropic drugs beyond officially approved indications in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marcela Fletscher-Covaleda

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Psychotropic drugs in Bogotá are used, to a great extent, as off-label in indications other than those officially approved. Thus, it is important to strengthen education and control to achieve a rational, effective and safe use of drugs.

  9. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A; Schouw, Marieke L J; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G H; Schrantee, Anouk G M; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Boer, Frits; Ruhé, Henricus G; Denys, D.; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J L; Reitsma, Hans B; Geurts, Hilde M; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of

  10. The effects of psychotropic drugs on developing brain (ePOD) study: methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, M.A.; Schouw, M.L.J.; Klomp, A.; Tamminga, G.H.; Schrantee, A.G.M.; Bouziane, C.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Boer, F.; Ruhé, H.G.; Denys, D.; Rijsman, R.; Lindauer, R.J.L.; Reitsma, H.B.; Geurts, H.M.; Reneman, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of

  11. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of

  12. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study: methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhé, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of different

  13. Synthèse, étude toxicologique et activité psychotrope de nouvelles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hilaire

    Pharmacology. Synthèse, étude toxicologique et activité psychotrope de nouvelles arylidènpyridazin-. 3-ones N-substituées. Adnane BENMOUSSA1*, Pascal Manuele KANYONGA2,3, M'Hammed ANSAR1, Amina ZELLOU2, J EL. HARTI1, Jamal LAMSAOURI1, My Abbes FAOUZI2 , Ahmed ZAHIDI1, Hamid BENZIANE1, ...

  14. EFFECTS OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AS BACTERIAL EFFLUX PUMP INHIBITORS ON QUORUM SENSING REGULATED BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Aybey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic drugs are known to have antimicrobial activity against several groups of microorganisms. The antidepressant agents such as duloxetine, paroxetine, hydroxyzine and venlafaxine are shown to act as efflux pump inhibitors in bacterial cells. In order to the investigation of the effects of psychotropic drugs were determined for clinically significant pathogens by using standart broth microdillusion method. The anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS activity of psychotropic drugs was tested against four test pathogens using the agar well diffusion method. All drugs showed strong inhibitory effect on the growth of S. typhimurium. Additionally, quorum sensing-regulated behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including swarming, swimming and twitching motility and alkaline protease production were investigated. Most effective drugs on swarming, swimming and twitching motility and alkaline protease production, respectively, were paroxetine and duloxetine; duloxetine; hydroxyzine and venlafaxine; paroxetine and venlafaxine; venlafaxine. Accordingly, psychotropic drugs were shown strongly anti-QS activity by acting as bacterial efflux pump inhibitors and effection on motility and alkaline protease production of P. aeruginosa.

  15. Increased all-cause mortality with use of psychotropic medication in dementia patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Ibsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    compared with 44,286 control subjects with a minimum follow-up of four years and matched on age, gender, marital status, and community location. Information about psychotropic medication use (benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics) was obtained from the Danish Medicinal Product Statistics. All...

  16. CAN MELATONIN BE EFFECTIVELY USED TO DIMINISH SIDE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AND ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Aleksandrovich Bekker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study and summarize the existing evidence base for the use of melatonin as a mean to counteract or diminish the side effects of various psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy, and to provide the reader with relevant conclusions. Methodology. The authors have searched for the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin as a mean to counteract or diminish the side effects of various psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy, using the PubMed and Google Scholar as a search tool. Then the authors thoroughly reviewed the data they found. The resulting review is presented in this article. Results. The data we have obtained from this review of the literature indicate that melatonin can be effectively used both in monotherapy and in combination with other therapeutic means in order to reduce several different side effects of psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy. Melatonin also deserves further study in this regard. The evidence base for its use in this manner is very variable in quality for different side effects. For now, the greatest evidence base exists regarding the potential effectiveness of melatonin in the prevention and treatment of drug-induced insomnia, memory and cognitive impairment, akathisia, tardive dyskinesias, and metabolic syndrome. Practical implications. The results we have obtained can be widely applied in psychiatry, neurology and addiction medicine, as well as in all those areas of general medicine, which make use of psychotropic drugs.

  17. Factors Related to Psychotropic Drug Prescription for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Derksen, Els; de Vries, Erica; van der Spek, Klaas; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Gerritsen, Debby L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. Design: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Setting: Twelve NHs in The

  18. Working conditions and psychotropic drug use: cross-sectional and prospective results from the French national SIP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Marion; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Prospective studies exploring the associations between a large range of occupational factors and psychotropic drug use among national samples of workers are seldom. This study investigates the cross-sectional and prospective associations between occupational factors, including a large set of psychosocial work factors, and psychotropic drug use in the national French working population. The study sample comprised 7542 workers for the cross-sectional analysis and 4213 workers followed up for a 4-year period for the prospective analysis. Psychotropic drug use was measured within the last 12 months and defined by the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics or hypnotics. Three groups of occupational factors were explored: classical and emergent psychosocial work factors, working time/hours and physical work exposures. Weighted Poisson regression analyses were performed to adjust for covariates. In the cross-sectional analysis, psychological demands, low social support and hiding emotions were associated with psychotropic drug use. Job insecurity for men and night work for women were associated with psychotropic drug use. In the prospective analysis, hiding emotions and physical exposure were predictive of psychotropic drug use. Dose-response associations were observed for the frequency/intensity of exposure and repeated exposure to occupational factors. This study underlines the role of psychosocial work factors, including emergent factors, in psychotropic drug use. Prevention policies oriented toward psychosocial work factors comprehensively may be useful to reduce this use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Affect Expression and Self-Regulation Capacities of Infants Exposed In Utero to Psychotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha N Reebye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the affect expression and self-regulation capacities of eight month old infants exposed in utero to psychotropic medications. This is a continuation of our previous study conducted on the same cohort when infants were three months old. Psychotropics implicated are antidepressant medications: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, and a benzodiazepine derivative anxiolytic (clonazepam. The three comparison groups were: control (n=23 (infants gestationally non-exposed to psychotropics, SSRI-alone (n=22 (infants exposed to SSRIs only and having mothers who had a primary diagnosis of depressive disorder without having comorbid anxiety disorder, and SSRI+ group (n=15 (infants gestationally exposed to SSRIs and Clonazepam and having mothers that had both clinical depression and anxiety disorder. Thirty-seven participants from the initial cohort were recruited. Using the Parent Child Early Relational Assessment Scale (PCERA, infants were assessed in a dyadic context during free play and a structured task. There were clear significant differences in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed dyads regarding infant negative affect management. Notable findings were that the SSRI+ group mothers showed significant associations with only one infant affect: i.e. infant negative affect. This group of mothers also showed significant associations with infant’s averting and avoiding behaviors. These associations were seen in both free play and structured task situations signifying probable established pattern. SSRI-alone group was similar to control mothers and showed variable associations with infant’s positive, negative and sober moods unlike SSRI+ group. There were no differences in infants’ capacity for self–regulation in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed groups. Increased awareness of these vulnerable subgroups (SSRI-alone and SSRI+ is needed, in order to safeguard these dyads through better support systems and improved

  20. Patterns of Psychotropic Medication Prescriptions by Psychiatrists for Private Clinic Outpatients in Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Sabahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern and utilisation of psychotropic drug prescriptions by psychiatrists in Kerman Province, Iran. Methods: The prescriptions of 27 psychiatrists were randomly selected from two Iranian public insurance organisations and were analysed for the mean number of drugs/prescriptions, drug category and the most frequently prescribed drug in each category as well as overall. Results: A total of 6,414 prescriptions were analysed. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 2.9. Antidepressants (61.0% were the most frequently prescribed category of psychotropic medications, followed by antipsychotics (29.5%, sedative/hypnotics or anti-anxiety drugs (27.5% and mood stabilisers (18.5%. The combination of antidepressants with antipsychotics was the most commonly prescribed combination (18.8%. Fluoxetine (16.5% and trifluoperazine (13.5% were among the most frequently prescribed antidepressants and antipsychotics, respectively. Clonazepam (10.5% was the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepine agent, followed by alprazolam (8.5%. In terms of total drug utilisation, sertraline (12.4% was the most commonly used psychotropic medication followed by fluoxetine (9.7%, trifluoperazine (6.6%, propranolol (4.5% and clonazepam (3.7%. Conclusion: A high proportion of psychotropic prescriptions in Kerman Province were for antidepressants, followed by antipsychotics and the benzodiazepines. Further research is needed to determine the underlying correlation between prescription practice and the diagnosis and patient characteristics, as well as to investigate the use of different psychotropic medications.

  1. Airborne psychotropic substances in eight Italian big cities: Burdens and behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Psychotropic substances were monitored in eight big cities of Italy over one year, starting in May 2010, in the frame of the Ariadrugs Project. Yearly average concentrations ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.26 ± 0.11 ng/m 3 for cocaine, from 0.05 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 1.37 ng/m 3 for cannabinoids, from 16 ± 6 to 61 ± 28 ng/m 3 for nicotine, and from 1.0 ± 0.8 to 8 ± 7 ng/m 3 for caffeine. Palermo and Turin were the cities suffering the lowest and the highest psychotropic substance concentrations, respectively. Nicotine and cocaine exhibited trends less seasonally modulated than common air toxicants. Caffeine and cannabinoids peaked in winter dropping close to zero from May to August. In Rome, where various anthropic contours were investigated in February 2011, differences were observed both in net concentrations and ratios of psychotropic substances vs. regulated toxicants. Ambient drugs look as a consequence of addiction and their burdens give insights about the corresponding consumes. - Highlights: ► Psychotropic substances (PSs) were monitored in eight big Italian cities over one year. ► The site-to-site and year time modulations of PSs were investigated. ► The PSs contents in the air were plotted vs. air toxicants (O 3 , NO 2 , PM 10 , PAHs). ► The relationships among drug modulations and meteo-climatic variables were studied. ► The results were compared to those of previous investigations. - Both licit and illicit psychotropic substances modulate in space and time along Italy, resulting influenced by both the environmental and human contours.

  2. Psychotropic Drug Prescription in Adolescents: A Retrospective Study in a Swiss Psychiatric University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermot, Nicolas; Jordanov, Véronique; Smogur, Michal; Holzer, Laurent; Eap, Chin B

    2018-04-01

    This retrospective study aims to evaluate off-label prescriptions and administrations of psychotropic medications in adolescents in a university psychiatric hospital in Switzerland. Data were collected during the entire stays from the electronic database for 76 inpatients in 2008 and 76 inpatients in 2014. Data collected included gender, age, psychiatric diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and psychotropic drug prescriptions and administrations. A total of 224 psychotropic drugs (mean 2.9 drugs/patient) were prescribed in 2008 and 268 (mean 3.5 drugs/patient) in 2014. Due to the prescriptions of some drugs as required, only 76% of the prescriptions were actually administered in 2008 (mean 2.3 drugs/patient) and 55% in 2014 (mean 1.9 drugs/patient). Antipsychotics were the most frequently prescribed drugs in 2008 (74% of patients) and 2014 (86% of patients). Anxiolytics were also highly prescribed in 2008 (54% of patients) and 2014 (66% of patients), as well as antidepressants in 2008 (30% of patients), but less in 2014 (13% of patients). Overall, 69% of prescriptions were found to be off label in 2008 and 68% in 2014, according to age, diagnosis, dose, or formulation as approved by Swissmedic. The medication classes with the highest rate of off-label prescriptions were antidepressants (100% for both years), antipsychotics (94% in 2008 and 92% in 2014), and hypnotics (67% in 2008 and 100% in 2014). For both study periods, at least one off-label psychotropic drug prescription and administration was recorded in 96% and 79% of the patients, respectively. The high rate of off-label psychotropic drug use strengthens the need for clinical trials to better evaluate the efficacy and safety of these treatments in adolescents.

  3. Long working hours and use of psychotropic medicine: a follow-up study with register linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, Harald; Albertsen, Karen

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possibility of a prospective association between long working hours and use of psychotropic medicine. Survey data drawn from random samples of the general working population of Denmark in the time period 1995-2010 were linked to national registers covering all inhabitants. The participants were followed for first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. The primary analysis included 25,959 observations (19,259 persons) and yielded a total of 2914 new cases of psychotropic drug use in 99,018 person-years at risk. Poisson regression was used to model incidence rates of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine as a function of working hours (32-40, 41-48, >48 hours/week). The analysis was controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. A likelihood ratio test was used to test the null hypothesis, which stated that the incidence rates were independent of weekly working hours. The likelihood ratio test did not reject the null hypothesis (P=0.085). The rate ratio (RR) was 1.04 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.94-1.15] for the contrast 41-48 versus 32-40 work hours/week and 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.30) for >48 versus 32-40 hours/week. None of the rate ratios that were estimated in the present study were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple testing. However, stratified analyses, in which 30 RR were estimated, generated the hypothesis that overtime work (>48 hours/week) might be associated with an increased risk among night or shift workers (RR=1.51, 95% CI 1.15-1.98). The present study did not find a statistically significant association between long working hours and incidence of psychotropic drug usage among Danish employees.

  4. Psychotropic Drug Use in Physically Restrained, Critically Ill Adults Receiving Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Melanie; Burry, Lisa; Cheung, Alexandra; Farquharson, Tara; Traille, Marlene; Mantas, Ioanna; Mehta, Sangeeta; Rose, Louise

    2017-09-01

    Restraining therapies (physical or pharmacological) are used to promote the safety of both patients and health care workers. Some guidelines recommend nonpharmacological or pharmacological interventions be used before physical restraints in critically ill patients. To characterize psychotropic drug interventions before and after use of physical restraints in critically ill adults receiving mechanical ventilation. A single-center, prospective, observational study documenting psychotropic drug use and Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) scores in the 2 hours before and the 6 hours after application of physical restraints. Ninety-three patients were restrained for a median of 21 hours (interquartile range, 9-70 hours). Thirty percent of patients did not receive a psychotropic drug or had a drug stopped or decreased before physical restraints were applied. More patients received a psychotropic drug intervention after use of physical restraints than before (86% vs 56%, P = .001). Administration of opioids was more common after the use of physical restraints (54% vs 20% of patients, P = .001) and accounted for more drug interventions (45% vs 29%, P = .001). Fifty patients had SAS scores from both time periods; 16% remained oversedated, 24% were appropriately sedated, and 16% remained agitated in both time periods. Patients became oversedated (20%), more agitated (10%), less agitated (8%), and less sedated (6%) after restraint use. Psychotropic drug interventions (mostly using opioids) were more common after use of physical restraints. Some patients may be physically restrained for anticipated treatment interference without consideration of pharmacological options and without documented agitation. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  5. Ethnicity, self reported psychiatric illness, and intake of psychotropic drugs in five ethnic groups in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard-Burfield, L; Sundquist, J; Johansson, S E

    2001-09-01

    This study hypothesises that the presumed increased risk of self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and intake of psychotropic drugs among Iranian, Chilean, Turkish, and Kurdish adults, when these groups are compared with Polish adults, can be explained by living alone, poor acculturation, unemployment, and low sense of coherence. Data from a national sample of immigrants/refugees, who were between the ages of 20-44 years old, upon their arrival in Sweden between 1980 and 1989. Unconditional logistic regression was used in the statistical modelling. Sweden. 1059 female and 921 male migrants from Iran, Chile, Turkey, Kurdistan and Poland and a random sample of 3001 Swedes, all between the ages of 27-60 years, were interviewed in 1996 by Statistics Sweden. Compared with Swedes, all immigrants had an increased risk of self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and for intake of psychotropic drugs, with results for the Kurds being non-significant. Compared with Poles, Iranian and Chilean migrants had an increased risk of psychiatric illness, when seen in relation to a model in which adjustment was made for sex and age. The difference became non-significant for Chileans when marital status was taken into account. After including civil status and knowledge of the Swedish language, the increased risks for intake of psychotropic drugs for Chileans and Iranians disappeared. Living alone, poor knowledge of the Swedish language, non-employment, and low sense of coherence were strong risk factors for self reported longstanding psychiatric illness and for intake of psychotropic drugs. Iranian, Chilean, Turkish and Kurdish immigrants more frequently reported living in segregated neighbourhoods and having a greater desire to leave Sweden than their Polish counterparts. Evidence substantiates a strong association between ethnicity and self reported longstanding psychiatric illness, as well as intake of psychotropic drugs. This association is weakened by marital status

  6. Regional changes in psychotropic use among Finnish persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease in 2005-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maija Tolppanen

    Full Text Available To describe and compare temporal changes in prevalence and incidence of psychotropic use (antipsychotics, antidepressants and benzodiazepines and related drugs; BZDRs in persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD between university hospital districts of Finland during 2005-2011.The MEDALZ study includes all community-dwellers of Finland who received a clinically verified AD diagnosis in 2005-2011 (N = 70,718. Prevalent and incident use of psychotropics among those who had received AD diagnosis less than one year ago were compared in 2005-2011.Regional differences in psychotropic use between university hospital districts were more evident in 2005 than 2011 for prevalent use of any psychotropic, antipsychotic and BZDRs and incident use of any psychotropic and antipsychotics. Regional differences in prevalent antidepressant use and incident BZDR use remained similar during the follow-up, while differences in incident antidepressant use increased during the follow-up. The prevalence of any psychotropic use in 2005 varied between 44.7-50.7% and between 45.0-47.9% in 2011. Incidence of any psychotropic use in 2005 was between 8.6-12.1% and 6.2-8.2% in 2011. In 2005, the distribution of incident psychotropic use followed a large scale spatial variation that, however, did not correspond to university hospital districts. During the study period from 2005 to 2011 the cyclic spatial variation disappeared. No sign of adjacent hospital districts being more or less closely related to each other compared to hospital districts in general was detected.Except for antidepressants, regional differences in psychotropic use have mainly diminished between 2005 and 2011. Our findings highlight the importance of acknowledging regional differences in a country with relatively homogeneous healthcare system and conducting future studies assessing the reasons behind these differences.

  7. Relationship between Organizational Culture and the Use of Psychotropic Medicines in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Chen, Timothy F

    2018-03-01

    Psychotropic medicines are commonly used in nursing homes, despite marginal clinical benefits and association with harm in the elderly. Organizational culture is proposed as a factor explaining the high-level use of psychotropic medicines. Schein describes three levels of culture: artifacts, espoused values, and basic assumptions. This integrative review aimed to investigate the facets and role of organizational culture in the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes. Five databases were searched for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method empirical studies up to 13 February 2017. Articles were included if they examined an aspect of organizational culture according to Schein's theory and the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes for the management of behavioral and sleep disturbances in residents. Article screening and data extraction were performed independently by one reviewer and checked by the research team. The integrative review method, an approach similar to the method of constant comparison analysis was utilized for data analysis. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria: 13 used quantitative methods, 9 used qualitative methods, 1 was quasi-qualitative, and 1 used mixed methods. Included studies were found to only address two aspects of organizational culture in relation to the use of psychotropic medicines: artifacts and espoused values. No studies addressed the basic assumptions, the unsaid taken-for-granted beliefs, which provide explanations for in/consistencies between the ideal use of psychotropic medicines and the actual use of psychotropic medicines. Previous studies suggest that organizational culture influences the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes; however, what is known is descriptive of culture only at the surface level, that is the artifacts and espoused values. Hence, future research that explains the impact of the basic assumptions of culture on the use of psychotropic medicines is important.

  8. Cherokee self-reliance and word-use in stories of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Riggs, Cheryl; Henson, Jim; Elder, Tribal; Liehr, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Cherokee self-reliance and related values expressed through word-use in stories of stress written by Cherokee adolescents. The overall aim of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of using cultural appropriate measurements for a larger intervention study of substance abuse prevention in Cherokee adolescents. A sample of 50 Cherokee adolescent senior high school students completed the Cherokee Self-Reliance Questionnaire and wrote their story of stress. The Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program, a word-based computerized text analysis software, was used to report the percentage of words used in the selected word categories in relation to all the words used by a participant. Word-use from the stories of stress were found to correlate with Cherokee self-reliance.

  9. Association between prescribing of cardiovascular and psychotropic medications and hospital admission for falls or fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Rupert A; Abel, Gary A; Simpson, Colin R; Maxwell, Simon R J

    2013-04-01

    Falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This study examined the frequency of hospital admission for falls or fractures, and the association with a recent change in the use of cardiovascular and psychotropic medications. We conducted a retrospective case-cohort study of 39,813 patients aged >65 years from 40 Scottish general practices. Data on current prescriptions, dates of drug changes (defined as increases in dose or starting new drugs), diagnoses and clinical measurements were extracted from primary care electronic records, linked to national hospital admissions data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the association of change in prescribing of cardiovascular or psychotropic medication with admission to hospital for falls or fractures in the following 60 days. A total of 838 patients (2.1 %) were admitted in the 1-year study period. Following adjustment for factors including age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, co-morbidity and current prescribing, changes in both cardiovascular and psychotropic medications were associated with subsequent admission for falls or fractures (odds ratio [OR] 1.54 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.03] and 1.68 [95 % CI 1.28-2.22], respectively). There was no evidence for a difference in the effect of change in medication for different cardiovascular drug types (p = 0.86), but there was evidence (p = 0.003) for variation in the association between change in different psychotropic medications and admission; the strongest associations were observed for changes in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 1.99 [95 % CI 1.29-3.08]), non-SSRI/tricyclic antidepressants (OR 4.39 [95 % CI 2.21-8.71]) and combination psychotropic medication (OR 3.05 [95 % CI 1.66-5.63]). Recent changes in psychotropic and cardiovascular medications are associated with a substantial increase in risk of hospital admission for falls and fractures. Caution should thus be taken when

  10. [The actual Russian legislation in sphere of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A Yu; Kosolapova, N V; Mikhaiylova, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The drug abuse is a social occurrence. Hence, the social economic methods are the first of all means of combating this evil. At the same time, measures of especially juridical character possess significant value since they develop corresponding legal base for applying another measures. In the Russian Federation, during fifteen years the new policy of public regulation and normative legal base in the area of legal turn-over of drug agents, psychotropic substances and their precursors were developed factually from zero ground. However, the current national legislation is not deprived of some flaws and contradictions. Frequently a uniform practice of interpretation and application of legal rules regulating the controlled turn-over is lacking. On the one hand, this circumstance decreases effectiveness of action of such rules and on the other hand favors development of situations for outflow of pharmaceuticals from legal turn-over to illegal traffic. The becoming of the Russian legislation in the area of turn-over of drug agents, precursors and psychotropic substances relates to the period of late 1990s when the Federal Law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 was developed and passed by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The given law completely conforms to principles of legal regulation of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (provisions 76, 90, 104, 105) and federal laws ("On the government of the Russian Federation" of December 17 1997, "On the ombudsman in the Russian Federation" of February 26 1997). The main characteristic of legal rules included into given group of sources of law is that they contain regulations of general disposition as basic ones for inferior sources of law. The analysis of basic Federal law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 makes it possible to conclude that in in Russia the international legal

  11. Psychiatric disorders, psychotropic medication use and falls among women: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lana J; Pasco, Julie A; Stuart, Amanda L; Jacka, Felice N; Brennan, Sharon L; Dobbins, Amelia G; Honkanen, Risto; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Rauma, Päivi H; Berk, Michael

    2015-04-08

    Psychotropic agents known to cause sedation are associated with an increased risk of falls, but the role of psychiatric illness as an independent risk factor for falls is not clear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders, psychotropic medication use and falls risk. This study examined data collected from 1062 women aged 20-93 yr (median 50 yr) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, a large, ongoing, population-based study. Depressive and anxiety disorders for the preceding 12-month period were ascertained by clinical interview. Current medication use and falls history were self-reported. Participants were classified as fallers if they had fallen to the ground at least twice during the same 12-month period. Anthropometry, demographic, medical and lifestyle factors were determined. Logistic regression was used to test the associations, after adjusting for potential confounders. Fifty-six women (5.3%) were classified as fallers. Those meeting criteria for depression within the past 12 months had a 2.4-fold increased odds of falling (unadjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5). Adjustment for age and mobility strengthened the relationship (adjusted OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.2) between depression and falling, with results remaining unchanged following further adjustment for psychotropic medication use (adjusted OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.6). In contrast, past (prior to 12-month) depression were not associated with falls. No association was observed between anxiety and falls risk. Falling was associated with psychotropic medication use (unadjusted OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.2), as well as antidepressant (unadjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8) and benzodiazepine use (unadjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-7.3); associations remained unchanged following adjustment for potential confounders. The likelihood of falls was increased among those with depression within the past 12 months, independent of psychotropic medication

  12. Public health nurses' perception of their roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents: a phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenak, Anne Kjersti Myhrene; Nordström, Gun; Hartz, Ingeborg; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the paper was to describe the perceptions of public health nurses' roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents. Mental health problems among adolescents are documented with studies indicating an increased use of psychotropic drugs. In Norway, care for such adolescents may fall naturally into the remit of public health nurses. A phenomenographic approach was used to analyse the data. A qualitative interview study was made of 20 Norwegian public health nurses, strategically chosen using phenomenographic methodology. The public health nurses described three categories: discovering public health nurses who become aware of psychotropic drug use in the health dialogue with adolescents and choose to either act or not act in relation to psychotropic drug use. Those public health nurses who take action are cooperating public health nurses, who cooperate with adolescents, their families, schools and others. If cooperation has been established, supporting public health nurses teach and support the adolescent in relation to psychotropic drug use. The public health nurses who do not act can hinder or delay further treatment. Public health nurses need to acquire knowledge about psychotropic drugs, to fulfil their role in nursing mental health problems among adolescents and the increasing use of psychotropic drugs. The results demonstrated that public health nurses, working in health centres and schools, have the responsibility and the opportunity to identify young people struggling with mental health problems and psychotropic drug use as well as teach and support significant others, e.g. parents and siblings. Intervention studies are needed with regard to health promotion programmes aimed at fortifying young people's mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Public health nurses’ perception of their roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents: a phenomenographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenak, Anne Kjersti Myhrene; Nordström, Gun; Hartz, Ingeborg; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives The purpose of the paper was to describe the perceptions of public health nurses’ roles in relation to psychotropic drug use by adolescents. Background Mental health problems among adolescents are documented with studies indicating an increased use of psychotropic drugs. In Norway, care for such adolescents may fall naturally into the remit of public health nurses. Design A phenomenographic approach was used to analyse the data. Method A qualitative interview study was made of 20 Norwegian public health nurses, strategically chosen using phenomenographic methodology. Results The public health nurses described three categories: discovering public health nurses who become aware of psychotropic drug use in the health dialogue with adolescents and choose to either act or not act in relation to psychotropic drug use. Those public health nurses who take action are cooperating public health nurses, who cooperate with adolescents, their families, schools and others. If cooperation has been established, supporting public health nurses teach and support the adolescent in relation to psychotropic drug use. Conclusion The public health nurses who do not act can hinder or delay further treatment. Public health nurses need to acquire knowledge about psychotropic drugs, to fulfil their role in nursing mental health problems among adolescents and the increasing use of psychotropic drugs. Relevance to clinical practice The results demonstrated that public health nurses, working in health centres and schools, have the responsibility and the opportunity to identify young people struggling with mental health problems and psychotropic drug use as well as teach and support significant others, e.g. parents and siblings. Intervention studies are needed with regard to health promotion programmes aimed at fortifying young people's mental health. PMID:25639291

  14. Successful Management of Psychotropics Induced Stuttering Priapism with Pseudoephedrine in a Patient with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippaiah, Srinagesh Mannekote; Nagaraja, Soumya; Birur, Badari; Pandurangi, Ananda

    2018-02-05

    Stuttering Priapism is a recurrent, persistent penile erection in the absence of sexual desire due to altered genital hemodynamics, affecting the arterial component (high flow, non-ischemic) or the veno-occlusive mechanism (low flow, ischemic). Both typical and atypical antipsychotics increase the risk for priapism with greater implications in typicals than atypicals. Prompt recognition and treatment are important as 40% to 50% of patients with stuttering priapism may develop an erectile dysfunction if left untreated. There are several case reports in the literature about the association between psychotropic agents and priapism. However, there are no reports of successfully treating stuttering priapism using pseudoephedrine (sudafed) in the adult population. Here we present successful management of psychotropics induced stuttering priapism with pseudoephedrine in a male patient with schizophrenia.

  15. Effects of psychotropic drugs and psychiatric illness on vocational aptitude and interest assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, E; Fekken, G C

    1986-07-01

    This study examined the vocational aptitude and interest scores of 326 inpatients at a large urban psychiatric hospital. The inpatient group performed significantly below the adult normative mean on eight of nine General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) aptitude measures; the single exception was Verbal Aptitude. Further, GATB aptitude scores (adjusted for age and education) were significantly lower for patients who were receiving (N = 210) psychotropic medication than for patients who were not receiving (N = 114) psychotropic medication, again with the exception of Verbal Aptitude. Differentiation of patients into subsamples who were receiving particular drugs or drug combinations indicated that phenothiazines in combination with Anti-Parkinsonians were associated with the poorest GATB performances. Interestingly, self-reported vocational interests were not related in any systematic fashion to receiving medication. A variety of explanations that may account for these findings, including drug side-effects and severity or type of psychiatric disorder, were investigated. Implications for vocational counselors were discussed.

  16. Number and type of psychotropic drugs on the Scandinavian market in 1950-1977

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemminki, E; Pesonen, T; Hansen, E H

    1981-01-01

    This article describes the number and types of psychotropic drugs on the market in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden from 1950-1977. The total number of drugs on the market in each country depended greatly on how psychotropic drugs were defined, but trends with time and differences between...... the countries were less affected by this definition. The number of drugs was highest in Finland and lowest in Norway. In all countries, the number of drugs increased from 1950 to the mid-1960s, most abruptly in Finland. They then quickly decreased in Finland and Sweden, but remained fairly constant in Denmark...... numbers of combination drugs contributed greatly to the wide differences in the number of drugs. From the medical point of view, far too many drugs were on the market in that period....

  17. [Effect of psychotropic drugs on activity of anticonvulsants in maximal electroshock test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikina, N A; Tregubov, A L; Kotegov, V P

    2010-08-01

    The effect ofpsychotropic drugs on the pharmacological properties of anticonvulsants was studied on white mice under maximal electroshock (ME) test conditions. Changes in the anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital, diphenin, carbamazepine, hexamidine were traced upon their joint administration with psychotropic drugs, including piracetam, aminalon, amitriptyline, imizine, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate. An important result of research is the fact, that in no one of combinations the basic pharmacological effect of anticonvulsants was decreased. Based on the results of experiments, the most rational combinations of anticonvulsants with psychotropic preparations were revealed as manifested in the ME test. As criterion of rational combination was the increase in the activity of anticonvulsants and reduction of their toxicity in combination or at least invariance of this parameter. Rational combinations include (i) phenobarbital with piracetam, amitriptyline, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate; (ii) carbamazepine with piracetam; and (iii) hexamidine with amitriptyline, levomepromazine and imizine.

  18. Identification of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and beta-carbolines in psychotropic ayahuasca beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Aroni, Kyriaki; Rossi, Riccardo; Moretti, Luca; Bacci, Mauro

    2008-10-01

    Recently many people have shown great interest in traditional indigenous practices and popular medicine, involving the ingestion of natural psychotropic drugs. We received a request to analyze and determine the nature of a dark green liquid with a dark brown plant sediment, which the police had seized at an airport and inside the home of a person belonging to the 'Santo Daime' religious movement. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the extract identified N,N-dimethyltryptamine, a potent hallucinogen, and the beta-carboline alkaloids harmine and harmaline, revealing monoamine oxidase A-inhibiting properties. These substances are typical components of Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic beverage obtained by boiling the bark of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi together with the leaves of various admixture plants, principally Psychotria viridis.

  19. Standing with People in Support, Not Control: Training toward Self-Reliance, Inc. Sacramento, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    This report describes a program designed to increase opportunities for people with developmental disabilities to lead good lives in places of their own, strengthen their communities, and enjoy a genuine sense of self-worth. In addition to offering independent services, the Training Toward Self-Reliance (TTSR) program staff have increased their…

  20. Leader reliance on subordinates across nations that differ in development and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E; Smith, P B

    How, where, and why do leaders follow the people they lead? An 84-nation analysis of survey responses from 19,525 managers shows that their reliance on subordinates depends on the level of wealth and development, and the harshness of cold or hot climates. In support of the thermal demands-resources

  1. Digital Immigrants Fare Better than Digital Natives due to Social Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransdell, Sarah; Kent, Brianna; Gaillard-Kenney, Sandrine; Long, John

    2011-01-01

    Older adult cohorts show greater external locus of control (LOC), a marker of social reliance, compared to younger cohorts. In the present study, American college students from 27 to 61 years of age participated in online courses in a graduate health science programme. Four birth-year cohorts were included: "millennials", born in 1982+;…

  2. Understanding reliance on automation: effects of error type, error distribution, age and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Julian; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rovira, Ericka

    2015-01-01

    An obstacle detection task supported by “imperfect” automation was used with the goal of understanding the effects of automation error types and age on automation reliance. Sixty younger and sixty older adults interacted with a multi-task simulation of an agricultural vehicle (i.e. a virtual harvesting combine). The simulator included an obstacle detection task and a fully manual tracking task. A micro-level analysis provided insight into the way reliance patterns change over time. The results indicated that there are distinct patterns of reliance that develop as a function of error type. A prevalence of automation false alarms led participants to under-rely on the automation during alarm states while over relying on it during non-alarms states. Conversely, a prevalence of automation misses led participants to over-rely on automated alarms and under-rely on the automation during non-alarm states. Older adults adjusted their behavior according to the characteristics of the automation similarly to younger adults, although it took them longer to do so. The results of this study suggest the relationship between automation reliability and reliance depends on the prevalence of specific errors and on the state of the system. Understanding the effects of automation detection criterion settings on human-automation interaction can help designers of automated systems make predictions about human behavior and system performance as a function of the characteristics of the automation. PMID:25642142

  3. Values-Based Business Education for Empowerment, Self-Reliance and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoru, Titus Amodu

    2013-01-01

    This study centered on values-based business education for empowerment, self-reliance and poverty reduction in Nigeria. The study identified 30 critical values business education students need to possess. 192 questionnaire items were constructed after careful review of literature (Njoku, 2007 and Living Values Education, 2013) and administered…

  4. Using a Dialogue Journal to Build Responsibility and Self-Reliance: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Cathryn

    2006-01-01

    Using a dialogue journal during a school year helped a 10th-grade student focus on skills that build responsibility and self-reliance. The Expanded Core Curriculum (Hatlen, 1996) addresses disability specific skills that include compensatory and social interaction skills. Providing instruction in organization, time management, and self-advocacy…

  5. The Role of Christian Educational Institutions in Improving Economic Self-Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Constance C.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that Christian educational institutions in Africa can play a major role in improving economic self-reliance within the continent, if those who establish Christian universities there take time to plan the programs and activities in those institutions. Specifically, it argues that with proper planning of quality education--the…

  6. Reliance on and Reliability of the Engineer’s Estimate in Heavy Civil Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Okere

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To the contractor, the engineer’s estimate is the target number to aim for, and the basis for a contractor to evaluate the accuracy of their estimate. To the owner, the engineer’s estimate is the basis for funding, evaluation of bids, and for predicting project costs. As such the engineer’s estimate is the benchmark. This research sought to investigate the reliance on, and the reliability of the engineer’s estimate in heavy civil cost estimate. The research objective was to characterize the engineer’s estimate and allow owners and contractors re-evaluate or affirm their reliance on the engineer’s estimate. A literature review was conducted to understand the reliance on the engineer’s estimate, and secondary data from Washington State Department of Transportation was used to investigate the reliability of the engineer’s estimate. The findings show the need for practitioners to re-evaluate their reliance on the engineer’s estimate. The empirical data showed that, within various contexts, the engineer’s estimate fell outside the expected accuracy range of the low bids or the cost to complete projects. The study recommends direct tracking of costs by project owners while projects are under construction, the use of a second estimate to improve the accuracy of their estimates, and use of the cost estimating practices found in highly reputable construction companies.

  7. 17 CFR 274.404 - Form TH-Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TH-Notification of... Forms for Electronic Filing § 274.404 Form TH—Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption. Form TH shall be filed by any electronic filer who submits to the Commission, pursuant to a temporary...

  8. 17 CFR 239.65 - Form TH-Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TH-Notification of... Statements § 239.65 Form TH—Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption. Form TH shall be filed... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TH, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which...

  9. 17 CFR 259.604 - Form TH-Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TH-Notification of... OF 1935 Forms for Electronic Filing § 259.604 Form TH—Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption. Form TH shall be filed by any electronic filer who submits to the Commission, pursuant to a...

  10. 17 CFR 249.447 - Form TH-Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TH-Notification of... § 249.447 Form TH—Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption. Form TH shall be filed by... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TH, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which...

  11. 17 CFR 269.10 - Form TH-Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TH-Notification of....10 Form TH—Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption. Form TH shall be filed by any...: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TH, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  12. Strategies of business education in job creation and self reliance for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the strategies in business education and its role in achieving self reliance, job creation and empowerment for sustainable development. Lecturers in the Business Education Department of Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki formed the study population. Data was collected using a suitable structured and ...

  13. Oral health in patients taking psychotropic medications: Results from a pharmacy-based pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Lisa J; Swigart, Kimberly; McNelis, Gavin; Milgrom, Peter; Downing, Donald F

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with mental illness face an increased risk of oral disease compared with those without mental illness. The goals of this study were to examine the self-reported oral health and dental access of individuals filling psychotropic medication prescriptions and to determine whether pharmacy patients would choose to speak with a pharmacist about their oral health if given the option to do so. Pharmacists across 6 community pharmacies within a local chain identified and surveyed adult patients filling prescriptions for psychotropic medications. Surveys included questions about oral health, dry mouth, and dental care utilization. Six community pharmacy locations. Adults (≥18 years of age) filling prescriptions for psychotropic medications. Not applicable. Self-reported oral health, dental utilization, desire to discuss oral health with a pharmacist. Participants (N = 178) filling prescriptions were mostly (65.9%) female with a mean age of 48.2 years (SD 14.3, range 19-82 years). One in 4 (24.9%) said their mouths "always" or "frequently" felt dry; these individuals were significantly more likely to have last seen a dentist for emergency (rather than routine) treatment (P oral health as significantly worse (P oral health; they reported poorer oral health than those who opted not to speak with a pharmacist (P oral health than patients without dry mouth. Although dry mouth and poor oral health were common in this sample of individuals taking psychotropic medications, this did not consistently translate into seeking information regarding oral health. Future research will focus on pharmacist-initiated oral health interventions with high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Educational gradients in psychotropic medication use among older adults in Costa Rica and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Dow, William H; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The relationship of education, psychiatric diagnoses, and use of psychotropic medication has been explored in the United States, but little is known about this relationship in poorer countries, despite the high burden of mental illness in these countries. This study estimated educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic drug use in the United States and Costa Rica, a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Analyses were conducted by using data of older adults (≥60) from the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=4,788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (N=2,827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of education level (low, medium, or high) and urban residence on the rates of self-reported mental health diagnoses, screening diagnosis, and psychotropic medication use with and without an associated psychiatric diagnosis. Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the United States (12%) than in Costa Rica (20%), possibly reflecting differences in survey wording. In both countries, the odds of having depression were significantly lower among persons with high education. In Costa Rica, use of psychotropic medication among persons with self-reported diagnoses increased by education level. The educational gradients in medication use were different in the United States and Costa Rica, and stigma and access to care in these countries may play an important role in these differences, although type of insurance did not affect educational gradients in the United States. These analyses increase the evidence of the role of education in use of the health care system.

  15. Psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in old age: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurminen, Janne; Puustinen, Juha; Piirtola, Maarit; Vahlberg, Tero; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2010-07-06

    There is evidence that the use of any psychotropic and the concomitant use of two or more benzodiazepines are related to an increased risk of fractures in old age. However, also controversial results exist. The aim was to describe associations between the use of a psychotropic drug, or the concomitant use of two or more of these drugs and the risk of fractures in a population aged 65 years or over. This study was a part of a prospective longitudinal population-based study carried out in the municipality of Lieto, South-Western Finland. The objective was to describe gender-specific associations between the use of one psychotropic drug [benzodiazepine (BZD), antipsychotic (AP) or antidepressant (AD)] or the concomitant use of two or more psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in a population 65 years or over. Subjects were participants in the first wave of the Lieto study in 1990-1991, and they were followed up until the end of 1996. Information about fractures confirmed with radiology reports in 1,177 subjects (482 men and 695 women) during the follow-up was collected from medical records. Two follow-up periods (three and six years) were used, and previously found risk factors of fractures were adjusted as confounding factors separately for men and women. The Poisson regression model was used in the analyses. The concomitant use of two or more BZDs and the concomitant use of two or more APs were related to an increased risk of fractures during both follow-up periods after adjusting for confounding factors in men. No similar associations were found in women. The concomitant use of several BZDs and that of several APs are associated with an increase in the risk of fractures in older men. Our findings show only risk relations. We cannot draw the conclusion that these drug combinations are causes of fractures.

  16. Adverse drug reactions monitoring of psychotropic drugs: a tertiary care centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemendra Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many new psychotropic drugs/ agents have been developed and found to be effective in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, these drugs also exhibit adverse drug reactions (ADRs which may affect compliance in psychiatric patients. Hence the present study was aimed at monitoring and assessing ADRs caused by psychotropic drugs. Methods: A hospital based prospective observational study was carried out in the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital for the duration of six months. Two hundred and two patients were included in the study and ADRs were documented using a predesigned data collection form. The causality assessment was carried out as per the criteria of both the World Health Organization- Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC and Naranjo scale. Severity and predictability assessment of ADRs were also performed. Results: A total of 106 ADRs were observed during the study period with majority of them occurring in 25-35 years of age group (40.56%. Weight gain (18.86% followed by sedation (16.03% and insomnia (11.32% were found to be the commonest ADRs. Risperidone (19.8% and escitalopram (12.3% were the drugs responsible for majority of the ADRs. Causality assessment showed that most of ADRs were possible and probable. 94.33% of ADRs were found to be mild and 89% of them were predictable. Conclusion: A wide range of ADRs affecting central nervous and metabolic systems were reported with psychotropic drugs. The study findings necessitate the need for an active pharmacovigilance programme for the safe and effective use of psychotropics.

  17. Pattern of Psychotropic Drug Prescription in the Elderly with Chronic Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Khodaei Ardakani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Psychotropic drug use in the elderly with chronic schizophrenia is an important issue in the field of psychiatry. The main goal of this study was to clarify the pattern of such drug use in these patients, in order to consider such therapy plan and focus on its cost attributing measures, for a more reasonable quality of care program. Methods: In this descriptive study, participants included 52 elderly patients at Tehran’s Razi Mental Hospital who had chronic schizophrenia in the residual phase. Selected patients were taking at least two psychotropic drugs equivalent to 500mg Chlorpromazine. We prepared the list of the drugs used by completing the pre-designed questionnaire charts. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17. Results: In one case (1.92% the entries were Risperidone, Chlorpromazine, Fluphenazine Decanoate, & Thiothixene. In 11 cases (21.2% there were three entries and in 40 cases (76.8% there were two. The Chlorpromazine equivalent dose in each group ranged from the lowest dose (750 mg to the highest (5600 mg. The highest Chlorpromazine dose (5600 mg equivalent per milligram belonged to the four entries of (Risperidone, Chlorpromazine, Fluphenazine Decanoate & Thiothixene. The lowest Chlorpromazine dose (750 mg was seen in 3 entries of Risperidone, Chlorpromazine & Fluphenazine Decanoate. Discussion: There was a high prevalence of using more than two psychotropic medications from the first atypical antipsychotic category. Less frequently, the second and the third typical antipsychotics were used. We recommend further research into more feasible patterns of psychotropic prescriptions, lowering the amount of medication use and considering their cost-benefits in the elderly with chronic schizophrenia.

  18. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Background/Aim. Pneumonia is the most frequent complication in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning, which results in substantial morbidity and mortality, but which also increases the costs of treatment. Risk factors for pneumonia are numerous: age, sex, place of the appearance of pneumonia, severity of underlying disease, airway instrumentation (intubation, reintubation, etc). The incidence of pneumonia varies in poisoning caused by the various groups of drugs. The aim of this study was to det...

  19. Non-adherence to Psychotropic Medication Among Adolescents - A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häge, Alexander; Weymann, Lisa; Bliznak, Lucia; Märker, Viktoria; Mechler, Konstantin; Dittmann, Ralf W

    2018-01-01

    Whether patients take their medication as prescribed is of increasing importance in adolescent psychiatry since both the number of efficacious pharmaceutical treatments and the rate of prescriptions of psychotropic compounds are on the rise. Previous research showed high rates of medication nonadherence among both adolescents with medical disorders and adult patients with psychiatric disorders. The present review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines and evaluates existing scientific literature concerning adherence to psychotropic medication among adolescents. The goal was to determine rates of nonadherence in this age group as well as the factors associated with it. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive literature search of PubMed from its inception until 15 September 2015 using the keywords "adherence," "compliance," "adolescent," and "psychotropic medication." A total of 607 pertinent articles were collected and screened; 15 publications were selected for detailed review. The studies differed, among other things, regarding sample characteristics, medication type, and indications. Furthermore, the definitions of what constitutes nonadherence and the methods used to assess it varied widely. Nonadherence rates ranged from 6 % to 62 % (median 33 %). Nonadherence to psychotropic medication is a clinically relevant problem among adolescents. Because of the methodological heterogeneity across studies and partially contradictory results, no conclusions could be drawn concerning the influence of factors such as psychopathology, medication type, side effects, the effectiveness of treatment, or family-related factors. Well-designed long-term studies of large patient samples and a consensus regarding definitions are therefore warranted. Such research would facilitate the design of tailored strategies to improve adherence in these patients.

  20. Parental psychosocial attitudes and opinions on the use of psychotropic medication in mental disorders of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Aadil, M.; Hamdani, S.U.

    2018-01-01

    To assess parental practices and attitude regarding administration of psychotropic agents in their children suffering from psychiatric disorders. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Psychiatry Out-Patient Department (OPD) Mayo Hospital conducted over a span of 6 months, from 15 Apr to 15 Oct 2017. Material and Methods: Ninety three individuals were included in the study through non-probability purposive sampling. Informed consent was taken from the parents. A closed ended questionnaire was designed to carry out a targeted survey which was focused on the knowledge and practices followed by parents during their first contact in an outpatient department. Parents were asked whether they believe that psychotropic drugs are effective in the treatment of mental disorders. Results: Results are based on ninety three responders who participated in answering the questionnaire. Eighty turned out and submitted the questionnaire for result compilation and analysis. Participants ranged from 19 to 65 years. Males outnumbered female's patients during the study period by approx, 20%. The study indicated that two third of the patients had family history of mental illness. Common diagnosis included epilepsy, behavioral/ conversion disorders and mental retardation. One thought-provoking finding among parents was that psychotropic drugs lead to certain side effects and somehow effects which may causes biological abnormalities resulting into several medical diseases. Others had a belief that these drugs are addictive and may cause vital organs failure. Conclusion: Mostly parents were of the opinion that are of psychotropic drugs lead to certain side effects and somehow effects brain which may cause biological abnormalities resulting into several medical diseases. (author)

  1. Age-related trends in psychotropic medication use among very young children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dosReis, Susan; Tai, Ming-Hui; Goffman, David; Lynch, Sean E; Reeves, Gloria; Shaw, Terry

    2014-12-01

    The specific objectives were to investigate changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use for each year increase in age from three to six years old among children in foster care and to examine time-varying odds of longer duration of use by each year of age. A retrospective analysis of data on mental health and pharmacy services was conducted for 1,491 children age six and younger who were in foster care in 2010 and had at least 365 days in foster care during 2009-2011. A total of 178 children received at least one psychotropic medication from 2009 through 2011. Psychotropic prevalence and average days of use were calculated for each therapeutic class. Longitudinal regression models assessed the time-varying relationship between year of age and duration of use, controlling for demographic and clinical covariates. Approximately 12% of children age six and younger in foster care for 365 days or more received at least one psychotropic medication over the three-year study period. Prevalence of ADHD medication and antipsychotic medication and duration increased with each year of age (p<.001). In adjusted longitudinal models, each year increase in age was associated with a nearly twofold higher likelihood of longer duration of antipsychotic and ADHD medication use. Young children who initiated antipsychotic and ADHD medications before the age of six continued to receive them for longer periods of time. There is a critical need for long-term studies to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure on children's health and well-being.

  2. The monitoring of trade in and control of psychotropic substances to guard against their diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, I

    1983-01-01

    The establishment of international control of opiates has been an important achievement of the international community; this is substantiated by the fact that, at the beginning of this century, legally manufactured morphine and heroin were the principal sources of illicit supply, whereas at present the illicit traffic in these drugs is supplied from illicit sources. The poppy straw process has helped to promote measures to control opium poppy cultivation in a number of European countries; Turkey has been a successful example of such control. The present large-scale illicit traffic in cannabis resin and cocaine is the consequence of the lack of the implementation of provisions of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, to control the cannabis plant and the coca bush at the national level. The provisions of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, being largely a result of international compromise, are not designed in the best possible way to prevent the diversion of psychotropic substances from legal sources to illicit channels. There are no appropriate provisions for the control and monitoring of international transactions. There is a discrepancy between the rather limited scope of international control of substances listed in schedules III and IV of the 1971 Convention and the much larger scope of control of hypnotics, sedatives and tranquillizers at national levels. The provisions of the 1971 Convention, however, constitute a legal basis for bilateral and multilateral actions for the detection of suspected diversion cases, and offer possibilities of promoting the prevention of diversion of psychotropic substances. At present, the relationship between the control of psychotropic drugs, including the prevention of diversion and the organization of the national drug supply system, as well as the efficacy of national control over pharmaceutical products, has not been fully recognized by the international community.

  3. Relationship between xerostomia and psychotropic drugs in patients with schizophrenia: evaluation using an oral moisture meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, A; Miyachi, H; Tanaka, K; Chikazu, D; Miyaoka, H

    2016-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are most commonly treated with antipsychotic medications, often with the addition of anxiolytics. This study used an oral moisture meter to evaluate xerostomia in patients with schizophrenia taking typical and atypical antipsychotics, anxiolytics and non-psychotropic medications. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria in the Department of Psychiatry, Kitasato University East, and affiliated hospitals were studied. All patients were on psychotropic medications. Patients with diseases associated with xerostomia, such as Sjögren's syndrome I, were excluded. A total of 127 patients were enrolled. Mean oral moisture was 27·81 ± 2·27% (normal, ≥30·0%). A significant association was observed between objective oral moisture and the subjective sense of dry mouth. Multivariate analysis revealed a negative correlation between the number of antipsychotics and, especially, anxiolytics, and the degree of oral moisture. Drug dosages themselves were not significantly correlated with dry mouth. These findings suggest that objective oral moisture measurements show decreased moisture in patients on these medications and that the degree of moisture shows a greater negative correlation with the number, as opposed to the dosages, of psychotropic drugs administered. When patients with schizophrenia visit a dental clinic, it is important for the dentist to accurately assess the degree of oral moisture and to determine the medications being taken. Based on these findings of the association of polypharmacy with xerostomia, dentists are encouraged to inform the psychiatrist of the need to actively manage patients' xerostomia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. On cannabis, chloral hydrate, and career cycles of psychotropic drugs in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelders, Stephen; Kaplan, Charles; Pieters, Toine

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the careers of two psychotropic drugs in Western psychiatry, with a focus on the nineteenth century: Cannabis indica and chloral hydrate. They were used by doctors for similar indications, such as mania, delirium tremens, and what we would now call drug dependence. The two show similar career paths consisting of three phases: initial enthusiasm and therapeutic optimism; subsequent negative appraisal; and finally, limited use. These cycles, which we term "Seige cycles," are generally typical of the careers of psychotropic drugs in modern medicine. However, differences in the careers of both drugs are also established. The phases of chloral show relatively higher peaks and lower valleys than those of cannabis. Chloral is the first typically "modern" psychotropic drug; a synthetic, it was introduced in 1869 at a time of growing asylum populations, pharmaceutical interests, and high cultural expectations of scientific medicine. Cannabis indica, introduced in the 1840s, is typically a "premodern" drug steeped in the climate of cultural Romanticism. We conclude that the analytical concept of the Seige cycle is a useful tool for future research into drug careers in medicine.

  5. Experience of Psychotropic Medication -An Interview Study of Persons with Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülow, Per; Andersson, Gunnel; Denhov, Anne; Topor, Alain

    2016-11-01

    Psychotropic drugs, particularly antipsychotic types, are a cornerstone of the treatment of people with psychosis. Despite numerous studies showing that drug treatment with psychotropic drugs initially alleviates psychiatric symptoms, the proportion of people with mental health problems and symptoms that do not follow doctors' prescriptions, thus exhibiting so-called non-adherence, is considerable. Non-adherence is predominantly seen as a clinical feature and as a patient characteristic that is especially due to patients' poor understanding that they are ill. There is also a widespread notion that non-adherence is of great disadvantage to the patient. This article is based on interviews with 19 persons diagnosed with psychosis. It challenges the notion of patients being either adherent or non-adherent to the doctor's orders. The findings show that persons with psychosis are active agents when it comes to adjusting medication. The interviewees created their own strategies to gain power over treatment with psychotropic drugs. The most common strategies were to adjust the doses or take breaks of varying lengths from the medication. These deviations from prescriptions were important to conceal, not only from their own psychiatrists, but from all psychiatric staff.

  6. Patients with Korsakoff syndrome in nursing homes: characteristics, comorbidity, and use of psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerridzen, Ineke J; Goossensen, M Anne

    2014-01-01

    Very limited literature exists on the care and course of patients with Korsakoff syndrome (KS) living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Even less literature can be found on the pharmacological treatment of behavioral symptoms of KS. The purpose of the present study was to describe baseline characteristics, comorbidity, and the use of psychotropic drugs in institutionalized patients with KS. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 556 patients were included living in ten specialized care units in Dutch nursing homes. Data were collected by means of a retrospective chart review. The majority of patients were men (75%) and single (78%) with a mean age on admission of 56.7 years (SD 8.9, range 29.8-85.3). Mean length of stay was 6.0 years (SD 5.4, range 0.2-33.3). Sixty-eight percent of patients suffered from at least one somatic disease and 66% from at least one extra psychiatric disorder. One or more psychotropic drugs were prescribed to 71% of patients with a great variation in prescription patterns between the different nursing homes. Patients with KS depending on long-term care usually have comorbidity in more than one domain (somatic and psychiatric). The indications for prescribing psychotropic drugs are in many cases unclear and it seems probable that they are often given to manage challenging behavior. Longitudinal studies on the evidence for this prescription behavior and possible alternatives are recommended.

  7. Assessing Potential Vulnerability and Response of Fish to Simulated Avian Predation after Exposure to Psychotropic Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie L. Hedgespeth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic pharmaceuticals present in the environment may impact organisms both directly and via interaction strengths with other organisms, including predators; therefore, this study examined the potential effects of pharmaceuticals on behavioral responses of fish to avian predators. Wild-caught juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis were assayed using a striking bird model after a seven-day exposure to psychotropic pharmaceuticals (the antidepressants fluoxetine or sertraline, or the β-blocker propranolol under the hypotheses that exposure would increase vulnerability to avian predation via increasing the probability of predator encounter as well as degrading evasive behaviors upon encounter. None of the substances significantly affected swimming activity of the fish, nor did they increase vulnerability by affecting encounter probability or evasive endpoints compared to control treatments. Counter to our expectations, fish exposed to 100 μg/L fluoxetine (but no other concentrations or pharmaceuticals were less likely to enter the open area of the arena, i.e., less likely to engage in risky behavior that could lead to predator encounters. Additionally, all fish exposed to environmentally relevant, low concentrations of sertraline (0.12 μg/L and propranolol (0.1 μg/L sought refuge after the simulated attack. Our unexpected results warrant further research as they have interesting implications on how these psychotropic pharmaceuticals may affect predator-prey interactions spanning the terrestrial-aquatic interface.

  8. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pneumonia is the most frequent complication in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning, which results in substantial morbidity and mortality, but which also increases the costs of treatment. Risk factors for pneumonia are numerous: age, sex, place of the appearance of pneumonia, severity of underlying disease, airway instrumentation (intubation, reintubation, etc. The incidence of pneumonia varies in poisoning caused by the various groups of drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for pneumonia in the patients with acute psychotropic drugs poisoning. Methods. A group of 782 patients, out of which 614 (78.5% with psychotropic and 168 (21.5% nonpsychotropic drug poisoning were analyzed prospectively during a two-year period. The diagnosis of pneumonia was made according to: clinical presentation, new and persistent pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography, positive nonspecific parameters of inflammation, and the microbiological confirmation of causative microorganisms. To analyze predisposing risk factors for pneumonia, the following variables were recorded: sex, age, underlying diseases, endotracheal intubation, coma, severity of poisoning with different drugs, histamine H2 blockers, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, central venous catheter. The univariate analysis for pneumonia risk factors in all patients, and for each group separately was done. The multivariate analysis was performed using the logistic regression technique. Results. Pneumonia was found in 94 (12.02% of the patients, 86 of which (91.5% in psychotropic and 8 (8.5% in nonpsychotropic drug poisoning. In the psychotropic drug group, pneumonia was the most frequent in antidepressant (47%, and the rarest in benzodiazepine poisoning (3.8%. A statistically significant incidence of pneumonia was found in the patients with acute antidpressant poisoning (p < 0.001. Univariate analysis showed statistical significance for the

  9. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hallqvist, Johan; Ljung, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression analysis. Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5) and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2). The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  10. Adverse events and the relation with quality of life in adults with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour using psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifes, Arlette; Walraven, Sanne; Stolker, Joost Jan; Nijman, Henk L I; Egberts, Toine C G; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2016-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs are prescribed to approximately 30-40% of adults with intellectual disability (ID) and challenging behaviour, despite the limited evidence of effectiveness and the potential of adverse events. To assess the prevalence of adverse events in association with psychotropic drug use in adults with ID and challenging behaviour and to examine the relation of these adverse events with the person's quality of life. The presence of adverse events was measured with a questionnaire that had to be filled in by the physicians of the participants. Movement disorders were measured separately with a standardised protocol. The strength of the association between adverse events and Intellectual Disability Quality of Life-16 (IDQOL-16), and daily functioning was investigated using linear regression analyses, taking into account the severity of disease (CGI-S) as potential confounder. Virtually all of 103 adults with ID and challenging behaviour had at least one adverse event (84.4%) and almost half had ≥3 adverse events (45.6%) across different subclasses. Using psychotropic drugs increased the prevalence of adverse events significantly. Respectively 13% of the patients without psychotropic drugs and 61% of the patients with ≥2 psychotropic drugs had ≥3 adverse events. Having adverse events had a significantly negative influence on the quality of life. A large majority of all patients had at least one adverse event associated with psychotropic drug use. More attention is needed for these adverse events and their negative influence on the quality of life of these patients, taking into account the lack of evidence of effectiveness of psychotropic drugs for challenging behaviour. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Björkenstam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. METHODS: This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5 and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2. The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  12. A study on international nuclear cooperation and technology self-reliance strategies for nuclear development in other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Myung; Han, Pil Soon; Park, Yun Sik; Song, Ki Dong; Yang, Mang Ho; Oh, Keun Bae; Jang, Hong Lae; Lee, Dong Jin; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Sung Ki; Ko, Han Suk

    1993-12-01

    This study deals with international nuclear cooperation and technology self-reliance for nuclear development in other countries. This study also analyses the international and domestic nuclear environment such as NPT, nuclear export control, gloval environmental issues, and public acceptance. Finally, a suggestion is made for the future direction of strategy for nuclear technology self-reliance in Korea. (Author)

  13. Direct evidence for human reliance on rainforest resources in late Pleistocene Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrick; Perera, Nimal; Wedage, Oshan; Deraniyagala, Siran; Perera, Jude; Eregama, Saman; Gledhill, Andrew; Petraglia, Michael D; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2015-03-13

    Human occupation of tropical rainforest habitats is thought to be a mainly Holocene phenomenon. Although archaeological and paleoenvironmental data have hinted at pre-Holocene rainforest foraging, earlier human reliance on rainforest resources has not been shown directly. We applied stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis to human and faunal tooth enamel from four late Pleistocene-to-Holocene archaeological sites in Sri Lanka. The results show that human foragers relied primarily on rainforest resources from at least ~20,000 years ago, with a distinct preference for semi-open rainforest and rain forest edges. Homo sapiens' relationship with the tropical rainforests of South Asia is therefore long-standing, a conclusion that indicates the time-depth of anthropogenic reliance and influence on these habitats. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Age differences in optimism bias are mediated by reliance on intuition and religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaczynski, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    The relationships among age, optimism bias, religiosity, creationist beliefs, and reliance on intuition were examined in a sample of 211 high school students (M age =16.54years). Optimism bias was defined as the difference between predictions for positive and negative live events (e.g., divorce) for the self and age peers. Results indicated that older adolescents displayed less optimism bias, were less religious, believed less in creationism, and relied on intuition less than younger adolescents. Furthermore, the association between age and optimism bias was mediated by religiosity and reliance on intuition but not by creationist beliefs. These findings are considered from a dual-process theoretic perspective that emphasizes age increases in metacognitive abilities and epistemological beliefs and age declines in impulsive judgments. Research directed toward examining alternative explanations of the association among religiosity, age, and optimism bias is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Rushmore

    Full Text Available Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli, frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp, and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta. We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically. We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant. Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology.

  16. Reliance communications' flag telecom to provide ethernet link between CERN and TIFR

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Flag Telecom Group Limited (Flag), the undersea cable network arm of Anil Ambani-le Reliance Communications, has announced a landmark deal with CERn (Conseil Européen pour la Recheche Nucléaire), the European organisation for nuclear research based in Geneva, Switzerland and the Tata institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai to provide gigabit Ethernet connectivity between the two." (1 page)

  17. The prevalence of alcohol and psychotropic drugs in fatalities of road-traffic accidents in Jordan during 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdallat, Imad M; Al Ali, Rayyan; Hudaib, Arwa A; Salameh, Ghada A M; Salameh, Rakiz J M; Idhair, Ahmed K F

    2016-04-01

    Several studies confirmed alcohol and psychotropic drug consumption as important risk factors underlying fatal accidents. This paper presents updated toxicological findings in the fatalities of road traffic accidents of Amman district, in order to have an overall picture of the occurrence of these substances in these victims in Jordan. Over a seven-year period (2008-2014), 2743, autopsies were conducted at Jordan University Hospital in which the sum of n = 311 (11.38%) were victims of road traffic accidents. Blood samples from these victims were collected. Toxicology screening for psychotropic drugs and alcohol was conducted on these samples, and the results were analyzed according to age, sex and victim's status. This study revealed that Alcohol and psychotropic drugs were positive in 36.5%, (n = 58) of the cases, and for alcohol alone (n = 13, 37.1%). The majority of the victims were pedestrians (n = 155, 49.8%). Additionally, 29.6% (n = 92) of the cases were of ages 19-29. Detected psychotropic drugs were benzodiazepines, barbiturates. None of the collected specimens were positive for illicit cocaine, amphetamines or cannabis. The results from this study proved the existence of alcohol and psychotropic drugs in the victims of road traffic accidents; Indicating an association between the uses of these substances in accident involvement. Though having some limitations, other conclusions require further data collection, cooperation with related parties in Jordan, and utilizing simple extended toxicological screens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations of traffic noise with self-rated health and psychotropic medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic noise is a common environmental nuisance, which has been thought to increase the risk of many types of health problems. However, population-level evidence often remains scarce. This study examined whether road traffic noise is associated with self-rated health and use of psychotropic medication in a cohort of public sector employees. Data are from the Finnish Public Sector Study cohort. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to link modeled outdoor road traffic noise levels (L den) to residential addresses of 15 611 men and women with cross-sectional survey responses on self-rated health and register-based information on the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics. High trait anxiety scores were used to identify potentially vulnerable individuals. The analyses were run with logistic regression models adjusting for individual and area-level variables. All participants were blind to the aim of the study. Mean level of road traffic noise at participants' home addresses was 52 decibels (dB) (standard deviation 8.1). Noise level >60 dB versus ≤45 dB was associated with poor self-rated health in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.14-2.21]. Further stratification revealed that the association was evident only among men with high trait anxiety scores (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.28-3.89). No association was found with psychotropic medication use or among women. Exposure to road traffic noise was not associated with increased use of psychotropic medication, although it was associated with weakened self-rated health among men.

  19. Psychotropic medication in a randomly selected group of citizens receiving residential or home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup, Tina Bergmann; Schultz, Hanne; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with one or more psychotropic medications (PMs), especially in the elderly, is associated with risk, and the effects of treatment are poorly validated. The aim of this article was to describe the use of PM in a population of citizens receiving either residential care or home...... care with focus on the prevalence of drug use, the combination of different PMs and doses in relation to current recommendations. METHODS: The medication lists of 214 citizens receiving residential care (122) and home care (92) were collected together with information on age, gender and residential...

  20. Motor reactivity of animals exposed to ionizing radiation and treated with psychotropic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szwaja, S.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on motor reactivity of animals and the influence of selected psychotropic drugs (fenactil, haloperidol, relanium) on the changes invoked by ionizing radiation were studied experimentally in rats whose motor reactivity was assessed on the basis of conditional reflexes. In unirradiated rats, fenactil and haloperidol, but not relanium, disordered positive conditional reactions. Roentgen irradiation of the rats with a single dose on the whole body caused a drop in positive conditional reactions. Relanium and fenactil enhanced psychomotor activity of rats after exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  1. Motor reactivity of animals exposed to ionizing radiation and treated with psychotropic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szwaja, S [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Krakow (Poland)

    1978-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on motor reactivity of animals and the influence of selected psychotropic drugs (fenactil, haloperidol, relanium) on the changes invoked by ionizing radiation were studied experimentally in rats whose motor reactivity was assessed on the basis of conditional reflexes. In unirradiated rats, fenactil and haloperidol, but not relanium, disordered positive conditional reactions. Roentgen irradiation of the rats with a single dose on the whole body caused a drop in positive conditional reactions. Relanium and fenactil enhanced psychomotor activity of rats after exposure to ionizing radiation.

  2. Combined cannabis/methaqualone withdrawal treated with psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Mark A; Harker, Nadine; Lichtigfeld, Frederick J

    2006-07-01

    This article reports the first single-blind study using psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide (PAN) for treating acute withdrawal states following the abuse of methaqualone combined and smoked with cannabis. Smoked methaqualone combined with cannabis is called "white pipe" (WP). South Africa is the only country in the world where WP is a major form of substance abuse. This article demonstrates in 101 consecutively treated patients given placebo (100% oxygen) followed by PAN that this therapy produced a measurable therapeutic effect (more than 50% improvement) in 87 patients. This study confirms that WP is a form of substance abuse confined mainly to young adult male subjects.

  3. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hoebert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last 20–30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the effects of cultural diversity on the use of new medications entering the market. As national cultures relate deeply to held values regarding, for example, what is seen as effective versus ineffective or safe versus dangerous, (cultural diversity in decision making around the role of new medications in clinical practice may already be expected from the first day after market authorization. Methods This study examined the relation between cultural diversity, described in Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance, Indulgence and Long-Term Orientation and utilization of three new psychotropic medications, namely aripiprazole, duloxetine and pregabalin in Europe. Country level sales data of the case study medications were correlated to country-specific scores of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. IMS Health’s MIDAS database has been used for sales data (converted to Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants/day for the case study medications from the market authorization date in 2004 until December 2009 for 23 EU member states. Results Consumption of the case study medications was seen in all countries. In general, pregabalin was used more often than aripiprazole and duloxetine. In 2 years after market authorization, approximately 80% of all countries have reported use of all three molecules. Correlations between Hofstede dimensions individualism, long-term orientation and indulgence and total use of the case study medications tended to become stronger over time, but they were only statistically significant for indulgence at two years after market authorization (rho

  4. Adverse Side Effects of Psychotropic Medication and Challenging Behavior: Pilot Work Assessing Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G; Schieber, Elizabeth; McMahon, Meara; Beard, Lisa; Wilkinson, Alyssa; Carpenter, Jaimie

    2017-12-01

    Psychotropic medications are often prescribed to reduce challenging behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Functional analyses (FAs) have demonstrated utility in assessing medication impact on behavior; however, the impact of adverse side effects (ASE) on challenging behavior is under-assessed. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology, similar to FAs, to explore potential medication ASE impact on challenging behavior in seven individuals with IDD. Results revealed response rate differences in designed ASE conditions for most participants. Outcomes support further development and use of this methodology to assess the presence and impact of ASEs.

  5. Acute liver failure following recreational use of psychotropic "head shop" compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, S; Lambe, E; O'Dea, J

    2011-03-01

    The recreational use of the so-called "legal-highs" has been in both the medical and political arena over the last year as a result of the appearance of "head shops" in many towns in Ireland. These shops specialized in selling new psychotropic compounds that circumvented established drug legislation. Little is known about the potentially harmful effects of these substances but case reports suggest a plethora of harmful psychological and physical effects. Our case describes for the first time acute liver failure associated with the ingestion of two of these amphetamine type compounds.

  6. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebert, J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Leufkens, H G M; van Dijk, L

    2017-11-06

    In the last 20-30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older) psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the effects of cultural diversity on the use of new medications entering the market. As national cultures relate deeply to held values regarding, for example, what is seen as effective versus ineffective or safe versus dangerous, (cultural) diversity in decision making around the role of new medications in clinical practice may already be expected from the first day after market authorization. This study examined the relation between cultural diversity, described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance, Indulgence and Long-Term Orientation) and utilization of three new psychotropic medications, namely aripiprazole, duloxetine and pregabalin in Europe. Country level sales data of the case study medications were correlated to country-specific scores of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. IMS Health's MIDAS database has been used for sales data (converted to Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants/day) for the case study medications from the market authorization date in 2004 until December 2009 for 23 EU member states. Consumption of the case study medications was seen in all countries. In general, pregabalin was used more often than aripiprazole and duloxetine. In 2 years after market authorization, approximately 80% of all countries have reported use of all three molecules. Correlations between Hofstede dimensions individualism, long-term orientation and indulgence and total use of the case study medications tended to become stronger over time, but they were only statistically significant for indulgence at two years after market authorization (rho = 0.51, p = 0.014) and three years after market

  7. Motivational interviewing: a tool for increasing psychotropic medication adherence for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Vanya; McGuinness, Teena M

    2013-06-01

    There are serious outcomes to nonadherence to psychotropic medications in children and adolescents, including poor school performance, prolonged duration of illness, increased psychopathology, poor interpersonal relationships, increased psychiatric episodes, and suicide attempts. Medication treatment has demonstrated improved psychiatric functioning and a 50% reduction in suicidal behavior. more than 50% of youth with mental health problems are nonadherent with psychiatric medications. A review of literature examining motivational interviewing (MI) for the problem of treatment adherence in children and adolescents is discussed. MI has great potential to improve psychiatric medication adherence in adolescents. An example of how to implement MI with youth is provided.

  8. A three-country comparison of psychotropic medication prevalence in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner James F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to compare cross-national prevalence of psychotropic medication use in youth. Methods A population-based analysis of psychotropic medication use based on administrative claims data for the year 2000 was undertaken for insured enrollees from 3 countries in relation to age group (0–4, 5–9, 10–14, and 15–19, gender, drug subclass pattern and concomitant use. The data include insured youth aged 0–19 in the year 2000 from the Netherlands (n = 110,944, Germany (n = 356,520 and the United States (n = 127,157. Results The annual prevalence of any psychotropic medication in youth was significantly greater in the US (6.7% than in the Netherlands (2.9% and in Germany (2.0%. Antidepressant and stimulant prevalence were 3 or more times greater in the US than in the Netherlands and Germany, while antipsychotic prevalence was 1.5–2.2 times greater. The atypical antipsychotic subclass represented only 5% of antipsychotic use in Germany, but 48% in the Netherlands and 66% in the US. The less commonly used drugs e.g. alpha agonists, lithium and antiparkinsonian agents generally followed the ranking of US>Dutch>German youth with very rare (less than 0.05% use in Dutch and German youth. Though rarely used, anxiolytics were twice as common in Dutch as in US and German youth. Prescription hypnotics were half as common as anxiolytics in Dutch and US youth and were very uncommon in German youth. Concomitant drug use applied to 19.2% of US youth which was more than double the Dutch use and three times that of German youth. Conclusion Prominent differences in psychotropic medication treatment patterns exist between youth in the US and Western Europe and within Western Europe. Differences in policies regarding direct to consumer drug advertising, government regulatory restrictions, reimbursement policies, diagnostic classification systems, and cultural beliefs regarding the role of medication for emotional and behavioral

  9. The Harvard Catalyst Common Reciprocal IRB Reliance Agreement: an innovative approach to multisite IRB review and oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Sabune J; Witte, Elizabeth; Bierer, Barbara E

    2015-02-01

    Reduction of duplicative Institutional Review Board (IRB) review for multiinstitutional studies is a desirable goal to improve IRB efficiency while enhancing human subject protections. Here we describe the Harvard Catalyst Master Reciprocal Common IRB Reliance Agreement (MRA), a system that provides a legal framework for IRB reliance, with the potential to streamline IRB review processes and reduce administrative burden and barriers to collaborative, multiinstitutional research. The MRA respects the legal autonomy of the signatory institutions while offering a pathway to eliminate duplicative IRB review when appropriate. The Harvard Catalyst MRA provides a robust and flexible model for reciprocal reliance that is both adaptable and scalable. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A computerized stroop test for the evaluation of psychotropic drugs in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Raveendranadh; Naidu, Mur; Pingali, Usha Rani; Shobha, J C; Reddy, A Praveen

    2013-04-01

    The Stroop paradigm evaluates susceptibility to interference and is sensitive to dysfunction in frontal lobes and drug effects. The aim of the present study was to establish a simple and reliable computerized version of Stroop color-word test, which can be used for screening of various psychotropic drugs. The standardized method was followed in all cases, by recording the reaction time (RT) in msec in 24 healthy participants using computerized version of Stroop color-word test. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by recording the RTs by a single experimenter on two sessions (interday reproducibility). Validity of the model was further tested by evaluating the psychotropic effect of Zolpidem 5 mg, Caffeine 500 mg, or Placebo on 24 healthy subjects in a randomized, double blind three-way crossover design. The method was found to produce low variability with coefficient of variation less than 10%. Interday reproducibility was very good as shown by Bland-Altman plot with most of the values within ±2SD. There was a significant increase in RTs in Stroop performance with Zolpidem at 1 hr and 2 hrs; in contrast, caffeine significantly decreased RTs in Stroop performance at 1 hr only compared to placebo. The Stroop color-word recording and analysis system is simple, sensitive to centrally acting drug effects, and has potential for future experimental psychomotor assessment studies.

  11. The Neuroprotective Disease-Modifying Potential of Psychotropics in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Lauterbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotective treatments in Parkinson's disease (PD have remained elusive. Psychotropics are commonly prescribed in PD without regard to their pathobiological effects. The authors investigated the effects of psychotropics on pathobiological proteins, proteasomal activity, mitochondrial functions, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, trophic factors, stem cells, and neurogenesis. Only findings replicated in at least 2 studies were considered for these actions. Additionally, PD-related gene transcription, animal model, and human neuroprotective clinical trial data were reviewed. Results indicate that, from a PD pathobiology perspective, the safest drugs (i.e., drugs least likely to promote cellular neurodegenerative mechanisms balanced against their likelihood of promoting neuroprotective mechanisms include pramipexole, valproate, lithium, desipramine, escitalopram, and dextromethorphan. Fluoxetine favorably affects transcription of multiple genes (e.g., MAPT, GBA, CCDC62, HIP1R, although it and desipramine reduced MPTP mouse survival. Haloperidol is best avoided. The most promising neuroprotective investigative priorities will involve disease-modifying trials of the safest agents alone or in combination to capture salutary effects on H3 histone deacetylase, gene transcription, glycogen synthase kinase-3, α-synuclein, reactive oxygen species (ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS, apoptosis, inflammation, and trophic factors including GDNF and BDNF.

  12. [The different point of view about the sanitary control of importation of psychotropic substances in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Patrícia Cristina Antunes; Lucchese, Geraldo

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the process of importation, that is a part of the sanitary control of psychotropic substances, made by Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency's ports, airports and borders. For this work, psychotropic substances are defined as active pharmaceutical raw materials present in the list B1 of Portaria nº 344/98; which need Anvisa's permission to be imported. For this purpose we used semistructured interviews with key informers and participant observation. The information were collected and systematized through the content analysis, thematic modality. The results show a very complex control which involves an intense bureaucratic process. The main identified critical points of the process were: the information system precariousness; the absence of human resources; deficiency of laboratorial support and infra-structure at customs. Anvisa's web page and the specific law are strong points of the process, but still needing improvements. We understood that despite of the progress made, there are many things to do for giving the country an efficient health control system to the importation of these substances.

  13. Exploring the link between organizational climate and the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Fois, Romano A; Chen, Timothy F

    Research concerning the overprescribing of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes suggests that organizational climate plays a significant role in the use of psychotropic medicines. Organizational climate refers to how members of the organization perceive their work environment as well as interactions with each other or outsiders. This study aimed to explore the key dimensions of organizational climate and their subsequent influence on the use of psychotropic medicines. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 on-site and visiting staff from eight nursing homes in Sydney, Australia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants representing a broad range of health disciplines and roles. Transcripts were content coded for participants' perceptions related to the work environment and descriptions of psychotropic medicines use. Thematic analysis was used to derive key concepts. Three salient dimensions of organizational climate were linked to the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: staffing, managerial expectations and teamwork among visiting and on-site staff. Inadequate staffing levels were perceived to influence on-site staff requests for initiation of psychotropic medicines to cope with high workload. Participants reported managers that prioritized the non-pharmacological management of behavioral disturbances led other on-site staff to have a reduced preference for psychotropic medicines. In addition, trust and open communication among on-site and visiting staff facilitated the cessation of psychotropic medicines. This study illustrates that organizational climate is an important factor influencing the use of psychotropic medicines. Furthermore, the study highlights what aspects of organizational climate need to be addressed to reduce the inappropriate prescribing of psychotropic medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Introduction matters: Manipulating trust in automation and reliance in automated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Moritz; Baseler, Eva; Bengler, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Trust in automation is a key determinant for the adoption of automated systems and their appropriate use. Therefore, it constitutes an essential research area for the introduction of automated vehicles to road traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of trust promoting (Trust promoted group) and trust lowering (Trust lowered group) introductory information on reported trust, reliance behavior and take-over performance. Forty participants encountered three situations in a 17-min highway drive in a conditionally automated vehicle (SAE Level 3). Situation 1 and Situation 3 were non-critical situations where a take-over was optional. Situation 2 represented a critical situation where a take-over was necessary to avoid a collision. A non-driving-related task (NDRT) was presented between the situations to record the allocation of visual attention. Participants reporting a higher trust level spent less time looking at the road or instrument cluster and more time looking at the NDRT. The manipulation of introductory information resulted in medium differences in reported trust and influenced participants' reliance behavior. Participants of the Trust promoted group looked less at the road or instrument cluster and more at the NDRT. The odds of participants of the Trust promoted group to overrule the automated driving system in the non-critical situations were 3.65 times (Situation 1) to 5 times (Situation 3) higher. In Situation 2, the Trust promoted group's mean take-over time was extended by 1154 ms and the mean minimum time-to-collision was 933 ms shorter. Six participants from the Trust promoted group compared to no participant of the Trust lowered group collided with the obstacle. The results demonstrate that the individual trust level influences how much drivers monitor the environment while performing an NDRT. Introductory information influences this trust level, reliance on an automated driving system, and if a critical take-over situation can be

  15. Patterns of psychotropic medication use in inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alosaimi FD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Abdulhadi Alhabbad,2 Mohammed F Abalhassan,3 Ebtihaj O Fallata,4 Nasser M Alzain,5 Mohammad Zayed Alassiry,6 Bander Abdullah Haddad71Department of Psychiatry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Prince Mohammed Medical City, Aljouf, 3Department of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 4Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health Hospital, Jeddah, 5Department of Psychiatry, Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, 6Medical Services Department, Abha Psychiatric Hospital, Abha, 7Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To study the pattern of psychotropic medication use and compare this pattern between inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia.Method: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between July 2012 and June 2014 on patients seeking psychiatric advice at major hospitals in five main regions of Saudi Arabia. Male (n=651 and female (n=594 patients who signed the informed consent form and were currently or had been previously using psychotropic medications, irrespective of the patient’s type of psychiatric diagnosis and duration of the disease, were included. A total of 1,246 patients were found to be suitable in the inclusion criteria of whom 464 were inpatients while 782 were outpatients.Results: Several studied demographic factors have shown that compared with outpatients, inpatients were more likely to be male (P=0.004, unmarried (P<0.001, have less number of children (1–3; P=0.002, unemployed (P=0.001, have a lower family income (<3,000 SR; P<0.001, live in rural communities (P<0.001, have a lower body mass index (P=0.001, and are smokers (P<0.001; however, there were no differences with regard to age or educational levels. The current frequency of use of psychotropic medications in overall patients was antipsychotics (76.6%, antidepressants (41.4%, mood stabilizers

  16. Reliance on and Reliability of the Engineer’s Estimate in Heavy Civil Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Okere, George

    2017-01-01

    To the contractor, the engineer’s estimate is the target number to aim for, and the basis for a contractor to evaluate the accuracy of their estimate. To the owner, the engineer’s estimate is the basis for funding, evaluation of bids, and for predicting project costs. As such the engineer’s estimate is the benchmark. This research sought to investigate the reliance on, and the reliability of the engineer’s estimate in heavy civil cost estimate. The research objective was to characterize the e...

  17. Self-reliance and innovation of Qinshan phase II NPP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Qizhen; Yang Lanhe

    2007-01-01

    This article mainly describes the self-reliance and innovation of Qinshan nuclear power project of phase II, in-between it contains new reactor core design, as well as related experimental and calculation analysis, especially for new reactor design produced fluid-induced vibration model test, theoretical analysis and testing in-built reactor; aiming at two-loop NSSS a series improvement made for safety systems and related safety analysis to enhance their reliability and redundancy; according to specialty of two-loop NSSS an optimization made for NPP parameters and design of related equipments, for the purpose to make the output of NPP maximal; design of main reactor building and T-G building also improved according to characteristics of two-loop NSSS and site conditions. CRDM and refueling machine are researched and manufactured on base of self-reliance, their performance are better than design requirements, large portion of key equipments are localized through different way. In construction first time realized the integrated erection of containment dome. During the commissioning non-nuclear steam driving of T-G set, as well as 500 kV high voltage rising using emergent diesel generator, etc. are carried out.In period of operation still continuous innovation and improvement are made, so that to keep the good record of operation. (authors)

  18. The public's preparedness: self-reliance, flashbulb memories, and conservative values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R; Dyen, Susannah; Elliott, Stacey

    2013-06-01

    We surveyed how many US residents engaged in 6 preparedness activities and measured the relationship between engagement and personal experience in hazard events, flashbulb memories of major events, self-reliance, and other indicators of a conservative philosophy. We used random digit dialing for national landline (75%) and cell phone (25%) surveys of 1930 US residents from July 6, 2011, to September 9, 2011; 1080 of the sample lived near 6 US Department of Energy nuclear waste management facilities and 850 were a national random sample. The median respondent engaged in 3 of the 6 activities; those who disproportionately engaged in 4 or more had experienced a hazard event, had distressing and strong flashbulb memories of major hazard events, and had strong feelings about the need for greater self-reliance. The results for the national and US Department of Energy site-specific surveys were almost identical. A cadre of US residents are disproportionately engaged in disaster preparedness, and they typically have stronger negative memories of past disasters and tend to be self-reliant. How their efforts can or should be integrated into local preparedness efforts is unclear.

  19. The Public’s Preparedness: Self-Reliance, Flashbulb Memories, and Conservative Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyen, Susannah; Elliott, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We surveyed how many US residents engaged in 6 preparedness activities and measured the relationship between engagement and personal experience in hazard events, flashbulb memories of major events, self-reliance, and other indicators of a conservative philosophy. Methods. We used random digit dialing for national landline (75%) and cell phone (25%) surveys of 1930 US residents from July 6, 2011, to September 9, 2011; 1080 of the sample lived near 6 US Department of Energy nuclear waste management facilities and 850 were a national random sample. Results. The median respondent engaged in 3 of the 6 activities; those who disproportionately engaged in 4 or more had experienced a hazard event, had distressing and strong flashbulb memories of major hazard events, and had strong feelings about the need for greater self-reliance. The results for the national and US Department of Energy site–specific surveys were almost identical. Conclusions. A cadre of US residents are disproportionately engaged in disaster preparedness, and they typically have stronger negative memories of past disasters and tend to be self-reliant. How their efforts can or should be integrated into local preparedness efforts is unclear. PMID:23597367

  20. Giving wellness a spiritual workout. Two model programs emphasize the development of self-reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, B L

    1989-04-01

    Many hospitals, corporations, and communities have developed wellness programs to help people maintain a healthy life-style. Today's wellness doctrine reflects modern medical thinking that, to achieve optimal human potential, a person must enjoy physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Most wellness programs, however, concentrate on the physical; few take into account spiritual well-being. Wellness programs developed by the Boulder County YMCA, Longmont, CO, and the University of Maryland, College Park, were based on an interpretation of a model suggested by Carl Jung that defines spirituality as the development of self-reliance. According to Jung, the constituents of self-reliance include awareness, inner faith, self-worth, humility, patience, acceptance, and self-confidence. He suggested that the absence of any one of these could cause a breakdown in a person's belief system and lead to a spiritual crisis. These programs trained participants to recognize the importance of their spiritual well-being and to find practical ways to improve it. Key components were a stress management course; workshops in confidence building and values clarification; and classes, lectures, and workshops that emphasize the integration of spiritual and physical well-being.

  1. Modeling Increased Complexity and the Reliance on Automation: FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the development of a model that is focused on the safety issue of increasing complexity and reliance on automation systems in transport category aircraft. Recent statistics show an increase in mishaps related to manual handling and automation errors due to pilot complacency and over-reliance on automation, loss of situational awareness, automation system failures and/or pilot deficiencies. Consequently, the aircraft can enter a state outside the flight envelope and/or air traffic safety margins which potentially can lead to loss-of-control (LOC), controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT), or runway excursion/confusion accidents, etc. The goal of this modeling effort is to provide NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) with a platform capable of assessing the impacts of AvSP technologies and products towards reducing the relative risk of automation related accidents and incidents. In order to do so, a generic framework, capable of mapping both latent and active causal factors leading to automation errors, is developed. Next, the framework is converted into a Bayesian Belief Network model and populated with data gathered from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). With the insertion of technologies and products, the model provides individual and collective risk reduction acquired by technologies and methodologies developed within AvSP.

  2. Genotoxic and immunotoxic potential effects of selected psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, Emilie; Pédelucq, Julie; Fortier, Marlène; Brousseau, Pauline; Auffret, Michel; Budzinski, Hélène; Fournier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The potential toxicity of pharmaceuticals towards aquatic invertebrates is still poorly understood and sometimes controversial. This study aims to document the in vitro genotoxicity and immunotoxicity of psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on Mytilus edulis. Mussel hemocytes were exposed to fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin, at concentrations ranging from μg/L to mg/L. Paroxetine at 1.5 μg/L led to DNA damage while the same concentration of venlafaxine caused immunomodulation. Fluoxetine exposure resulted in genotoxicity, immunotoxicity and cytotoxicity. In the case of antibiotics, trimethoprim was genotoxic at 200 μg/L and immunotoxic at 20 mg/L whereas erythromycin elicited same detrimental effects at higher concentrations. DNA metabolism seems to be a highly sensitive target for psychotropic drugs and antibiotics. Furthermore, these compounds affect the immune system of bivalves, with varying intensity. This attests the relevance of these endpoints to assess the toxic mode of action of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. - Highlights: • Psychotropic drugs and antibiotics affect the immune system of Mytilus edulis. • Genotoxic and immunotoxic endpoints were relevant to assess pharmaceuticals toxicity. • DNA metabolism is a highly sensitive target for pharmaceuticals. • Fluoxetine and paroxetine were the most toxic compounds on mussel hemocytes. - Psychotropic drugs and antibiotics have the potential to cause immune toxicity and genotoxicity on Mytilus edulis hemocytes

  3. Duration of residence and psychotropic drug use in recently settled refugees in Sweden - a register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Hjern, Anders

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently settled refugee populations have consistently been reported to have high rates of mental health problems, particularly Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among young adult refugee...

  4. Racial and ethnic differences in psychotropic medication use among community-dwelling persons with dementia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Elsie L; Allen, Rebecca S; Ivey, Keisha; Knapp, Shannon M; Burgio, Louis D

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about the patterns of psychotropic medication use in community-dwelling minority persons with dementia (PWD). The purpose of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic differences in psychotropic medication use across a diverse population of community-dwelling PWD and to examine the extent to which caregiver characteristics influence this use. Data were drawn from the baseline assessment of the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health II trial. Generalized linear models were used to identify racial/ethnic differences in psychotropic medication use. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection was used to evaluate possible explanations for observed differences across racial/ethnic group. Differences in anxiolytic and antipsychotic medication use were observed across racial/ethnic groups; however, race/ethnicity alone was not sufficient to explain those differences. Perceptions of caregiving and caregiver socioeconomic status were important predictors of anxiolytic use while PWD characteristics, including cognitive impairment, functional impairment, problem behavior frequency, pain, relationship to the caregiver, sex, and age were important for antipsychotic use. Racial/ethnic differences in psychotropic medication use among community-dwelling PWD cannot be explained by race/ethnicity alone. The importance of caregiver characteristics in predicting anxiolytic medication use suggest that interventions aimed at caregivers may hold promise as an effective alternative to pharmacotherapy.

  5. Exposure to reactive intermediate-inducing drugs during pregnancy and the incident use of psychotropic medications among children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Yen-Hao; Groen, Henk; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Hak, Eelko; Wilffert, Bob

    Purpose Our study aimed to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to reactive intermediate (RI)-inducing drugs and the initiation of psychotropic medications among children. Methods We designed a cohort study using a pharmacy prescription database. Pregnant women were considered

  6. 2017 AMcard prn.pmd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2017-11-03

    Nov 3, 2017 ... Chairperson: M M Sarin, Physical Research laboratory, Ahmedabad. 1200–1220 Shailesh Nayak, Ministry of Earth Sciences, New Delhi. Towards the understanding of triggered earthquakes. 1225–1245 Gobinda Majumder, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. A journey to the discovery of ...

  7. [Autonomy attitudes in the treatment compliance of a cohort of subjects with continuous psychotropic drug administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, M; Trincard, M

    2002-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs are part of a general practitioner's daily routine. As with all drugs, they need to be controlled by a phenomenon of observance. Respecting prescriptions is in fact a major public health concern. Our problematic is centred on the analysis of the association between observance and autonomy in order to gain a better understanding of the links between the drug, how it is to be taken, and how the patients adapt and control it. Identifying and comparing autonomous practices psychotrope users associated with attitudes put into play by those who claim to observe or not to observe their treatment is the aim of this project. The qualitative analysis of the speech is based on the categorial analysis of the contents of 46 transcriptions of 23 women et 23 men continuous (regular monthly intake for at least 5 years), aged between 50 and 65. The majority live in couples, have professional activities, and are executives. The psychotropes with the largest consumption are: anxiolytics and antidepressors. The average duration of their consumption is more than 17 years. Two types of attitude can be distinguished through the qualitative analyse. The attitudes of non-observers towards the psychotropic drug and dependence show controlled, autonomous acts. Autonomy is an influencing factor in their observation of the prescribed treatment, it is a major component of their non-observance regarding psychotropes; thus our hypothesis is confirmed. The strategy adopted around the medication arises from autonomy of action. Organising the treatment is seen as a sign of autonomy, as taking an initiative in relation to the medical prescription, and not as rebellious, or carefree behaviour, or as a sign of inconsistency. Non-observers seem more to be involved in a step towards self-regulation. Active taking verbs such as stop, diminish, increase , and success verbs succeed the I is greatly used, reinforced in some cases by myself ; this vocabulary situates the

  8. Period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication usage among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Keith A; Sikirica, Vanja; Hodgkins, Paul; Zhou, Zhou; Xie, Jipan; DeLeon, Anthony; Erder, M Haim; Wu, Eric Q

    2014-06-01

    Stimulants are recommended as a first-line treatment for attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, a subset of the patient population augments their stimulant treatment with other medications. The objective of this study was to estimate the 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use among children and adolescents with ADHD during 2009. Patients 6-17 years of age with one or more primary ADHD diagnoses between July 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 and one or more stimulant prescription fills during 2009 were identified from a large United States commercial claims database. Concomitant psychotropic medication use, defined as 30 days of continuous medication supply overlap between the augmenting agent and stimulant, was evaluated for 14 distinct psychotropic medication categories (6 with a United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indication for ADHD, 8 without an indication for ADHD). The 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use (both overall and within each medication category) was calculated and compared between patients with and without psychiatric or neurologic comorbidities. Children (6-12 years) and adolescents (13-17 years) were evaluated separately. A total of 71,201 children and 49,959 adolescents met the inclusion criteria. The 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use among children and adolescents was 20.3% and 23.4%, with 5.7% and 6.7% augmenting with two or more medication categories, respectively. The most common concomitant medication categories were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (children: 6.2%; adolescents: 11.4%), atypical antipsychotics (5.8%; 6.8%) and clonidine immediate release (5.4%; 2.9%). Children and adolescents with psychiatric or neurologic comorbidities had higher rates of augmentation than did those without comorbidities (all p<0.001). This epidemiologic study found that the prevalence of concomitant psychotropic

  9. Long Working Hours and Subsequent Use of Psychotropic Medicine: A Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental ill health is the most frequent cause of long-term sickness absence and disability retirement in Denmark. Some instances of mental ill health might be due to long working hours. A recent large cross-sectional study of a general working population in Norway found that not only “very much overtime”, but also “moderate overtime” (41-48 work hours/week) was significantly associated with increased levels of both anxiety and depression. These findings have not been sufficiently confirmed in longitudinal studies. Objective The objective of the study is to give a detailed plan for a research project aimed at investigating the possibility of a prospective association between weekly working hours and use of psychotropic medicine in the general working population of Denmark. Methods People from the general working population of Denmark have been surveyed, at various occasions in the time period 1995-2010, and interviewed about their work environment. The present study will link interview data from these surveys to national registers covering all inhabitants of Denmark. The participants will be followed for the first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. Poisson regression will be used to analyze incidence rates as a function of weekly working hours (32-40; 41-48; > 48 hours/week). The analyses will be controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. According to our feasibility studies, the statistical power is sufficient and the exposure is stable enough to make the study worth the while. Results The publication of the present study protocol ends the design phase of the project. In the next phase, the questionnaire data will be forwarded to Statistics Denmark where they will be linked to data on deaths, migrations, socioeconomic status, and redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medication. We expect the analysis to be completed by the end of 2014 and the results to be published mid 2015

  10. Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: II. Psychotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppala, Lotta J; Wermelink, Anne M A T; de Vries, Max; Ploegmakers, Kimberley J; van de Glind, Esther M M; Daams, Joost G; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2018-04-01

    Falls are a major public health problem in older adults. Earlier studies showed that psychotropic medication use increases the risk of falls. The aim of this study is to update the current knowledge by providing a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on psychotropic medication use and falls in older adults. This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis. A search was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and Embase. Key search concepts were "falls," "aged," "medication," and "causality." Studies were included that investigated psychotropics (antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics) as risk factors for falls in participants ≥60 years of age or participants with a mean age of ≥70 years. Meta-analyses were performed using generic inverse variance method pooling unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates separately. In total, 248 studies met the inclusion criteria for qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses using adjusted data showed the following pooled ORs: antipsychotics 1.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-1.85], antidepressants 1.57 (95% Cl 1.43-1.74), tricyclic antidepressants 1.41 (95% CI 1.07-1.86), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors 2.02 (95% CI 1.85-2.20), benzodiazepines 1.42 (95%, CI 1.22-1.65), long-acting benzodiazepines 1.81 (95%, CI 1.05-3.16), and short-acting benzodiazepines 1.27 (95%, CI 1.04-1.56) Most of the meta-analyses resulted in substantial heterogeneity that did not disappear after stratification for population and healthcare setting. Antipsychotics, antidepressants, and benzodiazepines are consistently associated with a higher risk of falls. It is unclear whether specific subgroups such as short-acting benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are safer in terms of fall risk. Prescription bias could not be accounted for. Future studies need to address pharmacologic subgroups as fall risk may differ depending on specific medication properties. Precise and uniform

  11. Long working hours and subsequent use of psychotropic medicine: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, Harald; Albertsen, Karen

    2014-09-19

    Mental ill health is the most frequent cause of long-term sickness absence and disability retirement in Denmark. Some instances of mental ill health might be due to long working hours. A recent large cross-sectional study of a general working population in Norway found that not only "very much overtime", but also "moderate overtime" (41-48 work hours/week) was significantly associated with increased levels of both anxiety and depression. These findings have not been sufficiently confirmed in longitudinal studies. The objective of the study is to give a detailed plan for a research project aimed at investigating the possibility of a prospective association between weekly working hours and use of psychotropic medicine in the general working population of Denmark. People from the general working population of Denmark have been surveyed, at various occasions in the time period 1995-2010, and interviewed about their work environment. The present study will link interview data from these surveys to national registers covering all inhabitants of Denmark. The participants will be followed for the first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. Poisson regression will be used to analyze incidence rates as a function of weekly working hours (32-40; 41-48; > 48 hours/week). The analyses will be controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. According to our feasibility studies, the statistical power is sufficient and the exposure is stable enough to make the study worth the while. The publication of the present study protocol ends the design phase of the project. In the next phase, the questionnaire data will be forwarded to Statistics Denmark where they will be linked to data on deaths, migrations, socioeconomic status, and redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medication. We expect the analysis to be completed by the end of 2014 and the results to be published mid 2015. The proposed project will be free from hindsight bias

  12. Questioning the causal link between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring use of psychotropic medication: a sibling design analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Söderström

    Full Text Available A recent population-based, longitudinal study from Finland observed a dose-response association between smoking during pregnancy (SDP and use of psychotropic medications in exposed children and young adults. However, this association may be confounded by unmeasured familial characteristics related to both SDP and offspring mental health. Consequently, we aim to investigate the effect of SDP by means of a sibling design that to some extent allows controlling for unknown environmental and genetic confounders. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register (1987-1993, which was linked to the Swedish Prescribed Drugs Register (July 2005-December 2008, we investigated 579,543 children and among them 39, 007 were discordant for use of psychotropic medication and 4,021 siblings discordant for both use of psychotropic medication and for smoking exposure. Replicating the Finnish study using traditional logistic regression methods we found an association between exposure to ≥10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy and psychotropic drug use (odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.56, 1.66. Similar in size to the association reported from Finland (odds ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval 1.53, 1.74. However, in the adjusted sibling analysis using conditional logistic regression, the association was considerably reduced (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 1.38. Preventing smoking is of major public health importance. However, SDP per se appears to have less influence on offspring psychotropic drug use than previously suggested.

  13. [Treatment with psychotropic agents in patients with dementia and delirium : Gap between guideline recommendations and treatment practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Walter; Thomas, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Psychiatric symptoms in dementia and delirium are associated with a substantially reduced quality of life of patients and their families and often challenging for professionals. Pharmacoepidemiological surveys have shown that, in particular, patients living in nursing homes receive prescriptions of psychotropic agents in significant higher frequency than recommended by current guidelines. This article focuses on a critical appraisal of this gap from the point of view of German healthcare services. Narrative review with special reference to the German dementia guideline from 2016 and recently published practice guidelines for delirium in old age in German and English language. The indications for use of psychotropic agents, especially antipsychotics, are defined narrowly in the German dementia guideline. According to this guideline for several psychopathological symptoms evidence based recommendations cannot be given, currently. For delirium several practice guidelines related to different treatment settings have been published recently. Comparable to the German dementia guideline they recommend general medical interventions and nonpharmacological treatment as first line measures and the use of psychotropic agents only under certain conditions. These guidelines differ to some extent regarding the strength of recommendation for psychopharmacological treatment. The guidelines discussed here advocate well-founded a cautious prescription of psychotropic agents in patients with dementia and delirium. This contrasts to everyday practice which is characterized by significantly higher prescription rates. This gap may explained partially by a lack of evidence-based recommendations regarding certain psychopathological symptoms. Most notably, however, epidemiological data disclose an unacceptable rate of hazardous overtreatment with psychotropic agents, especially in long-term care of persons with dementia. In this situation counteractive measures by consequent implementation

  14. "Psychiatry is not a science like others" - a focus group study on psychotropic prescribing in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenrud, Tove M; Svensson, Staffan A; Wallerstedt, Susanna M

    2013-08-12

    Psychotropic drug prescribing is problematic and knowledge of factors affecting the initiation and maintenance of such prescribing is incomplete. Such knowledge could provide a basis for the design of interventions to change prescribing patterns for psychotropics. The aim of this study was to explore the views of general practitioners (GPs), GP interns, and heads of primary care units on factors affecting the prescribing of psychotropic drugs in primary care. We performed four focus group discussions in Gothenburg, Sweden, with a total of 21 participants (GPs, GP interns, and heads of primary care units). The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using manifest content analysis. Three different themes emerged from the focus group discussions. The first theme Seeking care for symptoms, reflects the participants' understanding of why patients approach primary care and comprised categories such as knowledge, attitudes, and society and the media. The second theme, Lacking a framework, resources, and treatment alternatives, which reflects the conditions for the physician-patient interaction, comprised categories such as economy and resources, technology, and organizational aspects. The third theme, Restricting or maintaining prescriptions, with the subthemes Individual factors and External influences, reflects the physicians' internal decision making and comprised categories such as emotions, knowledge, and pharmaceutical industry. The results of the present study indicate that a variety of factors may affect the prescribing of psychotropic medications in primary care. Many factors were related to characteristics of the patient, the physician or their interaction, rather than the patients' medical needs per se. The results may be useful for interventions to improve psychotropic prescribing in primary care.

  15. Music therapy for reducing agitation and psychotropic medication in nursing home residents with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a neurocognitive disease with a high risk of social isolation and agitation due to loss of cognitive functions. In nursing home residents with dementia, agitation is the most significant symptom causing patient distress and care- giver burden. Agitation is described as abuse or aggres......Dementia is a neurocognitive disease with a high risk of social isolation and agitation due to loss of cognitive functions. In nursing home residents with dementia, agitation is the most significant symptom causing patient distress and care- giver burden. Agitation is described as abuse...... or aggressive or inappropriate behaviour. According to a psychosocial model of care, agitation is understood as attempts to communicate psychosocial needs. The prevalence of agitation is predicted by the psychosocial culture of care, and too often symptoms of agitation are treated with psychotropic medication...

  16. Robust optimization of psychotropic drug mixture separation in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Tijana; Jovanović, Marko; Dumić, Aleksandra; Pekić, Marina; Ribić, Sanja; Stojanović, Biljana Jancić

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents multiobjective optimization of complex mixtures separation in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). The selected model mixture consisted of five psychotropic drugs: clozapine, thioridazine, sulpiride, pheniramine and lamotrigine. Three factors related to the mobile phase composition (acetonitrile content, pH of the water phase and concentration of ammonium acetate) were optimized in order to achieve the following goals: maximal separation quality, minimal total analysis duration and robustness of an optimum. The consideration of robustness in early phases of the method development provides reliable methods with low risk for failure in validation phase. The simultaneous optimization of all goals was achieved by multiple threshold approach combined with grid point search. The identified optimal separation conditions (acetonitrile content 83%, pH of the water phase 3.5 and ammonium acetate content in water phase 14 mM) were experimentally verified.

  17. Psychotropic drug use among persons with mental distress symptoms: a population-based study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Anne M; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Rosvold, Elin O; Bramness, Jørgen G; Furu, Kari

    2007-01-01

    To explore psychotropic drug use in the general population and in particular among non-institutionalized persons with mental distress symptoms. A total of 14,139 women and 11,665 men participating in the Oslo Health Study or the Oppland/Hedmark Study 2000-2001 submitted a self-administered questionnaire on health status and drug use, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Respondents using antidepressants, hypnotics, and/or anxiolytics during the last four weeks were defined as users. A high Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-10 score indicated mental distress. The 15% with the highest score in each gender and age group (adults: 30/40/45 years; elderly: 60 years) were studied. The prevalence of antidepressant use among those with mental distress was, for women: adults 21%; elderly 30%; and for men, adults 15%; elderly 15%. These figures were nearly four times higher than in the general population. Not participating in the labour market was the main factor associated with use of antidepressants for subjects with mental distress: adult women (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-5.0); elderly women (OR 5.2; CI 2.7-10.2); adult men (OR 4.7; CI 3.0-7.3); and elderly men (OR 2.9; CI 1.4-6.0). Use of analgesics was the main factor associated with use of anxiolytics/hypnotics: adult women (OR 2.4; CI 1.7-3.4); elderly women (OR 2.3; CI 1.4-3.8); adult men (OR 2.1; CI 1.3-3.3); and elderly men (OR 3.4; CI 1.9-6.0). Among individuals with mental distress, not participating in the labour market and regular use of analgesics were the main factors associated with use of psychotropics in both genders regardless of age.

  18. Off-label psychotropic prescribing for young persons in medium security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, C; Stubbs, J

    2010-10-01

    Psychotropic drug prescribing for children and adolescents is frequently off-label and has increased over time and can be controversial. Psychotropic prescribing in two large UK medium secure units for young people has been studied. A total of 89 patients were included, 64% being aged less than 18 years. A total of 137 of 202 (67.8%) of prescriptions were off-label. The most common reasons for a prescription being off-label were the indication (N = 103) and the patient's age (N = 41). The main classes of drugs involved were antipsychotics (N = 59), antiepileptics as mood stabilisers (N = 22), anticholinergics and hyoscine (N = 15) and antidepressants (N = 11). Aggression (N = 48) and post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 30) were the most common off-label indications. Some antidepressant prescriptions were contrary to advice of the Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM). Meta-analyses or randomised controlled trials supported 27% of off-label prescriptions, with lesser quality studies supporting a further 29.2% and expert opinion 38.7%, whereas for 5.1% no evidence could be found. Prescribers tended to over-estimate the level of evidence from clinical trials or extrapolated from findings in adults. They often quoted their own experience rather than expert sources to justify their prescribing practice. It is important that prescribers are fully aware of the quality of experimental data and the risk-benefit ratio when prescribing off-label for young persons. If the evidence base is limited, it is particularly important to provide information about the risks and benefits of the treatment to the patient/relatives. A second opinion may be helpful. Both target symptoms and side effects should be monitored and regularly reviewed.

  19. Psychotropic Pharmacotherapy Associated With QT Prolongation Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Eileen M; Zeber, John E; McNeal, Catherine J; Banchs, Javier E; Copeland, Laurel A

    2018-04-01

    In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration issued Drug Safety Communications on several drugs associated with QT prolongation and fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Among these was citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) approved for depression and commonly used for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Evaluation of the risk for QT prolongation among other psychotropic drugs for individuals with PTSD remains limited. Explore psychotropic drugs associated with QT prolongation among veterans with PTSD. Patients in the Veterans Health Administration in 2006-2009 with PTSD and QT prolongation (176 cases) were matched 1:4 on age, gender, visit date and setting, and physical comorbidity. Classification trees assessed QT prolongation risk among prescribed medications (n=880). Receipt of any drug with known risk of QT prolongation varied by group (23% QT cases vs 15% control, prisks included ziprasidone (3% vs 1%, p=0.02) and buspirone (6% vs 2%, p=0.01). Increased risk was not observed for the SSRIs, citalopram and fluoxetine. Classification trees found that sotalol and amitriptyline carried greater risk among cardiac patients and methadone, especially if prescribed with quetiapine, among noncardiac patients. Per adjusted survival model, patients with QT prolongation were at increased risk for death (hazard ratio=1.60; 95% CI=1.04-2.44). Decision models are particularly advantageous when exploring nonlinear relationships or nonadditive interactions. These findings may potentially affect clinical decision-making concerning treatment for PTSD. For patients at higher risk of QT prolongation, antidepressants other than amitriptyline should be considered. Medications for comorbid conditions should also be closely monitored for heightened QT prolongation risk.

  20. Psychotropic treatments in Prader-Willi syndrome: a critical review of published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, O; Cohen, D; Thuilleaux, D; Consoli, A; Cabal, S; Tauber, M

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic syndrome. The phenotype includes moderate to intellectual disability, dysmorphia, obesity, and behavioral disturbances (e.g., hetero and self-injurious behaviors, hyperphagia, psychosis). Psychotropic medications are widely prescribed in PWS for symptomatic control. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to examine psychotropic medications used in PWS. MEDLINE was searched to identify articles published between January 1967 and December 2014 using key words related to pharmacological treatments and PWS. Articles with original data were included based on a standardized four-step selection process. The identification of studies led to 241 records. All selected articles were evaluated for case descriptions (PWS and behavioral signs) and treatment (type, titration, efficiency, and side effects). Overall, 102 patients were included in these studies. Treatment involved risperidone (three reports, n = 11 patients), fluoxetine (five/n = 6), naltrexone (two/n = 2), topiramate (two/n = 16), fluvoxamine (one/n = 1), mazindol (one/n = 2), N-acetyl cysteine (one/n = 35), rimonabant (one/n = 15), and fenfluramine (one/n = 15). We identified promising treatment effects with topiramate for self-injury and impulsive/aggressive behaviors, risperidone for psychotic symptoms associated with uniparental disomy (UPD), and N-acetyl cysteine for skin picking. The pharmacological approach of behavioral impairment in PWS has been poorly investigated to date. Further randomized controlled studies are warranted. Behavioral disturbances in Prader-Willi syndrome including aggressive reactions, skin picking, and hyperphagia might be very difficult to manage. Antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed, but weight gain and increased appetite are their major side effects. Topiramate might be efficient for self-injury and impulsive/aggressive behaviors, N-acetyl cysteine is apromising treatment for

  1. Reliance on auditory feedback in children with childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzini-Seigel, Jenya; Hogan, Tiffany P; Guarino, Anthony J; Green, Jordan R

    2015-01-01

    Children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) have been hypothesized to continuously monitor their speech through auditory feedback to minimize speech errors. We used an auditory masking paradigm to determine the effect of attenuating auditory feedback on speech in 30 children: 9 with CAS, 10 with speech delay, and 11 with typical development. The masking only affected the speech of children with CAS as measured by voice onset time and vowel space area. These findings provide preliminary support for greater reliance on auditory feedback among children with CAS. Readers of this article should be able to (i) describe the motivation for investigating the role of auditory feedback in children with CAS; (ii) report the effects of feedback attenuation on speech production in children with CAS, speech delay, and typical development, and (iii) understand how the current findings may support a feedforward program deficit in children with CAS. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stories after disaster survival: Preparing, heeding warnings, and self-reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Timothy S; Moon, Zola K; McNeill, Charleen C; Person-Michener, Joanna; Garrison, M E Betsy

    The purpose of the study was to examine the content of stories told by people personally impacted by disasters. Semistructured, qualitative interviews. Northwest part of a mid-south state. Fourteen disaster survivors who were recruited through their attendance at an emergency preparedness-related fair. Interview schedule based on previous research using the family resilience framework. Three themes emerged: prior emergency preparation, heeding warnings of impending disaster, and rural self-reliance. Participants had made prior emergency preparedness plans, but their personal experiences led to them adjusting their plans, or making more relevant plans for future disasters. Participants expressed the importance of sharing their experiences with family and community members, expressing hope that others would learn, vicariously rather than first-hand, from their experiences.

  3. A citizens' plan for energy self-reliance. The process report: How it happened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J.; Stayton, R.

    Results are presented of a project undertaken to demonstrate that local action could meet the energy crisis in Santa Cruz, California, and to demonstrate that a community could cooperatively develop an energy plan for greater energy self reliance. Community participation took several forms: neighborhood outreach; community education and involvement, and media and press coverage of the project. An advisory board was formed and research was undertaken to determine the feasibility of energy ideas generated in the neighborhoods and to answer questions posed by the advisory board. Selection criteria were developed for use in screening individual actions. Thirty programs with more than 120 actions were approved and a list of 16 priorities was established. Actions implemented by the Advisory Board are noted.

  4. Ontogenetic shifts in terrestrial reliance of stream-dwelling brown trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on terrestrial reliance of brown trout (Salmo trutta and compared it to the potential prey available (macrozoobenthos and drifting invertebrates in three temperate rivers (Galicia, NW Spain, with special emphasis on variations in terrestrial energy intake through the ontogeny of brown trout. Additionally, we paid particular attention to individual variation of terrestrial resource use within and between age classes. Prey items were grouped in four categories: i aquatic invertebrates; ii imagoes of aquatic invertebrates; iii terrestrial invertebrates; and iv fish prey. Next, energy composition was measured according to dry weight-energy equations for each individual in line with above-mentioned prey categories. Our findings illustrate that terrestrial invertebrates appeared to be scarce in the environment, whereas aquatic food resources were rather abundant and accessible. The use of terrestrial invertebrates tended to increase with age, but with a high degree of inter-individual variation in resource use. In fact, the individual reliance of brown trout on terrestrial invertebrates may vary considerably (between 0% and 76.9%. Besides, the frequency of terrestrial foragers, i.e., individuals with terrestrial invertebrates in their stomachs, increased with age, except in one population which had the maximum value in the age-2 class. The acquisition of terrestrial invertebrates thus appears to be a process strongly dependent upon the actual food availability in the environment, but with a high degree of individual variance in resource use within the same age class. Finally, we discuss that terrestrial invertebrates may largely contribute to cover the energy intake of the species, highlighting the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and thereby the importance of riparian canopy cover as a key factor for food supply of stream-dwelling salmonids species.

  5. Geothermal energy development - a boon to Philippine energy self-reliance efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, A.P.; Ogena, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Philippine success story in geothermal energy development is the first of the nation's intensified search for locally available alternative energy sources to oil. Due to its favorable location in the Pacific belt of fire, together with the presence of the right geologic conditions for the formation of geothermal (earth heat) reservoirs, the country has been able to develop commercially six geothermal fields. These are the Makiling-Banahaw area, just south of Manila, Tiwi in Albay, Bacon-Manito in Sorsogon, Tongonan in Leyte, Palinpinon in Southern Negros, and the Mt. Apo region of Mindanao. Together these six geothermal fields have a combined installed generation capacity of 1,448 Mwe, which the Philippines second largest user geothermal energy in the world today. Since 1977 to mid-1997, a total of 88,475 gigawatt-hours have been generated equivalent to 152.54 million barrels of oil. Based on the average yearly price of oil for the period, this translates into a savings of $3,122 billion for the country that otherwise would have gone for oil importations. It is planned that by the year 2000, geothermal shall be accounting for 28.4% of the 42,000 gigawatt-hours of the energy needed for that year, coal-based plants will contribute 24.6% and hydropower 18.6%. This will reduce oil-based contribution to just 28.4%. Geothermal energy as an indigenous energy resource provides the country a sustainable option to other conventional energy sources such as coal, oil and even hydro. Technologies have long been developed to maintain the environmental quality of the geothermal site. It serves to minimize changes in the support systems found on the land, water and air environments. The country has hopped, skipped and jumped towards energy self-reliance anchored on development of its large geothermal resources. And as the Philippines pole-vaults into the 21st century, the nation can look forward to geothermal energy to remain as one of the pillars of its energy self-reliance

  6. Exposure to reactive intermediate-inducing drugs during pregnancy and the incident use of psychotropic medications among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Yen-Hao; Groen, Henk; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Hak, Eelko; Wilffert, Bob

    2017-03-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to reactive intermediate (RI)-inducing drugs and the initiation of psychotropic medications among children. We designed a cohort study using a pharmacy prescription database. Pregnant women were considered exposed when they received a prescription of RI-inducing drugs. These drugs could be either used alone (RI+/FAA-) or combined with drugs exhibiting folic acid antagonism (FAA, RI+/FAA+). The reference group included pregnant women who did not receive any RI-inducing drugs or FAA drugs. We analyzed 4116 exposed and 30 422 reference pregnancies. The hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was 1.27 (95%CI 1.15-1.41) for pregnancies exposed to RI-inducing drugs as a whole. Considering subgroups of RI-inducing drugs, prenatal exposure to both RI+/FAA+ and RI+/FAA- was associated with the children's initiation of psychotropic medications, HRs being 1.35 (95%CI 1.10-1.66) and 1.26 (1.13-1.41), respectively. The HRs were increased with prolonged exposure to RI-inducing drugs, especially in the first and second trimesters. In a detailed examination of the psychotropics, the incidences of receiving antimigraine preparations and psychostimulants were significantly increased for the exposed children, compared with the reference children. The incidences of receiving antipsychotics and hypnotics were also higher for the exposed children; however, the HRs did not reach significance after adjustment. We found a significantly increased incident use of psychotropic medications among children prenatally exposed to RI-inducing drugs, especially during the first and second trimesters. This suggests a detrimental effect during critical periods of brain development. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy: how about the newborn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieviet N

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Noera Kieviet,1 Koert M Dolman,1 Adriaan Honig2 1Department of Paediatrics, 2Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatry Obstetrics Paediatrics Expert Center, Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Abstract: Infants are at risk of developing symptoms of Poor Neonatal Adaptation (PNA after exposure to psychotropic drugs in utero. Such symptoms are largely similar after exposure to antidepressants, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines and consist of mostly mild neurologic, autonomic, respirator and gastro-intestinal abnormalities. Most symptoms develop within 48 hours after birth and last for 2–6 days. After exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs, mirtazapine or venlafaxine in utero, breastfeeding is presumably protective for development of PNA. The dosage of antidepressants does not seem to be related to the risk of PNA. In order to objectify possible symptoms of PNA, observation of mother and child at the maternity ward is advisable. If PNA symptoms do not occur, an observation period of 48–72 hours is sufficient. This applies to all types of psychotropic drugs. When PNA symptoms are present it is advisable to observe the infant until the symptoms are fully resolved. Observation can be performed by trained nurses using the Finnegan scoring list. This observation list should be administered every 8 hours. Interpretation of the scores should be carried out by a paediatrician. In most cases symptoms are non-specific. Therefore other diagnoses, such as infection or neurologic problems, have to be excluded. When there is any doubt on possible intoxications during pregnancy, toxicological urine screening is indicated. Most cases of PNA are mild, of short duration and self-limiting without need for treatment. Supporting measures such as frequent small feedings, swaddling and increase of skin to skin contact with the mother is usually sufficient. In case of severe PNA it is advised to admit the infant to the Neonatal Care

  8. Drug-drug interactions as a result of co-administering Δ9-THC and CBD with other psychotropic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Carola; Carmona, Nicole E; Lee, Yena L; Ragguett, Renee-Marie; Pan, Zihang; Rosenblat, Joshua D; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Shekotikhina, Margarita; Almatham, Fahad; Alageel, Asem; Mansur, Rodrigo; Ho, Roger C; McIntyre, Roger S

    2018-01-01

    To determine, via narrative, non-systematic review of pre-clinical and clinical studies, whether the effect of cannabis on hepatic biotransformation pathways would be predicted to result in clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with commonly prescribed psychotropic agents. Areas covered: A non-systematic literature search was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception to January 2017. The search term cannabis was cross-referenced with the terms drug interactions, cytochrome, cannabinoids, cannabidiol, and medical marijuana. Pharmacological, molecular, and physiologic studies evaluating the pharmacokinetics of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), both in vitro and in vivo, were included. Bibliographies were also manually searched for additional citations that were relevant to the overarching aim of this paper. Expert opinion: Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD are substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymatic pathways relevant to the biotransformation of commonly prescribed psychotropic agents. The high frequency and increasing use of cannabis invites the need for healthcare providers to familiarize themselves with potential DDIs in persons receiving select psychotropic agents, and additionally consuming medical marijuana and/or recreational marijuana.

  9. Use of a computerized medication shared decision making tool in community mental health settings: impact on psychotropic medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Bradley D; Kogan, Jane N; Mihalyo, Mark J; Schuster, James; Deegan, Patricia E; Sorbero, Mark J; Drake, Robert E

    2013-04-01

    Healthcare reform emphasizes patient-centered care and shared decision-making. This study examined the impact on psychotropic adherence of a decision support center and computerized tool designed to empower and activate consumers prior to an outpatient medication management visit. Administrative data were used to identify 1,122 Medicaid-enrolled adults receiving psychotropic medication from community mental health centers over a two-year period from community mental health centers. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine if tool users had higher rates of 180-day medication adherence than non-users. Older clients, Caucasian clients, those without recent hospitalizations, and those who were Medicaid-eligible due to disability had higher rates of 180-day medication adherence. After controlling for sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, baseline adherence, and secular changes over time, using the computerized tool did not affect adherence to psychotropic medications. The computerized decision tool did not affect medication adherence among clients in outpatient mental health clinics. Additional research should clarify the impact of decision-making tools on other important outcomes such as engagement, patient-prescriber communication, quality of care, self-management, and long-term clinical and functional outcomes.

  10. Use of psychotropic medications by caregivers of elderly patients with dementia: is this a sign of caregiver burden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einstein Francisco Camargos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the consumption of psychotropic medications by caregivers of elderly patients with or without dementia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at all geriatric units in Brasília, Brazil, during a two-month period. Structured interviews were performed with 311 caregivers of people with or without dementia and they completed questionnaires. Among the caregivers, 196 (63% were caregivers of patients with dementia and 115 (37% were caregivers of patients without dementia. Forty-four caregivers (14.1% were taking psychotropic drugs (benzodiazepines or antidepressants, and this usage was more frequent among caregivers of patients with dementia (p<0.01. Twenty-two caregivers of patients with dementia (11.4% had used sleeping pills after beginning care, compared with only five (4.3% caregivers of patients without dementia (p<0.01. In conclusion, this study found that caregivers of patients with dementia took psychotropic drugs (benzodiazepines and antidepressants more frequently than the ones of patients without dementia.

  11. Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

  12. An architect’s investigation into the self-reliance of a Sub-Saharan African community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Smits

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how externally initiated development projects and the role of the architect may influence the self-reliance of a local community. The development aid for rural communities aims to improve the living quality, but often does not persist in the long run.

  13. Relationship Between University Degree Programmes And Self-Employment And Self-Reliance A Survey Of Kenyan Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Mwebia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rising cases of unemployment in many countries are a worrying trend. In Kenya despite the rising levels of education many graduates remain unemployed. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between university degree programmes and self-employment. The selection of private and public universities to participate was done by purposive sampling. Stratified sampling was used to select degree programmes under investigation. Simple random sampling was used to pick the participants. Data was collected through administration of self administered questionnaires. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics frequencies percentages and presented in tables. This study found that most universities have degree programmes aimed at ensuring self reliance and self employment among its graduates. However there are dismally low efforts by most universities in holding workshops on self employment and self reliance every semester establishment and support of many mentorship programmes for students by successful entrepreneurs and mainstreaming of self employment and self reliance in the curriculum. This study recommends that the university programmes offered in the country should be monitored to ensure that they instill skills for self employment self reliance and self direction on the part of the learners. This would compel the learning institutions to offer programmes that are more relevant and reduce the menace of unemployment.

  14. Medición de capital intelectual en empresas asiáticas: el caso de Reliance Industries Ltd. (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez de Pablos, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un marco conceptual integrador de la literatura de capital intelectual. A partir de él, se analizará la elaboración de informes de capital intelectual en Asia, en particular, es una empresa con una posición competitiva privilegiada en India: Reliance Industries LTD.

  15. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS...

  16. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26.1705 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS...

  17. 40 CFR 26.1703 - Prohibition of reliance on research involving intentional exposure of human subjects who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), nursing women, or children. 26.1703 Section 26.1703 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on research... intentional exposure of human subjects who are pregnant women (and therefore their fetuses), nursing women, or...

  18. Individual versus group decision making: Jurors' reliance on central and peripheral information to evaluate expert testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jessica M; Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate dual-process persuasion theories in the context of group decision making, we studied low and high need-for-cognition (NFC) participants within a mock trial study. Participants considered plaintiff and defense expert scientific testimony that varied in argument strength. All participants heard a cross-examination of the experts focusing on peripheral information (e.g., credentials) about the expert, but half were randomly assigned to also hear central information highlighting flaws in the expert's message (e.g., quality of the research presented by the expert). Participants rendered pre- and post-group-deliberation verdicts, which were considered "scientifically accurate" if the verdicts reflected the strong (versus weak) expert message, and "scientifically inaccurate" if they reflected the weak (versus strong) expert message. For individual participants, we replicated studies testing classic persuasion theories: Factors promoting reliance on central information (i.e., central cross-examination, high NFC) improved verdict accuracy because they sensitized individual participants to the quality discrepancy between the experts' messages. Interestingly, however, at the group level, the more that scientifically accurate mock jurors discussed peripheral (versus central) information about the experts, the more likely their group was to reach the scientifically accurate verdict. When participants were arguing for the scientifically accurate verdict consistent with the strong expert message, peripheral comments increased their persuasiveness, which made the group more likely to reach the more scientifically accurate verdict.

  19. Age-related schema reliance of judgments of learning in predicting source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang-Zi; Tang, Wei-Hai; Liu, Xi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Source memory refers to mental processes of encoding and making attributions to the origin of information. We investigated schematic effects on source attributions of younger and older adults for different schema-based types of items, and their schema-utilization of judgments of learning (JOLs) in estimating source memory. Participants studied statements presented by two speakers either as a doctor or a lawyer: those in the schema-after-encoding condition were informed their occupation only before retrieving, while those of schema-before-encoding were presented the schematic information prior to study. Immediately after learning every item, they made judgments of the likelihood for it to be correctly attributed to the original source later. In the test, they fulfilled a task of source attributing. The results showed a two-edged effect of schemas: schema reliance improved source memory for schema-consistent items while impaired that for schema-inconsistent items, even with schematic information presented prior to encoding. Compared with younger adults, older adults benefited more from schema-based compensatory mechanisms. Both younger and older adults could make JOLs based on before-encoding schematic information, and the schema-based JOLs were more accurate in predicting source memory than JOLs made without schema support. However, even in the schema-after-encoding condition, older adults were able to make metacognitive judgments as accurately as younger adults did, though they did have great impairments in source memory itself.

  20. Reliance on God, Prayer, and Religion Reduces Influence of Perceived Norms on Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Brown, Garrett A.; Dibello, Angelo M.; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Foster, Dawn W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has shown that perceived social norms are among the strongest predictors of drinking among young adults. Research has also consistently found religiousness to be protective against risk and negative health behaviors. The present research evaluates the extent to which reliance on God, prayer, and religion moderates the association between perceived social norms and drinking. Method: Participants (n = 1,124 undergraduate students) completed a cross-sectional survey online, which included measures of perceived norms, religious values, and drinking. Perceived norms were assessed by asking participants their perceptions of typical student drinking. Drinking outcomes included drinks per week, drinking frequency, and typical quantity consumed. Results: Regression analyses indicated that religiousness and perceived norms had significant unique associations in opposite directions for all three drinking outcomes. Significant interactions were evident between religiousness and perceived norms in predicting drinks per week, frequency, and typical quantity. In each case, the interactions indicated weaker associations between norms and drinking among those who assigned greater importance to religiousness. Conclusions: The extent of the relationship between perceived social norms and drinking was buffered by the degree to which students identified with religiousness. A growing body of literature has shown interventions including personalized feedback regarding social norms to be an effective strategy in reducing drinking among college students. The present research suggests that incorporating religious or spiritual values into student interventions may be a promising direction to pursue. PMID:23490564

  1. Classification of the Relationship between Household Welfare and Ecosystem Reliance in the Miyun Reservoir Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchun Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Household welfare is inseparable from the environment because of its dependence on ecosystems and their services. However, linking household welfare and ecosystems in order to inform differentiated household livelihood development in spatially heterogeneous regions is still a great challenge. Based on a field survey of 1754 households, we grouped the relationships between household welfare (defined by total income and ecosystem reliance (expressed by an index of dependence on ecosystem services in the Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, the only source of surface water for domestic use in Beijing, China. The relationships can be grouped into four types: high welfare and high dependency; low welfare and low dependency; high welfare and low dependence; and low welfare and high dependency. Family structure, households’ education and skill level, and the proximity to Beijing have significant impacts on household welfare, while the quantity of natural capital and eco-compensation fund significantly contribute to the ecosystem dependence. Maintaining suitable family size and age structure, improving education and skill levels, and strengthening payment for ecosystem services within low welfare households would be effective approaches to their welfare improvement. The above classification can help design tailored policy and management options to promote sustainable livelihoods based on different household subgroups.

  2. Postural equilibrium during pregnancy: decreased stability with an increased reliance on visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erin E; Colón, Iris; Druzin, Maurice L; Rose, Jessica

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are changes in postural equilibrium during pregnancy and to examine whether the incidence of falls increases during pregnancy. Static postural balance measures were collected from 12 pregnant women at 11 to 14, 19 to 22, and 36 to 39 weeks gestation and at 6 to 8 weeks after delivery and from 12 nulligravid control subjects who were matched for age, height, weight, and body mass index. Subjects were asked to stand quietly on a stable force platform for 30 seconds with eyes open and closed. Path length and average radial displacement were computed on the basis of the average of 3 trials for each condition. The women were asked at each session if they had sustained a fall in the previous 3 months. Postural stability remained relatively stable during the first trimester; however, second and third trimester and postpartum values for path length and average radial displacement with eyes open and closed were increased significantly compared with the control subjects, which indicates diminished postural balance. The difference between the eyes open and closed values of path length increased as pregnancy progressed. Although 25% of pregnant women sustained falls, none of the control subjects had fallen in the past year. These data suggest that postural stability declines during pregnancy and remains diminished at 6 to 8 weeks after delivery. The study also indicates that there is an increased reliance on visual cues to maintain balance during pregnancy.

  3. Tenacious self-reliance in health maintenance may jeopardize late life survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jeremy M; Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Parker, Patti C; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2017-11-01

    Although an active pursuit of health goals is typically adaptive, there may be circumstances in very late life when it is not. Our 10-year study of community-dwelling individuals (n = 220, 79-98 years-old) examined whether investing substantial effort into personal health (high selective primary control) in the absence of help-seeking strategies (low compensatory primary control) jeopardized survival for very old adults who varied in functional independence (low, high). Cox proportional hazard models showed selective primary control (SPC) predicted 10-year mortality risk for only those with low compensatory primary control (CPC) and high initial functional independence. For these individuals, each standard deviation increase in SPC predicted a 101% higher risk of death. Results are consistent with the lines-of-defense model (Heckhausen et al., 2013) and suggest that, for very old adults with little previous need for help-seeking strategies, tenacious self-reliance (high SPC, low CPC) may have life-shortening consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The impact of regional economic reliance on the tobacco industry on current smoking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Barnett, Ross; Rockett, Ian R H; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Weijun; Li, Lu

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary assessment of province of residence and other contextual factors on the likelihood of being a current smoker in China. A cross-sectional, multistage sampling process was used to recruit participants, and their smoking status and sociodemographic characteristics were obtained through face-to-face interviews. The contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of provincial economic reliance on the tobacco industry, as well as individual-level characteristics, on the likelihood of being a current smoker. Participants totaled 20,601 from 27 cities located in 26 of the 31 municipalities/provinces in China. Overall smoking prevalence was 31.3% (95% CI: 19.3-33.2%), with rates being highest in Yinchuan City in Ningxia Province (49.8%) and lowest in Shanghai (21.6%). The multilevel analysis showed an excess likelihood of being a current smoker for individuals living in provinces with the highest rate of cigarette production relative to those with the smallest (pmarketing of tobacco products in China. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Reliance on God, prayer, and religion reduces influence of perceived norms on drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Brown, Garrett A; Dibello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Foster, Dawn W

    2013-05-01

    Previous research has shown that perceived social norms are among the strongest predictors of drinking among young adults. Research has also consistently found religiousness to be protective against risk and negative health behaviors. The present research evaluates the extent to which reliance on God, prayer, and religion moderates the association between perceived social norms and drinking. Participants (n = 1,124 undergraduate students) completed a cross-sectional survey online, which included measures of perceived norms, religious values, and drinking. Perceived norms were assessed by asking participants their perceptions of typical student drinking. Drinking outcomes included drinks per week, drinking frequency, and typical quantity consumed. Regression analyses indicated that religiousness and perceived norms had significant unique associations in opposite directions for all three drinking outcomes. Significant interactions were evident between religiousness and perceived norms in predicting drinks per week, frequency, and typical quantity. In each case, the interactions indicated weaker associations between norms and drinking among those who assigned greater importance to religiousness. The extent of the relationship between perceived social norms and drinking was buffered by the degree to which students identified with religiousness. A growing body of literature has shown interventions including personalized feedback regarding social norms to be an effective strategy in reducing drinking among college students. The present research suggests that incorporating religious or spiritual values into student interventions may be a promising direction to pursue.

  6. Social inequalities and correlates of psychotropic drug use among young adults: a population-based questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Michèle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of psychotropic drugs is widespread in Europe, and is markedly more common in France than elsewhere. Young adults often fare less well than adolescents on health indicators (injury, homicide, and substance use. This population-based study assessed disparities in psychotropic drug use among people aged 18–29 from different socio-occupational groups and determined whether they were mediated by educational level, health status, income, health-related behaviours, family support, personality traits, or disability. Methods A total of 1,257 people aged 18–29, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering sex, date of birth, height, weight, educational level, occupation, smoking habit, alcohol abuse, income, health-status, diseases, reported disabilities, self-reported personality traits, family support, and frequent psychotropic medication for tiredness, nervousness/anxiety or insomnia. The data were analyzed using the adjusted odds ratios (ORa computed with logistic models. Results Use of psychotropic drugs was common (33.2%. Compared with upper/intermediate professionals, markedly high odds ratios adjusted for sex were found for manual workers (2.57, 95% CI 1.02–6.44, employees (2.58, 1.11–5.98, farmers/craftsmen/tradesmen (4.97, 1.13–21.8, students (2.40, 1.06–5.40, and housewives (3.82, 1.39–10.5. Adjusting for all the confounders considered reduced the estimates to a pronounced degree for manual workers (adjusted OR 1.49, non-significant but only slightly for the other socio-occupational groups. The odds ratio for unemployed people did not reach statistical significance. The significant confounders were: sex, not-good health status, musculoskeletal disorders and other diseases, being worried, nervous or sad, and lack of family support (adjusted odds ratios between 1.60 and 2.50. Conclusion There were marked disparities among young adults from different socio

  7. Associations of social and material deprivation with tobacco, alcohol, and psychotropic drug use, and gender: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, Elisabeth; Guillemin, Francis; Ravaud, Jean-François; Choquet, Marie; Falissard, Bruno; Chau, Nearkasen

    2007-11-09

    The aim was to assess the relationships between social and material deprivation and the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol and psychotropic drugs by both sexes and in various age groups. Greater knowledge concerning these issues may help public health policy-makers design more effective means of preventing substance abuse. The sample comprised 6,216 people aged > or 15 years randomly selected from the population in north-eastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, employment, income, smoking habit, alcohol abuse and "psychotropic" drug intake (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia). A deprivation score (D) was defined by the cumulative number of: low educational level, manual worker, unemployed, living alone, nationality other than western European, low income, and non-home-ownership. Data were analysed using adjusted odds ratios (ORa) computed with logistic models. Deprivation was common: 37.4% of respondents fell into category D = 1, 21.2% into D = 2, and 10.0% into D > or 3a re men than women reported tobacco use (30.2% vs. 21.9%) and alcohol abuse (12.5% vs. 3.3%), whereas psychotropic drug use was more common among women (23.8% vs. 41.0%). Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco use (ORa vs. D = 0: 1.16 in D = 1, 1.49 in D = 2, and 1.93 in D > or = 3), alcohol abuse (1.19 in D = 1, 1.32 in D = 2, and 1.80 in D > or = 3) and frequent psychotropic drug intake (1.26 in D = 1, 1.51 in D = 2, and 1.91 in D > or = 3). These patterns were observed in working/other non-retired men and women (except for alcohol abuse in women). Among retired people, deprivation was associated with tobacco and psychotropic drug use only in men. Preventive measures should be designed to improve work conditions, reduce deprivation, and help deprived populations to be more aware of risk and to find remedial measures.

  8. Associations of social and material deprivation with tobacco, alcohol, and psychotropic drug use, and gender: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravaud Jean-François

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to assess the relationships between social and material deprivation and the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol and psychotropic drugs by both sexes and in various age groups. Greater knowledge concerning these issues may help public health policy-makers design more effective means of preventing substance abuse. Methods The sample comprised 6,216 people aged ≥ 15 years randomly selected from the population in north-eastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, employment, income, smoking habit, alcohol abuse and "psychotropic" drug intake (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia. A deprivation score (D was defined by the cumulative number of: low educational level, manual worker, unemployed, living alone, nationality other than western European, low income, and non-home-ownership. Data were analysed using adjusted odds ratios (ORa computed with logistic models. Results Deprivation was common: 37.4% of respondents fell into category D = 1, 21.2% into D = 2, and 10.0% into D ≥ 3. More men than women reported tobacco use (30.2% vs. 21.9% and alcohol abuse (12.5% vs. 3.3%, whereas psychotropic drug use was more common among women (23.8% vs. 41.0%. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco use (ORa vs. D = 0: 1.16 in D = 1, 1.49 in D = 2, and 1.93 in D ≥ 3, alcohol abuse (1.19 in D = 1, 1.32 in D = 2, and 1.80 in D ≥ 3 and frequent psychotropic drug intake (1.26 in D = 1, 1.51 in D = 2, and 1.91 in D ≥ 3. These patterns were observed in working/other non-retired men and women (except for alcohol abuse in women. Among retired people, deprivation was associated with tobacco and psychotropic drug use only in men. Conclusion Preventive measures should be designed to improve work conditions, reduce deprivation, and help deprived populations to be more aware of risk and to find remedial

  9. Cases of Adverse Reaction to Psychotropic Drugs and Possible Association with Pharmacogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Piatkov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of samples for pharmacogenetic tests have been analysed in our laboratory since its establishment. In this article we describe some of the most interesting cases of CYP poor metabolisers associated with adverse reactions to psychotropic drugs. Prevention of disease/illness, including Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR, is an aim of modern medicine. Scientific data supports the fact that evaluation of drug toxicology includes several factors, one of which is genetic variations in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drug pathways. These variations are only a part of toxicity evaluation, however, even if it would help to prevent only a small percentage of patients from suffering adverse drug reactions, especially life threatening ADRs, pharmacogenetic testing should play a significant role in any modern psychopharmacologic practice. Medical practitioners should also consider the use of other medications or alternative dosing strategies for drugs in patients identified as altered metabolisers. This will promise not only better and safer treatments for patients, but also potentially lowering overall healthcare costs.

  10. Six psychotropics for pre-symptomatic & early Alzheimer's (MCI, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Lauterbach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quest for neuroprotective drugs to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD, and Huntington's disease (HD, has been largely unrewarding. Preclinical evidence suggests that repurposing quetiapine, lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine for early and pre-symptomatic disease-modification in NDDs may be promising and can spare regulatory barriers. The literature of these psychotropics in early stage and pre-symptomatic AD, PD, and HD is reviewed and propitious findings follow. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI phase of AD: salutary human randomized controlled trial findings for low-dose lithium and, in selected patients, donepezil await replication. Pre-symptomatic AD: human epidemiological data indicate that lithium reduces AD risk. Animal model studies (AMS reveal encouraging results for quetiapine, lithium, donepezil, and memantine. Early PD: valproate AMS findings show promise. Pre-symptomatic PD: lithium and valproate AMS findings are encouraging. Early HD: uncontrolled clinical data indicate non-progression with lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine. Pre-symptomatic HD: lithium and valproate are auspicious in AMS. Many other promising findings awaiting replication (valproate in MCI; lithium, valproate, fluoxetine in pre-symptomatic AD; lithium in early PD; lithium, valproate, fluoxetine in pre-symptomatic PD; donepezil in early HD; lithium, fluoxetine, memantine in pre-symptomatic HD are reviewed. Dose- and stage-dependent effects are considered. Suggestions for signal-enhancement in human trials are provided for each NDD stage.

  11. The effects of becoming an entrepreneur on the use of psychotropics among entrepreneurs and their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Michael S; Nielsen, Jimmi; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2010-12-01

    Entering entrepreneurship (i.e. becoming an entrepreneur) is known to be a demanding activity with increased workload, financial uncertainty and increased levels of stress. However, there are no systematic studies on how entering entrepreneurship affects the people involved. The authors investigated prescriptions of psychotropics for 6,221 first-time entrepreneurs from 2001-2004 and their 2,381 spouses in the first two years after becoming entrepreneurs in a matched case-control study using linked data from three Danish national registries: The Danish database for Labor Market Research, the Danish Entrepreneurship database and the Danish Prescription database. Entrepreneurs were more likely to fill prescriptions at pharmacies for sedatives/hypnotics (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.45 [95% CI: 1.26-1.66], p entrepreneurs were also more likely to fill prescriptions for sedatives/hypnotics (AOR: 1.36 [95% CI: 1.10-1.67], p = 0.005). No difference in prescription of antidepressants was found for spouses. This study showed that there was a significant relation between entering entrepreneurship and receiving prescriptions for sedative/ hypnotics both among the entrepreneurs themselves and their spouses, suggesting that entering entrepreneurship may be associated with increased stress for both the entrepreneurs and their families.

  12. A narrative review of studies of refusal of psychotropic medication in acute inpatient psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, J A; Bowers, L

    2011-09-01

    This paper offers a narrative review of the 22 studies of medication refusal in acute psychiatry. Because of varied definitions of medication refusal, diverse methodologies and few rigorous studies, it has not been possible to draw firm conclusions on the average rate of refusal of psychotropic medications in acute psychiatry. However, it is clear that medication refusal is common and leads to poor outcomes characterized by higher rates of seclusion, restraint, threats of, and actual, assaults and longer hospitalizations. There are no statistically significant differences between refusers and acceptors in gender, marital status and preadmission living arrangements. Although no firm conclusions on the influence of ethnicity, status at admission and diagnosis on refusal, the refusers are more likely to have higher number of previous hospitalizations and history of prior refusal. The review indicates that staff factors such as the use of temporary staff, lack of confidence in ward staff and ineffective ward structure are associated with higher rates of medication refusal. Comprehensive knowledge of why, and how, patients refuse medication is lacking. Research on medication refusal is still fragmented, of variable methodological quality and lacks an integrating model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  13. Gifts and influence: Conflict of interest policies and prescribing of psychotropic medications in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marissa; Bearman, Peter S

    2017-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends roughly 15 billion dollars annually on detailing - providing gifts, information, samples, trips, honoraria and other inducements - to physicians in order to encourage them to prescribe their drugs. In response, several states in the United States adopted policies that restrict detailing. Some states banned gifts from pharmaceutical companies to doctors, other states simply required physicians to disclose the gifts they receive, while most states allowed unrestricted detailing. We exploit this geographic variation to examine the relationship between gift regulation and the diffusion of four newly marketed medications. Using a dataset that captures 189 million psychotropic prescriptions written between 2005 and 2009, we find that uptake of new costly medications was significantly lower in states with marketing regulation than in areas that allowed unrestricted pharmaceutical marketing. In states with gift bans, we observed reductions in market shares ranging from 39% to 83%. Policies banning or restricting gifts were associated with the largest reductions in uptake. Disclosure policies were associated with a significantly smaller reduction in prescribing than gift bans and gift restrictions. In states that ban gift-giving, peer influence substituted for pharmaceutical detailing when a relatively beneficial drug came to market and provided a less biased channel for physicians to learn about new medications. Our work suggests that policies banning or limiting gifts from pharmaceutical representatives to doctors are likely to be more effective than disclosure policies alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inappropriate Use of Psychotropic Drugs in People Aged 60 and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Magdalena Caro Mantilla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: indiscriminate use of psychoactive medication can provoke multiple disorders to the elderly system. Furthermore, it can also result in drug abuse. Objective: to characterize the inappropriate use of psychotropic drugs in people aged 60 and over. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective study was conducted in two consultations of Health Area # II in the municipality of Cienfuegos from June to December 2006. The sample consisted of 93 adults aged over 60. The variables analyzed were age, sex, educational level, prescribed medication and its application, symptoms leading to the indication, duration of the treatment according to the prescription, follow-up, therapeutic alternatives, tolerance and abstinence. We applied a functional assessment scale: the Lawton and Brody Scale. For the statistical processing, descriptive statistics tests were performed. For computational processing, a database was created in the SPSS 11.0 program for Windows. Results: it is mostly women who consume these types of drugs. The most consumed psychoactive drugs were benzodiazepines and mainly through self-medication. Elderly presented tolerance and abstinence. There was a misuse of these drugs in relation to the time of consumption, prescription, follow-up and treatment options such as natural and traditional medicine. Conclusions: high rates of medical prescription, failures in patient’s follow-up, self-medication and non-use of therapeutic alternatives are some of the many causes of the indiscriminate use of psychoactive drugs in people aged over 60.

  15. Developing greater self-reliance in the nuclear sector in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaho, E.H.K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Due to severe cuts and drastic decline in government subvention for the promotion of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in Ghana, a new law has been enacted which empowered Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) to encourage and promote the commercialisation of R and D results through its three institutes and five centres. Therefore, the Commission requested the International Atomic Energy Agency through the African Regional Co-operation Research Agreement (AFRA) for an expert team from NECSA, South Africa, to critically evaluate its R and D activities, core competencies and structures with the aim of refocusing them to be more responsive to end-user and national development needs. Strategic and marketing plans prepared for some related viable facilities were revised and recommendations that were made were implemented. The 30-kW research reactor designed mainly for neutron activation analysis was used to render analytical services to clients from industries and mining companies. In addition to the application of radioisotopes in plant investigations in the petroleum refinery, the reactor group generated US $30,000 in the year 2000, which is about 20% of the annual budget of the centre. In the same year, the 50-kCi gamma irradiation facility utilizing a Co-60 radioactive source generated US $14,250 and the use of non-destructive testing equipment yielded US $7,612. The Radiation Protection Institute through personal monitoring services and radionuclide contamination certification for food items generated an amount of US $60,000, which is 40.5% of the government subvention for personnel emolument and administrative expenses. Exhibiting greater commitment to commercialisation and with efforts made towards harnessing nuclear and biotechnology techniques for socio-economic benefits and self-reliance, GAEC has established a Business Development Unit (BDU). The Unit is to prepare Business Plans for identified demand-driven R and D activities and services, plan

  16. Increased Reliance on Value-based Decision Processes Following Motor Cortex Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zénon, Alexandre; Klein, Pierre-Alexandre; Alamia, Andrea; Boursoit, François; Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Duque, Julie

    2015-01-01

    During motor decision making, the neural activity in primary motor cortex (M1) encodes dynamically the competition occurring between potential action plans. A common view is that M1 represents the unfolding of the outcome of a decision process taking place upstream. Yet, M1 could also be directly involved in the decision process. Here we tested this hypothesis by assessing the effect of M1 disruption on a motor decision-making task. We applied continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to inhibit either left or right M1 in different groups of subjects and included a third control group with no stimulation. Following cTBS, participants performed a task that required them to choose between two finger key-presses with the right hand according to both perceptual and value-based information. Effects were assessed by means of generalized linear mixed models and computational simulations. In all three groups, subjects relied both on perceptual (P < 0.0001) and value-based information (P = 0.003) to reach a decision. Yet, left M1 disruption led to an increased reliance on value-based information (P = 0.03). This result was confirmed by a computational model showing an increased weight of the valued-based process on the right hand finger choices following left M1 cTBS (P < 0.01). These results indicate that M1 is involved in motor decision making, possibly by weighting the final integration of multiple sources of evidence driving motor behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ostracism Reduces Reliance on Poor Advice from Others during Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Kaileigh A; Tibbett, Thomas P; Laserna, Lauren N; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R; Worthy, Darrell A

    2016-10-01

    Decision-making is rarely context-free, and often both social information and non-social information are weighed into one's decisions. Incorporating information into a decision can be influenced by previous experiences. Ostracism has extensive effects, including taxing cognitive resources and increasing social monitoring. In decision-making situations, individuals are often faced with both objective and social information and must choose which information to include or filter out. How will ostracism affect the reliance on objective and social information during decision-making? Participants ( N =245) in Experiment 1 were randomly assigned to be included or ostracized in a standardized, group task. They then performed a dynamic decision-making task that involved the presentation of either non-social (i.e. biased reward feedback) or social (i.e., poor advice from a previous participant) misleading information. In Experiment 2, participants ( N =105) completed either the ostracism non-social condition or social misleading information condition with explicit instructions stating that the advice given was from an individual who did not partake in the group task. Ostracized individuals relied more on non-social misleading information and performed worse than included individuals. However, ostracized individuals discounted misleading social information and outperformed included individuals. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1. Across two experiments, ostracized individuals were more critical of advice from others, both individuals who may have ostracized them and unrelated individuals. In other words, compared to included individuals, ostracized individuals underweighted advice from another individual, but overweighted non-social information during decision-making. We conclude that when deceptive objective information is present, ostracism results in disadvantageous decision-making.

  18. E-hail (Rideshare) Knowledge, Use, Reliance, and Future Expectations among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivoda, Jonathon M; Harmon, Annie C; Babulal, Ganesh M; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2018-05-01

    The goals of this study were to explore e-hail (e.g., Uber/Lyft) knowledge, use, reliance, and future expectations among older adults. Specifically, we aimed to identify factors that were related to e-hail, and how older adults view this mode as a potential future transportation option. Data were collected from a sample of older adults using a pencil-and-paper mailed survey. Univariate, bivariate, and regression techniques were used to assess the relationships among e-hail and several demographic and other factors. Almost three-quarters of the sample (74%) reported no e-hail knowledge. Only 1.7% had used e-hail to arrange a ride,andonly 3.3% reported that they relied on e-hail for any of their transportation needs. Younger age, male gender, more education, higher transportation satisfaction, and discussing transportation options with others were all independently associated with greater e-hail knowledge. Male gender also predicted e-hail use. E-hail was the mode least relied upon by older adults. Current e-hail knowledge was the biggest predictor of anticipated future use. E-hail may be a viable future option for older adults who have limited or stopped driving. More exposure to e-hail and continued evolution of these services is required to overcome older adults' lower internet/smartphone use. Policies could be implemented at departments of motor vehicles to pair information or training on transportation alternatives (like e-hail) with elimination of driving privileges, or at doctors' offices, senior centers, or hospitals. Potential underlying reasons for the findings are also discussed.

  19. [Adaptations of psychotropic drugs in patients aged 75 years and older in a departement of geriatric internal medecine: report of 100 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, Anne-Laure; Bailly-Agaledes, Cindy; Camalet, Joëlle; Capriz-Ribière, Françoise; Gary, André; Robert, Philippe; Brocker, Patrice; Guérin, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    The elderly often with multiple diseases are particularly at risk from adverse drug reactions. Nearly half of iatrogenic drug in the elderly are preventable. Some medications such as psychotropic drugs are particularly involved in iatrogenic accidents. We wanted to know if the tools of the comprehensive geriatric assessment or other factors could influence the changes of psychotropic drugs in a geriatric departement. Our prospective study of four months in 100 patients aged 75 years and older hospitalized in the Geriatric Internal Medecine Departement of University Hospital of Nice investigated what were the clinical or biological reasons and tools used during changes of psychotropic drugs. We compared these changes according to the comprehensive geriatric assessment tools and we analyzed the changes based on lists of potentially inappropriate medications by Laroche et al. and from the instrument STOPP/START. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was the tool that has most influenced the changes in psychotropic including a tendency to increase and the introduction of anxiolytics when MMSE < 20 (p = 0.007) while neuroleptics instead arrested and decreased (p = 0.012). The comprehensive geriatric assessment has its place in decision support during the potentially iatrogenic prescriptions of drugs such as psychotropic and new tools such as STOPP/START can also be a help to the prescriber informed.

  20. Comparison of Psychotropic Drug Prescribing Quality between Zagreb, Croatia and Sarajevo, B&H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polić-Vižintin, Marina; Štimac, Danijela; Čatić, Tarik; Šostar, Zvonimir; Zelić, Ana; Živković, Krešimir; Draganić, Pero

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare outpatient consumption and quality of psychotropic drug prescribing between Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina 2006-2010. Data on drug utilization from Zagreb Municipal Pharmacy and Sarajevo Public Pharmacy were used to calculate the number of defined daily doses (DDD) and DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) using the WHO Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical methodology. Total utilization of psychopharmaceuticals increased in both cities; however, it was higher in Zagreb than in Sarajevo throughout the study period. The utilization of psycholeptics increased in Zagreb by 2.4% (from 74.5 to 76.3 DDD/TID) and in Sarajevo by 3.8% (from 62.4 to 64.8 DDD/TID). The utilization of anxiolytics decreased in Zagreb by 2.1% and in Sarajevo by even 18.7%. The utilization of antidepressants increased in both cities with predominance of SSRI over TCA utilization, greater in Sarajevo (96.6%) than in Zagreb (10.2%). The anxiolytic/antidepressant ratio decreased by 11.1% in Zagreb (from 2.87 to 2.55) and by 58.7% in Sarajevo (from 5.66 to 2.34). Outpatient utilization of antipsychotics increased significantly in Sarajevo, predominated by typical ones, whereas in Zagreb the utilization of antipsychotics was stable, predominated by atypical ones. In Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina, there was an obvious tendency to follow western trends in drug prescribing, as demonstrated by the increased use of antidepressants and reduced use of anxiolytics. Despite some improvement observed in the prescribing quality, high use of antipsychotics with dominance of typical antipsychotics in Sarajevo points to the need of prescribing guidelines for antipsychotics.

  1. Simultaneous determination of psychotropic drugs in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jianguo [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (Education Ministry of China), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zhao Fengjuan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (Education Ministry of China), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ju Huangxian [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (Education Ministry of China), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: hxju@nju.edu.cn

    2006-08-04

    Amitriptyline, doxepin and chlorpromazine are often used as psychotropic drugs in treatment of the various mental diseases, and are also partly excreted by kidney. This work developed a simple, selective and sensitive method for their simultaneous monitoring in human urine using capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection based on end-column ECL reaction of tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) with aliphatic tertiary amino moieties. Acetone was used as an additive to the running buffer to obtain their absolute separation. Under optimized conditions the proposed method displayed a linear range from 5.0 to 800 ng mL{sup -1} for the three drugs with the correlation coefficients more than 0.995 (n = 8). Their limits of detection were 0.8 ng mL{sup -1} (3.6 fg), 1.0 ng mL{sup -1} (4.5 fg) and 1.5 ng mL{sup -1} (6.8 fg) at a signal to noise ratio of 3, respectively. The relative standard deviations for five determinations of 20 ng mL{sup -1} amitriptyline, doxepin and chlorpromazine were 1.7%, 4.2% and 3.6%, respectively. For practical application an extract step with 90:10 heptane/ethyl acetate (v/v) was performed to eliminate the influence of ionic strength in sample. The recoveries of amitriptyline, doxepin and chlorpromazine at different levels in human urine were between 83% and 93%, which showed that the method was valuable in clinical and biochemical laboratories for monitoring amitriptyline, doxepin and chlorpromazine.

  2. Association between psychotropic medications and presence of sleep bruxism: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Gilberto; Dutra, Kamile Leonardi; Rodrigues Filho, Rubens; de Oliveira Lira Ortega, Adriana; Porporatti, André Luís; Dick, Bruce; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2018-04-16

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for studies that investigated the association between use of psychotropic medications and presence of sleep bruxism (SB). Observational studies were selected in a two-phase process. Searches were performed on six electronic databases and a grey literature search was conducted on three databases. SB diagnosis was based on questionnaires or clinical examinations; no polysomnography exams were performed. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Analytical Cross-Sectional Studies. Overall quality of evidence was evaluated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria. Five analytical cross-sectional studies were included, evaluating antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and psychostimulants. One study was judged as low risk of bias, three as moderate risk, and one high risk. Antidepressants were evaluated in adult populations only; duloxetine (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.16; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.12-4.17), paroxetine (OR=3.63; 95%CI=2.15-6.13) and venlafaxine (OR=2.28; 95%CI=1.34-3.86) were positively associated with SB risk. No increased odds of SB were observed considering use of citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, mirtazapine, and sertraline. With regard to anticonvulsants, only barbiturates were associated with SB in children (OR=14.70; 95%CI =1.85-116.90), while no increased odds were observed for benzodiazepine, carbamazepine, and valproate. The only psychostimulant evaluated was methylphenidate and an association with SB was observed in adolescents (OR=1.67; 95%CI=1.03-2.68). Findings from this SR suggested that medications such as duloxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, barbiturates, and methylphenidate might be associated with SB; however, overall quality of evidence was considered very low and, therefore, caution is recommended. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This

  3. Endocrine and Metabolic Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

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    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much as an increase in the use of psychotropic drugs is observed in children and adolescents over the last decade, the endocrine and metabolic side effects of these drugs can limit their use. Atypical antipsychotics can cause many side effects, which are not suitable for the developmental periods of children and adolescents, such as those related with thyroid, blood sugar, level of sex hormones, growth rate and bone metabolism. Children are under a more serious risk regarding the weight increasing effects of atypical antipsychotics and weight gain that is not proportionate with age is especially important due to the association between glucose or lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular mortality. Aripiprazole and ziprasidone are the least risky antipsychotic drugs when it comes to metabolic side affects. The antipsychotic drug that is associated with weight increase and diabetes in children and adolescents most is olanzapine. Even though there are no comparative long-term data concerning children, it is suggested by the currently available information that metabolic side effects including dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance are at an alarming level when it comes to long-term treatment with antipsychotics. The most risky agents in terms of hyperglycemia and glucosuria development are olanzapine and clozapine. Use of risperidone and haloperidol should be undertaken with caution since it may bring about the risk of hyperprolactinemia. Among the antidepressants associated with weight loss and suppression of appetite are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, bupropion and venlafaxine. Thyroid functions can be affected by lithium, carbamazepine and valproate treatments. It is reported that the side effect most frequently associated with valproate is weight increase. The relationship between valproate treatment and the development of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in young women should also be kept in mind. [TAF Prev

  4. Straight and chopped DC performance data for a reliance EV-250AT motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Straight and chopped DC motor performances for a Reliance EV-250AT motor with an EV-1 controller were examined. Effects of motor temperature and operating voltage are shown. It is found that the maximum motor efficiency is approximately 85% at low operating temperatures in the straight DC mode. Chopper efficiency is 95% under all operating conditions. For equal speeds, the motor operated in the chopped mode develops slightly more torque and draws more current than it does in the straight DC mode.

  5. Interview with Mechai Viravaidya: "We have to strive for self-reliance".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, S J

    1990-04-01

    checkups. There are limited resources; therefore, PDA will work to get larger funding sources involved. PDA will concentrate on pioneering and innovative activities, he said. Contraceptive users will be able to buy contraceptives from the market. Therefore, PDA will not go on with its community-based family planning activities. The pay training courses conducted by the PDAs Asian Center will be strengthened. Training courses are being held for workers from developing countries. The Asian Center has a 2-year South-to-South Global Innovations Small Grant for Community-Based Self-Reliance Projects programs.

  6. Low-Cost SCADA System Using Arduino and Reliance SCADA for a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Allafi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition systems are currently employed in many applications, such as home automation, greenhouse automation, and hybrid power systems. Commercial SCADA systems are costly to set up and maintain; therefore those are not used for small renewable energy systems. This paper demonstrates applying Reliance SCADA and Arduino Uno on a small photovoltaic (PV power system to monitor the PV current, voltage, and battery, as well as efficiency. The designed system uses low-cost sensors, an Arduino Uno microcontroller, and free Reliance SCADA software. The Arduino Uno microcontroller collects data from sensors and communicates with a computer through a USB cable. Uno has been programmed to transmit data to Reliance SCADA on PC. In addition, Modbus library has been uploaded on Arduino to allow communication between the Arduino and our SCADA system by using MODBUS RTU protocol. The results of the experiments demonstrate that SCADA works in real time and can be effectively used in monitoring a solar energy system.

  7. Impulsive aggression, delay discounting, and adolescent suicide attempts: effects of current psychotropic medication use and family history of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Sheftall, Arielle H; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V; Brent, David A

    2015-03-01

    Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13-18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=-0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are affected by impulsive aggression.

  8. Frequency of Pathological Changes in Lungs of Bodies with Positive Postmortem Toxicology Results for Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mostafazadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of drug abuse in Iran has dramatically changed in recent years, turning from the traditional opioids [opium, opium dross, and refined opium dross (Shireh] into drugs with newer forms. The present study is aimed at investigating the frequency of pathological changes in the lungs of bodies with positive postmortem toxicology results for narcotics and psychotropic substances autopsied in the forensic dissection hall of Tehran, Iran [the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (LMO]. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 153 bodies, which had been referred to the LMO with positive results in postmortem toxicology for narcotics and psychotropic substances. Results: We found that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were used more in men than women. Moreover, the average age of death due to drug use was 36 years old. In addition, methamphetamine was the mostly-used type of substances, and smoking was the most widely used method to use the drugs. Besides, the dominant consistency and color of the lungs of half of the bodies investigated were elastic brown-gray. Moreover, the most common pathologic changes observed in the lungs of the bodies investigated were congestion and edema. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of pathological changes in the lungs of the examined bodies and congestion, edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage, the results of the present study can be particularly effective in determining the drug use and the resultant death in the absence of any previous records and/or a negative result of toxicology.

  9. Factors associated with psychotropic drug use among community-dwelling older persons: A review of empirical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauzon Sylvie

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the many descriptive studies on prescribed psychotropic drug use by community-dwelling older persons, several sociodemographic and other factors associated with drug use receive inconsistent support. Method Empirical reports with data on at least benzodiazepine or antidepressant drug use in samples of older persons published between 1990 and 2001 (n = 32 were identified from major databases and analyzed to determine which factors are most frequently associated with psychotropic drug use in multivariate analyses. Methodological aspects were also examined. Results Most reports used probability samples of users and non-users and employed cross-sectional designs. Among variables considered in 5 or more reports, race, proximity to health centers, medical consultations, sleep complaints, and health perception were virtually always associated to drug use. Gender, mental health, and physical health status were associated in about two-thirds of reports. Associations with age, marital status, medication coverage, socioeconomic status, and social support were usually not observed. Conclusions The large variety of methods to operationalize drug use, mental health status, and social support probably affected the magnitude of observed relationships. Employing longitudinal designs and distinguishing short-term from long-term use, focusing on samples of drug users exclusively, defining drug use and drug classes more uniformly, and utilizing measures of psychological well-being rather than only of distress, might clarify the nature of observed associations and the direction of causality. Few studies tested specific hypotheses. Most studies focused on individual characteristics of respondents, neglecting the potential contribution of health care professionals to the phenomenon of psychotropic drug use among seniors.

  10. Complex psychotropic polypharmacy in bipolar disorder across varying mood polarities: A prospective cohort study of 2712 inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Julia C; Goethe, John W; Woolley, Stephen B

    2017-10-15

    It is common for patients with bipolar disorder (BP) to receive multiple psychotropics, but few studies have assessed demographic and clinical features associated with risk for receiving complex psychotropic polypharmacy. This longitudinal cohort study examined 2712 inpatients with a DSM-IV clinical diagnosis of BP to assess associations between complex polypharmacy (defined as ≥4 psychotropics) and demographic and clinical features; associations with risk of rehospitalization were also examined. Logistic regressions were performed with the sample as a whole and with each of four DSM-IV BP subtypes individually. Complex polypharmacy was present in 21.0%. BP-I depressed patients were more likely to receive complex regimens than BP-I manic, BP-I mixed or BP-II patients. In the sample as a whole, variables significantly associated with complex polypharmacy included female, white, psychotic features and a co-diagnosis of borderline personality, post-traumatic stress or another anxiety disorder. The only examined medication not significantly associated with complex polypharmacy was lithium, although only in BP-I depressed and BP-I mixed. Complex polypharmacy was associated with rehospitalization in BP-I mania within 15 and 30days post index hospitalization. All data were from one clinical facility; results may not generalize to other settings and patient populations. BP-I depression may pose a greater treatment challenge than the other BP subtypes. Lithium may confer an overall advantage compared to other medications in BP-I depressed and BP-I mixed. Further research is needed to guide pharmacotherapy decisions in BP patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  12. Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder Require a Higher Dose of Psychotropic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Hiromi; Oe, Misari; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with stressful life events and with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD and MDD comorbidity was also reported to be associated with greater symptom severity and lower levels of functioning. However, the characteristics of pharmacotherapy for PTSD with MDD are not fully understood. To understand this relationship, we conducted a retrospective review using medical charts at the Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kurume University Hospital. Information from 55 patients with PTSD was analyzed. Five cases were excluded after re-evaluation of the PTSD diagnosis. A higher rate of type II trauma was observed in the PTSD with MDD group (50.0%) than in the PTSD-only group [13.6%; χ(2) (1, n =50) = 7.26, p<0.01]. Patients with comorbid MDD were significantly older, had more severe PTSD symptomatology, and a longer duration of treatment. They also received higher doses of psychotropic drugs, regardless of the type (antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines), than the PTSD-only group. Our results showed that comorbid MDD is associated with higher doses of psychotropic drugs, suggesting difficulties in treatment.

  13. Clinical and sociodemographic correlates of severe insomnia in psychotropic drug-free, Asian outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Chua, Hong Choon; Udomratn, Pichet; Chang, Sungman; Maneeton, Narong; Maneeton, Benchaluk; Chen, Chia-Hui; Shih-Yen Chan, Edwin; Bautista, Dianne; Bin Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim

    2015-11-01

    Little has been known regarding the correlates of severe insomnia in major depressive disorder (MDD). This post-hoc analysis aimed to examine the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of severe insomnia in psychotropic drug-free, Asian adult outpatients with MDD. Participants were psychotropic drug-free patients with MDD, aged 18-65 years. By using the Symptom Checklist-90 Items, Revised (SCL-90-R), a score of 4 (severe distress) on any one of three insomnia items was defined as severe insomnia. Other measures included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the nine psychopathology subscales of SCL-90-R, the Physical and Mental Component Summaries of Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 PCS and SF-36 MCS), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Of 528 participants, their mean age being 39.5 (SD=13.26) years, 64.2% were females, and 239 (45.3%) had severe insomnia. The logistic regression model revealed that low educational qualifications (less than secondary school completion), high SCL-90-R Depression scores, high SCL-90-R Anxiety scores, and low SF-36 PCS scores were independently correlated with severe insomnia (p'sdepression and anxiety severity, and poor physical health. These findings may implicate the treatment of comorbid MDD and severe insomnia, for example, sleep hygiene education, pharmacological treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An analysis of psychotropic drug sales. Increasing sales of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are closely related to number of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Gøtzsche, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Prescribing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has increased dramatically. To compare the sales of benzodiazepines and SSRIs within the primary care sector in Denmark and relate changes in usage to number of indications and products on the market. We used data from various sources to establish the sales curves of psychotropic drugs in the period 1970 to 2007, based on the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification system and Defined Daily Doses. Fluctuations in sales of psychotropic drugs that cannot be explained by disease prevalence were caused by changes in sales of the benzodiazepines and SSRIs. We found a decline in the sales of benzodiazepines after a peak in 1986, likely due to the recognition that they cause dependence. From a low level in 1992, we found that the sales of SSRIs increased almost linearly by a factor of 18, up to 44 DDD per 1000 inhabitants, which was closely related to the number of products on the market that increased by a factor of 16. Sales of antidepressant drugs are mainly determined by market availability of products indicating that marketing pressures are playing an important role. Thus the current level of use of SSRIs may not be evidence-based, which is supported by studies showing that the effect of SSRIs has been overestimated.

  15. PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINE PRESCRIPTIONS IN A PRIMARY CARE UNIT IN A BIG CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oliveira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming toknowthe consumptionprofileof psychotropic drugs inpopulation ofperipheral region of abig cityof São Paulo State, 800 prescriptionsfromaPrimary CareUnitareassessedaccordingto344/98-SVS/MS.In that timethecontrolof these drugs were mademanually.The results showed1371 drugsdispensedandamong those1134were psychotropic.Thetotal was64,513pillunits, an average of 107 units with 1.7 drugs per prescription, while82.1% came from public services. The total number of drugs prescribed per prescription had themajority (60.0% onedrug, 20.3%, two drugs, three drugs 11.6%, 6.6% four or moremedications, including those not controlled (14% . Twenty drugswerenot on the standard list.Of controlled, 78.4% belonged to theclassC1 and21.6% toB1.There is a large consumption ofpsychotropic medications for thispoorpopulation, with a prevalence of antidepressants. Thesubsequent implementation of the computerized system significantly reduced the units dispensed,indicating that forms of management are factors to be considered in the rational use of drugs,such as the use of technologies and also the wide range of approaches to health education, such astraining of health professionals, including prescribers

  16. Rural self-reliance: the impact on health experiences of people living with type II diabetes in rural Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Carruth, Althea; Windsor, Carol; Clark, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore whether and how rural culture influences type II diabetes management and to better understand the social processes that rural people construct in coping with diabetes and its complications. In particular, the study aimed to analyse the interface and interactions between rural people with type II diabetes and the Australian health care system, and to develop a theoretical understanding that reflects constructs that may be more broadly applicable. The study applied constructivist grounded theory methods within an interpretive interactionist framework. Data from 39 semi-structured interviews with rural and urban type II diabetes patients and a mix of rural health care providers were analysed to develop a theoretical understanding of the social processes that define diabetes management in that context. The analysis suggests that although type II diabetes imposes limitations that require adjustment and adaptation, these processes are actively negotiated by rural people within the environmental context to fit the salient social understandings of autonomy and self-reliance. Thus, people normalized self-reliant diabetes management behaviours because this was congruent with the rural culture. Factors that informed the actions of normalization were relationships between participants and health care professionals, support, and access to individual resources. The findings point to ways in which rural self-reliance is conceived as the primary strategy of diabetes management. People face the paradox of engaging with a health care system that at the same time maximizes individual responsibility for health and minimizes the social support by which individuals manage the condition. The emphasis on self-reliance gives some legitimacy to a lack of prevention and chronic care services. Success of diabetes management behaviours is, however, contingent on relative resources. Where there is good primary care, there develops a number of downstream

  17. Rural self-reliance: the impact on health experiences of people living with type II diabetes in rural Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althea Page-Carruth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to explore whether and how rural culture influences type II diabetes management and to better understand the social processes that rural people construct in coping with diabetes and its complications. In particular, the study aimed to analyse the interface and interactions between rural people with type II diabetes and the Australian health care system, and to develop a theoretical understanding that reflects constructs that may be more broadly applicable. Methods: The study applied constructivist grounded theory methods within an interpretive interactionist framework. Data from 39 semi-structured interviews with rural and urban type II diabetes patients and a mix of rural health care providers were analysed to develop a theoretical understanding of the social processes that define diabetes management in that context. Results: The analysis suggests that although type II diabetes imposes limitations that require adjustment and adaptation, these processes are actively negotiated by rural people within the environmental context to fit the salient social understandings of autonomy and self-reliance. Thus, people normalized self-reliant diabetes management behaviours because this was congruent with the rural culture. Factors that informed the actions of normalization were relationships between participants and health care professionals, support, and access to individual resources. Conclusions: The findings point to ways in which rural self-reliance is conceived as the primary strategy of diabetes management. People face the paradox of engaging with a health care system that at the same time maximizes individual responsibility for health and minimizes the social support by which individuals manage the condition. The emphasis on self-reliance gives some legitimacy to a lack of prevention and chronic care services. Success of diabetes management behaviours is, however, contingent on relative resources. Where

  18. Proposed Method for Disaggregation of Secondary Data: The Model for External Reliance of Localities in the Coastal Management Zone (MERLIN-CMZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Model for External Reliance of Localities In (MERLIN) Coastal Management Zones is a proposed solution to allow scaling of variables to smaller, nested geographies. Utilizing a Principal Components Analysis and data normalization techniques, smaller scale trends are linked to ...

  19. A study on the international nuclear Co-operation and the nuclear technology self-reliance strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa Sup

    1993-02-01

    To setup a basement for the national nuclear technology strategy, the reorganization of the world structure and the environmental issues are analyzed. And with regards to the self-reliance of nuclear technology, the method for the settlement of the national nuclear infrastructure and the method to strengthen our role in international nuclear community through the co-operation with IAEA is suggested. Also the status and strategy of major nuclear pushing countries are investigated. And followed by this, national nuclear technology status and strategy are analyzed. (Author)

  20. Using Self-Reliance Factors to Decide How to Share Control Between Human Powered Wheelchair Drivers and Ultrasonic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David A

    2017-08-01

    A shared-control scheme for a powered wheelchair is presented. The wheelchair can be operated by a wheelchair driver using a joystick, or directed by a sensor system, or control can be combined between them. The wheelchair system can modify direction depending on the local environment. Sharing the control allows a disabled wheelchair driver to drive safely and efficiently. The controller automatically establishes the control gains for the sensor system and the human driver by calculating a self-reliance factor for the wheelchair driver. The sensor system can influence the motion of the wheelchair to compensate for some deficiency in a disabled driver. Practical tests validate the proposed techniques and designs.

  1. The Use of Psychotropic Medication for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviours That Challenge in the Context of a Community Multidisciplinary Team Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Abigail; Goodey, Rebecca; Webb, Alison; Shankar, Rohit

    2018-01-01

    Background: The use of psychotropic medication to manage challenging behaviours of people with intellectual disabilities is a contentious issue which NHS England has now focused on. This paper looks to evaluate this within the multidisciplinary context. Method: Records of clients (n = 106) open to a Community Intellectual Disabilities team for…

  2. Evidence for involvement of the insula in the psychotropic effects of THC in humans: a double-blind, randomized pharmacological MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, van H.H.; Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Kristo, G.; Osch, M.J.P.; Zelaya, F.; Kahn, R.S.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2011-01-01

    The main reason for recreational use of cannabis is the ‘high’, the primary psychotropic effect of ¿9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This psychoactive compound of cannabis induces a range of subjective, physical and mental reactions. The effect on heart rate is pronounced and complicates

  3. Psychotropic and Anticonvulsant Drug Usage in Early Childhood Special Education Programs I. Phase One: A Preliminary Report: Prevalence, Attitude, Training, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    As part of a three phase study designed to survey the teachers and parents of children receiving psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs, 208 teachers of preschool special education children on medication were mailed questionnaires. The Early Childhood Medication Questionnaire used in the survey included items relating to teacher, program, and…

  4. Is an unhealthy work environment in nursing home care for people with dementia associated with the prescription of psychotropic drugs and physical restraints?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, B.M.; De Jonge, J.; Smit, D.; Dasselaar, W.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Pot, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research showed that long-term care facilities differ widely in the use of psychotropic drugs and physical restraints. The aim of this study is to investigate whether characteristics of an unhealthy work environment in facilities for people with dementia are associated with more

  5. Prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic medication prescribing in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of male and female prisoners in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiece Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illness is highly prevalent among prisoners. Although psychotropic medicines can ameliorate symptoms of mental illness, prescribers in prisons must balance clinical needs against risks to safety and security. Concerns have been raised at the large number of prisoners reportedly receiving psychotropic medicines in England. Nonetheless, unlike for the wider community, robust prescribing data are not routinely available for prisons. We investigated gender-specific patterns in the prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic prescribing in English prisons. Methods We studied 6052 men and 785 women in 11 prisons throughout England. This represented 7.9 % of male and 20.5 % of female prisoners nationally. Using a cross-sectional design, demographic and prescription data were collected from clinical records of all prisoners prescribed psychotropic medicines, including hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-manic, antidepressant and Central Nervous System stimulant medications. Percentages and 95 % CIs were used to estimate the prevalence of prescribing. The Prescribing Appropriate Indicators tool was used to determine appropriateness. Prevalence Ratios (PR were generated to make age-adjusted comparisons between prisoners and the general population using a dataset supplied by the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Results Overall, 47.9 % (CI 44.4–51.4 of women and 16.9 % (CI 16.0–17.9 of men in prison were prescribed one or more psychotropic medicines. Compared with the general population, age-adjusted prescribing prevalence was six times higher among women (PR 5.95 CI 5.36–6.61 and four times higher among men (PR 4.02 CI 3.75–4.30. Undocumented or unapproved indications for prescriptions, not listed in the British National Formulary, were recorded in a third (34.7 %, CI 32.5–37.0 of cases, most commonly low mood and personality disorder. Conclusions Psychotropic medicines were prescribed frequently in

  6. Impact of HSD11B1 polymorphisms on BMI and components of the metabolic syndrome in patients receiving psychotropic treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Quteineh, Lina; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Saigi Morgui, Nuria; Delacré taz, Auré lie; Choong, Eva; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Bondolfi, Guido; Von Gunten, Armin; Preisig, Martin A.; Castelao, Enrique; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gé rard; Bochud, Murielle; Kutalik, Zoltá n; Conus, Philippe O.; Eap, Chin Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic treatments represents a major health issue. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes tissue regeneration of active cortisol from cortisone. Elevated enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD1 may lead to the development of MetS. Methods We investigated the association between seven HSD11B1 gene (encoding 11β-HSD1) polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in a psychiatric sample treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs (n=478). The polymorphisms that survived Bonferroni correction were analyzed in two independent psychiatric samples (n R1 =168, n R2 =188) and in several large population-based samples (n 1 =5338; n 2 =123 865; n 3 >100 000). Results HSD11B1 rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers were found to be associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure compared with the reference genotype (P corrected <0.05). These associations were exclusively detected in women (n=257) with more than 3.1 kg/m 2, 7.5 cm, and 4.2 mmHg lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, in rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers compared with noncarriers (P corrected <0.05). Conversely, carriers of the rs846906-T allele had significantly higher waist circumference and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol exclusively in men (P corrected =0.028). The rs846906-T allele was also associated with a higher risk of MetS at 3 months of follow-up (odds ratio: 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-7.17, P corrected =0.014). No association was observed between HSD11B1 polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in the population-based samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that HSD11B1 polymorphisms may contribute toward the development of MetS in psychiatric patients treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, but do not

  7. Schema reliance for developmental goals increases from early to late adulthood: improvement for the young, loss prevention for the old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Riediger, Michaela; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2009-06-01

    People tend to encode and retrieve information in terms of schemata, especially when processing resources are low. This study argues that the life-span schema about developmental goals constitutes a generalized expectation about the life course that associates young adults with growth and older adults with loss prevention. Predictions were that young and older adults possess this schema; that both age groups rely on it when remembering age-associated information about goals; and that this schema reliance is particularly pronounced among older adults, due to age-related difficulties in overcoming schemata. In Experiment 1, participants assigned growth or loss-prevention orientations to young and older faces and adhered to the life-span schema. In Experiment 2, participants were presented young and older faces paired with growth or loss prevention. When later asked to recognize faces and remember goal orientations, participants were more likely to remember young faces with growth and older faces with loss prevention than vice versa. This effect was more pronounced among older adults. Conclusions are that reliance on life-span schemata when remembering developmentally relevant information increases with age. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Promoting group empowerment and self-reliance through participatory research: a case study of people with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R; Bhagwanjee, A

    1999-07-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the empowerment construct among social scientists, relatively few empowerment studies involving groupwork with people with physical disabilities exist. This article accordingly describes and analyses the organic development of the empowerment process within a spinal cord injury self-help group, set against the backdrop of policy imperatives for disability in post-apartheid South Africa. The treatise on the group empowerment process is located within the context of a group evaluation conducted within a participatory research framework. Key variables informing the research approach included: quality of participation, control over resources and decision-making, shift in critical consciousness and understanding, malleability of roles within the group and role of the health professional. Group members assumed ownership of group management and decision-making and shifted from a professionally-led to a peer-led self-help group. Group objectives changed from providing mutual support to community education and outreach activities. The role of the health professional shifted from group facilitator to invited consultant. This case study demonstrates how group participation, promoted by a critically informed therapeutic and research praxis, can unlock the inherent potential for self-reliance and empowerment of socially marginalized collectives. It offers important insights with regard to group process, participatory research and the role of the health professional in creating opportunities for empowerment and self-reliance of people with disability.

  9. Determinants of attitudes towards professional mental health care, informal help and self-reliance in people with subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zoonen, Kim; Kleiboer, Annet; Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Jan; Penninx, Brenda; Verhaak, Peter; Beekman, Aartjan

    2016-02-01

    Although little is known about which people with subclinical depression should receive care to prevent the onset of depression, it is clear that remediating symptoms of depression is important. However, depending on the beliefs people hold about help, some people will seek professional help, while others seek informal help or solve problems on their own. This study examined associations between attitudes about help and socio-demographic variables, mastery, severity of depressive symptoms, accessibility to care, and health care utilization at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Data were derived from a large cohort study, the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). A total of 235 respondents with subclinical depression completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Attitude was assessed using a short version of the 'Trust in mental health care' questionnaire. Positive attitude towards professional care was associated with being male, younger age, higher mastery and easy accessibility to care. Positive attitude towards informal help was associated with higher mastery and unemployment. Older age, less accessibility to care and lower mastery were associated with positive attitude towards self-reliance. A change in care utilization was associated with positive attitudes towards professional care at follow-up. People differ in the way they cope with symptoms which may influence their preferred care. Higher levels of mastery were positively associated with professional and informal care, but negatively associated with self-reliance. Both age and mastery showed relatively large effect sizes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Use of psychotropic drugs before pregnancy and the risk for induced abortion: population-based register-data from Finland 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Artama, Miia; Ritvanen, Annukka; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2010-06-30

    Some, though not all studies have reported an increased risk for mental health problems after an induced abortion. Problems with design and data have compromised these studies and the generalisation of their results. The Finnish Medication and Pregnancy database (N = 622 671 births and 114 518 induced abortions for other than fetal reasons) in 1996-2006 was utilised to study the use of psychotropic drugs in the three months before a pregnancy ending in a birth or an induced abortion. In total 2.1% of women with a birth and 5.1% of women with an induced abortion had used a psychotropic medicine 0-3 months before pregnancy. Psychotropic drug users terminated their pregnancies (30.9%) more often than other pregnant women (15.5%). Adjustment for background characteristics explained one third of this elevated risk, but the risk remained significantly increased among users of psychotropic medicine (OR 1.94, 95% confidence intervals 1.87-2.02). A similar risk was found for first pregnancies (30.1% vs. 18.9%; adjusted OR 1.53, 95% confidence intervals 1.42-1.65). The rate for terminating pregnancy was the highest for women using hypnotics and sedatives (35.6% for all pregnancies and 29.1% for first pregnancies), followed by antipsychotics (33.9% and 36.0%) and antidepressants (32.0% and 32.1%). The observed increased risk for induced abortion among women with psychotropic medication highlights the importance to acknowledge the mental health needs of women seeking an induced abortion. Further studies are needed to establish the impact of pre-existing differences in mental health on mental health outcomes of induced abortions compared to outcomes of pregnancies ending in a birth.

  11. Use of psychotropic drugs before pregnancy and the risk for induced abortion: population-based register-data from Finland 1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritvanen Annukka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some, though not all studies have reported an increased risk for mental health problems after an induced abortion. Problems with design and data have compromised these studies and the generalisation of their results. Methods The Finnish Medication and Pregnancy database (N = 622 671 births and 114 518 induced abortions for other than fetal reasons in 1996-2006 was utilised to study the use of psychotropic drugs in the three months before a pregnancy ending in a birth or an induced abortion. Results In total 2.1% of women with a birth and 5.1% of women with an induced abortion had used a psychotropic medicine 0-3 months before pregnancy. Psychotropic drug users terminated their pregnancies (30.9% more often than other pregnant women (15.5%. Adjustment for background characteristics explained one third of this elevated risk, but the risk remained significantly increased among users of psychotropic medicine (OR 1.94, 95% confidence intervals 1.87-2.02. A similar risk was found for first pregnancies (30.1% vs. 18.9%; adjusted OR 1.53, 95% confidence intervals 1.42-1.65. The rate for terminating pregnancy was the highest for women using hypnotics and sedatives (35.6% for all pregnancies and 29.1% for first pregnancies, followed by antipsychotics (33.9% and 36.0% and antidepressants (32.0% and 32.1%. Conclusions The observed increased risk for induced abortion among women with psychotropic medication highlighs the importance to acknowledge the mental health needs of women seeking an induced abortion. Further studies are needed to establish the impact of pre-existing differences in mental health on mental health outcomes of induced abortions compared to outcomes of pregnancies ending in a birth.

  12. Rise in psychotropic drug prescribing in children and adolescents during 1992-2001: a population-based study in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsia Yingfen; Maclennan, Karyn

    2009-01-01

    Background The trend towards increased psychotropic drug prescribing in children and adolescents is well recognised in North America and continental Europe. However, it is unclear to what extent these studies are applicable to clinical practice in the United Kingdom (UK). This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drug prescribing in children and adolescents aged <19 years in general practice in the UK from January 1992 to December 2001. Methods Data were obtained from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Annual age- and sex-specific prevalence of psychotropic drug prescribing was calculated. Results A total of 143,079 prescriptions were issued to 34,398 study subjects. Stimulant prescriptions rose significantly from 0.03 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval 0.02-0.04) in 1992 to 2.9 per 1,000 (2.52-3.32) in 2001; a 96-fold increase. Methylphenidate accounted for the majority of stimulant prescriptions; 2.4% (349/14,370) of stimulant prescriptions were prescribed to children aged <6 years. Increased prescribing was also noted for antidepressants (1.6-fold), hypnotics/anxiolytics (1.3-fold), antipsychotics (1.3-fold) and anticonvulsants (1.3-fold), whilst the prevalence of clonidine and lithium prescribing remained fairly stable throughout the study period. The use of antidepressant, hypnotic/anxiolytic and anticonvulsant increased with increasing age. A high proportion of boys received stimulants, whereas antidepressants and hypnotics/anxiolytics were more likely prescribed to girls. Conclusion There is an increased trend of psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents in the UK practice. Since most psychotropic drugs are not licensed for use in children at this time, research is needed to investigate the efficacy and long-term safety in this population

  13. Hormonal contraception increases the risk of psychotropic drug use in adolescent girls but not in adults: A pharmacoepidemiological study on 800 000 Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettermark, Sofia; Perez Vicente, Raquel; Merlo, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The burden of depression and anxiety disorders is greater in women, and female sex hormones have been shown to affect mood. Psychological side effects of hormonal contraception (HC) are also a common complaint in the clinic, but few previous studies have investigated this subject. We therefore wanted to investigate whether use of HC was associated with adverse psychological health outcomes, and whether this association was modified by age. All women aged 12-30 years on 31 December 2010, residing in Sweden for at least four years and with no previous psychiatric morbidity (n = 815 662), were included. We followed the women from their first HC use (or 31 December 2010, if they were non-users) at baseline, until a prescription fill of psychotropic drugs or the end of the one-year follow-up. We performed age-stratified logistic regression models and estimated odds ratios (OR) to measure the association between different HC methods and psychotropic drug use, as well as the area under the receiver operating curve to estimate discriminatory accuracy of HC in relation to psychotropic drugs. Overall, we found an association between HC and psychotropic drugs (adjusted OR 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.37). In the age-stratified analysis, the strongest association was found in adolescent girls (adjusted OR 3.46, 95% CI 3.04-4.94 for age 12 to 14 years), while it was non-existent for adult women. We conclude that hormonal contraception is associated with psychotropic drug use among adolescent girls, suggesting an adverse effect of HC on psychological health in this population.

  14. Changes in psychosocial and physical working conditions and psychotropic medication in ageing public sector employees: a record-linkage follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Mänty, Minna; Lallukka, Tea; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-07-12

    To investigate whether changes in psychosocial and physical working conditions are associated with subsequent psychotropic medication in ageing employees. Data were from the Helsinki Health Study, a cohort study of Finnish municipal employees, aged 40-60 years at phase 1 (2000-2002). Changes in psychosocial and physical working conditions were measured between phase 1 and phase 2 (2007). Survey data were longitudinally linked to data on prescribed, reimbursed psychotropic medication purchases (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical) obtained from the registers of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland between the phase 2 survey and December 2013 (N=3587; 80% women). Outcomes were any psychotropic medication; antidepressants (N06A); anxiolytics (N05B); and sedatives and hypnotics (N05C). Cox regression analyses were performed. During the follow-up, 28% of the participants were prescribed psychotropic medication. Repeated exposures to low job control, high job demands and high physical work load were associated with an increased risk of subsequent antidepressant and anxiolytic medication. Increased and repeated exposure to high physical work load, increased job control and repeated high job demands were associated with subsequent sedative and hypnotic medication. Age and sex-adjusted HR varied from 1.18 to 1.66. Improvement in job control was associated with a lower risk of anxiolytic, but with a higher risk of sedatives and hypnotic medication. Decreased physical work load was associated with a lower risk of antidepressant and anxiolytic medications. Improvement in working conditions could lower the risk of mental ill-health indicated by psychotropic medication. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. ANALYSIS OF BASIC PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS AND TISSUES BY REVERSED-PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, Anna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The review of the RP HPLC analysis of basic psychotropic drugs is presented. It contains sample preparation methods with centrifugation, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and RP-HPLC analysis. Chromatographic behavior of basic drugs in aqueous media - eluents used in reversed phase systems is discussed. Methods of blocking of residue surface silanols' interaction are mentioned. Analytical methods used for the analysis are divided into parts according with the above methods: the use of low-pH eluents, the use of high-pH eluents, the use of silanol blockers, special stationary phases for basic analytes. Literature connected with the sample preparation methods and analytical systems for the drug analysis are cited in details and presented also in Table 1.

  16. The use of psychotropic medication in patients with emotionally unstable personality disorder under the care of UK mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Carol; Crawford, Michael J; Bhatti, Sumera F; Patel, Maxine X; Barnes, Thomas R E

    2015-04-01

    Guideline recommendations for the pharmacologic treatment of personality disorder lack consensus, particularly for emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), and there is limited information on current prescribing practice in the United Kingdom. To characterize the nature and quality of current prescribing practice for personality disorder across the United Kingdom, as part of a quality improvement program. A cross-sectional survey of self-selected psychiatric services providing care for adults with personality disorder (ICD-10 criteria) was conducted. Data were collected during May 2012. Of 2,600 patients with a diagnosis of personality disorder, more than two-thirds (68%) had a diagnosis of EUPD. Almost all (92%) patients in the EUPD subgroup were prescribed psychotropic medication, most commonly an antidepressant or antipsychotic, principally for symptoms and behaviors that characterize EUPD, particularly affective dysregulation. Prescribing patterns were similar between those who had a diagnosed comorbid mental illness and those who had EUPD alone, but the latter group was less likely to have had their medication reviewed over the previous year, particularly with respect to tolerability (53% vs 43%). The use of psychotropic medication in EUPD in the United Kingdom is largely outside the licensed indications. Whether the treatment target is identified as intrinsic symptoms of EUPD or comorbid mental illness may depend on the diagnostic threshold of individual clinicians. Compared with prescribing for EUPD where there is judged to be a comorbid mental illness, the use of off-label medication for EUPD alone is less systematically reviewed and monitored, so opportunities for learning may be lost. Treatment may be continued long term by default. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  17. Treatment of agitation in the acute psychiatric setting. An observational study of the effectiveness of intramuscular psychotropic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeanett Østerby; Stenborg, Dina; Lodahl, Tue; Mønsted, Mik Mathias

    2016-11-01

    Agitation is frequent in the acute psychiatric setting. The observation and treatment of agitation is important to avoid harm to patients or staff, to reduce distress of the patient, and to reduce the risk of coercion, especially physical restraint. To evaluate the effect of intramuscular treatment with psychotropics on agitation in a non-selected acute psychiatric population. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Excitement Component (PANSS-EC) was implemented in the acute psychiatric ward at Psychiatric Center Copenhagen to improve assessment and treatment of agitation. During a period of almost ~2 years the staff was requested to assess agitation before and after administration of intramuscular injections. PANSS-EC was obtained at baseline and within 2 hours after injection for 135 injections with antipsychotics or benzodiazepines administered to 101 acute, non-selected psychiatric patients with high occurrence of co-morbid substance abuse. Mean PANSS-EC at baseline was 26.53 ± 4.87, and mean reduction in PANSS-EC was 14.99 ± 8.48 (p patients were subjected to physical restraint. Patients subjected to restraint had a significantly higher PANSS-EC score. Patients who received a subsequent injection had a significantly lower decline in PANSS-EC score. Besides two cases of acute dystonia following haloperidol injections, no serious side-effects were observed. Treatment of agitation with intramuscular injections of psychotropics was in general effective in this non-selected, highly agitated psychiatric population, and injections were well tolerated.

  18. Effects of psychotropic agents on extinction of lever-press avoidance in a rat model of anxiety vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilu eJiao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance and its perseveration represent key features of anxiety disorders. Both pharmacological and behavioral approaches (i.e. anxiolytics and extinction therapy have been utilized to modulate avoidance behavior in patients. However, the outcome has not always been desirable. Part of the reason is attributed to the diverse neuropathology of anxiety disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of psychotropic drugs that target various monoamine systems on extinction of avoidance behavior using lever-press avoidance task. Here we used the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat, a unique rat model that exhibits facilitated avoidance and extinction resistance along with malfunction of the dopamine (DA system. Sprague Dawley (SD and WKY rats were trained to acquire lever-press avoidance. WKY rats acquired avoidance faster and to a higher level compared to SD rats. During pharmacological treatment, bupropion, and desipramine significantly reduced avoidance response selectively in WKY rats. However, after the discontinuation of drug treatment, only those WKY rats that were previously treated with desipramine exhibited lower avoidance response compared to the control group. In contrast, none of the psychotropic drugs facilitated avoidance extinction in SD rats. Instead, desipramine impaired avoidance extinction and increased non-reinforced response in SD rats. Interestingly, paroxetine, a widely used antidepressant and anxiolytic, exhibited the weakest effect in WKY rats and no effects at all in SD rats. Thus, our data suggest that malfunctions in brain catecholamine system could be one of the underlying etiologies of anxiety-like behavior, particularly avoidance perseveration. Pharmacological manipulation targeting DA and norepinephrine is more effective to facilitate extinction learning in this strain. The data from the present study may shed light on new pharmacological approaches to treat patients with anxiety disorders who are not responding to serotonin re

  19. Purified Cannabidiol, the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, alone, counteracts neuronal apoptosis in experimental multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoppo, S; Soundara Rajan, T; Galuppo, M; Pollastro, F; Grassi, G; Bramanti, P; Mazzon, E

    2015-12-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a global concern disease leading to a progressive, chronic and demyelinating condition, affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The pathology has an inflammatory/autoimmune origin; nevertheless, neuronal cell death mechanisms are not to be underestimated. The present study was designed to test the effects of intraperitoneal administration of cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic cannabinoid of Cannabis sativa (CS), in an experimental model of MS. The aim is to evaluate the capability of CBD administration to thwart the cascade of mediators involved in MS-induced apoptosis. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide in mice. After immunization, mice were observed daily for signs of EAE and weight loss. Disease signs were evaluated using a standardized scoring system. Immunohistochemical and Western blot assessments of key apoptotic markers reveal that CBD treatment is able to avoid Fas pathway activation, phospho-ERK p42/44 and cleaved caspase-3 triggering as well as alterations in mitochondrial permeability due to Bax/Bcl-2 unbalance. Moreover, CBD interferes with p53-p21 axis activation. As results, the absence of tissue apobody formation in spinal cord tissues of EAE-mice treated with CBD was established. Most of therapeutic properties of CS are currently ascribed to the psychotropic effects of phenylterpenoid delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol. We have demonstrated that, alone, purified CBD possesses an anti-apoptotic power against the neurodegenerative processes underlying MS development. This represents an interesting new profile of CBD that could lead to its introduction in the clinical management of MS.

  20. Medical school gift restriction policies and physician prescribing of newly marketed psychotropic medications: difference-in-differences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marissa; Essick, Connor; Bearman, Peter; Ross, Joseph S

    2013-01-30

    To examine the effect of attending a medical school with an active policy on restricting gifts from representatives of pharmaceutical and device industries on subsequent prescribing behavior. Difference-in-differences approach. 14 US medical schools with an active gift restriction policy in place by 2004. Prescribing patterns in 2008 and 2009 of physicians attending one of the schools compared with physicians graduating from the same schools before the implementation of the policy, as well as a set of contemporary matched controls. Probability that a physician would prescribe a newly marketed medication over existing alternatives of three psychotropic classes: lisdexamfetamine among stimulants, paliperidone among antipsychotics, and desvenlafaxine among antidepressants. None of these medications represented radical breakthroughs in their respective classes. For two of the three medications examined, attending a medical school with an active gift restriction policy was associated with reduced prescribing of the newly marketed drug. Physicians who attended a medical school with an active conflict of interest policy were less likely to prescribe lisdexamfetamine over older stimulants (adjusted odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.88; P=0.02) and paliperidone over older antipsychotics (0.25, 0.07 to 0.85; P=0.03). A significant effect was not observed for desvenlafaxine (1.54, 0.79 to 3.03; P=0.20). Among cohorts of students who had a longer exposure to the policy or were exposed to more stringent policies, prescribing rates were further reduced. Exposure to a gift restriction policy during medical school was associated with reduced prescribing of two out of three newly introduced psychotropic medications.

  1. Young men's health: a balance between self-reliance and vulnerability in the light of hegemonic masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Regina; Sandén, Inger

    2008-06-01

    Masculinity, in its hegemonic form, can have the effect that men avoid talking about health problems and do not consult health care, even when help is needed. This study had two aims: firstly to describe how young men relate to health, ill health, masculinity and their bodies, and secondly to investigate their abilities of self-care. Interviews with eleven men were conducted using a semi-structured approach. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed interviews. The findings revealed five main themes; 'body awareness', 'the creation of self-reliance', 'feelings of freedom', 'the process of self-care awareness' and, finally, 'feelings of vulnerability'. Hegemonic masculinity impacted greatly on the men in this study and could be traced in expressions of dependency, vulnerability, loss of freedom and an altered body image. These were viewed as health disadvantages due to the threat to hegemonic masculinity.

  2. When self-reliance is not safe: associations between reduced help-seeking and subsequent mental health symptoms in suicidal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouliere, Christa D; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2015-04-01

    The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths' perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time), help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  3. When Self-Reliance Is Not Safe: Associations between Reduced Help-Seeking and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms in Suicidal Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa D. Labouliere

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths’ perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time, help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  4. Differences in the reliance on cuticular hydrocarbons as sexual signaling and species discrimination cues in parasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buellesbach, Jan; Vetter, Sebastian G; Schmitt, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) have been documented to play crucial roles as species- and sex-specific cues in the chemical communication systems of a wide variety of insects. However, whether they are sufficient by themselves as the sole cue triggering sexual behavior as well as preference of con- over heterospecific mating partners is rarely assessed. We conducted behavioral assays in three representative species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to determine their reliance on CHC as species-specific sexual signaling cues. We found a surprising degree of either unspecific or insufficient sexual signaling when CHC are singled out as recognition cues. Most strikingly, the cosmopolitan species Nasonia vitripennis , expected to experience enhanced selection pressure to discriminate against other co-occurring parasitoids, did not discriminate against CHC of a partially sympatric species from another genus, Trichomalopsis sarcophagae . Focusing on the latter species, in turn, it became apparent that CHC are even insufficient as the sole cue triggering conspecific sexual behavior, hinting at the requirement of additional, synergistic sexual cues particularly important in this species. Finally, in the phylogenetically and chemically most divergent species Muscidifurax uniraptor, we intriguingly found both CHC-based sexual signaling as well as species discrimination behavior intact although this species is naturally parthenogenetic with sexual reproduction only occurring under laboratory conditions. Our findings implicate a discrepancy in the reliance on and specificity of CHC as sexual cues in our tested parasitioid wasps. CHC profiles were not sufficient for unambiguous discrimination and preference behavior, as demonstrated by clear cross-attraction between some of our tested wasp genera. Moreover, we could show that only in T. sarcophagae , additional behavioral cues need to be present for triggering natural mating behavior, hinting at an interesting

  5. How are perceived stigma, self-stigma, and self-reliance related to treatment-seeking? A three-path model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kristen S; Cheung, Janelle H; Britt, Thomas W; Goguen, Kandice N; Jeffirs, Stephanie M; Peasley, Allison L; Lee, Abigail C

    2015-06-01

    Many college students may experience mental health problems but do not seek treatment from mental health professionals. The present study examined how perceived stigma and self-stigma toward seeking mental health treatment, as well as perceptions of self-reliance for coping with mental health problems, relate to college student treatment-seeking. In total, 246 students completed a self-report survey that included measures of perceived stigma and self-stigma for treatment-seeking, self-reliance for addressing mental health concerns, self-reported mental health problems, symptoms of depression and alcohol-related problems, attitudes toward treatment-seeking, and treatment-seeking behavior. Regression analyses revealed that higher perceived stigma, self-stigma, and self-reliance were all related to a more negative attitude toward treatment-seeking. In a 3-path mediation model, bootstrapping results indicated an indirect effect where perceived stigma was related to attitude toward treatment-seeking and treatment-seeking behaviors through self-stigma and self-reliance. Specifically, higher perceived stigma was related to higher self-stigma, higher self-stigma was related to higher self-reliance, and higher self-reliance was associated with a more negative attitude toward treatment-seeking in the overall sample, and a decreased probability of having sought treatment among those who screened positive for a mental health problem. Perceived stigma may influence whether or not college students seek treatment for mental health problems by potentially increasing stigmatizing attitudes toward themselves and increasing preferences for handling problems on their own. Researchers and practitioners are recommended to seek a better understanding of the complex treatment barriers to reduce stigma and facilitate treatment-seeking. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Drifting while stepping in place in old adults: Association of self-motion perception with reference frame reliance and ground optic flow sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathos, Catherine P; Bernardin, Delphine; Baranton, Konogan; Assaiante, Christine; Isableu, Brice

    2017-04-07

    Optic flow provides visual self-motion information and is shown to modulate gait and provoke postural reactions. We have previously reported an increased reliance on the visual, as opposed to the somatosensory-based egocentric, frame of reference (FoR) for spatial orientation with age. In this study, we evaluated FoR reliance for self-motion perception with respect to the ground surface. We examined how effects of ground optic flow direction on posture may be enhanced by an intermittent podal contact with the ground, and reliance on the visual FoR and aging. Young, middle-aged and old adults stood quietly (QS) or stepped in place (SIP) for 30s under static stimulation, approaching and receding optic flow on the ground and a control condition. We calculated center of pressure (COP) translation and optic flow sensitivity was defined as the ratio of COP translation velocity over absolute optic flow velocity: the visual self-motion quotient (VSQ). COP translation was more influenced by receding flow during QS and by approaching flow during SIP. In addition, old adults drifted forward while SIP without any imposed visual stimulation. Approaching flow limited this natural drift and receding flow enhanced it, as indicated by the VSQ. The VSQ appears to be a motor index of reliance on the visual FoR during SIP and is associated with greater reliance on the visual and reduced reliance on the egocentric FoR. Exploitation of the egocentric FoR for self-motion perception with respect to the ground surface is compromised by age and associated with greater sensitivity to optic flow. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliance JIO'S 4 G Feature Smartphone "Jiophone": A Market Penetration Strategy in Feature Phone's Market in Indian Telecom Sector – A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyani Pawan

    2017-01-01

    Indian market is the world’s market lucrative where every MNC wishes to come and make its presence, along with the biggest opportunity of business. It is a very price sensitive market. It has been again proven by the introduction of Reliance JIO earlier with yearlong “freebies” and 4G data communication. Now there is a new feather in the cap a “feature mobile” again “FREE” effectively for the Indian market. With this market penetration strategy Reliance JIo is trying to cover the untapped “fe...

  8. Divorce and changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use: a register-based longitudinal study among middle-aged Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2013-10-01

    The annual prevalence of psychotropic medication use exceeds 10 percent in Europe and the United States, the prevalence being higher among the divorced than the married. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to divorce, sex, medication type and socio-demographic characteristics, using register-data on 304,111 Finns between 25 and 64 years of age, of whom 23,956 divorced between 1995 and 2003 and 142,093 were continuously married from 1995 to 2004. Five years before divorce, men and women already displayed about one percentage point higher prevalence of psychotropic medication use than those who continued their marriage. The excess prevalence increased with approaching divorce and peaked six to nine months before divorce, reaching 7.3 percent (95% CI 6.8-8.0) among divorcing men and 8.1 percent (95% CI 7.5-8.8) among divorcing women. The peak was followed by an 18-month decline, after which the excess compared to the continuously married settled at nearly three percentage points. The excess was not due to being socio-economically disadvantaged, and socio-demographic factors also seemed to have few modifying effects. The changes in prevalence were largest for antidepressants and almost non-existent for antipsychotics. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use among the divorced results both from selective factors already present five years before divorce and the acute and long-term causal effects of becoming and being divorced. Counselling is needed for individuals in the process of divorce, rather than economic support for divorced individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of psychotropic drugs before pregnancy and the risk for induced abortion: population-based register-data from Finland 1996-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ritvanen Annukka; Artama Miia; Gissler Mika; Wahlbeck Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Some, though not all studies have reported an increased risk for mental health problems after an induced abortion. Problems with design and data have compromised these studies and the generalisation of their results. Methods The Finnish Medication and Pregnancy database (N = 622 671 births and 114 518 induced abortions for other than fetal reasons) in 1996-2006 was utilised to study the use of psychotropic drugs in the three months before a pregnancy ending in a birth or a...

  10. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Maria A.; Coll-Negre, Montserrat; Coll-de-Tuero, Gabriel; Saez, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis. Methods In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012) was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined ‘selection on observables’ as (propensity scoring) matching and ‘selection on unobservables’ as (random coefficient) the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework. Results In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009), there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD), with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis. Conclusions Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis. PMID:26872210

  11. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Scalese, Marco; Curzio, Olivia; Cutrupi, Valentina; Bastiani, Luca; Gori, Mercedes; Denoth, Francesca; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a) investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b) explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logi...

  12. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Barceló

    Full Text Available Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis.In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012 was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined 'selection on observables' as (propensity scoring matching and 'selection on unobservables' as (random coefficient the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework.In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009, there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD, with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis.Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis.

  13. Association of variants in SH2B1 and RABEP1 with worsening of low-density lipoprotein and glucose parameters in patients treated with psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacrétaz, Aurélie; Zdralovic, Adna; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Saigi-Morgui, Nuria; Glatard, Anaïs; Quteineh, Lina; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Raffoul, Wassim; Applegate, Lee Ann; Jafari, Paris; Gamma, Franziska; von Gunten, Armin; Conus, Philippe; Eap, Chin B

    2017-09-10

    Genetic factors associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) have been widely studied over the last decade. We examined whether genetic variants previously associated with BMI in the general population are associated with cardiometabolic parameter worsening in the psychiatric population receiving psychotropic drugs, a high-risk group for metabolic disturbances. Classification And Regression Trees (CARTs) were used as a tool capable of describing hierarchical associations, to pinpoint genetic variants best predicting worsening of cardiometabolic parameters (i.e total, HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting glucose, and blood pressure) following prescription of psychotropic drugs inducing weight gain in a discovery sample of 357 Caucasian patients. Significant findings were tested for replication in a second Caucasian psychiatric sample (n=140). SH2B1 rs3888190C>A was significantly associated with LDL levels in the discovery and in the replication sample, with A-allele carriers having 0.2mmol/l (p=0.005) and 0.36mmol/l (p=0.007) higher LDL levels compared to others, respectively. G-allele carriers of RABEP1 rs1000940A>G had lower fasting glucose levels compared to others in both samples (-0.16mmol/l; p<0.001 and -0.77mmol/l; p=0.03 respectively). The present study is the first to observe such associations in human subjects, which may in part be explained by a high risk towards dyslipidemia and diabetes in psychiatric patients receiving psychotropic treatments compared to population-based individuals. These results may therefore give new insight into the etiology of LDL-cholesterol and glucose regulation in psychiatric patients under psychotropic drug therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of psychological supportive care services and psychotropic drugs in patients with early-stage breast cancer: a comparison between two institutions on two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Meattini, Icro; Deal, Allison M; Francolini, Giulio; Carta, Giulio; Terzo, Lauren; Camporeale, Jayne; Muss, Hyman; Marks, Lawrence B; Livi, Lorenzo; Mayer, Deborah K; Zagar, Timothy M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health consumption among patients with early-stage breast cancer in two radiation oncology departments in two countries (USA and Italy). Data were extracted from the medical records of consecutive patients treated between 2014 and 2015 in two centers. Extracted data included patient's demographics, treatment, referral to psychological supportive care programs, and prescribed psychotropic drugs. Data from the two centers were compared using Student's t, Wilcoxon, Fisher's exact, and Jonckheere-Terpstra tests. Adjusted relative risks (RR) were estimated using Poisson regression. A total of 231 (Italy = 110, USA = 121) patients were included, with a mean age of 60 years. The crude rate of psychological supportive care visits was similar in the US versus the Italian cohort (28.9 vs. 21.8%, p = 0.23). The crude rate of prescribed psychotropic drug was higher in the US cohort versus Italian cohort (43.8 vs. 18.2%, p < 0.0001). These differences remained significant after adjusting for breast cancer subtype, stage, and treatment (RR 1.8, 95 CI 1.17-2.76). Between 20 and 30% of patients receive psychological supportive care during treatment for breast cancer. The use of psychotropic medication was higher in the US cohort than the cohort from Italy. The reasons for these differences might be related to social and cultural differences and the method of prescribing medication.

  15. Serum concentrations of psychotropic drugs in neonates as a PROgnOstic Factor for admission to the neonatology ward and withdrawal symptoms: PROOF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparla, Shirley C A; Coppens, Hans; Evers, Inge M; Stramrood, Claire A I; Pasker-de Jong, Pieternel C M; van der Westerlaken, Monique M L; Hogeman, Paul H G; Malingré, Mirte M

    2017-05-01

    The aim is to determine whether serum drug concentrations obtained from the neonate's umbilical cord can be used as a prognostic factor for admission to the neonatology ward and the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms. A retrospective observational monocenter cohort study was carried out among pregnant women using psychotropic drugs and their baby. Binary logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis. Of the 186 neonates included, 22.6% (n=42) were admitted to the neonatology ward, 6.5% (n=12) because of withdrawal. Among women with therapeutic concentrations of psychotropic medication, 22.0% (n=5) of the neonates had withdrawal symptoms. When comparing neonates with therapeutic versus undetectable drug concentrations, an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.1-8.6) was found for admission to the neonatology ward and an odds ratio of 20.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.2-186.1) for the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms. Therapeutic concentrations of psychotropic drugs in neonates' umbilical cord blood correspond with higher odds for admission to the neonatology ward and the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms compared with neonates with undetectable drug concentrations. The measurement of drug concentrations in the neonate may contribute toward the general clinical assessment of the physician to predict the necessity of admission to the neonatology ward and the risk of withdrawal symptoms.

  16. Prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications and clinical features in patients with major depressive disorder with and without comorbid dysthymia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Sha, Sha; Hu, Chen; Wang, Gang; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Ng, Chee H; Si, Tian-Mei; Chen, Da-Fang; Fang, Yi-Ru; Lu, Zheng; Yang, Hai-Chen; Hu, Jian; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Huang, Yi; Sun, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Li, Hui-Chun; Zhang, Jin-Bei; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-03-01

    Little has been reported about the demographic and clinical features of major depressive disorder (MDD) with comorbid dysthymia in Chinese patients. This study examined the frequency of comorbid dysthymia in Chinese MDD patients together with the demographic and clinical correlates and prescribing patterns of psychotropic drugs. Consecutively collected sample of 1178 patients with MDD were examined in 13 major psychiatric hospitals in China. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and psychotropic drugs prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The diagnosis of dysthymia was established using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Medications ascertained included antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and mood stabilizers. One hundred and three (8.7%) patients fulfilled criteria for dysthymia. In multiple logistic regression analyses, compared to non-dysthymia counterparts, MDD patients with dysthymia had more depressive episodes with atypical features including increased appetite, sleep, and weight gain, more frequent lifetime depressive episodes, and less likelihood of family history of psychiatric disorders. There was no significant difference in the pattern of psychotropic prescription between the 2 groups. There are important differences in the demographic and clinical features of comorbid dysthymia in Chinese MDD patients compared with previous reports. The clinical profile found in this study has implications for treatment decisions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. How complete is the information on preadmission psychotropic medications in inpatients with dementia? A comparison of hospital medical records with dispensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, Federica Edith; Palese, Francesca; Romanese, Federico; Barbone, Fabio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Riedel, Oliver

    2018-06-05

    Reliable information on preadmission medications is essential for inpatients with dementia, but its quality has hardly been evaluated. We assessed the completeness of information and factors associated with incomplete recording. We compared preadmission medications recorded in hospital electronic medical records (EMRs) with community-pharmacy dispensations in hospitalizations with discharge code for dementia at the University Hospital of Udine, Italy, 2012-2014. We calculated: (a) prevalence of omissions (dispensed medication not recorded in EMRs), additions (medication recorded in EMRs not dispensed), and discrepancies (any omission or addition); (b) multivariable logistic regression odds ratio, with 95% confidence interval (95% CI), of ≥1 omission. Among 2,777 hospitalizations, 86.1% had ≥1 discrepancy for any medication (Kappa 0.10) and 33.4% for psychotropics. When psychotropics were recorded in EMR, antipsychotics were added in 71.9% (antidepressants: 29.2%, antidementia agents: 48.2%); when dispensed, antipsychotics were omitted in 54.4% (antidepressants: 52.7%, antidementia agents: 41.5%). Omissions were 92% and twice more likely in patients taking 5 to 9 and ≥10 medications (vs. 0 to 4), 17% in patients with psychiatric disturbances (vs. none), and 41% with emergency admission (vs. planned). Psychotropics, commonly used in dementia, were often incompletely recorded. To enhance information completeness, both EMRs and dispensations should be used. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Rapid determination of some psychotropic drugs in complex matrices by tandem dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Alireza; Fahimi, Ebrahim; Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Boutorabi, Leila

    2017-05-01

    Simple and rapid determinations of some psychotropic drugs in some pharmaceutical wastewater and human plasma samples were successfully accomplished via the tandem dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (TDLLME-HPLC-UV). TDLLME of the three psychotropic drugs clozapine, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine was easily performed through two consecutive dispersive liquid-liquid microextractions. By performing this convenient method, proper sample preconcentrations and clean-ups were achieved in just about 7min. In order to achieve the best extraction efficiency, the effective parameters involved were optimized. The optimal experimental conditions consisted of 100μL of CCl 4 (as the extraction organic solvent), and the pH values of 13 and 2 for the donor and acceptor phases, respectively. Under these optimum experimental conditions, the proposed TDLLME-HPLC-UV technique provided a good linearity in the range of 5-3000ngmL -1 for the three psychotropic drugs with the correlation of determinations (R 2 s) higher than 0.996. The limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) obtained were 5.0ngmL -1 and 1.0-1.5ngmL -1 , respectively. Also the proper enrichment factors (EFs) of 96, 99, and 88 for clozapine, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine, respectively, and good extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations below 9.3%, n=5) were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 17oct AM posters prn.pmd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2017-11-05

    Nov 5, 2017 ... Session 2E: Public Lecture. Chairperson: Ram Ramaswamy, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. 1800–1900 Sanjoy Hazarika, Commonwealth Human Rights ... 0950–1010 Subhro Bhattacharjee, International Centre for ...

  20. 16nov Sadhana broch prn.cdr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 Springer. For more information, please contact the Editorial office: ... alternative technologies, etc. The journal ... that are relevant to more than one professional group, either ... Sādhanā brings out special issues on theme-based topics or in.

  1. acadAR2011 prn.pmd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    journals for the calendar year 2010 are given in Tables ..... Though it was originally called 'anti-hydrogen ...... supplied with ready made formulae and asked to ..... Plasmodium falciparum. 6. ..... ideal vaccines; endophytic fungi in various plants;.

  2. The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools as a Tool for Self-Reliance and Re-Branding Process in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonah, Tali D.; Caleb, Mbwas .L.; Stephen, Abe A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics teaching is an interaction between the teacher and the learners that leads to acquisition of desirable mathematical knowledge, ideas and skills necessary for applicability in our everyday life. This paper therefore looks at the concept of self-reliance, the concept of mathematics teaching, problems and prospects of mathematics teaching…

  3. Effects of Psychosocial Interventions for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia on the Prescription of Psychotropic Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhäger-Gillesse, Elizabeth G; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Achterberg, Wilco P; Boersma, Froukje; Jongman, Lydia; Zuidema, Sytse U

    2018-03-01

    Dementia is often accompanied by neuropsychiatric symptoms. Psychotropic drugs for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms are frequently used to manage these problems, but they are of limited effectiveness and can have serious side effects. Psychosocial interventions are advocated as first line treatment and may help to reduce psychotropic drug use. To assess the effect of multidisciplinary psychosocial interventions in nursing homes on the psychotropic drug prescription rate. Literature obtained from searches in 9 electronic databases was systematically reviewed. In addition, the pooled effects of specific psychosocial interventions in homogenous subgroups were analyzed (meta-analysis). Eleven randomized controlled studies that investigated multiple psychotropic drugs interventions (psychotropic drugs in 3, antipsychotics in 9, and antidepressants in 5 studies) as well as different types of psychosocial interventions were included. We separately analyzed interventions directed at the care staff level (educational programs in 3, in-reach services or consultation in 1, cultural or process change in 6 studies) and the individual resident level in 1 study. In 7 out of 9 studies reporting on antipsychotic drug use, the physician was actively involved. Nine studies in which antipsychotic drug use was specified reported a significant decrease in prescription rate as a result of psychosocial interventions [relative risk (RR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.88], whereas meta-analysis of 5 studies investigating antidepressant drug use failed to show a significant effect (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.64-1.02). Pooled effect sizes of 6 studies investigating cultural change, showed a significant decrease in antipsychotic drug use (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.73). Effect sizes of 2 studies on educational programs on antipsychotic use were nonsignificant (RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.49-4.64). Sensitivity analysis of 7 studies reporting on antipsychotic drug use involving prescribing

  4. Joint association of physical activity and overweight with subsequent psychotropic medication: a register-linked follow-up study among employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loponen, Tiina; Lallukka, Tea; Holstila, Ansku; Lahti, Jouni

    2015-10-03

    Physical activity level and overweight have shown associations with mental health problems but it is not known whether the risk of mental health problems due to overweight varies by physical activity. We examined joint association of physical activity and overweight with subsequent psychotropic medication among 40-60-year-old employees. The questionnaire survey data were derived from Helsinki Health Study baseline postal questionnaires in 2000-02 among employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60 years (n = 8960, response rate 67%). Baseline survey data were linked with prospective register data on prescribed psychotropic medication (ATC-codes N05 and N06, except N06D) among those with written consent (74%) for such linkage. The analyses included 6169 responders (78% women, corresponding to the target population). We divided participants into six groups according to their baseline self-reported body mass index and leisure-time physical activity using physically highly active normal-weight participants as a reference group. We used Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, psychotropic medication prior to baseline, and socioeconomic position, marital status, working conditions, limiting long-standing illness, alcohol use, and smoking. At baseline, 49% were overweight and 23% were physically inactive. After adjusting for age and gender, inactive normal-weight (hazard ratio (HR) 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5), moderately active overweight (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5) and inactive overweight (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6) had higher risk for any psychotropic medication compared with group of highly active normal-weight. After adjusting for prior medication, only the inactive overweight group had higher risk (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6). Other covariates made but a minor contribution to the examined associations. For antidepressants the associations were somewhat stronger than for sedatives. Both normal-weight and physical activity help prevent psychotropic medication but physical

  5. Determination of some psychotropic drugs in serum and saliva samples by HPLC-DAD and HPLC MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, A; Wróblewski, K; Szultka-Młyńska, M; Buszewski, B; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, H; Gajewski, J; Morylowska-Topolska, J; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M

    2016-08-05

    A simple, rapid and sensitive HPLC-DAD method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of seven psychotropic drugs (risperidone, citalopram, clozapine,quetiapine, levomepromazine, perazine and aripiprazole) in human serum or saliva samples. The chromatographic analyses were performed on a XSELECT CSH Phenyl-Hexyl column with a mobile phase containing methanol, acetate buffer at pH 3.5 and 0.025mL(-1) diethylamine. The influence of concentration of methanol in injection samples and injection volume on peak symmetry and system efficiency was examined.The full separation of all investigated drugs, good peaks' symmetry and simultaneously high systems efficiency were obtained in applied chromatographic system. The method is suitable for the analysis of investigated drugs in human plasma or saliva for psychiatric patients for control of pharmacotherapy, particularly in combination therapy. HPLC-MS was applied for verification of the presence of drugs and their metabolites in serum and saliva samples from patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Country variations in depressive symptoms profile in Asian countries: Findings of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Kok-Yoon; Tripathi, Adarsh; Avasthi, Ajit; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Sim, Kang; Si, Tian-Mei; Kanba, Shigenobu; He, Yan-Ling; Lee, Min-Soo; Fung-Kum Chiu, Helen; Yang, Shu-Yu; Kuga, Hironori; Udormatn, Pichet; Kallivayalil, Roy A; Tanra, Andi J; Maramis, Margarita; Grover, Sandeep; Chin, Loi-Fei; Dahlan, Rahima; Mohamad Isa, Mohd Fadzli; Ebenezer, Esther Gunaseli M; Nordin, Norhayati; Shen, Winston W; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Sartorius, Norman

    2015-09-01

    This study was to assess differences in the symptom profile of depressive illness across various countries/territories in Asia. The study was a part of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription project. The participating countries/territories include China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. The pattern of depressive symptoms in 1,400 subjects with depressive disorder from 42 psychiatric centers in 10 Asian countries/territories was assessed. We collected information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics with a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The most common presentations of depressive symptoms were persistent sadness, loss of interest, and insomnia. Similar findings were found regardless of the region, country, or its income level. Patients with depressive disorder from high-income countries presented significantly more with vegetative symptom cluster (P countries had significantly more with both mood (P countries, patients with depressive symptoms had significantly less mood symptom cluster (P countries/territories, core depressive symptoms remain the same. Variations have been found in presentation of depressive symptoms with regards to the level of income of countries. Physical or vegetative symptoms were reported more by centers in higher income countries, while depressive cognition and suicidal thoughts/acts were more frequently reported from lower income countries. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. The impact of severe mental disorders and psychotropic medications on sexual health and its implications for clinical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo, Angel L.; Montejo, Laura; Baldwin, David S.

    2018-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction often accompanies severe psychiatric illness and can be due to both the mental disorder itself and the use of psychotropic treatments. Many sexual symptoms resolve as the mental state improves, but treatment‐related sexual adverse events tend to persist over time, and are unfortunately under‐recognized by clinicians and scarcely investigated in clinical trials. Treatment‐emergent sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life and may contribute to reduce treatment adherence. There are important differences between the various compounds in the incidence of adverse sexual effects, associated with differences in mechanisms of action. Antidepressants with a predominantly serotonergic activity, antipsychotics likely to induce hyperprolactinaemia, and mood stabilizers with hormonal effects are often linked to moderate or severe sexual dysfunction, including decreased libido, delayed orgasm, anorgasmia, and sexual arousal difficulties. Severe mental disorders can interfere with sexual function and satisfaction, while patients wish to preserve a previously satisfactory sexual activity. In many patients, a lack of intimate relationships and chronic deterioration in mental and physical health can be accompanied by either a poor sexual life or a more frequent risky sexual behaviour than in the general population. Here we describe the influence of psychosis and antipsychotic medications, of depression and antidepressant drugs, and of bipolar disorder and mood stabilizers on sexual health, and the optimal management of patients with severe psychiatric illness and sexual dysfunction. PMID:29352532

  8. Differential Reliance on Lipid Metabolism as a Salvage Pathway Underlies Functional Differences of T Cell Subsets in Poor Nutrient Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ecker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: T cells compete with malignant cells for limited nutrients within the solid tumor microenvironment. We found that effector memory CD4 T cells respond distinctly from other T cell subsets to limiting glucose and can maintain high levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in a nutrient-poor environment. Unlike naive (TN or central memory T (TCM cells, effector memory T (TEM cells fail to upregulate fatty acid synthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and reductive glutaminolysis in limiting glucose. Interference of fatty acid synthesis in naive T cells dramatically upregulates IFN-γ, while increasing exogenous lipids in media inhibits production of IFN-γ by all subsets, suggesting that relative ratio of fatty acid metabolism to glycolysis is a direct predictor of T cell effector activity. Together, these data suggest that effector memory T cells are programmed to have limited ability to synthesize and metabolize fatty acids, which allows them to maintain T cell function in nutrient-depleted microenvironments. : Ecker et al. distinguish unique metabolic and functional properties of naive and memory T cell subsets during glucose limitation. During glucose starvation, T cells begin to differentially rely on fatty acid synthesis and glutamine utilization to survive. Unexpectedly, reliance on fatty acid synthesis alters the ability to produce IFN-γ. Keywords: lipid droplets, IFN-γ, oxidative phosphorylation, reductive glutaminolysis, serum-free media, naive T cell, glycolysis, effector memory T cell, fatty acid synthesis

  9. Barite: a case study of import reliance on an essential material for oil and gas exploration and development drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Miller, M. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Global dependence on a limited number of countries for specific mineral commodities could lead to sudden supply disruptions for the United States, and barite is one such commodity. Analyses of barite supply amounts and sources for the United States are demonstrative of mineral commodities on which the country is import reliant. Mineral commodity trade flows can be analyzed more easily than import reliances for commodities in which U.S. domestic demand is primarily met by materials contained within manufactured products, as with the rare-earth elements in cellular phones and computers. Barite plays an essential role as a weighting material in drilling muds used in oil and gas drilling, primarily to prevent the explosive release of gas and oil during drilling. The Nation’s efforts to become more energy independent are based largely on the domestic oil and gas industry’s ability to explore and develop onshore and offshore fuel deposits. These activities include increased efforts by the United States to locate and recover oil and gas within unconventional deposits, such as those in the Bakken, Eagle Ford, and Marcellus Formations, using advanced drilling technologies.

  10. Rural Villagers’ Quality of Life Improvement by Economic Self-Reliance Practices and Trust in the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyapong Janmaimool

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of economic self-reliance, widely known by Thai people as the philosophy of sufficiency economy, has been widely promoted in rural Thai societies. By practicing this philosophy, it is expected that the citizens’ quality of life and local environments could be sustainably improved. This study aims to explore the contribution of the community practices of the sufficiency economy philosophy to rural villagers’ quality of life improvement, and to investigate potential factors that determine the trust of villagers in the philosophy. With the purpose to propose strategies which could enhance trust and promote villagers’ practices of the philosophy, the study investigated influences of three relevant factors on trust towards the philosophy. Those factors included factors related to cognitive-based trust, factors related to emotional-based trust, and factors related to demographic characteristics. Questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews with community leaders and local villagers were conducted in the Ban Jamrung community, in Thailand’s Rayong Province. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that the residents who applied the sufficiency economy philosophy in their daily lives experienced a relatively better quality of life. Additionally, it was found that trust in the philosophy could be predicted more by rational factors than by emotional factors. These findings could be utilized to develop strategies to maintain and enhance the trust of the people in the philosophy of sufficiency economy.

  11. A level-playing field for medical isotope production - How to phase-out reliance on HEU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Two decades ago, civilian commerce in highly enriched uranium (HEU) for use as targets in the production of medical isotopes was considered a relatively minor security concern for three reasons. First, the number of producers was small. Second, the amount of HEU involved was small. Third, the amount of HEU was dwarfed by the quantities of HEU in civilian commerce as fuel for nuclear research and test reactors. Now, however, all three variables have changed. First, as the use of medical isotopes has expanded rapidly, production programs are proliferating. Second, as the result of such new producers and the expansion of existing production facilities, the amounts of HEU involved are growing. Third, as the RERTR program has facilitated the phase-out of HEU as fuel in most research and test reactors, the quantities of HEU for isotope production have come to represent a significant percentage of global commerce in this weapons-usable material. Medical isotope producers in several states are cooperating with the RERTR program to convert to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets within the next few years, and one already relies on LEU for isotope production. However, the three biggest isotope producers - in Canada and the European Union - continue to rely on HEU, creating a double-standard that endangers the goal of the RERTR program. Each of these three producers has expressed economic concerns about being put at a competitive disadvantage if it alone converts. This paper proposes forging a firmer international consensus that all present and future isotope producers should convert to LEU, and calls for codifying such a commitment in a statement of intent to be prepared by producers over the next year. With such a level playing field, no producer would need fear being put at a competitive disadvantage by conversion, or being stigmatized by pressure groups for continued reliance on HEU. The phase-out of all HEU commerce for isotope production could be achieved within about

  12. Autistic fluid intelligence: Increased reliance on visual functional connectivity with diminished modulation of coupling by task difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Isabelle; Luck, David; Mottron, Laurent; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Soulières, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Different test types lead to different intelligence estimates in autism, as illustrated by the fact that autistic individuals obtain higher scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RSPM) test than they do on the Wechsler IQ, in contrast to relatively similar performance on both tests in non-autistic individuals. However, the cerebral processes underlying these differences are not well understood. This study investigated whether activity in the fluid “reasoning” network, which includes frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions, is differently modulated by task complexity in autistic and non-autistic individuals during the RSPM. In this purpose, we used fMRI to study autistic and non-autistic participants solving the 60 RSPM problems focussing on regions and networks involved in reasoning complexity. As complexity increased, activity in the left superior occipital gyrus and the left middle occipital gyrus increased for autistic participants, whereas non-autistic participants showed increased activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and bilateral precuneus. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses (PPI), we then verified in which regions did functional connectivity increase as a function of reasoning complexity. PPI analyses revealed greater connectivity in autistic, compared to non-autistic participants, between the left inferior occipital gyrus and areas in the left superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal lobe, right middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus. We also observed generally less modulation of the reasoning network as complexity increased in autistic participants. These results suggest that autistic individuals, when confronted with increasing task complexity, rely mainly on visuospatial processes when solving more complex matrices. In addition to the now well-established enhanced activity observed in visual areas in a range of tasks, these results suggest that the enhanced reliance on visual perception has a

  13. Autistic fluid intelligence: Increased reliance on visual functional connectivity with diminished modulation of coupling by task difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Simard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different test types lead to different intelligence estimates in autism, as illustrated by the fact that autistic individuals obtain higher scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RSPM test than they do on the Wechsler IQ, in contrast to relatively similar performance on both tests in non-autistic individuals. However, the cerebral processes underlying these differences are not well understood. This study investigated whether activity in the fluid “reasoning” network, which includes frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions, is differently modulated by task complexity in autistic and non-autistic individuals during the RSPM. In this purpose, we used fMRI to study autistic and non-autistic participants solving the 60 RSPM problems focussing on regions and networks involved in reasoning complexity. As complexity increased, activity in the left superior occipital gyrus and the left middle occipital gyrus increased for autistic participants, whereas non-autistic participants showed increased activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and bilateral precuneus. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses (PPI, we then verified in which regions did functional connectivity increase as a function of reasoning complexity. PPI analyses revealed greater connectivity in autistic, compared to non-autistic participants, between the left inferior occipital gyrus and areas in the left superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal lobe, right middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus. We also observed generally less modulation of the reasoning network as complexity increased in autistic participants. These results suggest that autistic individuals, when confronted with increasing task complexity, rely mainly on visuospatial processes when solving more complex matrices. In addition to the now well-established enhanced activity observed in visual areas in a range of tasks, these results suggest that the enhanced reliance on visual

  14. Use of psychotropic medications in São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil: pattern of healthcare provision to general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanha, Angela Maria; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Milhorança, Igor André; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-11-01

    We estimate the proportion of psychotropic medication use (PMU) among adults in São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. We investigated whether socio-demographic factors, comorbidity, and disease severity influence PMU among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Data are from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional, population-based study, the Brazilian branch of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Trained lay interviewers face-to-face assessed psychiatric disorders and PMU through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Respondents were asked about use of healthcare service and prescribed medications for mental disorders in the previous year. Information on PMU was collected for 2935 adult residents in the area and among those with disorders who received treatment. Around 6% of respondents reported PMU in the past year: hypnotics or sedatives were used by 3.7% and antidepressants by 3.5%. Among individuals with 12-month disorders, only 14% reported past year PMU. Gender, age, education, income, occupational status, comorbidity, and severity were significant predictors for PMU. Among those with 12-month DSM-IV disorders who obtained treatment in healthcare settings, almost 40% received medication only. Among those treated in specialty mental health service, around 23% received combination of medication and psychotherapy. Our study has pointed out that the recent trend of access to mental healthcare in Brazil depicts unmet needs, characterized by a low prevalence of PMU among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Policies that improve appropriate access to prescribed drugs for those most in need are urgent public health priority. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Timing and risk of mood disorders requiring psychotropics in long-term survivors of adult cancers: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Kuan; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Chung, Chia-Chi; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, John Wen-Cheng; Lin, Yung-Chang; Wang, Hung-Ming; Chang, Hsien-Kun; Chen, Jen-Shi; Tsai, Chieh-Sheng; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Kuo, Chang-Fu; See, Lai-Chu

    2018-08-15

    The increasing number of long-term cancer survivors over the past few decades poses the challenge of mental health care needs. However, little is known about risks of mood disorders in long-term cancer survivors. Long-term survivors (≥5 years) of adult cancers (LSAC) (n = 190,748) newly diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2007 were matched with one control. The primary outcome was diagnosis of mood disorders requiring psychotropics. Cumulative incidences and sub-hazard ratios (SHR) were calculated and multivariate analyses were conducted after accounting for mortality. The mood disorder risk was significantly higher in the LSAC cohort than in the control cohort (adjusted SHR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-1.18, P < 0.001). Patients with certain cancer types were at increased risk, particularly in the first 2 years after diagnosis. However, patients with head and neck cancers or esophageal cancers had a higher risk after the 5-year follow-up period. Multivariate analysis indicated that being female, aged 40-59 years, with more than two primary cancers, receiving two or more treatment modalities, having CCI scores higher than 3, a higher urbanization level, and lower monthly income were independently associated with an increased risk of mood disorders. Some potential confounders such as lifestyle factors were not available in the study. These findings call for increased mental health awareness not only in the early years after the cancer diagnosis, but also during long-term follow-up for certain cancer subtypes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Is cocoa a psychotropic drug? Psychopathologic study of a population of subjects self-identified as chocolate addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallard, I; Cathebras, P; Sauron, C; Massoubre, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to search for eating disorders, DSM III-R Axis I mental disorders, personality disorders, and addictive behavior, in self-labeled "chocolate addicts". Subjects were recruited through advertisements placed in a university and a hospital. Fifteen subjects were included, 3 men and 12 women aged between 18 and 49. Most of them were not overweight, although 7 thought they had a weight problem. They consumed an average of 50 g per day of pure cacao and, for 13 subjects, this consumption was lasting since childhood or adolescence. The psychological effects of chocolate, as indicated by the subjects, consisted in feelings of increased energy or increased concentration ability, and in an anxiolytic effect during stress. Seven subjects described minor withdrawal symptoms. None of the subjects reached the thresholds for eating disorders on the EAT and BULIT scales. The structured interview (MINI) identified an important ratio of subjects with a history of major depressive episode (13/15), and one woman was currently experiencing a major depressive episode. Four people suffered, or had suffered from anxiety disorders. Although only one subject satisfied all criteria for a personality disorder on the DIP-Q, seven displayed some pathological personality features. The self-labeled "chocoholics" do not seem to suffer from eating disorders, but may represent a population of psychologically vulnerable and depression--or anxiety--prone people. They seem to use chocolate as a light psychotropic drug able to relieve some of their distress. The amount of cacao consumed, although very chronically, remains moderate, and they rarely display other addictive behaviors.

  17. [Sleep disorders and impaired sleep as adverse drug reactions of psychotropic drugs: an evaluation of data of summaries of product characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Maximilian; Connemann, Bernhard J; Zeiss, René; Fröhlich, Albrecht

    2018-03-02

     Psychopharmacotherapy is essential in the treatment of many mental disorders. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) have impact on compliance and tolerability. Sleep disorders or impaired sleep may occur as ADRs of psychopharmacotherapy. Sleep disorders are associated with an increased risk for physical and mental illness and may impair cognition, impulse control, emotion regulation and mood. Objective of the following study was the systematic presentation of type and risk of sleep disorders/impairments of sleep of frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs.  Psychotropic agents that are most frequently prescribed in Germany were identified by using the Arzneiverordnungs-Report 2016. Summaries of product characteristics (SmPC) of corresponding original products were analyzed regarding presence and frequency of sleep disorders/impairments of sleep according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders 3 (ICSD-3).  N = 64 SmPCs were analyzed. In most of the analyzed SmPCs, at least one sleep disorder (50/64; 78 %) was listed. At least one SmPC with a corresponding ADR was found in the categories insomnia (52 %), parasomnias (33 %), and sleep-related movement disorders (20 %); sleep-related breathing disorders (6 %) and central disorders of hypersomnolence (5 %) were rarely listed; circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder was not found. The SmPCs of the four most frequently prescribed agents (citalopram > venlafaxine > mirtazapine > sertraline) listed insomnia as an ADR. Nearly all analysed hypnotics (except chloral hydrate) were associated with nightmares.  Most of the psychotropic agents frequently prescribed in Germany may induce sleep disorders/impairments of sleep. The four most frequently prescribed agents were antidepressants and all of the corresponding SmPCs listed insomnia as a possible ADR. Sleep disorders should be taken seriously as possible ADRs of psychopharmacotherapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Lay beliefs about the efficacy of self-reliance, seeking help and external control as strategies for overcoming obesity, drug addiction, marital problems, stuttering and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; McDermott, Mark R

    1994-07-01

    This study was concerned with peoples' beliefs about the importance of twenty-four different contributors towards overcoming five relatively common personal health problems, namely: obesity, drug addiction, marital difficulties, stuttering and insomnia. One hundred and twenty-two subjects completed a five-page questionnaire indicating how effective each of these contributors were to overcoming the problems as specified. Factor analysis revealed an interpretable structure similar to previous studies (Luk and Bond, 1992): the emerging three factors were labelled ' self-reliance", "seeking help" and "external control". Multiple regression showed that few individual difference variables as measured were related to perceived relevance of the different contributors. The results were discussed in terms of subjects' beliefs concerning the value of self-reliance as opposed to seeking help, and in relation to the importance of understanding lay beliefs about the efficacy of different forms of intervention.

  19. Selective potentiation of noradrenaline in the guinea-pig vas deferens by 2-(4-methylaminobutoxy) diphenylmethane hydrochloride (MCI-2016), a new psychotropic drug.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohizumi, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Tobe, A.

    1982-01-01

    In the isolated vas deferens of the guinea-pig, the effects of 2-(4-methylaminobutoxy) diphenylmethane hydrochloride (MCI-2016), a new psychotropic drug, on the contractile response to various agonists or transmural electrical stimulation and on the release of noradrenaline (NA) from the tissue were examined and compared with cocaine. MCI-2016 (3 X 10(-6)M) and cocaine (3 X 10(-5)M) produced a leftward shift (15 and 20 times, respectively) of the dose-response curves for the contractile effec...

  20. The prescribing of psychotropic drugs in mental health services in Trinidad Prescripción de psicotrópicos en los servicios de salud mental de Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Moore

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe, analyze, and interpret patterns of psychotropic drug prescribing in new psychiatric patients attending psychiatric outpatient clinics in the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Design and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of psychotropic drug prescribing by psychiatrists for 132 new psychiatric outpatients who were seen at the outpatient clinics surveyed and who were entering the mental health system during the period of research, November 1998 through February 1999. Results. A single patient could be prescribed more than one psychotropic drug. Antidepressant drugs were the class of psychotropic drugs most prescribed (79 of 132 patients, 59.8%, followed by antipsychotic drugs (67 of 132 patients, 50.8%. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs were the antidepressants most prescribed (58 of the 79 patients, mainly amitriptyline (53 of the 58. Fluoxetine was the only selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI prescribed (21 of the 79 patients prescribed antidepressants. Of the 67 patients receiving antipsychotic drugs, phenothiazines accounted for 41 of those 67, including trifluoperazine (14 of the 41 and thioridazine (13 of the 41. The individual antipsychotic most prescribed was sulpiride (21 of the 67 patients. Anticholinergic drugs were prescribed to 20 of the 132 patients (15.1%. Eighty-three of the patients were prescribed more than one drug concomitantly (either more than one psychotropic or a combination of psychotropic(s and nonpsychotropic(s. Prescription by ethnicity, age, and gender coincided with the morbidity rates encountered in these patients. The prescribing of SSRIs to persons of African or East Indian ethnicity was significantly lower than it was for persons of mixed heritage. Conclusions. The prescription patterns of psychotropic drugs in Trinidad revealed the psychiatrists' preferences for traditional psychotropic drugs, the moderate use of anticholinergic drugs, and polypharmacy in some cases, with

  1. Demographic and clinical features and prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications in patients with the melancholic subtype of major depressive disorder in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tao Xiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little has been known about the demographic and clinical features of the melancholic subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD in Chinese patients. This study examined the frequency of melancholia in Chinese MDD patients and explored its demographic and clinical correlates and prescribing patterns of psychotropic drugs. METHODS: A consecutively collected sample of 1,178 patients with MDD were examined in 13 psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric units of general hospitals in China nationwide. The cross-sectional data of patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and prescriptions of psychotropic drugs were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The diagnosis of the melancholic subtype was established using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Medications ascertained included antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. RESULTS: Six hundred and twenty nine (53.4% of the 1,178 patients fulfilled criteria for melancholia. In multiple logistic regression analyses, compared to non-melancholic counterparts, melancholic MDD patients were more likely to be male and receive benzodiazepines, had more frequent suicide ideations and attempts and seasonal depressive episodes, while they were less likely to be employed and receive antidepressants and had less family history of psychiatric disorders and lifetime depressive episodes. CONCLUSIONS: The demographic and clinical features of melancholic MDD in Chinese patients were not entirely consistent with those found in Western populations. Compared to non-melancholic MDD patients, melancholic patients presented with different demographic and clinical features, which have implications for treatment decisions.

  2. Psychotropic drug use as indicator of mental health in adolescents affected by a plexus injury at birth: A large population-based study in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Psouni

    Full Text Available Chronic handicap in early life may have a long-term impact on children's psychosocial well-being. Here, we investigated whether Brachialis Plexus Birth Injury (BPBI-an unpredictable injury at birth-is associated with worse mental health later on, as indicated by prescription and use of psychotropic drugs in adolescence. We explored further whether this association is different depending on socioeconomic characteristics of the child's family, as well as sex. Of the 641 151 children born to native parents in Sweden 1987-1993 (alive and still living in Sweden at the end of 2008, identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, 1587 had suffered a BPBI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of socioeconomic characteristics and associations with later psychosocial health. Results show that beyond the known increased risks for females as compared to males, BPBI, but also lower family income, further increased the risk of burdened mental health requiring psychotropic drug use in adolescence. The effects were additive. Thus, compared to unaffected peers, teenagers who suffered a BPBI at birth are at higher risk of suffering poor mental health during adolescence, independently of surgical intervention and its outcome. Girls growing up in families with lower socioeconomic status have this risk added to their already increased risk of poor mental health during adolescence.

  3. Sampling and analytical methods for assessing the levels of organic pollutants in the atmosphere: PAH, phthalates and psychotropic substances: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Mastroianni, Daniele; Perilli, Mattia

    2012-07-01

    This short review presents the procedures used to monitor PAHs, phthalates and psychotropic substances in the air, and the results of some measurements made in Italy and abroad. Organic contaminants are characterized by a variety of physical and chemical properties, including aggregation phase, concentration level, and life time. This variety widens the spectrum of procedures developed to assess their occurrence in the environment and biota, but prevents the complete speciation of the "organic fraction" of air, waters and particulates, and attention is paid to a few substances. The progress in health sciences stimulates the concern on contaminants and the development of new instrumental apparatuses and methods; new chemicals are continuously identified or recognized as capable of injuring the environment and organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and persistent biologically active toxicants are subject to regulation and extensively measured by means of standard procedures. For instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorobiphenyls and polychlorodibenzodioxins are recovered from air through phase partition, thermal desorption or solvent extraction, then separated and detected through GC-MS or HPLC-MS procedures. By contrast, dedicated methods must be still optimized to monitor candidates or possible candidates as emerging organic pollutants, e.g. phthalates, flame retardants and perfluoroalkanes. Also, psychotropic substances appear of potential concern. Legal and illicit substances are commonly detected in the urban air besides waste and surface waters. If nicotine, caffeine and cocaine will result to enough persistence in the air, their monitoring will become an important issue of global chemical watching in the next future.

  4. Assessing Country’s Reliance on Renewable Energy through Energy Profile and Political Economy Aspects: A Cross Countries Study from 1990 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Hapsari Paramitha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between country’s reliance on renewable energy, energy profile, and political economy aspects using dynamic panel data models for a global panel consisting of 43 countries. The time component of our dataset is 1990-2012 inclusive. To make the observation more specific, this study investigates the relationship of a number of sub-samples which are constructed based on the region where the countries belong. In this way, this study ends up with several region samples; namely Western, Asia, Middle East (ME, Africa, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, and Latin America. In the empirical part, this study performs a region-based analysis to capture any variations and logical explanation behind them. The results suggest that dependency on oil import, engagement on international environment agreement, economic development, and country size country’s reliance on renewable energy are among the factors that are statistically significant to influence country’s adoption of renewable energy.

  5. Older Adults' Use of Online and Offline Sources of Health Information and Constructs of Reliance and Self-Efficacy for Medical Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K; Bernhardt, Jay M; Dodd, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    We know little about older adults' use of online and offline health information sources for medical decision making despite increasing numbers of older adults who report using the Internet for health information to aid in patient-provider communication and medical decision making. Therefore we investigated older adult users and nonusers of online and offline sources of health information and factors related to medical decision making. Survey research was conducted using random digit dialing of Florida residents' landline telephones. The Decision Self-Efficacy Scale and the Reliance Scale were used to measure relationships between users and nonusers of online health information. Study respondents were 225 older adults (age range = 50-92 years, M = 68.9, SD = 10.4), which included users (n = 105) and nonusers (n = 119) of online health information. Users and nonusers differed in frequency and types of health sources sought. Users of online health information preferred a self-reliant approach and nonusers of online health information preferred a physician-reliant approach to involvement in medical decisions on the Reliance Scale. This study found significant differences between older adult users and nonusers of online and offline sources of health information and examined factors related to online health information engagement for medical decision making.

  6. Semi-automated CCTV surveillance: the effects of system confidence, system accuracy and task complexity on operator vigilance, reliance and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashi, N; Stedmon, A W; Pridmore, T P

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in computer vision technology have lead to the development of various automatic surveillance systems, however their effectiveness is adversely affected by many factors and they are not completely reliable. This study investigated the potential of a semi-automated surveillance system to reduce CCTV operator workload in both detection and tracking activities. A further focus of interest was the degree of user reliance on the automated system. A simulated prototype was developed which mimicked an automated system that provided different levels of system confidence information. Dependent variable measures were taken for secondary task performance, reliance and subjective workload. When the automatic component of a semi-automatic CCTV surveillance system provided reliable system confidence information to operators, workload significantly decreased and spare mental capacity significantly increased. Providing feedback about system confidence and accuracy appears to be one important way of making the status of the automated component of the surveillance system more 'visible' to users and hence more effective to use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF FUNCTIONING OF THE SYSTEM OF AVAILABILITY NARCOTIC AND PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS FOR PATIENTS WHO NEED THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kaminskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances still remain indispensable in medicine. One of the top priorities of health care is to ensure the required availability of this group of drugs. The development of an effective system which can ensure crucially important availability of narcotic and psychotropic agents to people who need them for medical purposes must rely on the identification and analysis of the nature and specificity of the problems related to them as well as the ways of solving these problems. ThePurpose of the Study was to explore the constituents of the system ensuring medicinal availability of narcotic and psychotropic agents and to identify the factors hindering the availability of this group of medicinal agents.Materials and Methods. The study involved the systematic review analysis of the scientific publications and guidance  documents regulating various aspects of activities involving the turnover of controlled drugs, and the results of surveys and interviews in which medical and pharmaceutical professionals were engaged. The study employed the methods of content analysis, logical and functional analysis, etc.Results and Discussion. The system of narcotic and psychotropic drug (NPD availability for patients who need them is currently going through reforms which have been conditioned by low accessibilty of these drugs when used for medical purposes. Those engaged in the drug supply system including medical and pharmaceutical professionals point out that excessive bureaucratization of the system of NPD supply and availability, complexity of documentation and paperwork reporting thedrug flow, costliness of these activities, and strict liability account for low availability of such drugs. To ensure the rights of the citizens to relieve pain due to diseases or medical interventions, a number of changes in the laws and regulations have been made. They have simplified the requirements for NPD

  8. Inhibitory effects of psychotropic drugs on the acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium current (IK.ACh) in guinea-pig atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Muneyoshi; Watanabe, Shinya; Matada, Takashi; Asao, Yoko; Hamatani, Ramu; Yamawaki, Hideyuki; Hara, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Influences of psychotropic drugs, six antipsychotics and three antidepressants, on acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium current (IK.ACh) were examined by a whole-cell patch clamp method in freshly isolated guinea-pig atrial myocyte. IK.ACh was induced by a superfusion of carbachol (CCh) or by an intracellular application of guanosine 5'-[thio] triphosphate (GTPγS). To elucidate mechanism for anticholinergic action, IC50 ratio, the ratio of IC50 for GTPγS-activated IK.ACh to CCh-induced IK.ACh, was calculated. Antipsychotics and antidepressants inhibited CCh-induced IK.ACh in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values were as follows; chlorpromazine 0.53 μM, clozapine 0.06 μM, fluphenazine 2.69 μM, haloperidol 2.66 μM, sulpiride 42.3 μM, thioridazine 0.07 μM, amitriptyline 0.03 μM, imipramine 0.22 μM and maprotiline 1.81 μM. The drugs, except for sulpiride, inhibited GTPγS-activated IK.ACh with following IC50 values; chlorpromazine 1.71 μM, clozapine 14.9 μM, fluphenazine 3.55 μM, haloperidol 2.73 μM, thioridazine 1.90 μM, amitriptyline 7.55 μM, imipramine 7.09 μM and maprotiline 5.93 μM. The IC50 ratio for fluphenazine and haloperidol was close to unity. The IC50 ratio for chlorpromazine, clozapine, thioridazine, amitriptyline, imipramine and maprotiline was much higher than unity. The present findings suggest that the psychotropics studied suppress IK.ACh. Chlorpromazine, clozapine, thioridazine, amitriptyline, imipramine, maprotiline and sulpiride are preferentially acting on muscarinic receptor. Fluphenazine and haloperidol may act on G protein and/or potassium channel.

  9. Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Attila; Markovics, Arnold; Szabó-Papp, Judit; Szabó, Pálma Tímea; Stott, Colin; Zouboulis, Christos C; Bíró, Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Acne is a common skin disease characterized by elevated sebum production and inflammation of the sebaceous glands. We have previously shown that a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid ((-)-cannabidiol [CBD]) exerted complex anti-acne effects by normalizing 'pro-acne agents'-induced excessive sebaceous lipid production, reducing proliferation and alleviating inflammation in human SZ95 sebocytes. Therefore, in this study we aimed to explore the putative anti-acne effects of further non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids ((-)-cannabichromene [CBC], (-)-cannabidivarin [CBDV], (-)-cannabigerol [CBG], (-)-cannabigerovarin [CBGV] and (-)-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabivarin [THCV]). Viability and proliferation of human SZ95 sebocytes were investigated by MTT and CyQUANT assays; cell death and lipid synthesis were monitored by DilC1 (5)-SYTOX Green labelling and Nile Red staining, respectively. Inflammatory responses were investigated by monitoring expressions of selected cytokines upon lipopolysaccharide treatment (RT-qPCR, ELISA). Up to 10 μm, the phytocannabinoids only negligibly altered the viability of the sebocytes, whereas high doses (≥50 μm) induced apoptosis. Interestingly, basal sebaceous lipid synthesis was differentially modulated by the substances: CBC and THCV suppressed it, and CBDV had only minor effects, whereas CBG and CBGV increased it. Importantly, CBC, CBDV and THCV significantly reduced arachidonic acid (AA)-induced 'acne-like' lipogenesis. Moreover, THCV suppressed proliferation, and all phytocannabinoids exerted remarkable anti-inflammatory actions. Our data suggest that CBG and CBGV may have potential in the treatment of dry-skin syndrome, whereas CBC, CBDV and especially THCV show promise to become highly efficient, novel anti-acne agents. Moreover, based on their remarkable anti-inflammatory actions, phytocannabinoids could be efficient, yet safe novel tools in the management of cutaneous inflammations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  10. Influence of polygenic risk scores on lipid levels and dyslipidemia in a psychiatric population receiving weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacrétaz, Aurélie; Lagares Santos, Patricia; Saigi Morgui, Nuria; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Glatard, Anaïs; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; von Gunten, Armin; Conus, Philippe; Eap, Chin B

    2017-12-01

    Dyslipidemia represents a major health issue in psychiatry. We determined whether weighted polygenic risk scores (wPRSs) combining multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with lipid levels in the general population are associated with lipid levels [high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides] and/or dyslipidemia in patients receiving weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs. We also determined whether genetics improve the predictive power of dyslipidemia. The influence of wPRS on lipid levels was firstly assessed in a discovery psychiatric sample (n=332) and was then tested for replication in an independent psychiatric sample (n=140). The contribution of genetic markers to predict dyslipidemia was evaluated in the combined psychiatric sample. wPRSs were significantly associated with the four lipid traits in the discovery (P≤0.02) and in the replication sample (P≤0.03). Patients whose wPRS was higher than the median wPRS had significantly higher LDL, TC, and triglyceride levels (0.20, 0.32 and 0.26 mmol/l, respectively; P≤0.004) and significantly lower HDL levels (0.13 mmol/l; Pdyslipidemia prediction of HDL (P=0.03) and a trend for improvement was observed for the prediction of TC dyslipidemia (P=0.08). Population-based wPRSs have thus significant effects on lipid levels in the psychiatric population. As genetics improved the predictive power of dyslipidemia development, only 24 patients need to be genotyped to prevent the development of one case of HDL hypocholesterolemia. If confirmed by further prospective investigations, the present results could be used for individualizing psychotropic treatment.

  11. Perception of Verbal and Nonverbal Emotional Signals in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder: Evidence of a Negative Bias and an Increased Reliance on Nonverbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Derstroff, Stephanie; Jacob, Heike; Wolf-Arehult, Martina; Wekenmann, Stefanie; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Studies conducted in patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have documented a variety of anomalies concerning patients' abilities to interpret emotional signals. Attempting to clarify the bases of these anomalies, the current literature draws attention to a possible role of dysfunctional expectations, such as the expectation of social rejection. Dysfunctional expectations, however, may not only bias social interpretations, but may also focus attention on social cues most important in conveying emotional messages, such as nonverbal signals. To explore these assumptions, 30 female BPD patients were tasked to judge the valence of emotional states conveyed by combinations of verbal and nonverbal emotional cues. Compared to controls, BPD patients exhibited a negative bias in their interpretations and relied more on available nonverbal cues. Shifts in the relative importance of nonverbal cues appeared to be rooted mainly in a reduced reliance on positive verbal cues presumably deemed less credible by BPD patients.

  12. Physical health, self-reliance, and emotional control as moderators of the relationship between locus of control and mental health among men treated for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Shaun Michael; Mahalik, James R

    2006-12-01

    This investigation examined the moderating effects of physical health and scripts for masculinity (i.e., self-reliance and emotional control) on the relationship between powerful other people locus of control and mental health for 230 men treated for prostate cancer. Regression analyses indicated that physical health and masculine gender scripts moderated the association between powerful other people locus of control and mental health. Specifically, men with poor physical health evinced negative mental health when they endorsed masculine gender scripts and believed powerful other people (i.e., family, friends, or peers) were influential in controlling their cancer. By comparison, men reporting poor physical health, strong beliefs that powerful other people controlled their cancer, and less adherence to masculine scripts experienced positive mental health. The authors discuss future research directions and potential mental health implications for men treated for prostate cancer.

  13. Heavy Reliance on the Indirect Financing as Sources of Funds for Business Firms in Japan: As a Comparison for Indonesian Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Yulius

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the implication of financial liberalization to the heavy reliance of firms to the indirect finance in Japanese experience. In order to analyze the goal of this article, we start to examine the causes of the main bank system in Japan before and the pre-war period. Then, this article discusses the impacts of financial liberalization to the to the heavy reliance on the indirect-financing for business firms in the light with Japan’s financial market, particularly the main bank system. Finally, this article also discusses the implication of loose relationship of big firms and major banks (main bank system to the recent financial condition in starting from the early of 1990s until now. This article discovered that financial liberalization, which started at the latter half of 1970s, has shaken the foundation of the main bank system. The major firms started to less dependent on the major banks and they issued the securities in domestic and international market. As a consequence, the SMBS still depend on the banks as their source of indirect financing. However, the competitiveness in the SMBS market turned to erode the bank profits that induced them to enter the risk activities, such as real estate. In addition, the bubble burst economy also triggered the boom in real estate. Naturally, as a nature of risk asset, loan to the real estate became the potential of bad loans that also was exacerbated the bubble burst in economy. Then, the financial crisis has revealed in 1990s.

  14. Prevalence of mind and body exercises (MBE in relation to demographics, self-rated health, and purchases of prescribed psychotropic drugs and analgesics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rådmark

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify any differences regarding gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES, self-rated health, perceived stress and the purchase of prescribed drugs among people who practice mind and body exercises (MBE extensively compared to people who do not.The study includes 3,913 men and 4,803 women aged 20-72 who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH. The respondents were divided into three groups depending on frequency of MBE practice (never/seldom/often. Measures regarding MBE practice, health behaviors, self-rated health, and illnesses were drawn from the SLOSH questionnaire, while more objective measures of socioeconomic status and education were derived from registry data. In addition, data on purchases of prescription drugs for all respondents were included in the study. These data were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, which contains information about prescription drugs dispensed at Swedish pharmacies. Separate analyses were performed for mental MBE (mindfulness, meditation, relaxation techniques and physical MBE (yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, respectively.A high intensity MBE practice is cross-sectionally related to poor self-assessed health (sleeping problems, pain, depressive symptoms, mental disorders, high levels of stress, and high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics. These cross-sectional relationships are generally stronger for mental MBE than for bodily-directed MBE. More women than men are practicing MBE on a regular basis, and physically active people participate to a greater extent in MBE compared with the physically inactive.Overall, the study shows that frequent participation in mind and body exercises is associated with high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics as well as with poor self-assessed health and high levels of stress. However, since this is a cross-sectional study, it is impossible to establish cause and effect

  15. Clinical Use of Mood Stabilizers With Antidepressants in Asia: Report From the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) Projects in 2004 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Kamini; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Tripathi, Adarsh; Chiu, Helen F K; Si, Tian-Mei; Chee, Kok-Yoon; Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Kuga, Hironori; Kanba, Shigenobu; He, Yan-Ling; Lee, Min-Soo; Yang, Shu-Yu; Udomratn, Pichet; Kallivayalil, Roy A; Tanra, Andi J; Maramis, Margarita M; Shen, Winston W; Sartorius, Norman; Kua, Ee-Heok; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Mahendran, Rathi; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Sum, Min Yi; Baldessarini, Ross J; Sim, Kang

    2017-04-01

    As most reports concerning treatment with combinations of mood stabilizer (MS) with antidepressant (AD) drugs are based in the West, we surveyed characteristics of such cotreatment in 42 sites caring for the mentally ill in 10 Asian countries. This cross-sectional, pharmacoepidemiologic study used 2004 and 2013 data from the REAP-AD (Research Study on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants) to evaluate the rates and doses of MSs given with ADs and associated factors in 4164 psychiatric patients, using standard bivariate methods followed by multivariable logistic regression modeling. Use of MS + AD increased by 104% (5.5% to 11.2%) between 2004 and 2013 and was much more associated with diagnosis of bipolar disorder than major depression or anxiety disorder, as well as with hospitalization > outpatient care, psychiatric > general-medical programs, and young age (all P contemporary use of MSs with ADs in Asia, support predictions that such treatment increased in recent years, and was associated with diagnosis of bipolar disorder, treatment in inpatient and psychiatric settings, and younger age.

  16. Use of psychotropic drugs in Lombardy in time of economic crisis (2007-2011): a population-based study of adult employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittadini, Giorgio; Beghi, Massimiliano; Mezzanzanica, Mario; Ronzoni, Gloria; Cornaggia, Cesare Maria

    2014-12-15

    Over years, there has been an increase in the prescription of psychotropic drugs (PDs), particularly antidepressants (ADs). The aim of the study was to evaluate the consumption of PDs in adult employees in a productive area of Italy and the possible changes induced by the "economic crisis". The study is a retrospective survey in all adult employees in Lombardy, Northern Italy, aged >18 years in the period 2007-2011, classified by gender, age class, nationality, education and province. During the 5-year period, there were 3,554,860 employed adults in Lombardy, of whom 277,865 (7.8%) used PDs. The use of PDs (particularly ADs) was associated with being an Italian woman aged >55 years with a basic education, a blue collar job, and an unstable working position. In 39% of cases, the use of PDs was limited to one trimester. The increase in the number of prescriptions of PDs after the economic crisis was the same as before it. The increase in PD use can be attributed more to ADs and anti-epileptic drugs with anxiolytic properties. Although continuously increasing, the use of AD fluctuated and was greater during the fall and winter. The increase involved all the provinces in Lombardy in a similar manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Scalese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females. Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: “thrill and adventure seeking,” within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; “boredom susceptibility” is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education.

  18. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalese, Marco; Curzio, Olivia; Cutrupi, Valentina; Bastiani, Luca; Gori, Mercedes; Denoth, Francesca; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a) investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b) explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15-19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females). Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: "thrill and adventure seeking," within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; "boredom susceptibility" is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education.

  19. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Francesca; Aviello, Gabriella; Romano, Barbara; Orlando, Pierangelo; Capasso, Raffaele; Maiello, Francesco; Guadagno, Federico; Petrosino, Stefania; Capasso, Francesco; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2009-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease affects millions of individuals; nevertheless, pharmacological treatment is disappointingly unsatisfactory. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of marijuana, exerts pharmacological effects (e.g., antioxidant) and mechanisms (e.g., inhibition of endocannabinoids enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for the inflamed gut. Thus, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of colitis. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Inflammation was assessed both macroscopically and histologically. In the inflamed colon, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were evaluated by Western blot, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-10 by ELISA, and endocannabinoids by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells were used to evaluate the effect of cannabidiol on oxidative stress. Cannabidiol reduced colon injury, inducible iNOS (but not cyclooxygenase-2) expression, and interleukin-1beta, interleukin-10, and endocannabinoid changes associated with 2,4,6-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid administration. In Caco-2 cells, cannabidiol reduced reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, cannabidiol, a likely safe compound, prevents experimental colitis in mice.

  20. On the way to a self-reliance of 90 %. The new construction of the Monte Rosa Lodge in the Swiss Canton Wallis; Auf dem Weg zu 90% Autarkie. Der Neubau der Monte Rosa-Huette im Wallis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinn, Ruediger

    2010-07-01

    The new Monte Rosa Lodge in the Swiss Canton Wallis was established not only as a passive house, but also achieves a degree of self-reliance of 90 % due to a thought-out energy management. This is how the future of the alpine construction might look.

  1. Knee pain and future self-reliance in older adults: evidence from a community-based 3-year cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Yuji; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yamada, Mutsuko; Eto, Norihito; Takebayashi, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Although knee pain is common in older persons and can cause ambulatory limitation, its impact on self-reliance has rarely been examined in Japan, particularly in a community setting. The aim of this 3-year cohort study was to investigate the association of knee pain with dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and mortality in community-dwelling older Japanese adults. In 2005, presence of knee pain was assessed by a home visit survey of 1391 older adults aged 65 years or older (participation proportion = 97.3%). A total of 1265 participants who were ADL-independent at baseline were followed for 3 years, and information on outcomes, namely death and dependence in ADL, was collected. Participants who always had knee pain were more likely to become dependent in ADL than those who reported no knee pain (multivariate-adjusted OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.03-3.83); however, always having knee pain was not associated with mortality or a composite outcome of ADL dependence and death. Further analyses of each component of ADL dependence revealed that knee pain was associated with a need for assistance at home (long-term care eligibility, bathing, dressing, and transferring), but not with institutionalization. The participants were highly representative of the target population and the rate of follow-up was almost perfect (99.4%). The results suggest that knee pain is associated with future dependence in ADL, particularly a need for assistance at home.

  2. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  3. Community energy self-reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Goals of a workshop/conference on community renewable energy systems are: (1) to encourage decentralization in attacking energy problems, (2) to show how renewable energy can meet community goals, (3) to present examples of successful projects, (4) to discuss the planning and management of renewable energy systems, (5) to identify sources of financial support, (6) to share legal strategies, and (7) to examine utility roles.

  4. [Drug advertising as communication between the pharmaceutical industry and the physician: advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch medical journal, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 1900-1940].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoogte, Arjo Roersch; Pieters, Toine

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the historical development of drug advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the leading Dutch medical journal from 1900 to 1940. The advertisements for hypnotics and sedatives, in The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch medical journal) reflected the changes in the vocabulary and image promoted by the pharmaceutical companies. In the first two decades, the advertisements were sober and to the point, and included the trademark, company name, molecular formula and therapeutic properties of the medication. The emphasis was on creating a scientific image of reliable symptom control for the therapeutic drug. In doing so, the ethical drug companies tried (successfully) to distinguish themselves from the producers of patent medicines. Once scientific credibility was established, the form and content of the advertisements changed significantly. In the late 1920s and 1930s drug companies embraced modern advertising techniques, developing a figurative language to address the changing beliefs and practices of Dutch physicians. Instead of promoting therapeutic drugs as safe and scientific, the emphasis was on their effectiveness in comparison to similar drugs. In the process, scientific information was reduced to an indispensable standardized minimum, whereby therapeutic drugs were advertised according to the latest pharmacological taxonomy rather than molecular formulas. The image-making of 'ethical marketing' began during the interwar years when marketers applied modern advertising techniques and infotainment strategies. The scanty black and white informational bulletins transitioned into colourful advertisements. The pharmaceutical companies employed the same medical language as used by physicians, so that one word or image in an advertisement would suffice for the physician to recognize a drug and its therapeutic properties. These developments show the changing relationship between the modern ethical pharmaceutical industry and Dutch

  5. Prevalence and Prescription of Antidepressants in Depression with Somatic Comorbidity in Asia: The Research on East Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Chen; Tian-Mei Si; Yu-Tao Xiang; Gabor S Ungvari; Chuan-Yue Wang; Yan-Ling He; Ee-Heok Kua

    2015-01-01

    Background:Depression is often comorbid with chronic somatic diseases.Few previous studies have investigated the prevalence of somatic diseases in depression or the prescription pattern of antidepressants in comorbidly depressed patients in Asia.This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of somatic comorbidity (SC) in depression and compared the prescriptions of antidepressants in depressed patients with and without SC.Methods:A total of 2320 patients treated with antidepressants in 8 Asian countries were examined,and a diagnosis was based on the International Classification of Disease,10th revision.We listed 17 common chronic somatic diseases.Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and psychotropic drug prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure.Results:Of the patients examined,1240 were diagnosed with depression and 30% of them (n =375) had SC.The most common comorbid condition was diabetes (23.7%).The patients with SC were more likely to seek help at a general hospital (74.7% vs.47.2%),and had a higher incidence of symptoms involving sadness,disturbed sleep,and poor appetite.Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant was prescribed more for patients with SC than for those without SC (30.4% vs.22.9%).Conclusions:SC is common in depressed Asian patients.It is important to strengthen the recognition of depression,especially in general hospitals and when patients report some somatic discomfort.It is also a matter of urgency to establish evidence-based guidelines for the use of new antidepressants in depressed patients with SC.

  6. Ties between Center and Periphery in the Scientific World-System: Accumulation of Rewards, Dominance and Self-Reliance in the Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study accounts for the organization of scientific research in networks of socio-intellectual tices that bind scientists into a community cultivating the scientific tradition. During the twentieth century the scientific community has become incrcasingly global both in the sense that its membership has spread world-widely and in the sense that its long-distance ties have intensified. The globalization of the community and its ties has been promoted by widely institutionalized arrangements, especially through the world's adoption of and belief in several scientific tenets: the universal validity of scientific knowledge, the ownership principle that knowledge should be the common property of humankind, and the political principle of granting autonomy to scientists for forming ties. The community and its network of ties form a hierarchy with centers attracting ties from peripheries. During the twentieth century the main center has shifted from Western Europe to North America while Eastern Europe has become less central, East Asia has become a bit central, and other regions have remained peripheral. A center attracts students from around the world for education, attracts scientists for conferences and visits, attracts deference from scientists throughout the world, exerts pervasive influence, is widely emulated, and is a desired source of recognition . In the global networks of ties, specifically of deference, influence, emulation and desire for recognition, there is an accumulation in the center of ties, both from within the center as an enhanced self-reliance and from the periphery as an enhanced centrality, exceeding the research performance at the center.

  7. Reliance on social security benefits by Swedish patients with ill-health attributed to dental fillings: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi-Akbar, Aron; Svedberg, Pia; Alexanderson, Kristina; Ekstrand, Jan; Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla

    2012-08-30

    Some people attribute their ill health to dental filling materials, experiencing a variety of symptoms. Yet, it is not known if they continue to financially support themselves by work or become reliant on different types of social security benefits. The aim of this study was to analyse reliance on different forms of social security benefits by patients who attribute their poor health to dental filling materials. A longitudinal cohort study with a 13-year follow up. The subjects included were 505 patients attributing their ill health to dental restorative materials, who applied for subsidised filling replacement. They were compared to a cohort of matched controls representing the general population (three controls per patient). Annual individual data on disability pension, sick leave, unemployment benefits, and socio-demographic factors was obtained from Statistics Sweden. Generalized estimating equations were used to test for differences between cohorts in number of days on different types of social security benefits. The cohort of dental filling patients had a significantly higher number of days on sick leave and disability pension than the general population. The test of an overall interaction effect between time and cohort showed a significant difference between the two cohorts regarding both sick leave and disability pension. In the replacement cohort, the highest number of sick-leave days was recorded in the year they applied for subsidised replacement of fillings. While sick leave decreased following the year of application, the number of days on disability pension increased and peaked at the end of follow-up. Ill health related to dental materials is likely to be associated with dependence on social security benefits. Dental filling replacement does not seem to improve workforce participation.

  8. Reliance on social security benefits by Swedish patients with ill-health attributed to dental fillings: a register-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimi-Akbar Aron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some people attribute their ill health to dental filling materials, experiencing a variety of symptoms. Yet, it is not known if they continue to financially support themselves by work or become reliant on different types of social security benefits. The aim of this study was to analyse reliance on different forms of social security benefits by patients who attribute their poor health to dental filling materials. Methods A longitudinal cohort study with a 13-year follow up. The subjects included were 505 patients attributing their ill health to dental restorative materials, who applied for subsidised filling replacement. They were compared to a cohort of matched controls representing the general population (three controls per patient. Annual individual data on disability pension, sick leave, unemployment benefits, and socio-demographic factors was obtained from Statistics Sweden. Generalized estimating equations were used to test for differences between cohorts in number of days on different types of social security benefits. Results The cohort of dental filling patients had a significantly higher number of days on sick leave and disability pension than the general population. The test of an overall interaction effect between time and cohort showed a significant difference between the two cohorts regarding both sick leave and disability pension. In the replacement cohort, the highest number of sick-leave days was recorded in the year they applied for subsidised replacement of fillings. While sick leave decreased following the year of application, the number of days on disability pension increased and peaked at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Ill health related to dental materials is likely to be associated with dependence on social security benefits. Dental filling replacement does not seem to improve workforce participation.

  9. Association of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' National Partnership to Improve Dementia Care With the Use of Antipsychotics and Other Psychotropics in Long-term Care in the United States From 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maust, Donovan T; Kim, H Myra; Chiang, Claire; Kales, Helen C

    2018-03-17

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' National Partnership to Improve Dementia Care in Nursing Homes (hereafter referred to as the partnership) was established to improve the quality of care for patients with dementia, measured by the rate of antipsychotic prescribing. To determine the association of the partnership with trends in prescribing of antipsychotic and other psychotropic medication among older adults in long-term care. This interrupted time-series analysis of a 20% Medicare sample from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2014, was conducted among 637 426 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in long-term care with Part D coverage. Data analysis was conducted from May 1, 2017, to January 9, 2018. Quarterly prevalence of use of antipsychotic and nonantipsychotic psychotropic medications (antidepressants, mood stabilizers [eg, valproic acid and carbamazepine], benzodiazepines, and other anxiolytics or sedative-hypnotics). Among the 637 426 individuals in the study (446 538 women and 190 888 men; mean [SD] age at entering nursing home, 79.3 [12.1] years), psychotropic use was declining before initiation of the partnership with the exception of mood stabilizers. In the first quarter of 2009, a total of 31 056 of 145 841 patients (21.3%) were prescribed antipsychotics, which declined at a quarterly rate of -0.53% (95% CI, -0.63% to -0.44%; P care has declined, although the partnership did not accelerate this decrease. However, the use of mood stabilizers, possibly as a substitute for antipsychotics, increased and accelerated after initiation of the partnership in both long-term care residents overall and in those with dementia. Measuring use of antipsychotics alone may be an inadequate proxy for quality of care and may have contributed to a shift in prescribing to alternative medications with a poorer risk-benefit balance.

  10. Effect of an interactive therapeutic robotic animal on engagement, mood states, agitation and psychotropic drug use in people with dementia: a cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Wendy; Beattie, Elizabeth; Draper, Brian; Shum, David; Thalib, Lukman; Jones, Cindy; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Mervin, Cindy

    2015-08-12

    Apathy, agitated behaviours, loneliness and depression are common consequences of dementia. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of a robotic animal on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in people with dementia living in long-term aged care. A cluster-randomised controlled trial with three treatment groups: PARO (robotic animal), Plush-Toy (non-robotic PARO) or Usual Care (Control). The nursing home sites are Australian Government approved and accredited facilities of 60 or more beds. The sites are located in South-East Queensland, Australia. A sample of 380 adults with a diagnosis of dementia, aged 60 years or older living in one of the participating facilities will be recruited. The intervention consists of three individual 15 min non-facilitated sessions with PARO or Plush-Toy per week, for a period of 10 weeks. The primary outcomes of interest are improvement in agitation, mood states and engagement. Secondary outcomes include sleep duration, step count, change in psychotropic medication use, change in treatment costs, and staff and family perceptions of PARO or Plush-Toy. Video data will be analysed using Noldus XT Pocket Observer; descriptive statistics will be used for participants' demographics and outcome measures; cluster and individual level analyses to test all hypotheses and Generalised Linear Models for cluster level and Generalised Estimation Equations and/or Multi-level Modeling for individual level data. The study participants or their proxy will provide written informed consent. The Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study (NRS/03/14/HREC). The results of the study will provide evidence of the efficacy of a robotic animal as a psychosocial treatment for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Findings will be presented at local and international conference meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number ACTRN

  11. PRN 94-2: Recycling Empty Aerosol Pesticide Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice offers registrants use of an optional label statement permitting recycling as an alternative to instructions to dispose of aerosol pesticide containers. Registrants may add a label reference to recycling the empty aerosol pesticide container.

  12. PRN 2011-1: Residential Exposure Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice is to advise registrants of an industry-wide joint venture, titled the Residential Exposure Joint Venture (REJV), which has developed a national survey regarding residential consumer use/usage data for pesticides.

  13. PRN 73-4: Residual Insecticides in Food Handling Establishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice provides a copy of a Federal Register notice published July 6, 1973, regarding certain insecticides used in food-handling establishments. It establishes certain definitions and requirements related to approval for crack and crevice treatment.

  14. PRN 88-2: Clustering of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice announces that EPA has clustered the Quaternary Ammonium Compounds into four groups for the purpose of testing chemicals to build a database that will support continued registration of the entire family of quaternary ammonium compounds

  15. Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Cunha, Luiz Carlos da; Yonamine, Maurício; Pucci, Liuba Laxor; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Souza, Camila Gabriela de; Mesquita, Guilherme Alves; Vieira, Ana Paula de Toledo; Vinhal, Ludmilla Barros; Dalastra, Janayna; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n=221) were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID). Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. The frequency of use was divided into: 1) lifetime use: tobacco-39.9%, alcohol-87.8%, cannabis-8.1%, cocaine-1.8%, stimulants-7.2%, solvents-10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-6.8%, LSD-0.5%, Bentyl®-0.5%, anabolic steroids-5.4%; 2) use in the previous year: tobacco-15.4%, alcohol-72.9%, stimulants-6.3%, solvents-0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%; 3) use in the previous 30 days: tobacco-14.5%, alcohol-57.5%, stimulants-5.0%, solvents-0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%. The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.

  16. Reliance, liance et alliance : opérationnalité des concepts dans l'analyse du climat socio-relationnel de groupes restreints d'apprentissage en ligne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Quintin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La recherche que nous présentons ici se donne pour but de mesurer le lien entre le "climat socio-relationnel" d'un groupe restreint engagé dans un travail collaboratif en ligne et la qualité des travaux collectifs produits. La démarche méthodologique adoptée, basée sur une analyse des échanges asynchrones entre les membres d'un groupe, nous permet d'aboutir à un modèle opératoire qui fait état des composantes du "climat socio-relationnel" susceptibles d'expliquer les résultats d'apprentissage obtenus. Deux notions – dérivées du concept sociologique de reliance – seront mobilisées : la liance et l'alliance. La première rend compte de la qualité de la relation (la chaleur, l'intimité, les émotions… qui se crée entre les interlocuteurs au cours de leurs échanges asynchrones. La seconde traduit la manière dont les participants confortent leur contrat d'association en vue de la réalisation du travail commun, afin de répondre aux exigences pédagogiques fixées. Les résultats de cette recherche montrent que, dans notre situation d'étude, le modèle de la reliance explique une part substantielle de la qualité moyenne des produits de l'apprentissage collectif et possède une homogénéité interne non négligeable. Ces éléments concourent à étayer l'assise conceptuelle et le caractère opératoire du modèle présenté.The aim of the research we are presenting here is to measure the link between the "socio-relational climate" of a small group in a collaborative work environment and the quality of the collective work they provide. The methodological approach adopted, based on an analysis of the asynchronous exchanges between members of a group, allows us to find a procedure that takes stock of some components of "socio-relational climate" that could account for the results in terms of learning. Two notions – derivatives of the sociological concept "reliance" – will be called upon: "liance" and "alliance". The

  17. Regaining a sense of agency and shared self-reliance: the experience of advanced disease cancer patients participating in a multidimensional exercise intervention while undergoing chemotherapy--analysis of patient diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtgaard, Julie; Stelter, Reinhard; Rørth, Mikael; Adamsen, Lis

    2007-04-01

    Evidence is emerging that exercise can reduce psychological distress in cancer patients undergoing treatment. The present study aimed to (qualitatively) explore the experiences of advanced disease cancer patients participating in a 6-week, 9-hours weekly, structured, group-based multidimensional exercise intervention while undergoing chemotherapy. Unstructured diaries from a purposive sample of three females and two males (28-52 years old) who participated in the program served as the database. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological, narrative method. The analysis yielded three themes: shifting position, self-surveillance, and negotiated strength. The intervention highlighted situations making it possible for the participants to negate psychological and physical constraints. The concept of structured exercise contains viable psychotherapeutic potentials by allowing the development of alternative bodily and mental realities complying with cancer patients' demands and abilities to regain autonomy and commitment to discover and adopt a sense of agency and shared self-reliance.

  18. Does an 8-week home-based exercise program affect physical capacity, quality of life, sick leave, and use of psychotropic drugs in patients with pulmonary embolism? Study protocol for a multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolving, Nanna; Brocki, Barbara C; Mikkelsen, Hanne R; Ravn, Pernille; Bloch-Nielsen, Jannie Rhod; Frost, Lars

    2017-05-30

    The existing evidence base in pulmonary embolism (PE) is primarily focused on diagnostic methods, medical treatment, and prognosis. Only a few studies have investigated how everyday life is affected by PE, although many patients are negatively affected both physically and emotionally after hospital discharge. Currently, no documented rehabilitation options are available for these patients. We aim to examine whether an 8-week home-based exercise intervention can influence physical capacity, quality of life, sick leave, and use of psychotropic drugs in patients medically treated for PE. One hundred forty patients with incident first-time PE will be recruited in five hospitals. After inclusion, patients will be randomly allocated to either the control group, receiving usual care, or the intervention group, who will be exposed to an 8-week home-based exercise program in addition to usual care. The intervention includes an initial individual exercise planning session with a physiotherapist, leading to a recommended exercise program of a minimum of three weekly training sessions of 30-60 minutes' duration. The patients have regular telephone contact with the physiotherapist during the 8-week program. At the time of inclusion, after 2 months, and after 6 months, the patients' physical capacity is measured using the Incremental Shuttle Walk test. Furthermore the patients' quality of life, sick leave, and use of psychotropic drugs is measured using self-reported questionnaires. In both randomization arms, all follow-up measurements and visits will take place at the hospital from which the patient was discharged. Levels of eligibility, consent, adherence, and retention will be used as indicators of study feasibility. We expect that the home-based exercise program will improve the physical capacity and quality of life for the patients in the intervention group. The study will furthermore contribute significantly to the limited knowledge about the optimal rehabilitation of

  19. Patient satisfaction with psychotropic drugs: sensitivity to change and relationship to clinical status, quality-of-life, compliance and effectiveness of treatment. Results from a nation-wide 6-month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquet, Isabelle; Tcherny-Lessenot, Stéphanie; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Falissard, Bruno

    2006-12-01

    To see if patient satisfaction with psychotropics (PSP) could be used as a patient-oriented outcome variable in the evaluation of PSP drugs in clinical epidemiological studies, relationships between PSP, clinical status, QoL, compliance and the type of antipsychotic were analyzed. Elements of validation of PSP were also assessed. In a 6-month prospective study, 933 schizophrenic outpatients with initiation or change to their antipsychotic treatment were enrolled. Psychiatrists completed five CGI-SCH scales (positive, negative, cognitive, depressive and global), hospitalization, compliance, and prescription variables. Patients completed PSP, EuroQoL scales, sexual function and compliance variables. A satisfactory structural equation model was obtained showing significant relationships PSP/compliance (coef.=0.16), QoL/PSP (coef.=0.37), clinical status/QoL (coef.=0.61), clinical status/compliance (coef.=0.09). Patients receiving olanzapine were more satisfied than patients receiving other atypicals (coef.=012) and had better clinical status than patients treated with typicals (coef.=0.08). Evolution of PSP was related to clinical status, QoL, and continuation of treatment (all Pmeasure was not sufficiently sensitive to change. Multi-item questionnaires evaluating different dimensions are needed.

  20. Japan prime s LNG utilization expansion and supply power analysis. ; Structuring mutual reliance relationship with project partners is urged. Nippon no LNG riyo kakudai to kyokyuryoku bunseki. ; Projectter dot partner kan no shinrai kankei no kochiku wo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-10-01

    The Brunei Project is a joint venture among the Brunei Government, Shell and Mitsubishi Shoji, but when its supply began in 1972, the share ownership has consisted of Mitsubishi Shoji and Shell at 45% respectively and the Brunei Government at 10%. The mutual reliance relationship among the project partners has been built gradually in such ways as Shell has built an agricultural vocational school inviting professors specialized in agriculture from England. Mitsubishi has created a large-scale cattle breeding business and produced beef cattles under the severe tropical environment, with an unfortunate result that the production cost did not balance with the market price. Recently, three Japanese agricultural engineers have succeeded at last producing tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuces through endeavors of vegetable production by means of hydroponic processes. The Brunei Goverment is also planning to cultivate fish and shells. Meanwhile the voices from the working site stress strongly that the operation has been continued with the safety-first concept at all times.

  1. Self-reliance through FP program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    The Yogyakarta Chapter of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA), having been successful in bringing about a realization by the local community of the importance of family planning, has broadened its activities in an effort to further promote family welfare. Since 1980, the organization has begun a number of projects designed to increase the income of its client population. Given the fact that family planning acceptors of IPPA's Yogyakarta Chapter range from government officials' wives to farmers and school dropouts, its family income increase projects have been varied. Skills in such areas as bee breeding and hairdressing have been taught, and credit cooperatives have been established. These projects have been integrated with the group's family planning activities and have been paid for entirely with local funds. An integrated family planning/income increase project currently being operated by the Yogyakarta Chapter of IPPA is known as KBP2K. Along with the attempt to increase family income, the project aims to expand the acceptance of family planning and to retain existing acceptors in the family planning program. As of the 3rd quarter of 1987, 235 people had participated in the project and 59 new acceptors had been acquired. Family planning education was provided and classes were taught in various handicraft industries. Studies have revealed that the income levels of program participants significantly increased.

  2. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  3. Achieving Self-Reliance: Backyard Energy Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen

    Appropriate technology (the process most appropriate for local cultural, economic, and social conditions) is geared toward projects which: are small in scale, decentralized, and energy efficient; use local materials, labor, and ingenuity; are not capital-intensive; and maximize the use of renewable energy resources. Descriptions of such projects…

  4. Chinese IP expands with self-reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    In 1999, program officers from JOICFP visited five of 10 projects where JOICFP has provided direct assistance during 1993-95 to enhance health education in China's integrated family planning, maternal-child health programs. The JOICFP team and three members of the Chinese National Steering Committee of the Integrated Projects visited project areas in remote and mountainous areas that are characterized by underdevelopment, low income rates, low rates of hospital deliveries, and high rates of parasitic infection. The monitoring team found that all project areas continued the projects after completion of the 3-year period and even expanded efforts to cover other areas. By 1998, more than a million people had been served, which is quadruple the initial target number. The team found that the program could benefit from additional assistance in training new staff to interact with the public and to use IEC (information, education, communication) materials appropriately. One project area, Shaowu City, opened a new Family Health Service Center in August 1998 with a grant from the Japanese Grant Assistance for Grassroots Projects and assistance from its provincial and local government. This Center serves women and children and adolescents on a fee-charged basis and hopes to expand its service area.

  5. Targeting herpesvirus reliance of the chemokine system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Kledal, Thomas N

    2006-01-01

    the infection. However, since both virus and host exist, the organisms struggle must reach an ecological equilibrium. Among the best-studied interactions between viruses and the host immune system are those between herpesviruses and their hosts. Herpesviruses are known to devote a significant part...... of their large genomes on immuno-modulatory genes, some encoding chemokines or chemokine receptors. These genes, which may be dispensable for viral replication in vitro, are highly important for viral growth in vivo, for viral dissemination and disease progression. Indeed, all beta and gamma-herpesviruses have...... chemokine receptors seems to be their constitutive activity. The biological function of the constitutive activity is still unclear, but it has become clear that the receptors are involved in important parts of the viral lifecycle in vivo, and that the receptor signaling is involved in gamma-herpesvirus...

  6. Impact of Individual Differences on Reliance Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Contemporary dimensional models of fatigue differentiate a variety of components including acute and chronic fatigue, and emotional , motivational and...which differentiates fundamental state dimensions of task engagement (energy, concentration, task motivation), distress (negative mood, lack of...demonstrated to be positively associated with a range of sensory, perceptual , and attentional abilities that contribute to performance on tasks requiring

  7. Os livros didáticos e o ensino para a saúde: o caso das drogas psicotrópicas Didactic books and teaching for health: the case of psychotropic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carlini-Cotrim

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 18 livros didáticos de primeiro e segundo graus, das disciplinas de Ciências/Biologia, Educação Moral e Cívica e Organização Social e Política do Brasil, em relação ao tratamento dado ao tema consumo de drogas psicotrópicas. A análise da estrutura dos textos evidenciou preocupação excessiva com a discussão dos efeitos (nocivos das drogas em detrimento de outros tópicos como conceituação, causas que levam ao uso, incidência, tratamento ou prevenção. Os textos se caracterizaram por uma linguagem pouco científica, onde o apelo emocional e o estilo dramático são a tônica. O usuário de drogas foi retratado como sendo necessariamente um ser decadente moral, física e psicologicamente. Os resultados da análise são discutidos à luz de teorias recentes de prevenção ao abuso de drogas.Eighteen didactic books on Sciences/Biology, Civic and Moral Education and Brazilian Political and Social Studies, for primary and secondary schools, were analyzed, with a view to assessing the way in which the issue of psychotropic drug use is dealt with. The texts analyzed are structurally centered on the discussion of the harmful effects of drugs instead of discussing others topics (such as etiology, concepts, treatment, incidence and prevalence. The texts are characterized especially by the use of non-scientific language in which emotional appeal and an exceedingly exacerbated style are the rule. The drug user is described as being necessarily a moral, physical and psychological decadent. The results were discussed in the light of recent theories on the prevention of drug abuse.

  8. Uso y abuso de psicofármacos: diseño de una actividad del proyecto comunitario con el museo de la Farmacia Habanera Use and abuse of psychotropic drugs: design of an activity of the community project with Havana's Pharmacy Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Díaz Molina

    2008-08-01

    Museum, which includes among its activities "The Infusion Afternoons", a propitious setting for the development of general topics related to drugs. One of the most selected to this end was that on psychotropic drugs, since it is a group of drugs of particular importance. Methods: "The Infusion Afternoons" are monthly activities dealing with general pharmaceutical themes that are directed to the population and to the first-year students of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In the case of psychotropic drugs, it was used the modality of round table, followed by audience/panel debate. Results: Some aspects of interest connected with the history of the use of psychotropic drugs and of the treatment of mental diseases were approached, and special emphasis was given to those psychotropic drugs most commonly known and used by the population. The attention was focused on the need of a rational use of psychotropic drugs. Discussion: The type of activity developed made possible that both the students and the population improved their knowledge about this topic. The students were linked with the activities of drug information and health education. This activity marked the beginning of their participation in the community project.

  9. Psychotropic prescribing in HIV : clinical: prescribing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may also be changes in the clinical picture in patients with psychiatric disorders ... tain selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and benzodiazepines (see .... treatment in HIV-posi- tive populations have received far more attention than.

  10. Psychotropic Medications: An Update for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Nancy; Kulick, Deborah; Phelps, LeAdelle

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of medications used frequently in the treatment of pediatric depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. The need for a collaborative relationship between the prescribing physician, school personnel, and the family is outlined. School psychologists can play crucial roles by providing the physician with information…

  11. Reproductive hormones as psychotropic agents? | Berk | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  12. AN APPRAISAL OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AND THEIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study further discovers the negative implications in terms of health risk and low productivity (i.e. caffeine(93%),create anxiety, disorder and sleep ... at least every quarter of the year on drug abuse or drug related issues or where special assistances in terms of professional advise and health intervention are given.

  13. Psychotropic and neurotropic drugs and neurotransmitter receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryo

    1986-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are important in nervous and mental diseases because of their part in the pathogenesis of such diseases; at the same time, they play significant roles in the actions of effective therapeutic drugs. Studies of the mechanisms involved in the actions of such drugs not only generate useful methods to elucidate the pathogenesis of nervous and mental disorders but also serve as indispensable means of developing new drugs. In this field, investigations using both animal models of certain diseases and healthy animals are essential. Development of these animal models is urgently required. In this workshop, studies were presented of the mechanisms of action of major neuropsychotropic drugs such as anxiolytics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics, assessed in terms of the parts played by neurotransmitters and receptors. (Auth.)

  14. Prehistoric psychotropic consumption in Andean Chilean mummies

    OpenAIRE

    Juan P. Ogalde; Bernardo T. Arriaza; Elia Soto

    2007-01-01

    Hallucinogenic plants are often regarded as the main source of psychoactive drugs in antiquity to reach deep altered states of consciousness^1,2^. Many researchers believe this was particularly true during the Tiwanaku empire expansion, circa (500-1000 A.D.), along the Atacama Desert of Chile. Highly decorated snuffing tablets and tubes are often found as grave goods during this period^3,4,5,6,7,8^. Until now the type of drugs consumed in this paraphernalia has been unclear. From the modern c...

  15. Prescrição de psicotrópicos: avaliação das informações contidas em receitas e notificações Psychotropic prescription: the evaluation of related directions and notifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Freitas Andrade

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar o cumprimento da legislação quanto à prescrição e dispensação de medicamentos psicotrópicos das listas B e C1 da Portaria n.º 344/98 - SVS/MS foram utilizadas 753 receitas, de novembro de 2000, de sete farmácias com manipulação de Ribeirão Preto. O não cumprimento pelas farmácias está presente em 88,0% das receitas B e em 85,0% das C1, enquanto que por parte dos médicos a porcentagem é de 99,6% para B e 96,5% para C1. As falhas que mais aparecem são: ausência de endereço do paciente (92,6% - receitas B; 80,1% das C1; de anotação da quantidade dispensada (85,8% das B e 72,6% das C1; da quantidade prescrita por extenso (89,5% das B e 96,5% das C1. Em 89,2% das B e em 57,1% das C1 a dispensação ocorreu no prazo fixado por lei. Os anorexígenos predominam entre as prescrições B (52,3%, seguidos dos benzodiazepínicos (47,7%. A fluoxetina (68,8% é predominante entre as prescrições C1, seguida da amitriptilina (12,5%. A maioria das prescrições foi emitida por clínicos gerais (51,4%. Os resultados revelam práticas inadequadas referentes tanto à prescrição quanto à dispensação de medicamentos de controle especial, confirmando a necessidade de fiscalização mais rigorosa.The aim of this study was to evaluate the obeying Brazilian Legislation about prescription and dispensation of the psychotropic drugs of lists B and C-1 according to the law 344/98-SVS/MS, based on 753 prescriptions of November 2000 from 7 pharmacies. Disobeying rules by pharmacies was showed in 88.0% from prescriptions B, and in 85.0% from C1, while this percentage was of 99.6% from B and 96.5% from C1 among the doctors. The most important failures observed on prescriptions were: absence of patient address (92.6% from B and 80.1% from C1; absence of the quantity dispensed (85.5% from B and 72.6% from C1; absence of the quantity prescribed. Medicine dispensation occurred correctly in the period of time fixed by law in 89

  16. Drug-related problems and changes in drug utilization after medication reviews in nursing homes in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fog, Amura Francesca; Kvalvaag, Gunnar; Engedal, Knut; Straand, Jørund

    2017-12-01

    We describe the drug-related problems (DRPs) identified during medication reviews (MRs) and the changes in drug utilization after MRs at nursing homes in Oslo, Norway. We explored predictors for the observed changes. Observational before-after study. Forty-one nursing homes. MRs performed by multidisciplinary teams during November 2011 to February 2014. In all, 2465 long-term care patients. DRPs identified by explicit criteria (STOPP/START and NORGEP) and drug-drug interaction database; interventions to resolve DRPs; drug use changes after MR. A total of 6158 DRPs were identified, an average of 2.6 DRPs/patient, 2.0 for regular and 0.6 for pro re nata (prn) drugs. Of these patients, 17.3% had no DRPs. The remaining 82.7% of the patients had on average 3.0 DRPs/patient. Use of unnecessary drugs (43.5%), excess dosing (12.5%) and lack of monitoring of the drug use (11%) were the most frequent DRPs. Opioids and psychotropic drugs were involved in 34.4% of all DRPs. The mean number of drugs decreased after the MR from 6.8 to 6.3 for regular drugs and from 3.0 to 2.6 for prn drugs. Patients with DRPs experienced a decrease of 1.1 drugs after MR (0.5 for regular and 0.6 for prn drugs). The reduction was most pronounced for the regular use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, hypnotics/sedatives, diuretics, antithrombotic agents, antacid drugs; and for prn use of anxiolytics, opioids, hypnotics/sedatives, metoclopramide and NSAIDs. The medication review resulted in less drug use, especially opioids and psychotropic drugs.

  17. PRN 2001-1: First Aid Statements on Pesticide Product Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR notice is intended to provide guidance for what the Agency believes is the most updated appropriate first aid language for pesticide product labels to ensure that they continue to adequately protect the public.

  18. PRN 98-1: Self-Certification of Product Chemistry Data with Attachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pesticide Programs has established a self-certification program for certain product chemistry data of manufacturing-use products and end-use products produced by a non-integrated formulation system.

  19. PRN 99-1: Import of Unregistered Pesticides Intended for Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR notice clarifies EPA's interpretation of the scope of the FIFRA Section 17 (a)(1) for import of unregistered pesticides, devices or pesticide active ingredients when the importation is solely for the purpose of formulation or packaging for export.

  20. PRN 98-5: New Forms for the Certification with Respect to Citation of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1998, EPA established new forms for citation of data to support the registration or reregistration of pesticide products. These forms are EPA Form 8570-34 (“Certification with Respect to Citation of Data”) and 8570-35 (“Data Matrix”).

  1. PRN 2002-X Draft: False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice provides guidance to registrants and distributors on pesticide product brand names that may be false or misleading, either by themselves or in association with particular company names or trademarks. It is a draft.

  2. Decree 2006-265/PRN of 18 August 2006 fixing the modalities of mining law application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This decree fixes modalities of applying ordinance 93-16 of 2 march 1993 concerning mining law in Niger Republic and its subsequent modified text. Any petitioner, owner of mining title, prospecting authorization, opening and mining quarry, sub-leaser shall have an office in Niger Republic and notify it to the Minister of Mines and energy. each licence or lease is based on an agreement between the government and the society. Any change of status, capital or personnel of the company shall be noted to the Minister of Mines and energy. The company shall pay fiscal duties and respect rules and regulations concerning mines and quarries health and safety [fr

  3. A visão de distintos atores sobre o controle sanitário da importação de substâncias psicotrópicas no Brasil The different point of view about the sanitary control of importation of psychotropic substances in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cristina Antunes Sebastião

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar a etapa da importação que integra o controle sanitário das substâncias psicotrópicas realizado pela área de portos, aeroportos e fronteiras da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Aqui, entenderam-se como substâncias psicotrópicas os insumos farmacêuticos ativos constantes da lista B1 da Portaria nº 344/98 e que necessitam da anuência da Anvisa para serem importados. Este estudo utilizou o método de entrevistas semiestruturadas com informantes-chave e observação participante. Os dados foram coletados e sistematizados por meio de análise de conteúdo, modalidade temática. Os resultados apontaram um controle bastante complexo que envolve um intenso processo burocrático. Os principais pontos críticos do processo identificados foram: a precariedade do sistema de informação; a carência em recursos humanos; a deficiência de apoio laboratorial e de infraestrutura dos recintos alfandegados. A página eletrônica da Anvisa e a legislação mostraram-se como pontos fortes, embora necessitem de aprimoramentos. Percebeu-se que, apesar do avanço, várias ações ainda precisam ser feitas para que o país tenha um sistema de controle sanitário eficiente sobre essas importações.The purpose of this work is to analyze the process of importation, that is a part of the sanitary control of psychotropic substances, made by Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency's ports, airports and borders. For this work, psychotropic substances are defined as active pharmaceutical raw materials present in the list B1 of Portaria nº 344/98; which need Anvisa's permission to be imported. For this purpose we used semistructured interviews with key informers and participant observation. The information were collected and systematized through the content analysis, thematic modality. The results show a very complex control which involves an intense bureaucratic process. The main identified critical points of

  4. Machine translation with minimal reliance on parallel resources

    CERN Document Server

    Tambouratzis, George; Sofianopoulos, Sokratis

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a unified view on a new methodology for Machine Translation (MT). This methodology extracts information from widely available resources (extensive monolingual corpora) while only assuming the existence of a very limited parallel corpus, thus having a unique starting point to Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). In this book, a detailed presentation of the methodology principles and system architecture is followed by a series of experiments, where the proposed system is compared to other MT systems using a set of established metrics including BLEU, NIST, Meteor and TER. Additionally, a free-to-use code is available, that allows the creation of new MT systems. The volume is addressed to both language professionals and researchers. Prerequisites for the readers are very limited and include a basic understanding of the machine translation as well as of the basic tools of natural language processing.

  5. How Self-Reliance Is Understood: Viewpoints from One Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    intervention makes it easy to see why there is less commitment to ... funding for countries where crisis' stretch government ability to respond ... National agencies such as DfID (UK), Norad (Norway), USAID (USA) and GIZ .... This case study uses a qualitative research design consistent with DiCicco- ..... Swedish International.

  6. Students Perception of Entrepreneurship as a Self-Reliance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... TVE students from 12 Universities in Southern Nigeria. The findings revealed that creating awareness, stimulating interest and participation in entrepreneurship by TVE students/graduates is a sure way to reducing the ever increasing unemployment of school graduates through self-employment and enhancement.

  7. S. Korea nuclear: a cautious path to self-reliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The South Korean nuclear power industry is described in this article. By comparing policy on nuclear technology in North and South Korea, differing political allegiances are highlighted. South Korea, rather than pursuing nuclear weapons capability like North Korea, has worked hard to produce a rapidly expanding nuclear powered electricity supply industry, which is described. Government targets which aim to meet predicted increases in demand for electricity are noted, but the problems of waste management and reprocessing have yet to be solved. (UK)

  8. Contractor Support on the Battlefield -- Increased Reliance Requires Commander's Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maloney, Kathy J

    2006-01-01

    .... Department of Defense initiatives to adopt a leaner business strategy, increase efficiency, and reduce expenditures have exposed the battlefield commander to additional operational risk centered...

  9. Over-reliance on technology is bad news for care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Julia

    2010-09-22

    I teach pre-registration nursing students clinical skills. Here in Shropshire, hospitals use an automated data collection system designed to alert nurses when the patient's condition is deteriorating. The dominance of such technology sometimes makes me think about hanging up my uniform for good.

  10. 29 CFR 793.1 - Reliance upon interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... official interpretations which may be relied upon as provided in section 10 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947. All prior opinions, rulings and interpretations which are inconsistent with the interpretations...

  11. 77 FR 58796 - Reliance Standards for Making Good Faith Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... successor provisions). A qualified tax practitioner means an attorney, a certified public accountant (``CPA..., a certified public accountant, or an enrolled agent, within the meaning of 31 CFR 10.2 and 10.3, who... an attorney, a certified public accountant, or an enrolled agent, within the meaning of 31 CFR 10.2...

  12. Urban food self-reliance: significance and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, L J

    1993-10-01

    This news account provides coverage of the satisfaction of urban food needs when retail costs are prohibitively high in developing countries. This account reports that 50-80% of average income is spent on food in nearly 50% of developing country's largest cities. Surveys conducted during the late 1980s confirm a range of 60-80% of income for expenditures on food. Surveys reveal that urban food costs are 10-30% higher than costs for rural dwellers. Urban household food production is a practice that has been around since the times of the Aztecs, the Incas, and Mayan cities. Reports survive of the Javanese and city dwellers along the Tigris and Euphrates producing their own food. Asian policy makers promote urban food production as critical to urban survival. Other factors influence urban food production. These factors include rapid urbanization, ineffective agricultural policies, inadequate food distribution systems, withdrawal of subsidies, reduction of wages, inflation, unemployment, lax urban regulations, civil strife, and drought. Government agencies are sometimes obstacles in outlawing the practice. Recent support for urban agriculture includes ten Asian, six African, and six Latin American countries. The number of urban farm workers is reported as 200 million worldwide. 700 million receive the benefits of urban agriculture. 25% of urban households in the US were engaged in urban food production during the 1980s. Better information, such as in comparative and longitudinal studies, is needed on urban poverty and the links between nutrition, income, employment, waste, and environmental issues. If cost-benefit analysis research finds a positive impact, then urban planners may need to incorporate city farming into conventional land use. The value of city farming needs to be assessed. Street food vending is an important source of income, particularly for women. Urban farming requires efficiency of space and knowledge of advances in technology and planning.

  13. 73 Traditional Values, Beliefs and Reliance on Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... phenomena and continue to take a frightening proportion of man peace and ... In response to complaints, the federal government encouraged ... action, the organization asks the oracle to check what might happen and then ..... move from one community to the other, fishing out suspected criminals.

  14. 29 CFR 779.9 - Reliance on interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that such interpretations of the Act “provide a practical guide to employers and employees as to how... a body of experience and informed judgment to which courts and litigants may properly resort for... shall be at variance only where justified by very good reasons.” (Skidmore v. Swift, 323 U.S. 134.) Some...

  15. 29 CFR 780.7 - Reliance on interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... addition, the Supreme Court has recognized that such interpretations of this Act “provide a practical guide... will seek to apply it” and “constitute a body of experience and informed judgment to which courts and....” (Skidmore v. Swift, 323 U.S. 134). Some of the interpretations in this part are interpretations of exemption...

  16. 29 CFR 794.6 - Reliance on interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “provide a practical guide to employers and employees as to how the office representing the public interest in its enforcement will seek to apply it” and “constitute a body of experience and informed judgment... very good reasons.” (Skidmore v. Swift, 323 U.S. 134). ...

  17. Improved self-reliance shearing interferometric technique for collimation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingshan; Li, Guohua; Wang, Zhaobing; Jing, Yaling; Li, Yi

    1995-06-01

    Self-reference single plate shearing interferometric technique used for collimation testing of light beams are briefly reviewed. Two improved configurations of this self-reference interferometry with an inclined screen and matched half-field interferograms are described in detail. Sensitivity of these configurations is analyzed and compared with that of the existing ones.

  18. Assisting developing countries toward food self-reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdt, R W

    1998-03-03

    Per capita food availability in the developing world has increased by 20% since the early 1960s, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization, and today the world has twice as many people but 150 million fewer hungry people than in 1960. The world agricultural system has not done too bad a job over the past 35 years. It is likely that global agricultural production will continue to at least match growth in food demand over the next decade, assuming no major weather anomalies. Continued support of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research and programs involving U.S. universities is important to sharing knowledge about agriculture with colleagues in the developing world. This paper explores the reasons for providing agricultural development assistance, the benefits to the United States that come from doing so, and the special challenges facing the world over the next few decades.

  19. Warning citizens; influencing self-reliance in emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillem, S.

    2010-01-01

    An important part of the response to an emergency is making sure that people are able to take themselves and others to a place of safety. To make people aware that there is an emergency, there are three steps that have to be taken: there has to be a warning that something is going on, people have to

  20. United Nations Peacekeeping: Reliance on Centralized or Regional System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Politov, Georgi

    2003-01-01

    ... (political, economical, cultural, religious, military, etc.) at the regional level in order to include the parties involved in the conflict and their neighboring states in Africa, America, Asia and Europe...

  1. Socioeconomic status and livelihoods of refugees in a self- reliance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    land, ownership of livestock, and ownership of durable goods, for measuring ... used by individual households and those employed by humanitarian agencies, and ..... goods and services, wage labour and self-employment in small firms, ...

  2. Revitalization of education for self-reliance in education for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Data were collected by voice recording and note taking while thematic method was used for data analysis. Majority of ... Voices of stakeholders favour rethinking of ESR and therefore appropriate strategies should be considered in the process of revitalising ESR taking into ...

  3. Self-Reliance and Community Development: Intention-Outcome Discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau, Raymond

    1970-01-01

    A case study among residents in the area of a water distribution project in the Philippines found that most respondents were willing in theory but reluctant in practice to contribute either funds of volunteered labor to self-help projects, and that they expected others (i.e. the government) to be responsible for project upkeep. (MF)

  4. Security Force Assistance Logistics: The Key to Self-Reliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ranks. In 1901 Lord Horatio Herbert Kitchener incorporated these “armed native troops” into “scouting missions for his flying columns” and also used...advice; the result: a French military mission.”189 General Pierre Boyer and fourteen French officers arrived in 1824 with the mission to complete the

  5. The Dangers of an Over-Reliance on Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    Komarow explains that the Army “Has developed a taste for technology, as seen in the systems that support Force XXI and Army XXI concepts,” in an effort...School and went on to Basic Underwater Demolition Unit Training/SEAL ( BUD /S) and graduated with Class 210 in the spring of 1997. His first assignment

  6. The national policy on education and self-reliance: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The policy on education in any society ought to be laid on the above foundation; otherwise such society is bound to exist under the dictates of foreign human and material resources. The paper takes a histo-philosophical study of policies consciously or unconsciously made in Nigeria from pre-colonial era to the present time ...

  7. West German alternatives for reducing reliance on nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauch, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence in general and the US doctrinal concept of mutual assured destruction as well as the common strategic understanding of mutual vulnerability, codified by the SALT process, and the nuclear first use option of NATO's flexible response strategy (MC14/3) have come under attack, both from official and unofficial circles, in the United States and Europe likewise. In spite of the general agreement, that the time may have come to search for alternatives, to move from MAD to MAS (mutual assured security), as President Reagan indicated in a New York Times interview or for a Common Security posture, as called for by the Palme Commission, nevertheless major disagreements and contradictions exist as to how European security could be enhanced with a defensive posture beyond deterrence. Two groups of alternatives are being distinguished in this paper: official efforts in the United States and in Europe, to use the anti-nuclear sentiment, to legitimate changes in the operative doctrine of the US and of NATO forces and to obtain funds both for a comprehensive buildup and modernization of conventional forces in Europe and for a Strategic (SDI) and probably soon also for a European Defence Initiative (EDI) or an extended air defence, and unofficial proposals by American, European and West German Experts for a non-provocative, inoffensive defence or for a gradual defensivity consisting of static and mobile components

  8. Reliance on medicinal plant therapy among cancer patients in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kimberley; Younger, Novie; Aiken, William; Brady-West, Doreen; Delgoda, Rupika

    2017-11-01

    Patients' perspective of their treatment regime plays a vital role in its success. Recognizing the high prevalence of medicinal plant usage among Jamaicans at large, we investigated the engagement of such remedies by cancer patients, with the aim of uncovering self-medicating habits, perceptions and details of utilized plants. A structured, interviewer-based questionnaire was administered to 100 patients attending the oncology and urology clinics at the University Hospital of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica. A method of convenience sampling was employed and the data were analyzed using summary statistics and statistical significance tests. A large proportion (n = 80, 80%) of interviewed patients, engaged medicinal plants in their treatment regimes. Such habits were independent of person's education, economic status and were higher among the 55-74 age groups (p Petiveria alliacea L. were the most commonly used plants for treating breast and prostate cancers, respectively. A large proportion of Jamaican cancer patients use medicinal plants in self-medicating practices and their perceptions and habits need to be considered by physicians, in the design of safe and effective care regimes.

  9. Undue reliance on I2 in assessing heterogeneity may mislead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzer Guido

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heterogeneity statistic I2, interpreted as the percentage of variability due to heterogeneity between studies rather than sampling error, depends on precision, that is, the size of the studies included. Methods Based on a real meta-analysis, we simulate artificially 'inflating' the sample size under the random effects model. For a given inflation factor M = 1, 2, 3,... and for each trial i, we create a M-inflated trial by drawing a treatment effect estimate from the random effects model, using si2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaGaem4Cam3aa0baaSqaaiabdMgaPbqaaiabikdaYaaaaaa@2FBE@/M as within-trial sampling variance. Results As precision increases, while estimates of the heterogeneity variance τ2 remain unchanged on average, estimates of I2 increase rapidly to nearly 100%. A similar phenomenon is apparent in a sample of 157 meta-analyses. Conclusion When deciding whether or not to pool treatment estimates in a meta-analysis, the yard-stick should be the clinical relevance of any heterogeneity present. τ2, rather than I2, is the appropriate measure for this purpose.

  10. Suing One's Sense Faculties for Fraud: 'Justifiable Reliance' in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The law requires that plaintiffs in fraud cases be 'justified' in relying on a misrepresentation. I deploy the accumulated intuitions of the law to defend externalist accounts of epistemic justification and knowledge against Laurence BonJour's counterexamples involving clairvoyance. I suggest that the law can offer a ...

  11. Uso de drogas psicotrópicas no Brasil: pesquisa domiciliar envolvendo as 107 maiores cidades do país - 2001 Uso de drogas psicotrópicas en Brasil: investigación domiciliaria en las 107 mayores ciudades del país - 2001 Use of psychotropic drugs in Brazil: household survey in the 107 biggest Brazilian cities - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos F. Galduróz

    2005-10-01

    of drugs, alcohol, tobacco and the use of non-medical psychotropics. This study enclosed the 107 biggest cities in Brazil; sample: ages between 12 and 65 years. Sampling in three periods: tax sectors; household and the respondent. Were interviewed 8,589 people. The lifetime use of the alcohol was 68.7%, closer to 70.8% in Chile. The lifetime use of the tobacco was of 41.1%, lower than U.S.A. (70.5%. The lifetime use of the marijuana was of 6.9% closer to Colombia (5.4% and lower than U.S.A. (34.2%. The lifetime use of the cocaine was 2.3%, lower than U.S.A. (11.2%. The lifetime use of solvent was of 5.8%, much lower than the United Kingdom (20.0%. The stimulants have had 1.5% of lifetime use and the anxiolytics with 3.3%. These findings will allow the implantation of adjusted public politics to our reality in the field of the psychotropics drugs.

  12. Prescribing in prison: minimizing psychotropic drug diversion in correctional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkinton, Patricia D; Pilkinton, James C

    2014-04-01

    Correctional facilities are a major provider of mental health care throughout the United States. In spite of the numerous benefits of providing care in this setting, clinicians are sometimes concerned about entering into correctional care because of uncertainty in prescribing practices. This article provides an introduction to prescription drug use, abuse, and diversion in the correctional setting, including systems issues in prescribing, commonly abused prescription medications, motivation for and detection of prescription drug abuse, and the use of laboratory monitoring. By understanding the personal and systemic factors that affect prescribing habits, the clinician can develop a more rewarding correctional practice and improve care for inmates with mental illness.

  13. Psychotropic Medication Use among Adolescents: United States, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... no. 12–3929. 2010. Pratt LA, Brody DJ. Depression in the United States household population, 2005–2006. NCHS data brief, no 7. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2008. Akinbami LJ, Liu X, Pastor PN, Reuben ...

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Fujiwara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis contains the psychoactive component delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC, and the non-psychoactive components cannabidiol (CBD, cannabinol, and cannabigerol. It is well-known that delta9-THC and other cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists are neuroprotective during global and focal ischemic injury. Additionally, delta9-THC also mediates psychological effects through the activation of the CB1 receptor in the central nervous system. In addition to the CB1 receptor agonists, cannabis also contains therapeutically active components which are CB1 receptor independent. Of the CB1 receptor-independent cannabis, the most important is CBD. In the past five years, an increasing number of publications have focused on the discovery of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects of CBD. In particular, CBD exerts positive pharmacological effects in ischemic stroke and other chronic diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. The cerebroprotective action of CBD is CB1 receptor-independent, long-lasting, and has potent anti-oxidant activity. Importantly, CBD use does not lead to tolerance. In this review, we will discuss the therapeutic possibility of CBD as a cerebroprotective agent, highlighting recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms, and therapeutic time window of CBD in ischemic stroke.

  15. Social [and health] relevance of psychotropic substances monitoring in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Mollica, Roberto; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse assessment methods based on measuring illicit substances in waste waters are consolidated. The approach of ambient air monitoring looks questionable, nonetheless it can be explored if the variables determining the drug burdens are accounted for, or suitable co-contaminants are adopted to normalize concentrations to environmental and human contours. The general approach linking the airborne drug concentrations to consumption is presented and the case of cocaine is discussed according to measurements conducted in Italy. The cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio, identified as the most suitable tool, fitted well with anti-drug Police operations and people noticed for drug-related crimes, and with the abuse prevalence estimated in the cities investigated. According to that, the conversion factors of drug concentrations into prevalence estimates seem assessable, provided sufficient databases over space and time are collected. Further investigations are necessary to understand if airborne drugs cause adverse sanitary effects. -- Highlights: •The drug contents in the air were discussed to draw information about abuse prevalence. •The time and site drug modulations were compared to those of the airborne toxicants. •Nicotine looks suitable to normalize the cocaine concentrations to human and environmental contours. •The health impact of illicit and licit drugs onto non-abusers is still insufficiently understood. -- The airborne cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio looks a promising tool to estimate the cocaine abuse prevalence

  16. Psychotropic prescribing in HIV | Parker | Southern African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of psychiatric medication in patients with HIV infection is a complex area, but given the high rates of psychiatric disorder in this population – possibly as high as 50%1 – it deserves further consideration. A number of issues need to be thought about, including the nature of both the psychiatric illness and the HIV ...

  17. [Integrated management of patients with schizophrenia: beyond psychotropic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda Zapata, Eliana; Montoya Gonzalez, Laura Elisa; Gómez Sierra, Natalia María; Arteaga Morales, Laura María; Correa Rico, Oscar Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease with severe functional repercussions; therefore it merits treatment which goes beyond drugs. It requires an approach that considers a diathesis-stress process that includes rehabilitation, psychotherapeutic strategies for persistent cognitive, negative and psychotic symptoms, psychoeducation of patient and communities, community adaptation strategies, such as the introduction to the work force, and the community model, such as a change in the asylum paradigm. It is necessary to establish private and public initiatives for the integrated care of schizophrenia in the country, advocating the well-being of those with the disease. The integrated management of schizophrenic patients requires a global view of the patient and his/her disease, and its development is essential. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Seizure Duration in Females Receiving ECT with Concurrent Psychotropic Medication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Urbánek, Tomáš; Hrdlička, M.; Chacko, R. C.; Moran, M.; Manasova, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2002), s. 39-46 ISSN 0213-6163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : Electroconvulsive therapy * Drug therapy * EEG Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.154, year: 2002

  19. Regulatory and clinical aspects of psychotropic medicinal products bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałkowiec-Iskra, Ewa; Cessak, Grzegorz; Kuzawińska, Olga; Sejbuk-Rozbicka, Katarzyna; Rokita, Konrad; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara

    2015-07-01

    Introduction of generic medicinal products to the market has increased access to modern therapies but also enabled significant reduction in their cost, leading to containment of public expenditures on medicinal products reimbursement. The critical assessment of bioequivalence of any reference medicinal product and its counterpart is based on comparison of their rate and extent of absorption. It is assumed that two medicinal products are bioequivalent when their rate and extent of absorption do not show significant differences when administered at the same dose under similar experimental conditions. Bioequivalent medicinal products are declared to be also therapeutically equivalent and can be used interchangeably. However, despite regulatory declaration, switching from reference to generic drugs is often associated with concerns of healthcare providers about decreased treatment effectiveness or occurrence of adverse drug reactions. The aim of this article is to provide a description of rules that guide registration of generic medicinal products in the European Union and to analyze specific examples from the scientific literature concerning therapeutic equivalence of reference and generic antidepressant and antipsychotic medicinal products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. [Manneristic catatonia. A psychotropic drug refractory chronic progressive course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöber, G; Jungkunz, G; Franzek, E; Beckmann, H

    1996-07-01

    Manneristic catatonia, one form of Leonhard's systematic schizophrenias, is illustrated in nine case notes. The essential syndrome of this rare disorder (described by Leonhard in the preneuroleptic era) consisted in mannerisms and progressive stiffness of psychomotor activity. Mannerisms often developed from obsessive and compulsive ideas; whereas distress disappeared, repetitive behavior developed into a stereotype. Complex movements (e.g. not to shake hands; mutism) became mannerisms. With disease progression stiffness of facial expression and gestures and an impairment of voluntary motor activity became increasingly prominent. There were no signs of (neuroleptic-induced) parkinsonism. Manneristic catatonia affects preponderantly men and exhibits an early age of onset (median: 23 years). In none of the cases a family history of psychiatric illness was noted. Severe obstetric and birth complications as well as the high prevalence of supratentorial and cerebellar CT/MR abnormalities in this patient group point to deviations of prenatal brain maturation. The median yearly dose of neuroleptics was 83.1 g chlorpromazin equivalents. The characteristic psychopathology was not essentially influenced by modern psychopharmacological treatment neither in the beginning nor in the long run irrespective of the time of onset of the disease. Continuous high-dose neuroleptic treatment is not efficacious in this distinct group of systematic schizophrenias. Behavioural training in a rehabilitation unit is the treatment of choice from the early beginning.

  1. Draft PRN 2006-A: Use of Antimicrobial Pesticide Products in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems (HVAC&R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft notice provides guidance to registrants of EPA-registered antimicrobial products whose labels bear general directions related to hard, non-porous or porous surfaces, but which are not but which are not specifically registered for HVAC uses.

  2. Prayer and the Registered Nurse (PRN): nurses' reports of ease and dis-ease with patient-initiated prayer request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Mary E; Isaacson, Mary; Banik, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    To explore nurse comfort with patient-initiated prayer request scenarios. Spiritual care is fundamental to patient care evidenced by Joint Commission requirement of a spiritual assessment on a patient's hospital admission. Prayer is an assessment component. Patients may seek solace and support by requesting prayer from the bedside nurse, the nurse may lack confidence in responding. Absent in the literature are reports specific to nurses' comfort when patients initiate prayer requests. Cross-sectional mixed methods study. Data were collected in early 2014 from 134 nurses in the USA via an online survey using QuestionPro. The qualitative results reported here were collated by scenario and analysed using thematic analysis. The scenario responses revealed patterns of ease and dis-ease in response to patient requests for prayer. The pattern of ease of prayer with patients revealed three themes: open to voice of calm or silence; physical or spiritual; can I call the chaplain. For these nurses, prayer is a natural component of nursing care, as the majority of responses to all scenarios demonstrated an overwhelming ease in response and capacity to pray with patients on request. The pattern of dis-ease of prayer with patients distinguished two themes: cautious hesitancy and whose God. These nurses experienced dis-ease with the patient's request no matter the situation. Educators and administrators must nurture opportunities for students and nurses to learn about and engage in the reflective preparation needed to respond to patient prayer requests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Analysis of prescription and dispensation of psychotropic medications in two cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Análise da prescrição e dispensação de medicamentos psicotrópicos em dois municípios do Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina Noto

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prescription and dispensation of psychotropic medications through the analysis of the prescriptions/notices kept at various institutions in two cities in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: The prescriptions kept at drugstores, magistral pharmacies, primary care settings and hospitals were collected and analyzed in collaboration with the Sanitary Vigilance agencies in the year of 1999. The information in the prescriptions/notices were typed and tabulated. RESULTS: A total of 108,215 prescriptions were processed, being 76,954 for benzodiazepines, 26,930 for anorexigenic drugs, 3,540 for opiates and 788 for other drugs. The benzodiazepines most frequently prescribed were: diazepam (31,644, bromazepam (16,911 and clonazepam (7,929. Among the anorexigenic drugs, diethylpropion (14,800 and femproporex (10,942 were the most common. When compared to men, women were given more prescriptions, mainly for anorexigenic drugs: the ratio was 10:1 in the prescriptions for diethylpropion and femproporex. The few magistral pharmacies (n=6 handled even more prescriptions than did the drugstores (n=49. A number of errors and inconsistencies were detected in the prescriptions analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the occurrence of an irrational use of such medications and a series of inadequate practices related to their prescription in Brazil. Therefore, they point out to the need of a comprehensive review of the government's control system of these substances.OBJETIVOS: Analisar a prescrição e dispensação de medicamentos psicotrópicos por meio da análise das receitas/notificações retidas em diferentes estabelecimentos de dois municípios do estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Em parceria com as Vigilâncias Sanitárias dos municípios, foram coletadas e analisadas as prescrições retidas em drogarias, farmácias de manipulação, postos públicos e hospitais no ano de 1999. Os dados contidos nas receitas/notificações foram

  4. Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil Pesquisa sobre uso de drogas psicotrópicas em 12 unidades da Polícia Militar nos municípios de Goiânia e Aparecida de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Nascente Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. METHOD: Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n = 221 were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. RESULTS: The frequency of use was divided into: 1 lifetime use: tobacco - 39.9%, alcohol - 87.8%, cannabis - 8.1%, cocaine - 1.8%, stimulants - 7.2%, solvents - 10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants - 6.8%, LSD - 0.5%, Bentyl® - 0.5%, anabolic steroids - 5.4%; 2 use in the previous year: tobacco - 15.4%, alcohol - 72.9%, stimulants - 6.3%, solvents - 0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants - 3.7%; 3 use in the previous 30 days: tobacco - 14.5%, alcohol - 57.5%, stimulants - 5.0%, solvents - 0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants - 3.7%. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência do uso de drogas psicotrópicas por membros da Polícia Militar no Estado de Goiás, Brasil. MÉTODO: Estudo realizado de março a outubro de 2008 em 12 unidades da Polícia Militar dos municípios de Goiânia e Aparecida de Goiânia. Participantes voluntários (n = 221 foram entrevistados sobre uso de drogas utilizando-se questionário desenvolvido pelo Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID. A estatística descritiva foi usada para determinar a prevalência de uso de drogas lícitas e ilícitas na amostra estudada. RESULTADOS: A frequência de

  5. Decree no. 2013-490/PRN from 4 December 2013 provides for the creation, organisation, attributions and operation of the Nigerian High Authority for Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issoufou, Mahamadou; Brigi, Rafin; Gandou, Zakara

    2013-01-01

    This decree concerns the creation, attributions, organization and operation of The Nigerian High Authority Atomic Energy (HANEA). The HANEA is a public service under the Office of President of the Republic. Its main tasks of supervision, coordination and promotion of all peaceful nuclear applications, including nuclear power and ionizing radiation in relation to all departments and other structures concerned. The HANEA is headed by a President to the rank of Minister and includes the following components: a cabinet of President, Secretary General, six Departments and Private Secretary. [fr

  6. PRN 97-3: Guidelines for Expedited Review of Conventional Pesticides under the Reduced-Risk Initiative and for Biological Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA encourages the development, registration and use of lower-risk pesticide products which would result in reduced risks to human health and the environment. This Pesticide Registration notice and the related web page explain the process and criteria.

  7. Decree no 2005-92/PRN/MME from April 22, 2005 providing for the organizational structure of the Ministry of Mines and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Decree provides for the organisational structure of the Ministry of Mines and of Energy.which consists of a central administration, adjunct services and decentralized services. The central administration includes the cabinet of the Minister, the general Secretariat, the General Inspection of services, national directorates and consultatives organs. Decentralized services includes regional directorates departmental directorates, and communal services of Mines and energy. Adjunct Services include services under the supervision of the Minister of Mines and and Energie. This decree is engaged in cabinets [fr

  8. PRN 94-9: Announcing the Formation of Two Industry-Wide Task Forces: Agricultural Reentry Task Force and Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice announces two industry-wide Task Forces being formed in response to generic exposure data requirements. It contains EPA's policy on a registrant's options for, and responsibilities when joining Task Force as a way to satisfy data requirements.

  9. Decree no 2013-496/PRN/ME/P from December 04, 2013 provides for the organization of the Ministry of Energy and Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issoufou, Mahamadou; Brigi, Rafini; Foumakoye, Gado

    2013-01-01

    This decree provides for the organization of the Ministry of Energy and Oil. Thus the Ministry of Energy and Oil is composed of: the central administration, deconcentrated services and piecing services, administrations and decentralized services, programs and public projects. [fr

  10. PRN 2007-2: Guidance on Small-Scale Field Testing and Low-level Presence in Food of Plant-Incorporated Protectants (PIPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice clarifies how EPA ensures the safety of residues of PIPs possibly present in food or feed and when a tolerance or tolerance exemption would be required for field tests for biotechnology-derived food and feed crop plants containing PIPs.

  11. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction in Pr(n+2)(n+1)Nin(n-1)+2Sin(n+1) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiles, D.C.; Song, S.H.; Snyder, J.E.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Lograsso, T.A.; Wu, D.; Pecharsky, A.O.; Mudryk, Ya.; Dennis, K.W.; McCallum, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal expansion and magnetostriction of members of a homologous series of compounds based on the alloy series Pr (n+2)(n+1) Ni n(n-1)+2 Si n(n+1) have been measured. The crystal structures of these compounds are closely interrelated because they form trigonal prismatic columns in which the number of trigonal prisms that form the base of the trigonal columns is determined by the value of n in the chemical formula. Two compositions were investigated, Pr 5 Ni 2 Si 3 and Pr 15 Ni 7 Si 10 , corresponding to n=3 and n=4, respectively. The results were analyzed and used to determine the location of magnetic phase transitions by calculating the magnetic contribution to thermal expansion using the Gruneisen-Debye theory. This allowed more precise determination of the magnetic transition temperatures than could be achieved using the total thermal expansion. The results show two phase transitions in each material, one corresponding to the Curie temperature and the other at a lower temperature exhibiting characteristics of a spin reorientation transition

  12. Reliance on deep soil water in the tree species Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, M; Boutaleb, S; Díaz Barradas, M C; Esquivias, M P; Valera, J; Jáuregui, J; Tagma, T; Ain-Lhout, F

    2017-12-07

    In South-western Morocco, water scarcity and high temperature are the main factors determining species survival. Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels is a tree species, endemic to Morocco, which is suffering from ongoing habitat shrinkage. Argan trees play essential local ecological and economic roles: protecting soils from erosion, shading different types of crops, helping maintain soil fertility and, even more importantly, its seeds are used by the local population for oil production, with valuable nutritional, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The main objective of this study was to identify the sources of water used by this species and to assess the effect of water availability on the photosynthetic rate and stem water potential in two populations: one growing on the coast and a second one 10 km inland. Stem water potential, photosynthetic rate and xylem water isotopic composition (δ18O) were seasonally monitored during 2 years. Trees from both populations showed a similar strategy in the use of the available water sources, which was strongly dependent on deep soil water throughout the year. Nevertheless, during the wet season or under low precipitation a more complex water uptake pattern was found with a mixture of water sources, including precipitation and soil at different depths. No evidence was found of the use of either groundwater or atmospheric water in this species. Despite the similar water-use strategy, the results indicate that Argania trees from the inland population explored deeper layers than coastal ones as suggested by more depleted δ18O values recorded in the inland trees and better photosynthetic performance, hence suggesting that the coastal population of A. spinosa could be subjected to higher stress. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Habitat Selectivity and Reliance on Live Corals for Indo-Pacific Hawkfishes (Family: Cirrhitidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Coker, Darren James

    2015-11-03

    Hawkfishes (family: Cirrhitidae) are small conspicuous reef predators that commonly perch on, or shelter within, the branches of coral colonies. This study examined habitat associations of hawkfishes, and explicitly tested whether hawkfishes associate with specific types of live coral. Live coral use and habitat selectivity of hawkfishes was explored at six locations from Chagos in the central Indian Ocean extending east to Fiji in the Pacific Ocean. A total of 529 hawkfishes from seven species were recorded across all locations with 63% of individuals observed perching on, or sheltering within, live coral colonies. Five species (all except Cirrhitus pinnulatus and Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus) associated with live coral habitats. Cirrhitichthys falco selected for species of Pocillopora while Paracirrhites arcatus and P. forsteri selected for both Pocillopora and Acropora, revealing that these habitats are used disproportionately more than expected based on the local cover of these coral genera. Habitat selection was consistent across geographic locations, and species of Pocillopora were the most frequently used and most consistently selected even though this coral genus never comprised more than 6% of the total coral cover at any of the locations. Across locations, Paracirrhites arcatus and P. forsteri were the most abundant species and variation in their abundance corresponded with local patterns of live coral cover and abundance of Pocilloporid corals, respectively. These findings demonstrate the link between small predatory fishes and live coral habitats adding to the growing body of literature highlighting that live corals (especially erect branching corals) are critically important for sustaining high abundance and diversity of fishes on coral reefs.

  14. Information needs, acceptability of risk, trust, and reliance: The case of National Predictive Services customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Heidi. Bigler-Cole

    2010-01-01

    Making complex risk-related decisions involves a degree of uncertainty. How that uncertainty is addressed or presented in reports or data tables can be tailored to meet information users’ needs and preferences. Involving the recipients of risk-related information in the design of information to be delivered (including the types of information delivered, format, and...

  15. Capacity Development - The Pathway to Self-Reliance for Host Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    benefits : ■ Conditions are improved for people in the host nation. ■ The host nation is better able to manage its affairs without relying on external... benefit un- der any conditions, from stable peace to general war. Whole-of-Government Approach President Obama signed the Presidential Policy Di...ANA)—of Peru and the World Bank, held a four-day workshop in Arequipa, Peru, with Chili River basin stakeholders focusing on building the ca

  16. Introduction – Confiance, reliance et apprentissage des langues dans l’enseignement supérieur

    OpenAIRE

    Rémon, Joséphine; Privas-Bréauté, Virginie

    2018-01-01

    Lors de sa conférence de presse du 29 août 2017 intitulée « L’école de la confiance », le nouveau ministre de l’Éducation nationale, Jean Michel Blanquer, proposait de « faire émerger l’école de la confiance »pour une société de la confiance et de favoriser « la confiance des élèves en eux-mêmes ». Il pointait en effet le manque de confiance en soi des apprenants français et notait que l’école de la confiance « ne se décrète pas ». Cette problématique se prolonge dans l’enseignement supérieur...

  17. Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Katie P; Stanley, Jane W; Meinzer, Frederick C; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Chen, Weile; Adams, Thomas S; Lin, Henry; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-04-01

    We investigated depth of water uptake of trees on shale-derived soils in order to assess the importance of roots over a meter deep as a driver of water use in a central Pennsylvania catchment. This information is not only needed to improve basic understanding of water use in these forests but also to improve descriptions of root function at depth in hydrologic process models. The study took place at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory in central Pennsylvania. We asked two main questions: (i) Do trees in a mixed-hardwood, humid temperate forest in a central Pennsylvania catchment rely on deep roots for water during dry portions of the growing season? (ii) What is the role of tree genus, size, soil depth and hillslope position on the depth of water extraction by trees? Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment. While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected. Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Ending reliance on nuclear and conventional arms. Edited transcripts of the disarmament week symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication contains the edited transcripts of the two meetings held at the United Nations in 1994: the Disarmament Week Symposium, sponsored by the United Nations Centre for Disarmament Affairs and Department of Public Information and the NGO Committee on Disarmament, from 25 to 27 October, and a panel discussion on the land mines crisis, sponsored by the NGO Committee on Disarmament, on 16 November. Only the material concerning the first Symposium was indexed for INIS database

  19. The Impact of Automation Reliability and Operator Fatigue on Performance and Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Cummings et al., 2007). Automation designed to assist operators in overload situations may promote operator disengagement during periods of low...Calhoun et al., 2011). This testbed offers several tasks designed to emulate the cognitive demands that an operator managing multiple UAVs is likely...reliable (Cronbach’s α = 0.94) measure of affective and cognitive components of trust in automation. Items gauge confidence in an automation and

  20. Considering the consequences of increased reliance on judicial assistants: A study on Dutch courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holvast, N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all judicial systems employ judicial staff members to assist judges in their work. However, except for US Supreme Court law clerks the role of these judicial assistants in judicial decision-making is minimally understood. This observation also holds true for the Netherlands, where an